WorldWideScience

Sample records for professional peer review

  1. Designing Peer Review for Pedagogical Success: What Can We Learn from Professional Science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, Nancy M.

    2009-01-01

    This article compares peer review in professional versus education settings, summarizing key aspects of scientific peer review and reflecting on how these relate to the process as experienced by students. Consideration of professional peer review benefits educators in two ways. First, systems used for student peer review can employ some of the…

  2. Peering into peer review: Galileo, ESP, Dr Scott Reuben, and advancing our professional evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Chuck

    2011-10-01

    The fundamental purpose of peer review is quality control that facilitates the introduction of information into our discipline; information that is essential to the care of patients who require anesthesia services. While the AANA Journal relies heavily on this process to maintain the overall quality of our scholarly literature, it may fail that objective under certain conditions. This editorial serves to inform readers of the nature and goals of the peer review process.

  3. Peer review, basic research, and engineering: Defining a role for QA professionals in basic research environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodnarczuk, M.

    1989-02-01

    Within the context of doing basic research, this paper seeks to answer four major questions: (1) What is the authority structure of science. (2) What is peer review. (3) Where is the interface between basic physics research and standard engineering. and (4) Given the conclusions to the first three questions, what is the role of the QA professional in a basic research environment like Fermilab. 23 refs.

  4. Peering Into Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Jill S.; Musser, George; Caldwell, Karenann; Hafer, Abigail A.

    1995-11-01

    Critiquing a colleague's manuscript doesn't have the glamour of discovering rare spectral lines or building huge observatories, but it is central to how science functions. Increasingly, new forms of communication -- press releases, Internet postings -- bypass the peer review. Will this undermine or strengthen astronomy?

  5. How are we assessing near-peer teaching in undergraduate health professional education? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Susan; Williams, Brett; McKenna, Lisa

    2017-03-01

    Near Peer teaching (NPT) is reported as an effective pedagogical approach to student learning and performance. Studies in medicine, nursing and health sciences have relied mainly on self-reports to describe its benefits, focusing on psychomotor and cognitive aspects of learning. Despite increasing research reports on peer teaching internationally, little is known about the various domains of learning used in assessment of performance and objective learning outcomes of NPT. To determine the domains of learning and assessment outcomes used in NPT in undergraduate health professional education. Quantitative systematic review was conducted in accord with the PRISMA protocol and the Joanna Briggs Institute processes. A wide literature search was conducted for the period 1990-November 2015 of fourteen databases. Grey literature was undertaken from all key research articles. Studies meeting the inclusion criteria were eligible for consideration, including measured learning outcomes of near-peer teaching in undergraduate education in nursing, medicine and health sciences. Set limitations included publications after 1990 (2015 inclusive), English language and objective learning outcomes. A quality appraisal process involving two independent reviewers was used to analyse the data. Of 212 selected articles, 26 were included in the review. Terminology was confusing and found to be a barrier to the review process. Although some studies demonstrated effective learning outcomes resulting from near-peer teaching, others were inconclusive. Studies focused on cognitive and psychomotor abilities of learners with none assessing metacognition, affective behaviours or learning outcomes from quality of understanding. The studies reviewed focused on cognitive and psychomotor abilities of learners. Even though evidence clearly indicates that metacognition and affective behaviours have direct influence on learning and performance, indicating more research around this topic is warranted

  6. PEER REVIEWER

    OpenAIRE

    Nur, Amin

    2015-01-01

    - PEER REVIEWER Judul: Exploration of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi From Sugarcane Rhizozphare In South Sulawesi (Zahraeni Kumalawati, Yunus Musa, Nur Amin, Laode Asrul Ifayanti Ridwan). ISSN 2277-8616; International Journal of scientific & Technology Research, Vol. 3 issue 1, January 2014. Hal. 201-203. Penerbit: Journal of Scientific & Technology Research.

  7. Peer Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ratna Winata, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    - Peer Review Identification of Patogenic Bacteria Escherichia Coli O157:H7 Staphilococcus Aureus from pasteurised and Non Pasteurised bovine Milk, Proceeding International Seminar "The Role of Veterinary Science to Support Millenium Development goals and the 12th Asian association of Veterinary Schools Congress, ISBN: 978-602-70438-0-0, Faculty of Veterinary medicine universitas Airlangga

  8. Peer Review in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianguo; Pysarchik, Dawn Thorndike; Taylor, William W.

    2002-01-01

    Explains the importance of peer assessment in professional life and describes a course using peer review processes to teach modeling in natural resource management. Uses a typical scientific research protocol and assigns students to review peer proposals considering their expertise and area of interest. Presents guidelines for proposal review,…

  9. Peer review statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    All papers published in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the proceedings Editors. Reviews were conducted by expert referees to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing.

  10. Peer review statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    All papers published in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the proceedings Editors. Reviews were conducted by expert referees to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing.

  11. Peer review statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    All papers published in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the proceedings Editors. Reviews were conducted by expert referees to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing.

  12. Peer review statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    All papers published in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the proceedings Editors. Reviews were conducted by expert referees to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing.

  13. Peer Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannesboe, Christian

    Peer-teknikker brugt i undervisning vinder frem mange steder. Teknikkerne er skalerbare til meget store hold af studerende, og ses derfor som et af de værktøjer, der med fordel kan introduceres som underviser, når holdstørrelserne vokser.......Peer-teknikker brugt i undervisning vinder frem mange steder. Teknikkerne er skalerbare til meget store hold af studerende, og ses derfor som et af de værktøjer, der med fordel kan introduceres som underviser, når holdstørrelserne vokser....

  14. The "Peer" in "Peer Review"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Gad; Bertoluci, Jaime; Bury, Bruce; Hansen, Robert W.; Jehle, Robert; Measey, John; Moon, Brad R.; Muths, Erin; Zuffi, Marco A.L.

    2011-01-01

    Peer review is the best available mechanism for assessing and improving the quality of scientific work. As herpetology broadens its disciplinary and geographic boundaries, high-quality external review is ever more essential. We are writing this editorial jointly because the review process has become increasingly difficult. The resulting delays slow publication times, negatively affect performance reviews, tenure, promotions, and grant proposal success. It harms authors, agencies, and institutions (Ware 2011).

  15. The "peer" in "peer review"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Gad; Bertoluci, Jaime; Bury, R. Bruce; Hansen, Robert W.; Jehle, Robert; Measey, John; Moon, Brad R.; Muths, Erin L.; Zuffi, Marco A.L.

    2011-01-01

    Peer review is the best available mechanism for assessing and improving the quality of scientific work. As herpetology broadens its disciplinary and geographic boundaries, high-quality external review is ever more essential. We are writing this editorial jointly because the review process has become increasingly difficult. The resulting delays slow publication times, negatively affect performance reviews, tenure, promotions, and grant proposal success. It harms authors, agencies, and institutions (Ware 2011).

  16. AQUATOX Peer Review Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    AQUATOX Release 2 underwent an external peer review in early 2003, and Release 3 underwent an external peer review in late 2008. Reviewers stated model enhancements have made AQUATOX one of the most exciting tools in aquatic ecosystem management.

  17. Re-Viewing Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author revisits her essay, "Students as Readers of Their Classmates' Writing," by providing a review of the literature on peer review over the past three decades and comments on patterns she sees in waves of peer review research and theorizing. She describes her subsequent experience with peer review in her own classes, and…

  18. Scientometrics of peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squazzoni, Flaminio; Brezis, Elise; Marušić, Ana

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to introduce a special issue on "Scientometrics of peer review", which collects papers originally presented at workshops and conferences organised by the COST ACTION TD1306 "New frontiers of peer review". Peer review is the cornerstone of science and is one of the underlying processes that bring about publication traces that are at the heart of bibliometric studies. Unfortunately, despite its importance, quantitative studies on peer review are still poorly developed, often due to lack of data. The issue aims to promote the establishment of peer review as an interdisciplinary field of research and stimulate further quantitative research.

  19. NASA Product Peer Review Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenks, Ken

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes NASA's product peer review process. The contents include: 1) Inspection/Peer Review at NASA; 2) Reasons for product peer reviews; 3) Different types of peer reviews; and 4) NASA requirements for peer reviews. This presentation also includes a demonstration of an actual product peer review.

  20. EERE Peer Review Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-01-18

    The primary purpose of this guide is to provide managers and staff guidance in establishing formal in-progress peer review that provides intellectually fair expert evaluation of EERE RD3 and supporting business administration programs, both retrospective and prospective.

  1. Peer-Assisted Learning in Education of Allied Health Professional Students in the Clinical Setting: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevenhuysen, Samantha; Thorpe, Joanne; Molloy, Elizabeth; Keating, Jenny; Haines, Terry

    2017-01-01

    Pressure on clinical educators to provide best practice education to growing student numbers is driving innovations in clinical education. Placing multiple students with a single clinical educator may increase capacity; however, little is known about the role and impact of peer-assisted learning (PAL) in these models. A systematic review of the literature from 1985 to 2014 was done to investigate the effectiveness of PAL amongst allied health professional students in clinical settings. Secondary aims were to investigate how PAL is defined and measured in this practice setting. Twenty-eight articles representing five allied health professions met the inclusion criteria. The risk of bias in the articles was generally high, limiting confidence in findings. Nine studies measured the effects of PAL on students, with inconsistent results across domains of satisfaction, perceived learning, and performance outcomes. Only four studies described how PAL was facilitated. Evidence supporting PAL is non-specific and lacks comparative rigour. More robust research is needed to quantify the potential benefits of PAL.

  2. MELCOR Peer Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyack, B.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Dhir, V.K. [Santa Monica, CA. (United States); Gieseke, J.A. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States); Haste, T.J. [AEA Technology, Winfrith (United Kingdom); Kenton, M.A. [Gabor, Kenton and Associates, Inc., Westmont, IL (United States); Khatib-Rahbar, M. [Energy Research, Inc., Rockville, MD (United States); Leonard, M.T. [Science Applications International Corp., Wolfheze (Netherlands); Viskanta, R. [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States). Heat Transfer Lab.

    1992-03-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. The newest version of MELCOR is Version 1.8.1, July 1991. MELCOR development has reached the point that the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission sponsored a broad technical review by recognized experts to determine or confirm the technical adequacy of the code for the serious and complex analyses it is expected to perform. For this purpose, an eight-member MELCOR Peer Review Committee was organized. The Committee has completed its review of the MELCOR code: the review process and findings of the MELCOR Peer Review Committee are documented in this report. The Committee has determined that recommendations in five areas are appropriate: (1) MELCOR numerics, (2) models missing from MELCOR Version 1.8.1, (3) existing MELCOR models needing revision, (4) the need for expanded MELCOR assessment, and (5) documentation.

  3. The Potential of Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Susan Moore; Fiarman, Sarah E.

    2012-01-01

    Peer review of teachers is controversial for several reasons. Some say peer reviewers encroach on the rightful domain of the principal as instructional leader. Others argue that, because peer evaluators are fellow teachers, they may be biased or unwilling to make hard decisions. Many teachers find the prospect of peer evaluation unsettling because…

  4. Peer review statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    All papers published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the editors of the 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems proceedings. Reviews were conducted by expert referees from the International Technical Committee to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing. The members of the Scientific Committee who selected and reviewed the papers included in the Proceedings of the 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems are: Yulin WU Tsinghua University China François AVELLAN EPFL-LMH Switzerland (principal) Xingqi LUO Xi'an University of Sci & Tech China Martin BÖHLE Kaiserslautern University Germany Gerard BOIS Arts et Métiers ParisTech France Luca D'AGOSTINO University of Pisa Italy Eduard EGUSQUIZA Polytechnical University Catalonia Spain Richard FISHER Voith Hydro Inc USA Regiane FORTES-PATELLA Institute Polytechnique de Grenoble France Aleksandar GAJIC University of Belgrade Serbia Wei YANG China Agriculture University China YinLu YOUNG University of Michigan USA Adrian LUNGU Dunarea de Jos University of Galati Romania Arpad FAY University of Miskolcz Hungary José GONZÁLEZ Universidad de Oviedo Spain Baoshan ZHU Tsinghua University China Hongxun CHEN Shanghai University China Chisachi KATO University of Tokyo Japan Zhenyue MA Dalian University of Sci & Tech China Honggang FAN Tsinghua University China François GUIBAULT Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal Canada Pengcheng GUO Xian University of Technology China Leqing WANG Zhejiang University China Toshiaki IKOHAGI Tohoku University Japan Jiandong YANG Wuhan University China Jianzhong ZHOU Huazhong University of Sci & Tech China Jinwei LI NULL China Rennian LI Lanzhou University of Sci & Tech China Houlin LIU NULL China Juan LIU Tsinghua University China Shuhong LIU Tsinghua University China Xianwu LUO Tsinghua University China Michihiro NISHI Tsinghua

  5. 2015 Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-03-01

    In the spring and summer of 2015, the Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO or the Office) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) implemented an external peer review of the projects in its research, development and demonstration (RD&D) portfolio. The Office manages a diverse portfolio of technologies across the spectrum of applied RD&D within the dynamic context of changing budgets and Administration priorities. The Office portfolio is organized according to the biomass-to-bioenergy supply chain—from the feedstock source to the end user (see Figure 1)—with major focus on feedstock supply and biomass conversion. The 2015 Project Peer Review took place March 23-27, 2015, outside of Washington, D.C., in Alexandria, Virginia, and evaluated most of the publicly funded projects in BETO’s portfolio. The subsequent Program Management Review took place on June 25, 2015, in Washington, D.C., and provided an Office- level assessment of strategic planning and programmatic initiatives. The peer review process enables external stakeholders to provide feedback on the responsible use of taxpayer funding and develop recommendations for the most efficient and effective ways to accelerate the development of an advanced bioenergy industry. The planning and execution of these reviews was completed over the course of 10 months, and this report includes the results of both events.

  6. CONTAIN independent peer review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyack, B.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Corradini, M.L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Nuclear Engineering Dept.; Denning, R.S. [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Khatib-Rahbar, M. [Energy Research Inc., Rockville, MD (United States); Loyalka, S.K. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Smith, P.N. [AEA Technology, Dorchester (United Kingdom). Winfrith Technology Center

    1995-01-01

    The CONTAIN code was developed by Sandia National Laboratories under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide integrated analyses of containment phenomena. It is used to predict nuclear reactor containment loads, radiological source terms, and associated physical phenomena for a range of accident conditions encompassing both design-basis and severe accidents. The code`s targeted applications include support for containment-related experimental programs, light water and advanced light water reactor plant analysis, and analytical support for resolution of specific technical issues such as direct containment heating. The NRC decided that a broad technical review of the code should be performed by technical experts to determine its overall technical adequacy. For this purpose, a six-member CONTAIN Peer Review Committee was organized and a peer review as conducted. While the review was in progress, the NRC issued a draft ``Revised Severe Accident Code Strategy`` that incorporated revised design objectives and targeted applications for the CONTAIN code. The committee continued its effort to develop findings relative to the original NRC statement of design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications were considered by the Committee in assigning priorities to the Committee`s recommendations. The Committee determined some improvements are warranted and provided recommendations in five code-related areas: (1) documentation, (2) user guidance, (3) modeling capability, (4) code assessment, and (5) technical assessment.

  7. Thank you to our 2016 peer reviewers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Steven A.; Baratoux, David; Stanley, Sabine

    2017-02-01

    Peer review is one of most fundamental aspects of the modern practice of science. As scientists we hold our own work up to scrutiny by experts among our peers in order to encourage the best practices in scientific conduct and communication. Thorough consideration and review by professional colleagues of scientific papers are critical aspects of ensuring that the manuscripts published by JGR-Planets are accurate, valuable, and clearly communicated. Peer review is an essential element of the process of refining understanding and sharing science, and the effort and expertise shared by each reviewer are crucial to the advancement of planetary science. In 2016, JGR Planets benefited from more than 451 reviews provided by 337 of our peers for papers submitted to the journal. Thank you all for your dedication to advancing planetary science.

  8. The Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maunsell John HR

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As the Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium (NPRC ends its first year, it is worth looking back to see how the experiment has worked. In order to encourage dissemination of the details outlined in this Editorial, it will also be published in other journals in the Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium.

  9. Editorial behaviors in peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Kong, Xiangjie; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Zhen; Xia, Feng; Wang, Xianwen

    2016-01-01

    Editors play a critical role in the peer review system. How do editorial behaviors affect the performance of peer review? No quantitative model to date allows us to measure the influence of editorial behaviors on different peer review stages such as, manuscript distribution and final decision making. Here, we propose an agent-based model in which the process of peer review is guided mainly by the social interactions among three kinds of agents representing authors, editors and reviewers respectively. We apply this model to analyze a number of editorial behaviors such as decision strategy, number of reviewers and editorial bias on peer review. We find out that peer review outcomes are significantly sensitive to different editorial behaviors. With a small fraction (10 %) of biased editors, the quality of accepted papers declines 11 %, which indicates that effects of editorial biased behavior is worse than that of biased reviewers (7 %). While several peer review models exist, this is the first account for the study of editorial behaviors that is validated on the basis of simulation analysis.

  10. Peer review in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, Kaye N; Edmond, Gary; Found, Bryan

    2017-08-01

    Peer review features prominently in the forensic sciences. Drawing on recent research and studies, this article examines different types of peer review, specifically: editorial peer review; peer review by the scientific community; technical and administrative review; and verification (and replication). The article reviews the different meanings of these quite disparate activities and their utility in relation to enhancing performance and reducing error. It explains how forensic practitioners should approach and use peer review, as well as how it should be described in expert reports and oral testimony. While peer review has considerable potential, and is a key component of modern quality management systems, its actual value in most forensic science settings has yet to be determined. In consequence, forensic practitioners should reflect on why they use specific review procedures and endeavour to make their actual practices and their potential value transparent to consumers; whether investigators, lawyers, jurors or judges. Claims that review increases the validity of a scientific technique or accuracy of opinions within a particular case should be avoided until empirical evidence is available to support such assertions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Peer Review and Post-Tenure Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignon, Charles; Langsam, Deborah

    1999-01-01

    Considers four themes related to peer and post-tenure review of college faculty: (1) post-tenure review as a summative moment in a cycle of formative occasions; (2) the post-tenure period as characterized by flux and change; (3) the post-tenure period as one of crisis in intellectual growth; (4) peer collaboration and review of teaching as…

  12. 2017 Project Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2018-02-06

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2017 U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office's Peer Review meeting.

  13. 45 CFR 1388.9 - Peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Peer review. 1388.9 Section 1388.9 Public Welfare... PROGRAM THE UNIVERSITY AFFILIATED PROGRAMS § 1388.9 Peer review. (a) The purpose of the peer review... D, Section 152 of the Act, must be evaluated through the peer review process. (c) Panels must be...

  14. Peer Review: Has It a Future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Kay Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Although its history is short, peer review has fast become a fixture of journal publications acquiring the status of a ritual in the academia. Many relevant and important issues have been raised leading to doubts about the value of peer review. The advent of electronic publishing further threatens the future of peer review. For peer review to…

  15. 40 CFR 194.27 - Peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Peer review. 194.27 Section 194.27... § 194.27 Peer review. (a) Any compliance application shall include documentation of peer review that has... barrier evaluation as required in § 194.44. (b) Peer review processes required in paragraph (a) of this...

  16. The Dedisciplining of Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frodeman, Robert; Briggle, Adam

    2012-01-01

    The demand for greater public accountability is changing the nature of ex ante peer review at public science agencies worldwide. Based on a four year research project, this essay examines these changes through an analysis of the process of grant proposal review at two US public science agencies, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the…

  17. Can editors save peer review from peer reviewers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael D'Andrea

    Full Text Available Peer review is the gold standard for scientific communication, but its ability to guarantee the quality of published research remains difficult to verify. Recent modeling studies suggest that peer review is sensitive to reviewer misbehavior, and it has been claimed that referees who sabotage work they perceive as competition may severely undermine the quality of publications. Here we examine which aspects of suboptimal reviewing practices most strongly impact quality, and test different mitigating strategies that editors may employ to counter them. We find that the biggest hazard to the quality of published literature is not selfish rejection of high-quality manuscripts but indifferent acceptance of low-quality ones. Bypassing or blacklisting bad reviewers and consulting additional reviewers to settle disagreements can reduce but not eliminate the impact. The other editorial strategies we tested do not significantly improve quality, but pairing manuscripts to reviewers unlikely to selfishly reject them and allowing revision of rejected manuscripts minimize rejection of above-average manuscripts. In its current form, peer review offers few incentives for impartial reviewing efforts. Editors can help, but structural changes are more likely to have a stronger impact.

  18. 42 CFR 24.5 - Peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Peer review. 24.5 Section 24.5 Public Health PUBLIC....5 Peer review. An individual may not be considered for appointment into the SBRS unless his/her qualifications have been reviewed by a PHS peer review committee and the committee has recommended appointment to...

  19. Peer Review of Teaching: Sharing Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golparian, Shaya; Chan, Judy; Cassidy, Alice

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we share examples of best peer review of teaching practices, drawing on our involvement in the design and implementation of the Peer Review of Teaching program at the Centre for Teaching, Learning and Technology. We review the history of the Peer Review of Teaching Initiative at the University of British Columbia and explain key…

  20. Advancing Kinesiology through Improved Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, Duane V.; Morrow, James R., Jr.; Thomas, Jerry R.

    2014-01-01

    Peer review of scholarship is essential to journal quality, evidence, knowledge advancement, and application of that knowledge in any field. This commentary summarizes recent literature on issues related to peer-review quality and current review practice in kinesiology and provides recommendations to improve peer review in kinesiology journals. We…

  1. A systematic review of peer support interventions for breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaunonen, Marja; Hannula, Leena; Tarkka, Marja-Terttu

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to describe peer support interventions supporting breastfeeding during pregnancy and the postnatal period. Breastfeeding is an effective way to promote infants' health. Including a peer support element in breastfeeding programmes is a highly successful way to increase breastfeeding. A systematic literature review. The review was conducted from the CINAHL, MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library databases from year 2000 until the end of February 2008. According to the inclusion criteria, the adopted studies focused on breastfeeding, breastfeeding support interventions and education of healthy mothers and infants from the perspective of mothers or family members. Additionally, the studies had to be conducted in Europe, North America, Australia or New Zealand to meet the criteria. Articles combining peer support and professional support were also included in the study. The results indicated that during pregnancy, hospitalisation and the postnatal period, individual support and education were used most commonly. Peer support was strongly associated with the postnatal period. The combination of professional support and peer support by trained and experienced peer supporters was effective in ensuring the continuation of breastfeeding. Only continuous breastfeeding support produces effective results. Diverse types of interventions are needed during different phases of motherhood. The role of peer support is most important during the postnatal period. If professional support is not available for mothers, peer support could provide an alternative worth considering. Professionals require breastfeeding education to act as breastfeeding supporters as well as the support of their organisations in this work. Moreover, professionals need to gain knowledge of the role of peer support regarding the efficient combination of professional support and peer support to increase breastfeeding. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Online professionalism: A synthetic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chretien, Katherine C; Tuck, Matthew G

    2015-04-01

    The rise of social media has increased connectivity and blurred personal and professional boundaries, bringing new challenges for medical professionalism. Whether traditional professionalism principles apply to the online social media space remains unknown. The purpose of this synthetic literature review was to characterize the original peer-reviewed research studies published between 1 January 2000-1 November 2014 on online professionalism, to assess methodologies and approaches used, and to provide insights to guide future studies in this area. The investigators searched three databases and performed manual searches of bibliographies to identify the 32 studies included. Most studies originated in the USA. Cross-sectional surveys and analyses of publicly available online content were the most common methodologies employed. Studies covered the general areas of use and privacy, assessment of unprofessional online behaviours, consensus-gathering of what constitutes unprofessional or inappropriate online behaviours, and education and policies. Studies were of variable quality; only around half of survey studies had response rates of 50% or greater. Medical trainees were the most common population studied. Future directions for research include public perspectives of online professionalism, impact on patient trust, and how to use social media productively as medical professionals.

  3. Peer-Review Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumma, John

    2002-01-01

    Describes a procedure that encourages both earnest participation in the reviewing process (the production of detailed responses) and revision that actually takes student responses into consideration. Concludes that by requiring students to tell the teacher what they chose to leave alone and what they chose to change, the teacher is able to get…

  4. AJOL Recommended Peer-Reviewer Guidelines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peer review is an essential part of formal scholarly communication, and lies at the heart of the scientific method. Peer review assists the editor in making editorial decisions and through the editorial communications with the author may also assist the author in improving the paper. Peer Reviewers need to recognize the ...

  5. Peer-Review als onderdeel van Professionalisering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Petra Biemans

    2016-01-01

    Deze lezing gaat over Peer-review in relatie tot Professionele ruimte, Docent Professionalisering en HRM-beleid. Allereerst gaat het op de drie losse onderdelen in, om daarna terug te keren bij de rol die Peer-review hierbij zou kunnen spelen. MI kan peer review een (bescheiden) rol spelen om te

  6. 7 CFR 550.17 - Peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peer review. 550.17 Section 550.17 Agriculture... § 550.17 Peer review. Upon request of the REE Agency, cooperators may be requested to provide documentation in support of peer review activities and cooperator personnel may be requested to participate in...

  7. The ethics of peer review in bioethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendler, David; Miller, Franklin

    2014-01-01

    A good deal has been written on the ethics of peer review, especially in the scientific and medical literatures. In contrast, we are unaware of any articles on the ethics of peer review in bioethics. Recognising this gap, we evaluate the extant proposals regarding ethical standards for peer review in general and consider how they apply to bioethics. We argue that scholars have an obligation to perform peer review based on the extent to which they personally benefit from the peer review process. We also argue, contrary to existing proposals and guidelines, that it can be appropriate for peer reviewers to benefit in their own scholarship from the manuscripts they review. With respect to bioethics in particular, we endorse double-blind review and suggest several ways in which the peer review process might be improved. PMID:24131903

  8. Assessing RN-to-RN peer review on clinical units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Judith A; Wickline, Mary A; Deetz, Jill; Berry, Elise S

    2012-04-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to measure informal registered nurse (RN)-to-RN peer review (defined as collegial communication about the quality of nursing care) at the work-unit level. Survey design with cluster sampling of 28 hospital or ambulatory care units (n = 541 respondents). Results were compared with existing patient safety and satisfaction data. A chi-squared test was used to compare responses against nurse characteristics. Nurses agreed that RN-to-RN peer review takes place on their units, but no correlation with patient safety and satisfaction data was found. Misunderstandings about the meaning of peer review were evident. Open-ended comments revealed barriers to peer review: fear of retribution, language barriers and lack of professionalism. Nurses need clarification of peer review. Issues with common language in a professional environment need to be addressed and nurses can learn collaboration from each other's cultures. Managers should support RN-to-RN peer review on clinical units. Methods used here may be useful to assess current departmental nurse peer review. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Peer Review of Launch Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Timmy R.

    2011-01-01

    Catastrophic failures of launch vehicles during launch and ascent are currently modeled using equivalent trinitrotoluene (TNT) estimates. This approach tends to over-predict the blast effect with subsequent impact to launch vehicle and crew escape requirements. Bangham Engineering, located in Huntsville, Alabama, assembled a less-conservative model based on historical failure and test data coupled with physical models and estimates. This white paper summarizes NESC's peer review of the Bangham analytical work completed to date.

  10. Peer Review: Promoting Efficient School District Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Jason S.

    2010-01-01

    Many professions recognize the benefits of peer reviews to assess processes and operations because peers can more easily identify one another's inefficiencies and provide some kind of intervention. Generally, the goal of the peer review process is to verify whether the work satisfies the standards set by the industry. A number of states have begun…

  11. Peer Collaboration: Improving Teaching through Comprehensive Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shelley L.

    2014-01-01

    This article includes a brief rationale and review of the literature on peer review of teaching (PRT). Based on that literature review, it offers a proposal for an optimal formative review process that results in a teaching portfolio that would reflect a faculty member's efforts and successes in a critically reflective PRT process, and contributes…

  12. Peer Review in Scientific Publications: Benefits, Critiques, & A Survival Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jacalyn; Sadeghieh, Tara; Adeli, Khosrow

    2014-10-01

    Peer review has been defined as a process of subjecting an author's scholarly work, research or ideas to the scrutiny of others who are experts in the same field. It functions to encourage authors to meet the accepted high standards of their discipline and to control the dissemination of research data to ensure that unwarranted claims, unacceptable interpretations or personal views are not published without prior expert review. Despite its wide-spread use by most journals, the peer review process has also been widely criticised due to the slowness of the process to publish new findings and due to perceived bias by the editors and/or reviewers. Within the scientific community, peer review has become an essential component of the academic writing process. It helps ensure that papers published in scientific journals answer meaningful research questions and draw accurate conclusions based on professionally executed experimentation. Submission of low quality manuscripts has become increasingly prevalent, and peer review acts as a filter to prevent this work from reaching the scientific community. The major advantage of a peer review process is that peer-reviewed articles provide a trusted form of scientific communication. Since scientific knowledge is cumulative and builds on itself, this trust is particularly important. Despite the positive impacts of peer review, critics argue that the peer review process stifles innovation in experimentation, and acts as a poor screen against plagiarism. Despite its downfalls, there has not yet been a foolproof system developed to take the place of peer review, however, researchers have been looking into electronic means of improving the peer review process. Unfortunately, the recent explosion in online only/electronic journals has led to mass publication of a large number of scientific articles with little or no peer review. This poses significant risk to advances in scientific knowledge and its future potential. The current article

  13. Peer Review in Scientific Publications: Benefits, Critiques, & A Survival Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jacalyn; Sadeghieh, Tara

    2014-01-01

    Peer review has been defined as a process of subjecting an author’s scholarly work, research or ideas to the scrutiny of others who are experts in the same field. It functions to encourage authors to meet the accepted high standards of their discipline and to control the dissemination of research data to ensure that unwarranted claims, unacceptable interpretations or personal views are not published without prior expert review. Despite its wide-spread use by most journals, the peer review process has also been widely criticised due to the slowness of the process to publish new findings and due to perceived bias by the editors and/or reviewers. Within the scientific community, peer review has become an essential component of the academic writing process. It helps ensure that papers published in scientific journals answer meaningful research questions and draw accurate conclusions based on professionally executed experimentation. Submission of low quality manuscripts has become increasingly prevalent, and peer review acts as a filter to prevent this work from reaching the scientific community. The major advantage of a peer review process is that peer-reviewed articles provide a trusted form of scientific communication. Since scientific knowledge is cumulative and builds on itself, this trust is particularly important. Despite the positive impacts of peer review, critics argue that the peer review process stifles innovation in experimentation, and acts as a poor screen against plagiarism. Despite its downfalls, there has not yet been a foolproof system developed to take the place of peer review, however, researchers have been looking into electronic means of improving the peer review process. Unfortunately, the recent explosion in online only/electronic journals has led to mass publication of a large number of scientific articles with little or no peer review. This poses significant risk to advances in scientific knowledge and its future potential. The current

  14. Why Participate in Peer Review as a Journal Manuscript Reviewer: What's in It for You?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytynia, Kristen B

    2017-06-01

    The peer review process for scientific journals relies on the efforts of volunteer reviewers. Reviewers are selected due to their expertise in their fields. With so many demands on professional time, the benefits of participating in peer review may not be obvious. However, reviewers benefit by exposure to the latest developments in their fields, facilitating their keeping up-to-date with the latest publications. Tenure committees look favorably on participation in peer review, and invitations to review underscore that the reviewer is a respected subject matter expert. Contacts made during the peer review process can lead to long-lasting collaboration. Continuing medical education credit can be obtained through various mechanisms. Overall, participating in peer review is an important part of career development and should be viewed as a critical component of advancement.

  15. A facilitated peer mentoring program for junior faculty to promote professional development and peer networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Geoffrey M; Simmons, Jill H; Xu, Meng; Gesell, Sabina B; Brown, Rebekah F; Cutrer, William B; Gigante, Joseph; Cooper, William O

    2015-06-01

    To explore the design, implementation, and efficacy of a faculty development program in a cohort of early career junior faculty. Interested junior faculty members were divided into interdisciplinary small groups led by senior faculty facilitators. The groups met monthly for 1.5 hours to review a modular curriculum from 2011 to 2013. Using a survey at two time points (September 2011 and 2013) and an interim program evaluation, the authors collected data on participants' demographics, faculty interconnectedness, and self-reported knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSA) in the domains of professional development and scholarship, including the ability to write career goals and align activities with those goals. A total of 104 junior faculty participated in the program. They demonstrated changes in self-reported KSA in the domains of professional development (P = .013, P = .001) and scholarship (P = .038, P = .015) with an increase in ability to write career goals (P < .001), ability to align activities with those goals (P < .001), and number of and amount of time spent pursuing activities related to those goals (P = .022). These changes were more significant among female faculty and were not affected by academic rank or time since last training. Interconnectedness among faculty increased during the period of study-the number of nodes and ties between nodes within the network increased. This facilitated peer mentoring program for junior faculty was effective in improving the KSA necessary to promote early career advancement and peer networking, especially for women.

  16. Sealed source peer review plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, Alexander [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Leonard, Lee [RETIRED; Burns, Ron [CONTRACTOR

    2009-01-01

    Sealed sources are known quantities of radioactive materials that have been encapsulated in quantities that produce known radiation fields. Sealed sources have multiple uses ranging from instrument calibration sources to sources that produce radiation fields for experimental applications. The Off-Site Source Recovery (OSR) Project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), created in 1999, under the direction of the Waste Management Division of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque has been assigned the responsibility to recover and manage excess and unwanted radioactive sealed sources from the public and private sector. LANL intends to ship drums containing qualified sealed sources to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal. Prior to shipping, these drums must be characterized with respect to radiological content and other parameters. The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires that ten radionulcides be quantified and reported for every container of waste to be disposed in the WIPP. The methods traditionally approved by the EPA include non-destructive assay (NDA) in accordance with Appendix A of the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (DOE, 2002) (CH WAC). However, because of the nature and pedigree of historical records for sealed sources and the technical infeasibility of performing NDA on these sources, LANL proposes to characterize the content of these waste drums using qualified existing radiological data in lieu of direct measurement. This plan describes the process and documentation requirements for the use of the peer review process to qualify existing data for sealed radiological sources in lieu of perfonning radioassay. The peer review process will be performed in accordance with criteria provided in 40 CFR {section} 194.22 which specifies the use of the NUREG 1297 guidelines. The plan defines the management approach, resources, schedule, and technical requirements

  17. How peer-review constrains cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    as ‘cognition’ describes enabling conditions for flexible behavior, the practices of peer-review thus constrain knowledge-making. To pursue cognitive functions of peer-review, however, manuscripts must be seen as ‘symbolizations’, replicable patterns that use technologically enabled activity. On this bio......Peer-review is neither reliable, fair, nor a valid basis for predicting ‘impact’: as quality control, peer-review is not fit for purpose. Endorsing the consensus, I offer a reframing: while a normative social process, peer-review also shapes the writing of a scientific paper. In so far......-cognitive view, peer-review constrains knowledge-making by writers, editors, reviewers. Authors are prompted to recursively re-aggregate symbolizations to present what are deemed acceptable knowledge claims. How, then, can recursive re-embodiment be explored? In illustration, I sketch how the paper’s own content...

  18. Professional ethics in nursing: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangasniemi, Mari; Pakkanen, Piiku; Korhonen, Anne

    2015-08-01

    To conduct an integrative review and synthesize current primary studies of professional ethics in nursing. Professional ethics is a familiar concept in nursing and provides an ethical code for nursing practice. However, little is known about how professional ethics has been defined and studied in nursing science. Systematic literature searches from 1948-February 2013, using the CINAHL, PubMed and Scopus electronic databases to look at previously published peer-reviewed studies. A modified version of Cooper's five-stage integrative review was used to review and synthesize current knowledge. Fourteen papers were included in this research. According to our synthesis, professional ethics is described as an intra-professional approach to care ethics and professionals commit to it voluntarily. Professional ethics consist of values, duties, rights and responsibilities, regulated by national legislation and international agreements and detailed in professional codes. Professional ethics is well established in nursing, but is constantly changing due to internal and external factors affecting the profession. Despite the obvious importance of professional ethics, it has not been studied much in nursing science. Greater knowledge of professional ethics is needed to understand and support nurses' moral decision-making and to respond to the challenges of current changes in health care and society. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. How peer-review constrains cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Peer-review is neither reliable, fair, nor a valid basis for predicting ‘impact’: as quality control, peer-review is not fit for purpose. Endorsing the consensus, I offer a reframing: while a normative social process, peer-review also shapes the writing of a scientific paper. In so far as ‘cognit......Peer-review is neither reliable, fair, nor a valid basis for predicting ‘impact’: as quality control, peer-review is not fit for purpose. Endorsing the consensus, I offer a reframing: while a normative social process, peer-review also shapes the writing of a scientific paper. In so far...... as ‘cognition’ describes enabling conditions for flexible behavior, the practices of peer-review thus constrain knowledge-making. To pursue cognitive functions of peer-review, however, manuscripts must be seen as ‘symbolizations’, replicable patterns that use technologically enabled activity. On this bio-cognitive...... came to be re-aggregated: agonistic review drove reformatting of argument structure, changes in rhetorical ploys and careful choice of wordings. For this reason, the paper’s knowledge-claims can be traced to human activity that occurs in distributed cognitive systems. Peer-review is on the frontline...

  20. Writing Quality Peer Reviews of Research Manuscripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Phillip; Graber, Kim C.; van der Mars, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Peer review is an important mechanism for advancing knowledge in a manner deemed as acceptable by the research community. It can also serve the function of providing guidance to an author(s) to improve the likelihood that manuscripts will be accepted in peer reviewed journals. There is, however, little assistance for new or existing reviewers of…

  1. The Problem of Humiliation in Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Debra R.; Schwartz, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the problem of vituperative feedback from peer reviewers. We argue that such feedback is morally unacceptable, insofar as it humiliates authors and damages their dignity. We draw from social-psychological research to explore those aspects of the peer-review process in general and the anonymity of blind reviewing in particular…

  2. [The peer review procedure and its place in medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chop, Ines; Eberlein-Gonska, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Peer Review literally meaning "re-inspection by a peer" is a special form of external evaluation whose roots go back to Ancient Greece and which is widely employed in science to assess manuscripts submitted for publication. In the medical context the Peer Review process is defined as structured critical self-reflection through dialogue with colleagues. Its prime objective is to improve the quality of patient care by identifying potentials for improvement and by deriving an action plan. Amongst other things, this includes medical standards and guidelines, indications and their traceability, the monitoring of the treatment process as well as the interdisciplinary cooperation and teamwork between different professional groups. The Peer Review practice in Germany has received strong impetus from comprehensive hospital operator projects like IQM, the "Initiative Qualitätsmedizin", and the Peer Review practice in intensive care. This practice, which has primarily been developed by practitioners for practitioners of their own accord, offers the chance to integrate medical quality with little bureaucratic effort and direct transfer of knowledge back into daily clinical work. Another important approach to promote peer reviewer qualifications is the curriculum "Medical Peer Review", which has been published by the German Medical Association since 2011. (As supplied by publisher). Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  3. The Evolution of a Professional Practice Forum: Balancing Peer-to-Peer Learning With Course Objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Anna; Robinson, Tracy; Shaw, Tim

    2014-10-31

    The Opioid Treatment Accreditation Course (OTAC) is a mandatory accreditation requirement in New South Wales, Australia, and aims to prepare medical practitioners for the provision of safe and effective Opioid Substitution Treatment to people with opioid dependence. The course has a strong focus on safe prescribing practices and the course design includes a Professional Practice Forum that is engaging for participants and effective at imparting complex ideas and concepts that do not place additional time constraints on already time-poor health professionals. The study aimed to use participatory action research methods to develop and evaluate an online Professional Practice Forum that is a key component of the OTAC teaching and learning experience. Three evaluation cycles were implemented with three cohorts of participants (N=40) to inform the design and review of the updated OTAC course. Overall, the study relied on participatory action research methods to enhance a sense of online community and to revise the Professional Practice Forum component of the course. Findings from survey feedback and an examination of Web metrics were used to monitor participant learning and were subsequently subject to thematic analysis in order to identify key themes. The use of participatory action techniques in the redesign of the OTAC course was a successful means of engaging with participants and resulted in four revisions based on feedback from facilitators and participants. The Professional Practice Forum was rated highly and received positive feedback from both moderators and participants. The use of interactive forums in online learning in an educational module for adult learners can prove extremely valuable as a means for participants to share their expertise and improve their learning outcomes. In particular, the use of sticky and welcome threads were significant features that enhanced interactions between participants and facilitators and resulted in increased quantity and

  4. Pandora's Dilemma: Some Reflections on Peer Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roworth, Wendy Wassyng

    1997-01-01

    Provides a case study of the use of departmental peer review at the University of Rhode Island, focusing on the differing attitudes toward the peer review process held by tenured and untenured faculty, the apprehension of women and minority faculty toward the process, and the "ratcheting up" of the research and publication requirements…

  5. 2009 Water Power Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Michael [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Higgins, Mark [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Reed, Mike [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-04-01

    This report contains the findings of the 2009 Water Power Peer Review Panel, as well as the Water Power Program's responses to those findings. This Peer Review focused on the Program's marine and hydrokinetic energy projects.

  6. An open science peer review oath

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aleksic, Jelena; Adrian Alexa, Adrian Alexa; Attwood, Teresa K.

    2015-01-01

    : specifically, we introduce a peer-review oath and accompanying manifesto. These have been designed to offer guidelines to enable reviewers (with the minimum friction or bias) to follow and apply open science principles, and support the ideas of transparency, reproducibility and ultimately greater societal...... impact. Introducing the oath and manifesto at the stage of peer review will help to check that the research being published includes everything that other researchers would need to successfully repeat the work. Peer review is the lynchpin of the publishing system: encouraging the community to consciously...

  7. 28 CFR 34.105 - Peer review methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Peer review methods. 34.105 Section 34.105 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE OJJDP COMPETITION AND PEER REVIEW PROCEDURES Peer Review § 34.105 Peer review methods. (a) For both competitive and noncompetitive applications, peer...

  8. Peer review golden rules and good practice checklist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Hames

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This is a republication of Appendix 1, The Golden Rules and the Peer-Review Good Practice Checklist, from the author’s book, Peer Review and Manuscript Management in Scientific Journals: guidelines for good practice, published in 2007 by Wiley-Blackwell in association with ALPSP (the Association of Learned and Professional Society Publishers, with the permission of the author and publisher (ISBN: 978-1-4051-3159-9, http://eu.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-1405131594.html.

  9. 2017 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-11-01

    The 2017 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Report summarizes the feedback submitted by reviewers for the 109 Building Technologies Office (BTO) projects presented at the 2017 BTO Peer Review. The report presents an overview of the goals and activities under each technology program area, a summary of project scores for each program, and a brief analysis of general evaluation trends within each program area or its constituent subprograms.

  10. 2016 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Building Technologies Office

    2016-12-01

    The 2016 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Report summarizes the feedback submitted by reviewers of the 67 BTO projects presented at the 2016 BTO Peer Review. The report presents an overview of the goals and activities under each technology program area, a summary of project scores for each program, and a brief analysis of general evaluation trends within each program area or its constituent subprograms.

  11. Variability in Students' Evaluating Processes in Peer Assessment with Calibrated Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, J.; Van Horne, S.; Ward, A. S.; Bettis, E. A., III; Gikonyo, J.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated students' evaluating process and their perceptions of peer assessment when they engaged in peer assessment using Calibrated Peer Review. Calibrated Peer Review is a web-based application that facilitates peer assessment of writing. One hundred and thirty-two students in an introductory environmental science course…

  12. Understanding Peer Review of Scientific Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of American Universities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    An important factor in the success of America's national research system is that federal funds for university-based research are awarded primarily through peer review, which uses panels of scientific experts, or "peers," to evaluate the quality of grant proposals. In this competitive process, proposals compete for resources based on their…

  13. Peer-supported review of teaching: making the grade in midwifery and nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy Tighe, Sylvia; Bradshaw, Carmel

    2013-11-01

    This paper outlines the value of peer-supported review of teaching for nurse and midwifery educators in an academic environment. Reflection and continuing professional development are important tenets of an educators' practice and can be addressed via peer observation. Definitions and models of peer observation are presented. The strengths and challenges associated with peer-supported review of teaching are discussed. The reasons why peer observation is underutilised are explored with some suggestions on how to overcome these challenges. Recent developments in relation to peer observation and peer-supported review are outlined. The need for tangible evidence of development and enhancement of existing teaching expertise is very pronounced in the current economic climate, it is concluded that peer-supported review of teaching can provide such evidence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Upon Further Review: Peer Process Vital to Publishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Anne

    2016-11-01

    Peer review is one of the hallmarks of professional publishing and one that I appreciate every day in my work as editor of this journal. I simply could not do this work without reviewers, and all of my editor colleagues across the globe would agree. I have been a reviewer for various journals for many years, and now, as editor of the Oncology Nursing Forum, I am even more aware of how important my reviews are for others. Just this morning, I reviewed a manuscript-for a noncompeting journal, of course-and as I entered my comments, I thought about what I, as editor, would find useful.
.

  15. 7 CFR 3411.11 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3411.11 Section... PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research Grant Applications § 3411.11 Composition of peer review groups. (a) Peer review group members and ad hoc reviewers will be selected based upon their training and...

  16. 7 CFR 3415.11 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3415.11 Section... PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research Grant Applications § 3415.11 Composition of peer review groups. (a) Peer review group members and ad hoc reviewers will be selected based upon their training and...

  17. NCI Consumers Guide to Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    To define the role consumer advocate in the peer review of applications that support extramural clinical and population-based research and clinical career development and training by various grant and cooperative agreement mechanisms.

  18. 2013 Bioenergy Technologies Office Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2013 U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office's Peer Review meeting.

  19. Geothermal Technologies Program Overview - Peer Review Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milliken, JoAnn [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-06-06

    This Geothermal Technologies Program presentation was delivered on June 6, 2011 at a Program Peer Review meeting. It contains annual budget, Recovery Act, funding opportunities, upcoming program activities, and more.

  20. EERE Peer Review Guide - August 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-01-18

    Provides guidance in establishing formal in-progress peer review that provides intellectually fair expert evaluation of EERE research, development, demonstration, & deployment (supporting business administration) programs, both retrospective and pr

  1. Radiologist Peer Review by Group Consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, H Benjamin; Alkasab, Tarik K; Prabhakar, Anand M; Halpern, Elkan F; Rosenthal, Daniel I; Pandharipande, Pari V; Gazelle, G Scott

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of the consensus-oriented group review (COGR) method of radiologist peer review within a large subspecialty imaging department. This study was institutional review board approved and HIPAA compliant. Radiologist interpretations of CT, MRI, and ultrasound examinations at a large academic radiology department were subject to peer review using the COGR method from October 2011 through September 2013. Discordance rates and sources of discordance were evaluated on the basis of modality and division, with group differences compared using a χ(2) test. Potential associations between peer review outcomes and the time after the initiation of peer review or the number of radiologists participating in peer review were tested by linear regression analysis and the t test, respectively. A total of 11,222 studies reported by 83 radiologists were peer reviewed using COGR during the two-year study period. The average radiologist participated in 112 peer review conferences and had 3.3% of his or her available CT, MRI and ultrasound studies peer reviewed. The rate of discordance was 2.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.4%-3.0%), with significant differences in discordance rates on the basis of division and modality. Discordance rates were highest for MR (3.4%; 95% CI, 2.8%-4.1%), followed by ultrasound (2.7%; 95% CI, 2.0%-3.4%) and CT (2.4%; 95% CI, 2.0%-2.8%). Missed findings were the most common overall cause for discordance (43.8%; 95% CI, 38.2%-49.4%), followed by interpretive errors (23.5%; 95% CI, 18.8%-28.3%), dictation errors (19.0%; 95% CI, 14.6%-23.4%), and recommendation (10.8%; 95% CI, 7.3%-14.3%). Discordant cases, compared with concordant cases, were associated with a significantly greater number of radiologists participating in the peer review process (5.9 vs 4.7 participating radiologists, P peer review data to better elucidate sources of error in diagnostic imaging reports, while reviewing a sufficient case

  2. A systematic review of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of peer education and peer support in prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnall, Anne-Marie; South, Jane; Hulme, Claire; Woodall, James; Vinall-Collier, Karen; Raine, Gary; Kinsella, Karina; Dixey, Rachael; Harris, Linda; Wright, Nat M J

    2015-03-25

    Prisoners experience significantly worse health than the general population. This review examines the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of peer interventions in prison settings. A mixed methods systematic review of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness studies, including qualitative and quantitative synthesis was conducted. In addition to grey literature identified and searches of websites, nineteen electronic databases were searched from 1985 to 2012. Study selection criteria were: Prisoners resident in adult prisons and children resident in Young Offender Institutions (YOIs). Peer-based interventions. Review questions 3 and 4 compared peer and professionally led approaches. Prisoner health or determinants of health; organisational/process outcomes; views of prison populations. Quantitative, qualitative and mixed method evaluations. Fifty-seven studies were included in the effectiveness review and one study in the cost-effectiveness review; most were of poor methodological quality. Evidence suggested that peer education interventions are effective at reducing risky behaviours, and that peer support services are acceptable within the prison environment and have a positive effect on recipients, practically or emotionally. Consistent evidence from many, predominantly qualitative, studies, suggested that being a peer deliverer was associated with positive effects. There was little evidence on cost-effectiveness of peer-based interventions. There is consistent evidence from a large number of studies that being a peer worker is associated with positive health; peer support services are also an acceptable source of help within the prison environment and can have a positive effect on recipients. Research into cost-effectiveness is sparse. PROSPERO ref: CRD42012002349.

  3. Optimal allocation of reviewers for peer feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, David Kofoed; Jensen, Ulf Aslak; Jørgensen, Rasmus Malthe

    2017-01-01

    feedback. In this paper we present a novel way to intelligently allocate reviewers for peer feedback. We train a statistical model to infer the quality of feedback based on a dataset of feedback quality evaluations. This dataset contains more than 20,000 reviews where the receiver of the feedback has......Peer feedback is the act of letting students give feedback to each other on submitted work. There are multiple reasons to use peer feedback, including students getting more feedback, time saving for teachers and increased learning by letting students reflect on work by others. In order for peer...... indicated the quality of the feedback. Using this model together with historical data we calculate the feedback-giving skill of each student and uses that as input to an allocation algorithm that assigns submissions to reviewers, in order to optimize the feedback quality for all students. We test...

  4. Evaluacion entre colegas profesores (Peer Review of Teachers). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertling, Elizabeth

    This digest in Spanish examines peer review, focusing on how these types of reviews can improve teacher competence. Peer review is often linked to peer assistance, which helps new and veteran teachers improve their knowledge and skills. In peer-review programs, consulting teachers conduct formal evaluations and recommend whether the participating…

  5. 7 CFR 3401.13 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3401.13 Section... Peer Review of Research Applications for Funding § 3401.13 Composition of peer review groups. Peer review group members will be selected based upon their training or experience in relevant scientific or...

  6. 7 CFR 3400.11 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3400.11 Section..., EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research Grant Applications § 3400.11 Composition of peer review groups. (a) Peer review group...

  7. 2013 Geothermal Technologies Office Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geothermal Technologies Office

    2014-01-01

    Geothermal Technologies Office conducted its annual program peer review in April of 2013. The review provided an independent, expert evaluation of the technical progress and merit of GTO-funded projects. Further, the review was a forum for feedback and recommendations on future GTO strategic planning. During the course of the peer review, DOE-funded projects were evaluated for 1) their contribution to the mission and goals of the GTO and 2) their progress against stated project objectives. Principal Investigators (PIs) came together in sessions organized by topic “tracks” to disseminate information, progress, and results to a panel of independent experts as well as attendees.

  8. Geothermal Technologies Program 2011 Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollett, Douglas [Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Stillman, Greg [Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-06-01

    On June 6-10, 2011, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP or the Program) conducted its annual program peer review in Bethesda, Maryland. In accordance with the EERE Peer Review Guide, the review provides an independent, expert evaluation of the strategic goals and direction of the program and is a forum for feedback and recommendations on future program planning. The purpose of the review was to evaluate DOE-funded projects for their contribution to the mission and goals of the Program and to assess progress made against stated objectives.

  9. Using a peer review exercise to teach students the value of the peer review process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, G. W.; Cook, H. M.

    2015-12-01

    The peer review process is integral to legitimate scientific study. Undergraduate students in geoscience classes often have a poor understanding of the process and specifically do not understand what constitutes peer-reviewed literature. This becomes especially apparent in situations where students are asked to write research-oriented papers or essays that make use of peer-reviewed scientific sources. Often, they believe that news articles and online sources such as blogs constitute valid (peer-reviewed) scientific sources. We make use of a relatively simple in-class exercise in our introductory geoscience classes that teaches students the necessity of the review process and educates them about the true nature and value of peer-reviewed literature. It also reinforces an understanding of the scientific method in the context of conducting literature-based research. Students report that they are better equipped to conduct research using scientific literature as a result of participating in the exercise.

  10. Do peers matter? A review of peer and/or friends' influence on physical activity among American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Amanda; Fitzgerald, Noelle; Aherne, Cian

    2012-08-01

    This systematic review investigated the relationship between peer and/or friend variables and physical activity among adolescents by synthesising cross-sectional, longitudinal, and experimental research conducted in the US. Seven electronic databases were searched to identify related articles published within the last 10 years and the articles reviewed included adolescents between 10 and 18 years. Studies reporting a measure of physical activity for adolescents and at least one potential peer and/or friend variable were included. Research demonstrated that peers and friends have an important role to play in the physical activity behavior of adolescents. Six processes were identified through which peers and/or friends may have an influence on physical activity including: peer and/or friend support, presence of peers and friends, peer norms, friendship quality and acceptance, peer crowds, and peer victimization. The theoretical significance of these results is assessed and the development of peer-related physical activity programs for adolescents is discussed. Copyright © 2012 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. What is open peer review? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Hellauer, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Background: "Open peer review" (OPR), despite being a major pillar of Open Science, has neither a standardized definition nor an agreed schema of its features and implementations. The literature reflects this, with numerous overlapping and contradictory definitions. While for some the term refers to peer review where the identities of both author and reviewer are disclosed to each other, for others it signifies systems where reviewer reports are published alongside articles. For others it signifies both of these conditions, and for yet others it describes systems where not only "invited experts" are able to comment. For still others, it includes a variety of combinations of these and other novel methods. Methods: Recognising the absence of a consensus view on what open peer review is, this article undertakes a systematic review of definitions of "open peer review" or "open review", to create a corpus of 122 definitions. These definitions are systematically analysed to build a coherent typology of the various innovations in peer review signified by the term, and hence provide the precise technical definition currently lacking. Results: This quantifiable data yields rich information on the range and extent of differing definitions over time and by broad subject area. Quantifying definitions in this way allows us to accurately portray exactly how ambiguously the phrase "open peer review" has been used thus far, for the literature offers 22 distinct configurations of seven traits, effectively meaning that there are 22 different definitions of OPR in the literature reviewed. Conclusions: I propose a pragmatic definition of open peer review as an umbrella term for a number of overlapping ways that peer review models can be adapted in line with the aims of Open Science, including making reviewer and author identities open, publishing review reports and enabling greater participation in the peer review process.

  12. A Peer Review Training Workshop: Coaching Students to Give and Evaluate Peer Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Ricky

    2010-01-01

    Trained peer review, as illustrated in a plethora of peer review or peer response scholarship, has a positive effect on students' writing in general and on improved revision quality in particular (Berg, 1999; Hu, 2005; Min, 2006; Paulus, 1999; Stanley, 1992). From these studies, it is evident that trained peer feedback does have a significant role…

  13. Assessment of professional behaviour in undergraduate medical education : Peer assessment enhances performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonrock-Adema, Johanna; Heijne - Penninga, Marjolein; van Duijn, Marijtje A J; Geertsma, Jelle; Cohen - Schotanus, Janke

    OBJECTIVES To examine whether peer assessment can enhance scores on professional behaviour, with the expectation that students who assess peers score more highly on professional behaviour than students who do not assess peers. METHODS Undergraduate medical students in their first and second

  14. Privileging Peer Review: Implications for Undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy E. Mark

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Librarians and teaching faculty privilege peer review articles out of ideals rooted in academic culture more then for pedagogical reasons. Undergraduates would find greater benefit in the opportunity to search and critique sources related to their personal and creative interests as well as relevant to academic research projects. Librarians can adopt the role of change-agents by engaging relevant teaching faculty in discussions about the goal of research assignments relative to peer review literature. Framing this discussion is Paulo Freire’s theory of banking information discussed in Pedagogy of the Oppressed (2000.

  15. 2012 Wind Program Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zayas, Jose [Energy Efficiencey and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Higgins, Mark [Energy Efficiencey and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This report summarizes the proceedings of the 2012 Wind Program Peer Review, the goals of which were to review and evaluate the strategy and goals of the Wind Program; review and evaluate the progress and accomplishments of the program's projects funded in fiscal year (FY) 2010 and FY 2011; and foster interactions among the national laboratories, industry, and academic institutions conducting research and development on behalf of the program.

  16. Geothermal Technologies Office 2012 Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-04-01

    On May 7-10, 2012, the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Geothermal Technologies Office conducted its annual program peer review in Westminster, CO. In accordance with the EERE Peer Review Guide, the review provides an independent, expert evaluation of the strategic goals and direction of the office and is a forum for feedback and recommendations on future office planning. The purpose of the review was to evaluate DOE-funded projects for their contribution to the mission and goals of the office and to assess progress made against stated objectives. Project scoring results, expert reviewer comments, and key findings and recommendations are included in this report.

  17. Journals, repositories, peer review, non-peer review, and the future of scholarly communication

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Peer reviewed journals are a key part of the system by which academic knowledge is developed and communicated. Problems have often been noted, and alternatives proposed, but the journal system still survives. In this article I focus on problems relating to reliance on subject-specific journals and peer review. Contrary to what is often assumed, there are alternatives to the current system, some of which have only becoming viable since the rise of the world wide web. The market for academic ideas should be opened up by separating the publication service from the review service: the former would ideally be served by an open access, web-based repository system encompassing all disciplines, whereas the latter should be opened up to encourage non-peer reviews from different perspectives, user reviews, statistics reviews, reviews from the perspective of different disciplines, and so on. The possibility of multiple reviews of the same artefact should encourage competition between reviewing organizations and should m...

  18. Publications and the peer review system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The peer review process as it relates to scientific publications in entomological journals is facing a number of serious issues that must be addressed. Among those issues are the increasing submissions from international authors writing in English as a second or third language, manuscripts lacking s...

  19. Predatory Journals, Peer Review, and Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    This commentary examines the problem of predatory journals, low-quality open-access journals that seek to earn revenue from scholarly authors without following scholarly publishing best practices. Seeking to accept as many papers as possible, they typically do not perform a standard peer review, leading to the publication of improperly vetted…

  20. Implementation of Peer-Reviewed Homework Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Richard N.; Cox, Charles T., Jr.; Murphy, Katherine; Bayas, Camille

    2017-01-01

    In large, introductory courses, instructors and teaching assistants often struggle to provide detailed feedback on student homework in a timely manner. Here we describe a peer-reviewed homework system that provides quick turnaround while offering flexibility in the construction of homework problems. Homework is administered through a cycle, which…

  1. NEW WAYS OF PEER REVIEWING IN JOURNALS: OPEN REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mora-Campos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Technology has helped improve many aspects of the quality of publications: more visibility, greater access to sources of information and option to verify those sources, among others. This has meant that some journals have had to adjust their processes, especially peer reviewing. The blind mode is the method most commonly used by journals. In the case of our journal, we have traditionally used the double-blind style; however, we have noticed that, with advanced Internet, social networks, and media, it is easier for reviewers to obtain previews, preprints, primary research or previous articles that can help identify the author, thus making the double blind review difficult. These experiences have made us analyze whether the peer review system used by the journal is appropriate. Searching for other peer review options we found the open review. This paper briefly reviews some advantages and disadvantages of this type of review and the experience faced by this journal when implementing it.

  2. 2009 Biomass Program Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, John [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program‘s 2009 peer review meeting, held on July 14–15, 2009, in Arlington, Virginia. The document also includes summary information from the six separate platform reviews conducted between March and April 2009 in the Washington, D.C., and Denver, Colorado, areas. The platform reviews provide evaluations of the program‘s projects in applied research, development, and demonstration as well as analysis and deployment activities. The July program peer review was an evaluation of the program‘s overall strategic planning, management approach, priorities across research areas, and resource allocation.

  3. Open peer review at four STEM journals: an observational overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Open peer review, peer review where authors' and reviewers' identities are disclosed to one another, is a growing trend in scholarly publishing. Through observation of four journals in STEM disciplines, PLOS One, Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics, PeerJ, and F1000Research, an observational overview is conducted. The overview relies on defined characteristics of open peer review. Results show that despite differing open peer review implementations, each journal retains editorial involvement in scholarly publishing. Further, the analysis shows that only one of these implementations is fully transparent in its peer review and decision making process. Finally, the overview contends that journals should clearly outline peer review and editorial processes in order to allow for open peer review to be better understood and adopted by authors, reviewers, editors, and readers of science communications.

  4. 2014 Wind Program Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-10-01

    The Wind Program Peer Review Meeting was held March 24-28, 2014 in Arlington, VA. Principle investigators from the Energy Department, National Laboratories, academic, and industry representatives presented the progress of their DOE-funded research. This report documents the formal, rigorous evaluation process and findings of nine independent reviewers who examined the technical, scientific, and business results of Wind Program funded projects, as well as the productivity and management effectiveness of the Wind Program itself.

  5. 2014 Water Power Program Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-08-18

    The Water Power Peer Review Meeting was held February 24-28, 2014 in Arlington, VA. Principle investigators from the Energy Department National Laboratories, academic, and industry representatives presented the progress of their DOE-funded research. This report documents the formal, rigorous evaluation process and findings of nine independent reviewers who examined the technical, scientific, and business results of 96 projects of the Water Power Program, as well as the productivity and management effectiveness of the Water Power Program itself.

  6. Review of Studies of Peer Relationships in Early Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    高櫻, 綾子

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews studies of peer relationships in early childhood and examines the relation between play in young children and peer relationships. First, it focuses on playgroup entry and intimacy with peers to examine the influence of peer relationships on play. Second, it considers the influence of play on peer relationships. The results show that there is a reciprocal relationship between the two : the success of a child entering a playgroup depends on the quality of peer relationships, ...

  7. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexavalent Chromium (Peer Review Plan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is conducting a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of hexavalent chromium that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  8. A peer review process for classroom teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellein, Marlea G; Ragucci, Kelly R; Lapointe, Marc

    2009-08-28

    Describe the planning, implementation, and faculty perceptions of a classroom peer-review process, including an evaluation tool. A process for peer evaluation of classroom teaching and its evaluation tool were developed and implemented by a volunteer faculty committee within our department. At the end of the year, all faculty members were asked to complete an online anonymous survey to evaluate the experience. The majority of faculty members either agreed or strongly agreed that the overall evaluation process was beneficial for both evaluators and for those being evaluated. Some areas of improvement related to the process and its evaluation tool also were identified. The process of developing and implementing a peer-evaluation process for classroom teaching was found to be beneficial for faculty members, and the survey results affirmed the need and continuation of such a process.

  9. Peer Feedback in Anonymous Peer Review in an EFL Writing Class in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coté, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports the results of a process of peer feedback through anonymous peer review in an EFL writing class. Numerous studies have reported on the benefits of peer review (PR) in the ESL/EFL writing classroom. However, the literature also identifies social issues that can negatively affect the outcome of face-to-face PR. In this…

  10. Review of Peer Evaluation Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-01

    Process. Journal of Applied Psychology, 1971 , 55, 495-497. Lindfey, G., & Byrne , D. Measurement of Social Choice and Interpersonal Attractiveness . In G...reviews are available elsewhere’(e.g., Gibb, 1969; Hollander, 1954a; Boulger & Coleman, 1964; & Nadal, 1968). Lindzey and Byrne (1968) have also...Downey, 19741 Hammer, 1963). Even the use of a paired comparison procedure does not significantly improve reliabil- ity (Bolton, 1971 ). Acceptability

  11. 28 CFR 34.104 - Use of peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of peer review. 34.104 Section 34.104 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE OJJDP COMPETITION AND PEER REVIEW PROCEDURES Peer Review § 34... programs for which a large number of applications is expected, preapplications (concept papers) may be...

  12. 42 CFR 52h.4 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 52h.4 Section... Composition of peer review groups. (a) To the extent applicable, the selection and appointment of members of peer review groups and their terms of service shall be governed by chapter 9 of the DHHS General...

  13. Focusing on Content: Discourse in L2 Peer Review Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobel, Oksana; Kim, Deoksoon

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies on peer review groups in second language classes have focused on various topics, including collaboration (Carr, 2008) and the effect of peer review versus teacher feedback on students' writing (Zhang, 1995). One area that has received little attention is the content of students' speech during peer review. This longitudinal case…

  14. Toward the Integration of Peer Reviewing and Computational Linguistics Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Juhwa; Cho, Kwangsu

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has shown the effectiveness of peer reviewing on the improvement of writing quality. However, the fact that students themselves, arguably novices, judged the improvement leads to concerns about the validity of peer reviewing. We measured writing quality before and after peer reviewing using Coh-Metrix, which computationally…

  15. 42 CFR 67.103 - Peer review of contract proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the contract(s) awarded as a result of the peer review. (e) Conflict of interest. (1) Members of peer review groups will be screened for potential conflicts of interest prior to appointment and will be..., INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING AGENCY FOR HEALTH CARE POLICY AND RESEARCH GRANTS AND CONTRACTS Peer Review of Contracts...

  16. Redefining the Practice of Peer Review Through Intelligent Automation Part 2: Data-Driven Peer Review Selection and Assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Bruce I

    2017-12-01

    In conventional radiology peer review practice, a small number of exams (routinely 5% of the total volume) is randomly selected, which may significantly underestimate the true error rate within a given radiology practice. An alternative and preferable approach would be to create a data-driven model which mathematically quantifies a peer review risk score for each individual exam and uses this data to identify high risk exams and readers, and selectively target these exams for peer review. An analogous model can also be created to assist in the assignment of these peer review cases in keeping with specific priorities of the service provider. An additional option to enhance the peer review process would be to assign the peer review cases in a truly blinded fashion. In addition to eliminating traditional peer review bias, this approach has the potential to better define exam-specific standard of care, particularly when multiple readers participate in the peer review process.

  17. An open science peer review oath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksic, Jelena; Alexa, Adrian; Attwood, Teresa K; Chue Hong, Neil; Dahlö, Martin; Davey, Robert; Dinkel, Holger; Förstner, Konrad U; Grigorov, Ivo; Hériché, Jean-Karim; Lahti, Leo; MacLean, Dan; Markie, Michael L; Molloy, Jenny; Schneider, Maria Victoria; Scott, Camille; Smith-Unna, Richard; Vieira, Bruno Miguel

    2014-01-01

    One of the foundations of the scientific method is to be able to reproduce experiments and corroborate the results of research that has been done before. However, with the increasing complexities of new technologies and techniques, coupled with the specialisation of experiments, reproducing research findings has become a growing challenge. Clearly, scientific methods must be conveyed succinctly, and with clarity and rigour, in order for research to be reproducible. Here, we propose steps to help increase the transparency of the scientific method and the reproducibility of research results: specifically, we introduce a peer-review oath and accompanying manifesto. These have been designed to offer guidelines to enable reviewers (with the minimum friction or bias) to follow and apply open science principles, and support the ideas of transparency, reproducibility and ultimately greater societal impact. Introducing the oath and manifesto at the stage of peer review will help to check that the research being published includes everything that other researchers would need to successfully repeat the work. Peer review is the lynchpin of the publishing system: encouraging the community to consciously (and conscientiously) uphold these principles should help to improve published papers, increase confidence in the reproducibility of the work and, ultimately, provide strategic benefits to authors and their institutions.

  18. Peer assessment of professionalism: a five-year experience in medical clerkship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovach, Regina A; Resch, David S; Verhulst, Steven J

    2009-06-01

    Faculty assessment of students' professionalism is often based upon sporadic exposure to students. Peers are in a unique position to provide valid judgments of these behaviors. (1) To learn if peer assessments of professional conduct correlate with traditional performance measures; (2) to determine if peer assessments of professionalism influence the designation of honors, and (3) to explore student and faculty opinions regarding peer assessment. Internal Medicine Clerkship at Southern Illinois University. Since 2001 anonymous student peer assessments of professionalism have been used in assigning clerkship grades. Peer assessments of professionalism had weak, though significant, correlations with faculty ratings (r = 0.29), performance on the NBME subject test (r = 0.28), and performance on a cumulative performance assessment (r = 0.30), and did not change the total number of honors awarded. A majority of students (71%) felt comfortable evaluating their peers, and 77% would keep the peer evaluation procedure in place. A majority of faculty (83%) indicated that peer assessments added valuable information. Peer assessments of professional conduct have little correlation with other performance measures, are more likely to have a positive influence on final clerkship grades, and have little impact on awarding honors.

  19. A Qualitative Review of Literature on Peer Review of Teaching in Higher Education: An Application of the SWOT Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Susan; Chie, Qiu Ting; Abraham, Mathew; Raj, Sony Jalarajan; Beh, Loo-See

    2014-01-01

    The issues of professional accountability, faculty member development, and enhancing higher education quality in universities are gaining importance. A strategy that could increase personal control over teaching practices in addition to improving professional development among faculty members is peer review of teaching (PRT). Five themes that are…

  20. Two Decades of Research in L2 Peer Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie Yea-huey Chang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and three (N=103 peer review studies contextualized in L2 composition classrooms and published between 1990 and 2015 were reviewed. To categorize constructs in research studies, this researcher used Lai’s (2010 three Ps dimensions (perceptions, process, and product. Perceptions are the beliefs and attitudes of peer review. Process refers to the learning process or implementation procedures of peer review. Product is the learning outcomes of peer review. A thematic analysis of the studies’ constructs showed that perception studies examined learners’ general perceptions/attitudes, Asian students’ perceptions/attitudes (cultural influences, and learner perceptions of peer feedback in comparison to self and/or computerized feedback. Process studies discussed the effects of training, checklists/rubrics, writer-reviewer relationships, the nature of peer feedback, communicative language, timing of teacher feedback on peer feedback, grouping strategies, as well as communicative medium. Product research, on the other hand, investigated peer feedback adoption rates and ratio of peer-influenced revisions, effects of peer review on writers’ revision quality, effects of peer review on reviewers’ gains, and effects of peer review on writers’ self revision. In light of this review, research gaps are identified and suggestions for future research are offered.

  1. Survey of radiologist attitudes and perceptions regarding the incorporation of a departmental peer review system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loreto, Michael; Kahn, Daniel; Glanc, Phyllis

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the attitudes and perceptions of staff radiologists regarding the incorporation of a nonanonymous peer review system at an academic hospital. A questionnaire gauging knowledge of, attitudes toward, and perceptions regarding peer review was distributed to all staff radiologists at a large academic hospital. The survey was distributed before the implementation of a nonanonymous peer review system. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Responses were cross-tabulated according to subspecialty and number of years in practice. The majority of respondents agreed that peer review is important for improving patient care (31 of 36 [86%]) and professional development (29 of 36 [81%]), but the vast majority (33 of 36 [92%]) believed that peer review should be anonymous. Twenty-six of 36 respondents (72%) believed that peer review will not be safe from malpractice issues, 24 of 36 (67%) agreed that it has the potential to damage interpersonal relationships within the department, and 15 of 36 (42%) believed that it may influence their job security or rankings within the department. Significant differences were identified between radiologists with more and fewer years of practice experience. The incorporation of a nonanonymous peer review system generates anxiety and uncertainty within a radiology department. The investigation of physicians' attitudes toward and perceptions about peer review is important for understanding the potential impact not only on patient care but also on radiologists' relationships and psychology in the workplace. Copyright © 2014 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Role of the Anonymous Voice in Post-Publication Peer Review Versus Traditional Peer Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional peer review (TPR has several limitations and weaknesses. Post-publication peer review is one practical way to repair the ills of TPR and reinforce it. A literature that is marked by errors is unhealthy and should, if given the opportunity, be corrected or further improved. The anonymous voice is one source of critique and differs from the blind peer review in TPR in which the reviewer remains anonymous to the authors and/or vice versa, but the identity is known to the editor. If unregulated, the anonymous voice can pose a threat to established editorial norms in TPR, to one of the most important criteria of science publishing, i.e., transparency, and to worthwhile discussion. Yet, if the anonymous voice is not heard, then a vast and potentially valuable pool of untapped opinions may be lost, opinions that may provide valuable solutions to improving TPR.

  3. Professional Monograph Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mildeová Stanislava

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Title of the monograph: Systems Approach to Knowledge Modelling. Authors: dr. Ludmila Dömeová; dr. Milan Houška; dr. Martina Houšková Beránková. Cover designer: Olga Čermáková. Interior designer: Roman Kvasnička. Publisher: Graphical Studio Olga Čermáková, Czech Republic. Place: Hradec Králové, Czech Republic. Year of publication: 2008. Number of pages: 282. Recommended price of the book: 39.90 EUR. First edition. Reviewer : dr. Stanislava Mildeová; Department of Systems Analysis, Faculty of Informatics and Statistics, University of Economics, Prague.

  4. Review times in peer review: quantitative analysis of editorial workflows

    CERN Document Server

    Mrowinski, Maciej J; Fronczak, Piotr; Nedic, Olgica; Ausloos, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    We examine selected aspects of peer review and suggest possible improvements. To this end, we analyse a dataset containing information about 300 papers submitted to the Biochemistry and Biotechnology section of the Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society. After separating the peer review process into stages that each review has to go through, we use a weighted directed graph to describe it in a probabilistic manner and test the impact of some modifications of the editorial policy on the efficiency of the whole process.

  5. Investigating Peer Review as an Intentional Learning Strategy to Foster Collaborative Knowledge-Building in Students of Instructional Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Jennifer M.; Hodges, Charles B.

    2011-01-01

    Peer review has been advocated for as an intentional strategy to support the knowledge and skill attainment of adult learners preparing for professional practice, including those students preparing for instructional design and technology practice. The purposes of this article are to discuss the practical application of peer review as an…

  6. NIH Peer Review: Scored Review Criteria and Overall Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Mark D.; Vancea, Adrian; Chen, Mei-Ching; Chacko, George

    2016-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the largest source of funding for biomedical research in the world. Funding decisions are made largely based on the outcome of a peer review process that is intended to provide a fair, equitable, timely, and unbiased review of the quality, scientific merit, and potential impact of the research. There have…

  7. SCDAP/RELAP5 independent peer review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corradini, M.L. (Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Dhir, V.K. (Dhir, (V.K.) Santa Monica, CA (United States)); Haste, T.J. (AEA Technology, Winfrith (United Kingdom)); Heames, T.J. (Science Applications, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Jenks, R.P. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Kelly, J.E. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM

    1993-01-01

    The SCDAP/RELAP5 code has been developed for best-estimate transient simulation of light-water-reactor coolant systems during severe accidents. The newest version of the code is SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) decided that there was a need for a broad technical review of the code by recognized experts to determine overall technical adequacy, even though the code is still under development. For this purpose, an eight-member SCDAP/RELAP5 Peer Review Committee was organized, and the outcome of the review should help the NRC prioritize future code-development activity. Because the code is designed to be mechanistic, the Committee used a higher standard for technical adequacy than was employed in the peer review of the parametric MELCOR code. The Committee completed its review of the SCDAP/RELAP5 code, and the findings are documented in this report. Based on these findings, recommendations in five areas are provided: (1) phenomenological models, (2) code-design objectives, (3) code-targeted applications, (4) other findings, and (5) additional recommendations.

  8. Systematic review of peer education intervention programmes among individuals with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatlin, Tricia K; Serafica, Reimund; Johnson, Michael

    2017-08-09

    To systematically review published randomised controlled trials of peer education interventions among adults with type 2 diabetes. Systematic reviews have shown mixed results for peer support interventions to improve diabetes self-management. Given the effectiveness of diabetes education by healthcare professionals, peer education interventions may be a useful alternative approach. This review addressed that gap. Systematic review. A systematic search of published randomised controlled trials between 2006-2016 was conducted using the keywords diabetes, type 2 diabetes, randomised controlled trials, self-management, peer education and peer support. The methodological quality of each study was assessed using the Jadad scale. Seven studies were included in the final review, and the Jadad scores ranged from 8-10 of a possible 13 points. There was no consistent design, setting, or outcome measurement among the studies. There were two types of peer education interventions compared to traditional diabetes education: face-to-face or a combination of face-to-face and telephone/texting. The most common clinical outcome measure was HbA1c. Two of six studies showed statistically significant improvement in HbA1c between intervention and control groups. An increase in diabetes knowledge was also statistically significant in two of five studies. Peer education could be successful in improving clinical outcomes. No evidence was found indicating that healthcare provider education was superior in regard to clinical knowledge or behavioural or psychological outcome measures than peer education. HbA1c was statistically significantly lower in some peer education groups compared to control groups. There is evidence that peer education can be useful in achieving positive clinical outcomes such as decreasing HbA1c levels and increasing diabetes knowledge. A certified diabetes educator or a trained healthcare professional should not be overlooked though when using peer educators. © 2017

  9. Open Peer Review: Collective Intelligence as a Framework for Theorizing Approaches to Peer Review in the Humanities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Pack Sheffield

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article takes a moderate approach, balancing suggestions for when open peer review can benefit scholarship in the humanities, while offering important concerns authors and editors must consider before deciding to implement the process. I focus on online commenting functions and how they have been—and can be—used for open peer review to help improve the quality of an author’s scholarly work and change the way publishers go about their peer review processes. While open peer review is not necessarily digital, digital technologies allow for a broader range of participants and faster dissemination of knowledge, which is why this article focuses on online open peer review. Open Peer Review: Collective Intelligence as a Framework for Theorizing Approaches to Peer Review in the Humanities, by Jenna Pack Sheffield

  10. Commercial Lighting Solutions, Webtool Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Carol C.; Meyer, Tracy A.

    2009-06-17

    The Commercial Lighting Solutions (CLS) project directly supports the U.S. Department of Energy’s Commercial Building Energy Alliance efforts to design high performance buildings. CLS creates energy efficient best practice lighting designs for widespread use, and they are made available to users via an interactive webtool that both educates and guides the end user through the application of the Lighting Solutions. This report summarizes the peer review of the beta version of the CLS webtool, which contains retail box lighting solutions. The methodology for the peer review process included data collection (stakeholder input), analysis of the comments, and organization of the input into categories for prioritization of the comments against a set of criteria. Based on this process, recommendations were developed about which feedback should be addressed for the release of version 1.0 of the webtool at the Lightfair conference in New York City in May 2009. Due to the volume of data (~500 comments) the methodology for addressing the peer review comments was central to the success of the ultimate goal of improving the tool. The comments were first imported into a master spreadsheet, and then grouped and organized in several layers. Solutions to each comment were then rated by importance and feasibility to determine the practicality of resolving the concerns of the commenter in the short-term or long-term. The rating system was used as an analytical tool, but the results were viewed thoughtfully to ensure that they were not the sole the factor in determining which comments were recommended for near-term resolution. The report provides a list of the top ten most significant and relevant improvements that will be made within the webtool for version 1.0 as well as appendices containing the short-term priorities in additional detail. Peer review comments that are considered high priority by the reviewers and the CLS team but cannot be completed for Version 1.0 are listed as

  11. Peer-support writing group in a community family medicine teaching unit: Facilitating professional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Imari, Lina; Yang, Jaisy; Pimlott, Nicholas

    2016-12-01

    Aspiring physician writers need an environment that promotes self-reflection and can help them improve their skills and confidence in writing. To create a peer-support writing group for physicians in the Markham-Stouffville community in Ontario to promote professional development by encouraging self-reflection and fostering the concept of physician as writer. The program, designed based on a literature review and a needs assessment, was conducted in 3 sessions over 6 months. Participants included an emergency physician, 4 family physicians, and 3 residents. Four to 8 participants per session shared their projects with guest physician authors. Eight pieces of written work were brought to the sessions, 3 of which were edited. A mixed quantitative and qualitative evaluation model was used with preprogram and postprogram questionnaires and a focus group. This program promoted professional development by increasing participants' frequency of self-reflection and improving their proficiency in writing. Successful elements of this program include creating a supportive group environment and having a physician-writer expert facilitate the peer-feedback sessions. Similar programs can be useful in postgraduate education or continuing professional development. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  12. Biomass Program 2007 Program Peer Review - Program Summary Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-27

    This document summarizes the comments provided by the peer reviewers at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Biomass Program’s Peer Review meeting, held on November 14-15, 2007 in Baltimore, MD and Platform Reviews conducted over the summer of 2007. The Platform Reviews provide evaluations of the Program’s projects in applied research, development, and demonstration.

  13. Biomass Program 2007 Program Peer Review - Full Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-27

    This document summarizes the comments provided by the peer reviewers at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Biomass Program’s Peer Review meeting, held on November 14-15, 2007 in Baltimore, MD and Platform Reviews conducted over the summer of 2007. The Platform Reviews provide evaluations of the Program’s projects in applied research, development, and demonstration.

  14. Academic Primer Series: Key Papers About Peer Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarris, Lalena M; Gottlieb, Michael; Scott, Kevin; Sampson, Christopher; Rose, Emily; Chan, Teresa M; Ilgen, Jonathan

    2017-06-01

    Peer review, a cornerstone of academia, promotes rigor and relevance in scientific publishing. As educators are encouraged to adopt a more scholarly approach to medical education, peer review is becoming increasingly important. Junior educators both receive the reviews of their peers, and are also asked to participate as reviewers themselves. As such, it is imperative for junior clinician educators to be well-versed in the art of peer reviewing their colleagues' work. In this article, our goal was to identify and summarize key papers that may be helpful for faculty members interested in learning more about the peer-review process and how to improve their reviewing skills. The online discussions of the 2016-17 Academic Life in Emergency Medicine (ALiEM) Faculty Incubator program included a robust discussion about peer review, which highlighted a number of papers on that topic. We sought to augment this list with further suggestions by guest experts and by an open call on Twitter for other important papers. Via this process, we created a list of 24 total papers on the topic of peer review. After gathering these papers, our authorship group engaged in a consensus-building process incorporating Delphi methods to identify the papers that best described peer review, and also highlighted important tips for new reviewers. We found and reviewed 24 papers. In our results section, we present our authorship group's top five most highly rated papers on the topic of peer review. We also summarize these papers with respect to their relevance to junior faculty members and to faculty developers. We present five key papers on peer review that can be used for faculty development for novice writers and reviewers. These papers represent a mix of foundational and explanatory papers that may provide some basis from which junior faculty members might build upon as they both undergo the peer-review process and act as reviewers in turn.

  15. Is Peer Review Training Effective in Iranian EFL Students’ Revision?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadiseh Esmaeeli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the effect of peer review training on the Iranian EFL students’ subsequent revision in an advanced writing class in Larestan Islamic Azad University. After 12 weeks class demonstration, teacher-reviewer conferences with 20 male and female students, the students’ first drafts, revisions, and reviewers’ comments were collected and compared the comments before and after peer review training. The findings revealed that the students incorporated significantly more comments into subsequent revisions after peer review training. Therefore, peer review training had a positive effect on the students’ subsequent revisions.

  16. A Method for Improving the Integrity of Peer Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadkhah, Mehdi; Kahani, Mohsen; Borchardt, Glenn

    2017-08-15

    Peer review is the most important aspect of reputable journals. Without it, we would be unsure about whether the material published was as valid and reliable as is possible. However, with the advent of the Internet, scientific literature has now become subject to a relatively new phenomenon: fake peer reviews. Some dishonest researchers have been manipulating the peer review process to publish what are often inferior papers. There are even papers that explain how to do it. This paper discusses one of those methods and how editors can defeat it by using a special review ID. This method is easy to understand and can be added to current peer review systems easily.

  17. Peer assessment: a missing link between teaching and learning? A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, J

    2001-10-01

    Selected theoretical and empirical educational literature relating to peer review were evaluated. The aim of the survey was to provide guidance with regard to the possible introduction of peer review within the author's place of work. The results of the survey highlighted the positive benefits peer review had in terms of professional development, the development of transferable graduate skills, and in more general terms with regard to learning strategies. The conclusions drawn from the survey highlight the importance of broadening the research to part-time students where difficulties with regard to the formation of groups might be encountered, as well as the positive benefit of peer review as a method of assessment. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  18. The Association Between Peer and Self-Assessments and Professionalism Lapses Among Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Leslie A; Shew, Ronald L; Vu, T Robert; Brokaw, James J; Frankel, Richard M

    2017-06-01

    Peer and self-assessments are widely used to assess professionalism during medical school as part of a multisource feedback model. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between peer and self-assessments and professionalism lapses at a large medical school. A retrospective case-control study design was used to compare peer and self-assessment scores from Years 1 to 3 of medical school for students who had been cited for professionalism lapses during medical school (case group; n = 78) with those of a randomly selected control group ( n = 230). Students in the case group had significantly lower peer assessment scores than students in the control group during all 3 years. Year 3 peer assessment scores showed the greatest difference (cases = 7.81 ± 0.65, controls = 8.22 ± 0.34, p peer assessment scores were also significantly more likely to have been cited for a professionalism lapse (odds ratio = 6.25, 95% CI [3.13, 11.11], p peer assessments of professionalism, which may be useful to help identify students who may be at risk for professionalism lapses during medical school.

  19. Technology-Enhanced Peer Review: Benefits and Implications of Providing Multiple Reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.; Lagkas, Thomas D.; Demetriadis, Stavros N.

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses the impact of self and peer feedback in technology-enhanced peer review settings. The impact of receiving peer comments (“receiver” perspective) is compared to that of reaching own insights by reviewing others’ work (“giver” perspective). In this study, 38 sophomore students...... were randomly assigned in two conditions and engaged in peer review activity facilitated by a web-based learning environment asking them to provide multiple reviews. In the Peer Reviewed (PR) condition students both reviewed peer work and received peer comments for their own work. By contrast......, in the Self Reviewed (SR) condition students provided peer reviews, but did not receive any. Instead, they were asked to perform self reviewing, before proceeding to any revisions of their work. Result showed that the two groups were comparable in all aspects, suggesting that the lack of getting peer reviews...

  20. Technology-Enhanced Peer Review: Benefits and Implications of Providing Multiple Reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.; Lagkas, Thomas D.; Demetriadis, Stavros N.

    2017-01-01

    This study analyses the impact of self and peer feedback in technology-enhanced peer review settings. The impact of receiving peer comments (“receiver” perspective) is compared to that of reaching own insights by reviewing others’ work (“giver” perspective). In this study, 38 sophomore students...... were randomly assigned in two conditions and engaged in peer review activity facilitated by a web-based learning environment asking them to provide multiple reviews. In the Peer Reviewed (PR) condition students both reviewed peer work and received peer comments for their own work. By contrast......, in the Self Reviewed (SR) condition students provided peer reviews, but did not receive any. Instead, they were asked to perform self reviewing, before proceeding to any revisions of their work. Result showed that the two groups were comparable in all aspects, suggesting that the lack of getting peer reviews...

  1. Comparison of self-citation by peer reviewers in a journal with single-blind peer review versus a journal with open peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levis, Alexander W; Leentjens, Albert F G; Levenson, James L; Lumley, Mark A; Thombs, Brett D

    2015-12-01

    Some peer reviewers may inappropriately, or coercively request that authors include references to the reviewers' own work. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether, compared to reviews for a journal with single-blind peer review, reviews for a journal with open peer review included (1) fewer self-citations; (2) a lower proportion of self-citations without a rationale; and (3) a lower ratio of proportions of citations without a rationale in self-citations versus citations to others' work. Peer reviews for published manuscripts submitted in 2012 to a single-blind peer review journal, the Journal of Psychosomatic Research, were previously evaluated (Thombs et al., 2015). These were compared to publically available peer reviews of manuscripts published in 2012 in an open review journal, BMC Psychiatry. Two investigators independently extracted data for both journals. There were no significant differences between journals in the proportion of all reviewer citations that were self-citations (Journal of Psychosomatic Research: 71/225, 32%; BMC Psychiatry: 90/315, 29%; p=.50), or in the proportion of self-citations without a rationale (Journal of Psychosomatic Research: 15/71, 21%; BMC Psychiatry: 12/90, 13%; p=.21). There was no significant difference between journals in the proportion of self-citations versus citations to others' work without a rationale (p=.31). Blind and open peer review methodologies have distinct advantages and disadvantages. The present study found that, in reasonably similar journals that use single-blind and open review, there were no substantive differences in the pattern of peer reviewer self-citations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Biomass Program 2007 Program Peer Review - Feedstock Platform Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-27

    This document discloses the comments provided by a review panel at the U.S. Department of Energy Office of the Biomass Program Peer Review held on November 15-16, 2007 in Baltimore, MD and the Feedstock Platform Portfolio Peer Review held on August 21st through 23rd in Washington D.C.

  3. Online Peer Review: Encouraging Student Response and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansiquot, Reneta; Rosalia, Christine

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the use of a tailored online peer review program for first-year undergraduate students at an urban college of technology. The program facilitated group peer review in meaningful and technologically elegant ways. Students in a composition class were divided into two groups. One group acted as first reviewers, and the other group…

  4. Biomass Program 2007 Program Peer Review - Thermochemical Conversion Platform Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-27

    This document discloses the comments provided by a review panel at the U.S. Department of Energy Office of the Biomass Program Peer Review held on November 15-16, 2007 in Baltimore, MD and the Biomass Program Peer Review for the Thermochemical Platform, held on July 9th and 10th in Golden, Colorado.

  5. Peer Reviewed Publications From Class Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Copenheaver, Carolyn A.

    2010-01-01

    From 2001 to 2008, I coordinated the publication of 13 peer‐reviewed manuscripts stemming from group projects in a graduate‐level Advanced Forest Ecology class. The intention of the group projects was to immerse the students in actual forest ecology research and increase their professional development by personally involving them in the publication process. The student publications appeared in 11 different journals (American Midland Naturalist, Castanea, Dendrochronologia, Forest Ecology and ...

  6. Professionalizing the Role of Peer Leaders in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, Bethany; Doyle, Maureen; Taylor, Jennifer; Antes, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to improve retention in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors frequently utilize peer mentors and/or leaders. At Northern Kentucky University, the STEM Ambassador (SA) program involves students in the creation of a STEM community through multifaceted roles as mentors, peer-learning facilitators, and social…

  7. Peer Debriefing: Teachers' Reflective Practices for Professional Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hail, Cindy; Hurst, Beth; Camp, Deanne

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe the process of "peer debriefing": exposing oneself to a disinterested peer in a manner paralleling an analytic session and for the purpose of exploring aspects of the inquiry that might otherwise remain only implicit within the inquirer's mind. The authors wanted to know if former graduate…

  8. How Do Teachers Make Sense of Peer Observation Professional Development in an Urban School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Luis Miguel

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the research study is to explore how a peer observation training programme could be beneficial to the professional development of English teachers in an East Asian environment. The research objectives were to improve teaching practice, examine how teachers make sense of the peer observation programme after they have taken part in,…

  9. Effectiveness of Peer Assessment in a Professionalism Course Using an Online Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Kenneth David

    2015-01-01

    An online Moodle Workshop was evaluated for peer assessment effectiveness. A quasiexperiment was designed using a Seminar in Professionalism course taught in face-to-face mode to undergraduate students across two campuses. The first goal was to determine if Moodle Workshop awarded a fair peer grader grade. The second objective was to estimate if…

  10. Peer-review process in journals dealing with chemistry and related subjects published in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dekanski Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted among editors of journals publishing in the field of chemistry, chemical technology and related topics in Serbia, aiming to collect information on their experience, problems and difficulties during peer-review process. Editors from 22 journals out of 27 which regularly published during 2015 replied. General data on journals were collected from responses obtained from editors-in-chief, whereas all editors (including sub-editors and section editors participated in a questionnaire concerning peer-review procedure. Additionally, they were asked to evaluate quality of reports and attitude of reviewers, discuss present situation and suggest measures to improve peer-review process. Greatest problems encountered by editors in peer-review process can be summarized as follows: low rate of acceptance to review, low quality of reports, sometimes due to reviewer’s bias or his/her inability to properly understand review process. A method used to search for reviewers does not substantially influence quality of reports. Editors agree that introduction of On-Line process and creation of precise instructions for reviewers, education of potential reviewers, as well as social, public and professional recognition and appreciation of reviewers’ work, are the most important measures to improve quality of peer-review process and, consecutively, quality of published articles and journals.

  11. Cooperation between referees and authors increases peer review accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leek, Jeffrey T; Taub, Margaret A; Pineda, Fernando J

    2011-01-01

    Peer review is fundamentally a cooperative process between scientists in a community who agree to review each other's work in an unbiased fashion. Peer review is the foundation for decisions concerning publication in journals, awarding of grants, and academic promotion. Here we perform a laboratory study of open and closed peer review based on an online game. We show that when reviewer behavior was made public under open review, reviewers were rewarded for refereeing and formed significantly more cooperative interactions (13% increase in cooperation, P = 0.018). We also show that referees and authors who participated in cooperative interactions had an 11% higher reviewing accuracy rate (P = 0.016). Our results suggest that increasing cooperation in the peer review process can lead to a decreased risk of reviewing errors.

  12. Cooperation between referees and authors increases peer review accuracy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey T Leek

    Full Text Available Peer review is fundamentally a cooperative process between scientists in a community who agree to review each other's work in an unbiased fashion. Peer review is the foundation for decisions concerning publication in journals, awarding of grants, and academic promotion. Here we perform a laboratory study of open and closed peer review based on an online game. We show that when reviewer behavior was made public under open review, reviewers were rewarded for refereeing and formed significantly more cooperative interactions (13% increase in cooperation, P = 0.018. We also show that referees and authors who participated in cooperative interactions had an 11% higher reviewing accuracy rate (P = 0.016. Our results suggest that increasing cooperation in the peer review process can lead to a decreased risk of reviewing errors.

  13. Data bank has operational impact. Proper peer review can protect hospitals from antitrust and defamation suits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purtell, D L

    1990-11-01

    The Health Care Quality Improvement Act of 1986 can help protect medical professionals and healthcare facilities from antitrust and defamation claims and other forms of litigation arising from the peer review process. Some hospitals may need to make major changes in their peer review activity as a result of the act. The healthcare entity, not the physicians involved in peer review, has the burden of complying with the provisions of the act. Failure to comply with the act can lead to loss of immunity from damages, fines, and potential exclusion from the Medicare program. The potential for liability has sparked a need for hospitals to reexamine and possibly reorganize medical staff and update procedures and related governing documents. Healthcare entities may consider changes such as implementing a director of medical affairs function, choosing medical staff for multiple-year terms, and centralizing physician review files. In the 1980s many hospitals created quality assurance and risk management programs. Risk managers need to share data with quality assurance personnel, who must in turn share the information with medical staff involved with credentialing, peer review, and medical affairs management. Legal counsel will need to be familiar with the legalities of the act, as well as the hospital's peer review procedures and operations. General legal counsel should oversee coordination of hospital proceedings and assist in educating staff on the legalities of peer review.

  14. An Evaluation of the Accuracy of Peer to Peer Surgical Teaching and the Role of the Peer Review Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Oh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peer to peer learning is a well-established learning modality which has been shown to improve learning outcomes, with positive implications for clinical practice. Surgical students from across Ireland were invited to upload learning points daily while paired with their peers in a peer-reviewing process. This study was designed to assess content accuracy and evaluate the benefit of the review process. Method: A reflective content sample was selected from the database representing all gastrointestinal (GI surgical entries. All questions and answers were double corrected by four examiners, blinded to the “review” status of the entries. Statistical analysis was performed to compare accuracy between “reviewed” and “non-reviewed” entries. Results: There were 15,569 individual entries from 2009–2013, 2977 were GI surgery entries; 678 (23% were peer reviewed. Marked out of 5, accuracy in the reviewed group was 4.24 and 4.14 in the non-reviewed group. This was not statistically different (p = 0.11. Accuracy did not differ between universities or grade of tutors. Conclusion: The system of student uploaded data is accurate and was not improved further through peer review. This represents an easy, valuable and safe method of capturing surgical oral ward based teaching.

  15. Peer Support Services for Bereaved Survivors: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartone, Paul T; Bartone, Jocelyn V; Violanti, John M; Gileno, Zaneta M

    2017-01-01

    This systematic literature review assesses the evidence regarding benefits of peer support services for bereaved survivors of sudden or unexpected death. Reports were included that addressed peer support services for adults who experienced death of a family member, close friend, or coworker. Of the 32 studies meeting all inclusion criteria, most showed evidence that peer support was helpful to bereaved survivors, reducing grief symptoms and increasing well-being and personal growth. Studies also showed benefits to providers of peer support, including increased personal growth and positive meaning in life. Several studies addressed the growing trend of Internet-based peer support programs, finding that these are beneficial in part due to their easy accessibility. Peer support appears to be especially valuable for survivors of suicide loss, a result that may be related to stigma and lack of support from family and friends experienced by many suicide survivors. The reviewed studies provide consistent evidence that peer support is beneficial to bereaved survivors.

  16. An OAI repository centric peer-review model

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    Pre-print repositories have seen a significant increase in use over the past fifteen years across multiple research domains. Researchers are beginning to develop applications capable of using these repositories to assist the scientific community above and beyond the pure dissemination of information. The contributions set forth by this paper emphasize a deconstructed publication model where in which the peer-review certification phase of a pre-print is mediated by an OAI-compliant peer-review service. This peer-review service uses a social-network algorithm for determining potential reviewers for a submitted manuscript and for weighting the influence of each participating reviewer’s evaluations. The paper also provides a set of peer-review specific metadata tags that can accompany a pre-prints existing metadata record. The combinations of these contributions provide a unique repository-centric peer-review model within the framework of the current OAI standards existing today.

  17. Adaptation and Flexibility When Conducting and Planning Peer Study Group Review Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendale, David R.; Hanes, Amanda R.

    2016-01-01

    Based on an evaluation of the professional literature of postsecondary learning assistance, little is known about decisions made by student leaders during their peer study group review sessions. Our research question for this study is "How did study group leaders adapt their role to better meet the needs of the students who participated in…

  18. Validity of peer grading using Calibrated Peer Review in a guided-inquiry, conceptual physics course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Edward; Goldberg, Fred; Robinson, Steve; McKean, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Constructing and evaluating explanations are important science practices, but in large classes it can be difficult to effectively engage students in these practices and provide feedback. Peer review and grading are scalable instructional approaches that address these concerns, but which raise questions about the validity of the peer grading process. Calibrated Peer Review (CPR) is a web-based system that scaffolds peer evaluation through a "calibration" process where students evaluate sample responses and receive feedback on their evaluations before evaluating their peers. Guided by an activity theory framework, we developed, implemented, and evaluated CPR-based tasks in guided-inquiry, conceptual physics courses for future teachers and general education students. The tasks were developed through iterative testing and revision. Effective tasks had specific and directed prompts and evaluation instructions. Using these tasks, over 350 students at three universities constructed explanations or analyzed physical phenomena, and evaluated their peers' work. By independently assessing students' responses, we evaluated the CPR calibration process and compared students' peer reviews with expert evaluations. On the tasks analyzed, peer scores were equivalent to our independent evaluations. On a written explanation item included on the final exam, students in the courses using CPR outperformed students in similar courses using traditional writing assignments without a peer evaluation element. Our research demonstrates that CPR can be an effective way to explicitly include the science practices of constructing and evaluating explanations into large classes without placing a significant burden on the instructor.

  19. Peer Review Improves the Quality of MCQ Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malau-Aduli, Bunmi S.; Zimitat, Craig

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the introduction of peer review processes on the quality of multiple-choice examinations in the first three years of an Australian medical course. The impact of the peer review process and overall quality assurance (QA) processes were evaluated by comparing the examination data generated in earlier…

  20. Student Peer Review: Enhancing Formative Feedback with a Rebuttal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harland, Tony; Wald, Navé; Randhawa, Haseeb

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the use of peer review in an undergraduate ecology programme, in which students write a research proposal as a grant application, prior to carrying out the research project. Using a theoretical feedback model, we compared teacher and student peer reviews in a double blind exercise, and show how students responded to feedback…

  1. Proposals for the writing of peer reviews in lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Gouws, Rufus

    2015-01-01

    regarding ethical aspects. But there are essential differences. These issues are discussed in this paper and some methodological and ethical proposals for peer reviews are made. One of the proposals could create a debate because it argues for an open peer review process and not for the so-called double...

  2. Turnitin and Peer Review in ESL Academic Writing Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinrong; Li, Mimi

    2018-01-01

    Despite the benefits of peer review, there are still challenges that need to be addressed to make it more effective for L2 students. With the development of technology, computer-mediated peer review has captured increasing attention from L2 writing researchers and instructors. While Turnitin is known for its use in detecting plagiarism, its newly…

  3. EU and OECD benchmarking and peer review compared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, Nico

    2009-01-01

    Benchmarking and peer review are essential elements of the so-called EU open method of coordination (OMC) which has been contested in the literature for lack of effectiveness. In this paper we compare benchmarking and peer review procedures as used by the EU with those used by the OECD. Different

  4. Peer Mentoring and Peer Tutoring among K-12 Students: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to examine research on peer mentoring among K-12 students to assist practitioners with how to incorporate these instructional techniques into their own music programs. Primary themes across the music education literature of peer mentoring include the role of music teachers, the role of students as they…

  5. Peer Review Quality and Transparency of the Peer-Review Process in Open Access and Subscription Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicherts, Jelte M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent controversies highlighting substandard peer review in Open Access (OA) and traditional (subscription) journals have increased the need for authors, funders, publishers, and institutions to assure quality of peer-review in academic journals. I propose that transparency of the peer-review process may be seen as an indicator of the quality of peer-review, and develop and validate a tool enabling different stakeholders to assess transparency of the peer-review process. Methods and Findings Based on editorial guidelines and best practices, I developed a 14-item tool to rate transparency of the peer-review process on the basis of journals’ websites. In Study 1, a random sample of 231 authors of papers in 92 subscription journals in different fields rated transparency of the journals that published their work. Authors’ ratings of the transparency were positively associated with quality of the peer-review process but unrelated to journal’s impact factors. In Study 2, 20 experts on OA publishing assessed the transparency of established (non-OA) journals, OA journals categorized as being published by potential predatory publishers, and journals from the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ). Results show high reliability across items (α = .91) and sufficient reliability across raters. Ratings differentiated the three types of journals well. In Study 3, academic librarians rated a random sample of 140 DOAJ journals and another 54 journals that had received a hoax paper written by Bohannon to test peer-review quality. Journals with higher transparency ratings were less likely to accept the flawed paper and showed higher impact as measured by the h5 index from Google Scholar. Conclusions The tool to assess transparency of the peer-review process at academic journals shows promising reliability and validity. The transparency of the peer-review process can be seen as an indicator of peer-review quality allowing the tool to be used to predict academic

  6. Peer Review Quality and Transparency of the Peer-Review Process in Open Access and Subscription Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicherts, Jelte M

    2016-01-01

    Recent controversies highlighting substandard peer review in Open Access (OA) and traditional (subscription) journals have increased the need for authors, funders, publishers, and institutions to assure quality of peer-review in academic journals. I propose that transparency of the peer-review process may be seen as an indicator of the quality of peer-review, and develop and validate a tool enabling different stakeholders to assess transparency of the peer-review process. Based on editorial guidelines and best practices, I developed a 14-item tool to rate transparency of the peer-review process on the basis of journals' websites. In Study 1, a random sample of 231 authors of papers in 92 subscription journals in different fields rated transparency of the journals that published their work. Authors' ratings of the transparency were positively associated with quality of the peer-review process but unrelated to journal's impact factors. In Study 2, 20 experts on OA publishing assessed the transparency of established (non-OA) journals, OA journals categorized as being published by potential predatory publishers, and journals from the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ). Results show high reliability across items (α = .91) and sufficient reliability across raters. Ratings differentiated the three types of journals well. In Study 3, academic librarians rated a random sample of 140 DOAJ journals and another 54 journals that had received a hoax paper written by Bohannon to test peer-review quality. Journals with higher transparency ratings were less likely to accept the flawed paper and showed higher impact as measured by the h5 index from Google Scholar. The tool to assess transparency of the peer-review process at academic journals shows promising reliability and validity. The transparency of the peer-review process can be seen as an indicator of peer-review quality allowing the tool to be used to predict academic quality in new journals.

  7. Peer Review Quality and Transparency of the Peer-Review Process in Open Access and Subscription Journals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelte M Wicherts

    Full Text Available Recent controversies highlighting substandard peer review in Open Access (OA and traditional (subscription journals have increased the need for authors, funders, publishers, and institutions to assure quality of peer-review in academic journals. I propose that transparency of the peer-review process may be seen as an indicator of the quality of peer-review, and develop and validate a tool enabling different stakeholders to assess transparency of the peer-review process.Based on editorial guidelines and best practices, I developed a 14-item tool to rate transparency of the peer-review process on the basis of journals' websites. In Study 1, a random sample of 231 authors of papers in 92 subscription journals in different fields rated transparency of the journals that published their work. Authors' ratings of the transparency were positively associated with quality of the peer-review process but unrelated to journal's impact factors. In Study 2, 20 experts on OA publishing assessed the transparency of established (non-OA journals, OA journals categorized as being published by potential predatory publishers, and journals from the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ. Results show high reliability across items (α = .91 and sufficient reliability across raters. Ratings differentiated the three types of journals well. In Study 3, academic librarians rated a random sample of 140 DOAJ journals and another 54 journals that had received a hoax paper written by Bohannon to test peer-review quality. Journals with higher transparency ratings were less likely to accept the flawed paper and showed higher impact as measured by the h5 index from Google Scholar.The tool to assess transparency of the peer-review process at academic journals shows promising reliability and validity. The transparency of the peer-review process can be seen as an indicator of peer-review quality allowing the tool to be used to predict academic quality in new journals.

  8. PEER

    OpenAIRE

    10.Baharuddin, Prof

    2015-01-01

    - PEER REVIEWER Effectivity of Locally Wood Rot Fungal Isolates in Decomposition of Leaf and Cocoa Pod Husk Waste.Int.J.Curr.Res.Aca. Rev.2014; 2 (11): 59-65. ISSN: 2347-3215. Penulis ke empat dari lima orang

  9. Scientific racism: reflections on peer review, science and ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, C

    1990-01-01

    The scholars who use Social Science & Medicine in their research and teaching, who publish their work in it, participate in its peer review of manuscripts, and attend its conferences belong to various nationalities, disciplines, and cultural traditions. Our common enterprise originated in and depends upon liberal democratic social institutions, and assumes their values. With all our differences and disagreements, we are committed to scientific research in a common effort to improve human health and welfare. Our professional careers are a large part of our personal lives, so that our science, our lives, and our values are a single fabric. The present lecture is a meditation on this situation based upon my own heritage, personal experience, and career in anthropology, and on the recent publication in Social Science & Medicine of an essay that attributed the epidemiology of AIDS to racial variation.

  10. Mentored peer reviewing for PhD faculty and students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiayun; Kim, Kyounghae; Kurtz, Melissa; Nolan, Marie T

    2016-02-01

    There is a need for scholars to be prepared as peer reviewers in order to ensure the continual publication of quality science. However, developing the skills to craft a constructive critique can be difficult. In this commentary, we discuss the use of a group peer review mentoring model for PhD students to gain experience in peer review from a faculty member who is experienced in peer review. Central to this model, was the opportunity for each student and faculty mentor to openly discuss their critique of the manuscript. Through this enriching experience, novice researchers were able to learn the elements of a good peer review, better determine a manuscript's substantive contribution to science, and advance the quality of their own manuscript writing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Peer-review policy and guidelines for Biochemia Medica Journal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolčić, Vesna Šupak; Simundić, Ana-Maria

    2014-01-01

    Peer review is widely used system for evaluating manuscripts prior to publication. It has been and still is widely used tool for making justified and fair editorial decision. However, the evidence of its efficacy is limited and it has been criticized to be time-consuming, biased, inconsistent, conservative, and open to abuse. As a result, researchers, editors and policymakers have questioned its objectivity and purpose. Nevertheless, this should not be the reason for abandoning the principles of peer review, but to make the additional efforts towards its improvement. Therefore, this Research Integrity Corner aims to describe basic principles of peer review and to introduce Biochemia Medica's guidelines for peer reviewers. Our intention is to help our peer reviewers provide evaluations that are as fair and objective as possible, while helping the journal publish innovative research of the highest quality.

  12. Peer review quality and transparency of the peer-review process in open access and subscription journals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicherts, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent controversies highlighting substandard peer review in Open Access (OA) and traditional (subscription) journals have increased the need for authors, funders, publishers, and institutions to assure quality of peer-review in academic journals. I propose that transparency of the

  13. Mobilizing Lithuanian Health Professionals as Community Peer Leaders for AIDS Prevention: An International Primary Health Care Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norr, Kathleen F.; McElmurry, Beverly J.; Slutas, Frances M.; Christiansen, Carol D.; Misner, Susan J.; Marks, Beth A.

    2001-01-01

    Using primary health care and peer leadership models, U.S. nurses trained Lithuanian health professionals as community peer leaders in AIDS prevention. A national continuing education program is in place to sustain the initiative in Lithuania. (SK)

  14. On the Nature and Role of Peer Review in Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Line Edslev

    2017-01-01

    For the past three decades, peer review practices have received much attention in the literature. But although this literature covers many research fields, only one previous systematic study has been devoted to the practice of peer review in mathematics, namely a study by Geist, Löwe, and Van Kerkhove from 2010. This lack of attention may be due to a view that peer review in mathematics is more reliable, and therefore less interesting as an object of study, than peer review in other fields. In fact, Geist, Löwe, and Van Kerkhove argue that peer review in mathematics is relatively reliable. At the same time, peer review in mathematics differs from peer review in most, if not all, other fields in that papers submitted to mathematical journals are usually only reviewed by a single referee. Furthermore, recent empirical studies indicate that the referees do not check the papers line by line. I argue that, in spite of this, mathematical practice in general and refereeing practices in particular are such that the common practice of mathematical journals of using just one referee is justified from the point of view of proof validity assessment. The argument is based on interviews I conducted with seven mathematicians.

  15. Peer health promotion in prisons: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Nat; Bleakley, Adam; Butt, Christine; Chadwick, Oliver; Mahmood, Khaver; Patel, Kiran; Salhi, Aicha

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review systematically the available literature relating to the implementation of peer education to promote health and healthy behaviour in prisons. The authors undertook a narrative systematic review of Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, Psychinfo, Web of Science and Cochrane databases. Relevant journals and reference lists were hand searched for relevant articles to be included in the review. Of the abstracts found, full-text papers were retrieved for those papers deemed as possibly fulfilling the inclusion criteria of the review. A total of 3,033 abstracts were identified leading to 46 full-text articles being retrieved, of which ten were included in the review. Peer education in prisons can have an impact on attitudes, knowledge, and behaviour intention regarding HIV risk behaviour. The research findings were inconclusive for the impact of peer education upon illicit drug use and injecting practice. There was a paucity of research evaluating the impact of peer education upon mental ill health, obesity, diet, smoking, or self-management of chronic physical diseases. Peer education is effective in reducing risk of HIV transmission. It is possible that peer education for mental health issues is stigmatising, presenting an opportunity for further research activity. The impact of peer education upon illicit drug use practice, obesity, diet, smoking, and self-management of chronic physical diseases also presents further research opportunities. Research evaluating models of active peer educator involvement in health service delivery and organisation is also lacking.

  16. Examining the Predictive Validity of NIH Peer Review Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Mark D; Nakamura, Richard K

    2015-01-01

    The predictive validity of peer review at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has not yet been demonstrated empirically. It might be assumed that the most efficient and expedient test of the predictive validity of NIH peer review would be an examination of the correlation between percentile scores from peer review and bibliometric indices of the publications produced from funded projects. The present study used a large dataset to examine the rationale for such a study, to determine if it would satisfy the requirements for a test of predictive validity. The results show significant restriction of range in the applications selected for funding. Furthermore, those few applications that are funded with slightly worse peer review scores are not selected at random or representative of other applications in the same range. The funding institutes also negotiate with applicants to address issues identified during peer review. Therefore, the peer review scores assigned to the submitted applications, especially for those few funded applications with slightly worse peer review scores, do not reflect the changed and improved projects that are eventually funded. In addition, citation metrics by themselves are not valid or appropriate measures of scientific impact. The use of bibliometric indices on their own to measure scientific impact would likely increase the inefficiencies and problems with replicability already largely attributed to the current over-emphasis on bibliometric indices. Therefore, retrospective analyses of the correlation between percentile scores from peer review and bibliometric indices of the publications resulting from funded grant applications are not valid tests of the predictive validity of peer review at the NIH.

  17. Peer2ref: a peer-reviewer finding web tool that uses author disambiguation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade-Navarro Miguel A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reviewer and editor selection for peer review is getting harder for authors and publishers due to the specialization onto narrower areas of research carried by the progressive growth of the body of knowledge. Examination of the literature facilitates finding appropriate reviewers but is time consuming and complicated by author name ambiguities. Results We have developed a method called peer2ref to support authors and editors in selecting suitable reviewers for scientific manuscripts. Peer2ref works from a text input, usually the abstract of the manuscript, from which important concepts are extracted as keywords using a fuzzy binary relations approach. The keywords are searched on indexed profiles of words constructed from the bibliography attributed to authors in MEDLINE. The names of these scientists have been previously disambiguated by coauthors identified across the whole MEDLINE. The methods have been implemented in a web server that automatically suggests experts for peer-review among scientists that have authored manuscripts published during the last decade in more than 3,800 journals indexed in MEDLINE. Conclusion peer2ref web server is publicly available at http://www.ogic.ca/projects/peer2ref/.

  18. Students’ acceptance of peer review in Computer Science course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Kubincová

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Peer review technique used in educational context could be beneficial for students from several points of view. Besides of developing students’ writing skills, critical thinking, practising articulation of own knowledge to the others and giving them feedback, it can encourage collaborative learning and boost the students’ interest in the course. In our web design course we successfully introduced peer review activities more than 2 years ago. In this paper we discuss the students’ acceptance of peer review applied on evaluation of other students’ projects.

  19. Peer Mentoring for Health Behavior Change: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petosa, R. L.; Smith, Laureen H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Peer mentoring can be a powerful complement to health instruction. Mentoring has been used to change health behaviors and promote sustainable lifestyle patterns in adults and, more recently, among adolescents. Purpose: This article reviews the use of peer mentoring to promote health practices and describes how this approach can be used…

  20. Nursing Student Peer Mentorship: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohatinsky, Noelle; Harding, Katie; Carriere, Terra

    2017-01-01

    The benefits of peer student mentorship programs are making them increasingly popular in nursing education. This manuscript reviews and synthesizes 20 articles outlining key elements, outcomes, and barriers of nursing student peer mentorship programs to allow educators to create mentorship programs that meet the needs of their students, faculty,…

  1. Expanding Group Peer Review: A Proposal for Medical Education Scholarship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumenco, Luba; Engle, Deborah L; Goodell, Kristen; Nagler, Alisa; Ovitsh, Robin K; Whicker, Shari A

    2017-02-01

    After participating in a group peer-review exercise at a workshop presented by Academic Medicine and MedEdPORTAL editors at the 2015 Association of American Medical Colleges Medical Education Meeting, the authors realized that the way their work group reviewed a manuscript was very different from the way by which they each would have reviewed the paper as an individual. Further, the group peer-review process yielded more robust feedback for the manuscript's authors than did the traditional individual peer-review process. This realization motivated the authors to reconvene and collaborate to write this Commentary to share their experience and propose the expanded use of group peer review in medical education scholarship.The authors consider the benefits of a peer-review process for reviewers, including learning how to improve their own manuscripts. They suggest that the benefits of a team review model may be similar to those of teamwork and team-based learning in medicine and medical education. They call for research to investigate this, to provide evidence to support group review, and to determine whether specific paper types would benefit most from team review (e.g., particularly complex manuscripts, those receiving widely disparate initial individual reviews). In addition, the authors propose ways in which a team-based approach to peer review could be expanded by journals and institutions. They believe that exploring the use of group peer review potentially could create a new methodology for skill development in research and scholarly writing and could enhance the quality of medical education scholarship.

  2. Psychosocial and career outcomes of peer mentorship in medical resident education: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethrick, Helen; Nowell, Lorelli; Oddone Paolucci, Elizabeth; Lorenzetti, Liza; Jacobsen, Michele; Clancy, Tracey; Lorenzetti, Diane L

    2017-08-31

    Many medical residents lack ready access to social and emotional supports that enable them to successfully cope with the challenges associated with medical residency. This absence of support has been shown to lead to high levels of burnout, decreased mental wellbeing, and difficulty mastering professional competencies in this population. While there is emerging evidence that peer mentoring can be an important source of psychosocial and career-related support for many individuals, the extent of the evidence regarding the benefits of peer mentorship in medical residency education has not yet been established. We describe a protocol for a systematic review to assess the effects of peer mentoring on medical residents' mental wellbeing, social connectedness, and professional competencies. Studies included in this review will be those that report on peer-mentoring relationships among medical residents. Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed-methods studies will be eligible for inclusion. No date or language limits will be applied. We will search EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, Web of Science, Scopus, ERIC, Education Research Complete, and Academic Research Complete databases to identify relevant studies. Two authors will independently assess all abstracts and full-text studies for inclusion and study quality and extract study data in duplicate. This is the first systematic review to explicitly explore the role of peer mentoring in the context of medical residency education. We anticipate that the findings from this review will raise awareness of the benefits and challenges associated with peer-mentoring relationships, further the development and implementation of formal peer-mentoring programs for medical residents, and, through identifying gaps in the existing literature, inform future research efforts. This protocol has not been registered in PROSPERO or any other publicly accessible registry.

  3. Peer and Self-assessment of Professionalism in Undergraduate Medical Students at the University of Calgary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Alakija

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peer and self assessment processes are integral to the development of professional behaviours. The purpose of this study was to assess the Rochester Peer Assessment Tool (RPAT among a group of volunteer first year students. Methods: We assessed feasibility through participation rates. The evidence for the validity of instrument scores was ascertained through an exploratory factor analysis, MANOVA to determine age and gender differences, and a discrepancy analysis between the self and peer data. Reliability analyses included the Cronbach's alpha analysis and G- and D-studies. Students completed a feedback questionnaire to provide data about acceptability. Results: Self and peer data were collected for 46 and 44 students, respectively. Each student had a mean of 7.2 peer assessments (out of a possible 8.  The factor analysis identified two factors, interpersonal skills and work study habits. The discrepancy analysis showed students in the lowest/highest quartiles, as assessed by peers, had higher/lower self means than peer means. The G-coefficient was Ep2 = 0.77. Student feedback was positive. Conclusions: RPAT was feasible in our setting, was acceptable to the students, and has been adopted as a mandatory part of our program for first and second year students. The study added to the evidence base for the reliability and validity of the RPAT instrument scores as a method of assessing professional behaviours.

  4. The mechanisms underpinning peer support: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Emma

    2017-12-20

    The employment of Peer Support Workers, who themselves have experience of significant emotional distress, can promote recovery at an individual and organisational level. While research examining the benefits of peer support within mental health services continues to grow, an understanding of how, and through what processes, these benefits are reached remains under-developed. To review the published research literature relating to the process of peer support and its underpinning mechanisms to better understand how and why it works. A scoping review of published literature identified studies relating to peer support mechanisms, processes and relationships. Studies were summarised and findings analysed. Five mechanisms were found to underpin peer support relationships (lived experience, love labour, the liminal position of the peer worker, strengths-focussed social and practical support, and the helper role). The identified mechanisms can underpin both the success and difficulties associated with peer support relationships. Further research should review a broader range of literature and clarify how these mechanisms contribute to peer support in different contexts.

  5. 34 CFR 350.52 - What is the composition of a peer review panel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the composition of a peer review panel? 350.52... composition of a peer review panel? (a) The Secretary selects as members of a peer review panel scientists and... information, or conferences, must be reviewed by a peer review panel that consists of a majority of non...

  6. Peer review - Why does it matter for your academic career?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalz, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Kalz, M. (2012, 8 March). Peer review - Why does it matter for your academic career? Presentation provided in the context of the Young Researchers Special Issue 2012 of the International Journal of Technology-Enhanced Learning (IJTEL).

  7. Peer Review Comments on the IRIS Assessment of Benzene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attachment to IRIS file for benzene, January 19, 2000, RESPONSE TO THE PEER REVIEW COMMENTS, II. Extrapolation of the Benzene Inhalation Unit Risk Estimate to the Oral Route of Exposure (EPA/NCEA-W-0517, July 1999)

  8. 45 CFR 96.136 - Independent peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.136 Independent peer review. (a) The State shall for the... approach to addictions treatment, and must be sensitive to the cultural and environmental issues that may...

  9. Technology-Enhanced Peer Review: Benefits and Implications of Providing Multiple Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.; Lagkas, Thomas D.; Demetriadis, Stavros N.

    2017-01-01

    This study analyses the impact of self and peer feedback in technology-enhanced peer review settings. The impact of receiving peer comments ("receiver" perspective) is compared to that of reaching own insights by reviewing others' work ("giver" perspective). In this study, 38 sophomore students were randomly assigned in two…

  10. The JSC Engineering Directorate Product Peer Review Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenks, Kenneth C.

    2009-01-01

    The JSC Engineering Directorate has developed a Product Peer Review process in support of NASA policies for project management and systems engineering. The process complies with the requirements of NPR 7120.5, NPR 7123.1 and NPR 7150.2 and follows the guidance in NASA/SP-2007-6105. This presentation will give an overview of the process followed by a brief demonstration of an actual peer review, with audience participation.

  11. Research Program Peer Review: Purposes, Principles, Practices, Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    Crean PM, Stokes MA, Williamson C, Hatch DJ. Quality in paediatric anaesthesia: a pilot study of interdepartmental peer review. Anaesthesia. 2003...Vol 30, pp 213-250 Damiano-PC Shugars-DA Freed-JR, "Assessing Quality in Dentistry - Dental Boards, Peer-Review Vary on Disciplinary Actions", JOURNAL...Healthc. 1998 Jul 20;28(29):43. . Moore R, Shiau YY. Dentistry in Taiwan, Republic of China: national health insurance reforms, illegal dentistry

  12. Peer Portal: Quality Enhancement in Thesis Writing Using Self-Managed Peer Review on a Mass Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaee, Naghmeh; Hansson, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a specially developed online peer-review system, the Peer Portal, and the first results of its use for quality enhancement of bachelor's and master's thesis manuscripts. The peer-review system is completely student driven and therefore saves time for supervisors and creates a direct interaction between students without…

  13. Peer-to-Peer Teaching in Higher Education: A Critical Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigmar, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of my critical literature review is to identify studies where students are engaged as partners in teaching in higher education and to analyze how tutors and tutees benefit from peer teaching. Thirty studies were included for review. Thirteen countries are represented and two thirds of the studies conducted in the United States of America…

  14. Coached Peer Review: Developing the Next Generation of Authors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidalak, Daniel; Purdy, Eve; Luckett-Gatopoulos, S; Murray, Heather; Thoma, Brent; Chan, Teresa M

    2017-02-01

    Publishing in academic journals is challenging for learners. Those who pass the initial stages of internal review by an editor often find the anonymous peer review process harsh. Academic blogs offer alternate avenues for publishing medical education material. Many blogs, however, lack a peer review process, which some consumers argue compromises the quality of materials published. CanadiEM (formerly BoringEM) is an academic educational emergency medicine blog dedicated to publishing high-quality materials produced by learners (i.e., residents and medical students). The editorial team has designed and implemented a collaborative "coached peer review" process that comprises an open exchange among the learner-author, editors, and reviewers. The goal of this process is to facilitate the publication of high-quality academic materials by learner-authors while providing focused feedback to help them develop academic writing skills. The authors of this Innovation Report surveyed (February-June 2015) their blog's learner-authors and external expert "staff" reviewers who had participated in coached peer review for their reactions to the process. The survey results revealed that participants viewed the process positively compared with both traditional journal peer review and academic blog publication processes. Participants found the process friendly, easy, efficient, and transparent. Learner-authors also reported increased confidence in their published material. These outcomes met the goals of coached peer review. CanadiEM aims to inspire continued participation in, exposure to, and high-quality production of academic writing by promoting the adoption of coached peer review for online educational resources produced by learners.

  15. Peer-based health interventions for people with serious mental illness: A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J; Camacho, David; Vélez-Grau, Carolina M; Stefancic, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Health interventions delivered by peer specialists or co-facilitated by peer specialists and health professionals can help improve the physical health of people with serious mental illness (SMI). Yet, the quality of the studies examining these health interventions and their impact on health outcomes remains unclear. To address this gap, we conducted a systematic literature review of peer-based health interventions for people with SMI. We rated the methodological quality of studies, summarized intervention strategies and health outcomes, and evaluated the inclusion of racial and ethnic minorities in these studies. We used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis guidelines to conduct our systematic literature review. Electronic bibliographic databases and manual searches were used to locate articles that were published in English in peer-reviewed journals between 1990 and 2015, described peer-based health interventions for people with SMI, and evaluated the impact of the interventions on physical health outcomes. Two independent reviewers used a standardized instrument to rate studies' methodological quality, abstracted study characteristics, and evaluated the effects of the interventions on different health outcomes. Eighteen articles were reviewed. Findings indicated that the strength of the evidence generated from these studies is limited due to several methodological limitations. Mixed and limited intervention effects were reported for most health outcomes. The most promising interventions were self-management and peer-navigator interventions. Efforts to strengthen the evidence of peer-based interventions require a research agenda that focuses on establishing the efficacy and effectiveness of these interventions across different populations and settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Is Peer Review Training Effective in Iranian EFL Students' Revision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeeli, Hadiseh; Abasi, Maasumeh; Soori, Afshin

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of peer review training on the Iranian EFL students' subsequent revision in an advanced writing class in Larestan Islamic Azad University. After 12 weeks class demonstration, teacher-reviewer conferences with 20 male and female students, the students' first drafts, revisions, and reviewers' comments were…

  17. Biomass Program 2007 Peer Review - Integrated Biorefinery Platform Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-27

    This document discloses the comments provided by a review panel at the U.S. Department of Energy Office of the Biomass Program Peer Review held on November 15-16, 2007 in Baltimore, MD and the Integrated Biorefinery Platform Review held on August 13-15, 2007 in Golden, Colorado.

  18. A quick guide to writing a solid peer review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Kimberly A.; Gordon, Wendy S.

    2011-07-01

    Scientific integrity and consensus rely on the peer review process, a defining feature of scientific discourse that subjects the literature forming the foundation of credible knowledge in a scientific field to rigorous scrutiny. However, there is surprisingly little training in graduate school on how to develop this essential skill [Zimmerman et al., 2011] or discussion of best practices to ensure that reviewers at all levels efficiently provide the most useful review. Even more challenging for the novice peer reviewer is that journals also vary widely in their review guidelines. Nonetheless, the goals of peer review are crystal clear: to ensure the accuracy and improve the quality of published literature through constructive criticism. To make the peer review process as efficient and productive as possible, you may want to consider a few useful approaches to tackling major steps throughout your review, from contemplating a review request and reading and assessing the manuscript to writing the review and interacting with the journal's editors (see Figure 1). These tips are particularly relevant for graduate students or other first-time reviewers, but they may also be useful to experienced reviewers and to journal editors seeking to enhance their publication's processes.

  19. Implementation and evaluation of a peer review process for advanced practice nurses in a university hospital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergum, Shelly K; Canaan, Talitha; Delemos, Christi; Gall, Elizabeth Funke; McCracken, Bonnie; Rowen, Dave; Salvemini, Steve; Wiens, Kimberly

    2017-07-01

    Over the past decade, implementation of the peer review process for the development of the advanced practice nurse (APN) has been emphasized. However, little exists in the literature regarding APN peer review. The peer review process is intended to help demonstrate competency of care, enhance quality improvement measures, and foster the professional growth of the APN. APNs serving on a professional governance council within a university teaching hospital developed a model of peer review for APNs. Nine months after the tool was implemented, an anonymous follow-up survey was conducted. A follow-up request was sent 4 weeks later to increase the number of respondents. Likert scales were used to elicit subjective data regarding the process. Of 81 APNs who participated in the survey, more than half (52%) felt that the process would directly improve their professional practice. Survey results show that the peer review process affected APN professional practice positively. Additional research might include pathways for remediation and education of staff, evaluation of alternate methods to improve application to clinical practice, and collection of outcome data. The models presented provide a foundation for future refinement to accommodate different APN practice settings. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  20. Quality Control and Peer Review of Data Sets: Mapping Data Archiving Processes to Data Publication Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayernik, M. S.; Daniels, M.; Eaker, C.; Strand, G.; Williams, S. F.; Worley, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    Data sets exist within scientific research and knowledge networks as both technical and non-technical entities. Establishing the quality of data sets is a multi-faceted task that encompasses many automated and manual processes. Data sets have always been essential for science research, but now need to be more visible as first-class scholarly objects at national, international, and local levels. Many initiatives are establishing procedures to publish and curate data sets, as well as to promote professional rewards for researchers that collect, create, manage, and preserve data sets. Traditionally, research quality has been assessed by peer review of textual publications, e.g. journal articles, conference proceedings, and books. Citation indices then provide standard measures of productivity used to reward individuals for their peer-reviewed work. Whether a similar peer review process is appropriate for assessing and ensuring the quality of data sets remains as an open question. How does the traditional process of peer review apply to data sets? This presentation will describe current work being done at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in the context of the Peer REview for Publication & Accreditation of Research Data in the Earth sciences (PREPARDE) project. PREPARDE is assessing practices and processes for data peer review, with the goal of developing recommendations. NCAR data management teams perform various kinds of quality assessment and review of data sets prior to making them publicly available. The poster will investigate how notions of peer review relate to the types of data review already in place at NCAR. We highlight the data set characteristics and management/archiving processes that challenge the traditional peer review processes by using a number of questions as probes, including: Who is qualified to review data sets? What formal and informal documentation is necessary to allow someone outside of a research team to review a data set

  1. Open Peer Review in Scientific Publishing: A Web Mining Study of PeerJ Authors and Reviewers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiling Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To understand how authors and reviewers are accepting and embracing Open Peer Review (OPR, one of the newest innovations in the Open Science movement. Design/methodology/approach: This research collected and analyzed data from the Open Access journal PeerJ over its first three years (2013-2016. Web data were scraped, cleaned, and structured using several Web tools and programs. The structured data were imported into a relational database. Data analyses were conducted using analytical tools as well as programs developed by the researchers. Findings: PeerJ, which supports optional OPR, has a broad international representation of authors and referees. Approximately 73.89% of articles provide full review histories. Of the articles with published review histories, 17.61% had identities of all reviewers and 52.57% had at least one signed reviewer. In total, 43.23% of all reviews were signed. The observed proportions of signed reviews have been relatively stable over the period since the Journal's inception. Research limitations: This research is constrained by the availability of the peer review history data. Some peer reviews were not available when the authors opted out of publishing their review histories. The anonymity of reviewers made it impossible to give an accurate count of reviewers who contributed to the review process. Practical implications: These findings shed light on the current characteristics of OPR. Given the policy that authors are encouraged to make their articles' review history public and referees are encouraged to sign their review reports, the three years of PeerJ review data demonstrate that there is still some reluctance by authors to make their reviews public and by reviewers to identify themselves. Originality/value: This is the first study to closely examine PeerJ as an example of an OPR model journal. As Open Science moves further towards open research, OPR is a final and critical component. Research in this

  2. Medical students as peer tutors: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background While Peer Assisted Learning (PAL) has long occurred informally in medical education, in the past ten years, there has been increasing international interest in formally organised PAL, with many benefits for both the students and institutions. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to establish why and how PAL has been implemented, focussing on the recruitment and training process for peer tutors, the benefits for peer tutors, and the competency of peer tutors. Method A literature search was conducted in three electronic databases. Selection of titles and abstracts were made based on pre-determined eligibility criteria. We utilized the ‘AMEE Peer assisted learning: a planning and implementation framework: AMEE Guide no. 30’ to assist us in establishing the review aims in a systematic review of the literature between 2002 and 2012. Six key questions were developed and used in our analysis of particular aspects of PAL programs within medical degree programs. Results We found nineteen articles that satisfied our inclusion criteria. The PAL activities fell into three broad categories of teacher training, peer teaching and peer assessment. Variability was found in the reporting of tutor recruitment and training processes, tutor outcomes, and tutor competencies. Conclusion Results from this review suggest that there are many perceived learning benefits for student tutors. However, there were mixed results regarding the accuracy of peer assessment and feedback, and no substantial evidence to conclude that participation as a peer tutor improves one’s own examination performance. Further research into PAL in medicine is required if we are to better understand the relative impact and benefits for student tutors. PMID:24912500

  3. Peer Review in Higher Education: Student Perceptions before and after Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Raoul A.; Pearce, Jon M.; Baik, Chi

    2014-01-01

    Peer review is integral to academic endeavour, but opportunities for students to benefit from peer review in higher education remain limited, and relatively little is known about how student perceptions influence their appreciation of peer review. University student perceptions were examined before and after experiencing student peer review in…

  4. The Impact of Peer Review on Writing in a Psychology Course: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhullar, Naureen; Rose, Karen C.; Utell, Janine M.; Healey, Kathryn N.

    2014-01-01

    The authors assessed the impact of peer review on student writing in four sections of an undergraduate Developmental Psychology course. They hypothesized that peer review would result in better writing in the peer review group compared to the group with no peer review. Writing was rated independently by two instructors who were blind to the…

  5. The Power of Peer Reviewing to Enhance Writing in Horticulture: Greenhouse Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Neil O.; Flash, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    Peer review is not included in undergraduate horticultural curricula. Our research objectives in an 8- year study, which ranged from 2000 to 2007 in two sections (2000-2002 non-peer reviewed and 2003-2007 peer-reviewed) of Greenhouse Management students at the University of Minnesota were to determine whether iterative peer reviews would result in…

  6. 2013 Building Technologies Office Program Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-11-01

    The 2013 Building Technologies Office Program Peer Review Report summarizes the results of the 2013 Building Technologies Office (BTO) peer review, which was held in Washington, D.C., on April 2–4, 2013. The review was attended by over 300 participants and included presentations on 59 BTO-funded projects: 29 from BTO’s Emerging Technologies Program, 20 from the Commercial Buildings Integration Program, 6 from the Residential Buildings Integration Program, and 4 from the Building Energy Codes Program. This report summarizes the scores and comments provided by the independent reviewers for each project.

  7. Peer Review Certifies Quality and Innovation in Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, S A; Terzic, A

    2017-09-01

    Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics (CPT) is an established voice of the discipline, a trusted source of new knowledge showcasing discovery, translation, and application of novel therapeutic paradigms to advance the management of patients and populations. Identifying, evaluating, prioritizing, and disseminating the best science along the discovery-development-regulatory-utilization continuum are responsibilities shared through peer review. To enhance the uniformity of this essential component of quality assurance and innovation, and maximize the value of the journal and its contents to authors, reviewers, and the readership, we review key concepts concerning peer review as it specifically relates to CPT. © 2017 ASCPT.

  8. The role of peer review on the improvement of the articles published in the Journal of Birjand University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Beydokhti

    2014-11-01

    Conclusion: Peer review improved the quality of articles, particularly in the titles, editing and findings. Since accurate medical research reports in the correct information transfer to professionals and researchers, what JBUMS has done can be useful and valuable.

  9. Exploring English Teachers' Perceptions about Peer-Coaching as a Professional Development Activity of Knowledge Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda-Londoño, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    Teachers' knowledge and how they construct it is an area that deserves attention when it comes to producing fruitful professional development practices. This small-scale action research aims at identifying the perceptions of three teachers in a private language center about peer-coaching and their actual construction of knowledge in a…

  10. HOW PEER COACHING AFFECTS PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCE OF STUDENT TEACHERS IN TEYL PRACTICUUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Winarsih

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to advance English Department students‘ professional competence about Teaching English to Young Learners. The research questions addressed are (1 does peer coaching improve students teachers‘ professional competence and (2 how does peer coaching affect their professional competence. This qualitative research is carried out by studying pre-service teachers' pedagogicalreasoning in a peer coaching program.Each week during a three-month practicum, twenty student teachersreceive training in clarity skills. Dataare collected in the form of videos, weeklyjournals, questionnaires, observation, focus-group interviews. Follow-up interviews are analyzed qualitatively. Peer provides opportunities to discuss, analyze, and reflect on problems ofprofessional practice. It improve professional practice of student teachers andclarity competenciesare perceived as valuable for TEYL.They also enhance mastery and presentations of language elements and learning activities and classroom management.Italso shows more pedagogical reasoning that as a vehiclefor competencies acquisition and teacher reflection.The cooperating teacher is akey success of studentteachers' interaction with pupils, classroom management, and adaptation ofcontent to relevant aspects of pupils' learning needs. Lecturer‘s feedback assists studentteachers in setting goals for improvement. Thepeer coach functions of collegiality, technicalfeedback, adaptation to students, analysis of application, and support.

  11. Improving your journal article using feedback from peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Bob

    2014-09-30

    While preparation of a journal article for submission may often include informal review by colleagues, an article is not accepted for publication until it has been formally peer reviewed. Peer review is the process whereby journal editors ask expert reviewers to examine the work submitted and prepare a report on its suitability for publication. Two or more revisions of the article may be required following peer review, with the author reworking the article in the light of feedback received on each occasion. This can be challenging for some authors, but used well, it offers a chance to improve the work to the required standard of the journal, and help the author present a more precise and coherent account of the arguments. The extent to which the author responds to the critical commentary of peer reviewers is important, because this may determine whether or not the article is published. This article explores the aims of peer reviewers and recommends ways in which authors can respond to the feedback provided.

  12. Potential Benefits of Incorporating Peer-to-Peer Interactions Into Digital Interventions for Psychotic Disorders: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagianti, Bruno; Quraishi, Sophia H; Schlosser, Danielle A

    2017-12-15

    Peer-to-peer interactions and support groups mitigate experiences of social isolation and loneliness often reported by individuals with psychotic disorders. Online peer-to-peer communication can promote broader use of this form of social support. Peer-to-peer interactions occur naturally on social media platforms, but they can negatively affect mental health. Recent digital interventions for persons with psychotic disorders have harnessed the principles of social media to incorporate peer-to-peer communication. This review examined the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of recent digital interventions in order to identify strategies to maximize benefits of online peer-to-peer communication for persons with psychotic disorders. An electronic database search of PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Ovid MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Health Technology Assessment Database was conducted in February 2017 and yielded a total of 1,015 results. Eight publications that reported data from six independent trials and five interventions were reviewed. The technology supporting peer-to-peer communication varied greatly across studies, from online forums to embedded social networking. When peer-to-peer interactions were moderated by facilitators, retention, engagement, acceptability, and efficacy were higher than for interventions with no facilitators. Individuals with psychotic disorders were actively engaged with moderated peer-to-peer communication and showed improvements in perceived social support. Studies involving service users in intervention design showed higher rates of acceptability. Individuals with psychotic disorders value and benefit from digital interventions that include moderated peer-to-peer interactions. Incorporating peer-to-peer communication into digital interventions for this population may increase compliance with other evidence-based therapies by producing more acceptable and engaging online environments.

  13. Rewarding peer reviewers: maintaining the integrity of science communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Gerasimov, Alexey N; Voronov, Alexander A; Kitas, George D

    2015-04-01

    This article overviews currently available options for rewarding peer reviewers. Rewards and incentives may help maintain the quality and integrity of scholarly publications. Publishers around the world implemented a variety of financial and nonfinancial mechanisms for incentivizing their best reviewers. None of these is proved effective on its own. A strategy of combined rewards and credits for the reviewers1 creative contributions seems a workable solution. Opening access to reviews and assigning publication credits to the best reviews is one of the latest achievements of digitization. Reviews, posted on academic networking platforms, such as Publons, add to the transparency of the whole system of peer review. Reviewer credits, properly counted and displayed on individual digital profiles, help distinguish the best contributors, invite them to review and offer responsible editorial posts.

  14. Peer influences on college drinking: a review of the research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsari, B; Carey, K B

    2001-01-01

    Peer pressure is consistently implicated in the excessive drinking of college students. However, both theory and empirical findings suggest that peer pressure is a combination of three distinct influences: overt offers of alcohol, modeling, and social norms. Overt offers of alcohol can range from polite gestures to intense goading or commands to drink. Modeling occurs when the student's behavior corresponds to another student's concurrent drinking behavior. Perceived social norms can serve to make excessive alcohol use appear common and acceptable to the student. This review critically examines the literature on each form of peer influence and provides suggestions for future research.

  15. Meaningful Peer Review in Radiology: A Review of Current Practices and Potential Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarity, Andrew K; Hawkins, C Matthew; Geis, J Raymond; Dreyer, Keith J; Kamer, Aaron P; Khandheria, Paras; Morey, Jose; Whitfill, James; Wiggins, Richard H; Itri, Jason N

    2016-12-01

    The current practice of peer review within radiology is well developed and widely implemented compared with other medical specialties. However, there are many factors that limit current peer review practices from reducing diagnostic errors and improving patient care. The development of "meaningful peer review" requires a transition away from compliance toward quality improvement, whereby the information and insights gained facilitate education and drive systematic improvements that reduce the frequency and impact of diagnostic error. The next generation of peer review requires significant improvements in IT functionality and integration, enabling features such as anonymization, adjudication by multiple specialists, categorization and analysis of errors, tracking, feedback, and easy export into teaching files and other media that require strong partnerships with vendors. In this article, the authors assess various peer review practices, with focused discussion on current limitations and future needs for meaningful peer review in radiology. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Peer Portal: Quality Enhancement in Thesis Writing Using Self-Managed Peer Review on a Mass Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghmeh Aghaee

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a specially developed online peer-review system, the Peer Portal, and the first results of its use for quality enhancement of bachelor’s and master’s thesis manuscripts. The peer-review system is completely student driven and therefore saves time for supervisors and creates a direct interaction between students without interference from supervisors. The purpose is to improve thesis manuscript quality, and thereby use supervisor time more efficiently, since peers review basic aspects of the manuscripts and give constructive suggestions for improvements. The process was initiated in 2012, and, in total, 260 peer reviews were completed between 1st January and 15th May, 2012. All peer reviews for this period have been analyzed with the help of content analysis. The purpose of analysis is to assess the quality of the students work. The results are categorized in four groups: 1 excellent (18.1%, 2 good (22.7%, 3 fragmented (18.5%, and 4 poor (40.7%. The overall result shows that almost 40% of the students produced excellent or good peer reviews and almost as many produced poor peer reviews. The result shows that the quality varies considerably. Explanations of these quality variations need further study. However, alternative hypotheses followed by some strategic suggestions are discussed in this study. Finally, a way forward in terms of improving peer reviews is outlined: 1 development of a peer wizard system and 2 rating of received peer reviews based on the quality categories created in this study. A Peer Portal version 2.0 is suggested, which will eliminate the fragmented and poor quality peer reviews, but still keep this review system student driven and ensure autonomous learning.

  17. The Peer Review Process: An Expanded Role for Repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Richardson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Peer review has been regarded as a cornerstone of scientific research for a considerable time. Journals seeking to attract high quality scholarship rely on peer review to maintain their credentials in the publishing industry. However, over a period of time—and especially given the advent of the Internet—complaints have arisen from authors, reviewers and even editors as to the efficacy of the system. The authors outline a range of models which have evolved that either complement or replace evaluation processes which characterise traditional peer review. Research data is presented in the context of quality assessment. The authors introduce several approaches which are utilising repositories to support the process. Consideration is given as to how this might change the current institutional repository environment.

  18. Internet-based peer support for parents: a systematic integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niela-Vilén, Hannakaisa; Axelin, Anna; Salanterä, Sanna; Melender, Hanna-Leena

    2014-11-01

    The Internet and social media provide various possibilities for online peer support. The aim of this review was to explore Internet-based peer-support interventions and their outcomes for parents. A systematic integrative review. The systematic search was carried out in March 2014 in PubMed, Cinahl, PsycINFO and Cochrane databases. Two reviewers independently screened the titles (n=1793), abstracts and full texts to decide which articles should be chosen. The inclusion criteria were: (1) an Internet-based community as an intervention, or at least as a component of an intervention; (2) the participants in the Internet-based community had to be mothers and/or fathers or pregnant women; (3) the parents had to interact and communicate with each other through the Internet-based community. The data was analysed using content analysis. When analysing peer-support interventions only interventions developed by researchers were included and when analysing the outcomes for the parents, studies that focused on mothers, fathers or both parents were separated. In total, 38 publications met the inclusion criteria. Most of the studies focused on Internet-based peer support between mothers (n=16) or both parents (n=15) and seven focused on fathers. In 16 studies, the Internet-based interventions had been developed by researchers and 22 studies used already existing Internet peer-support groups, in which any person using the Internet could participate. For mothers, Internet-based peer support provided emotional support, information and membership in a social community. For fathers, it provided support for the transition to fatherhood, information and humorous communication. Mothers were more active users of Internet-based peer-support groups than fathers. In general, parents were satisfied with Internet-based peer support. The evidence of the effectiveness of Internet-based peer support was inconclusive but no harmful effects were reported in these reviewed studies. Internet

  19. Maintaining Live Discussion in Two-Stage Open Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandewall, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Open peer review has been proposed for a number of reasons, in particular, for increasing the transparency of the article selection process for a journal, and for obtaining a broader basis for feedback to the authors and for the acceptance decision. The review discussion may also in itself have a value for the research community. These goals rely on the existence of a lively review discussion, but several experiments with open-process peer review in recent years have encountered the problem of faltering review discussions. The present article addresses the question of how lively review discussion may be fostered by relating the experience of the journal Electronic Transactions on Artificial Intelligence (ETAI) which was an early experiment with open peer review. Factors influencing the discussion activity are identified. It is observed that it is more difficult to obtain lively discussion when the number of contributed articles increases, which implies difficulties for scaling up the open peer review model. Suggestions are made for how this difficulty may be overcome. PMID:22363282

  20. Peer reviews and the role of a journal editor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obtaining peer reviews for manuscripts submitted to scientific journals is becoming increasingly difficult. Changes to the system are necessary, and editors must cultivate and maintain a solid base of reviewers to help evaluate journal submissions. This article outlines some steps editors can and sh...

  1. 75 FR 4062 - Peer Review Best Practices Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... Review Best Practices Workshop AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... project proposals. The workshop will explore classic peer review processes such as those at NSF, NIH, and... workshop and to make oral statements during a specified period for public comment. The public comment...

  2. Comparing Peer Review and Self-Review as Ways to Improve College Students' Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covill, Amy E.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of three approaches to revision instruction on 61 college students' revision behavior and writing quality was investigated for this article. Students wrote three 5-page papers and received one of three instructional approaches: Formal Peer Review (n = 19), Formal Self-Review (n = 20), or No Formal Review (n = 22). Formal Peer Review…

  3. Optimal strategies to consider when peer reviewing a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Moher, David

    2015-01-01

    Systematic reviews are popular. A recent estimate indicates that 11 new systematic reviews are published daily. Nevertheless, evidence indicates that the quality of reporting of systematic reviews is not optimal. One likely reason is that the authors? reports have received inadequate peer review. There are now many different types of systematic reviews and peer reviewing them can be enhanced by using a reporting guideline to supplement whatever template the journal editors have asked you, as ...

  4. Same review quality in open versus blinded peer review in "Ugeskrift for Læger"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Siri; Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Research into the peer review process has previously been conducted in English-language journals. This study deals with a Danish general medical journal with a relatively small pool of both reviewers and readers. The aim of the study was to compare the quality of reviews produced by identifiable ...... and anonymous reviewers, and further to characterize authors' and reviewers' attitudes towards different peer review systems....

  5. Optimal strategies to consider when peer reviewing a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moher, David

    2015-11-02

    Systematic reviews are popular. A recent estimate indicates that 11 new systematic reviews are published daily. Nevertheless, evidence indicates that the quality of reporting of systematic reviews is not optimal. One likely reason is that the authors' reports have received inadequate peer review. There are now many different types of systematic reviews and peer reviewing them can be enhanced by using a reporting guideline to supplement whatever template the journal editors have asked you, as a peer reviewer, to use. Additionally, keeping up with the current literature, whether as a content expert or being aware of advances in systematic review methods is likely be make for a more comprehensive and effective peer review. Providing a brief summary of what the systematic review has reported is an important first step in the peer review process (and not performed frequently enough). At its core, it provides the authors with some sense of what the peer reviewer believes was performed (Methods) and found (Results). Importantly, it also provides clarity regarding any potential problems in the methods, including statistical approaches for meta-analysis, results, and interpretation of the systematic review, for which the peer reviewer can seek explanations from the authors; these clarifications are best presented as questions to the authors.

  6. Calibrated peer review assignments for the earth sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, J.A.; Wang, V.Z.; Cervato, C.; Ridky, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    Calibrated Peer Review ??? (CPR), a web-based instructional tool developed as part of the National Science Foundation reform initiatives in undergraduate science education, allows instructors to incorporate multiple writing assignments in large courses without overwhelming the instructor. This study reports successful implementation of CPR in a large, introductory geology course and student learning of geoscience content. For each CPR assignment in this study, students studied web-based and paper resources, wrote an essay, and reviewed seven essays (three from the instructor, three from peers, and their own) on the topic. Although many students expressed negative attitudes and concerns, particularly about the peer review process of this innovative instructional approach, they also recognized the learning potential of completing CPR assignments. Comparing instruction on earthquakes and plate boundaries using a CPR assignment vs. an instructional video lecture and homework essay with extensive instructor feedback, students mastered more content via CPR instruction.

  7. Medical students-as-teachers: a systematic review of peer-assisted teaching during medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu TC

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Tzu-Chieh Yu¹, Nichola C Wilson², Primal P Singh¹, Daniel P Lemanu¹, Susan J Hawken³, Andrew G Hill¹¹South Auckland Clinical School, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; ²Department of Surgery, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; ³Department of Psychological Medicine, University of Auckland, Auckland, New ZealandIntroduction: International interest in peer-teaching and peer-assisted learning (PAL during undergraduate medical programs has grown in recent years, reflected both in literature and in practice. There, remains however, a distinct lack of objective clarity and consensus on the true effectiveness of peer-teaching and its short- and long-term impacts on learning outcomes and clinical practice.Objective: To summarize and critically appraise evidence presented on peer-teaching effectiveness and its impact on objective learning outcomes of medical students.Method: A literature search was conducted in four electronic databases. Titles and abstracts were screened and selection was based on strict eligibility criteria after examining full-texts. Two reviewers used a standard review and analysis framework to independently extract data from each study. Discrepancies in opinions were resolved by discussion in consultation with other reviewers. Adapted models of “Kirkpatrick’s Levels of Learning” were used to grade the impact size of study outcomes.Results: From 127 potential titles, 41 were obtained as full-texts, and 19 selected after close examination and group deliberation. Fifteen studies focused on student-learner outcomes and four on student-teacher learning outcomes. Ten studies utilized randomized allocation and the majority of study participants were self-selected volunteers. Written examinations and observed clinical evaluations were common study outcome assessments. Eleven studies provided student-teachers with formal teacher training. Overall, results suggest that peer-teaching, in highly selective

  8. Improving the peer-review process from the perspective of an author and reviewer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggion, C M

    2016-02-26

    The peer-review process is a fundamental component in the advancement of science. In this process, independent reviewers evaluate the quality of a manuscript and its suitability for publication in a particular scientific journal. Thus, to favour the publication of the highest-level information, the peer-review system should be as unbiased as possible. Although the peer-review system is the most commonly used method to select manuscripts for publication, it has several potential limitations. The main objective of this manuscript is to discuss some limitations of the peer-review system and suggest potential solutions from the perspective of an author and reviewer. This article may contribute to the always-dynamic development of the peer-review process.

  9. Researcher perspectives on publication and peer review of data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, John Ernest; Strasser, Carly

    2015-01-01

    Data "publication" seeks to appropriate the prestige of authorship in the peer-reviewed literature to reward researchers who create useful and well-documented datasets. The scholarly communication community has embraced data publication as an incentive to document and share data. But, numerous new and ongoing experiments in implementation have not yet resolved what a data publication should be, when data should be peer-reviewed, or how data peer review should work. While researchers have been surveyed extensively regarding data management and sharing, their perceptions and expectations of data publication are largely unknown. To bring this important yet neglected perspective into the conversation, we surveyed ∼ 250 researchers across the sciences and social sciences- asking what expectations"data publication" raises and what features would be useful to evaluate the trustworthiness, evaluate the impact, and enhance the prestige of a data publication. We found that researcher expectations of data publication center on availability, generally through an open database or repository. Few respondents expected published data to be peer-reviewed, but peer-reviewed data enjoyed much greater trust and prestige. The importance of adequate metadata was acknowledged, in that almost all respondents expected data peer review to include evaluation of the data's documentation. Formal citation in the reference list was affirmed by most respondents as the proper way to credit dataset creators. Citation count was viewed as the most useful measure of impact, but download count was seen as nearly as valuable. These results offer practical guidance for data publishers seeking to meet researcher expectations and enhance the value of published data.

  10. Enhancing the role of case-oriented peer review to improve quality and safety in radiation oncology: Executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Lawrence B; Adams, Robert D; Pawlicki, Todd; Blumberg, Albert L; Hoopes, David; Brundage, Michael D; Fraass, Benedick A

    2013-07-01

    This report is part of a series of white papers commissioned for the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Board of Directors as part of ASTRO's Target Safely Campaign, focusing on the role of peer review as an important component of a broad safety/quality assurance (QA) program. Peer review is one of the most effective means for assuring the quality of qualitative, and potentially controversial, patient-specific decisions in radiation oncology. This report summarizes many of the areas throughout radiation therapy that may benefit from the application of peer review. Each radiation oncology facility should evaluate the issues raised and develop improved ways to apply the concept of peer review to its individual process and workflow. This might consist of a daily multidisciplinary (eg, physicians, dosimetrists, physicists, therapists) meeting to review patients being considered for, or undergoing planning for, radiation therapy (eg, intention to treat and target delineation), as well as meetings to review patients already under treatment (eg, adequacy of image guidance). This report is intended to clarify and broaden the understanding of radiation oncology professionals regarding the meaning, roles, benefits, and targets for peer review as a routine quality assurance tool. It is hoped that this work will be a catalyst for further investigation, development, and study of the efficacy of peer review techniques and how these efforts can help improve the safety and quality of our treatments.

  11. On the evolving open peer review culture for chemical information science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, W Patrick; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Compared to the traditional anonymous peer review process, open post-publication peer review provides additional opportunities -and challenges- for reviewers to judge scientific studies. In this editorial, we comment on the open peer review culture and provide some guidance for reviewers of manuscripts submitted to the Chemical Information Science channel of F1000Research.

  12. Ethical Issues in Radiology Journalism, Peer Review, and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Douglas S; Gardner, James B; Hoffmann, Jason C; Patlas, Michael N; Bhargava, Puneet; Moshiri, Mariam; Remer, Erick M; Gould, Elaine S; Smith, Stacy

    2016-08-17

    Although some research and publication practices are clearly unethical, including fraud and plagiarism, other areas of research and publication, such as informed consent and conflicts of interest, fall into grayer areas. The purposes of this article are, therefore, to review a variety of relevant ethical issues in radiology-related journalism, peer review, and research; to review the radiology literature to date that has addressed these issues; and to present position statements and potential solutions to these problems.

  13. Peer teacher training (PTT) program for health professional students: interprofessional and flipped learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Annette; Roberts, Chris; van Diggele, Christie; Mellis, Craig

    2017-12-04

    The need for developing healthcare professional students' peer teaching skills is widely acknowledged, and a number of discipline-based peer teacher training programs have been previously reported. However, a consensus on what a student peer teaching skills program across the health professions should entail, and the associated benefits and challenges, has not been previously described. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the design and implementation of an interprofessional Peer Teacher Training (PTT) program, and explore outcomes and participant perceptions, using Experience-Based Learning (ExBL) theory. In 2016, an interprofessional team of academics from across three healthcare faculties: Medicine, Pharmacy and Health Sciences, developed and implemented a six module, flipped learning, interprofessional PTT program. Pre- and post questionnaires, using a Likert scale of 1-5, as well as open ended questions, were distributed to students. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse quantitative data, and thematic analysis was used to analyse qualitative data. Ninety senior students from across the three faculties participated. Eighty nine percent of participants completed a pre- and post-course questionnaire. Students felt the required pre-class preparation, including online pre-reading, discussion board, videos, and teaching activities enhanced their face-to-face learning experience. In class, students valued the small-group activities, and the opportunities to practice their teaching skills with provision of feedback. Students reported increased confidence to plan and deliver peer teaching activities, and an increased awareness of the roles and responsibilities of health professionals outside of their own discipline, and use of different terminology and communication methods. Students' suggestions for improving the PTT, included; less large group teaching; more online delivery of theory; and inclusion of a wider range of health professional disciplines

  14. Peer-Reviewed Open Research Data: Results of a Pilot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Grootveld

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Peer review of publications is at the core of science and primarily seen as instrument for ensuring research quality. However, it is less common to independently value the quality of the underlying data as well. In the light of the ‘data deluge’ it makes sense to extend peer review to the data itself and this way evaluate the degree to which the data are fit for re-use. This paper describes a pilot study at EASY - the electronic archive for (open research data at our institution. In EASY, researchers can archive their data and add metadata themselves. Devoted to open access and data sharing, at the archive we are interested in further enriching these metadata with peer reviews.As a pilot, we established a workflow where researchers who have downloaded data sets from the archive were asked to review the downloaded data set. This paper describes the details of the pilot including the findings, both quantitative and qualitative. Finally, we discuss issues that need to be solved when such a pilot is turned into a structural peer review functionality for the archiving system.

  15. Student peer reviewers' views on teaching innovations and imaginative learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Zenobia C Y

    2016-04-01

    Various teaching innovations have been proven effective in promoting students' critical thinking, creativity, problem solving and active learning. However, little attention has been paid to the possibility of including students as peer reviewers to evaluate these innovations in light of imaginative learning. This study explored the perspective of senior students who played the role of the student peer reviewer on three teaching innovations, namely writing poetry, composing songs and creating role-plays in problem-based learning (PBL), specifically in relation to imaginative learning. A focus group interview. Ten senior nursing students who had experienced the conventional PBL approach but not the mentioned teaching innovations were invited to participate in reviewing a video recording of a PBL class using the above teaching innovations with a total of 18 junior year students. Five themes were identified using content analysis: (i) motivation to learn, (ii) increased empathy, (iii) information retention, (iv) development of critical thinking and creativity, and (v) drawbacks of teaching innovations. It is suggested that student peer reviewers should be considered, as they can bring an outsider-learner's views on understanding the impacts of teaching innovations on imaginative learning. A call should be made to invite student peer reviewers on teaching and learning approaches, and more effort should be devoted to promoting an understanding of how imaginative learning can be achieved via teaching innovations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of a Teacher Professional Development Intervention on Peer Relationships in Secondary Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Gregory, Anne; Allen, Joseph P; Pianta, Robert C; Lun, Janetta

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the effects of My Teaching Partner-Secondary (MTP-S), a teacher professional development intervention, on students' peer relationships in middle and high school classrooms. MTP-S targets increasing teachers' positive interactions with students and sensitive instructional practices and has demonstrated improvements in students' academic achievement and motivation. The current study tested the prediction from systems theory that effects of MTP-S on students would extend beyond the academic domain-that is, the ecology of teachers' behaviors towards students should also influence the ecology of students' behaviors towards one another. Participants were 88 teachers (43 randomly assigned to MTP-S and 45 assigned to a control group that received the regular professional development offerings in their school) and 1423 students in their classrooms. Observations and student self-report of classroom peer interactions were collected at the start and at the end of the course. Results indicated that in MTP-S classrooms, students were observed to show improvement in positive peer interactions, although this pattern was not found in self-report data. However, moderation analyses suggested that for students with high disruptive behavior at the start of the course, teacher participation in MTP-S mitigated a typical decline towards poorer self-reported peer relationships. The relevance of findings for the social ecology of classrooms is discussed.

  17. Effects of a Teacher Professional Development Intervention on Peer Relationships in Secondary Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Gregory, Anne; Allen, Joseph P.; Pianta, Robert C.; Lun, Janetta

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effects of My Teaching Partner—Secondary (MTP-S), a teacher professional development intervention, on students’ peer relationships in middle and high school classrooms. MTP-S targets increasing teachers’ positive interactions with students and sensitive instructional practices and has demonstrated improvements in students’ academic achievement and motivation. The current study tested the prediction from systems theory that effects of MTP-S on students would extend beyond the academic domain—that is, the ecology of teachers’ behaviors towards students should also influence the ecology of students’ behaviors towards one another. Participants were 88 teachers (43 randomly assigned to MTP-S and 45 assigned to a control group that received the regular professional development offerings in their school) and 1423 students in their classrooms. Observations and student self-report of classroom peer interactions were collected at the start and at the end of the course. Results indicated that in MTP-S classrooms, students were observed to show improvement in positive peer interactions, although this pattern was not found in self-report data. However, moderation analyses suggested that for students with high disruptive behavior at the start of the course, teacher participation in MTP-S mitigated a typical decline towards poorer self-reported peer relationships. The relevance of findings for the social ecology of classrooms is discussed. PMID:22736890

  18. Epidemiological Review of Injury in Pre-Professional Ballet Dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Dennis; Goodwin, Brett J; Caine, Caroline G; Bergeron, Glen

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to provide an epidemiological review of the literature concerning ballet injuries affecting pre-professional ballet dancers. The literature search was limited to published peer-reviewed reports and involved an extensive examination of Scopus, SPORTDiscus, and CINAHL. The following search terms were used in various combinations: ballet, injury, epidemiology, risk factor, pre-professional, and intervention. Additional citations were located using the ancestry approach. Unlike some other athletic activities that have been the focus of recent intervention research, there is a paucity of intervention and translational research in pre-professional ballet, and sample sizes have often been small and have not accounted for the multivariate nature of ballet injury. Exposure-based injury rates in this population appear similar to those reported for professional ballet dancers and female gymnasts. A preponderance of injuries affect the lower extremity of these dancers, with sprains and strains being the most frequent type of injury reported. The majority of injuries appear to be overuse in nature. Injury risk factors have been tested in multiple studies and indicate a variety of potential injury predictors that may provide useful guidance for future research.

  19. Transition From Peer Review to Peer Learning: Experience in a Radiology Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Lane F; Dorfman, Scott R; Jones, Jeremy; Bisset, George S

    2017-10-18

    To describe the process by which a radiology department moved from peer review to peer collaborative improvement (PCI) and review data from the first 16 months of the PCI process. Data from the first 16 months after PCI were reviewed: number of case reviews performed, number of learning opportunities identified, percentage yield of learning opportunities identified, type of learning opportunities identified, and comparison of the previous parameters between case randomly reviewed versus actively pushed (issues actively identified and entered). Changes in actively pushed cases were also assessed as volume per month over the 16 months (run chart). Faculty members were surveyed about their perception of the conversion to PCI. In all, 12,197 cases were peer reviewed, yielding 1,140 learning opportunities (9.34%). The most common types of learning opportunities for all reviewed cases included perception (5.1%) and reporting (1.9%). The yield of learning opportunities from actively pushed cases was 96.3% compared with 3.88% for randomly reviewed cases. The number of actively pushed cases per month increased over the course of the period and established two new confidence intervals. The faculty survey revealed that the faculty perceived the new PCI process as positive, nonpunitive, and focused on improvement. The study demonstrates that a switch to PCI is perceived as nonpunitive and associated with increased radiologist submission of learning opportunities. Active entering of identified learning opportunities had a greater yield and perceived value, compared with random review of cases. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Investigating Peer Review as a Systemic Pedagogy for Developing the Design Knowledge, Skills, and Dispositions of Novice Instructional Design Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    This research investigated peer review as a contemporary instructional pedagogy for fostering the design knowledge, skills, and dispositions of novice Instructional Design and Technology (IDT) professionals. Participants were graduate students enrolled in an introductory instructional design (ID) course. Survey, artifact, and observation data were…

  1. Peer-supported review of teaching: an evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thampy, Harish; Bourke, Michael; Naran, Prasheena

    2015-09-01

    Peer-supported review (also called peer observation) of teaching is a commonly implemented method of ascertaining teaching quality that supplements student feedback. A large variety of scheme formats with rather differing purposes are described in the literature. They range from purely formative, developmental formats that facilitate a tutor's reflection of their own teaching to reaffirm strengths and identify potential areas for development through to faculty- or institution-driven summative quality assurance-based schemes. Much of the current literature in this field focuses within general higher education and on the development of rating scales, checklists or observation tools to help guide the process. This study reports findings from a qualitative evaluation of a purely formative peer-supported review of teaching scheme that was implemented for general practice clinical tutors at our medical school and describes tutors' attitudes and perceived benefits and challenges when undergoing observation.

  2. The role of peer review in a health care organization driven by TQM/CQI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, D S; Helms, C M

    1995-05-01

    Many health care organizations have embraced the philosophy and tools of total quality management (TQM) and continuous quality improvement (CQI) without overt linkage to existing peer review processes. Achieving total quality in an organization requires that both peer review and TQM/CQI improvement processes be effectively used. Three ways of linking peer review and TQM/CQI include: 1) coordinating TQM/CQI and peer review quality improvement initiatives whenever possible; 2) expanding the focus of peer review to include assessment of the processes and systems within which the clinician functions; and 3) linking peer review and TQM/CQI improvement processes to address behavioral and attitudinal issues having economic roots.

  3. 32 CFR 199.15 - Quality and utilization review peer review organization program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Peer Review Organization program is distinguishable in purpose and impact from other activities... method, nature of care, or other potential utilization or quality issue. (3) Peer review activities by... an MTF reserves authority to separate an MTF determination on medical necessity from a CHAMPUS PRO...

  4. Characteristics of retractions related to faked peer reviews: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xingshun; Deng, Han; Guo, Xiaozhong

    2017-08-01

    A faked peer review is a novel cause for retraction. We reviewed the characteristics of papers retracted due to a faked peer review. All papers retracted due to faked peer reviews were identified by searching the Retraction Watch website and by conducting a manual search. All identified papers were confirmed in published journals. The information of retracted papers was collected, which primarily included publisher, journal, journal impact factor, country, as well as publication and retraction year. Overall, 250 retracted papers were identified. They were published in 48 journals by six publishers. The top 5 journals included the Journal of Vibration and Control (24.8%), Molecular Biology Reports (11.6%), Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology (8.0%), Tumour Biology (6.8%) and European Journal of Medical Research (6.4%). The publishers included SAGE (31%), Springer (26%), BioMed Central (18%), Elsevier (13%), Informa (11%) and LWW (1%). A minority (4%) of retracted papers were published in Science Citation Index (SCI) journals with an impact factor of >5. A majority (74.8%) of retracted papers were written by Chinese researchers. In terms of the publication year, the retracted papers were published since 2010, and the number of retracted papers peaked in 2014 (40.8%). In terms of the retraction year, the retractions started in 2012, and the number of retractions peaked in 2015 (59.6%). The number of papers retracted due to faked peer reviews differs largely among journals and countries. With the improvement of the peer review mechanism and increased education about publishing ethics, such academic misconduct may gradually disappear in future. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Peer-reviewed forensic consultation in practice: multidisciplinary oversight in common expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welner, Michael; Davey, Emily E; Bernstein, Adam

    2014-09-01

    The fallibility of forensic science consultation is an ongoing and major justice concern. Prospective peer-reviewed forensic consultation has over 10 years of application in American criminal and civil courts, adapting from the traditional oversight of teaching hospitals, rules of evidence and discovery, conventions of testimony of expert witnesses, and attorneys' overall trial strategy. In systematizing heightened oversight, this process ensures greater accountability in forensic science consultation. The integration of peer reviewers' complementary expertise and experience enhances the sophistication and overall quality of assessment. Forensic examination frequently involves the interface of different specialties. Multidisciplinary peer review augments expert proficiency with that of professional peers having different vantage points from relevant scientific disciplines. This approach ensures greater sophistication of a case inquiry, built-in accountability, and streamlined processes when multiple experts are necessitated. Here, the authors present examples of several cases and the primary and secondary benefits of this collaborative, rigorous, cross-disciplinary exercise. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. Review & Peer Review of “Parameters for Properly Designed and Operated Flares” Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains two 2012 memoranda on the review of EPA's parameters for properly designed and operated flares. One details the process of peer review, and the other provides background information and specific charge questions to the panel.

  7. Constructing the Components of a Lab Report Using Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, David E.; Fawkes, Kelli L.

    2010-01-01

    A protocol that emphasizes lab report writing using a piecemeal approach coupled with peer review is described. As the lab course progresses, the focus of the report writing changes sequentially through the abstract and introduction, the discussion, and the procedure. Two styles of lab programs are presented. One style rotates the students through…

  8. Enhancing Proof Writing via Cross-Institutional Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Dana C.; Hodge, Angie; Schultz, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    In the Spring of 2011, two of the authors of this paper taught number theory courses at their respective institutions. Twice during the semester, students in each class submitted proofs of two to three theorems to be peer reviewed by students in the other class. Each student wrote anonymous and formal referee reports of the submitted theorems,…

  9. The African Peer Review Mechanism: The South African Experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article compares the results of the African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM) report on South Africa with the evaluation done on the same issues by three academics from different health professions. Four areas which closely affect health and health care (democracy and good political governance; economic governance ...

  10. Evaluating the impact of accreditation and external peer review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilsdonk, Melvin; Siesling, Sabine; Otter, Renee; van Harten, Willem H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – Accreditation and external peer review play important roles in assessing and improving healthcare quality worldwide. Evidence on the impact on the quality of care remains indecisive because of programme features and methodological research challenges. The purpose of this paper is to create

  11. Investigating Mandatory Peer Review of Teaching In Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brix, Jacinta; Grainger, Peter; Hill, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Accountability agendas are influencing the secondary education sector in Australian schools. Analysis of student achievement, student feedback mechanisms and personal reflection are forming part of these agendas as methods of teacher evaluation. Additionally, and more recently, teacher evaluation through "peer review" is emerging as a…

  12. 42 CFR 67.15 - Peer review of applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... announced by the Administrator, as appropriate. (d) Conflict of interest. (1) Members of peer review groups will be screened for potential conflicts of interest prior to appointment and will be required to..., TRAINING AGENCY FOR HEALTH CARE POLICY AND RESEARCH GRANTS AND CONTRACTS Research Grants for Health...

  13. Exploring the use of peer review in large university courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naemi Luckner

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Double blind peer review is a standard practice in the scientific community. It acts as a means of validating work as well as of getting feedback to improve it. As such, it seems prudent to also use it as a learning tool in large lectures to provide students with personalized feedback on their work. The general process can be directly adopted for the lecture context, but details need to be modified and adapted to create a better learning experience. The structure of a large lecture has been adjusted to provide the context for a double blind peer review process. Not only has the evaluation of activities during the semester changed to fit in with the double blind peer review, but also the organization of said activities was adapted to accompany the evaluation change. The first semester yielded promising results, but also pointed towards some issues with the current state of the system. We devised a list of design implications for future revisions of the double blind peer review system, based on feedback and experiences during the semester as well as on a survey among students at the end of the semester. These implications will be implemented to improve and refine the new system for upcoming semesters.

  14. Accelerated Peer-Review Journal Usage Technique for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, J. D.

    2008-01-01

    The internet has given undergraduate students ever-increasing access to academic journals via search engines and online databases. However, students typically do not have the ability to use these journals effectively. This often poses a dilemma for instructors. The accelerated peer-review journal usage (APJU) technique provides a way for…

  15. Portfolio Peer Review: A Tool for Program Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleak, Sandra K.; Romine, Jeff; Gilchrist, Neil

    2003-01-01

    To achieve cultural change in a business management/accounting department, annual peer review of faculty portfolios documenting teaching, advising, service, and scholarship was instituted. The process improved the department's alignment with the university's mission. Scholarly productivity quadrupled from 1998-2001. Portfolio assessment had little…

  16. Peer Review: The Importance of Education for Best Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Lynette R.; Parham, Douglas F.; Coufal, Kathy L.; Maeda, Masako; Scudder, Rosalind R.; Sechtem, Phillip R.

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of teaching is expected by an increasingly skeptical public that wants those in higher education to contain costs, increase access, and teach in ways that make sure students learn. An integral and under-used component of documenting teaching effectiveness is peer review. A framework for best practice to ensure a systematic and…

  17. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Joyce [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Algae Platform Review meeting.

  18. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haq, Zia [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Analysis Platform Review meeting.

  19. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCann, Laura [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Feedstock Platform Review meeting.

  20. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review. Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindauer, Alicia [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Infrastructure Platform Review meeting.

  1. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review. Sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eng, Alison Goss [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Sustainability Platform Review meeting.

  2. A Novel Approach to Assessing Professionalism in Preclinical Medical Students Using Multisource Feedback Through Paired Self- and Peer Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emke, Amanda R; Cheng, Steven; Chen, Ling; Tian, Dajun; Dufault, Carolyn

    2017-01-01

    Phenomenon: Professionalism is integral to the role of the physician. Most professionalism assessments in medical training are delayed until clinical rotations where multisource feedback is available. This leaves a gap in student assessment portfolios and potentially delays professional development. A total of 246 second-year medical students (2013-2015) completed self- and peer assessments of professional behaviors in 2 courses following a series of Team-Based Learning exercises. Correlation and regression analyses were used to examine the alignment or misalignment in the relationship between the 2 types of assessments. Four subgroups were formed based on observed patterns of initial self- and peer assessment alignment or misalignment, and subgroup membership stability over time was assessed. A missing data analysis examined differences between average peer assessment scores as a function of selective nonparticipation. Spearman correlation demonstrated moderate to strong correlation between self-assessments completed alone (no simultaneous peer assessment) and self-assessments completed at the time of peer assessments (ρ = .59, p weak correlation between the two self-assessments and peer assessments (alone: ρ = .13, p students who completed all self-assessments had significantly higher average peer assessment ratings compared to students who completed one or no self-assessments with a difference of -0.32, 95% confidence interval [-0.48, -0.15]. Insights: Multiple measurements of simultaneous self- and peer assessment identified a subgroup of students who consistently rated themselves higher on professionalism attributes relative to the low ratings given by their peers. This subgroup of preclinical students, along with those who elected to not complete self-assessments, may be at risk for professionalism concerns. Use of this multisource feedback tool to measure perceptual stability of professionalism behaviors is a new approach that may assist with early

  3. Consensus-oriented group peer review: a new process to review radiologist work output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkasab, Tarik K; Harvey, H Benjamin; Gowda, Vrushab; Thrall, James H; Rosenthal, Daniel I; Gazelle, G Scott

    2014-02-01

    The Joint Commission and other regulatory bodies have mandated that health care organizations implement processes for ongoing physician performance review. Software solutions, such as RADPEER™, have been created to meet this need efficiently. However, the authors believe that available systems are not optimally designed to produce changes in practice and overlook many important aspects of quality by excessive focus on diagnosis. The authors present a new model of peer review known as consensus-oriented group review, which is based on group discussion of cases in a conference setting and places greater emphasis on feedback than traditional systems of radiology peer review. By focusing on the process of peer review, consensus-oriented group review is intended to optimize performance improvement and foster group standards of practice. The authors also describe the software tool developed to implement this process of enriched peer review. Copyright © 2014 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Appreciation of peer reviewers for 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, Alberto; Bahr, Jean; Blöschl, Günter; Cai, Ximing; Mackay, D. Scott; Michalak, Anna; Rajaram, Harihar; Sanchez-Vila, Xavier

    2017-06-01

    On behalf of the journal, the American Geophysical Union, and the scientific community, the editors would like to sincerely thank those who reviewed manuscripts for Water Resources Research in 2016. Their time spent reading and commenting on manuscripts not only improves the manuscripts themselves but also increases the scientific rigor of future research in the field. Many of those listed below went above and beyond and reviewed three or more manuscripts for our journal, and those are indicated in italics. Together, they contributed 3674 individual reviews of manuscripts submitted to Water Resources Research for consideration, of which 562 were eventually published. Thank you again. We look forward to a 2017 of exciting advances in the field and communicating those advances to our community and to the broader public.

  5. Is Peer Review an Appropriate Form of Assessment in a MOOC? Student Participation and Performance in Formative Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Sarah E. M.; Blakemore, Louise; Marks, Leah

    2017-01-01

    Many aspects of higher education must be reconceptualised for massive open online courses (MOOCs). Formative and summative assessment of qualitative work in particular requires novel approaches to cope with the numbers involved. Peer review has been proposed as one solution, and has been widely adopted by major MOOC providers, but there is…

  6. 75 FR 18205 - Notice of Peer Review Meeting for the External Peer Review Drafts of Two Documents on Using...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... announcing that Eastern Research Group, Inc. (ERG), an EPA contractor for external scientific peer review... decision process, but also to encourage their further implementation in human, ecological, and... advance EPA risk assessment science, but will also help to address specific challenges faced by managers...

  7. CDMRP: Fostering Innovation Through Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    based and paperless reviewSince its inception, CDMRP has relied on more procedures (e.g., online proposal access and cri-than 6,800 scientists and...Vanderbilt University, graduating in 3 years with magna cum laude honors. She earned her M.D. from St. Louis University School of Medicine, and then com

  8. Bias in Peer Review of Organic Farming Grant Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jesper; Langer, Vibeke; Alrøe, Hugo

    2006-01-01

    Peer reviews of 84 organic farming grant applications from Sweden were analyzed to determine whether the reviewers' affiliation to one of two types of agriculture (i.e., organic and conventional) influenced their reviews. Fifteen reviewers were divided into three groups: (1) scientists with exper......Peer reviews of 84 organic farming grant applications from Sweden were analyzed to determine whether the reviewers' affiliation to one of two types of agriculture (i.e., organic and conventional) influenced their reviews. Fifteen reviewers were divided into three groups: (1) scientists...... with experience in organic farming research; (2) scientists with no experience in organic farming research; and (3) users of organic farming research. The two groups of scientists assessed the societal relevance and scientific quality of the grant applications based on three criteria (i.e., presentation......, methodology, qualifications), whereas the user group only assessed societal relevance. The analysis showed that the two groups of scientists provided very different reviews. Scientist reviewers with experience in organic farming research agreed more with the user group on research relevance than did scientist...

  9. Peer Review Comments on draft Topeka Shiner SSA Report - Sept 2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A compilation of the peer review comments on the Draft Topeka shiner SSA report. Four sets of comments were obtained from our peer review, including comments from:...

  10. U.S. EPA. 2000. Science Policy Council Handbook: Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of the Peer Review Policy and this Handbook is to enhance the quality and credibility of Agency decisions by ensuring that the scientific and technical work products underlying these decisions receive appropriate levels of peer review by independe

  11. DOE EERE Standard Operating Procedure Peer Review Best Practice and Procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-01-18

    Objective review and advice from peers - peer review - provides managers, staff, and researchers with a powerful and effective tool for enhancing the management, relevance, effectiveness, and productivity of all of the EERE research, development

  12. Peer review at the Health Information and Libraries Journal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Maria J

    2014-12-01

    At its best, peer review can mean receiving constructive feedback to help you make the most of your writing. At the Health Information and Libraries Journal, we strive to make the peer review a positive process for both authors and referees. We adopt a process of double-blind peer review. To receive two reviews in a timely manner, three referees are initially invited for each article submitted. The referees are asked to submit their review noting errors, areas of ambiguity or clarification required before the editor and editorial team consider the manuscript ready for publication. As with most journals, it's unlikely that your writing will be accepted in its original form; a typical outcome will be for a recommendation for major or minor revisions. This is good! It means the editorial team has seen something of likely interest to their readership and wants to help you develop it to a publishable standard. There can be a surprising amount of development and change in a manuscript from original submission through to publication. While you may be experienced in your field, you may not have much experience of writing for publication. As a referee, you get an intriguing insight into the shape of manuscripts in their original form. © 2014 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2014 Health Libraries Journal.

  13. Writing to Learn: An Evaluation of the Calibrated Peer Review? Program in Two Neuroscience Courses

    OpenAIRE

    Prichard, J. Roxanne

    2005-01-01

    Although the majority of scientific information is communicated in written form, and peer review is the primary process by which it is validated, undergraduate students may receive little direct training in science writing or peer review. Here, I describe the use of Calibrated Peer Review? (CPR), a free, web-based writing and peer review program designed to alleviate instructor workload, in two undergraduate neuroscience courses: an upper- level sensation and perception course (41 students, t...

  14. 7 CFR 3400.21 - Scientific peer review for research activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scientific peer review for research activities. 3400... STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Peer and Merit Review Arranged by Grantees § 3400.21 Scientific peer review for research...

  15. How Does Student Peer Review Influence Perceptions, Engagement and Academic Outcomes? A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Raoul; Baik, Chi; Naylor, Ryan; Pearce, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Involving students in peer review has many pedagogical benefits, but few studies have explicitly investigated relationships between the content of peer reviews, student perceptions and assessment outcomes. We conducted a case study of peer review within a third-year undergraduate subject at a research-intensive Australian university, in which we…

  16. Peer Review in Class: Metrics and Variations in a Senior Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankulov, Krassimir; Couto, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Peer reviews are the generally accepted mode of quality assessment in scholarly communities; however, they are rarely used for evaluation at college levels. Over a period of 5 years, we have performed a peer review simulation at a senior level course in molecular genetics at the University of Guelph and have accumulated 393 student peer reviews.…

  17. Pre-University Chemistry Students in a Mimicked Scholarly Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rens, Lisette; Hermarij, Philip; Pilot, Albert; Beishuizen, Jos; Hofman, Herman; Wal, Marjolein

    2014-01-01

    Peer review is a significant component in scientific research. Introducing peer review into inquiry processes may be regarded as an aim to develop student understanding regarding quality in inquiries. This study examines student understanding in inquiry peer reviews among pre-university chemistry students, aged 16-17, when they enact a design of a…

  18. The Potential of Dual-Language Cross-Cultural Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruecker, Todd

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the potential of dual-language cross-cultural peer review and how it improves on traditional monolingual and monocultural peer review. Drawing on scholarship related to international exchange programmes, peer review, and two-way immersion programmes in the United States as well as data collected while facilitating the…

  19. 34 CFR 350.51 - What is the purpose of peer review?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the purpose of peer review? 350.51 Section 350... PROJECTS AND CENTERS PROGRAM How Does the Secretary Make an Award? § 350.51 What is the purpose of peer review? The purpose of peer review is to insure that— (a) Those activities supported by the National...

  20. Adapting Peer Review to an Online Course: An Exploratory Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Linda V.; Steinbach, Theresa A.

    2011-01-01

    With demonstrated benefits to higher level learning, peer review in the classroom has been well researched and popular since at least the 1990s. However, little or no prior studies exist into the peer review process for online courses. Further, we found no prior research specifically addressing the operational aspects of online peer review. This…

  1. Analysis of Peer Review Comments: QM Recommendations and Feedback Intervention Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwegler, Andria F.; Altman, Barbara W.

    2015-01-01

    Because feedback is a critical component of the continuous improvement cycle of the Quality Matters (QM) peer review process, the present research analyzed the feedback that peer reviewers provided to course developers after a voluntary, nonofficial QM peer review of online courses. Previous research reveals that the effects of feedback on…

  2. Building Scholarly Writers: Student Perspectives on Peer Review in a Doctoral Writing Seminar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamek, Margaret Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Peer review was used as a primary pedagogical tool in a scholarly writing course for social work doctoral students. To gauge student response to peer review and learning as a result of peer review, the instructor used narrative analysis to organize student comments into themes. Themes identified included initial trepidation, "no pain, no…

  3. Predicting Academics' Willingness to Participate in Peer Review of Teaching: A Quantitative Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kiri; Boehm, Emilia; Chester, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Peer review of teaching is a collegial process designed to help academics reflect on and improve their teaching practice. Considerable research supports the value of peer review of teaching. However, uptake of voluntary programs is typically low. Few studies have examined the predictors of engagement in voluntary peer review. This study surveyed…

  4. Pre-university Chemistry Students in a Mimicked Scholarly Peer Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rens, Lisette; Pilot, Albert; Hermarij, Philip; Beishuizen, Jos; Hofman, Herman; Wal, Marjolein

    2014-01-01

    Peer review is a significant component in scientific research. Introducing peer review into inquiry processes may be regarded as an aim to develop student understanding regarding quality in inquiries. This study examines student understanding in inquiry peer reviews among pre-university chemistry

  5. 7 CFR 3401.12 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups... GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research Applications for Funding § 3401.12 Establishment and operation of peer review groups. Subject to § 3401.7, the Administrator will adopt procedures for the...

  6. 7 CFR 3411.10 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups... INITIATIVE COMPETITIVE GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research Grant Applications § 3411.10 Establishment and operation of peer review groups. Subject to § 3411.5, the Administrator shall adopt procedures...

  7. 7 CFR 3415.10 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups... ASSESSMENT RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research Grant Applications § 3415.10 Establishment and operation of peer review groups. Subject to § 3415.5, the Administrator shall adopt procedures...

  8. 7 CFR 3400.10 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups... GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research Grant Applications § 3400.10 Establishment and operation of peer review groups. Subject to § 3400.5, the Administrator will adopt procedures for the...

  9. 42 CFR 52h.3 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups... PROJECTS § 52h.3 Establishment and operation of peer review groups. (a) To the extent applicable, the... Administration Manual 1 shall govern the establishment and operation of peer review groups. 1 The DHHS General...

  10. Do Peer Reviews Help Improve Student Writing Abilities in an EFL High School Classroom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Noriko

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have reported the benefits of peer reviews in English as a second language (ESL) and English as a foreign language (EFL) writing classrooms. However, there has been little empirical research on whether such peer reviews improve students' writing abilities. The current study investigated the effects of peer review on the development…

  11. Commercial Lighting Solutions Webtool Peer Review Report, Office Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeson, Tracy A.; Jones, Carol C.

    2010-02-01

    The Commercial Lighting Solutions (CLS) project directly supports the U.S. Department of Energy’s Commercial Building Energy Alliance efforts to design high performance buildings. CLS creates energy efficient best practice lighting designs for widespread use, and they are made available to users via an interactive webtool that both educates and guides the end user through the application of the Lighting Solutions. This report summarizes the peer review of the CLS webtool for offices. The methodology for the peer review process included data collection (stakeholder input), analysis of the comments, and organization of the input into categories for prioritization of the comments against a set of criteria. Based on this process, recommendations were developed for the release of version 2.0 of the webtool at the Lightfair conference in Las Vegas in May 2010. The report provides a list of the top ten most significant and relevant improvements that will be made within the webtool for version 2.0 as well as appendices containing the comments and short-term priorities in additional detail. Peer review comments that are considered high priority by the reviewers and the CLS team but cannot be completed for Version 2.0 are listed as long-term recommendations.

  12. What Works in Writing with Peer Response? A Review of Intervention Studies with Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogeveen, Mariëtte; van Gelderen, Amos

    2013-01-01

    Peer response is viewed as an important aspect of writing instruction. Several meta-studies indicated that peer response is effective. However, these studies did not focus on the specific aspects of peer response that made it effective. The present review analyzes the effects of instructional factors accompanying peer response in 26 studies on…

  13. A Review of the Effects of Peer Tutoring on Students with Mild Disabilities in Secondary Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenhoff, Donald M.; Lignugaris/Kraft, Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    Researchers reviewed 20 articles on peer tutoring research in secondary settings and addressed demographics of tutors and tutees, content areas in which peer tutors were employed, tutor training required for implementing effective tutoring programs, and the effects of peer tutoring on tutee performance. Generally, peer tutoring in secondary…

  14. The Relationship of Previous Training and Experience of Journal Peer Reviewers to Subsequent Review Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaham, Michael L; Tercier, John

    2007-01-01

    Background Peer review is considered crucial to the selection and publication of quality science, but very little is known about the previous experiences and training that might identify high-quality peer reviewers. The reviewer selection processes of most journals, and thus the qualifications of their reviewers, are ill defined. More objective selection of peer reviewers might improve the journal peer review process and thus the quality of published science. Methods and Findings 306 experienced reviewers (71% of all those associated with a specialty journal) completed a survey of past training and experiences postulated to improve peer review skills. Reviewers performed 2,856 reviews of 1,484 separate manuscripts during a four-year study period, all prospectively rated on a standardized quality scale by editors. Multivariable analysis revealed that most variables, including academic rank, formal training in critical appraisal or statistics, or status as principal investigator of a grant, failed to predict performance of higher-quality reviews. The only significant predictors of quality were working in a university-operated hospital versus other teaching environment and relative youth (under ten years of experience after finishing training). Being on an editorial board and doing formal grant (study section) review were each predictors for only one of our two comparisons. However, the predictive power of all variables was weak. Conclusions Our study confirms that there are no easily identifiable types of formal training or experience that predict reviewer performance. Skill in scientific peer review may be as ill defined and hard to impart as is “common sense.” Without a better understanding of those skills, it seems unlikely journals and editors will be successful in systematically improving their selection of reviewers. This inability to predict performance makes it imperative that all but the smallest journals implement routine review ratings systems to

  15. Predatory publishing, questionable peer review, and fraudulent conferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, John D

    2014-12-15

    Open-access is a model for publishing scholarly, peer-reviewed journals on the Internet that relies on sources of funding other than subscription fees. Some publishers and editors have exploited the author-pays model of open-access, publishing for their own profit. Submissions are encouraged through widely distributed e-mails on behalf of a growing number of journals that may accept many or all submissions and subject them to little, if any, peer review or editorial oversight. Bogus conference invitations are distributed in a similar fashion. The results of these less than ethical practices might include loss of faculty member time and money, inappropriate article inclusions in curriculum vitae, and costs to the college or funding source.

  16. From abstract to peer-reviewed publication: country matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbol, E.; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Eapen, Z. J.

    2013-01-01

    , ACC, and ESC Scientific Sessions from 2006-2008. We performed multivariable logistic regression analysis to compare countries' odds of publication within 2 years of the conference. Country was defined as the country of the authors and the United States was used as the referent in the model. Results...... within 2 years of the conference. Less is known about the relative difference between countries in regards to likelihood of publication. Methods: Using a validated automated computer algorithm, we searched the ISI Web of Science to identify peer-reviewed publications of abstracts presented at the AHA...... observed a significant variation among countries in terms of odds of subsequent publication (Figure). Conclusions: Our results show that conversion of science from an abstract into a peer-reviewed publication varies significantly by country. Local national initiatives should be deployed in order to break...

  17. Medical Student Journals: Teaching The Peer-Review Process and Promoting Academic Mentorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaskas, Nadine M; Ballard, David H; Weisman, Jeffery A; Vanchiere, John A

    2016-01-01

    Early exposure to research and longitudinal academic mentorship encourages medical student interest in academic careers and postgraduate research productivity. There are various ways for students to gain exposure to research in medical school; however, there are very few opportunities for medical students to participate in the peer-review process as a reviewer or editor for an academic journal. One potential method to supply such educational experiences is the creation of scientific journals specifically for medical students. Medical student research journals provide a platform for students to develop a scholarly voice as authors, reviewers, and editors. As the corresponding author of their own work, student authors learn to communicate professionally to address reviewer concerns. As peer-reviewers in training, students learn to analyze manuscripts for quality and document their concerns in a cohesive manner under the supervision of a faculty advisor. The authors elected to model the reviewer and editor education process in the spirit of traditional medical education, with student reviewers and editors "presenting" their assessments to the "attending" faculty advisor to obtain feedback on performance. Student journals have the potential to bolster critical thinking and communication skills, provide longitudinal faculty mentorship opportunities, and promote interest in physician-scientist and academic medical careers.

  18. Improving Scientific Writing in Undergraduate Geosciences Degrees Through Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, E. A.; Collins, G. S.; Craig, L.

    2016-12-01

    In the British educational system, students specialise early. Often geoscience undergraduates have not taken a class that requires extended writing since they were sixteen years old. This can make it difficult for students to develop the written skills necessary for a geoscience degree, which often has assessments in the form of essays and reports. To improve both the writing and editing skills of our undergraduates we have introduced a peer review system, in which seniors review the work of first year students. At Imperial College London we set written coursework in every year of the degree. Communication is taught and assessed in many courses. There are two major modules with substantial written components that bookend the undergraduate degree at Imperial; the freshmen all write an assessed essay, while all seniors take 'Science Communication', a course that aims to prepare them for a range of possible careers. In the 2015-16 academic year we linked these courses by introducing a modified form of peer marking and instruction. Seniors had to complete reviews of draft first year essays for credit in Science Communication. These reviews are completed for the department 'journal' and introduce the first and fourth years to the nature of peer review. Seniors learn how to critically, but kindly, evaluate the work of other students, and are also prepared for potentially submitting their senior theses to journals. Reviews were managed by volunteer seniors, who acted as associate editors. They allocated anonymous reviewers and wrote decision letters, which were sent to the freshmen before their final assessed essay submission. Ultimately the fourth year reviews were formally assessed and graded by members of staff, as were the revised and resubmitted first year essays. Feedback for both courses has improved since the introduction of student reviews of essays. The markers of the freshman essay have also commented on the improvement in the standard of the writing and a

  19. Quantifying the quality of peer reviewers through Zipf's law

    CERN Document Server

    Ausloos, Marcel; Fronczak, Agata; Fronczak, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a statistical and other analysis of peer reviewers in order to approach their "quality" through some quantification measure, thereby leading to some quality metrics. Peer reviewer reports for the Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society are examined. The text of each report has first to be adapted to word counting software in order to avoid jargon inducing confusion when searching for the word frequency: e.g. C must be distinguished, depending if it means Carbon or Celsius, etc. Thus, every report has to be carefully "rewritten". Thereafter, the quantity, variety and distribution of words are examined in each report and compared to the whole set. Two separate months, according when reports came in, are distinguished to observe any possible hidden spurious effects. Coherence is found. An empirical distribution is searched for through a Zipf-Pareto rank-size law. It is observed that peer review reports are very far from usual texts in this respect. Deviations from the usual (first) Zipf's l...

  20. The impact of peer review on paediatric forensic reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariyawasam, Uditha

    2016-10-01

    To retrospectively evaluate the common grammar and spelling errors of the medico-legal reports written by the doctors at the Victorian Forensic Paediatric Medical Service (VFPMS) in both Royal Children's Hospital (RCH) and Monash Medical Centre. The reports were evaluated at two points in time; before and after peer review. The aim of the study was to ascertain whether peer review improved the grammar and spelling in VFPMS medico-legal reports. Draft VFPMS reports are sent to the VFPMS medical director for peer review. The current study sampled 50 reports that were sent consecutively to Dr. Anne Smith from 1st of May 2015. The 50 corresponding final reports were then retrieved from the VFPMS database. The 50 pairs of draft and final reports were scored using a 50-point scoring system. The scores of the draft reports were compared to the scores of the final report to assess if there was a change in quality as measured using an explicit criteria audit of report structure, simple grammar, jargon use and spelling. The audit did not include evaluation of the validity of forensic opinions. The overall scores were statistically analysed using descriptive statistics and a paired T-test. The scores of the reports improved by 2.24% when the final reports were compared to the draft reports (p audit. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluating the impact of accreditation and external peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilsdonk, Melvin; Siesling, Sabine; Otter, Renee; Harten, Wim van

    2015-01-01

    Accreditation and external peer review play important roles in assessing and improving healthcare quality worldwide. Evidence on the impact on the quality of care remains indecisive because of programme features and methodological research challenges. The purpose of this paper is to create a general methodological research framework to design future studies in this field. A literature search on effects of external peer review and accreditation was conducted using PubMed/Medline, Embase and Web of Science. Three researchers independently screened the studies. Only original research papers that studied the impact on the quality of care were included. Studies were evaluated by their objectives and outcomes, study size and analysis entity (hospitals vs patients), theoretical framework, focus of the studied programme, heterogeneity of the study population and presence of a control group. After careful selection 50 articles were included out of an initial 2,025 retrieved references. Analysis showed a wide variation in methodological characteristics. Most studies are performed cross-sectionally and results are not linked to the programme by a theoretical framework. Based on the methodological characteristics of previous studies the authors propose a general research framework. This framework is intended to support the design of future research to evaluate the effects of accreditation and external peer review on the quality of care.

  2. Ancient texts to PubMed: a brief history of the peer-review process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, P R; Magida Farrell, L; Farrell, M K

    2017-01-01

    The formal evaluation of scientific literature by invited referees (peer reviewers) is a relatively recent phenomenon and now is considered a cornerstone of modern science. However, its roots can be traced back to antiquity. As the speed and complexity of scientific information and publishing increases in the digital age, peer review must continue to evolve. To understand the future direction of peer review, we must understand its past. Here, we briefly explore the history of scientific peer review. This may help us predict and design appropriate peer review for the new era. This work was originally presented at the Pediatric Academic Societies Annual Meeting in Baltimore, Maryland in the Spring of 2016.

  3. Professional boundary violations: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfrin-Ledet, Linda; Porche, Demetrius J; Eymard, Amanda S

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the nursing literature related to professional boundary violations in nursing. A search was conducted using CINAHL, MEDLINE, Ebscohost, and NCSBN. The key words searched were professional boundaries, boundary violation, boundary crossings, nurse, home health nurses, and home nursing. The search returned over 40 publications related specifically to boundary violations and nursing although only four of them are published research studies and one as a dissertation. Seven common characteristics emerged from the nonresearch nursing articles on professional boundaries: (1) Dual relations/role reversal, (2) Gifts and money, (3) Excessive self-disclosure, (4) Secretive behavior, (5) Excessive attention/overinvolvement, (6) Sexual behavior, and (7) Social media. Additional nursing research is greatly needed in the area of professional boundaries. The nurse-patient relationship should always be maintained for the benefit of the patient and not the personal gain of the nurse. Ongoing education in nursing practice regarding professional boundaries is needed. Nurses need to be mindful of state practice acts, codes of conduct, and employer policies.

  4. Clinical peer review in the United States: history, legal development and subsequent abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Dinesh; Hozain, Ahmed E

    2014-06-07

    The Joint Commission on Accreditation requires hospitals to conduct peer review to retain accreditation. Despite the intended purpose of improving quality medical care, the peer review process has suffered several setbacks throughout its tenure. In the 1980s, abuse of peer review for personal economic interest led to a highly publicized multimillion-dollar verdict by the United States Supreme Court against the perpetrating physicians and hospital. The verdict led to decreased physician participation for fear of possible litigation. Believing that peer review was critical to quality medical care, Congress subsequently enacted the Health Care Quality Improvement Act (HCQIA) granting comprehensive legal immunity for peer reviewers to increase participation. While serving its intended goal, HCQIA has also granted peer reviewers significant immunity likely emboldening abuses resulting in Sham Peer Reviews. While legal reform of HCQIA is necessary to reduce sham peer reviews, further measures including the need for standardization of the peer review process alongside external organizational monitoring are critical to improving peer review and reducing the prevalence of sham peer reviews.

  5. Peer Review Audit of Trauma Deaths in a Developing Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afzal Ali Jat

    2004-01-01

    Results and Conclusions: A total of 279 patients were registered in the trauma registry during the study period, including 18 trauma deaths. Peer review judged that six were preventable, seven were potentially preventable, and four were non-preventable. One patient was excluded because the record was not available for review. The proportion of preventable and potentially preventable deaths was significantly higher in our study than from developed countries. Of the multiple contributing factors identified, the most important were inadequate prehospital care, inappropriate interhospital transfer, limited hospital resources, and an absence of integrated and organized trauma care. This study summarizes the challenges faced in trauma care in a developing country.

  6. Grant Peer Review: Improving Inter-Rater Reliability with Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, David N; McKnight, Patrick E; Naney, Linda; Mathis, Randy

    2015-01-01

    This study developed and evaluated a brief training program for grant reviewers that aimed to increase inter-rater reliability, rating scale knowledge, and effort to read the grant review criteria. Enhancing reviewer training may improve the reliability and accuracy of research grant proposal scoring and funding recommendations. Seventy-five Public Health professors from U.S. research universities watched the training video we produced and assigned scores to the National Institutes of Health scoring criteria proposal summary descriptions. For both novice and experienced reviewers, the training video increased scoring accuracy (the percentage of scores that reflect the true rating scale values), inter-rater reliability, and the amount of time reading the review criteria compared to the no video condition. The increase in reliability for experienced reviewers is notable because it is commonly assumed that reviewers--especially those with experience--have good understanding of the grant review rating scale. The findings suggest that both experienced and novice reviewers who had not received the type of training developed in this study may not have appropriate understanding of the definitions and meaning for each value of the rating scale and that experienced reviewers may overestimate their knowledge of the rating scale. The results underscore the benefits of and need for specialized peer reviewer training.

  7. Same review quality in open versus blinded peer review in "Ugeskrift for Læger"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Siri; Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Research into the peer review process has previously been conducted in English-language journals. This study deals with a Danish general medical journal with a relatively small pool of both reviewers and readers. The aim of the study was to compare the quality of reviews produced by identifiable...

  8. A systematic review of professional support interventions for breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannula, Leena; Kaunonen, Marja; Tarkka, Marja-Terttu

    2008-05-01

    The objectives of this systematic review were first, to describe how breastfeeding is professionally supported during pregnancy, at maternity hospitals and during the postnatal period. Secondly, to find out how effective interventions are in supporting breastfeeding. Breastfeeding is an effective way to promote the health of infants. In many countries, the rates for breastfeeding remain lower than recommended. Many studies have examined breastfeeding promotion interventions; some of them are successful and some fail. It is important to find effective combinations of support. Systematic review. Search of CINAHL, Medline and Cochrane Central Register databases were conducted for data collection. The search was limited to articles published in Finnish, Swedish and English between the year 2000 and March 2006, focusing on breastfeeding and breastfeeding support interventions. Two reviewers independently analysed 36 articles in the final analysis. Interventions expanding from pregnancy to the intrapartum period and throughout the postnatal period were more effective than interventions concentrating on a shorter period. In addition, intervention packages using various methods of education and support from well-trained professionals are more effective than interventions concentrating on a single method. During pregnancy, the effective interventions were interactive, involving mothers in conversation. The Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) as well as practical hands off -teaching, when combined with support and encouragement, were effective approaches. Postnatally effective were home visits, telephone support and breastfeeding centres combined with peer support. Relevance to clinical practice. Professionals need breastfeeding education and support of their organisations to act as breastfeeding supporters. The BFHI -programme is effective and it would be wise to include the core components of the programme in breastfeeding promotion interventions. Mothers benefit from

  9. Writing a narrative biomedical review: considerations for authors, peer reviewers, and editors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Ayvazyan, Lilit; Blackmore, Heather; Kitas, George D

    2011-11-01

    Review articles comprehensively covering a specific topic are crucial for successful research and academic projects. Most editors consider review articles for special and regular issues of journals. Writing a review requires deep knowledge and understanding of a field. The aim of this review is to analyze the main steps in writing a narrative biomedical review and to consider points that may increase the chances of success. We performed a comprehensive search through MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, and Web of Science using the following keywords: review of the literature, narrative review, title, abstract, authorship, ethics, peer review, research methods, medical writing, scientific writing, and writing standards. Opinions expressed in the review are also based on personal experience as authors, peer reviewers, and editors.

  10. Editors’ Perspectives on Enhancing Manuscript Quality and Editorial Decisions Through Peer Review and Reviewer Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Kristin K.; Traynor, Andrew P.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. To identify peer reviewer and peer review characteristics that enhance manuscript quality and editorial decisions, and to identify valuable elements of peer reviewer training programs. Methods. A three-school, 15-year review of pharmacy practice and pharmacy administration faculty’s publications was conducted to identify high-publication volume journals for inclusion. Editors-in-chief identified all editors managing manuscripts for participation. A three-round modified Delphi process was used. Rounds advanced from open-ended questions regarding actions and attributes of good reviewers to consensus-seeking and clarifying questions related to quality, importance, value, and priority. Results. Nineteen editors representing eight pharmacy journals participated. Three characteristics of reviews were rated required or helpful in enhancing manuscript quality by all respondents: includes a critical analysis of the manuscript (88% required, 12% helpful), includes feedback that contains both strengths and areas of improvement (53% required, 47% helpful), and speaks to the manuscript’s utility in the literature (41% required, 59% helpful). Hands-on experience with review activities (88%) and exposure to good and bad reviews (88%) were identified as very valuable to peer reviewer development. Conclusion. Reviewers, individuals involved in faculty development, and journals should work to assist new reviewers in defining focused areas of expertise, building knowledge in these areas, and developing critical analysis skills. PMID:28630514

  11. Editors' Perspectives on Enhancing Manuscript Quality and Editorial Decisions Through Peer Review and Reviewer Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Kristin K; Bzowyckyj, Andrew S; Traynor, Andrew P

    2017-05-01

    Objectives. To identify peer reviewer and peer review characteristics that enhance manuscript quality and editorial decisions, and to identify valuable elements of peer reviewer training programs. Methods. A three-school, 15-year review of pharmacy practice and pharmacy administration faculty's publications was conducted to identify high-publication volume journals for inclusion. Editors-in-chief identified all editors managing manuscripts for participation. A three-round modified Delphi process was used. Rounds advanced from open-ended questions regarding actions and attributes of good reviewers to consensus-seeking and clarifying questions related to quality, importance, value, and priority. Results. Nineteen editors representing eight pharmacy journals participated. Three characteristics of reviews were rated required or helpful in enhancing manuscript quality by all respondents: includes a critical analysis of the manuscript (88% required, 12% helpful), includes feedback that contains both strengths and areas of improvement (53% required, 47% helpful), and speaks to the manuscript's utility in the literature (41% required, 59% helpful). Hands-on experience with review activities (88%) and exposure to good and bad reviews (88%) were identified as very valuable to peer reviewer development. Conclusion. Reviewers, individuals involved in faculty development, and journals should work to assist new reviewers in defining focused areas of expertise, building knowledge in these areas, and developing critical analysis skills.

  12. Utilization of peers in services for youth with emotional and behavioral challenges: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Geetha; Lee, Sang Jung; Harris, Ryan; Acri, Mary C; Munson, Michelle R

    2017-02-01

    This scoping review synthesizes published and unpublished information on Youth Peer Support Services (YPSS), where young adults with current or prior mental health challenges provide support services to other youth and young adults currently struggling with similar difficulties. Existing published and unpublished "grey" literature were reviewed, yielding 30 programs included for data extraction and qualitative syntheses using a descriptive analytic framework. Findings identify variations in service delivery structures, program goals, host service systems, peer roles, core competencies, training and supervision needs, outcomes for youth and young adult consumers, as well as organizational readiness needs to integrate YPSS. Recommendations for future research, practice, and policy include more studies evaluating the unique impact of YPSS using rigorous methodological study designs, identifying developmentally appropriate training/supervision strategies and overall service costs and financing options, as well as distinguishing YPSS from other peer models with regard to certification and billing. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. External Peer Review Report on the Defense Contract Management Agency Office of Independent Assessment Internal Review Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-02

    External Peer Review Report on the Defense Contract Management Agency Office of Independent Assessment Internal Review Team N O V E M B E R 2 , 2 0 1 5...MANAGEMENT AGENCY SUBJECT: External Peer Review Report on the Defense Contract Management Agency Office of Independent Assessment Internal Review Team...Report No. DODIG-2016-007) Attached is the External Peer Review Report on the Defense Contract Management Agency Office of Independent Assessment

  14. On-line interprofessional learning: introducing constructivism through enquiry-based learning and peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Matthew; Ventura, Susie; Dando, Mark

    2004-08-01

    Interest in on-line methods of learning has accelerated in recent years. There has also been an interest in developing student-centred approaches to learning and interprofessional education. This paper illustrates the issues in designing a large (more than 700 students), on-line, inter-professional module for third year, undergraduate students drawn from nine professional healthcare courses and from four campus sites. It uses an enquiry-based learning approach. The learning theories of Piaget, Vygotsky and Schön are integrated with the on-line frameworks of Salmon and Collis et al., together with conclusions drawn from the literature and our own experiences, to produce a design that encourages students to learn through participation, re-iteration, peer-review and reflection. Consideration is given to improving student motivation and attitudes towards change, both in the design and the delivery of the module.

  15. Safeguarding the integrity of science communication by restraining 'rational cheating' in peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroga, Edward F

    2014-11-01

    Peer review is the pillar of the integrity of science communication. It is often beset with flaws as well as accusations of unreliability and lack of predictive validity. 'Rational cheating' by reviewers is a threat to the validity of peer review. It may diminish the value of good papers by unfavourable appraisals of the reviewers whose own works have lower scientific merits. This article analyzes the mechanics and defects of peer review and focuses on rational cheating in peer review, its implications, and options to restrain it.

  16. Appreciation of the 2015 JGR Space Physics Peer Reviewers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liemohn, Michael W.; Balikhin, Michael; Kepko, Larry; Rodger, Alan; Wang, Yuming

    2016-01-01

    The Editors of the Journal of Geophysical Research Space Physics are deeply indebted to the many people among the research community that serve this journal through peer review. The journal could not exist without the time and effort invested by the community through this voluntary activity, providing expert evaluations and thoughtful assessments of the work of others. In 2015, the journal had 1506 scientists contribute to the process with at least one peer review, for a total of 3575 reviews completed, including additional reviews of resubmitted manuscripts. There were 277 reviewers that contributed four or more reports in 2015. The average number of reviews per referee in 2015 was, therefore, 2.4. Note that the total number of manuscript final decisions (i.e., accept or reject) for Journal of Geophysical Research (JGR) Space Physics was 1147 in 2015. Of this, 774 were accepted and 373 were declined, for an acceptance rate of 67% last year. If the 1334 "revision" decisions are included in the tally, then the total number of decisions made in 2015 was 2481. Working out the arithmetic, it means that on average, a manuscript gets about 1.2 revision decisions before a final accept-or-reject decision. This explains the 3.1 average number of reviews per manuscript throughout each paper's lifetime in the submission-revision editorial process. We are pleased and happy that the research community is willing and able to devote their resources toward this service endeavor. We appreciate each and every one of you that helped maintain the high quality of papers in JGR Space Physics last year. We look forward to another excellent year working with all of you through the year ahead.

  17. A prospective study on an innovative online forum for peer reviewing of surgical science.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Almquist

    Full Text Available Peer review is important to the scientific process. However, the present system has been criticised and accused of bias, lack of transparency, failure to detect significant breakthrough and error. At the British Journal of Surgery (BJS, after surveying authors' and reviewers' opinions on peer review, we piloted an open online forum with the aim of improving the peer review process.In December 2014, a web-based survey assessing attitudes towards open online review was sent to reviewers with a BJS account in Scholar One. From April to June 2015, authors were invited to allow their manuscripts to undergo online peer review in addition to the standard peer review process. The quality of each review was evaluated by editors and editorial assistants using a validated instrument based on a Likert scale.The survey was sent to 6635 reviewers. In all, 1454 (21.9% responded. Support for online peer review was strong, with only 10% stating that they would not subject their manuscripts to online peer review. The most prevalent concern was about intellectual property, being highlighted in 118 of 284 comments (41.5%. Out of 265 eligible manuscripts, 110 were included in the online peer review trial. Around 7000 potential reviewers were invited to review each manuscript. In all, 44 of 110 manuscripts (40% received 100 reviews from 59 reviewers, alongside 115 conventional reviews. The quality of the open forum reviews was lower than for conventional reviews (2.13 (± 0.75 versus 2.84 (± 0.71, P<0.001.Open online peer review is feasible in this setting, but it attracts few reviews, of lower quality than conventional peer reviews.

  18. Peer Review Practices for Evaluating Biomedical Research Grants: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Lucy; Freedman, Jane E; Becker, Lance B; Mehta, Nehal N; Liscum, Laura

    2017-08-04

    The biomedical research enterprise depends on the fair and objective peer review of research grants, leading to the distribution of resources through efficient and robust competitive methods. In the United States, federal funding agencies and foundations collectively distribute billions of dollars annually to support biomedical research. For the American Heart Association, a Peer Review Subcommittee is charged with establishing the highest standards for peer review. This scientific statement reviews the current literature on peer review practices, describes the current American Heart Association peer review process and those of other agencies, analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of American Heart Association peer review practices, and recommends best practices for the future. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Peer review of HEDR uncertainty and sensitivity analyses plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, F.O.

    1993-06-01

    This report consists of a detailed documentation of the writings and deliberations of the peer review panel that met on May 24--25, 1993 in Richland, Washington to evaluate your draft report ``Uncertainty/Sensitivity Analysis Plan`` (PNWD-2124 HEDR). The fact that uncertainties are being considered in temporally and spatially varying parameters through the use of alternative time histories and spatial patterns deserves special commendation. It is important to identify early those model components and parameters that will have the most influence on the magnitude and uncertainty of the dose estimates. These are the items that should be investigated most intensively prior to committing to a final set of results.

  20. The validity of peer review in a general medicine journal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey L Jackson

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: All the opinions in this article are those of the authors and should not be construed to reflect, in any way, those of the Department of Veterans Affairs. BACKGROUND: Our study purpose was to assess the predictive validity of reviewer quality ratings and editorial decisions in a general medicine journal. METHODS: Submissions to the Journal of General Internal Medicine (JGIM between July 2004 and June 2005 were included. We abstracted JGIM peer review quality ratings, verified the publication status of all articles and calculated an impact factor for published articles (Rw by dividing the 3-year citation rate by the average for this group of papers; an Rw>1 indicates a greater than average impact. RESULTS: Of 507 submissions, 128 (25% were published in JGIM, 331 rejected (128 with review and 48 were either not resubmitted after revision was requested or were withdrawn by the author. Of 331 rejections, 243 were published elsewhere. Articles published in JGIM had a higher citation rate than those published elsewhere (Rw: 1.6 vs. 1.1, p = 0.002. Reviewer quality ratings of article quality had good internal consistency and reviewer recommendations markedly influenced publication decisions. There was no quality rating cutpoint that accurately distinguished high from low impact articles. There was a stepwise increase in Rw for articles rejected without review, rejected after review or accepted by JGIM (Rw 0.60 vs. 0.87 vs. 1.56, p<0.0005. However, there was low agreement between reviewers for quality ratings and publication recommendations. The editorial publication decision accurately discriminated high and low impact articles in 68% of submissions. We found evidence of better accuracy with a greater number of reviewers. CONCLUSIONS: The peer review process largely succeeds in selecting high impact articles and dispatching lower impact ones, but the process is far from perfect. While the inter-rater reliability between individual

  1. Does Peer Review of Radiation Plans Affect Clinical Care? A Systematic Review of the Literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunskill, Kelsey; Nguyen, Timothy K.; Boldt, R. Gabriel [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario (Canada); Louie, Alexander V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario (Canada); Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Western University, London, Ontario (Canada); Warner, Andrew [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario (Canada); Marks, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Palma, David A., E-mail: David.Palma@lhsc.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario (Canada)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Peer review is a recommended component of quality assurance in radiation oncology; however, it is resource-intensive and its effect on patient care is not well understood. We conducted a systematic review of the published data to assess the reported clinical impact of peer review on radiation treatment plans. Methods and Materials: A systematic review of published English studies was performed in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines using the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and abstracts published from major radiation oncology scientific meeting proceedings. For inclusion, the studies were required to report the effect of peer review on ≥1 element of treatment planning (eg, target volume or organ-at-risk delineation, dose prescription or dosimetry). Results: The initial search strategy identified 882 potentially eligible studies, with 11 meeting the inclusion criteria for full-text review and final analysis. Across a total of 11,491 patient cases, peer review programs led to modifications in a weighted mean of 10.8% of radiation treatment plans. Five studies differentiated between major and minor changes and reported weighted mean rates of change of 1.8% and 7.3%, respectively. The most common changes were related to target volume delineation (45.2% of changed plans), dose prescription or written directives (24.4%), and non-target volume delineation or normal tissue sparing (7.5%). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that peer review leads to changes in clinical care in approximately 1 of every 9 cases overall. This is similar to the reported rates of change in peer review studies from other oncology-related specialties, such as radiology and pathology.

  2. Does Peer Review of Radiation Plans Affect Clinical Care? A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunskill, Kelsey; Nguyen, Timothy K; Boldt, R Gabriel; Louie, Alexander V; Warner, Andrew; Marks, Lawrence B; Palma, David A

    2017-01-01

    Peer review is a recommended component of quality assurance in radiation oncology; however, it is resource-intensive and its effect on patient care is not well understood. We conducted a systematic review of the published data to assess the reported clinical impact of peer review on radiation treatment plans. A systematic review of published English studies was performed in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines using the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and abstracts published from major radiation oncology scientific meeting proceedings. For inclusion, the studies were required to report the effect of peer review on ≥1 element of treatment planning (eg, target volume or organ-at-risk delineation, dose prescription or dosimetry). The initial search strategy identified 882 potentially eligible studies, with 11 meeting the inclusion criteria for full-text review and final analysis. Across a total of 11,491 patient cases, peer review programs led to modifications in a weighted mean of 10.8% of radiation treatment plans. Five studies differentiated between major and minor changes and reported weighted mean rates of change of 1.8% and 7.3%, respectively. The most common changes were related to target volume delineation (45.2% of changed plans), dose prescription or written directives (24.4%), and non-target volume delineation or normal tissue sparing (7.5%). Our findings suggest that peer review leads to changes in clinical care in approximately 1 of every 9 cases overall. This is similar to the reported rates of change in peer review studies from other oncology-related specialties, such as radiology and pathology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Does mentoring new peer reviewers improve review quality? A randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houry Debra

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior efforts to train medical journal peer reviewers have not improved subsequent review quality, although such interventions were general and brief. We hypothesized that a manuscript-specific and more extended intervention pairing new reviewers with high-quality senior reviewers as mentors would improve subsequent review quality. Methods Over a four-year period we randomly assigned all new reviewers for Annals of Emergency Medicine to receive our standard written informational materials alone, or these materials plus a new mentoring intervention. For this program we paired new reviewers with a high-quality senior reviewer for each of their first three manuscript reviews, and asked mentees to discuss their review with their mentor by email or phone. We then compared the quality of subsequent reviews between the control and intervention groups, using linear mixed effects models of the slopes of review quality scores over time. Results We studied 490 manuscript reviews, with similar baseline characteristics between the 24 mentees who completed the trial and the 22 control reviewers. Mean quality scores for the first 3 reviews on our 1 to 5 point scale were similar between control and mentee groups (3.4 versus 3.5, as were slopes of change of review scores (-0.229 versus -0.549 and all other secondary measures of reviewer performance. Conclusions A structured training intervention of pairing newly recruited medical journal peer reviewers with senior reviewer mentors did not improve the quality of their subsequent reviews.

  4. Is Double-Blinded Peer Review Necessary? The Effect of Blinding on Review Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kevin C; Shauver, Melissa J; Malay, Sunitha; Zhong, Lin; Weinstein, Aaron; Rohrich, Rod J

    2015-12-01

    The review process can be completely open, double-blinded, or somewhere in between. Double-blinded peer review, where neither the authors' nor peer reviewers' identities are shared with each other, is thought to be the fairest system, but there is evidence that it does not affect reviewer behavior or influence decisions. Furthermore, even without presenting author names, authorship is often apparent to reviewers, especially in small specialties. In conjunction with Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (PRS), the authors examined the effect of double-blinded review on review quality, reviewer publishing recommendation, and reviewer manuscript rating. The authors hypothesized that double-blinded review will not improve review quality and will not affect recommendation or rating. Traditionally, PRS peer review has been conducted in a single-blinded fashion. During a 3-month period of standard operation of the Journal, the authors examined reviews, recommendations, and manuscript ratings. Beginning October 1, 2014, PRS started conducting reviews in a double-blinded manner. The authors examined the additional reviews submitted during a 3-month period after the change. Review quality was assessed using the validated Review Quality Instrument. Double-blinding had no effect on reviewer publishing recommendation or manuscript ranking. Review quality did not improve after the implementation of double-blinded review. Blinding was successful 66 percent of the time. The most common reasons for blinding failure were reviewer familiarity with authors' work and author self-citation. Double-blinding adds considerable work for authors and editorial staff and has no positive effect on review quality. Furthermore, the authors' results revealed no publication bias based on author identity at PRS.

  5. Paired peer review of university classroom teaching in a school of nursing and midwifery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Paul N; Parker, Steve; Smigiel, Heather

    2012-08-01

    Peer review of university classroom teaching can increase the quality of teaching but is not universally practiced in Australian universities. To report an evaluation of paired peer-review process using both paper and web based teaching evaluation tools. Twenty university teachers in one metropolitan Australian School of Nursing and Midwifery were randomly paired and then randomly assigned to a paper based or web-based peer review tool. Each teacher reviewed each other's classroom teaching as part of a peer review program. The participants then completed an 18 question survey evaluating the peer review tool and paired evaluation process. Responses were analyzed using frequencies and percentages. Regardless of the tool used, participants found this process of peer review positive (75%), collegial (78%), supportive (61%) and non-threatening (71%). Participants reported that the peer review will improve their own classroom delivery (61%), teaching evaluation (61%) and planning (53%). The web-based tool was found to be easier to use and allowed more space than the paper-based tool. Implementation of a web-based paired peer review system can be a positive method of peer review of university classroom teaching. Pairing of teachers to review each other's classroom teaching is a promising strategy and has the potential to improve teaching in teaching universities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A scoping review protocol on the roles and tasks of peer reviewers in the manuscript review process in biomedical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glonti, Ketevan; Cauchi, Daniel; Cobo, Erik; Boutron, Isabelle; Moher, David; Hren, Darko

    2017-10-22

    The primary functions of peer reviewers are poorly defined. Thus far no body of literature has systematically identified the roles and tasks of peer reviewers of biomedical journals. A clear establishment of these can lead to improvements in the peer review process. The purpose of this scoping review is to determine what is known on the roles and tasks of peer reviewers. We will use the methodological framework first proposed by Arksey and O'Malley and subsequently adapted by Levac et al and the Joanna Briggs Institute. The scoping review will include all study designs, as well as editorials, commentaries and grey literature. The following eight electronic databases will be searched (from inception to May 2017): Cochrane Library, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Educational Resources Information Center, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Scopus and Web of Science. Two reviewers will use inclusion and exclusion criteria based on the 'Population-Concept-Context' framework to independently screen titles and abstracts of articles considered for inclusion. Full-text screening of relevant eligible articles will also be carried out by two reviewers. The search strategy for grey literature will include searching in websites of existing networks, biomedical journal publishers and organisations that offer resources for peer reviewers. In addition we will review journal guidelines to peer reviewers on how to perform the manuscript review. Journals will be selected using the 2016 journal impact factor. We will identify and assess the top five, middle five and lowest-ranking five journals across all medical specialties. This scoping review will undertake a secondary analysis of data already collected and does not require ethical approval. The results will be disseminated through journals and conferences targeting stakeholders involved in peer review in biomedical research. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the

  7. Assigning the Appropriate Works for Review on Networked Peer Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-I

    2017-01-01

    Peer assessment can expand the cognitive schemas of students, facilitate knowledge construction, and promote discussion and cooperative learning among students and their peers. In recent years, the application of the internet to conduct peer assessment activities has been widely implemented. The advantages of networked peer assessments over…

  8. Multi-stage open peer review: scientific evaluation integrating the strengths of traditional peer review with the virtues of transparency and self-regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich ePöschl

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The traditional forms of scientific publishing and peer review do not live up to the demands of efficient communication and quality assurance in today’s highly diverse and rapidly evolving world of science. They need to be advanced and complemented by interactive and transparent forms of review, publication, and discussion that are open to the scientific community and to the public.The advantages of open access, public peer review and interactive discussion can be efficiently and flexibly combined with the strengths of traditional scientific peer review. Since 2001 the benefits and viability of this approach are clearly demonstrated by the highly successful interactive open access journal Atmo¬sphe¬ric Chemistry and Physics (ACP and a growing number of sister journals launched and operated by the European Geosciences Union (EGU and the open access publisher Copernicus.The interactive open access journals are practicing an integrative multi-stage process of publication and peer review combined with interactive public discussion, which effectively resolves the dilemma between rapid scientific exchange and thorough quality assurance. The high efficiency and predictive validity of multi-stage open peer review have been confirmed in a series of dedicated studies by evaluation experts from the social sciences, and the same or similar concepts have recently also been adopted in other disciplines, including the life sciences and economics. Multi-stage open peer review can be flexibly adjusted to the needs and peculiarities of different scientific communities. Due to the flexibility and compatibility with traditional structures of scientific publishing and peer review, the multi-stage open peer review concept enables efficient evolution in scientific communication and quality assurance. It has the potential for swift replacement of hidden peer review as the standard of scientific quality assurance, and it provides a basis for open evaluation in

  9. Crossing professional barriers with peer-assisted learning: undergraduate midwifery students teaching undergraduate paramedic students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLelland, Gayle; McKenna, Lisa; French, Jill

    2013-07-01

    Peer assisted learning (PAL) has been shown in undergraduate programmes to be as effective as learning from instructors. PAL is a shared experience between two learners often with one being more senior to the other but usually both are studying within the same discipline. Interprofessional education occurs when two or more professionals learn with, from and about each other. Benefits of PAL in an interprofessional context have not been previously explored. As part of a final year education unit, midwifery students at Monash University developed workshops for second year undergraduate paramedic students. The workshops focused on care required during and after the birth of the baby. To investigate the benefits of an interprofessional PAL for both midwifery and paramedic students. Data for this project were obtained by both quantitative and qualitative methods. Questionnaires were distributed to both cohorts of students to explore experiences of peer teaching and learning. Results were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Focus groups were conducted separately with both cohorts of students and transcripts analysed using a thematic approach. Response rates from the midwifery and paramedic students were 64.9% and 44.0% respectively. The majority of students regardless of discipline enjoyed the interprofessional activity and wanted more opportunities in their curricula. After initial anxieties about teaching into another discipline, 97.3 (n = 36) of midwifery students thought the experience was worthwhile and personally rewarding. Of the paramedic students, 76.9% (n = 60) reported enjoying the interaction. The focus groups supported and added to the quantitative findings. Both midwifery and paramedic students had a new-found respect and understanding for each other's disciplines. Midwifery students were unaware of the limited knowledge paramedics had around childbirth. Paramedic students admired the depth of knowledge displayed by the midwifery

  10. Are Peer Support Arrangements an Evidence-Based Practice? A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Matthew E.; Huber, Heartley B.

    2017-01-01

    Peer support arrangements involve peers without disabilities providing academic and social support to students with severe disabilities (i.e., students eligible for their state's alternate assessment) in general education classrooms. We conducted a systematic literature review of studies published through 2016 to determine whether peer support…

  11. Perceived value of providing peer reviewers with abstracts and preprints of related published and unpublished papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, C L; Goodman, S N

    1998-07-15

    Many journals provide peer reviewers with written instructions regarding review criteria, such as the originality of results, but little research has been done to investigate ways to improve or facilitate the peer review task. To assess the value that peer reviewers place on receipt of supplemental materials (eg, abstracts of related papers and preprints of related unpublished manuscripts). Questionnaire survey sent to all 733 peer reviewers recruited by the Journal of the National Cancer Institute to review 356 manuscripts consecutively sent out for review from February 24, 1997, through January 16, 1998. The inclusion of supplemental materials with manuscript review packages was optional. The peer reviewers' assessment of the actual or potential usefulness of supplemental materials on the performance of peer review. A total of 481 (66%) of 733 questionnaires were returned. Of the 471 respondents' questionnaires that could be used, 217 (46%) indicated that they received abstracts, and 44 (10%) of 458 respondents indicated that they received preprints. Higher proportions of peer reviewers who received supplemental materials than those who had not received them felt that they were (or would be) useful to them when reviewing the manuscript (63% [95% confidence interval (CI), 57%-69%] vs 45% [95% CI, 38%-52%]; P<.001) and to the peer review process in general (80% [95% CI, 75%-85%] vs 64% [95% CI, 58%-70%]; P<.001). The majority of respondents indicated that supplemental materials helped (or would have helped) them evaluate manuscripts and valued them more highly when they actually received them.

  12. An approach to peer review in forensic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, D Noel; Langlois, Neil E I; Byard, Roger W

    2013-07-01

    Peer review in forensic pathology has been a long time in evolution but may provide a very useful mechanism to check for, and to correct, errors, in addition to establishing an important educative vehicle for pathologists. A process is reported that has been established at our institution that involves both informal peer review in the mortuary and formal auditing of a set number of cases. Every autopsy case is discussed at a daily meeting of pathologists before a provisional cause of death is released. In addition, one in ten cases including all homicides, deaths in custody, suspicious and paediatric cases, and randomly selected additional cases undergo formal auditing by a second pathologist. Finally, administrative staff check the completed report. This formalized process, in a jurisdiction where autopsies are usually performed by only one pathologist, has been extremely useful in standardizing autopsy reports and in enabling pathologists to discuss cases and associated issues on a regular basis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  13. Workplace accommodations for persons with physical disabilities: evidence synthesis of the peer-reviewed literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padkapayeva, Kathy; Posen, Andrew; Yazdani, Amin; Buettgen, Alexis; Mahood, Quenby; Tompa, Emile

    2017-10-01

    To identify and synthesize research evidence on workplace accommodations used by employers to recruit, hire, retain, and promote persons with physical disabilities. A structured search of six electronic journal databases was undertaken to identify peer-reviewed literature on the topic published from January 1990 to March 2016. Articles describing or evaluating workplace disability accommodation policies and practices were given a full-text review. Topic experts were contacted to identify additional studies. Details on specific accommodations described in 117 articles were synthesized and organized into three groups comprised of a total of 12 categories. The majority of studies did not rigorously evaluate effectiveness or cost-effectiveness of the accommodations under study. This evidence synthesis provides an overview of the peer-reviewed literature of value to occupational rehabilitation professionals and employers seeking guidance on workplace accommodation policies and practices for persons with physical disabilities. A wide range of accommodation options is available for addressing physical, social, and attitudinal barriers to successful employment. Besides physical/technological modifications, accommodations to enhance workplace flexibility and worker autonomy and strategies to promote workplace inclusion and integration are important. More comprehensive reporting and evaluations of the effectiveness of accommodations in research literature are needed to develop best practices for accommodating persons with disabilities. Implications for rehabilitation There is a substantial peer-reviewed literature that provides insights into the barriers for persons with physical disabilities and the workplace accommodation practices to address them, though rigorous evaluations of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness are uncommon. Attitudinal and social barriers stemming from stereotypes, ignorance and lack of knowledge are as important as physical barriers to employment for

  14. Science, politics, and peer review. An editor's dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Richard

    2002-03-01

    The American Psychologist is the official journal of the American Psychological Association. As such, it is a valued outlet for articles dealing with reviews of current topics in psychology, policy issues, and critiques of current research. S. O. Lilienfeld submitted a manuscript to the journal that was accepted by the ad hoc action editor; however, the action editor's decision was later overruled by the editor, and additional changes to the manuscript were requested. Because of this editorial decision, a controversy arose that played out on various Internet discussion groups. The author presents his perspective as the editor in this controversy. Points of emphasis include the need to protect the integrity and the confidentiality of the peer review process for scientific journals.

  15. Love Canal Emergency Declaration Area habitability study. Volume 5. Peer review summary: TRC (Technical Review Committee) responses. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-07-01

    Environmental studies were conducted to provide data that could be used by the Commissioner of Health for the State of New York in determining whether the Emergency Declaration Area surrounding the Love Canal hazardous-waste site is habitable. These volumes (II through IV) were reviewed by a peer-review panel of expert scientists. The scientists concluded that each of the three environmental studies was well planned and well executed. Volume V summarizes the peer review and gives additional information or clarifications as requested during the peer review. Volume V also provides additional supplemental statistical analyses requested by the peer reviewer panel.

  16. Giving Feedback: Preparing Students for Peer Review and Self-Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippakos, Zoi A.

    2017-01-01

    Revision is an important aspect of the writing process but is often challenging for students. Peer review can be helpful, but training is needed for it to work effectively. This article suggests an approach to preparing students for peer review by teaching specific evaluation criteria and leading collaborative practice in reviewing papers written…

  17. Applying Peer Reviews in Software Engineering Education: An Experiment and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garousi, V.

    2010-01-01

    Based on the demonstrated value of peer reviews in the engineering industry, numerous industry experts have listed it at the top of the list of desirable development practices. Experience has shown that problems (defects) are eliminated earlier if a development process incorporates peer reviews and that these reviews are as effective as or even…

  18. Characteristics of potential repository wastes. Peer review report for revision 1 of DOE/RW-0184

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowart, C. G.; Notz, K. J.

    1992-10-01

    This report presents the results of a fully documented peer review of DOE/RW-0184, Rev. 1, ''Characteristics of Potential Repository Wastes''. The peer review was chaired and administered by oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and was conducted in accordance with OCRWM QA procedure QAAP 3.3 Peer Review for the purpose of quailing the document for use in OCRWM quality-affecting work. The peer reviewers selected represent a wide range of experience and knowledge particularly suitable for evaluating the subject matter. A total of 596 formal comments were documented by the seven peer review panels, and all were successfully resolved. The peers reached the conclusion that DOE/RW-0184, Rev. 1, is quality determined and suitable for use in quality-affecting work.

  19. Peer-Review Writing Workshops in College Courses: Students’ Perspectives about Online and Classroom Based Workshops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin B. Jensen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Peer-review workshops are commonly used in writing courses as a way for students to give their peers feedback as well as help their own writing. Most of the research on peer-review workshops focuses on workshops held in traditional in-person courses, with less research on peer-review workshops held online. Students in a freshman writing course experienced both a classroom based writing workshop and an online workshop and then took a survey about their experiences. The majority of the students preferred the online writing workshop because of the convenience of the workshop and being able to post anonymous reviews. Students whom preferred the traditional in-person writing workshop liked being able to talk with their peers about their papers. This research article focuses on the students’ responses and experiences with traditional and online peer-reviews.

  20. Peer-led and professional-led group interventions for people with co-occurring disorders: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallaveshi, Luljeta; Balachandra, Krishna; Subramanian, Priya; Rudnick, Abraham

    2014-05-01

    This pilot study evaluated the experience of people with co-occurring disorders (mental illness and addiction) in relation to peer-led and professional-led group interventions. The study used a qualitative (phenomenological) approach to evaluate the experience of a convenience sample of 6 individuals with co-occurring disorders who participated in up to 8 sessions each of both peer-led and professional-led group interventions (with a similar rate of attendance in both groups). The semi-structured interview data were coded and thematically analyzed. We found 5 themes within and across the 2 interventions. In both groups, participants experienced a positive environment and personal growth, and learned, albeit different things. They were more comfortable in the peer-led group and acquired more knowledge and skills in the professional-led group. Offering both peer-led and professional-led group interventions to people with co-occurring disorders may be better than offering either alone.

  1. Helping Peers Seek Professional Treatment for Depression among Young South Koreans: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Hae; Choi, Jung Ah; Park, Ji Hye

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the applicability of the theory of planned behavior to understand factors that influence whether young South Koreans help peers with depression to seek professional counseling services. The structural equation modeling on the survey data collected from 191 South Korean students suggests that subjective norms and behavioral…

  2. Peer Coaching as an Institutionalised Tool for Professional Development: The Perceptions of Tutors in a Nigerian College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderibigbe, Semiyu Adejare; Ajasa, Folorunso Adekemi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the perceptions of college tutors on peer coaching as a tool for professional development to determine its formal institutionalisation. Design/methodology/approach: A survey questionnaire was used for data collection, while analysis of data was done using descriptive statistics. Findings: The…

  3. When learners become teachers: a review of peer teaching in medical student education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benè, Kristen L; Bergus, George

    2014-01-01

    Peer teaching engages students as teachers and is widely used in K-12 education, many universities, and increasingly in medical schools. It draws on the social and cognitive congruence between learner and teacher and can be attractive to medical schools faced with a growing number of learners but a static faculty size. Peer teachers can give lectures on assigned topics, lead problem-based learning sessions, and provide one on one support to classmates in the form of tutoring. We undertook a narrative review of research on peer teachers in medical school, specifically investigating how medical students are impacted by being peer teachers and how having a peer teacher impacts learners. Studies have shown that peer teaching has a primarily positive impact on both the peer teacher and the learners. In the setting of problem-based learning courses or clinical skills instruction, medical students' performance on tests of knowledge or skills is similar whether they have faculty instructors or peer teachers. There is also strong evidence that being a peer teacher enhances the learning of the peer teacher relative to the content being taught. It is common for peer teachers to lack confidence in their abilities to successfully teach, and they appreciate receiving training related to their teaching role. We find evidence from several different educational settings that peer teaching benefits both the peer teachers and the learners. This suggests that peer teaching is a valuable methodology for medical schools to engage learners as teachers.

  4. Calibrated Peer Review Essays Increase Confidence in Self-assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likkel, Lauren

    2006-12-01

    We studied the effect of the web-based tool “Calibrated Peer Review” ™ on student confidence in their ability to recognize the quality of their own work. CPR can be used in large enrollment classes to allow a controlled peer review of moderate length student essays. We expected that teaching students how to grade an essay and having them grade their own work would increase confidence in assessing the quality of their own essays, and the results support this. Three introductory astronomy classes participated in this study during 2005 at the University of Wisconsin Eau Claire, a four year university. Four essays were assigned in both the experimental class (104 students) and the control classes (34 students). In the comparison classes, the student was given a score on the essay and perhaps a few written comments. The experimental group used the CPR tool, in which they are taught how to evaluate the essay, evaluate assignments written by peers, and evaluate their own essay. Three survey questions were used to characterize the change in confidence level in ability to assess their own work. The survey results from a survey at the end of the semester were compared to results from the same survey administered at the beginning of the semester. A measurable effect on the average confidence level of the experimental class was found. By the final survey, significantly more of the CPR students had changed to a more positive statement in indicating their confidence in evaluating their own written work. There was no effect seen on the classes that wrote essays but did not use the CPR system, showing that this result is due to using the CPR system for the essays, not just writing essays or becoming more confident during the course of the semester.

  5. To Give Is Better Than to Receive: The Benefits of Peer Review to the Reviewer's Own Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundstrom, Kristi; Baker, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    Although peer review has been shown to be beneficial in many writing classrooms, the benefits of peer review to the reviewer, or the student giving feedback, has not been thoroughly investigated in second-language writing research. The purpose of this study is to determine which is more beneficial to improving student writing: giving or receiving…

  6. The dynamics of writing and peer review at primary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Crinon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The object of this research is a learning method that uses email correspondence to promote the development of narrative writing skills in year 4 and year 5 students. Focusing on the written production of episodes of adventure novels and peer review, this learning method was applied to four classes in the Paris region over a 1-year period. The classes were paired in such a way that some students were required to read and analyze texts produced by correspondents (advice givers while others carried out revisions using peer advice and suggestions (advice receivers. To describe the dynamics of writing, revision and learning, a qualitative analysis of the texts and suggestions given or received by the student partners is carried out. A statistical analysis comparing the texts produced by students in both groups is used to corroborate the findings of the initial analysis. Students showed an increasing awareness and consideration of the key characteristics of the practiced genre, resulting in an improvement of the quality of the texts in the course of the revision process and throughout the year. The texts produced by the advice givers improved more than the texts produced by the advice receivers. The findings are attributed to greater self-reflection and successive reformulations fostered by the elaboration of advice and suggestions.

  7. History, Research, and Challenges: A Systematic Analysis of Peer Review for Journals, Grants, and Faculty Appointments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-Hsuan Huang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Peer review is a self-regulation mechanism for scientific inquiry. Institutionalized and incorporated into the structure and operation of science, it has received considerable support in the academic setting. The legitimacy of peer review is based on trust and integrity. In various ways, it allocates scarce resources such as journal space, research funding, faculty recruitment, recognition, and rewards for academic achievements. But there are growing indications that peer review has yet to fulfill its potential functions, leading to negative assessments as to whether it is effective, efficient, or reliable. Many studies have found links between potential sources of bias and judgments in peer review and expressed reservations over the fairness of the process. It is, therefore, important that the peer review process should be subjected to serious scrutiny and regular evaluation that would lead to better quality and greater fairness. This study presents a systematic review of the empirical literature on peer review of journal manuscripts, grant applications, and faculty appointments and promotions. Historical and contextual information is provided as a basis for interpreting this review. Finally, the authors discuss international recommendations for good practice in peer review and the potential and problems of peer review and bibliometrics. [Article content in Chinese

  8. A Review of Peer Relationships and Friendships in Youth With ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Denise M; Gerdes, Alyson C

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this essay is to examine peer relationships in youth with ADHD and to review current peer functioning interventions. The studies included in this review were identified using the following search terms: "attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder," "ADHD," "peer relationships," "friendships," "social skills," "intervention," and "treatment." Other than a few seminal studies published prior to 2000, studies included were published between 2000 and 2012. Background information regarding peer relationship difficulties and specific social skills deficits of youth with ADHD is reviewed and current social skills and friendship intervention programs are examined. Future directions also are provided. © 2013 SAGE Publications.

  9. Automated Quality Evaluation for a More Effective Data Peer Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Düsterhus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A peer review scheme comparable to that used in traditional scientific journals is a major element missing in bringing publications of raw data up to standards equivalent to those of traditional publications. This paper introduces a quality evaluation process designed to analyse the technical quality as well as the content of a dataset. This process is based on quality tests, the results of which are evaluated with the help of the knowledge of an expert. As a result, the quality is estimated by a single value only. Further, the paper includes an application and a critical discussion on the potential for success, the possible introduction of the process into data centres, and practical implications of the scheme.

  10. Peer review in design: Understanding the impact of collaboration on the review process and student perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandala, Mahender Arjun

    A cornerstone of design and design education is frequent situated feedback. With increasing class sizes, and shrinking financial and human resources, providing rich feedback to students becomes increasingly difficult. In the field of writing, web-based peer review--the process of utilizing equal status learners within a class to provide feedback to each other on their work using networked computing systems--has been shown to be a reliable and valid source of feedback in addition to improving student learning. Designers communicate in myriad ways, using the many languages of design and combining visual and descriptive information. This complex discourse of design intent makes peer reviews by design students ambiguous and often not helpful to the receivers of this feedback. Furthermore, engaging students in the review process itself is often difficult. Teams can complement individual diversity and may assist novice designers collectively resolve complex task. However, teams often incur production losses and may be impacted by individual biases. In the current work, we look at utilizing a collaborative team of reviewers, working collectively and synchronously, in generating web based peer reviews in a sophomore engineering design class. Students participated in a cross-over design, conducting peer reviews as individuals and collaborative teams in parallel sequences. Raters coded the feedback generated on the basis of their appropriateness and accuracy. Self-report surveys and passive observation of teams conducting reviews captured student opinion on the process, its value, and the contrasting experience they had conducting team and individual reviews. We found team reviews generated better quality feedback in comparison to individual reviews. Furthermore, students preferred conducting reviews in teams, finding the process 'fun' and engaging. We observed several learning benefits of using collaboration in reviewing including improved understanding of the assessment

  11. Variations in the ability of general medical practitioners to apply two methods of clinical audit: A five-year study of assessment by peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, John; Bowie, Paul; Lough, Murray

    2006-12-01

    Clinical audit has a central role in the NHS clinical governance agenda and the professional appraisal of medical practitioners in the UK. However, concerns have been raised about the poor design and impact of clinical audit studies and the ability of practitioners to apply audit methods. One method of making informed judgements on audit performance is by peer review. In the west of Scotland a voluntary peer review model has been open to general practitioners since 1999, while general practice trainees are compelled to participate as part of summative assessment. The study aimed to compare the outcomes of peer review for two methods of audit undertaken by different professional and academic groups of doctors. Participants submitted a criterion audit or significant event analysis in standard formats for review by two informed general practitioners (GPs) using appropriate instruments. Peer review outcome data and the professional status of doctors participating were generated by computer search. Differences in proportions of those gaining a satisfactory peer review for each group were calculated. Of 1002 criterion audit submissions, 552 (55%) were judged to be satisfactory. GP registrars were significantly more likely than GP trainers (P groups (P peer review. GPs in non-training practices were less likely to achieve a satisfactory review than registrars (P groups gaining a similar proportion of satisfactory assessments, although GP registrars may have outperformed non-training practice GPs (P = 0.05). A significant proportion of GPs may be unable to adequately apply audit methods, potentially raising serious questions about the effectiveness of clinical audit as a health care improvement policy in general medical practice.

  12. Teleconference versus Face-to-Face Scientific Peer Review of Grant Application: Effects on Review Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Stephen A.; Carpenter, Afton S.; Glisson, Scott R.

    2013-01-01

    Teleconferencing as a setting for scientific peer review is an attractive option for funding agencies, given the substantial environmental and cost savings. Despite this, there is a paucity of published data validating teleconference-based peer review compared to the face-to-face process. Our aim was to conduct a retrospective analysis of scientific peer review data to investigate whether review setting has an effect on review process and outcome measures. We analyzed reviewer scoring data from a research program that had recently modified the review setting from face-to-face to a teleconference format with minimal changes to the overall review procedures. This analysis included approximately 1600 applications over a 4-year period: two years of face-to-face panel meetings compared to two years of teleconference meetings. The average overall scientific merit scores, score distribution, standard deviations and reviewer inter-rater reliability statistics were measured, as well as reviewer demographics and length of time discussing applications. The data indicate that few differences are evident between face-to-face and teleconference settings with regard to average overall scientific merit score, scoring distribution, standard deviation, reviewer demographics or inter-rater reliability. However, some difference was found in the discussion time. These findings suggest that most review outcome measures are unaffected by review setting, which would support the trend of using teleconference reviews rather than face-to-face meetings. However, further studies are needed to assess any correlations among discussion time, application funding and the productivity of funded research projects. PMID:23951223

  13. Teleconference versus face-to-face scientific peer review of grant application: effects on review outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A Gallo

    Full Text Available Teleconferencing as a setting for scientific peer review is an attractive option for funding agencies, given the substantial environmental and cost savings. Despite this, there is a paucity of published data validating teleconference-based peer review compared to the face-to-face process. Our aim was to conduct a retrospective analysis of scientific peer review data to investigate whether review setting has an effect on review process and outcome measures. We analyzed reviewer scoring data from a research program that had recently modified the review setting from face-to-face to a teleconference format with minimal changes to the overall review procedures. This analysis included approximately 1600 applications over a 4-year period: two years of face-to-face panel meetings compared to two years of teleconference meetings. The average overall scientific merit scores, score distribution, standard deviations and reviewer inter-rater reliability statistics were measured, as well as reviewer demographics and length of time discussing applications. The data indicate that few differences are evident between face-to-face and teleconference settings with regard to average overall scientific merit score, scoring distribution, standard deviation, reviewer demographics or inter-rater reliability. However, some difference was found in the discussion time. These findings suggest that most review outcome measures are unaffected by review setting, which would support the trend of using teleconference reviews rather than face-to-face meetings. However, further studies are needed to assess any correlations among discussion time, application funding and the productivity of funded research projects.

  14. Bridging the Otolaryngology Peer Review Knowledge Gap: A Call for a Residency Development Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalbach, Cecelia E

    2016-07-01

    Current otolaryngology literature and future scientific direction rely heavily on a rigorous peer review process. Just as manuscripts warrant thoughtful review with constructive feedback to the authors, the same can be said for critiques written by novice peer reviewers. Formal scientific peer review training programs are lacking. Recognizing this knowledge gap, Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery is excited to offer its new Resident Reviewer Development Program. All otolaryngology residents who are postgraduate year 2 and above and in excellent academic standing are eligible to participate in this mentored program, during which they will conduct 6 manuscript reviews under the direction of a seasoned reviewer in his or her subspecialty area of interest. By completing reviews alongside a mentor, participants gain the required skills to master the peer review process-a first step that often leads to journal editorial board and associate editor invitations. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  15. Potentially coercive self-citation by peer reviewers: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thombs, Brett D; Levis, Alexander W; Razykov, Ilya; Syamchandra, Achyuth; Leentjens, Albert F G; Levenson, James L; Lumley, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Peer reviewers sometimes request that authors cite their work, either appropriately or via coercive self-citation to highlight the reviewers' work. The objective of this study was to determine in peer reviews submitted to one biomedical journal (1) the extent of peer reviewer self-citation; (2) the proportion of reviews recommending revision or acceptance versus rejection that included reviewer self-citations; and (3) the proportion of reviewer self-citations versus citations to others that included a rationale. Peer reviews for manuscripts submitted in 2012 to the Journal of Psychosomatic Research were evaluated. Data extraction was performed independently by two investigators. There were 616 peer reviews (526 reviewers; 276 manuscripts), of which 444 recommended revision or acceptance and 172 rejection. Of 428 total citations, there were 122 peer reviewer self-citations (29%) and 306 citations to others' work (71%). Self-citations were more common in reviews recommending revision or acceptance (105 of 316 citations; 33%) versus rejection (17/112; 15%; pcitations with no rationale (26 of 122; 21%) was higher than for citations to others' work (15 of 306; 5%; pcitation in peer reviews is common and may reflect a combination of appropriate citation to research that should be cited in published articles and inappropriate citation intended to highlight the work of the peer reviewer. Providing instructions to peer reviewers about self-citation and asking them to indicate when and why they have self-cited may help to limit self-citation to appropriate, constructive recommendations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Thermophysical properties of uranium dioxide - Version 0 for peer review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, J.K.; Petri, M.C.

    1997-02-01

    Data on thermophysical properties of solid and liquid UO{sub 2} have been reviewed and critically assessed to obtain consistent thermophysical property recommendations for inclusion in the International Nuclear Safety Center Database on the World Wide Web (http://www.insc.anl.gov.). Thermodynamic properties that have been assessed are enthalpy, heat capacity, melting point, enthalpy of fusion, thermal expansion, density, surface tension, and vapor pressure. Transport properties that have been assessed are thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, viscosity, and emissivity. Summaries of the recommendations with uncertainties and detailed assessments for each property are included in this report and in the International Nuclear Safety Center Database for peer review. The assessments includes a review of the experiments and data, an examination of previous recommendations, the basis for selecting recommendations, a determination of uncertainties, and a comparison of recommendations with data and with previous recommendations. New data and research that have led to new recommendations include thermal expansion and density measurements of solid and liquid UO{sub 2}, derivation of physically-based equations for the thermal conductivity of solid UO{sub 2}, measurements of the heat capacity of liquid UO{sub 2}, and measurements and analysis of the thermal conductivity of liquid UO{sub 2}.

  17. DOE Hydrogen Program: 2010 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-01

    This document summarizes the comments provided by peer reviewers on hydrogen and fuel cell projects presented at the FY 2010 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR), held June 7-11, 2010 in Washington, D.C.

  18. Preparing English Learners for Effective Peer Review in the Writers' Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo Hyon

    2015-01-01

    English Language Learners (ELLs) often face challenges when participating in peer review activities in writers' workshops. This article identifies some of the potential difficulties that ELL writers may experience, and provides teachers with strategies to address these problems. The author describes a simple three-step peer review training model…

  19. Doing Peer Review and Receiving Feedback: Impact on Scientific Literacy and Writing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geithner, Christina A.; Pollastro, Alexandria N.

    2016-01-01

    Doing peer review has been effectively implemented to help students develop critical reading and writing skills; however, its application in Human Physiology programs is limited. The purpose of the present study was to determine the impact of peer review on Human Physiology majors' perceptions of their scientific literacy and writing skills.…

  20. The Multiple Faces of Peer Review in Higher Education. Five Learning Scenarios Developed for Digital Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Michael A.; Katzlinger, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Peer review, as an e-assessment tool incorporates the human factor to treat complexity for rating and grading students. It could address the qualitative more than quantitative aspects with flexible human feedback that leads up to metacognitive knowledge aspects, which e-assessment usually is not able to achieve. Peer review is an internationally…

  1. Working in Triads: A Case Study of a Peer Review Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, Peter; Bridgstock, Martin; Houston, Todd; Drew, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Peer review of teaching has become an accepted educational procedure in Australia to quality assure the quality of teaching practices. The institutional implementation of the peer review process can be viewed as genuine desire to improve teaching quality or an imposition from above as a measure of accountability and performativity. One approach is…

  2. Academic Excellence: A Commentary and Reflections on the Inherent Value of Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Thomas J.; Shambrook, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Academic peer review is widely viewed as fair, equitable, and essential to academic quality. Successfully completing the process through publication or award is widely deemed as one of the most rigorous and prestigious forms of scholarly accomplishment. Despite this sentiment the academic peer review process is not without fault. It is criticized…

  3. Assessing Postgraduate Student Perceptions and Measures of Learning in a Peer Review Feedback Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Genevieve; Clifton, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Peer review feedback, developed to assist students with increasing the quality of group reports and developing peer review skills, was added to a master's level Climate Change Policy and Planning unit. A pre- and post-survey was conducted to determine whether students found the process a valuable learning opportunity: 87% of students responding to…

  4. 76 FR 4113 - Independent Scientific Peer Review Panel Meeting on an In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Independent Scientific Peer Review Panel Meeting on an In Vitro Estrogen Receptor...); Announcement of an Independent Scientific Peer Review Panel Meeting on an In Vitro Estrogen Receptor... panel (Panel) to evaluate the validation status of LUMI-CELL ER (BG1Luc ER TA), an in vitro...

  5. Fraud and misconduct in science: the stem cell seduction: Implications for the peer-review process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heyden, M. A. G.; van de Ven, T. Derks; Opthof, T.

    2009-01-01

    Scientific misconduct and fraud occur in science. The (anonymous) peer review process serves as goalkeeper of scientific quality rather than scientific integrity. In this brief paper we describe some limitations of the peer-review process. We describe the catastrophic facts of the 'Woo-Suk Hwang

  6. Peer Functioning in Children with AD/HD: A Review of Current Understanding and Intervention Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Selda

    2009-01-01

    This review critically evaluates the existing research literature on the peer relationship problems of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Empirical evidence suggests that children with the disorder are severely impaired in the social area and strongly rejected by peers. The purposes of this article are to provide a review of…

  7. Guidelines for peer review. Veterans Administration Ad Hoc Interdisciplinary Advisory Committee on Antimicrobial Drug Usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-07

    Eigteen guideline-audits of antimicrobial usage have been prepared for use by hospital staffs for peer review. They may also be used as a national standard to assess the appropriate use of antimicrobial agents in hospitals. It is hoped that the guidelines will stimulate wide discussion and national peer review and will ultimately result in improved care of patients with infectious disease.

  8. Using Peer Reviews to Examine Micropolitics and Disciplinary Development of Engineering Education: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddoes, Kacey

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a case study of the peer review process for a feminist article submitted to an engineering education journal. It demonstrates how an examination of peer review can be a useful approach to further understanding the development of feminist thought in education fields. Rather than opposition to feminist thought per se, my…

  9. Peer Review of Teaching: Best Practices for a Non-Programmatic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, Jaena; Weare, William H., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Many academic librarians who provide library instruction have never received formal training in educational theory and methods. To bridge this gap and improve the teaching skills of instruction librarians, some academic libraries have established peer review of teaching programs. Despite the recognized benefits of peer review, it may not be…

  10. A Review of Peer-Mediated Social Interaction Interventions for Students with Autism in Inclusive Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Laci; O'Reilly, Mark; Kuhn, Michelle; Gevarter, Cindy; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lang, Russell

    2015-01-01

    This review addresses the use of peer-mediated interventions (PMI) to improve the social interaction skills of students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in inclusive settings. The purpose of this review is to (a) identify the characteristics and components of peer-mediated social interaction interventions, (b) evaluate the effectiveness of PMI…

  11. The Effect of Peer Review on Student Learning Outcomes in a Research Methods Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Jessica A.; Silva, Tony; Ceresola, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we test the effect of in-class student peer review on student learning outcomes using a quasiexperimental design. We provide an assessment of peer review in a quantitative research methods course, which is a traditionally difficult and technical course. Data were collected from 170 students enrolled in four sections of a…

  12. Two decades of external peer review of cancer care in general hospitals; the Dutch experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilsdonk, Melvin; Siesling, Sabine; Otter, R.; van Harten, Willem H.

    2015-01-01

    External peer review was introduced in general hospitals in the Netherlands in 1994 to assess and improve the multidisciplinary team approach in cancer care. This paper aims to explore the value, perceived impact, and (future) role of external peer review in cancer care. Semistructured interviews

  13. Virtual slides in peer reviewed, open access medical publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Klaus; Borkenfeld, Stephan; Goldmann, Torsten; Kayser, Gian

    2011-12-19

    Application of virtual slides (VS), the digitalization of complete glass slides, is in its infancy to be implemented in routine diagnostic surgical pathology and to issues that are related to tissue-based diagnosis, such as education and scientific publication. Electronic publication in Pathology offers new features of scientific communication in pathology that cannot be obtained by conventional paper based journals. Most of these features are based upon completely open or partly directed interaction between the reader and the system that distributes the article. One of these interactions can be applied to microscopic images allowing the reader to navigate and magnify the presented images. VS and interactive Virtual Microscopy (VM) are a tool to increase the scientific value of microscopic images. The open access journal Diagnostic Pathology http://www.diagnosticpathology.org has existed for about five years. It is a peer reviewed journal that publishes all types of scientific contributions, including original scientific work, case reports and review articles. In addition to digitized still images the authors of appropriate articles are requested to submit the underlying glass slides to an institution (DiagnomX.eu, and Leica.com) for digitalization and documentation. The images are stored in a separate image data bank which is adequately linked to the article. The normal review process is not involved. Both processes (peer review and VS acquisition) are performed contemporaneously in order to minimize a potential publication delay. VS are not provided with a DOI index (digital object identifier). The first articles that include VS were published in March 2011. Several logistic constraints had to be overcome until the first articles including VS could be published. Step by step an automated acquisition and distribution system had to be implemented to the corresponding article. The acceptance of VS by the reader is high as well as by the authors. Of specific value

  14. Virtual slides in peer reviewed, open access medical publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayser Klaus

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Application of virtual slides (VS, the digitalization of complete glass slides, is in its infancy to be implemented in routine diagnostic surgical pathology and to issues that are related to tissue-based diagnosis, such as education and scientific publication. Approach Electronic publication in Pathology offers new features of scientific communication in pathology that cannot be obtained by conventional paper based journals. Most of these features are based upon completely open or partly directed interaction between the reader and the system that distributes the article. One of these interactions can be applied to microscopic images allowing the reader to navigate and magnify the presented images. VS and interactive Virtual Microscopy (VM are a tool to increase the scientific value of microscopic images. Technology and Performance The open access journal Diagnostic Pathology http://www.diagnosticpathology.org has existed for about five years. It is a peer reviewed journal that publishes all types of scientific contributions, including original scientific work, case reports and review articles. In addition to digitized still images the authors of appropriate articles are requested to submit the underlying glass slides to an institution (DiagnomX.eu, and Leica.com for digitalization and documentation. The images are stored in a separate image data bank which is adequately linked to the article. The normal review process is not involved. Both processes (peer review and VS acquisition are performed contemporaneously in order to minimize a potential publication delay. VS are not provided with a DOI index (digital object identifier. The first articles that include VS were published in March 2011. Results and Perspectives Several logistic constraints had to be overcome until the first articles including VS could be published. Step by step an automated acquisition and distribution system had to be implemented to the corresponding

  15. "Are you gonna publish that?" Peer-reviewed publication outcomes of doctoral dissertations in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Spencer C; Amaro, Christina M; Herbert, Robyn; Blossom, Jennifer B; Roberts, Michael C

    2018-01-01

    If a doctoral dissertation represents an original investigation that makes a contribution to one's field, then dissertation research could, and arguably should, be disseminated into the scientific literature. However, the extent and nature of dissertation publication remains largely unknown within psychology. The present study investigated the peer-reviewed publication outcomes of psychology dissertation research in the United States. Additionally, we examined publication lag, scientific impact, and variations across subfields. To investigate these questions, we first drew a stratified random cohort sample of 910 psychology Ph.D. dissertations from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses. Next, we conducted comprehensive literature searches for peer-reviewed journal articles derived from these dissertations published 0-7 years thereafter. Published dissertation articles were coded for their bibliographic details, citation rates, and journal impact metrics. Results showed that only one-quarter (25.6% [95% CI: 23.0, 28.4]) of dissertations were ultimately published in peer-reviewed journals, with significant variations across subfields (range: 10.1 to 59.4%). Rates of dissertation publication were lower in professional/applied subfields (e.g., clinical, counseling) compared to research/academic subfields (e.g., experimental, cognitive). When dissertations were published, however, they often appeared in influential journals (e.g., Thomson Reuters Impact Factor M = 2.84 [2.45, 3.23], 5-year Impact Factor M = 3.49 [3.07, 3.90]) and were cited numerous times (Web of Science citations per year M = 3.65 [2.88, 4.42]). Publication typically occurred within 2-3 years after the dissertation year. Overall, these results indicate that the large majority of Ph.D. dissertation research in psychology does not get disseminated into the peer-reviewed literature. The non-publication of dissertation research appears to be a systemic problem affecting both research and training in psychology

  16. Do Peers Matter? A Review of Peer and/or Friends' Influence on Physical Activity among American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Amanda; Fitzgerald, Noelle; Aherne, Cian

    2012-01-01

    This systematic review investigated the relationship between peer and/or friend variables and physical activity among adolescents by synthesising cross-sectional, longitudinal, and experimental research conducted in the US. Seven electronic databases were searched to identify related articles published within the last 10 years and the articles…

  17. Multi-Stage Open Peer Review: Scientific Evaluation Integrating the Strengths of Traditional Peer Review with the Virtues of Transparency and Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöschl, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    The traditional forms of scientific publishing and peer review do not live up to all demands of efficient communication and quality assurance in today’s highly diverse and rapidly evolving world of science. They need to be advanced and complemented by interactive and transparent forms of review, publication, and discussion that are open to the scientific community and to the public. The advantages of open access, public peer review, and interactive discussion can be efficiently and flexibly combined with the strengths of traditional scientific peer review. Since 2001 the benefits and viability of this approach are clearly demonstrated by the highly successful interactive open access journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP, www.atmos-chem-phys.net) and a growing number of sister journals launched and operated by the European Geosciences Union (EGU, www.egu.eu) and the open access publisher Copernicus (www.copernicus.org). The interactive open access journals are practicing an integrative multi-stage process of publication and peer review combined with interactive public discussion, which effectively resolves the dilemma between rapid scientific exchange and thorough quality assurance. Key features and achievements of this approach are: top quality and impact, efficient self-regulation and low rejection rates, high attractivity and rapid growth, low costs, and financial sustainability. In fact, ACP and the EGU interactive open access sister journals are by most if not all standards more successful than comparable scientific journals with traditional or alternative forms of peer review (editorial statistics, publication statistics, citation statistics, economic costs, and sustainability). The high efficiency and predictive validity of multi-stage open peer review have been confirmed in a series of dedicated studies by evaluation experts from the social sciences, and the same or similar concepts have recently also been adopted in other disciplines, including

  18. A randomized controlled pilot study testing three types of health coaches for obesity treatment: Professional, Peer, and Mentor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahey, Tricia M.; Wing, Rena R.

    2012-01-01

    Despite their popularity, empirical support for health coaches is limited. This study examined the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of 3 types of coaching models for obesity treatment. Participants (N=44) were randomized to 6 months of reduced intensity group behavioral weight loss (rBWL) plus 1 of 3 types of health coaches: a) Professional (rBWL interventionist); b) Peer (group members randomly paired and coached one another); or c) Mentor (successful weight loser). Groups met weekly for the first 6-weeks, biweekly for the next 6-weeks, and monthly thereafter, for a total of 12 meetings. During weeks that group did not meet, participants emailed their weight loss information to their coach and received feedback. Coaches were trained on appropriate coaching strategies and feedback delivery. Retention was 95%. Participants emailed their progress to their coach 10.8±1.9 out of the 12 weeks that there were no group meetings. Coaches responded with feedback 94% of the time. Percent weight losses at 6-months were 9.6±8.1, 9.1±5.0, and 5.7±5.6 for the Professional, Peer, and Mentor conditions, respectively. More participants in the Professional and Peer conditions lost 10% of their initial body weight (Professional: 56%; Peer: 50%; Mentor: 17%), with a statistically significant difference between the Professional and Mentor conditions (p=0.03). These preliminary data suggest that combining a reduced intensity BWL program with health coaching may hold significant promise as a cost-effective obesity treatment paradigm. Larger trials are needed to conclusively determine whether adding coaches improves weight loss outcomes in reduced intensity treatments and to examine which type of coach is most effective. PMID:23784896

  19. Human trafficking: review of educational resources for health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Roy; Alpert, Elaine J; Purcell, Genevieve; Konstantopoulos, Wendy Macias; McGahan, Anita; Cafferty, Elizabeth; Eckardt, Melody; Conn, Kathryn L; Cappetta, Kate; Burke, Thomas F

    2013-03-01

    Human trafficking is an increasingly well-recognized human rights violation that is estimated to involve more than 2 million victims worldwide each year. The health consequences of this issue bring victims into contact with health systems and healthcare providers, thus providing the potential for identification and intervention. A robust healthcare response, however, requires a healthcare workforce that is aware of the health impact of this issue; educated about how to identify and treat affected individuals in a compassionate, culturally aware, and trauma-informed manner; and trained about how to collaborate efficiently with law enforcement, case management, and advocacy partners. This article describes existing educational offerings about human trafficking designed for a healthcare audience and makes recommendations for further curriculum development. A keyword search and structured analysis of peer-reviewed and gray literature, conducted in 2011 and 2012, yielded 27 items that provide basic guidance to health professionals on human trafficking. The 27 resources differed substantially in format, length, scope, and intended audience. Topic areas covered by these resources included trafficking definitions and scope, health consequences, victim identification, appropriate treatment, referral to services, legal issues, and security. None of the educational resources has been rigorously evaluated. There is a clear need to develop, implement, and evaluate high-quality education and training programs that focus on human trafficking for healthcare providers. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The effects of an editor serving as one of the reviewers during the peer-review process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordan, Marco; Csikasz-Nagy, Attila; Collings, Andrew M; Vaggi, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Background Publishing in scientific journals is one of the most important ways in which scientists disseminate research to their peers and to the wider public. Pre-publication peer review underpins this process, but peer review is subject to various criticisms and is under pressure from growth in the number of scientific publications. Methods Here we examine an element of the editorial process at eLife, in which the Reviewing Editor usually serves as one of the referees, to see what effect this has on decision times, decision type, and the number of citations. We analysed a dataset of 8,905 research submissions to eLife since June 2012, of which 2,747 were sent for peer review. This subset of 2747 papers was then analysed in detail.   Results The Reviewing Editor serving as one of the peer reviewers results in faster decision times on average, with the time to final decision ten days faster for accepted submissions (n=1,405) and five days faster for papers that were rejected after peer review (n=1,099). Moreover, editors acting as reviewers had no effect on whether submissions were accepted or rejected, and a very small (but significant) effect on citation rates. Conclusions An important aspect of eLife's peer-review process is shown to be effective, given that decision times are faster when the Reviewing Editor serves as a reviewer. Other journals hoping to improve decision times could consider adopting a similar approach.

  1. How peer-review constrains cognition: on the frontline in the knowledge sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    Peer-review is neither reliable, fair, nor a valid basis for predicting 'impact': as quality control, peer-review is not fit for purpose. Endorsing the consensus, I offer a reframing: while a normative social process, peer-review also shapes the writing of a scientific paper. In so far as 'cognition' describes enabling conditions for flexible behavior, the practices of peer-review thus constrain knowledge-making. To pursue cognitive functions of peer-review, however, manuscripts must be seen as 'symbolizations', replicable patterns that use technologically enabled activity. On this bio-cognitive view, peer-review constrains knowledge-making by writers, editors, reviewers. Authors are prompted to recursively re-aggregate symbolizations to present what are deemed acceptable knowledge claims. How, then, can recursive re-embodiment be explored? In illustration, I sketch how the paper's own content came to be re-aggregated: agonistic review drove reformatting of argument structure, changes in rhetorical ploys and careful choice of wordings. For this reason, the paper's knowledge-claims can be traced to human activity that occurs in distributed cognitive systems. Peer-review is on the frontline in the knowledge sector in that it delimits what can count as knowing. Its systemic nature is therefore crucial to not only discipline-centered 'real' science but also its 'post-academic' counterparts.

  2. How peer review constrains cognition: on the frontline in the knowledge sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen John Cowley

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Peer-review is neither reliable, fair, nor a valid basis for predicting ‘impact’: as quality control, peer-review is not fit for purpose. Given this consensus, I propose another framing: while a normative social process, peer-review also shapes the flexible behavior called ‘writing’ a scientific paper. In so far as ‘cognition’ describes the enabling conditions for flexible behaviour, the practices of peer-review thus constrain knowledge-making. To pursue cognitive functions of peer-review, however, manuscripts must be seen as ‘symbolizations’, replicable patterns that use technologically enabled activity. On this bio-cognitive view, peer-review constrains knowledge-making by writers, editors, reviewers. Authors are prompted to recursively re-aggregate symbolizations to present what are deemed acceptable knowledge claims. How, then, can recursive re-embodiment be explored? In illustration, I sketch how the paper’s own content came to be re-aggregated: agonistic review drove reformatting of argument structure, changes in rhetorical ploys and careful choice of wordings. For this reason, the paper’s knowledge-claims can be traced to human activity that occurs in distributed cognitive systems. Peer-review is on the frontline in the knowledge sector in that it delimits what can count as knowing. Its systemic nature is therefore crucial to not only discipline-centered ‘real’ science but also its ‘post-academic’ counterparts.

  3. Development of a peer-review framework for cancer multidisciplinary meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Claire E; Slavova-Azmanova, Neli; Saunders, Christobel

    2017-05-01

    There is no mechanism in place for monitoring or quality improvement of cancer multidisciplinary meetings (MDM) in Australia. To develop a peer-review process for quality improvement of MDM. This project involved three phases: (i) development of a draft peer-review framework, supporting documents and peer-review process; (ii) consultation with key stakeholders; (iii) refinement of the framework, documents and processes following a pilot study with three MDM. Feedback indicated that specific standards included in the framework needed to allow the peer reviewers to be flexible relative to the circumstances of the individual MDM. Conversely, feedback identified the need for clear, evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for the conduct of MDM, with accepted standards and objective measures of performance. MDM members were divided about the need to employ peer reviewers from the tumour stream of the MDM under review but agreed that closer involvement of the team under review to support the implementation of recommendations is warranted. We developed an adaptable peer-review framework and process using the current available evidence and guidance. While further research is needed to establish what constitutes best practice in MDM and which processes contribute to improved patient outcomes, the structured peer-review process we describe, when modified using the disease-relevant evidence, could be utilised more broadly as a quality improvement tool. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  4. Maximizing Undergraduate Success By Combining Research Experiences with Outreach, Peer Mentoring and Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, B. C.

    2014-12-01

    The C-MORE Scholars Program provides hands-on, closely mentored research experiences to University of Hawaii (UH) undergraduates during the academic year. Students majoring in the geosciences, especially underrepresented students, from all campuses are encouraged to apply. The academic-year research is complemented by outreach, professional development and summer internships. Combined, these experiences help students develop the skills, confidence and passion that are essential to success in a geoscience career. Research. All students enter the program as trainees, where they learn lab and field research methods, computer skills and science principles. After one year, they are encouraged to reapply as interns, where they work on their own research project. Students who have successfully completed their intern year can reapply as fellows, where they conduct an independent research project such as an honors thesis. Students present their research at a Symposium through posters (trainees) or talks (interns and fellows). Interns and fellows help organize program activities and serve as peer mentors to trainees.Multi-tiered programs that build a pathway toward graduation have been shown to increase student retention and graduation success. Outreach. Undergraduate researchers rarely feel like experts when working with graduate students and faculty. For students to develop their identity as scientists, it is essential that they be given the opportunity to assume the role as expert. Engaging students in outreach is a win-win situation. Students gain valuable skills and confidence in sharing their research with their local community, and the public gets to learn about exciting research happening at UH. Professional Development. Each month, the Scholars meet to develop their professional skills on a particular topic, such as outreach, scientific presentations, interviewing, networking, and preparing application materials for jobs, scholarships and summer REUs. Students are

  5. Pre-university Chemistry Students in a Mimicked Scholarly Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rens, Lisette; Hermarij, Philip; Pilot, Albert; Beishuizen, Jos; Hofman, Herman; Wal, Marjolein

    2014-10-01

    Peer review is a significant component in scientific research. Introducing peer review into inquiry processes may be regarded as an aim to develop student understanding regarding quality in inquiries. This study examines student understanding in inquiry peer reviews among pre-university chemistry students, aged 16-17, when they enact a design of a mimicked scholarly peer review. This design is based on a model of a human activity system. Twenty-five different schools in Brazil, Germany, Poland and The Netherlands participated. The students (n = 880) conducted in small groups (n = 428) open inquiries on fermentation. All groups prepared an inquiry report for peer review. These reports were published on a website. Groups were randomly paired in an internet symposium, where they posted review comments to their peers. These responses were qualitatively analyzed on small groups' level of understanding regarding seven categories: inquiry question, hypothesis, management of control variables, accurate measurement, presenting results, reliability of results, discussion and conclusion. The mimicked scholarly review prompted a collective practice. Student understanding was significantly well on presenting results, discussion and conclusion, and significantly less on inquiry question and reliability of results. An enacted design, based on a model of a human activity system, created student understanding of quality in inquiries as well as an insight in a peer-reviewing practice. To what extent this model can be applied in a broader context of design research in science education needs further study.

  6. A Peer Reviewed Digital Library: New feature in RBEBBM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Galembeck

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The  RBEBBM  publishes  papers  on  Biochemistry  and  Molecular  Biology  Education  mostly,  but  not  research  papers exclusively. The RBEBBM readers are not only interested in research papers but also in any kinds of resources that are  useful  to  improve  their  classes.  In  order  to  fulfill  the  biochemistry  community  needs  expressed  in  the  2004 Workshop on Biochemistry Education, that took place at the 2004 SBBq annual meeting, new features were added to the RBEBBM. Started in March 2006, a digital library that publishes several kinds of materials, such as software, images, thesis and monographs,  were  incorporated  to  the  RBEBBM  collection.  In  its  new  format,  every  submitted  content  is  peer reviewed before it is published. Another improvement was the offer of new tools for both authors and users, such as statistics  of  views  and  downloads,  and  interaction  tools  between  authors  and  users,  including  a  discussion  forum exclusive to every resource published and user evaluation. We  have  obtained  an  innovative  model  for  digital  libraries  which  includes  peer  review,  user  evaluation  and communication channels. This model brings users to the development of a more active role when using these tools.

  7. Social functioning and peer relationships in children and adolescents with chronic pain: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgeron, Paula A; King, Sara; Stinson, Jennifer N; McGrath, Patrick J; MacDonald, Amanda J; Chambers, Christine T

    2010-01-01

    Peer relationships during childhood and adolescence are acknowledged to be negatively impacted by chronic pain; however, to date there has been no synthesis of this literature. To systematically review existing literature describing the social functioning and peer relationships in children and adolescents with recurrent or continuous chronic pain. Articles on peer relationship factors studied in samples of children and adolescents with chronic pain published in English or French were identified using EMBASE, Medline, CINAHL and PsycINFO. Two independent reviewers performed initial screenings using study titles and abstracts, and reviewed each eligible article in full. Of 1740 published papers yielded by the search, 42 articles met the inclusion criteria and were included in the present review. Nine studies had peer relationship investigation as the primary purpose of the study; the remaining 33 examined peer relationships as part of a broader study. A range of specific and more general measures was used to examine peer relationships. Across studies, children and adolescents with chronic pain were reported to have fewer friends, be subjected to more peer victimization, and were viewed as more isolated and less likeable than healthy peers. Children and adolescents with chronic pain have peer relationship deficiencies. However, the majority of studies to date measure peer relationships as part of a broader study and, thus, little attention has been paid specifically to peer relationships in this group. Additional research examining the quality of peer relationships of children and adolescents with chronic pain, as well as development of measures specifically designed to assess these relationships, is needed.

  8. Relationship between eating behaviors and physical activity of preschoolers and their peers: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Stéphanie A; Bélanger, Mathieu F; Donovan, Denise; Carrier, Natalie

    2016-04-14

    Children learn by observing and imitating others, meaning that their eating behaviors and physical activity may be influenced by their peers. This paper systematically reviews how preschoolers' eating behaviors and physical activity relate to their peers' behaviors, and discusses avenues for future research. Six databases were searched for quantitative, peer-reviewed studies published up to July 2015 reporting on the correlates, predictors or effectiveness of peers on eating behaviors and physical activity in preschoolers. Risk of bias was independently assessed by two evaluators using the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies. Thirteen articles were included: six measured physical activity, and seven assessed eating behaviors. Four of the six physical activity studies reported that children were more active when peers were present, while large peer group size was negatively associated with physical activity in two cross-sectional studies. All nutrition interventions reported that children's eating behaviors may be influenced by their peers. Although supported by weak evidence, peers appear to influence children's eating behaviors and physical activity. However, this influence may be moderated by the number of peers, gender, age and the perceived status of the role models. Future obesity prevention interventions should consider involving peers as agents for positive eating behaviors and physical activity in preschoolers.

  9. What is open peer review? A systematic review [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 3 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Ross-Hellauer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: “Open peer review” (OPR, despite being a major pillar of Open Science, has neither a standardized definition nor an agreed schema of its features and implementations. The literature reflects this, with numerous overlapping and contradictory definitions. While for some the term refers to peer review where the identities of both author and reviewer are disclosed to each other, for others it signifies systems where reviewer reports are published alongside articles. For others it signifies both of these conditions, and for yet others it describes systems where not only “invited experts” are able to comment. For still others, it includes a variety of combinations of these and other novel methods. Methods: Recognising the absence of a consensus view on what open peer review is, this article undertakes a systematic review of definitions of “open peer review” or “open review”, to create a corpus of 122 definitions. These definitions are systematically analysed to build a coherent typology of the various innovations in peer review signified by the term, and hence provide the precise technical definition currently lacking. Results: This quantifiable data yields rich information on the range and extent of differing definitions over time and by broad subject area. Quantifying definitions in this way allows us to accurately portray exactly how ambiguously the phrase “open peer review” has been used thus far, for the literature offers 22 distinct configurations of seven traits, effectively meaning that there are 22 different definitions of OPR in the literature reviewed. Conclusions: I propose a pragmatic definition of open peer review as an umbrella term for a number of overlapping ways that peer review models can be adapted in line with the aims of Open Science, including making reviewer and author identities open, publishing review reports and enabling greater participation in the peer review process.

  10. 75 FR 7522 - Peer Review, Conflict of Interest and Disclosure Form; Request for the Office of Management and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Peer Review, Conflict of Interest and Disclosure Form; Request... whether or not a conflict of interest exists for a potential peer review panel member. ] DATES: Comments... prevention of occupational injuries, illnesses, and accidents (29 U.S.C. 657). OSHA conducts peer reviews to...

  11. Addressing Clinical Faculty Need: Creating a Process and Evaluation for Peer Review of Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Y. Moon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe the evolving process and evaluate the perceived value of peer review for clinical faculty. Methods: Using a 5-point Likert scale, clinical faculty rated the value of an electronic peer review process by completing an electronic 30 item survey across six areas of clinical faculty practice-related activity. Based on feedback, modifications were made and faculty were re-surveyed the following year. Results: Initially, 78% of faculty found peer review to be beneficial, mostly in the area of practice development and portions of practice dissemination. After modifications, 45% found peer review to be beneficial. Conclusions: Clinical faculty are challenged to leverage their practice into teaching and scholarly activities; however, clinical faculty often need feedback to accomplish this. Although the peer review process was designed to address perceived needs of clinical faculty, the process is dynamic and needs further refinement. Overall, clinical faculty find value in a peer review process. This evaluation of peer review illustrates the challenges to provide feedback across six key areas of clinical faculty activity.   Type: Original Research

  12. Stretched peer-review on unexpected results (GMOs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhr, A I

    2005-01-01

    Science is the basis for governance of risk from genetically modified organisms (GMO), and it is also a primary source of legitimacy for policy decision. However, recently the publication of unexpected results has caused controversies and challenged the way in which science should be performed, be published in scientific journals, and how preliminary results should be communicated. These studies have subsequently, after being accepted for publication within the peer-review process of leading scientific journals, been thoroughly re-examined by many actors active within the GMO debate and thereby drawn extensive media coverage. The publicized charges that the research involved does not constitute significant evidence or represent bad science have in fact deflected attention away from the important questions related to ecological and health risks raised by the research. In this paper, I will argue that unexpected findings may represent "early warnings." Although early warnings may not represent reality, such reports are necessary to inform other scientists and regulators, and should be followed up by further research to reveal the validity of the warnings. Furthermore, science that embraces robust, participatory and transparent approaches will be imperative in the future to reduce the present controversy surrounding GMO use and release.

  13. Eyes wide open: reader and author responsibility in understanding the limits of peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, P J

    2015-10-01

    'Medical science can only flourish in a free society and dies under totalitarian repression.' (1) Peer review post-publication is relatively easy to define: when the world decides the importance of publication. Peer review pre-publication is what the scientific community frequently means when using the term 'peer review'. But what it is it? Few will agree on an exact definition; generally speaking, it refers to an independent, third party scrutiny of a manuscript by scientific experts (called peers) who advise on its suitability for publication. Peer review is expensive; although reviewers are unpaid, the cost in time is enormous and it is slow. There is often little agreement among reviewers about whether an article should be published and peer review can be a lottery. Often referred to as a quality assurance process, there are many examples of when peer review failed. Many will be aware of Woo-Suk Hwang's shocking stem cell research misconduct at Seoul National University. (2) Science famously published two breakthrough articles that were found subsequently to be completely fabricated and this happened in spite of peer review. Science is not unique in making this error. However, love it or hate it, peer review, for the present time at least, is here to stay. In this article, Philippa Benson, Managing Editor of Science Advances (the first open access journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science), discusses the merits of peer review. Dr Benson has extensive experience in the publishing world and was Executive Director of PJB Consulting, a not-for-profit organisation supporting clients on issues related to converting to full electronic publishing workflows as well as challenges working with international authors and publishers. Her clients included the Public Library of Science journals, the American Society for Nutrition and the de Beaumont Foundation. She recently co-authored a book, What Editors Want: An Author's Guide to Scientific Journal

  14. Implementing Head and Neck Contouring Peer Review without Pathway Delay: The On-demand Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, C; Sanghera, P; Good, J; Nightingale, P; Hartley, A

    2017-10-05

    Peer review of contour volume is a priority in the radiotherapy treatment quality assurance process for head and neck cancer. It is essential that incorporation of peer review activity does not introduce additional delays. An on-demand peer review process was piloted to assess the feasibility and efficiency of this approach, as compared with a historic scheduled weekly approach. Between November 2016 and April 2017 four head and neck clinicians in one centre took part in an on-demand peer review process. Cases were of radical or adjuvant intent of any histology and submitted on a voluntary basis. The outcome of contour peer review would be one of unchanged (UC), unchanged with variation or discretion noted (UV), minor change (M) or significant change (S). The time difference between the completion of the on-demand peer review was compared with the time difference to a hypothetical next Monday or Tuesday weekly peer review meeting. The time taken to review each case was also documented in the latter period of the pilot project. In total, 62 cases underwent peer review. Peer review on-demand provided dosimetrists with an average of an extra two working days available per case to meet treatment start dates. The proportion of cases with outcomes UC, UV, M and S were 45%, 16%, 26% and 13%, respectively. The mean peer review time spent per case was 17 min (12 cases). The main reason for S was discrepancy in imaging interpretation (4/8 cases). A lower proportion of oropharyngeal cases were submitted and had S outcomes. A higher proportion of complex cases, e.g. sinonasal/nasopharynx location or previous downstaging chemotherapy had S outcomes. The distribution of S outcomes appears to be similar regardless of clinician experience. The level of peer review activity among individuals differed by workload and job timetable. On-demand peer review of the head and neck contour volume is feasible, reduces delay to the start of dosimetry planning and bypasses the logistical

  15. Training health professionals in smoking cessation (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carson, K.V.; Verbiest, M.E.; Crone, M.R.; Brinn, M.P.; Esterman, A.J.; Assendelft, W.J.J.; Smith, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is one of the leading causes of preventable death world wide. There is good evidence that brief interventions from health professionals can increase smoking cessation attempts. A number of trials have examined whether skills training for health professionals can lead

  16. A multi-disciplinary perspective on emergent and future innovations in peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Jonathan P; Dugan, Jonathan M; Graziotin, Daniel; Jacques, Damien C; Waldner, François; Mietchen, Daniel; Elkhatib, Yehia; B Collister, Lauren; Pikas, Christina K; Crick, Tom; Masuzzo, Paola; Caravaggi, Anthony; Berg, Devin R; Niemeyer, Kyle E; Ross-Hellauer, Tony; Mannheimer, Sara; Rigling, Lillian; Katz, Daniel S; Greshake Tzovaras, Bastian; Pacheco-Mendoza, Josmel; Fatima, Nazeefa; Poblet, Marta; Isaakidis, Marios; Irawan, Dasapta Erwin; Renaut, Sébastien; Madan, Christopher R; Matthias, Lisa; Nørgaard Kjær, Jesper; O'Donnell, Daniel Paul; Neylon, Cameron; Kearns, Sarah; Selvaraju, Manojkumar; Colomb, Julien

    2017-01-01

    Peer review of research articles is a core part of our scholarly communication system. In spite of its importance, the status and purpose of peer review is often contested. What is its role in our modern digital research and communications infrastructure? Does it perform to the high standards with which it is generally regarded? Studies of peer review have shown that it is prone to bias and abuse in numerous dimensions, frequently unreliable, and can fail to detect even fraudulent research. With the advent of web technologies, we are now witnessing a phase of innovation and experimentation in our approaches to peer review. These developments prompted us to examine emerging models of peer review from a range of disciplines and venues, and to ask how they might address some of the issues with our current systems of peer review. We examine the functionality of a range of social Web platforms, and compare these with the traits underlying a viable peer review system: quality control, quantified performance metrics as engagement incentives, and certification and reputation. Ideally, any new systems will demonstrate that they out-perform and reduce the biases of existing models as much as possible. We conclude that there is considerable scope for new peer review initiatives to be developed, each with their own potential issues and advantages. We also propose a novel hybrid platform model that could, at least partially, resolve many of the socio-technical issues associated with peer review, and potentially disrupt the entire scholarly communication system. Success for any such development relies on reaching a critical threshold of research community engagement with both the process and the platform, and therefore cannot be achieved without a significant change of incentives in research environments.

  17. Peer, professional, and public: an analysis of the drugs policy advocacy community in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, Aileen; Quigley, Eoghan; Zobel, Frank; Moore, Kerri

    2014-09-01

    In recent decades a range of advocacy organisations have emerged on the drugs policy landscape seeking to shape the development of policy at national and international levels. This development has been facilitated by the expansion of 'democratic spaces' for civil society participation in governance fora at national and supranational level. However, little is known about these policy actors - their aims, scope, organisational structure, or the purpose of their engagement. Drug policy advocacy organisations were defined as organisations with a clearly stated aim to influence policy and which were based in Europe. Data on these organisations was collected through a systematic tri-lingual (English, French and Spanish) Internet search, supplemented by information provided by national agencies in the 28 EU member states, Norway and Turkey. In order to differentiate between the diverse range of activities, strategies and standpoints of these groups, information from the websites was used to categorise the organisations by their scope of operation, advocacy tools and policy constituencies; and by three key typologies - the type of advocacy they engaged in, their organisational type, and their advocacy objectives and orientation. The study identified over two hundred EU-based advocacy organisations (N=218) which included civil society associations, NGOs, and large-scale alliances and coalitions, operating at local, national and European levels. Three forms of advocacy emerged from the data analysis - peer, professional and public policy. These groups focused their campaigns on practice development (harm reduction or abstinence) and legislative reform (reducing or strengthening drug controls). The findings from this study provide a nuanced profile of civil society advocacy as a policy community in the drugs field; their legitimacy to represent cases, causes, social values and ideals; and their focus on both insider and outsider strategies to achieve their goals. The level of

  18. Long term operation of nuclear power plants – IAEA SALTO peer review service and its results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivanek, Robert, E-mail: r.krivanek@iaea.org

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • SALTO peer review service is designed for reviewing of ageing management and NPPs’ preparedness LTO. • It has been established as an effective tool to review the compliance with IAEA safety standards. • The important issues for safe LTO are being identified by SALTO missions. • Analysis of those issues is provided in the paper. • This peer review service is strongly recommended for NPPs prior to entering LTO period. - Abstract: This paper presents main IAEA activities for safe long term operation (LTO) which includes establishment of IAEA Safety Standards and other LTO related documents, fostering information exchange and establishing databases and provision of SALTO (Safety Aspects of Long Term Operation) peer review service. This paper provides insights into IAEA SALTO peer review service objectives, scope and methodology. The SALTO peer review service was designed to assist nuclear power plant (NPP) operators in adopting a proper approach to LTO of their plants and in implementing complete and appropriate activities to ensure that plant safety will be maintained during the LTO period. The SALTO peer review service can also support regulators in establishing or improving regulatory and licensing strategies for LTO of NPPs. Issues derived from 19 SALTO missions and 2 LTO modules of OSART (Operational Safety Review Team) missions conducted during the period of 2005 to March 2014 are also analyzed in this paper.

  19. The Reliability and Validity of Peer Review of Writing in High School AP English Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunn, Christian; Godley, Amanda; DeMartino, Sara

    2016-01-01

    One approach to writing instruction that has been shown to improve secondary students' academic writing without increasing demands on teachers' time is peer review. However, many teachers and students worry that students' feedback and assessment of their peers' writing is less accurate than teachers'. This study investigated whether Advanced…

  20. Power of Peer Review: An Online Collaborative Learning Assignment in Social Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathey, Christie

    2007-01-01

    In a semester-long, peer review assignment, undergraduates enrolled in a social psychology course wrote essays that applied course concepts to life experiences. Students anonymously posted essays for the entire class to view, and peers posted commentaries on classmates' essays using an online discussion board. Students rated the assignment as…

  1. Dyads versus Groups: Using Different Social Structures in Peer Review to Enhance Online Collaborative Learning Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, Francesca; Ceregini, Andrea; Ferlino, Lucia; Persico, Donatella

    2016-01-01

    The Peer Review (PR) is a very popular technique to support socio-constructivist and connectivist learning processes, online or face-to-face, at all educational levels, in both formal and informal contexts. The idea behind this technique is that sharing views and opinions with others by discussing with peers and receiving and providing formative…

  2. Allowing Students to Select Deliverables for Peer Review: Analysis of a Free-Selection Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.; Lagkas, Thomas; Demetriadis, Stavros

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the benefits and limitations of a “free-selection” peer assignment protocol by comparing them to the widely implemented “assigned-pair” protocol. The primary motivation was to circumvent the issues that often appear to the instructors implementing peer review activities with p...

  3. Is Peer Victimization Associated with Academic Achievement? A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Jonathan; Schwartz, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a meta-analytic review of 33 studies, with a total of 29,552 participants, that examined the concurrent association between peer victimization and academic achievement. The results revealed a small but significant negative correlation between peer victimization and academic achievement under both the random-effects model (r =…

  4. Peer-Assisted Learning in School Physical Education, Sport and Physical Activity Programmes: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkinson, Kate. A.; Naughton, Geraldine; Benson, Amanda C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Peer-assisted learning (PAL) is a teaching strategy utilised in both the general classroom and physical education. Through the interaction with same-age or cross-age peers, learning can occur across various domains. Purpose: This review aimed to identify school-based PAL interventions and assess the tutor training provided, as well as…

  5. Open and Anonymous Peer Review in a Digital Online Environment Compared in Academic Writing Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razi, Salim

    2016-01-01

    This study compares the impact of "open" and "anonymous" peer feedback as an adjunct to teacher-mediated feedback in a digital online environment utilising data gathered on an academic writing course at a Turkish university. Students were divided into two groups with similar writing proficiencies. Students peer reviewed papers…

  6. A workstation-integrated peer review quality assurance program: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, Margaret M; Davis, Todd M; Siminoski, Kerry

    2013-07-04

    The surrogate indicator of radiological excellence that has become accepted is consistency of assessments between radiologists, and the technique that has become the standard for evaluating concordance is peer review. This study describes the results of a workstation-integrated peer review program in a busy outpatient radiology practice. Workstation-based peer review was performed using the software program Intelerad Peer Review. Cases for review were randomly chosen from those being actively reported. If an appropriate prior study was available, and if the reviewing radiologist and the original interpreting radiologist had not exceeded review targets, the case was scored using the modified RADPEER system. There were 2,241 cases randomly assigned for peer review. Of selected cases, 1,705 (76%) were interpreted. Reviewing radiologists agreed with prior reports in 99.1% of assessments. Positive feedback (score 0) was given in three cases (0.2%) and concordance (scores of 0 to 2) was assigned in 99.4%, similar to reported rates of 97.0% to 99.8%. Clinically significant discrepancies (scores of 3 or 4) were identified in 10 cases (0.6%). Eighty-eight percent of reviewed radiologists found the reviews worthwhile, 79% found scores appropriate, and 65% felt feedback was appropriate. Two-thirds of radiologists found case rounds discussing significant discrepancies to be valuable. The workstation-based computerized peer review process used in this pilot project was seamlessly incorporated into the normal workday and met most criteria for an ideal peer review system. Clinically significant discrepancies were identified in 0.6% of cases, similar to published outcomes using the RADPEER system. Reviewed radiologists felt the process was worthwhile.

  7. Problematic Peer Functioning in Girls with ADHD: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Yvonne; Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Tucha, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Objective Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience many peer interaction problems and are at risk of peer rejection and victimisation. Although many studies have investigated problematic peer functioning in children with ADHD, this research has predominantly focused on boys and studies investigating girls are scant. Those studies that did examine girls, often used a male comparison sample, disregarding the inherent gender differences between girls and boys. Previous studies have highlighted this limitation and recommended the need for comparisons between ADHD females and typical females, in order to elucidate the picture of female ADHD with regards to problematic peer functioning. The aim of this literature review was to gain insight into peer functioning difficulties in school-aged girls with ADHD. Methods PsychINFO, PubMed, and Web of Knowledge were searched for relevant literature comparing school-aged girls with ADHD to typically developing girls (TDs) in relation to peer functioning. The peer relationship domains were grouped into ‘friendship’, ‘peer status’, ‘social skills/competence’, and ‘peer victimisation and bullying’. In total, thirteen studies were included in the review. Results All of the thirteen studies included reported that girls with ADHD, compared to TD girls, demonstrated increased difficulties in the domains of friendship, peer interaction, social skills and functioning, peer victimization and externalising behaviour. Studies consistently showed small to medium effects for lower rates of friendship participation and stability in girls with ADHD relative to TD girls. Higher levels of peer rejection with small to large effect sizes were reported in all studies, which were predicted by girls’ conduct problems. Peer rejection in turn predicted poor social adjustment and a host of problem behaviours. Very high levels of peer victimisation were present in girls with ADHD with large effect sizes

  8. Problematic Peer Functioning in Girls with ADHD: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Francien M; Groen, Yvonne; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience many peer interaction problems and are at risk of peer rejection and victimisation. Although many studies have investigated problematic peer functioning in children with ADHD, this research has predominantly focused on boys and studies investigating girls are scant. Those studies that did examine girls, often used a male comparison sample, disregarding the inherent gender differences between girls and boys. Previous studies have highlighted this limitation and recommended the need for comparisons between ADHD females and typical females, in order to elucidate the picture of female ADHD with regards to problematic peer functioning. The aim of this literature review was to gain insight into peer functioning difficulties in school-aged girls with ADHD. PsychINFO, PubMed, and Web of Knowledge were searched for relevant literature comparing school-aged girls with ADHD to typically developing girls (TDs) in relation to peer functioning. The peer relationship domains were grouped into 'friendship', 'peer status', 'social skills/competence', and 'peer victimisation and bullying'. In total, thirteen studies were included in the review. All of the thirteen studies included reported that girls with ADHD, compared to TD girls, demonstrated increased difficulties in the domains of friendship, peer interaction, social skills and functioning, peer victimization and externalising behaviour. Studies consistently showed small to medium effects for lower rates of friendship participation and stability in girls with ADHD relative to TD girls. Higher levels of peer rejection with small to large effect sizes were reported in all studies, which were predicted by girls' conduct problems. Peer rejection in turn predicted poor social adjustment and a host of problem behaviours. Very high levels of peer victimisation were present in girls with ADHD with large effect sizes. Further, very high levels of social impairment

  9. Problematic Peer Functioning in Girls with ADHD: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francien M Kok

    Full Text Available Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD experience many peer interaction problems and are at risk of peer rejection and victimisation. Although many studies have investigated problematic peer functioning in children with ADHD, this research has predominantly focused on boys and studies investigating girls are scant. Those studies that did examine girls, often used a male comparison sample, disregarding the inherent gender differences between girls and boys. Previous studies have highlighted this limitation and recommended the need for comparisons between ADHD females and typical females, in order to elucidate the picture of female ADHD with regards to problematic peer functioning. The aim of this literature review was to gain insight into peer functioning difficulties in school-aged girls with ADHD.PsychINFO, PubMed, and Web of Knowledge were searched for relevant literature comparing school-aged girls with ADHD to typically developing girls (TDs in relation to peer functioning. The peer relationship domains were grouped into 'friendship', 'peer status', 'social skills/competence', and 'peer victimisation and bullying'. In total, thirteen studies were included in the review.All of the thirteen studies included reported that girls with ADHD, compared to TD girls, demonstrated increased difficulties in the domains of friendship, peer interaction, social skills and functioning, peer victimization and externalising behaviour. Studies consistently showed small to medium effects for lower rates of friendship participation and stability in girls with ADHD relative to TD girls. Higher levels of peer rejection with small to large effect sizes were reported in all studies, which were predicted by girls' conduct problems. Peer rejection in turn predicted poor social adjustment and a host of problem behaviours. Very high levels of peer victimisation were present in girls with ADHD with large effect sizes. Further, very high levels of

  10. Opening up Peer Review in Life: Towards a Transparent and Reliable Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pabulo Henrique Rampelotto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As an advocate of the transparency on the peer review process, during the last months, I’ve been working with MDPI to implant a new system of open peer review, under which the peer-review reports and authors’ responses are published as an integral part of the final version of each article. This new model of publishing associated with the open access platform of MDPI result in one of the most transparent, unbiased, democratic and reliable assessment of research currently available. Life is the first MDPI journal to make this courageous step towards open peer-review in order to demonstrate the rigorous, fair and efficient standard of our editorial work. The first paper published under this new policy was a manuscript written by a Nobelist and reviewed by three experts in the field, as highlighted in this editorial.

  11. Peer Observation of Teaching: The Interaction between Peer Review and Developmental Models of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiend, Jenny; Weller, Saranne; Kinchin, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Teaching observation is widely promoted as a mechanism for developing teaching practice in higher education. Specifically, formative peer observation is considered by many to be a powerful tool for providing feedback to individual teachers, disseminating disciplinary good practice and fostering a local evaluative enhancement culture. Despite its…

  12. Peer Assessment of Clinical Skills and Professional Behaviors among Undergraduate Athletic Training Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Jeanine E.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Peer assessment is widely used in medical education as a formative evaluation and preparatory tool for students. Athletic training students learn similar knowledge, skills, and affective traits as medical students. Peer assessment has been widely studied with beneficial results in medical education, yet athletic training education has…

  13. Automated Assessment of the Quality of Peer Reviews Using Natural Language Processing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Lakshmi; Gehringer, Edward F.; Yadav, Ravi K.

    2017-01-01

    A "review" is textual feedback provided by a reviewer to the author of a submitted version. Peer reviews are used in academic publishing and in education to assess student work. While reviews are important to e-commerce sites like Amazon and e-bay, which use them to assess the quality of products and services, our work focuses on…

  14. Duration and quality of the peer review process: the author’s perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, A.H.M.; Smits, J.P.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    To gain insight into the duration and quality of the scientific peer review process, we analyzed data from 3500 review experiences submitted by authors to the SciRev.sc website. Aspects studied are duration of the first review round, total review duration, immediate rejection time, the number,

  15. Ensuring the Quality, Fairness, and Integrity of Journal Peer Review: A Possible Role of Editors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B; Elmore, Susan A

    2016-02-01

    A growing body of literature has identified potential problems that can compromise the quality, fairness, and integrity of journal peer review, including inadequate review, inconsistent reviewer reports, reviewer biases, and ethical transgressions by reviewers. We examine the evidence concerning these problems and discuss proposed reforms, including double-blind and open review. Regardless of the outcome of additional research or attempts at reforming the system, it is clear that editors are the linchpin of peer review, since they make decisions that have a significant impact on the process and its outcome. We consider some of the steps editors should take to promote quality, fairness and integrity in different stages of the peer review process and make some recommendations for editorial conduct and decision-making.

  16. Effectiveness of peer-delivered interventions for severe mental illness and depression on clinical and psychosocial outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhr, Daniela C; Salisbury, Tatiana Taylor; De Silva, Mary J; Atif, Najia; van Ginneken, Nadja; Rahman, Atif; Patel, Vikram

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of peer-delivered interventions in improving clinical and psychosocial outcomes among individuals with severe mental illness (SMI) or depression. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials comparing a peer-delivered intervention to treatment as usual or treatment delivered by a health professional. Random effect meta-analyses were performed separately for SMI and depression interventions. Fourteen studies (10 SMI studies, 4 depression studies), all from high-income countries, met the inclusion criteria. For SMI, evidence from three high-quality superiority trials showed small positive effects favouring peer-delivered interventions for quality of life (SMD 0.24, 95 % CI 0.08-0.40, p = 0.003, I (2) = 0 %, n = 639) and hope (SMD 0.24, 95 % CI 0.02-0.46, p = 0.03, I (2) = 65 %, n = 967). Results of two SMI equivalence trials indicated that peers may be equivalent to health professionals in improving clinical symptoms (SMD -0.14, 95 % CI -0.57 to 0.29, p = 0.51, I (2) = 0 %, n = 84) and quality of life (SMD -0.11, 95 % CI -0.42 to 0.20, p = 0.56, I (2) = 0 %, n = 164). No effect of peer-delivered interventions for depression was observed on any outcome. The limited evidence base suggests that peers may have a small additional impact on patient's outcomes, in comparison to standard psychiatric care in high-income settings. Future research should explore the use and applicability of peer-delivered interventions in resource poor settings where standard care is likely to be of lower quality and coverage. The positive findings of equivalence trials demand further research in this area to consolidate the relative value of peer-delivered vs. professional-delivered interventions.

  17. The peer review gap: A longitudinal case study of gendered publishing and occupational patterns in a female-rich discipline, Western North America (1974-2016.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Tushingham

    Full Text Available Researchers have repeatedly demonstrated that women continue to be underrepresented in publication output in the sciences. This is true even in female-rich fields such as archaeology. Since most gender-related publication studies rely on data from peer-reviewed journals, it would be instructive, though challenging, to also track publication output in non-refereed and professional or industry venues, which tend to be more accessible to those working in extra-academic settings. This comparison is important in fields such as archaeology in which the vast majority (approximately 90% of practitioners in the USA work for private sector cultural resource management firms and federal and state agencies. To understand the dynamics of who publishes where, we compiled a new dataset tracking over 40 years of peer-reviewed versus non-peer-reviewed publications that publish articles on the archaeology of California (an American Indian cultural area including southwest Oregon, most of the state of California, and Baja Mexico and the Great Basin culture area (spanning eight western USA states. Historic gender differences in the publishing output of authors identified as men versus those identified as women were revealed by articles published between 1974 and 2016 in two refereed journals, the Journal of California Anthropology/ Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology and California Archaeology, and in one un-refereed venue, the Society for California Archaeology Proceedings. Although multiple independent measures indicate that women are contributing and active members of the discipline, publishing records yield more variable results. Specifically, while women have historic and increasingly robust levels of participation in the non-peer-reviewed Proceedings, they remain vastly underrepresented in the two peer-reviewed journals, which are widely regarded as more prestigious and influential. We argue that this "peer review gap" is influenced by

  18. Peer-review for selection of oral presentations for conferences: Are we reliable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveugele, Myriam; Silverman, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    Although peer-review for journal submission, grant-applications and conference submissions has been called 'a counter- stone of science', and even 'the gold standard for evaluating scientific merit', publications on this topic remain scares. Research that has investigated peer-review reveals several issues and criticisms concerning bias, poor quality review, unreliability and inefficiency. The most important weakness of the peer review process is the inconsistency between reviewers leading to inadequate inter-rater reliability. To report the reliability of ratings for a large international conference and to suggest possible solutions to overcome the problem. In 2016 during the International Conference on Communication in Healthcare, organized by EACH: International Association for Communication in Healthcare, a calibration exercise was proposed and feedback was reported back to the participants of the exercise. Most abstracts, as well as most peer-reviewers, receive and give scores around the median. Contrary to the general assumption that there are high and low scorers, in this group only 3 peer-reviewers could be identified with a high mean, while 7 has a low mean score. Only 2 reviewers gave only high ratings (4 and 5). Of the eight abstracts included in this exercise, only one abstract received a high mean score and one a low mean score. Nevertheless, both these abstracts received both low and high scores; all other abstracts received all possible scores. Peer-review of submissions for conferences are, in accordance with the literature, unreliable. New and creative methods will be needed to give the participants of a conference what they really deserve: a more reliable selection of the best abstracts. More raters per abstract improves the inter-rater reliability; training of reviewers could be helpful; providing feedback to reviewers can lead to less inter-rater disagreement; fostering negative peer-review (rejecting the inappropriate submissions) rather than a

  19. A systematic review of peer-supported interventions for health promotion and disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramchand, Rajeev; Ahluwalia, Sangeeta C; Xenakis, Lea; Apaydin, Eric; Raaen, Laura; Grimm, Geoffrey

    2017-08-01

    Prior research has examined peer programs with respect to specific peer roles (e.g.; peer support) or specific health/wellness domains (e.g.; exercise/diet), or have aggregated effects across roles and domains. We sought to conduct a systematic review that categorizes and assesses the effects of peer interventions to promote health and wellness by peer role, intervention type, and outcomes. We use evidence mapping to visually catalog and synthesize the existing research. We searched PubMed and WorldCat databases (2005 to 2015) and New York Academy of Medicine Grey Literature Report (1999 to 2016) for English-language randomized control trials. We extracted study design, study participants, type of intervention(s), peer role(s), outcomes assessed and measures used, and effects from 116 randomized controlled trials. Maps were created to provide a visual display of the evidence by intervention type, peer role, outcome type, and significant vs null or negative effects. There are more null than positive effects across peer interventions, with notable exceptions: group-based interventions that use peers as educators or group facilitators commonly improve knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions; peer educators also commonly improved social health/connectedness and engagement. Dyadic peer support influenced behavior change and peer counseling shows promising effects on physical health outcomes. Programs seeking to use peers in public health campaigns can use evidence maps to identify interventions that have previously demonstrated beneficial effects. Those seeking to produce health outcomes may benefit from identifying the mechanisms by which they expect their program to produce these effects and associated proximal outcomes for future evaluations. Although we attempted to register our protocol with PROSPERO, we did not meet eligibility criteria because we were past the data collection phase. The full PROSPERO-aligned protocol is available from the authors

  20. Research-based implementation of peer instruction: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickrey, Trisha; Rosploch, Kaitlyn; Rahmanian, Reihaneh; Pilarz, Matthew; Stains, Marilyne

    2015-03-02

    Current instructional reforms in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses have focused on enhancing adoption of evidence-based instructional practices among STEM faculty members. These practices have been empirically demonstrated to enhance student learning and attitudes. However, research indicates that instructors often adapt rather than adopt practices, unknowingly compromising their effectiveness. Thus, there is a need to raise awareness of the research-based implementation of these practices, develop fidelity of implementation protocols to understand adaptations being made, and ultimately characterize the true impact of reform efforts based on these practices. Peer instruction (PI) is an example of an evidence-based instructional practice that consists of asking students conceptual questions during class time and collecting their answers via clickers or response cards. Extensive research has been conducted by physics and biology education researchers to evaluate the effectiveness of this practice and to better understand the intricacies of its implementation. PI has also been investigated in other disciplines, such as chemistry and computer science. This article reviews and summarizes these various bodies of research and provides instructors and researchers with a research-based model for the effective implementation of PI. Limitations of current studies and recommendations for future empirical inquiries are also provided. © 2015 T. Vickrey et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2015 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  1. Randomised clinical trial on the effect of the Dutch obstetric peer review system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elferink-Stinkens, P.M; Brand, R.; Amelink-Verburg, M.P; Merkus, J.M.W.M; Ouden, A.L den; Hemel, O.J.S van

    2002-01-01

    The project 'Obstetric Peer Review Interventions' (Verloskundige Onderlinge Kwaliteitsspiegeling Interventies, VOKSINT) was set-up in The Netherlands in 1994. It provided annual comparison data (quality ranking, league tables) for secondary care obstetric departments adjusted for population

  2. Antimony Trioxide (ATO) - Summary of External Peer Review and Public Comments and Disposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document summarizes the public and external peer review comments that the EPA’s Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics (OPPT) received for the draft work plan risk assessment for Antimony Trioxide (ATO).

  3. Doing peer review and receiving feedback: impact on scientific literacy and writing skills

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Geithner, Christina A; Pollastro, Alexandria N

    2016-01-01

    ...; however, its application in Human Physiology programs is limited. The purpose of the present study was to determine the impact of peer review on Human Physiology majors' perceptions of their scientific literacy and writing skills...

  4. Learning effects of thematic peer-review: A qualitative analysis of reflective journals on spiritual care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van L.J.; Tiesinga, L.J.; Jochemsen, H.

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the learning effects of thematic peer-review discussion groups (Hendriksen, 2000. Begeleid intervisie model, Collegiale advisering en probleemoplossing, Nelissen, Baarn.) on developing nursing students’ competence in providing spiritual care. It also discusses the factors that

  5. 76 FR 68518 - Request for Information: Public Access to Peer-Reviewed Scholarly Publications Resulting From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... policies for archiving publications and making them publically accessible be used to grow the economy and... types of peer- reviewed publications resulting from federally funded research, such as book chapters and...

  6. Peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance thiram

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2017-01-01

    ...‐rapporteur Member State Belgium for the pesticide active substance thiram are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Implementing Regulation ( EU ) No 844/2012...

  7. Learning effects of thematic peer-review : A qualitative analysis of reflective journals on spiritual care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Rene; Tiesinga, Lucas J.; Jochemsen, Henk; Post, Doeke

    This study describes the learning effects of thematic peer-review discussion groups (Hendriksen, 2000. Begeleid intervisie model, Collegiate advisering en probleemoplossing, Nelissen, Baarn.) on developing nursing students' competence in providing spiritual care. It also discusses the factors that

  8. The impact of organisational external peer review on colorectal cancer treatment and survival in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilsdonk, M. J.; van Dijk, B. A. C.; Otter, R.; Siesling, S.; van Harten, W. H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Organisational external peer review was introduced in 1994 in the Netherlands to improve multidisciplinary cancer care. We examined the clinical impact of this programme on colorectal cancer care. Methods: Patients with primary colorectal cancer were included from 23 participating

  9. Peer Observation as teaching evaluation approach: An Attempt to review the research area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michek Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This review sets out to map research relating to the concept of peer observation when teachers observe lesson of another teacher which is on same level. The review builds on journal papers included in the Web of Science and/or ERIC databases. The study uses documents analysis when the units of analysis are concepts of peer observation, research aims and research methods of studies. The review aims to answer the following questions: What are the objectives of studies focused on peer observation of teacher in the studies? Which methods and approaches do the studies use? What are the results of these studies? The authors conclude the review with a summary of its findings and a discussion. There are a number of research instruments and methods for investigating peer observation by qualitative approach, but the challenge now is to develop ways of quantitative research approach.

  10. Adolescents' Views of Helping Professionals: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freake, Helen; Barley, Val; Kent, Gerry

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews 54 papers exploring adolescents' own views of their interactions with doctors, mental health workers and other "helping professionals". Twelve global themes emerge repeatedly in the qualitative literature, where adolescents are asked to talk about their preferences or their experiences of receiving help from such professionals.…

  11. Review of Professional Workers' Multicultural Competence: Implications in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Romee; Heo, Gyeong Mi; Kim, Jinhee

    2016-01-01

    The importance of professional workers' multicultural competence (MC) is increasingly noted in Korea, which is shifting into a multicultural society. This study investigates the current location of the discussion regarding the MC of professional workers in Korea using reviews of existing studies in international and Korean contexts. This paper…

  12. The Evolution from Traditional to Online Professional Development: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Joshua C.

    2017-01-01

    Online professional development offers opportunities for growth to teachers who may not be able to participate otherwise due to constraints. These constraints include, but are not limited to, time and travel distance. This document is a narrative review of relevant literature as it relates to the evolution of teacher professional development. This…

  13. Army Corps of Engineers: Peer Review Process for Civil Works Project Studies Can Be Improved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Chacon Creek study in southern Texas underwent peer review but should not have, according to some Corps officials we spoke with. This study was for a...assessing and addressing such risks in light of Hurricane Katrina and said that flood studies such as Chacon Creek require peer review because of the... Chacon Creek, Rio Grande Draft Feasibility Report and Integrated Environmental Assessment Fort Worth Southwestern Flood Risk management Nov. 17

  14. DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program 2016 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-11-01

    The fiscal year 2016 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR), in conjunction with DOE's Vehicle Technologies Office AMR, was held from June 6-10, 2016, in Washington, D.C. This report is a summary of comments by AMR peer reviewers about the hydrogen and fuel cell projects funded by DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  15. Advanced combustion, emission control, health impacts, and fuels merit review and peer evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2006-10-01

    This report is a summary and analysis of comments from the Advisory Panel at the FY 2006 DOE National Laboratory Advanced Combustion, Emission Control, Health Impacts, and Fuels Merit Review and Peer Evaluation, held May 15-18, 2006 at Argonne National Laboratory. The work evaluated in this document supports the FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program. The results of this merit review and peer evaluation are major inputs used by DOE in making its funding decisions for the upcoming fiscal year.

  16. Repeated Self- and Peer-Review Leads to Continuous Improvement in Child Interviewing Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Stolzenberg, Stacia N.; Lyon, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined whether a training model that focuses on consistent exposure to protocol procedure, self-evaluation, and intensive peer-review sessions could improve interviewers’ ability to adhere to best practices. Law students (N = 19) interviewed 5- to 10-year-old children on a weekly basis as part of a semester-long forensic child interviewing class. They transcribed their interviews, and participated in one-hour self and peer-reviews. The proportion of each question type was ...

  17. DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program 2017 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-10-16

    The fiscal year 2017 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR), in conjunction with DOE's Vehicle Technologies Office AMR, was held from June June 5-9, 2017, in Washington, D.C. This report is a summary of comments by AMR peer reviewers about the hydrogen and fuel cell projects funded by DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  18. Fraud and misconduct in science: the stem cell seduction: Implications for the peer-review process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heyden, M A G; van de Ven, T; Opthof, T

    2009-01-01

    Scientific misconduct and fraud occur in science. The (anonymous) peer review process serves as goalkeeper of scientific quality rather than scientific integrity. In this brief paper we describe some limitations of the peer-review process. We describe the catastrophic facts of the 'Woo-Suk Hwang fraud case' and raise some ethical concerns about the issue. Finally, we pay attention to plagiarism, autoplagiarism and double publications. (Neth Heart J 2009;17:25-9.).

  19. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance spiromesifen

    OpenAIRE

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-01-01

    The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State, the United Kingdom, for the pesticide active substance spiromesifen are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Regulation (EU) No 188/2011. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of spiromesifen as an insecticide and...

  20. Effect of support group peer facilitator training programmes on peer facilitator and support group member outcomes: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle, Vanessa C; Gumuchian, Stephanie T; Kloda, Lorie A; Boruff, Jill; El-Baalbaki, Ghassan; Körner, Annett; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Thombs, Brett D

    2016-11-17

    Peer facilitators play an important role in determining the success of many support groups for patients with medical illnesses. However, many facilitators do not receive training for their role and report a number of challenges in fulfilling their responsibilities. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of training and support programmes for peer facilitators of support groups for people with medical illnesses on (1) the competency and self-efficacy of group facilitators and (2) self-efficacy for disease management, health outcomes and satisfaction with support groups among group members. Searches included the CENTRAL, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Web of Science databases from inception through 8 April 2016; reference list reviews; citation tracking of included articles; and trial registry reviews. Eligible studies were randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in any language that evaluated the effects of training programmes for peer facilitators compared with no training or alternative training formats on (1) competency or self-efficacy of peer facilitators, and (2) self-efficacy for disease management, health outcomes and satisfaction with groups of group members. The Cochrane Risk of Bias tool was used to assess risk of bias. There were 9757 unique titles/abstracts and 2 full-text publications reviewed. 1 RCT met inclusion criteria. The study evaluated the confidence and self-efficacy of cancer support group facilitators randomised to 4 months access to a website and discussion forum (N=23; low resource) versus website, discussion forum and 2-day training workshop (N=29). There were no significant differences in facilitator confidence (Hedges' g=0.16, 95% CI -0.39 to 0.71) or self-efficacy (Hedges' g=0.31, 95% CI -0.24 to 0.86). Risk of bias was unclear or high for 4 of 6 domains. Well-designed and well-conducted, adequately powered trials of peer support group facilitator training programmes for patients with medical illnesses

  1. Critical Review of Dual Diagnosis Training for Mental Health Professionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinderup, Pernille; Thylstrup, Birgitte; Hesse, Morten

    2016-01-01

    To review evidence on the effects of training programs in dual diagnosis treatment for mental health professionals. Three databases were searched. Included studies were evaluated by an adapted version of Kirkpatrick’s Training Evaluation Model, which evaluates participant perception of training...... level showed mixed results. Training mental health professionals in dual diagnosis treatment may have a positive effect on professional competencies and clinical practice. Any conclusion regarding the overall training effect is premature due to limitations in study designs. Future studies on the effects...... of dual diagnosis training programs for mental health professionals should involve control groups, validated measures, follow-ups, and patient outcomes....

  2. Using simplified peer review processes to fund research: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Danielle L; Graves, Nicholas; Clarke, Philip; Barnett, Adrian G

    2015-07-02

    To prospectively test two simplified peer review processes, estimate the agreement between the simplified and official processes, and compare the costs of peer review. A prospective parallel study of Project Grant proposals submitted in 2013 to the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) of Australia. The official funding outcomes were compared with two simplified processes using proposals in Public Health and Basic Science. The two simplified processes were: panels of 7 reviewers who met face-to-face and reviewed only the nine-page research proposal and track record (simplified panel); and 2 reviewers who independently reviewed only the nine-page research proposal (journal panel). The official process used panels of 12 reviewers who met face-to-face and reviewed longer proposals of around 100 pages. We compared the funding outcomes of 72 proposals that were peer reviewed by the simplified and official processes. Agreement in funding outcomes; costs of peer review based on reviewers' time and travel costs. The agreement between the simplified and official panels (72%, 95% CI 61% to 82%), and the journal and official panels (74%, 62% to 83%), was just below the acceptable threshold of 75%. Using the simplified processes would save $A2.1-$A4.9 million per year in peer review costs. Using shorter applications and simpler peer review processes gave reasonable agreement with the more complex official process. Simplified processes save time and money that could be reallocated to actual research. Funding agencies should consider streamlining their application processes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Peer review of grant applications: criteria used and qualitative study of reviewer practices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendy Abdoul

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Peer review of grant applications has been criticized as lacking reliability. Studies showing poor agreement among reviewers supported this possibility but usually focused on reviewers' scores and failed to investigate reasons for disagreement. Here, our goal was to determine how reviewers rate applications, by investigating reviewer practices and grant assessment criteria. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We first collected and analyzed a convenience sample of French and international calls for proposals and assessment guidelines, from which we created an overall typology of assessment criteria comprising nine domains relevance to the call for proposals, usefulness, originality, innovativeness, methodology, feasibility, funding, ethical aspects, and writing of the grant application. We then performed a qualitative study of reviewer practices, particularly regarding the use of assessment criteria, among reviewers of the French Academic Hospital Research Grant Agencies (Programmes Hospitaliers de Recherche Clinique, PHRCs. Semi-structured interviews and observation sessions were conducted. Both the time spent assessing each grant application and the assessment methods varied across reviewers. The assessment criteria recommended by the PHRCs were listed by all reviewers as frequently evaluated and useful. However, use of the PHRC criteria was subjective and varied across reviewers. Some reviewers gave the same weight to each assessment criterion, whereas others considered originality to be the most important criterion (12/34, followed by methodology (10/34 and feasibility (4/34. Conceivably, this variability might adversely affect the reliability of the review process, and studies evaluating this hypothesis would be of interest. CONCLUSIONS: Variability across reviewers may result in mistrust among grant applicants about the review process. Consequently, ensuring transparency is of the utmost importance. Consistency in the review process could

  4. Biomass Program 2007 Program Peer Review - Biochemical and Products Platform Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-27

    This document discloses the comments provided by a review panel at the U.S. Department of Energy Office of the Biomass Program Peer Review held on November 15-16, 2007 in Baltimore, MD and the Biochemical and Products Platform Review held on August 7-9, 2007 in Denver, Colorado.

  5. [Peer review analysis of lectures using video recordings in an integrated curriculum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Dong-Mi; Yoon, HyunBae; Lee, Seunghee

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of the peer review in an integrated curriculum and to guide further improvements of curriculum. In 2012, Seoul National University College of Medicine implemented a peer review system for 11 courses in an integrated curriculum. For each lecture, two reviewers conducted the rating using a 10-item questionnaire on a 4-point scale. We analyzed the correlation between total scores and each item and the inter-rater reliability between the two reviewers by Pearson correlation. Further, the link between peer review scores and the student lecture evaluation was analyzed. The mean total score for the checklist rating was 31.3 (out of 40.0), and the mean score for each item ranged from 2.65 to 3.35 (out of 4.00). The correlation coefficient between the total score and each item was high, ranging from 0.656 to 0.849, except for three items. The mean of difference scores between reviewers was 5.03, and the correlation coefficient was significantly high, which ranged from 0.968 to 0.999. The peer reviews scores and student lecture evaluations generally correlated, but there were some outlying exceptions; the correlation coefficient was 0.105 and 0.093. Peer review is a useful method for improving the quality of lectures in an integrated curriculum by monitoring the objectives, contents, and methods of the lectures and providing feedback to the professors.

  6. Peer review of the European post-Fukushima stress tests; La revision interpares (peer review) de las pruebas europeas de resistencia post-Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurgi, A.; Munuera, A.

    2012-11-01

    Following the approval of the national reports, drawn up in the wake of the Fukushima Daiichi accident, the European Union decided to validate them by means of the peer review procedure, as a result of which groups of experts from different countries analysed them in situ in order to verify their accuracy. (Author)

  7. Peer Review of Grant Applications: Criteria Used and Qualitative Study of Reviewer Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoul, Hendy; Perrey, Christophe; Amiel, Philippe; Tubach, Florence; Gottot, Serge; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle; Alberti, Corinne

    2012-01-01

    Background Peer review of grant applications has been criticized as lacking reliability. Studies showing poor agreement among reviewers supported this possibility but usually focused on reviewers’ scores and failed to investigate reasons for disagreement. Here, our goal was to determine how reviewers rate applications, by investigating reviewer practices and grant assessment criteria. Methods and Findings We first collected and analyzed a convenience sample of French and international calls for proposals and assessment guidelines, from which we created an overall typology of assessment criteria comprising nine domains relevance to the call for proposals, usefulness, originality, innovativeness, methodology, feasibility, funding, ethical aspects, and writing of the grant application. We then performed a qualitative study of reviewer practices, particularly regarding the use of assessment criteria, among reviewers of the French Academic Hospital Research Grant Agencies (Programmes Hospitaliers de Recherche Clinique, PHRCs). Semi-structured interviews and observation sessions were conducted. Both the time spent assessing each grant application and the assessment methods varied across reviewers. The assessment criteria recommended by the PHRCs were listed by all reviewers as frequently evaluated and useful. However, use of the PHRC criteria was subjective and varied across reviewers. Some reviewers gave the same weight to each assessment criterion, whereas others considered originality to be the most important criterion (12/34), followed by methodology (10/34) and feasibility (4/34). Conceivably, this variability might adversely affect the reliability of the review process, and studies evaluating this hypothesis would be of interest. Conclusions Variability across reviewers may result in mistrust among grant applicants about the review process. Consequently, ensuring transparency is of the utmost importance. Consistency in the review process could also be improved by

  8. Content analysis of oncology-related pharmaceutical advertising in a peer-reviewed medical journal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kan Yonemori

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The oncology market represents one of the largest pharmaceutical markets in any medical field, and printed advertising in medical journals is an important channel by which pharmaceutical companies communicate with healthcare professionals. The aim of the present study was to analyze the volume and content of and trends and changes in oncology-related advertising intended for healthcare professionals in a peer-reviewed medical journal. Information that could be included in advertisements to promote drug development and improve treatment strategies for cancer patients is discussed on the basis of the results of the analysis. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Overall, 6,720 advertisements covering 13,039 pages in a leading oncology medical journal published (by the American Society of Clinical Oncology between January 2005 and December 2009 were analyzed. The advertisements targeting pharmaceuticals and clinical trials, in particular, were reviewed. A total of 6,720 advertisements covering 13,039 pages were included in the analysis. For the years 2005-2009, the percentages of total journal pages dedicated to advertising were 24.0%, 45.7%, 49.8%, 46.8%, and 49.8%, respectively. Package insert information and efficacy and safety explanations appeared in more than 80% of advertisements intended for pharmaceutical promotion. From 2005 to 2009, the overall quantity of drug advertisements decreased by approximately 13%, whereas advertisements calling for the enrollment of patients into registration trials increased by approximately 11%. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Throughout the study period, oncology-related pharmaceutical advertisements occupied a considerable number of pages relative to other journal content. The proportion of advertisements on ongoing clinical trials increased progressively throughout the study period.

  9. Content analysis of oncology-related pharmaceutical advertising in a peer-reviewed medical journal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonemori, Kan; Hirakawa, Akihiro; Ando, Masashi; Hirata, Taizo; Yunokawa, Mayu; Shimizu, Chikako; Tamura, Kenji; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-01

    The oncology market represents one of the largest pharmaceutical markets in any medical field, and printed advertising in medical journals is an important channel by which pharmaceutical companies communicate with healthcare professionals. The aim of the present study was to analyze the volume and content of and trends and changes in oncology-related advertising intended for healthcare professionals in a peer-reviewed medical journal. Information that could be included in advertisements to promote drug development and improve treatment strategies for cancer patients is discussed on the basis of the results of the analysis. Overall, 6,720 advertisements covering 13,039 pages in a leading oncology medical journal published (by the American Society of Clinical Oncology) between January 2005 and December 2009 were analyzed. The advertisements targeting pharmaceuticals and clinical trials, in particular, were reviewed. A total of 6,720 advertisements covering 13,039 pages were included in the analysis. For the years 2005-2009, the percentages of total journal pages dedicated to advertising were 24.0%, 45.7%, 49.8%, 46.8%, and 49.8%, respectively. Package insert information and efficacy and safety explanations appeared in more than 80% of advertisements intended for pharmaceutical promotion. From 2005 to 2009, the overall quantity of drug advertisements decreased by approximately 13%, whereas advertisements calling for the enrollment of patients into registration trials increased by approximately 11%. Throughout the study period, oncology-related pharmaceutical advertisements occupied a considerable number of pages relative to other journal content. The proportion of advertisements on ongoing clinical trials increased progressively throughout the study period.

  10. Discussion of Comments from a Peer Review of A Technique for Human Event Anlysis (ATHEANA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bley, D.C.; Cooper, S.E.; Forester, J.A.; Kolaczkowski, A.M.; Ramey-Smith, A,; Wreathall J.

    1999-01-28

    In May of 1998, a technical basis and implementation guidelines document for A Technique for Human Event Analysis (ATHEANA) was issued as a draft report for public comment (NUREG-1624). In conjunction with the release of draft NUREG- 1624, a peer review of the new human reliability analysis method its documentation and the results of an initial test of the method was held over a two-day period in June 1998 in Seattle, Washington. Four internationally known and respected experts in HK4 or probabilistic risk assessment were selected to serve as the peer reviewers. In addition, approximately 20 other individuals with an interest in HRA and ATHEANA also attended the peer and were invited to provide comments. The peer review team was asked to comment on any aspect of the method or the report in which improvements could be made and to discuss its strengths and weaknesses. They were asked to focus on two major aspects: Are the basic premises of ATHEANA on solid ground and is the conceptual basis adequate? Is the ATHEANA implementation process adequate given the description of the intended users in the documentation? The four peer reviewers asked questions and provided oral comments during the peer review meeting and provided written comments approximately two weeks after the completion of the meeting. This paper discusses their major comments.

  11. Evidence for peer support in rehabilitation for individuals with acquired brain injury: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobma, Ruth; Nijland, Rinske H M; Ket, Johannes C F; Kwakkel, Gert

    2016-11-11

    To systematically review the literature on evidence for the application of peer support in the rehabilitation of persons with acquired brain injury. PubMed, Embase.com, Ebsco/Cinahl, Ebsco/PsycInfo and Wiley/Cochrane Library were searched from inception up to 19 June 2015. Randomized controlled trials were included describing participants with acquired brain injury in a rehabilitation setting and peer supporters who were specifically assigned to this role. Two independent reviewers assessed metho-dological quality using the PEDro scale. Cohen's kappa was calculated to assess agreement between the reviewers. Two randomized controlled trials could be included, both focussing on patients with traumatic brain injury. The randomized controlled trials included a total of 126 participants with traumatic brain injury and 62 care-givers and suggest a positive influence of peer support for traumatic brain injury survivors and their caregivers in areas of social support, coping, behavioural control and physical quality of life. The evidence for peer support is limited and restricted to traumatic brain injury. Randomized controlled trials on peer support for patients with other causes of acquired brain injury are lacking. It is important to gain more insight into the effects of peer support and the influence of patient and peer characteristics and the intervention protocol.

  12. The Influence of Peers on Diet and Exercise Among Adolescents: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sophia Jihey; Ersig, Anne L; McCarthy, Ann Marie

    Adolescents' diet and exercise are modifiable factors contributing to high rates of adolescent obesity. Diverse contextual factors, including family, social environment, and peers, affect adolescents' diet and exercise behaviors. Because peer influence increases during adolescence, peers' contributions to adolescents' diet and exercise behaviors should be examined as potential targets for intervention to reduce the prevalence of adolescent obesity. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify research examining the contribution of peers to diet and exercise of adolescents. The electronic databases PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, and SCOPUS were searched. A total of 24 unique articles were included: seven examined diet only, fourteen studied exercise only, and three explored diet and exercise. This review provided evidence that diet and exercise of adolescents were significantly associated with those of their peers. However, these associations differed depending on gender, the type of diet and exercise, and closeness of friends. Findings from this review suggest that peers could be possible targets for interventions to promote healthier diet and exercise among adolescents; however, more studies are needed to identify specific peer influences and develop tailored interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Implementing Calibrated Peer Review (CPR) in a Large-lecture Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, A. S.; Bettis, E. A., III; Russell, J. E.; Van Horne, S.; Sipola, M.; Rocheford, M. K.; Colombo, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    Assessing writing assignments and providing students the opportunity to meaningfully revise the assignments are challenging for instructors of large enrollment science classes. We included two individual writing assignments and peer assessments as part of course assessment for a large Introduction to Environmental Science course. In order to facilitate the assessment, Calibrated Peer Review (CPR), a web-based application developed by UCLA that enables frequent writing assignments in any discipline and with any class size, was adopted. The CPR assignment process involved four steps: submitting a writing assignment, calibrating each student's review skills, reviewing peers' writing, and assessing one's own writing assignment (self-assessment). A rubric was provided to guide students through each writing assignment and the same rubric was used in calibration, review, and self-assessment scoring. Once the instructors uploaded the writing prompts, rubrics, sample writings and answer keys into the CPR system, the CPR software fully directed all student activity (writing assignment submission, calibrations, reviews, and self-assessment). Students were able to view their results within the CPR program, including their self-calibration scores, reviewing scores, peers' ratings and feedback, total earned scores, and self-assessment scores. Surveys independently administered at the conclusion of the CPR assignments indicated that sixty to seventy-five percent of the students perceived that CPR was helpful in their learning, improved their writing and evaluation skills, and that the process of reviewing other students' essays and their own essays was more helpful than the comments received from peers. These survey results are in agreement with the well-established educational research literature that shows the benefits of peer review and peer assessment to student learning. Our experience with CPR in a large enrollment science course indicates that thoughtful planning of the

  14. Editorial peer reviewers' recommendations at a general medical journal: are they reliable and do editors care?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard L Kravitz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Editorial peer review is universally used but little studied. We examined the relationship between external reviewers' recommendations and the editorial outcome of manuscripts undergoing external peer-review at the Journal of General Internal Medicine (JGIM. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined reviewer recommendations and editors' decisions at JGIM between 2004 and 2008. For manuscripts undergoing peer review, we calculated chance-corrected agreement among reviewers on recommendations to reject versus accept or revise. Using mixed effects logistic regression models, we estimated intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC at the reviewer and manuscript level. Finally, we examined the probability of rejection in relation to reviewer agreement and disagreement. The 2264 manuscripts sent for external review during the study period received 5881 reviews provided by 2916 reviewers; 28% of reviews recommended rejection. Chance corrected agreement (kappa statistic on rejection among reviewers was 0.11 (p<.01. In mixed effects models adjusting for study year and manuscript type, the reviewer-level ICC was 0.23 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.19-0.29 and the manuscript-level ICC was 0.17 (95% CI, 0.12-0.22. The editors' overall rejection rate was 48%: 88% when all reviewers for a manuscript agreed on rejection (7% of manuscripts and 20% when all reviewers agreed that the manuscript should not be rejected (48% of manuscripts (p<0.01. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Reviewers at JGIM agreed on recommendations to reject vs. accept/revise at levels barely beyond chance, yet editors placed considerable weight on reviewers' recommendations. Efforts are needed to improve the reliability of the peer-review process while helping editors understand the limitations of reviewers' recommendations.

  15. Implementing Student Peer Review: Opportunity versus Change Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharo, Emma; De Salas, Kristy

    2009-01-01

    This paper reflects on the implementation of a peer-assessment innovation in a large first-year geography unit. While the innovation had been carefully researched, difficulties in the implementation drew the authors' attention to the need for more change management to be built into the design and development. Focusing specifically on the teacher…

  16. Same-level peer-assisted learning in medical clinical placements: a narrative systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Joanna; Molloy, Elizabeth; Haines, Terry; Canny, Benedict

    2016-04-01

    Peer-assisted learning (PAL) is increasingly used in medical education, and the benefits of this approach have been reported. Previous reviews have focused on the benefits of peer tutoring of junior students by senior students. Forms of PAL such as discussion groups and role-playing have been neglected, as have alternative teacher-learner configurations (e.g. same-level PAL) and the effects on other stakeholders, including clinician educators and patients. This review examines the benefits of same-level PAL for students, clinician educators and patients in pre-registration clinical medical education. Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL and ERIC were searched in March 2014. A total of 1228 abstracts were retrieved for review; 64 full-text papers were assessed. Data were extracted from empirical studies describing a same-level PAL initiative in a clinical setting, focusing on effects beyond academic performance and student satisfaction. Qualitative thematic analysis was employed to identify types of PAL and to cluster the reported PAL effects. Forty-three studies were included in the review. PAL activities were categorised into role-play, discussion, teaching and assessment. Only 50% of studies reported information beyond self-report and satisfaction with the PAL intervention. Benefits for students (including development of communication and professional skills) and clinician educators (developing less-used facilitation skills) were reported. Direct patient outcomes were not identified. Caveats to the use of PAL emerged, and guidelines for the use of PAL were perceived as useful. Many student-related benefits of PAL were identified. PAL contributes to the development of crucial skills required for a doctor in the workplace. Vertical integration of learning and teaching skills across the curriculum and tools such as feedback checklists may be required for successful PAL in the clinical environment. Benefits for patients and educators were poorly characterised within the

  17. Randomised controlled trials of veterinary homeopathy: characterising the peer-reviewed research literature for systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathie, Robert T; Hacke, Daniela; Clausen, Jürgen

    2012-10-01

    Systematic review of the research evidence in veterinary homeopathy has never previously been carried out. This paper presents the search methods, together with categorised lists of retrieved records, that enable us to identify the literature that is acceptable for future systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in veterinary homeopathy. All randomised and controlled trials of homeopathic intervention (prophylaxis and/or treatment of disease, in any species except man) were appraised according to pre-specified criteria. The following databases were systematically searched from their inception up to and including March 2011: AMED; Carstens-Stiftung Homeopathic Veterinary Clinical Research (HomVetCR) database; CINAHL; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; Embase; Hom-Inform; LILACS; PubMed; Science Citation Index; Scopus. One hundred and fifty records were retrieved; 38 satisfied the acceptance criteria (substantive report of a clinical treatment or prophylaxis trial in veterinary homeopathic medicine randomised and controlled and published in a peer-reviewed journal), and were thus eligible for future planned systematic review. Approximately half of the rejected records were theses. Seven species and 27 different species-specific medical conditions were represented in the 38 papers. Similar numbers of papers reported trials of treatment and prophylaxis (n=21 and n=17 respectively) and were controlled against placebo or other than placebo (n=18, n=20 respectively). Most research focused on non-individualised homeopathy (n=35 papers) compared with individualised homeopathy (n=3). The results provide a complete and clarified view of the RCT literature in veterinary homeopathy. We will systematically review the 38 substantive peer-reviewed journal articles under the main headings: treatment trials; prophylaxis trials. Copyright © 2012 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Negotiation on the Assessment of Research Articles with Academic Reviewers: Application of Peer-Review Approach of Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prashant; Rafiq, Imran; Imam, Boulent

    2011-01-01

    This study provides an insight into the dominant negotiation processes that occur between the authors of research articles and academic reviewers at the peer reviewing stage. Data of reviewers comments and authors responses on 32 science and engineering based journal articles covering four decision categories (accept as is, accept with minor…

  19. Communities of practice and the construction of the professional identities of nurse educators: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Andrew; Cashin, Andrew; Stockhausen, Lynette

    2016-02-01

    To comprehensively review the Community of Practice literature from nursing contexts to explore whether and how these communities contribute to the social construction of nurse educator professional identity. Due to the wide scope of predominately qualitative literature on the topic, papers were analysed and themed inductively. CINAHL, MEDLINE, COCHRANE, EBSCO databases, Emerald, Proquest & Google Scholar. These online databases were searched for relevant peer-reviewed journal papers in the English language with no date range specified. The search terms 'nurs* educator' and 'nurs* teacher' were combined with each of the terms 'communit* of practice', 'identity' and 'role' resulting in 293 peer-reviewed journal papers. Where abstracts were missing, introductory and background sections were skimmed for related content. Papers that made incidental reference to either professional identity or a Community of Practice were excluded. In total, 63 primary study or discussion papers were found to have a focus on nurse educator identity and/or communities of practice in healthcare contexts. Papers specifically focused on communities of practice in nursing (n=33) could only be found from the last 10 years (2005-2015). Only five of these focused on nurse educators. Community of Practice theory and the professional teaching literature offers collaborative and active ways for nurse educators to further develop their professional identities. Despite the emergence of communities of practice in the nursing literature, further studies are required to explore how such a construct can facilitate the social construction of nurse educator professional identity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Links of Adolescents Identity Development and Relationship with Peers: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragelienė, Tija

    2016-01-01

    According to Erik Erikson, the main task of adolescents is to solve the crisis of identity versus role confusion. Research has shown that a stable and strong sense of identity is associated with better mental health of adolescents. Good relationships with peers are also linked with better emotional and psychological well-being of adolescents. However, there is a lack of reviews of studies in the scientific literature examining the relationship between the adolescents' identity development and relationships with peers. The aims of this article were to analyze links between adolescent identity development and relationships with peers identified from a literature review, summarize the results, and discuss the theoretical factors that may predict these relationships. A systematic literature review. Analysis of findings from the systematic literature review revealed that a good relationship with peers is positively related to adolescent identity development, but empirical research in this area is extremely limited. The links between adolescents' identity development and their relationship with peers are not completely clear. The possible intermediate factors that could determine the relationship between adolescent identity development and their relationships with peers are discussed. Further empirical researches is needed in this area.

  1. Masking author identity in peer review: what factors influence masking success? PEER Investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, M K; Justice, A C; Winker, M A; Berlin, J A; Waeckerle, J F; Callaham, M L; Rennie, D

    1998-07-15

    In a previous study, we found that masking success was higher at a journal that masked reviewers to author identity. We hypothesized that masking policy or other factors could be associated with masking success. To evaluate differences in success of masking reviewers to author identity at 7 biomedical journals and to identify factors associated with these differences. Written questionnaire. Reviewers at 3 journals with a long-standing policy of masking author identity (Annals of Emergency Medicine, Epidemiology, and Journal of the American Geriatrics Society) and 4 journals without a policy of masking author identity (Annals of Internal Medicine, JAMA, Obstetrics & Gynecology, and Ophthalmology). Masking success (percentage of reviewers successfully masked) and reviewer characteristics associated with masking. There was no significant difference in masking success between journals with a policy of masking (60%) and those without (58%) (P= .92). We found no association between masking success and a policy of masking when adjusted for the reviewer characteristics of age, sex, years of reviewing experience, number of articles published, number of articles reviewed, percentage of time spent in research, editorial experience, or academic rank (odds ratio [OR], 1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64-2.8; P=.43). In multivariable analysis of reviewer characteristics, reviewers spending a greater percentage of time in research, the only significant predictor of masking success, were less likely to be successfully masked (OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.00-1.02) (P=.04). Masking success appears unrelated to a journal policy of masking, but is associated with reviewers' research experience and could be affected by other characteristics. Using reviewers with less research and reviewing experience might increase masking success, but the effect on review quality is unknown.

  2. Performance results for a workstation-integrated radiology peer review quality assurance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, Margaret M; Davis, Todd M; Siminoski, Kerry

    2016-06-01

    To assess review completion rates, RADPEER score distribution, and sources of disagreement when using a workstation-integrated radiology peer review program, and to evaluate radiologist perceptions of the program. Retrospective review of prospectively collected data. Large private outpatient radiology practice. Radiologists (n = 66) with a mean of 16.0 (standard deviation, 9.2) years of experience. Prior studies and reports of cases being actively reported were randomly selected for peer review using the RADPEER scoring system (a 4-point scale, with a score of 1 indicating agreement and scores of 2-4 indicating increasing levels of disagreement). Assigned peer review completion rates, review scores, sources of disagreement and radiologist survey responses. Of 31 293 assigned cases, 29 044 (92.8%; 95% CI 92.5-93.1%) were reviewed. Discrepant scores (score = 2, 3 or 4) were given in 0.69% (95% CI 0.60-0.79%) of cases and clinically significant discrepancy (score = 3 or 4) was assigned in 0.42% (95% CI 0.35-0.50%). The most common cause of disagreement was missed diagnosis (75.2%; 95% CI 66.8-82.1%). By anonymous survey, 94% of radiologists felt that peer review was worthwhile, 90% reported that the scores they received were appropriate and 78% felt that the received feedback was valuable. Workstation-based peer review can increase completion rates and levels of radiologist acceptance while producing RADPEER scores similar to those previously reported. This approach may be one way to increase radiologist engagement in peer review quality assurance. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  3. Exploration and practice of methods and processes of evidence-based rapid review on peer review of WHO EML application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Youping; Yu, Jiajie; Du, Liang; Sun, Xin; Kwong, Joey S W; Wu, Bin; Hu, Zhiqiang; Lu, Jing; Xu, Ting; Zhang, Lingli

    2015-11-01

    After 38 years of development, the procedure of selection and evaluation of the World Health Organization Essential Medicine List (WHO EML) is increasingly scientific and formal. However, peer review for the applications of World Health Organization Essential Medicine List is always required in a short period. It is necessary to build up a set of methods and processes for rapid review. We identified the process of evidenced-based rapid review on WHO EML application for peer reviews according to 11 items which were required during reporting of the peer review results of the proposals. The most important items for the rapid review of World Health Organization Essential Medicine List peer reviewers are (1) to confirm the requirements and identify the purposes; (2) to establish the research questions and translate the questions into the 'Participants, Interventions, Comparators, Outcomes, Study design' (PICOS) format; (3) to search and screen available evidence, for which high-level evidence is preferred, such as systematic reviews or meta-analyses, health technology assessment, clinical guidelines; (4) to extract data, where we extract primary information based on the purposes; (5) to synthesize data by qualitative methods, assess the quality of evidence, and compare the results; (6) to provide the answers to the applications, quality of evidences and strength of recommendations. Our study established a set of methods and processes for the rapid review of World Health Organization Essential Medicine List peer review, and our findings were used to guide the reviewers to fulfill the 19(th) World Health Organization Essential Medicine List peer review. The methods and processes were feasible and met the necessary requirements in terms of time and quality. Continuous improvement and evaluation in practice are warranted. © 2015 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Institutional Review Boards and Professional Counseling Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Edward H., III; Curry, Jennifer R.

    2008-01-01

    Institutional review boards (IRBs) are responsible for regulating and safeguarding research with human participants in academic institutions in the United States. The authors explore (a) the historical impetus for IRBs, (b) the ethical values and principles as core components of the review process, and (c) the American Counseling Association's…

  5. Redefining the Practice of Peer Review Through Intelligent Automation-Part 3: Automated Report Analysis and Data Reconciliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Bruce I

    2017-07-25

    One method for addressing existing peer review limitations is the assignment of peer review cases on a completely blinded basis, in which the peer reviewer would create an independent report which can then be cross-referenced with the primary reader report of record. By leveraging existing computerized data mining techniques, one could in theory automate and objectify the process of report data extraction, classification, and analysis, while reducing time and resource requirements intrinsic to manual peer review report analysis. Once inter-report analysis has been performed, resulting inter-report discrepancies can be presented to the radiologist of record for review, along with the option to directly communicate with the peer reviewer through an electronic data reconciliation tool aimed at collaboratively resolving inter-report discrepancies and improving report accuracy. All associated report and reconciled data could in turn be recorded in a referenceable peer review database, which provides opportunity for context and user-specific education and decision support.

  6. Improved incident reporting following the implementation of a standardized emergency department peer review process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznek, Martin A; Barton, Bruce A

    2014-06-01

    Incident reporting is an important component of health care quality improvement. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effectiveness of an emergency department (ED) peer review process in promoting incident reporting. An observational, interrupted time-series analysis of health care provider (HCP) incident reporting to the ED during a 30-month study period prior to and following the peer review process implementation and a survey-based assessment of physician perceptions of the peer review process' educational value and its effectiveness in identifying errors. Large, urban, academic ED. HCPs were invited to participate in a standardized, non-punitive, non-anonymous peer review process that involved analysis and structured discussion of incident reports submitted to ED physician leadership. Monthly frequency of incident reporting by HCPs and physician perceptions of the peer review process. HCPs submitted 314 incident reports to the ED over the study period. Following the intervention, frequency of reporting by HCPs within the hospital increased over time. The frequencies of self-reporting, reporting by other ED practitioners and reporting by non-ED practitioners within the hospital increased compared with a control group of outside HCPs (P = 0.0019, P = 0.0025 and P peer review process to be educational and highly effective in identifying errors. The implementation of a non-punitive peer review process that provides timely feedback and is perceived as being valuable for error identification and education can lead to increased incident reporting by HCPs. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  7. Clinical perspective: creating an effective practice peer review process-a primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Manisha; Louis, Frances S; Wilson, Shae H; Clark, Steven L

    2017-03-01

    Peer review serves as an important adjunct to other hospital quality and safety programs. Despite its importance, the available literature contains virtually no guidance regarding the structure and function of effective peer review committees. This Clinical Perspective provides a summary of the purposes, structure, and functioning of effective peer review committees. We also discuss important legal considerations that are a necessary component of such processes. This discussion includes useful templates for case selection and review. Proper committee structure, membership, work flow, and leadership as well as close cooperation with the hospital medical executive committee and legal representatives are essential to any effective peer review process. A thoughtful, fair, systematic, and organized approach to creating a peer review process will lead to confidence in the committee by providers, hospital leadership, and patients. If properly constructed, such committees may also assist in monitoring and enforcing compliance with departmental protocols, thus reducing harm and promoting high-quality practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Review Essay: Understanding in Professional Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Schützeichel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available "Professions" are work collaborations in which representatives of certain vocations address the life problems of "laypersons." In such relationships, adequate communication between representatives of the profession and laypersons is crucial in addressing their individual problems. Accordingly, "understanding," as well as interactional documentation of this understanding, is of considerable importance. The authors of the present volume, "Understanding in Professional Spheres of Activity,"  address the documentation of this understanding in certain professional spheres. They examine the requirements for the documentation of such understanding and the forms of documentation used in the fields of doctor-patient communication, counseling communication, and organizational collaboration on a movie set. Conversation analytic as well as ethnographically complemented studies draw further attention to an examination of the interactional level in its socio-structural context, and to that end the study employs a combination of conversational linguistics and sociological research. This contribution is therefore important not only in terms of linguistics but also sociologically. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1203142

  9. Extended roles for allied health professionals: an updated systematic review of the evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saxon RL

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Robyn L Saxon,1–3 Marion A Gray,1,2 Florin I Oprescu1,2 1School of Health and Sports Sciences, Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering, 2Cluster for Health Improvement, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, QLD, 3Queensland Health, Brisbane, QLD, Australia Background: Internationally, health care services are under increasing pressure to provide high quality, accessible, timely interventions to an ever increasing aging population, with finite resources. Extended scope roles for allied health professionals is one strategy that could be undertaken by health care services to meet this demand. This review builds upon an earlier paper published in 2006 on the evidence relating to the impact extended scope roles have on health care services. Methods: A systematic review of the literature focused on extended scope roles in three allied health professional groups, ie, physiotherapy, occupational therapy, and speech pathology, was conducted. The search strategy mirrored an earlier systematic review methodology and was designed to include articles from 2005 onwards. All peer-reviewed published papers with evidence relating to effects on patients, other professionals, or the health service were included. All papers were critically appraised prior to data extraction. Results: A total of 1,000 articles were identified by the search strategy; 254 articles were screened for relevance and 21 progressed to data extraction for inclusion in the systematic review. Conclusion: Literature supporting extended scope roles exists; however, despite the earlier review calling for more robust evaluations regarding the impact on patient outcomes, cost-effectiveness, training requirements, niche identification, or sustainability, there appears to be limited research reported on the topic in the last 7 years. The evidence available suggests that extended scope practice allied health practitioners could be a cost-effective and consumer

  10. STUDY OF BODY IMAGE IN PROFESSIONAL DANCERS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allana Alexandre Cardoso

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Body image is multidimensional, dynamic, and entirely linked to the body in motion, which entails relevant bodily concerns in the routine of professional dancers, who need to maintain their body aesthetics constantly. The objective was summarizing the scientific production on the body image of professional dancers and to understand how they perceive it. This review is composed by seven studies that investigated professional dancers of classical ballet, jazz and contemporary dance. The results demonstrate that even though they are lean and had appropriate body mass index, professional dancers are dissatisfied with their body and wish to be thinner, that is, professional dancers constitute a risk group for the development of eating disorders.

  11. Staff Peer Relationships and the Socialization Process of New Professionals: A Quantitative Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayhorn, Terrell L.

    2009-01-01

    Prior research on student affairs professionals has focused largely on the nature of student affairs work with most attention given to mid- and senior-level administrators. Thus, relatively little is known about new professionals and their socialization to the student affairs profession. Based on a multivariate analysis of survey data from a…

  12. Personal attributes of authors and reviewers, social bias and the outcomes of peer review: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Richard; Barros, Beatriz; Conejo, Ricardo; Neumann, Konrad; Telefont, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Peer review is the "gold standard" for evaluating journal and conference papers, research proposals, on-going projects and university departments. However, it is widely believed that current systems are expensive, conservative and prone to various forms of bias. One form of bias identified in the literature is "social bias" linked to the personal attributes of authors and reviewers. To quantify the importance of this form of bias in modern peer review, we analyze three datasets providing information on the attributes of authors and reviewers and review outcomes: one from Frontiers - an open access publishing house with a novel interactive review process, and two from Spanish and international computer science conferences, which use traditional peer review. We use a random intercept model in which review outcome is the dependent variable, author and reviewer attributes are the independent variables and bias is defined by the interaction between author and reviewer attributes. We find no evidence of bias in terms of gender, or the language or prestige of author and reviewer institutions in any of the three datasets, but some weak evidence of regional bias in all three. Reviewer gender and the language and prestige of reviewer institutions appear to have little effect on review outcomes, but author gender, and the characteristics of author institutions have moderate to large effects. The methodology used cannot determine whether these are due to objective differences in scientific merit or entrenched biases shared by all reviewers.

  13. DOE Hydrogen Program: 2007 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milliken, J.

    2007-09-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the FY 2007 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 14-18, 2007, in Washington, D.C. The projects evaluated support the Department of Energy and President Bush's Hydrogen Initiative. The results of this merit review and peer evaluation are major inputs used by DOE to make funding decisions. Project areas include hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; education; and systems analysis.

  14. DOE Hydrogen Program: 2005 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalk, S. G.

    2005-09-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the FY 2005 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 23-26, 2005, in Arlington, Virginia. The projects evaluated support the Department of Energy and President Bush's Hydrogen Initiative. The results of this merit review and peer evaluation are major inputs used by DOE to make funding decisions. Project areas include hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; education; and systems analysis.

  15. DOE Hydrogen Program: 2006 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milliken, J.

    2006-09-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the FY 2006 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 16-19, 2006, in Arlington, Virginia. The projects evaluated support the Department of Energy and President Bush's Hydrogen Initiative. The results of this merit review and peer evaluation are major inputs used by DOE to make funding decisions. Project areas include hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; education; and systems analysis.

  16. The Effects of Resident Peer- and Self-Chart Review on Outpatient Laboratory Result Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Andrew J; Nall, Ryan W; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Libman, Howard; Smith, C Christopher; Sternberg, Scot B; Kim, Hans S; Kriegel, Gila

    2016-05-01

    Performing and teaching appropriate follow-up of outpatient laboratory results (LRs) is a challenge. The authors tested peer-review among residents as a potentially valuable intervention. Investigators assigned residents to perform self-review (n = 27), peer-review (n = 21), or self- + peer-review (n = 30) of outpatient charts. They also compared residence performance with that of historical controls (n = 20). In September 2012, residents examined 10 LRs from April 2012 onward. A second review in November 2012 ascertained whether performing chart review improved residents' practice behaviors. Initially, the least-square (LS) mean number of LRs without documentation of follow-up per resident in the self-, peer-, and self- + peer-review group was, respectively, 0.5 (SD 1.0), 1.0 (SD 1.7), and 0.9 (SD 1.3), and post intervention, this was 1.0 (SD 0.2), 0.3 (SD 0.2), and 0.6 (SD 0.2) (self- versus peer-review P = .03). Initially the LS mean follow-up time per resident in the self-, peer-, and self- + peer-review group was, respectively, 4.2 (SD 1.2), 6.9 (SD 1.4), and 5.9 (SD 1.2) days, and after the intervention, LS mean time was 5.0 (SD 0.5), 2.5 (SD 0.6), and 3.9 (SD 0.5) days (self- versus peer-review P peer-review, only residents who performed peer-review demonstrated significant improvements in their documentation practices. These findings support the use of resident peer-review in improving LR follow-up, and potentially, in other, broader resident quality improvement initiatives.

  17. Depression and suicide risk among nursing professionals: an integrative review

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Darlan dos Santos Damásio; Tavares, Natália Vieira da Silva; Alexandre,Alícia Regina Gomes; Freitas,Daniel Antunes; Brêda,Mércia Zeviani; Albuquerque, Maria Cícera dos Santos; Melo Neto, Valfrido Leão de

    2015-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE Discussing the factors associated with major depression and suicide risk among nursing professionals. METHOD An integrative review in PubMed/MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO and BDENF databases, between 2003 and 2015. RESULTS 20 published articles were selected, mostly from between 2012 and 2014, with significant production in Brazil. Nursing professionals are vulnerable to depression when young, married, performing night work and having several jobs, and when they have a high l...

  18. What is open peer review? A systematic review [version 1; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Ross-Hellauer

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: “Open peer review” (OPR, despite being a major pillar of Open Science, has neither a standardized definition nor an agreed schema of its features and implementations. The literature reflects this, with a myriad of overlapping and often contradictory definitions. While the term is used by some to refer to peer review where the identities of both author and reviewer are disclosed to each other, for others it signifies systems where reviewer reports are published alongside articles. For others it signifies both of these conditions, and for yet others it describes systems where not only “invited experts” are able to comment. For still others, it includes a variety of combinations of these and other novel methods. Methods: Recognising the absence of a consensus view on what open peer review is, this article undertakes a systematic review of definitions of “open peer review” or “open review”, to create a corpus of 122 definitions. These definitions are then systematically analysed to build a coherent typology of the many different innovations in peer review signified by the term, and hence provide the precise technical definition currently lacking. Results: This quantifiable data yields rich information on the range and extent of differing definitions over time and by broad subject area. Quantifying definitions in this way allows us to accurately portray exactly how  ambiguously the phrase “open peer review”  has been used thus far, for the literature offers a total of 22 distinct configurations of seven traits, effectively meaning that there are 22 different definitions of OPR in the literature. Conclusions: Based on this work, I propose a pragmatic definition of open peer review as an umbrella term for a number of overlapping ways that peer review models can be adapted in line with the ethos of Open Science, including making reviewer and author identities open, publishing review reports and enabling greater

  19. The gender gap in peer-reviewed publications by physical therapy faculty members: a productivity puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Regina R; Chevan, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Studies of peer-reviewed article publication by faculty in higher education show men publish more than women. Part of the difference in publishing appears to be attributable directly to gender. Gender differences in publishing productivity have not been explored in physical therapy. The purpose of this study was to explore effects of gender on peer-reviewed publication productivity in physical therapy. This was a cross-sectional study using survey methods. A survey was administered to a random sample of 881 physical therapy faculty members; 459 responses were used for analysis. Men were more likely than women to be married, have children, hold a PhD degree, be tenured or on a tenure track, and hold the position of department chair. There was a significant difference in peer-reviewed publication rates between male and female respondents. Negative binomial regression models revealed that female gender was a negative predictor of peer-reviewed publication, accounting for between 0.51 and 0.58 fewer articles per year for women than for men over the course of a career. Reasons for the gender differences are not clear. Factors such as grant funding, laboratory resources, nature of collaborative relationships, values for different elements of the teaching/research/service triad, and ability to negotiate the academic culture were not captured by our model. The gender gap in peer-reviewed publishing productivity may have implications for individuals and the profession of physical therapy and should be subject to further exploration.

  20. Assessing the Academic, Social, and Language Production Outcomes of English Language Learners Engaged in Peer Tutoring: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman-Perrott, Lisa; deMarín, Sharon; Mahadevan, Lakshmi; Etchells, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Peer tutoring is an instructional strategy that allows students to help one another learn content material through the repetition of key concepts. In more than 40 years of published studies, literature reviews, and meta-analyses of peer tutoring, this quantitative synthesis of the literature is the first to examine the impact of peer tutoring on…

  1. Peer Attachment: A Meta-Analytic Review of Gender and Age Differences and Associations with Parent Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorrese, Anna; Ruggieri, Ruggero

    2012-01-01

    In adolescence, peers represent key actors within individual social network. Given the relevance of peer connections and the growing literature examining them, the purpose of this article was to review, through a meta-analytic approach, studies on adolescent and youth peer relationships within the theoretical framework of attachment. First, we…

  2. Expanding Capacity and Promoting Inclusion in Introductory Computer Science: A Focus on Near-Peer Mentor Preparation and Code Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pon-Barry, Heather; Packard, Becky Wai-Ling; St. John, Audrey

    2017-01-01

    A dilemma within computer science departments is developing sustainable ways to expand capacity within introductory computer science courses while remaining committed to inclusive practices. Training near-peer mentors for peer code review is one solution. This paper describes the preparation of near-peer mentors for their role, with a focus on…

  3. 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-09-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 9-13, 2011, in Arlington, Virginia. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; education; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  4. 2010 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-12-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2010 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review, held on June 7-11, 2010, in Washington, DC. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; education; and systems analysis.

  5. 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-10-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 13-17, 2013, in Arlington, Virginia. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  6. 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-10-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review, held on June 16-20, 2014, in Washington, DC. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  7. 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-10-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review, held on June 8-12, 2015, in Arlington, Virginia. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  8. 2008 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2008-06-13

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2008 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review, held on June 9-13, 2008, in Arlington, Virginia. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; education; systems analysis; and manufacturing.

  9. Biomass Program 2007 Program Peer Review - Biodiesel and Other Technologies Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-28

    This document discloses the comments provided by a review panel at the U.S. Department of Energy Office of the Biomass Program Peer Review held on November 15-16, 2007 in Baltimore, MD and the Biodiesel and Other Technologies, held on August 14th and 15th in Golden, Colorado.

  10. 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-09-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 14-18, 2012, in Arlington, Virginia. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; education; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  11. Peer-Mediated Pivotal Response Treatment for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, Ainsley M.; Corkum, Penny; Meko, Katelyn; Smith, Isabel M.

    2015-01-01

    This review examined the effectiveness of peer-mediated pivotal response treatment (PM-PRT) to increase social-communication skills for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A systematic review was conducted of all published studies examining PM-PRT in school-aged children with ASD, based on an established rubric. Five PM-PRT studies…

  12. 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satyapal, S. [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-10-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 18-22, 2009, in Arlington, Virginia. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; education; safety, codes, and standards; technology validation; systems analysis; and manufacturing R&D.

  13. Problems with traditional science publishing and finding a wider niche for post-publication peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Dobránszki, Judit

    2015-01-01

    Science affects multiple basic sectors of society. Therefore, the findings made in science impact what takes place at a commercial level. More specifically, errors in the literature, incorrect findings, fraudulent data, poorly written scientific reports, or studies that cannot be reproduced not only serve as a burden on tax-payers' money, but they also serve to diminish public trust in science and its findings. Therefore, there is every need to fortify the validity of data that exists in the science literature, not only to build trust among peers, and to sustain that trust, but to reestablish trust in the public and private academic sectors that are witnessing a veritable battle-ground in the world of science publishing, in some ways spurred by the rapid evolution of the open access (OA) movement. Even though many science journals, traditional and OA, claim to be peer reviewed, the truth is that different levels of peer review occur, and in some cases no, insufficient, or pseudo-peer review takes place. This ultimately leads to the erosion of quality and importance of science, allowing essentially anything to become published, provided that an outlet can be found. In some cases, predatory OA journals serve this purpose, allowing papers to be published, often without any peer review or quality control. In the light of an explosion of such cases in predatory OA publishing, and in severe inefficiencies and possible bias in the peer review of even respectable science journals, as evidenced by the increasing attention given to retractions, there is an urgent need to reform the way in which authors, editors, and publishers conduct the first line of quality control, the peer review. One way to address the problem is through post-publication peer review (PPPR), an efficient complement to traditional peer-review that allows for the continuous improvement and strengthening of the quality of science publishing. PPPR may also serve as a way to renew trust in scientific

  14. Differing professional views or opinions: 1994 Special Review Panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    In July 1994, the Executive Director for Operations of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) appointed a Special Review Panel to assess the Differing Professional View or Opinion (DPV/DPO) process, including its effectiveness, how well it is understood by employees, and the organizational climate for having such views aired and properly decided. An additional area within this review was to address the effectiveness of the DPO procedures as they pertain to public access and confidentiality. Further, the Panel was charged with the review of the submittals completed since the last review to identify employees who made significant contributions to the agency or to the public health and safety but had not been adequately recognized for this contribution. The report presents the Special Review Panel`s evaluation of the NRC`s current process for dealing with Differing Professional Views or Opinions. Provided in this report are the results of an employee opinion survey on the process; highlights and suggestions from interviews with individuals who had submitted a Differing Professional View or Opinion, as well as with agency managers directly involved with the Differing Professional Views or Opinions process; and the Special Review Panel`s recommendations for improving the DPV/DPO process.

  15. Individual Development of Professionalism in Educational Peer Group Supervision: A Multiple Case Study of GPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holge-Hazelton, B.; Tulinius, Anne-Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    -dimensional theoretical model, it is shown that all GPs developed their professional behaviour, and many of them strengthened their professional identity in this domain towards a changed professionalism. Most participants emphasized the positive experience of sharing worries with families indicating care and interest....... Some participants learning processes were very linear/convergent; others were complex/divergent-starting out with a relatively simple objective, realizing how multifaceted the issue was after the first year leading to a final development of new perspectives or action possibilities. Conclusion...

  16. A scoping review of qualitative research in peer-reviewed dental publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gussy, M; Dickson-Swift, V; Adams, J

    2013-08-01

    Qualitative research designs are being used increasingly in dental research. This paper describes the extent and range of dental research in which qualitative methods have been employed as well as the techniques of data collection and analysis preferred by dental researchers. A scoping review was conducted to locate studies published in dental journals, which reported the use of qualitative methods. Data concerning the focus of the research and the reported qualitative techniques were extracted. Studies included in the review totalled 197. The majority of qualitative research captured in this scoping study focussed on three main areas: dental education, professional dental and dental educators' activities and experiences and the patient/public perceptions. Interviews and focus group discussions were the most commonly selected techniques for data collection. The majority of the studies included in the scoping review had a focus on education of dental professionals the activities of dental professionals or the reported perceptions of or experiences with dental services by patients or members of the public. Little research was located, which explored peoples' personal experience of dental conditions. Research reported in dental publications has a heavy bias towards the use of focus groups and interview data collection techniques. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Conflict of Interest and Disclosure Policies in Psychiatry and Medicine: A Comparative Study of Peer-Reviewed Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Gauri; Henderson, Schuyler; Walter, Garry; Martin, Andres

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors reviewed and characterized conflict of interest (COI) and disclosure policies published in peer-reviewed psychiatric and nonpsychiatric journals. Methods: The authors examined peer-reviewed publications in the psychiatric (N=20) and nonpsychiatric (N=20) literature. Using qualitative and quantitative approaches, they…

  18. How long is too long in contemporary peer review? Perspectives from authors publishing in conservation biology journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vivian M; Haddaway, Neal R; Gutowsky, Lee F G; Wilson, Alexander D M; Gallagher, Austin J; Donaldson, Michael R; Hammerschlag, Neil; Cooke, Steven J

    2015-01-01

    Delays in peer reviewed publication may have consequences for both assessment of scientific prowess in academics as well as communication of important information to the knowledge receptor community. We present an analysis on the perspectives of authors publishing in conservation biology journals regarding their opinions on the importance of speed in peer-review as well as how to improve review times. Authors were invited to take part in an online questionnaire, of which the data was subjected to both qualitative (open coding, categorizing) and quantitative analyses (generalized linear models). We received 637 responses to a total of 6,547 e-mail invitations sent. Peer-review speed was generally perceived as slow, with authors experiencing a typical turnaround time of 14 weeks while their perceived optimal review time is six weeks. Male and younger respondents seem to have higher expectations of review speed than females and older respondents. Majority of participants attributed lengthy review times to the 'stress' on the peer-review system (i.e., reviewer and editor fatigue), while editor persistence and journal prestige were believed to speed up the review process. Negative consequences of lengthy review times appear to be greater for early career researchers and can also have impact on author morale (e.g. motivation or frustration). Competition among colleagues were also of concern to respondents. Incentivizing peer review was among the top suggested alterations to the system along with training graduate students in peer review, increased editorial persistence, and changes to the norms of peer-review such as opening the peer-review process to the public. It is clear that authors surveyed in this study view the peer-review system as under stress and we encourage scientists and publishers to push the envelope for new peer review models.

  19. How long is too long in contemporary peer review? Perspectives from authors publishing in conservation biology journals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian M Nguyen

    Full Text Available Delays in peer reviewed publication may have consequences for both assessment of scientific prowess in academics as well as communication of important information to the knowledge receptor community. We present an analysis on the perspectives of authors publishing in conservation biology journals regarding their opinions on the importance of speed in peer-review as well as how to improve review times. Authors were invited to take part in an online questionnaire, of which the data was subjected to both qualitative (open coding, categorizing and quantitative analyses (generalized linear models. We received 637 responses to a total of 6,547 e-mail invitations sent. Peer-review speed was generally perceived as slow, with authors experiencing a typical turnaround time of 14 weeks while their perceived optimal review time is six weeks. Male and younger respondents seem to have higher expectations of review speed than females and older respondents. Majority of participants attributed lengthy review times to the 'stress' on the peer-review system (i.e., reviewer and editor fatigue, while editor persistence and journal prestige were believed to speed up the review process. Negative consequences of lengthy review times appear to be greater for early career researchers and can also have impact on author morale (e.g. motivation or frustration. Competition among colleagues were also of concern to respondents. Incentivizing peer review was among the top suggested alterations to the system along with training graduate students in peer review, increased editorial persistence, and changes to the norms of peer-review such as opening the peer-review process to the public. It is clear that authors surveyed in this study view the peer-review system as under stress and we encourage scientists and publishers to push the envelope for new peer review models.

  20. Are peer reviewers encouraged to use reporting guidelines? A survey of 116 health research journals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Hirst

    Full Text Available Pre-publication peer review of manuscripts should enhance the value of research publications to readers who may wish to utilize findings in clinical care or health policy-making. Much published research across all medical specialties is not useful, may be misleading, wasteful and even harmful. Reporting guidelines are tools that in addition to helping authors prepare better manuscripts may help peer reviewers in assessing them. We examined journals' instructions to peer reviewers to see if and how reviewers are encouraged to use them.We surveyed websites of 116 journals from the McMaster list. Main outcomes were 1 identification of online instructions to peer reviewers and 2 presence or absence of key domains within instructions: on journal logistics, reviewer etiquette and addressing manuscript content (11 domains.Only 41/116 journals (35% provided online instructions. All 41 guided reviewers about the logistics of their review processes, 38 (93% outlined standards of behaviour expected and 39 (95% contained instruction about evaluating the manuscript content. There was great variation in explicit instruction for reviewers about how to evaluate manuscript content. Almost half of the online instructions 19/41 (46% mentioned reporting guidelines usually as general statements suggesting they may be useful or asking whether authors had followed them rather than clear instructions about how to use them. All 19 named CONSORT for reporting randomized trials but there was little mention of CONSORT extensions. PRISMA, QUOROM (forerunner of PRISMA, STARD, STROBE and MOOSE were mentioned by several journals. No other reporting guideline was mentioned by more than two journals.Although almost half of instructions mentioned reporting guidelines, their value in improving research publications is not being fully realised. Journals have a responsibility to support peer reviewers. We make several recommendations including wider reference to the EQUATOR Network