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Sample records for professional occupation smoke

  1. The attitudes of occupational health personnel to smoking at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heloma, A; Reijula, K; Tikkanen, J; Nykyri, E

    1998-07-01

    Attitudes of occupational health care professionals toward smoking and their activity to address smoking issues were investigated by a questionnaire survey. Data were also collected on employees' exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and on smoking policies that existed in workplaces. Questionnaires were mailed to all occupational health care centers (n = 1,004) in Finland. The prevalence of daily smokers was 9.6% among physicians and 3.6% among nurses; 15% and 11%, respectively smoked occasionally. Smoking restrictions were enforced in more than 70% of all workplaces, but only 3.6% of them had a total smoking ban. Nonsmoking professionals were in favor of smoke-fee workplaces and smoking restrictions significantly more often than their smoking colleagues. Nonsmokers also regarded smoking as a serious problem to the organizational climate of workplaces. Almost half of nonsmoking respondents, but only 11% of daily smokers, would totally ban smoking in workplaces. Although the personal smoking status of the respondent had a strong effect on attitudes to smoking regulations, it did not have a clear influence on interest in discussing smoking issues when seeing patients. Nurses were more active in addressing smoking issues than physicians. Occupational health professionals of large companies reported stricter smoking policies at work than those who represented small enterprises

  2. Professional Differentiation and Occupational Earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, John B.

    1985-01-01

    "Professional" and other occupational characteristics were selected as variables for predicting the earnings of occupational groups. Task complexity and education were significant predictors of occupational earnings. In support of some power theorists, the data suggested that some occupational groups derive additional earnings by influencing their…

  3. Training health professionals in smoking cessation (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carson, K.V.; Verbiest, M.E.; Crone, M.R.; Brinn, M.P.; Esterman, A.J.; Assendelft, W.J.J.; Smith, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is one of the leading causes of preventable death world wide. There is good evidence that brief interventions from health professionals can increase smoking cessation attempts. A number of trials have examined whether skills training for health professionals can lead

  4. Training health professionals in smoking cessation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carson, K.V.; Verbiest, M.E.; Crone, M.R.; Brinn, M.P.; Esterman, A.J.; Assendelft, W.J.J.; Smith, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is one of the leading causes of preventable death world wide. There is good evidence that brief interventions from health professionals can increase smoking cessation attempts. A number of trials have examined whether skills training for health professionals can lead

  5. Cigarette smoking among healthcare professional students of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: It is aknown fact that health professionals can play a critical role in reducing tobacco use. In fact, it has been shown that even brief and simple advice from health care professionals can substantially increase smoking cessation rates. Students in healthcare professions are future healthcare professionals ...

  6. Occupational Therapy Employers’ Perceptions of Professionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki C. Mason

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS patient satisfaction survey, the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program, and the Bundled Payments for Care Improvement Initiative in the Affordable Care Act (ACA are affecting expectations of professionalism in health care. These initiatives and shifts in expectations are especially concerning for occupational therapists whose services historically have not been well understood. Method: Eighteen supervisory and managerial occupational therapy practitioners were interviewed regarding perceptions of professionalism in occupational therapy employees. The semi-structured interview guide explored professionalism in occupational therapists’ interactions with patients and co-workers and in an employer’s organization. Results: The participants identified three categories: patient or client-centeredness; collaboration and teamwork; and respect for the profession, department, and company. Conclusion: Data indicate that occupational therapy employers desire therapists who can effectively explain and demonstrate the value of OT, advocate for a patient, and understand the importance of communication and respect in interactions with patients, families, and co-workers. Investigating employers’ perceptions can yield a more complete picture of the specific behaviors associated with professionalism; enhance the process and product of professional development education; and contribute to the goals of patient-centered care, quality, patient safety, and improved reimbursement under the ACA’s value-based purchasing.

  7. Occupational correlates of smoking among urban transit operators: A prospective study

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    Banerjee Aniruddha

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Workers in blue-collar and service occupations smoke at higher rates than workers in white-collar and professional occupations. Occupational stress may explain some of the occupational class differences in smoking and quitting behavior. The purpose of this study is to investigate the contribution of occupational factors to smoking behavior over a ten year period among a multiethnic cohort of urban transit operators, while accounting for demographic factors and alcohol. Methods The sample consists of 654 San Francisco Municipal Railway (MUNI transit operators who participated in two occupational health studies and biennial medical examinations during 1983–85 and 1993–95. Workers who had initiated, increased, or maintained their smoking over the ten year period were compared to workers who remained non-smokers. Occupational factors included self-rated frequency of job problems (e.g., difficulties with equipment, passengers, traffic, job burnout (i.e., the emotional exhaustion subscale of the Maslach Burnout Inventory, time needed to unwind after work, and years employed as a transit operator. A series of logistic regression models were developed to estimate the contribution of occupational factors to smoking behavior over time. Results Approximately 35% of the workers increased, initiated, or maintained their smoking over the ten-year period. Frequency of job problems was significantly associated with likelihood of smoking increase, initiation, or maintenance (OR = 1.30; 95% CI 1.09, 1.55. Black operators were significantly more likely to have smoked over the ten-year period compared to operators in other racial/ethnic groups. Conclusion Understanding the role of work-related stress vis-à-vis smoking behavior is of critical importance for crafting workplace smoking prevention and cessation interventions that are applicable to blue-collar work settings, and for developing policies that mitigate occupational stress.

  8. Secondhand tobacco smoke: an occupational hazard for smoking and non-smoking bar and nightclub employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Miranda R; Wipfli, Heather; Shahrir, Shahida; Avila-Tang, Erika; Samet, Jonathan M; Breysse, Patrick N; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2013-09-01

    In the absence of comprehensive smoking bans in public places, bars and nightclubs have the highest concentrations of secondhand tobacco smoke, posing a serious health risk for workers in these venues. To assess exposure of bar and nightclub employees to secondhand smoke, including non-smoking and smoking employees. Between 2007 and 2009, the authors recruited approximately 10 venues per city and up to five employees per venue in 24 cities in the Americas, Eastern Europe, Asia and Africa. Air nicotine concentrations were measured for 7 days in 238 venues. To evaluate personal exposure to secondhand smoke, hair nicotine concentrations were also measured for 625 non-smoking and 311 smoking employees (N=936). Median (IQR) air nicotine concentrations were 3.5 (1.5-8.5) μg/m(3) and 0.2 (0.1-0.7) μg/m(3) in smoking and smoke-free venues, respectively. Median (IQR) hair nicotine concentrations were 6.0 (1.6-16.0) ng/mg and 1.7 (0.5-5.5) ng/mg in smoking and non-smoking employees, respectively. After adjustment for age, sex, education, living with a smoker, hair treatment and region, a twofold increase in air nicotine concentrations was associated with a 30% (95% CI 23% to 38%) increase in hair nicotine concentrations in non-smoking employees and with a 10% (2% to 19%) increase in smoking employees. Occupational exposure to secondhand smoke, assessed by air nicotine, resulted in elevated concentrations of hair nicotine among non-smoking and smoking bar and nightclub employees. The high levels of airborne nicotine found in bars and nightclubs and the contribution of this exposure to employee hair nicotine concentrations support the need for legislation measures that ensure complete protection from secondhand smoke in these venues.

  9. Relationship of occupational and non-occupational stress with smoking in automotive industry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Somayeh; Yazdanparast, Taraneh; Seyedmehdi, Seyed Mohammad; Ghaffari, Mostafa; Attarchi, Mirsaeed; Bahadori, Baharak

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco use is the second cause of death and first cause of preventable mortality worldwide. Smoking in the workplace is particularly concerning. Smoking-free workplaces decrease the risk of exposure of non-smoking personnel to cigarette smoke. Recent studies have mostly focused on the effect of daily or non-occupational stressors (in comparison with occupational stress) on prevalence of smoking. Occupational stress is often evaluated in workplaces for smoking cessation or control programs, but the role of non-occupational stressors is often disregarded in this respect. This cross-sectional study was conducted in an automobile manufacturing company. The response of automotive industry workers to parts of the validated, reliable, Farsi version of Musculoskeletal Intervention Center (MUSIC)-Norrtalje questionnaire was evaluated. A total of 3,536 factory workers participated in this study. Data were analyzed using SPSS and P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. The correlation of smoking with demographic factors, occupational stressors and life events was evaluated. The results of logistic regression analysis showed that even after adjusting for the confounding factors, cigarette smoking was significantly correlated with age, sex, level of education, job control and life events (P<0.05). The results showed that of occupational and non-occupational stressors, only job control was correlated with cigarette smoking. Non-occupational stressors had greater effect on cigarette smoking. Consideration of both non-occupational and occupational stressors can enhance the success of smoking control programs. On the other hand, a combination of smoking control and stress (occupational and non-occupational) control programs can be more effective than smoking cessation interventions alone.

  10. Income, occupation and education: Are they related to smoking behaviors in China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Shen, Jay J; Sotero, Michelle; Li, Casey A; Hou, Zhiyuan

    2018-01-01

    The association between socioeconomic status (SES) and smoking behaviors may differ across countries. This study aimed to estimate the association between socioeconomic status (income, occupation and education) and multiple measures of smoking behaviors among the Chinese elderly population. Using data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study in 2013, we examined the relationship between socioeconomic status and smoking behaviors through multivariate regression analysis. Sample selection models were applied to correct for sample selection bias. Smoking behaviors were measured by four indicators: smoking status, cigarette consumption, health risks related to smoking, and smoking dependence. Analyses were stratified by gender and urban-rural residence. Among Chinese people aged 45 years or older, smokers accounted for 40% of the population in 2013, smoking 19 cigarettes per day. It was also found that 79% of smokers were at an increased health risk. Overall, although the influence of income on smoking behaviors was small and even insignificant, occupation and education levels were significantly associated with smoking behaviors. Managers or professionals were more likely to smoke, however there was no significant relationship with smoking dependence. Individuals with higher educational attainment were less likely to be associated with smoking behaviors. In addition, gender and urban-rural differences existed in the relationship between SES and smoking behaviors. Smoking disparities among diverse levels of socioeconomic status existed but varied greatly by SES indicators and population characteristics. Tobacco control policies in China should be increasingly focused on populations with low socioeconomic status in order to break the link between socioeconomic disadvantage and smoking behaviors. Further actions should mitigate inequalities in education, improve the social culture of cigarette use, and tailor interventions based on characteristics of the

  11. Occupations and Professionalism in Art and Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennart G. Svensson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces the topic of this special issue on artists and professionalism from the perspective of the sociology of the arts and culture, in order to demonstrate how the contributions significantly develop studies of professions in general. Some theoretical concepts are defined and discussed: culture, arts, occupations, professions, status, field, symbolic and social capital, emotional labour, and reversed economy. An illustration is used to demonstrate pricing in arts and what may explain it. There is a focus on the field of art with a brief comparison to the academic field. In this issue we find studies on artists, authors, and theatre actors, which provide significant contributions to these themes in theories and studies of professions.Keywords: creative industries, creative occupations, professions, status, field, symbolic and social capital 

  12. Physicians' professional performance: an occupational health psychology perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, Renée A.

    2017-01-01

    Physician work engagement is considered to benefit physicians' professional performance in clinical teaching practice. Following an occupational health psychology perspective, this PhD report presents research on how physicians' professional performance in both doctor and teacher roles can be

  13. Occupational and worksite norms and attitudes about smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, G; Pechacek, T; Pallonen, U

    1986-01-01

    The relationship of worksite and occupational norms about smoking to workers' attitudes toward smoking cessation was studied in a defined population. From smokers identified in a self-administered questionnaire circulated to all employees of 10 worksites in suburban Minneapolis, 447 smokers were randomly selected and interviewed. Attitudes and social norms about smoking cessation were compared by occupation and worksite using analysis of covariance, controlling for age, sex, and education. Similarly, the relationships of social norms to attitudes were examined using multiple regression analysis. Interest in quitting smoking, confidence in the ability to quit, and coworker support of prior quit attempts were equally pervasive among workers from blue collar and white collar occupations. Yet substantial differences between worksites in attitudes and norms about smoking cessation suggest the importance of the unique social milieu of individual worksites. Of particular importance is the impact of coworker discouragement of prior quit attempts, which varied across worksites and was directly related to confidence in the ability to quit and the desire to seek formal help in future quit attempts. These findings point to the relevance of intervention programs aimed at changing worksite norms about smoking and smoking cessation. PMID:3963283

  14. Conceptualising professionalism in occupational therapy through a Western lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hordichuk, Chelsea J; Robinson, Allison J; Sullivan, Theresa M

    2015-06-01

    The term professionalism is embedded within curriculum and occupational therapy documents, yet, explicit discussion of the concept is lacking in the literature. This paper strives for a greater understanding of how professionalism is currently conceptualised within Western occupational therapy literature. A broad literature search was conducted and included international peer-reviewed and grey literature from Western cultures including Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States. To enrich understanding, some documents from medicine were also included. Professionalism is widely upheld as a core construct of occupational therapy. However, an evidence-based consensus of the specific elements of professionalism guiding occupational therapy practice is lacking. Currently, understanding of professionalism is largely based on multiple, isolated concepts presented in Western professional association documents. Acknowledging the multifaceted and multicultural nature of professionalism is essential to begin systematically delineating and conceptualising elements of professionalism specific to occupational therapy. This review has been conducted from a solely Western cultural lens. Additional work to highlight differences specific to international contexts, cultures, and societal influences is needed to enrich the understanding of professionalism in occupational therapy practice. © 2015 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  15. The relationship between professional identity and burnout among occupational therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Heather; Dirette, Diane

    2010-04-01

    ABSTRACT Health professionals have been identified as a high risk group for job-related stress and burnout. This study builds on the existing literature to examine the links between burnout and the development of professional values as well as the broad scope of occupational therapy, which may act as a hindrance to establishing a concise and well recognized professional identity. One hundred and twenty six occupational therapists completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Professional Identity Questionnaire. The factors that contribute to the relationship between a lack of professional identity in the field of occupational therapy and the levels of burnout among occupational therapists are identified and implications for establishing a strong and healthy workforce in occupational therapy are discussed.

  16. Occupational therapy, professional development and ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dige, Morten

    2009-01-01

    The article's aim is to reflect on and contribute to developing occupational therapy as a profession. I propose an ethical interpretation of health and helping professions in general and occupational therapy in particular. According to this ethical interpretation, the essential function and mission...... of classical health and helping professions are defined by certain ethical values: the basic elements of a good human life. I argue that the central concepts of occupational therapy, activity and participation, can plausibly be understood in this light. However, this seems to imply a rather substantial...... conception of well-being which I try to spell out. In addition, I specify the basic principles of biomedical ethics in the context of occupational therapy according to an ethical interpretation. In conclusion, I point at four advantages of the ethical interpretation: It adds precision and content to ethical...

  17. Professional ethics in occupational health--Western European perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerholm, Peter

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the foundations of professional ethics in occupational health care is described and discussed. After an introduction reminding of the global developments of world economy, communications and trade and reference to cultural and social developments, reference is given the four basic ethical criteria of biomedical ethics of beneficence ("doing good"), non-malfeasance (avoidance of harm), autonomy (integrity) and Justice/Equity-The "Appletown consensus" of 1989. These criteria provide the basis for current thinking and practice in health professions of Western Europe. The principles of ethical analysis, as currently practiced is described using a practical case scenario drawn from experience of challenging tasks for Occupational Health Services in Western Europe. Specific challenges to professional ethics are discussed-the growth of knowledge in subjects and academic disciplines relevant to occupational health and the multiple loyalties of occupational health professionals. The principles of ethical codes and their implementation are touched on. In conclusion, the universality of professional ethical principles of bioethics-including occupational health-is discussed in observing global inter-cultural commonalities and convergence on ethical criteria of central importance. Emphatic recommendation is given to continue inter-cultural exchanges with a view to improve understanding of impact of contextual and cultural factors on ethics in professional occupational health practice.

  18. Professionalism and Occupational Well-Being: Similarities and Differences Among Latin American Health Professionals

    OpenAIRE

    San-Martín, Montserrat; Delgado-Bolton, Roberto; Vivanco, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Context: Empathy, teamwork, and lifelong learning are described as key elements of professionalism. The first recipients of their benefits are professionals themselves. Paradoxically, scarce studies have reported association between professionalism and occupational well-being. The main purpose of this study was to characterize the influence that empathy, teamwork, and lifelong learning, play in the occupational well-being of physicians and nurses working in Latin American healthcare instituti...

  19. Health and productivity: a role for occupational health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCunney, R J

    2001-01-01

    The impressive economic gains achieved by many nations within the past decade have been attributed primarily to improvements in productivity from technological changes. The resultant low unemployment levels, however, emphasize the importance of human capital in the success of any enterprise. Concurrently, some economists have proposed an alternative economic view regarding the relationship between health and income, postulating that improvements in the health of the nation's population have a substantial effect on its economic viability. Such a view directly pertains to occupational health professionals, who are often charged with promoting the health of the worker. Although studies relating the beneficial impact of occupational health on productivity and human performance are limited, some efforts have shown impressive effects, as measured primarily by reduced absenteeism. The prompt, assertive management of occupational injuries and illnesses and their treatment have been well documented. Illnesses not considered traditional occupational ailments, such as migraine headaches, allergic disorders, infectious diseases, and depression, offer opportunities for occupational health professionals to ensure an accurate diagnosis and proper treatment for minimizing the impact on work performance. Considerable opportunities exist for occupational health professionals to demonstrate the importance of certain services to productivity.

  20. Occupational hazards to the health of professional gardeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knibbs, Luke D

    2014-01-01

    Professional gardening is a broad occupation that involves a wide range of tasks. Gardeners confront an equally wide variety of physical, chemical, biological and psychosocial hazards in their workplace. Consequently, occupational injuries and mortality are unfortunately common. The aim of this brief review is to collate and summarise the main hazards of gardening, their health effects and control measures. The diversity and size of gardeners' occupational exposures to the hazards outlined in this paper highlight some of the underlying causes of their increased risk of occupational injury or death. The risk can be reduced in many cases by ensuring appropriate protective strategies are adopted. Other ways through which the burden of occupational injury and mortality can be minimised are introduced and discussed in this paper.

  1. [Professional dance: an appraisal from the occupational health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Esther Román; Pérez, Elena Ronda; Portiño, Mercedes Carrasco

    2009-01-01

    Dance is essentially an artistic discipline, with the dancer being exposed, as in any other occupation, to occupational risk factors. This document aims at identifying the characteristics about Professional Dance and its impact on the dancer's health. Bibliographical review of all the material indexed at: Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, Lilacs, Cinhal and IME. Using the keywords: dancing, professional ballet, danza (dance), danza profesional (professional dance), bailarín/a/es (dancer(s)) y zapateado (tap dance). 893 articles were identified: 76 were included in the bibliographical review. 40 of them are focused on the study of traumatic lesions and accidents. 40% are related to rehearsing and 70% affect the lower limbs. 36 articles analyze eating, menstrual, and bone density disorders. 50% describe low weight problems for women dancers, 58% identify delayed menarche and menstrual disorders, while 14% explore the beneficial/harmful effect of intensive dancing on bone mass. 62% are cross-sectional studies. Scientific production gets us closer to the health condition of dance professionals, but doesn't provide an insight on the cause-effect relationship of this profession's pathologies because most studies are merely descriptive. These studies underline the need of a deeper research on nutrition training, its stand before lesions, social and working conditions, and the training of dedicated professionals on occupational health in professional dance.

  2. The Relationship between Teachers' Occupational Professionalism and Organizational Alienation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorulmaz, Yilmaz Ilker; Altinkurt, Yahya; Yilmaz, Kursad

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between occupational professionalism and organizational alienation levels of teachers. The study is designed as a survey model. The sample of the study consists of 303 teachers working in the Mugla province of Turkey. Participants were selected by using the disproportionate cluster…

  3. Constructing Occupational Identities: How Female Preschool Teachers Develop Professionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mina

    2013-01-01

    This study explores how female teachers construct their occupational identities as teachers within early childhood education (ECE) settings. The combination of feminist scholarship and the use of teacher life history method allow these women to describe themselves as professionally trained and educated teachers who love teaching and children even…

  4. North Carolina health professionals' communication with adolescents about smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandra, Kelly L; McCullough, Anna; Ranney, Leah; Goldstein, Adam O

    2013-01-01

    The middle school and high school years are a time when adolescents are at high risk for initiation of smoking and progression to nicotine addiction. This research examines the prevalence with which North Carolina students receive smoking-related communication from health professionals and how such communication relates to smoking behaviors. Data are from the 2009 North Carolina Youth Tobacco Survey (NCYTS), a biennial public and charter school-based survey of students in grades 6-12. The overall response rate was 78.2% (n = 3,301) for high school students and 79.2% (n = 3,805) for middle school students. Weighted multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify variables that are significantly related to health professionals' communication about smoking and/or advice against smoking. A majority of respondents reported that they had not been asked about or advised against smoking. Middle school and high school students who had tried to quit smoking in the past 12 months were significantly more likely to report having been asked about smoking (OR = 2.00 [95% CI, 1.23-3.28], OR = 1.96 [95% CI,1.44-2.661, respectively) or advised against smoking (OR = 2.25 [95% CI,1.13-4.50], OR = 2.02 [95% CI, 1.31-3.14], respectively) than were students who had not tried to quit. This research is based on a cross-sectional survey and is subject to the honesty of the participants. Results may not generalize beyond public and charter school students in North Carolina. North Carolina health professionals need to increase communication with adolescents in order to sustain the historically low rates of smoking in this age group.

  5. Smoking Health Professional Student: An Attitudinal Challenge for Health Promotion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cauchi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco is a major preventable cause of premature morbidity and mortality. Health professionals are uniquely positioned to provide targeted interventions and should be empowered to provide cessation counselling that influence patient smoking. A cross-sectional national survey was administered to all third year students in four disciplines at the University of Malta. The Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS questionnaire was distributed to collect standardised demographic, smoking prevalence, behavioural, and attitudinal data. 81.9% completed the questionnaire (n = 173/211. A positive significant association between tobacco smoke exposure at home and current smoking status was identified. Non-smokers regarded anti-tobacco policies more favourably than smokers, being more likely to agree with banning of tobacco sales to adolescents (OR 3.6; 95% CI: 2.5–5.3; p ≤ 0.001; and with a smoking ban in all public places (OR 8.9; 95% CI: 6.1–13.1; p ≤ 0.001. Non-smokers favoured a role for health professionals in promoting smoking cessation (OR 5.1; 95% CI: 3.1–8.5; p ≤ 0.001. Knowledge of antidepressants as tools for smoking cessation was also associated with a perceived role for skilled health professionals in cessation counselling (OR 4.9; 95% CI: 1.8–13.3; p = 0.002. Smoking negatively influences beliefs and attitudes of students toward tobacco control. There is a need to adopt a standard undergraduate curriculum containing comprehensive tobacco prevention and cessation training to improve their effectiveness as role models.

  6. Does Smoking Hamper Oral Self-Care Among Dental Professionals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Ghasemi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Smoking may impact oral self-care (OSC.  This study aimed to analyze the role of smoking in OSC among Iranian dental health professionals.Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional data were collected at two annual dental meetings and seven randomly selected dental schools in Iran. A total of 1,459 respond- ents composed of 967 general dental practitioners (GDPs, 229 dental educators (DE, and 263 senior dental students (DS anonymously completed a self-administered ques- tionnaire inquiring about smoking status and OSC.Results: Thirty percent of the men and 12% of women reported smoking with no dif-ference according to their professional status. Women reported better OSC than did men, but only 26% of the women and 17% of the men followed the three most important recommendations for OSC. Smoking was associated with infrequent tooth brushing and flossing, irregular use of fluoride containing toothpaste, consumption of sugary snacks, and weak adherence to the recommended OSC guidelines.Conclusion: Dental health education should place more emphasis on smoking counsel-ing and cessation among dental health professionals.

  7. Occupational Therapy Students’ Perspectives of Professionalism: An Exploratory Study

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    Theresa M. Sullivan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Professionalism is a dynamic, socially constructed idea, rendering it difficult to comprehend. Though characterized by the demonstration of values and behaviors, its meaning has not been fully explored and remains tacit. To explore how first- and second-year master’s of occupational therapy students conceptualize professionalism. Method: This qualitative pilot study evolved from an interpretivist theoretical perspective. Convenience sampling yielded four first-year and seven second-year students from one entry-level master’s program to participate in two separate focus groups. Line-by-line constant comparison methods were used to analyze the data and identify categories. An audit trail, peer debriefing, and member checking were employed. Results: Data analysis of the first-year focus group generated three categories: Searching for explicit examples, Responsibility to the profession, and Building and fulfilling societal responsibility. Analysis of the second-year focus group yielded two categories: Professional values and behaviors and Professionalism as socially constructed. Conclusion: Professionalism is a dynamic concept requiring nuanced understandings specific to context. Students should be encouraged to develop reflective abilities allowing them to analyze and act in a way that is most appropriate for the situation. Understanding students’ conceptualizations of professionalism may better allow occupational therapy regulators, managers, and academic and fieldwork educators to identify teaching and research priorities.

  8. Factors Predicting the Provision of Smoking Cessation Services Among Occupational Health Nurses in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatdokmaiprai, Kannikar; Kalampakorn, Surintorn; McCullagh, Marjorie; Lagampan, Sunee; Keeratiwiriyaporn, Sansanee

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors predicting occupational health nurses' provision of smoking cessation services. Data were collected via a self-administered questionnaire distributed to 254 occupational health nurses in Thailand. Analysis by structural equation modeling revealed that self-efficacy directly and positively influenced smoking cessation services, and mediated the relationship between workplace factors, nurse factors, and smoking cessation services. The final model had good fit to the data, accounting for 20.4% and 38.0% of the variance in self-efficacy and smoking cessation services, respectively. The findings show that self-efficacy is a mediator that influences provision of smoking cessation services by occupational health nurses. Interventions to enhance nurses' self-efficacy in providing smoking cessation services are expected to promote provision of smoking cessation services to workers.

  9. Pulmonary blastomycosis in a professional diver: An occupational risk

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    Ryan R Kroll

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In certain parts of the United States and Canada, and northern Ontario in particular, the dimorphic fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis is endemic and can cause infection in exposed individuals. The site of infection is usually pulmonary, causing respiratory and constitutional symptoms, but can also affect other sites in the body. Symptom severity can vary substantially from no symptoms to fatal acute respiratory distress syndrome. The present report describes a 27-year-old professional diver who had recently worked in northern Ontario, who developed symptoms of pneumonia and exhibited atypical findings on chest imaging. He was diagnosed with blastomycosis based on histopathological findings and fungal culture, and was treated with amphotericin B and itraconazole in accordance with treatment guidelines. While outdoor occupations in endemic areas increase the risk of infection, there is no literature specifically identifying professional diving as an occupational risk for blastomycosis.

  10. Finding toxicological information: An approach for occupational health professionals

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    Franco Giuliano

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It can be difficult for occupational health professionals to assess which toxicological databases available on the Internet are the most useful for answering their questions. Therefore we evaluated toxicological databases for their ability to answer practical questions about exposure and prevention. We also propose recommended practices for searching for toxicological properties of chemicals. Methods We used a systematic search to find databases available on the Internet. Our criteria for the databases were the following: has a search engine, includes factual information on toxic and hazardous chemicals harmful for human health, and is free of charge. We developed both a qualitative and a quantitative rating method, which was used by four independent assessors to determine appropriateness, the quality of content, and ease of use of the database. Final ratings were based on a consensus of at least two evaluators. Results Out of 822 results we found 21 databases that met our inclusion criteria. Out of these 21 databases 14 are administered in the US, five in Europe, one in Australia, and one in Canada. Nine are administered by a governmental organization. No database achieved the maximum score of 27. The databases GESTIS, ESIS, Hazardous Substances Data Bank, TOXNET and NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards all scored more than 20 points. The following approach was developed for occupational health professionals searching for the toxicological properties of chemicals: start with the identity of the chemical; then search for health hazards, exposure route and measurement; next the limit values; and finally look for the preventive measures. Conclusion A rating system of toxicological databases to assess their value for occupational health professionals discriminated well between databases in terms of their appropriateness, quality of information, and ease of use. Several American and European databases yielded high scores and

  11. Finding toxicological information: An approach for occupational health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laamanen, Irja; Verbeek, Jos; Franco, Giuliano; Lehtola, Marika; Luotamo, Marita

    2008-08-13

    It can be difficult for occupational health professionals to assess which toxicological databases available on the Internet are the most useful for answering their questions. Therefore we evaluated toxicological databases for their ability to answer practical questions about exposure and prevention. We also propose recommended practices for searching for toxicological properties of chemicals. We used a systematic search to find databases available on the Internet. Our criteria for the databases were the following: has a search engine, includes factual information on toxic and hazardous chemicals harmful for human health, and is free of charge. We developed both a qualitative and a quantitative rating method, which was used by four independent assessors to determine appropriateness, the quality of content, and ease of use of the database. Final ratings were based on a consensus of at least two evaluators. Out of 822 results we found 21 databases that met our inclusion criteria. Out of these 21 databases 14 are administered in the US, five in Europe, one in Australia, and one in Canada. Nine are administered by a governmental organization. No database achieved the maximum score of 27. The databases GESTIS, ESIS, Hazardous Substances Data Bank, TOXNET and NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards all scored more than 20 points. The following approach was developed for occupational health professionals searching for the toxicological properties of chemicals: start with the identity of the chemical; then search for health hazards, exposure route and measurement; next the limit values; and finally look for the preventive measures. A rating system of toxicological databases to assess their value for occupational health professionals discriminated well between databases in terms of their appropriateness, quality of information, and ease of use. Several American and European databases yielded high scores and provide a valuable source for occupational health professionals.

  12. Impact of Work Task-Related Acute Occupational Smoke ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: A repeated measures study was used to assess the effect of work tasks on select proinflammatory biomarkers in firefighters working at prescribed burns. Methods: Ten firefighters and two volunteers were monitored for particulate matter and carbon monoxide on workdays, January-July 2015. Before and after work-shift dried blood spots were analyzed for inflammatory mediators using the Meso Scale Discovery assay, while blood smears were used to assess leukocyte parameters. Results: Firefighters lighting with drip-torches had higher cross-work-shift increases in interleukin-8, C-reactive protein, and serum amyloid A compared to holding, a task involving management of fire boundaries. A positive association between interleukin-8 and segmented-neutrophil was observed. Conclusion: Results from this study suggest that intermittent occupational diesel exposures contribute to cross-work-shift changes in host systemic innate inflammation as indicated by elevated interleukin-8 levels and peripheral blood segmented-neutrophils. The decision whether to perform a prescribed burn balances land use, risk of fire and potential health impacts. Understanding the latter requires a quick non intrusive assay which can be used to monitor the health of those exposed to smoke. This is first study to use blood smears to assess changes in systemic differential leukocyte cell populations following wood smoke exposure from prescribed burn. This research is useful for understandi

  13. Reflections on the professionalization of occupational therapy: time to put down the looking glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Juliette E

    2012-10-01

    Many changes have occurred in occupational therapy and its environment during the last 50 years. Despite major advances, occupational therapy is not well-known by the general public and concern remains about its professional status. To review "professionalization," and relate it to occupational therapy through reflection on major changes and critical events; to analyze the current status of occupational therapy; and to make suggestions for change. Professionalization is a dynamic, ongoing process; occupational groups achieve professional status through recognition by society, not by meeting a set list of criteria. A framework for professionalization allows examination of constraints on occupational autonomy and weighing of issues affecting internal and external dynamics. Application of the framework identified that occupational therapy in Canada today is mostly focused on its internal dynamic. To maintain and advance its professional status, occupational therapy must focus to the external dynamic to improve its recognition by the general public.

  14. Professionalism and Occupational Well-Being: Similarities and Differences Among Latin American Health Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    San-Martín, Montserrat; Delgado-Bolton, Roberto; Vivanco, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Context: Empathy, teamwork, and lifelong learning are described as key elements of professionalism. The first recipients of their benefits are professionals themselves. Paradoxically, scarce studies have reported association between professionalism and occupational well-being. The main purpose of this study was to characterize the influence that empathy, teamwork, and lifelong learning, play in the occupational well-being of physicians and nurses working in Latin American healthcare institutions. Materials and Methods: The Jefferson Scale of Empathy, the Jefferson Scale of Attitudes toward Physician-Nurse Collaboration, the Jefferson Scale of Physicians Lifelong Learning, and the Scale of Collateral Effects (somatization, exhaustion, and work alienation), were administered to 522 physicians and nurses working in institutions of Mexico, Colombia, Ecuador, and Argentina. Internal reliability was calculated. Gender and discipline were used as explanatory variables in comparison analysis. Two-way analysis of variance was performed to examine differences due to the main effects of the gender, and discipline, and to determine possible combined effects. Correlation analysis was performed to measure associations between collateral effects and age, and between collateral effects and professionalism. Results: A total of 353 (68%) surveys were returned fully completed. Adequate reliability was confirmed in all instruments. No differences were found among countries for collateral effects. Correlation analysis confirmed in physicians an inverse association between empathy and collateral effects (P = -0.16; p professionalism and in its effects on occupational well-being appeared associated to inter-professional collaboration and work roles. An inverse correlation between age and collateral effects was confirmed in physicians (P = -0.22; p exhaustion and alienation in physicians than in nurses (p professional models and social stereotypes, play in the interaction between

  15. Impact of Work Environments and Occupational Hazards on Smoking Intensity in Korean Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Ju

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of work environments and occupational hazards on smoking intensity by occupation type in Korean workers. This study used the data from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2009. The sample of this study included 3,769 adults who were aged 18 years or older and had an occupation of office work, sales, or manufacturing. After controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, the generalized linear models revealed that office workers and the sales force who had smoking co-workers at the workplace were more likely to smoke than those who did not. A dirty workplace and exposure to occupational noise were significant factors increasing the smoking intensity for manufacturers. A smoking cessation program considering physical work environments and co-workers' support should be developed for Korean workers. © 2015 The Author(s).

  16. Professionalism and Occupational Well-Being: Similarities and Differences Among Latin American Health Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San-Martín, Montserrat; Delgado-Bolton, Roberto; Vivanco, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Context: Empathy, teamwork, and lifelong learning are described as key elements of professionalism. The first recipients of their benefits are professionals themselves. Paradoxically, scarce studies have reported association between professionalism and occupational well-being. The main purpose of this study was to characterize the influence that empathy, teamwork, and lifelong learning, play in the occupational well-being of physicians and nurses working in Latin American healthcare institutions. Materials and Methods: The Jefferson Scale of Empathy, the Jefferson Scale of Attitudes toward Physician-Nurse Collaboration, the Jefferson Scale of Physicians Lifelong Learning, and the Scale of Collateral Effects (somatization, exhaustion, and work alienation), were administered to 522 physicians and nurses working in institutions of Mexico, Colombia, Ecuador, and Argentina. Internal reliability was calculated. Gender and discipline were used as explanatory variables in comparison analysis. Two-way analysis of variance was performed to examine differences due to the main effects of the gender, and discipline, and to determine possible combined effects. Correlation analysis was performed to measure associations between collateral effects and age, and between collateral effects and professionalism. Results: A total of 353 (68%) surveys were returned fully completed. Adequate reliability was confirmed in all instruments. No differences were found among countries for collateral effects. Correlation analysis confirmed in physicians an inverse association between empathy and collateral effects (P = -0.16; p effects and lifelong learning (P = -0.18; p effects on occupational well-being appeared associated to inter-professional collaboration and work roles. An inverse correlation between age and collateral effects was confirmed in physicians (P = -0.22; p gender confirmed higher somatization in women physicians and nurses than in men groups (p role that cultural behaviors

  17. Occupational asthma in professional cleaning work: a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkelä, R; Kauppi, P; Suuronen, K; Tuppurainen, M; Hannu, T

    2011-03-01

    Several epidemiological studies have reported an increased risk of asthma among professional cleaners. To date, however, no analysis of large patient series from clinic of occupational medicine has been published. To describe the cases of occupational asthma (OA) diagnosed at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH) during the period 1994-2004 in workers employed in professional cleaning work. OA was diagnosed according to patient history, lung function examinations and specific challenge tests with measurements of the forced expiratory volume in 1 second and peak expiratory flow values. Our series comprised 20 patients, all female, with a mean age of 48.8 years (range 27-60 years). The mean duration of cleaning work before the onset of the respiratory symptoms was 14.3 years (range 1-36 years), and the mean duration of cleaning work before the FIOH examinations was 18.6 years (range 3-38 years). OA was triggered by chemicals in 9 cases (45%) and by moulds in 11 cases (55%). The chemicals were cleaning chemicals (wax-removing substances containing ethanolamines in five cases and a cleaning agent containing chloramine-T in one case) and chemicals used in the industrial processes at workplaces (three cases). Of the moulds, the most frequently associated with OA was Aspergillus fumigatus (nine cases). OA was attributed not only to cleaning chemicals but also to other chemicals used in work environments. Moulds are presented as a new cause of OA in cleaners.

  18. Cardiorespiratory response to exercise of nonsmokers occupationally exposed to second hand smoke (SHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasios Mantzoros

    2017-01-01

    Chronic occupational SHS exposure among non-smokers deteriorates CR exercise performance increasing risk of developing SHS associated diseases. Smoking ban legislation should be enforced but also inclusive of all workplaces eliminating the existing violation of labor and human rights.

  19. Exploring the views of healthcare professionals on increasing smoking cessation advice for patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Ho ShuYing; McGee Hannah; McElvaney Noel G; Doyle Frank

    2016-01-01

    Background: Smoking cessation advice provided by healthcare professionals can be effective in increasing smoking cessation among patients. Any successful intervention will require staff knowledge of local barriers to implementation. However, the views of Irish healthcare professionals on increasing the provision of smoking cessation advice and the associated barriers remain unexplored. Aims: To explore the views of Irish healthcare professionals on barriers to increasing smoking cessation ...

  20. Occupational accidents in professional dance with focus on gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanke, Eileen M; Arendt, Michael; Mill, Helmgard; Groneberg, David A

    2013-12-17

    Classical dance comprises gender specific movement tasks. There is a lack of studies which investigate work related traumatic injuries in terms of gender specific differences in detail. To define gender related differences of occupational accidents. Basis for the evaluation were occupational injuries of professional dancers from three (n = 785; f: n = 358, m: n = 427) state theatres. The incidence rate (0.36 per year) was higher in males (m: 0.45, f: 0.29). There were gender specific differences as to the localizations of injuries, particularly the spine region (m: 17.3%, f: 9.8%, p = 0.05) and ankle joint (m: 23.7%, f: 35.5%, p = 0.003). Compared to male dancers, females sustained more injuries resulting from extrinsic factors. Significant differences could specifically be observed with dance floors (m: 8.8%, f: 15.1%, p = 0.02). There were also significant gender differences observed with movement vocabulary. The clearly defined gender specific movement activities in classical dance are reflected in occupational accidents sustained. Organisational structures as well as work environment represent a burden likewise to male and female dancers. The presented differences support the development of gender specific injury prevention measures.

  1. Ventilation requirements for control of occupancy odor and tobacco smoke odor: laboratory studies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, W.S.; Isseroff, R.; Leaderer, B.P.; Lipsitt, E.D.; Huey, R.J.; Perlman, D.; Bergland, L.G.; Dunn, J.D.

    1981-04-01

    Experiments on occupancy odor addressed the question of why required ventilation rate per occupant increased progressively with increases in the number of persons in a space. In order to investigate ventilation requirements under approximately ideal conditions, we constructed an aluminum-lined environmental chamber with excellent control over environmental conditions and a ventilation system that provided rapid and uniform mixing of air. Psychophysical experiments on occupancy odor explored 47 different combinations of occupancy density, temperature and humidity, and ventilation rate. The experiments collected judgements both from visitors, who smelled air from the chamber only once every few minutes, and from occupants, who remained in the chamber for an hour at a time. The judgements of visitors revealed that occupancy odor increased only gradually over time and rarely reached very high or objectionable levels. Judgements of occupants also revealed rather minor dissatisfaction. Only during combinations of high temperature and humidity did objectionability become more than a minor issue to either group. Experiments on cigarette smoking explored rates of 4, 8, and 16 cigarettes per hour under various environmental conditions and with ventilation rates as high as 68 cfm (34 L.s/sup -1/) per occupant. As soon as occupants lit cigarettes in the chamber, the odor level increased dramatically. At ventilation rates far greater than necessary to control occupancy odor, the odor from cigarette smoking remained quite intense. In general, the odor proved impossible to control adequately even with a ventilation rate of 68 cfm (34 L.s/sup -1/) per occupant (4 occupants) and even when only one occupant smoked at a time. As in the case of occupancy odor, a combination of high temperature and humidity exacerbated the odor problem.

  2. Occupational health management system: A study of expatriate construction professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, I Y S; Leung, M Y; Liu, A M M

    2016-08-01

    Due to its direct impact on the safety and function of organizations, occupational health has been a concern of the construction industry for many years. The inherent complexity of occupational health management presents challenges that make a systems approach essential. From a systems perspective, health is conceptualized as an emergent property of a system in which processes operating at the individual and organizational level are inextricably connected. Based on the fundamental behavior-to-performance-to-outcome (B-P-O) theory of industrial/organizational psychology, this study presents the development of an I-CB-HP-O (Input-Coping Behaviors-Health Performance-Outcomes) health management systems model spanning individual and organizational boundaries. The model is based on a survey of Hong Kong expatriate construction professionals working in Mainland China. Such professionals tend to be under considerable stress due not only to an adverse work environment with dynamic tasks, but also the need to confront the cross-cultural issues arising from expatriation. A questionnaire was designed based on 6 focus groups involving 44 participants, and followed by a pilot study. Of the 500 questionnaires distributed in the main study, 137 valid returns were received, giving a response rate of 27.4%. The data were analyzed using statistical techniques such as factor analysis, reliability testing, Pearson correlation analysis, multiple regression modeling, and structural equation modeling. Theories of coping behaviors and health performance tend to focus on the isolated causal effects of single factors and/or posits the model at single, individual level; while industrial practices on health management tend to focus on organizational policy and training. By developing the I-CB-HP-O health management system, incorporating individual, interpersonal, and organizational perspectives, this study bridges the gap between theory and practice while providing empirical support for a

  3. Exploring Smoking Cessation Attitudes, Beliefs, and Practices in Occupational Health Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Ollie; Fortuna, Grace; Weinsier, Stephanie; Campbell, Kay; Cantrell, Jennifer; Furmanski, William L

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore occupational health nurses' attitudes, beliefs, and practices regarding the delivery of smoking cessation services to workers. The study included 707 members of the American Association of Occupational Health Nurses (AAOHN) who completed a one-time survey during the fall of 2012. Results indicated that occupational health nurses believed that evidence-based treatments are at least somewhat effective and that they should provide smoking cessation services to their workers; however, a majority of occupational health nurses reported that they did not have appropriate smoking cessation training or guidelines in their workplaces. Occupational health nurses would benefit from training in the use of smoking cessation guidelines and evidence-based smoking cessation interventions, which could be used in their clinical practice. Employers should ensure that workplace policies, such as providing coverage for cessation services, facilitate smokers' efforts to quit. Employers can benefit from many of these policies through cost savings via reduced health care costs and absenteeism. © 2015 The Author(s).

  4. Continuities and Changes: Teenage Smoking and Occupational Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Robert; Pavis, Stephen; Amos, Amanda; Cunningham-Burley, Sarah

    1999-01-01

    Reports the third wave of a longitudinal study that followed 106 15-year-olds from their last compulsory year at school for 22 months. Study shows that this is a period of considerable flux in smoking behavior. Highlights the role of friendship groups and social contexts and suggests that smoking prevention programs should be developed to meet the…

  5. Occupational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: a study in Lisbon restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Solange A; Aguiar, Fátima; Ruivo, Patrícia; Proença, Maria Carmo; Sekera, Michael; Penque, Deborah; Simões, Tânia

    2012-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), also referred to as secondhand smoke (SHS), is a major threat to public health and is increasingly recognized as an occupational hazard to workers in the hospitality industry. Therefore, several countries have implemented smoke-free regulations at hospitality industry sites. In Portugal, since 2008, legislation partially banned smoking in restaurants and bars but until now no data have been made available on levels of indoor ETS pollution/exposure at these locations. The aim of this study was to examine the occupational exposure to ETS/SHS in several restaurants in Lisbon, measured by indoor fine particles (PM(2.5)) and urinary cotinine concentration in workers, after the partial smoking ban in Portugal. Results showed that the PM(2.5) median level in smoking designated areas was 253 μg/m³, eightfold higher than levels recorded in canteens or outdoor. The nonsmoking rooms of mixed restaurants exhibited PM(2.5) median level of 88 μg/m³, which is higher than all smoke-free locations studied, approximately threefold greater than those found in canteens. Importantly, urinary cotinine concentrations were significantly higher in nonsmoker employees working in those smoking designated areas, confirming exposure to ETS. The proportion of smokers in those rooms was found to be significantly positively correlated with nonsmoker urinary cotinine and indoor PM(2.5) levels, establishing that both markers were occupational-ETS derived. The use of reinforced ventilation systems seemed not to be sufficient to decrease the observed ETS pollution/exposure in those smoking locations. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the partial restrictions on smoking in Portuguese venues failed to provide adequate protection to their employees, irrespective of protective measures used. Therefore, a smoke-free legislation protecting individuals from exposure to ETS/SHS in all public places and workplaces is urgently needed in Portugal.

  6. Physicians' professional performance: an occupational health psychology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheepers, Renée A

    2017-12-01

    Physician work engagement is considered to benefit physicians' professional performance in clinical teaching practice. Following an occupational health psychology perspective, this PhD report presents research on how physicians' professional performance in both doctor and teacher roles can be facilitated by work engagement and how work engagement is facilitated by job resources and personality traits. First, we conducted a systematic review on the impact of physician work engagement and related constructs (e. g. job satisfaction) on physicians' performance in patient care. We additionally investigated physician work engagement and job resources in relation to patient care experience with physicians' performance at ten outpatient clinics covering two hospitals. In a following multicentre survey involving 61 residency training programs of 18 hospitals, we studied associations between physician work engagement and personality traits with resident evaluations of physicians' teaching performance. The findings showed that physician work engagement was associated with fewer reported medical errors and that job satisfaction was associated with better communication and patient satisfaction. Autonomy and learning opportunities were positively associated with physician work engagement. Work engagement was positively associated with teaching performance. In addition, physician work engagement was most likely supported by personality trait conscientiousness (e. g. responsibility). Given the reported associations of physician work engagement with aspects of their professional performance, hospitals could support physician work engagement in service of optimal performance in residency training and patient care. This could be facilitated by worker health surveillance, peer support or promoting job crafting at the individual or team level.

  7. Occupational Violence and Aggression Experienced by Nursing and Caring Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Tracey; Sheehan, Cathy; Donohue, Ross; Cooper, Brian; De Cieri, Helen

    2017-03-01

    To examine the extent and source of occupational violence and aggression (OVA) experienced by nursing and caring professionals. This study also examines the relative contributions of demographic characteristics and workplace and individual safety factors in predicting OVA. A cross-sectional study design with data collected using an online survey of employees in the nursing and caring professions in Victoria, Australia. Survey data collected from 4,891 members of the Australian Nursing and Midwifery Federation (Victorian branch) were analyzed using logistic regression. Sixty-seven percent of respondents reported experiencing OVA in the preceding 12 months, with nearly 20% experiencing OVA on a weekly or daily basis. The dominant sources of OVA were patients (79%) or relatives of patients (48%). Logistic regression analysis revealed that respondents working in public hospitals and aged care facilities were more likely to experience OVA, compared to those working in other workplaces. While higher levels of safety compliance reduced the likelihood of experiencing OVA, role overload and workplace safety factors such as prioritization of employee safety and leading indicators of occupational health and safety were stronger predictors. The likelihood of healthcare workers experiencing OVA varies across demographic and workplace characteristics. While some demographic characteristics and individual safety factors were significant predictors, our results suggest that a greater reduction in OVA could be achieved by improving workplace safety. The study's outcomes identify workforce segments that are most vulnerable to OVA. The study also highlights workplace safety factors such as the prioritization of employee safety that might assist in the reduction of OVA. © 2016 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  8. Occupational Risks of Health Professionals in Turkey as an Emerging Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulutasdemir, Nilgun; Cirpan, Metin; Copur, Ebru Ozturk; Tanir, Ferdi

    2015-01-01

    Health services are one of the work areas that contain important risks in terms of the occupational health and safety of the laborer. Professionals in various areas of health services encounter biological, chemical, physical, ergonomic, and psychosocial risks, particularly in hospitals. This study has been performed to evaluate the impacts of the occupational risks on health of health professionals in Turkey. In Turkey, as an emerging economy, the history of studies on health professionals is not longstanding. There have been various regulations intended for the occupational health and safety of health professionals in line with the Regulation of the Provision on Patient and Staff Safety prepared in 2012. However, applications can differ from region to region, institution to institution, and person to person. We believe that this review will lead health professionals to be aware of occupational risks and contribute to planning health services for health professionals. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Knowledge of Occupational Chemical Exposure and Smoking Behavior in Korean Immigrant Drycleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Dal Lae; Duffy, Sonia A; Hong, OiSaeng

    2016-02-01

    To examine the association between knowledge of chemical exposure at work and cigarette smoking among Korean immigrant drycleaners. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with a total of 151 Korean immigrant drycleaners (mean age = 49 years, 64 % male) from 96 drycleaning shops in a Midwestern state. The data were collected on demographic and work-related characteristics, knowledge of occupational chemical exposure, health concerns associated with chemical exposure, and smoking status. Approximately 25 % of participants were current smokers. The multivariate regression showed that greater knowledge of occupational chemical exposures was significantly associated with a lower likelihood of current smoking [odds ratio (OR) .63; 95 % confidence interval (CI) .41-.95]. Furthermore, male gender (OR 6.32; 95 % CI 1.66-24.00), shorter-term residence in the US (OR .93; 95 % CI .88-.98), and having multiple duties (OR 2.76; 95 % CI 1.01-7.51) were important covariates associated with current smoking among Korean immigrant drycleaners. Knowledge on occupational chemical exposure was significantly associated with smoking among Korean immigrant drycleaners. Smoking cessation programs for this population should consider integrated approaches that incorporate work environment factors into individual and sociocultural components.

  10. Professional activity, information demands, training and updating needs of occupational medicine physicians in Italy: National survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Persechino

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Occupational medicine is a discipline continually evolving in response to technological advances, changes in workplaces and production processes, emergence of new occupational risks and diseases and modifications in regulatory framework for occupational health and safety. Therefore, the recurrent revaluation of professional activity, information demands and education and training needs of occupational physicians is essential in order to identify methodologies and tools that may contribute to improvement of their professional knowledge and competency. In this regard, we conducted the first large-scale national survey of Italian occupational medicine physicians to define their demographic and professional activity and to assess their information demands, training and updating needs. Material and Methods: A random sample of occupational physicians, listed in the national register of the Italian Ministry of Health, was selected to complete a voluntary survey. Subjects recruited in this study were asked to complete 3 different sections (personal and professional information, training and updating needs, professional activity and practice characteristics of a questionnaire for a total of 35 questions. Results: Most of participants were specialized in occupational medicine, worked for a large number of companies and carried out health surveillance on a total number of workers that exceeds 1500. Occupational physicians would like to have a higher training offer towards practical aspects of health surveillance, risks assessment, manual handling of loads, chemical substances and upper limb biomechanical overload. Interestingly, statistically significant differences were observed subdividing the sample into different groups according to the legal requirements to perform the professional activity of occupational physicians in Italy or according to particular aspects of their professional activity. Conclusions: This study has provided interesting

  11. A study of occupational stress and smoking among hospital nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Gunther, Angela Price

    1994-01-01

    Three-hundred and thirty-three surveys were distributed to male and female nurses employed at the Veterans Administration Medical Center in Salem, Virginia. The survey was designed to determine if nurses who smoke perceive more stress from their jobs. Of the 124 nurses who responded to the survey, there were no significant differences in ratings of perceived stress between nurses who reported that they were current smokers and those who reported that they were non-smokers. Over...

  12. Communities of practice: A means to support occupational therapists' continuing professional development. A literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barry, M.; Kuijer-Siebelink, W.; Nieuwenhuis, L.; Scherpbier-de Haan, N.D.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This literature review investigates what research reports about the contribution that communities of practice (CoPs) can make in the continuing professional development (CPD) of qualified occupational therapists. METHODS: Academic databases (CINAHL, MEDLINE and ERIC) were searched and

  13. Going smoke-free: attitudes of mental health professionals to policy change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magor-Blatch, L E; Rugendyke, A R

    2016-06-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: While smoking rates within the general population in Australia are dropping, 32% of Australians with a mental illness smoke, increasing to 73% among those with severe or chronic mental illness. In Australia and elsewhere, smoking bans within mental health facilities have been implemented. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: We surveyed 98 mental health professionals in Australia to gather information on attitudes toward smoke-free policies in mental health/psychiatric units within Australia. While previous research has sought information on agreement or disagreement with smoking-bans, very little research has been conducted focusing on attitudes held by mental health professionals towards smoke-free policies. This study utilized a mixed-methods approach in which the qualitative data provides a rich source of information to assist in developing programmes or interventions to influence attitudes and therefore change behaviours of mental health professionals. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: This paper can be useful in providing a better understanding of the theories linking smoking and mental illness, and the common 'myths' which influence attitudes to smoking cessation in clinical populations. Results will influence the development of training and education resources for mental health practitioners, and particularly for nursing staff working within psychiatric facilities, in relation to smoking cessation. Importantly, this issue has implications in the areas of policy planning and development, education relating to smoking behaviour and smoking cessation programmes, together with holistic health care. Introduction Mental health units in Australia and internationally are increasingly implementing smoke-free policies. Due to the high prevalence of smoking among clinical populations, this has become an important research area. Purpose of study This study explored the attitudes of mental health professionals toward smoke

  14. Policy on professional support in return-to-work: Occupational health professionals' experiences in a Canadian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiwald, Karin; Meershoek, Agnes; de Rijk, Angelique; Nijhuis, Frans J N

    2015-01-01

    In Canada and other countries, sickness-based absences among workers is an economic and sociological problem. Return-to-work (RTW) policy developed by both employer and worker' representatives (that is, bipartite policy) is preferred to tackle this problem. The intent was to examine how this bipartite agreed-upon RTW policy works from the perspective of occupational health professionals (those who deliver RTW services to workers with temporary or permanent disabilities) in a public healthcare organization in Canada. In-depth interviews were held with 9 occupational health professionals and transcribed verbatim. A qualitative, social constructivist, analysis was completed. The occupational health professionals experienced four main problems: 1) timing and content of physicians' medical advice cannot be trusted as a basis for RTW plans; 2) legal status of the plans and thus needing workers' consent and managers' approval can create tension, conflict and delays; 3) limited input and thus little fruitful inference in transdisciplinary meetings at the workplace; and yet 4) the professionals can be called to account for plans. Bipartite representation in developing RTW policy does not entirely delete bottlenecks in executing the policy. Occupational health professionals should be offered more influence and their professionalism needs to be enhanced.

  15. Musculoskeletal complaints among physiotherapy and occupational therapy rehabilitation professionals in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Shofiqul; Habib, Md Monjurul; Hafez, Md Abdul; Nahar, Nazmun; Lindstrom-Hazel, Debra; Rahman, Mohammad Khalilur

    2015-01-01

    Physiotherapy and occupational therapy professionals are at high risk of developing occupational musculoskeletal injuries globally. Musculoskeletal pain is the most common problem. To determine the extent of discomfort that physiotherapy and occupational therapy health professionals report while working at a physical rehabilitation centre. Physiotherapy and occupational therapy professionals which include both graduate and diploma physiotherapists and occupational therapists as well as physiotherapy and occupational therapy assistants. A self administered questionnaire (survey) was conducted on a convenient sample of 101 physiotherapy and occupational therapy personnel. The mean age of the 101 participants was 27.8 (± 4.5) years and most of the participants (62%) had less than 5 years of work experience. Ninety-five percent of the participants complained of work related pain. Most of the participants reported pain in the lower back (n=84) followed by upper back (n=71) and neck (n=66). Significant associations were found for pain in ankles/feet with age (p=0.05) and pain in neck with gender (p=0.01). Physiotherapy and occupational therapy professionals suffer from pain in relation to the work they do as therapists which may be due to non-practice of appropriate body mechanics. Mechanism to assess level of practice during dealing with patients may be introduced to enable corrective measures. Incentives should be considered for appropriate practice.

  16. Occupational accidents in professional dancers with regard to different professional dance styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanke, Eileen M; Mill, Helmgard; Arendt, Michael; Wanke, Alice; Koch, Franziska; Groneberg, David A

    2014-01-01

    The term "professional dance" comprises various dance styles. There are no studies which investigated work related traumatic injuries with regard to five different dance styles. To define dance-style related differences of traumatic injuries. The basis for the evaluation were the occupational injuries of professional dancers of six theaters (n=1339; f: n=658, m: n=681) and one State Ballet School (n=612; f:n=421, m: n=191). Independent of the dance style, the lower extremity (leg and hip) is the most frequently injured anatomical region (pinjuries increase (pInjury patterns and injured structures also show differences subject to dance styles (pinjuries are due to intrinsic factors with the significance of extrinsic factors increasing the more dancers diverge from defined classical dance techniques. The results shown in the study clarify the enormous dance-style related differences in traumatic injuries sustained by dancers. These differences support the development of dance-style related injury prevention measures and suggest further investigations with the focus being placed on the influence of organizational structures (e.g. number of performances) as well as on the working environments.

  17. The association between occupational exposures and cigarette smoking among operating engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, OiSaeng; Duffy, Sonia A.; Choi, Seung Hee; Chin, Dal Lae

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between occupational exposures and cigarette smoking among operating engineers. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with operating engineers (N=412) from a mid-western state in the United States. The survey included validated questions on cigarette smoking, occupational exposures, demographics, comorbidities, and health behaviors. About 35% were current smokers. Those exposed to asphalt fumes, heat stress, concrete dust, and welding fumes were less likely to smoke (OR=.79; 95CI: .64–.98). Other factors associated with smoking included younger age (OR=.97; 95CI:.94–.99), problem drinking (OR=1.07; 95CI:1.03–1.12), lower Body Mass Index (OR=.95; 95CI:.90–.99), and being separated/ widowed/ divorced (OR=2.24; 95CI:1.19–4.20). Further investigation is needed for better understanding about job specific exposure patterns and their impact on cigarette smoking among operating engineers. PMID:24325748

  18. Occupational stress, mental health and coping among information technology professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Jakkula V.; K Chandraiah

    2012-01-01

    Backround: Experience of occupational stress is inevitably involved in the execution of any type of work. Stress has an adaptive value. It motivates the individual to attend to the task and get rid of the tension or demand the unattended task produced. Materials and Methods : The study was planned to investigate the differences between executives and shop floor workers on occupational stress, mental health, job satisfaction and coping. A random sample of 200 executives and shop floor employee...

  19. Newly graduated nurses' occupational commitment and its associations with professional competence and work-related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numminen, Olivia; Leino-Kilpi, Helena; Isoaho, Hannu; Meretoja, Riitta

    2016-01-01

    To explore newly graduated nurses' occupational commitment and its associations with their self-assessed professional competence and other work-related factors. As a factor affecting nurse turnover, newly graduated nurses' occupational commitment and its associations with work-related factors needs exploring to retain adequate workforce. Nurses' commitment has mainly been studied as organisational commitment, but newly graduated nurses' occupational commitment and its association with work-related factors needs further studying. This study used descriptive, cross-sectional, correlation design. A convenience sample of 318 newly graduated nurses in Finland participated responding to an electronic questionnaire. Statistical software, NCSS version 9, was used in data analysis. Frequencies, percentages, ranges, means and standard deviations summarised the data. Multivariate Analyses of Variance estimated associations between occupational commitment and work-related variables. IBM SPSS Amos version 22 estimated the model fit of Occupational Commitment Scale and Nurse Competence Scale. Newly graduated nurses' occupational commitment was good, affective commitment reaching the highest mean score. There was a significant difference between the nurse groups in favour of nurses at higher competence levels in all subscales except in limited alternatives occupational commitment. Multivariate analyses revealed significant associations between subscales of commitment and competence, turnover intentions, job satisfaction, earlier professional education and work sector, competence counting only through affective dimension. The association between occupational commitment and low turnover intentions and satisfaction with nursing occupation was strong. Higher general competence indicated higher overall occupational commitment. Managers' recognition of the influence of all dimensions of occupational commitment in newly graduated nurses' professional development is important. Follow

  20. Occupational stress, mental health and coping among information technology professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Jakkula V; Chandraiah, K

    2012-01-01

    Experience of occupational stress is inevitably involved in the execution of any type of work. Stress has an adaptive value. It motivates the individual to attend to the task and get rid of the tension or demand the unattended task produced. The study was planned to investigate the differences between executives and shop floor workers on occupational stress, mental health, job satisfaction and coping. A random sample of 200 executives and shop floor employees collected from Nuclear Fuel Complex of Hyderabad City. A well developed sub-scales of Occupational Stress indicator like Mental Health, and Coping behavior were used in the present study. The shop floor workers experiencing more job stress and lower mental health. But these two groups did not differ in their coping behaviour. The executives are better with work home balance.

  1. Interaction of atopy and smoking on respiratory effects of occupational dust exposure: a general population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Schouten Jan P; Kromhout Hans; Kerkhof Marjan; de Meer Gea; Heederik Dick

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background For individual exposures, effect modification by atopy or smoking has been reported on the occurrence of occupational airway disease. It is unclear if effect modification can be studied in a general population by an aggregated exposure measure. Assess relationship between airway obstruction and occupational exposure using a job-exposure-matrix (JEM) classifying jobs into 3 broad types of exposure, and test for effect modification by atopy, and smoking. Methods Data from 1,...

  2. Effectiveness of providing financial incentives to healthcare professionals for smoking cessation activities: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, F L; Greaves, F; Majeed, A; Millett, C

    2013-01-01

    Financial incentives are seen as one approach to encourage more systematic use of smoking cessation interventions by healthcare professionals. A systematic review was conducted to examine the evidence for this. Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, Cochrane Library, ISI Web of Science and sources of grey literature were used as data sources. Studies were included if they reported the effects of any financial incentive provided to healthcare professionals to undertake smoking cessation-related activities. Data extraction and quality assessment for each study were conducted by one reviewer and checked by a second. A total of 18 studies were identified, consisting of 3 randomised controlled trials and 15 observational studies. All scored in the mid range for quality. In all, 8 studies examined smoking cessation activities alone and 10 studied the UK's Quality and Outcomes Framework targeting quality measures for chronic disease management including smoking recording or cessation activities. Five non-Quality and Outcomes Framework studies examined the effects of financial incentives on individual doctors and three examined effects on groups of healthcare professionals based in clinics and general practices. Most studies showed improvements in recording smoking status and smoking cessation advice. Five studies examined the impact of financial incentives on quit rates and longer-term abstinence and these showed mixed results. Financial incentives appear to improve recording of smoking status, and increase the provision of cessation advice and referrals to stop smoking services. Currently there is not sufficient evidence to show that financial incentives lead to reductions in smoking rates.

  3. Strategies to facilitate professional development of the occupational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Education and experience are important components in the ability of occupational health nurses (OHNs) to promote high-quality care and competence. OHNs will increasingly require the skills and knowledge to base care on best evidence, to use critical thinking and demonstrate advanced leadership and ...

  4. [Lung cancer as a consequence of passive smoking recognized as an occupational disease for the first time in Denmark].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lings, Svend

    2006-06-26

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has stated that exposure to "secondhand" or "environmental" tobacco smoke is carcinogenic to humans. The first Danish case of adenocarcinoma in the lungs recognized and compensated as an occupational disease in a never-smoking waitress is described.

  5. The ability of professional programs in occupational therapy to accommodate the older student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, L R

    1987-06-01

    Research data suggest that 24% of the 25- to 34-year-old age group are college graduates who are prime candidates for returning to the university campus. As a professional field in which the enrollment of traditional-age students might decline, occupational therapy may need to find ways to attract older students. Thus, there is a need to examine whether occupational therapy curricula are designed to accommodate older students.

  6. [Demand-Control model and occupational stress among nursing professionals: integrative review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Denise Rodrigues Costa

    2013-01-01

    The Demand Control model aims to evaluate the occupational stress. This study aimed to know, through an integrative review of the literature, the scientific production about the Demand Control Model to investigation occupational stress among nursing professionals from 2000 to 2011.Of the 16 selected studies, five were published in 2009. Of these studies, 56.25% assessed the Demand and Control dimensions and their correlations with workers' health problems; 37.5% of these studies were related with mental health. The results showed a lack of national publications. We recommend that authors conduct experimental studies to reduce the occupational stress for better conditions of workers' mental health.

  7. Professional and organizational commitment in paediatric occupational therapists: the influence of practice setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seruya, Francine M; Hinojosa, Jim

    2010-09-01

    The professional and organizational commitment of paediatric occupational therapists working in two distinct practice settings, schools and medically based settings, was investigated. A web-based survey program was used to administer a questionnaire to occupational therapists employed in New York, New Jersey and Connecticut. The study employed social identity theory as a guiding perspective in understanding therapists' professional and organizational commitment. One hundred and fifty-seven paediatric therapists responded to the Professional Commitment Questionnaire and the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire to gauge their commitment to both the profession and their employing organizations. Results indicated that paediatric therapists, regardless of employment setting, have high professional commitment. Paediatric occupational therapists employed in medically based settings indicated statistically significant higher organizational commitment than their school-based counterparts. For therapists that work in school settings, the presence of a professional cohort did not influence professional commitment scores. As the study employed a web-based survey methodology, only individuals who were members of associations and had access to a computer and the Internet were able to participate. Further study might include widening the participant pool as well as adding additional instruments to explore both professional and organizational commitment on a more national scale. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Cross sectional and longitudinal study on selenium, glutathione peroxidase, smoking, and occupational exposure in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadif, R.; Oryszczyn, M.P.; Fradier-Dusch, M.; Hellier, G.; Bertrand, J.P.; Pham, Q.T.; Kauffmann, F. [INSERM, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France). Faculty of Medicine

    2001-04-01

    The aim of the study was to understand the variations of selenium (Se) concentration relative to changes in occupational exposure to coal dust, taking into account age and changes in smoking habits in miners surveyed twice, in 1990 and 1994. It was found that selenium concentration and glutathione peroxidase activities (GSH-Px) activities were significantly lower in active than in retired miners. Moreover, Se concentration was lower in miners exposed to high compared with those exposed to low dust concentrations. In miners exposed to high dust concentrations, Se concentration was significantly lower whereas erythrocyte GSH-Px activity was significantly higher in the subgroup with estimated cumulative exposure {gt} 68 mg/m{sup 3}.y. In all miners, plasma GSH-Px activity was correlated with Se concentration. The 4 year Se changes were negatively related to exposure to high dust concentrations and positively related to change in exposure from high to retirement and to change from smoker to ex-smoker. The variations of Se concentration in relation to changes in occupational exposure to coal dust and in smoking habits, and the close correlation found between plasma Se concentration and GSH-Px activity suggest that both are required in antioxidant defence. These results agree well with the hypothesis that the decrease in Se concentration reflects its use against reactive oxygen species generated by exposure to coal mine dust and by smoking.

  9. Effect of Secondhand Smoke on Occupancy of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Arthur L.; Mandelkern, Mark A.; London, Edythe D.; Khan, Aliyah; Kozman, Daniel; Costello, Matthew R.; Vellios, Evan E.; Archie, Meena M.; Bascom, Rebecca; Mukhin, Alexey G.

    2012-01-01

    Context Despite progress in tobacco control, secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure remains prevalent worldwide and is implicated in the initiation and maintenance of cigarette smoking. Objective To determine whether moderate SHS exposure results in brain α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) occupancy. Design, Setting, and Participants Positron emission tomography scanning and the radiotracer 2-[18F]fluoro-3-(2(S)azetidinylmethoxy) pyridine (also known as 2-[18F]fluoro-A-85380, or 2-FA) were used to determine α4β2* nAChR occupancy from SHS exposure in 24 young adult participants (11 moderately dependent cigarette smokers and 13 nonsmokers). Participants underwent two bolus-plus-continuous-infusion 2-FA positron emission tomography scanning sessions during which they sat in the passenger’s seat of a car for 1 hour and either were exposed to moderate SHS or had no SHS exposure. The study took place at an academic positron emission tomography center. Main Outcome Measure Changes induced by SHS in 2-FA specific binding volume of distribution as a measure of α4β2* nAChR occupancy. Results An overall multivariate analysis of variance using specific binding volume of distribution values revealed a significant main effect of condition (SHS vs control) (F1,22=42.5, P cars and other enclosed spaces. PMID:21536968

  10. [Occupational risks perception in professional nursing practitioners at health care center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porras-Povedano, Miguel; Santacruz-Hamer, Virginia; Oliva-Reina, Inmaculada

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study aim is to describe the perception of occupational risks by nursing professionals in health care center. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on a total population of 122 registered nurses (RNs) and 89 certified nurse aides (CNAs). A convenience sample of nursing professionals was recruited with 72 RNs (27 males and 45 females), and 45 CNAs (1 male and 44 females). They were asked about their perception of occupational risks during their everyday work practice. Sex and age variables were considered, as well as work-related accidents and occupational risk prevention training that had been registered in the last five years. The sample mean age was 47.29 ± 7.98 years (RNs, 45.11; and CNAs, 50.77). Main sources of risks as perceived by RNs were those accidents due to biological materials exposure (52.78%), carrying and moving weight (19.44%), and to occupational stress (19.44%); amongst CNAs, those accidents due to carrying and moving weight (44.44%), biological materials exposure (26.67%) and other infections (15.56%) were also mentioned. As regards the overall risks identified by these professionals, 23.08% of them had perceived no risk at all during their work; 35.04% only identified one risk, and 29.06% perceived two risks in their day to day activity, whereas 12.82% identified three or more occupational risks. As a general rule, the nursing professionals tend to underestimate the occupational risks they are exposed to, with biological, musculoskeletal, and occupational-related stress are perceived as the main sources of risks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. The American Association of Occupational Health Nurses' Respiratory Protection Education Program and Resources Webkit for Occupational Health Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompeii, Lisa; Byrd, Annette; Delclos, George L; Conway, Sadie H

    2016-12-01

    Organizations are required to adhere to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Respiratory Protection Standard (29 CFR 1910.134) if they have workers that wear a respirator on the job. They must also have an employee "suitably trained" to administer their program. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and its National Personal Protective Technology Laboratory have worked to champion the occupational health nurse in this role by collaborating with the American Association of Occupational Health Nurses to develop free, online respiratory protection training and resources (RPP Webkit). This article describes the development, content, and success of this training. To date, 724 participants have completed the training, 32.6% of whom lead their organization's respiratory protection program, 15.3% who indicated they will lead a program in the near future, and 52% who did not lead a program, but indicated that the training was relevant to their work. The majority "strongly agreed" the training was applicable to their work and it enhanced their professional expertise. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. Occupational violence against dental professionals in southern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azodo, C C; Ezeja, E B; Ehikhamenor, E E

    2011-09-01

    To determine the prevalence of workplace violence in Oral healthcare centres against Nigerian dental professionals. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey of 175 randomly selected dental professionals working in Oral healthcare centres of University Teaching Hospitals in Southern Nigeria was conducted. The survey response rate was 78.9%. The respondents were dentists (58.0%), dental nurses (18.1%), dental technologists (12.3%), dental therapists (8.0%) and dental record officers (3.6%). The prevalence of violence in Nigerian Oral healthcare centres was 31.9%. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of violence against dentist and dental auxiliaries. Violence was often associated with long waiting time (27.3%), cancellation of appointment (13.6%), outcome of patient's treatment (11.4%), alcohol intoxication (9.1%), psychiatric patient (6.8%,) patient's bill (4.5%) and others (27.3%). Non-physical violence in form of loud shouting (50.0%) threat (22.7%), sexual harassment (6.8%) and swearing (2.3%) constituted the majority while physical violence in form of bullying and hitting constituted the remaining 18.2%. The main perpetrators of the violence were patients (54.5%) and patient's relatives/friends (18.2%). The expressed impact of violence among the respondents include fear (18.2%), impaired job performance (15.9%), psychological problems (13.6%) and off duty (9.1%). No impact was declared by 43.2% of respondents. The prevalence of workplace violence in Oral healthcare centres against dental professionals in Southern Nigeria was significant and had a substantial effect on dental professionals' well-being thus necessitating urgent attention.

  13. On Change of Concepts: From Teacher's Occupational Ethics to Professional Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chuan-bao

    2006-01-01

    The transition from experience-based teachers to expertise-based ones has marked a significant phase in the history of human education. The conceptive transition from the general "occupational ethics" of teachers to "professional ethics" is actually an important aspect of the transition from experience-based to expertise-based…

  14. Developing an occupational skills profile for the emerging profession of "big-data-enabled professional"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastens, K. A.; Malyn-Smith, J.; Ippolito, J.; Krumhansl, R.

    2014-12-01

    In August of 2014, the Oceans of Data Institute at Education Development Center, Inc. (EDC) is convening an expert panel to begin the process of developing an occupational skills profile for the "big-data-enabled professional." We define such a professional as an "individual who works with large complex data sets on a regular basis, asking and answering questions, analyzing trends, and finding meaningful patterns, in order to increase the efficiency of processes, make decisions and predictions, solve problems, generate hypotheses, and/or develop new understandings." The expert panel includes several geophysicists, as well as data professionals from engineering, higher education, analytical journalism, forensics, bioinformatics, and telecommunications. Working with experienced facilitators, the expert panel will create a detailed synopsis of the tasks and responsibilities characteristic of their profession, as well as the skills, knowledge and behaviors that enable them to succeed in the workplace. After the panel finishes their work, the task matrix and associated narrative will be vetted and validated by a larger group of additional professionals, and then disseminated for use by educators and employers. The process we are using is called DACUM (Developing a Curriculum), adapted by EDC and optimized for emergent professions, such as the "big-data-enabled professional." DACUM is a well-established method for analyzing jobs and occupations, commonly used in technical fields to develop curriculum and training programs that reflect authentic work tasks found in scientific and technical workplaces. The premises behind the DACUM approach are that: expert workers are better able to describe their own occupation than anyone else; any job can be described in terms of the tasks that successful workers in the occupation perform; all tasks have direct implications for the knowledge, skills, understandings and attitudes that must be taught and learned in preparation for the

  15. Ergonomics. The effect of occupational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke on the heart rate variability of bar and restaurant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark D; McGlothlin, James D; Rosenthal, Frank S; Black, David R; Zimmerman, Neil J; Bridges, C David

    2010-07-01

    Changes in heart rate variability (HRV) have been linked with cardiac disease and death. Exposure to particulate matter from various sources such as tobacco smoke has been shown to cause alterations in HRV. This study investigated the effects of occupational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) on HRV. Air monitoring was conducted in three bars in which smoking was permitted and one bar where smoking was not permitted. Pre- and post-work shift heart rate monitoring was conducted on volunteer staff from the establishments. Heart rate variability parameters, including SDNN and RMSSD, were calculated, and the differences between pre- and post-shift values were plotted and analyzed with respect to ETS exposure. Post-shift minus pre-shift values of SDNN and RMSSD significantly decreased with exposure to ETS (p < 0.05). Occupational exposure to ETS may decrease heart rate variability.

  16. Economic status, smoking, occupational exposure to rubber, and lung cancer: a case-cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Yu, Shunzhang

    2002-05-01

    Recent studies tend consistently to confirm the presence of a moderate excess risk of lung cancer in the rubber industry. However, the agent responsible for the excess of lung cancer is still obscure. Also, analyses without regard to the modifying effects of sex, economic status, and smoking habit are less than satisfactory. To explore these questions, we have conducted a case-cohort study using the data of 51 lung cancer deaths in 1973-1997 and a random sample (sub-cohort) of 188 from among 1598 subjects in a rubber factory in Shanghai, China. We computed the risks of lung cancer by economic status, smoking habit, coal fumes in home, and year of first employment. We assessed lung cancer risks for occupational exposures, unadjusted and adjusted for economic status and smoking. After confounding effects of smoking and economic status were controlled, we found that rate ratios were 1.43 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.43-4.69), 1.79 (95% CI 0.64-5.03), and 3.76 (95% CI 1.44-9.86) for 1-14, 15-29, and 30-45 exposure-years in curing department, respectively. The data showed significant trends in increased risk of lung cancer with duration of exposure in tire-curing department (score test for trend:, P = 0.004). However, in front rubber processing (weighing and mixing, calendering, extruding, and milling), no significant excess risk of lung cancer was found. If it can be confirmed that nitrosamines are mainly generated in back rubber processing (curing and vulcanizing), it would be reasonable to conclude that excess risk of lung cancer in rubber industry is attributable, at least partially, to exposure to nitrosamines.

  17. Conceptualizing sports medicine as occupational health care: illustrations from professional rodeo and wrestling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotarba, J A

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to propose a sociological model of sports medicine that conceptualizes it as occupational health care. All occupational health care systems can be summarized according to three types: elite, managed, and primitive. These types reflect the quality of health care provided, the social class membership of workers, and workers' value to employers. The author presents ethnographic data to illustrate the social dynamics of primitive occupational health care delivered to rodeo cowboys and local professional wrestlers. This care is primitive because these athletes have relatively low economic value as workers, and the rugged individualism of their sports' subcultures supports a system of health care that is inexpensive, nonmedical in its philosophy, personalistic in the structure of its practitioner-patient relationship, and incidental in its delivery.

  18. Occupational risks in professionals of health in barreiras city, state of Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Cristina Joia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available During work activities, the professional of health is exposed to occupational risks in their work place. This compromises directly or indirectly in health condition. The aims of the study were to report the main concern and vulnerability of occupational risks, and to describe the main conducts adopted by the professionals of health in Barreiras city/ BA. It was done a descriptive and exploratory field research with and hospital workers (public and privates that were exposure to work accidents. An interview was done to data collection, and a semi-structured script (adapted to Barreiras city/BA was used. It was observed that the most of interviewees had difficult to understand the safe equipments importance, however the most of them reported knowledge about procedures, use and conduct. It is necessary to highlight that everyday contact with risks in work place; it could be a decrease of perception in the necessity to adopt safety behavior

  19. Occupational Diseases of Professional Orchestra Musicians from Northern Portugal: A Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Cláudia Maria; Machado, Jorge Pereira; Greten, Henry Johannes; Coimbra, Daniela

    2016-03-01

    Owing to repetitive movements and a very stressful and competitive lifestyle, musicians are a group that may be prone to suffer from occupational diseases. According to the literature, musicians are affected mainly by two types of occupational diseases: music performance anxiety (MPA) and playing-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMDs). The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of the most common complaints affecting musicians in the three professional orchestras from northern Portugal. Professional orchestra musicians (n=112) from the three main professional orchestras from northern Portugal were individually interviewed about their physical and psychological complaints. Results indicated that 94% of musicians interviewed self-reported at least one working-related problem. PRMDs were the most common conditions, affecting 84.8% of musicians. The most affected areas were the shoulder and the cervical and lumbar regions. MPA was reported by 13.2% of musicians. The present work covers about 50% of all Portuguese professional orchestra musicians. It raises awareness of the importance of focusing on the high prevalence of professional diseases among musicians.

  20. Screening for common occupational health diseases among long distance professional drivers in sagamu, ogun state, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoran, Olorunfemi Emmanuel; Salako, Albert Adekunle; Jeminusi, Olubunmi

    2014-04-01

    Long term exposure to hazards at the work place is injurious to health and usually leads to diseased conditions. The objective of this study was to determine the occupational health problems associated with driving among the professional drivers in Sagamu, Ogun state, Nigeria. This study is a cross-sectional study. Total sample of all the consenting professional drivers in the five interstate motor parks, including the cement factory [WAPCO] in the local government area, were recruited into the study. An interviewer administered structured questionnaire was administered by trained health workers and respondents were screen for common occupational health problems. A total of 400 professional drivers were interviewed, all [100%] of them were males with age range from 21 to 59 yrs and nearly half [42%] were non indigenes. Only half, 208 [52%] of them were married with majority, 232 [58.0%] working for about 12 hrs daily and 46% of them had been working for 5 yrs or more. Most, 382 [95.5%] had been educated on HIV/AIDS before and 313 [78.3%] of them had multiple sexual partners. Only 241 [60.3%] used condom at the last sexual act and 55 [13.5%] had ever been tested for HIV/AIDS. Common occupational health diseases were renal tubular acidosis (RTA) 52 [13%] in the last one year and most of them currently have myalgia 352 [88.0%], upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) 20 [5.0%], sexually transmitted diseases (STD) 15 [3.8%], short sightedness 41 [10.3%], and Hypertension 90 [22.5%]. The study shows that common occupational diseases among long distance professional drivers in Western Nigeria were myalgia, upper respiratory tract infection, hypertension, short sightedness, sexually transmitted diseases, and RTA. Prevention and control of these common diseases among the drivers will lead to reduction of road traffic accidents in Western Nigeria and other low income countries.

  1. The impact of smoking in the home on the health outcomes of non-smoker occupants in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusel Jeanette

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Smoking in the home remains a key source of exposure to secondhand smoke for non-smokers, particularly since the UK public smoking ban in 2007. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify all UK evidence on the impact of secondhand smoke exposure in the home on health and behavioural outcomes in non-smoker occupants. MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library were searched to identify all relevant UK empirical studies from 2000 to June 2011. A qualitative overview of the evidence is presented. Exposure to secondhand smoke in UK homes was found to be associated with serious negative health effects in non-smokers, including significantly increased risk of meningococcal carriage (p 

  2. Occupational stress and psychosomatic complaints among health professionals in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xing; Smith, Derek R; Zheng, Yuxin; Wang, Rui-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence, distribution and correlates of occupationally-related psychosomatic complaints among a previously understudied workforce. A selection of 336 public health professionals working in Beijing, China. A self-reporting questionnaire survey was used (99% response rate). The incidence of ocular discomfort was relatively high for health professionals aged below 60 years, headache or dizziness was mostly reported by the older age groups, insomnia or sleep disorders were common among those aged 30-39 years, while self-reported depression or emotional instability were concentrated in younger staff. Regression analyses revealed that age, personal life habits, family status, work conditions and occupational environment were related to eye discomfort, headache, dizziness, insomnia, sleep disturbance, depression or emotional instability. Moreover, undertaking a busy work schedule of long duration and work-induced stress were major correlates for illness and other subjective symptoms. On the other hand, having a friendly working atmosphere and a high interest in one's work were negatively correlated with psychosomatic symptoms. Overall, our study suggests high-intensity work and various other occupational factors may be strongly related to psychosomatic symptoms among health professionals in China.

  3. [A prospective cohort study on comparison of risk of death of respiratory system diseases between occupational dust exposure and smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-sen; Jiang, Chao-qiang; Hing, Lam Tai; Yin, Ho Sai; Liu, Wei-wei; He, Jian-min; Cao, Min; Chen, Qing

    2006-06-01

    To compare the effects of dust exposure and smoking on mortality of respiratory system diseases (RSD). Based on the Guangzhou Occupational Health Surveillance Record System established between 1989 and 1992, 80,987 factory workers, aged 30 years old or older, occupationally exposed or not exposed to dusts, were included in a prospective cohort study. (1) The mean age of the cohort was 43.5. Most subjects were workers, had secondary education, and almost all were married. The dust exposure rate was 16.3%, the smoking rate 43.7% and the alcohol-drinking rate 33.5%. (2) The cohort was followed up for 8 years on average, but 35 people (0.04%) were lost for follow up. Among the 1593 deaths, 219 and 90 people died of lung cancer and non-cancer respiratory system diseases (NCRSD) respectively. (3) The adjusted relative risk (RR) of death of lung cancer for smokers, 3.32, was 2.2 times of that for dust exposed workers, 1.53, and the RR of death of NCRSD for dust exposed workers, 2.41, 1.28 times of that for smokers, 1.89, especially for silica dust-exposed workers, 5.72, 3.03 times of that for smokers. Dust exposure combined with smoking caused significantly higher RR of death of RSD. (4) In male, the death risks of RSD were increased with the amount of smoking per day and years of smoking. Occupational dust exposure and smoking may cause excessive lung cancer and NCRSD death with synergistic effects. Smoking has higher RR of Lung cancer death than dust exposure. However, the dust exposure contributes to higher RR of NCRSD death. There is a significant dose-effect relationship between smoking and the death risk of RSD.

  4. Transient receptor potential genes, smoking, occupational exposures and cough in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smit Lidwien AM

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transient receptor potential (TRP vanilloid and ankyrin cation channels are activated by various noxious chemicals and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of cough. The aim was to study the influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in TRP genes and irritant exposures on cough. Methods Nocturnal, usual, and chronic cough, smoking, and job history were obtained by questionnaire in 844 asthmatic and 2046 non-asthmatic adults from the Epidemiological study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA and the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS. Occupational exposures to vapors, gases, dusts, and/or fumes were assessed by a job-exposure matrix. Fifty-eight tagging SNPs in TRPV1, TRPV4, and TRPA1 were tested under an additive model. Results Statistically significant associations of 6 TRPV1 SNPs with cough symptoms were found in non-asthmatics after correction for multiple comparisons. Results were consistent across the eight countries examined. Haplotype-based association analysis confirmed the single SNP analyses for nocturnal cough (7-SNP haplotype: p-global = 4.8 × 10-6 and usual cough (9-SNP haplotype: p-global = 4.5 × 10-6. Cough symptoms were associated with exposure to irritants such as cigarette smoke and occupational exposures (p TRPV1 further increased the risk of cough symptoms from irritant exposures in asthmatics and non-asthmatics (interaction p Conclusions TRPV1 SNPs were associated with cough among subjects without asthma from two independent studies in eight European countries. TRPV1 SNPs may enhance susceptibility to cough in current smokers and in subjects with a history of workplace exposures.

  5. Physical Education Teachers' Professionalization: A Review of Occupational Power and Professional Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kougioumtzis, Konstantin; Patriksson, Goran; Strahlman, Owe

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews research on physical education (PE) teachers' professionalization considering their relative position at schools and in the community as well as their control over the lesson formation. The position considers issues of prestige, status and esteem while lesson formation regards constitutional, organizational and physical…

  6. Token Men and Women: A Note on the Salience of Sex and Occupation among Professionals and Semiprofessionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macke, Anne Statham

    1981-01-01

    Data from 525 professionals and semiprofessionals were used to demonstrate that one's sex is a more important factor than occupational competencies for persons in opposite-sex-dominated occupations. The findings suggest that opposite-sex colleagues tend to ignore competence in lieu of one's sex. (Author/SK)

  7. Faculty Mentors' Perspectives on E-Mentoring Post-Professional Occupational Therapy Doctoral Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Nancy; Jacobs, Karen; Ryan, Cathryn

    2016-12-01

    E-mentoring is a viable option for mentoring students in occupational therapy educational programs. The objective of this study was to investigate faculty perspectives of faculty-to-student e-mentoring in an online post-professional doctor of occupational therapy program. In a retrospective mixed-method design, nine faculty members described features and outcomes of e-mentoring 48 doctoral students. Online survey results were analysed quantitatively for descriptive statistics; transcripts from structured interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The results showed that successful, satisfactory e-mentoring is student-centered, flexible, frequent, academically and psychosocially supportive; faculty members must be skilled in adapting e-mentoring to the needs and objectives of each mentee; e-mentoring provides opportunities for faculty members and students to achieve academic and professional objectives and growth. The findings suggest that implementation of e-mentoring may be a useful model in other occupational therapy programs. There is a need for future studies with broader participant pool, observable measures of e-mentoring, standardized measures of satisfaction and success and comparison between e-mentoring with and without web camera. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Cigarette Smoking Trends Among U.S. Working Adult by Industry and Occupation: Findings From the 2004–2012 National Health Interview Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamlal, Girija; Mazurek, Jacek M.; Hendricks, Scott A.; Jamal, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine trends in age-adjusted cigarette smoking prevalence among working adults by industry and occupation during 2004–2012, and to project those prevalences and compare them to the 2020 Healthy People objective (TU-1) to reduce cigarette smoking prevalence to ≤12%. Methods We analyzed the 2004–2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data. Respondents were aged ≥18 years working in the week prior to the interview. Temporal changes in cigarette smoking prevalence were assessed using logistic regression. We used the regression model to extrapolate to the period 2013–2020. Results Overall, an estimated 19.0% of working adults smoked cigarettes: 22.4% in 2004 to 18.1% in 2012. The largest declines were among workers in the education services (6.5%) industry and in the life, physical, and social science (9.7%) occupations. The smallest declines were among workers in the real estate and rental and leasing (0.9%) industry and the legal (0.4%) occupations. The 2020 projected smoking prevalences in 15 of 21 industry groups and 13 of the 23 occupation groups were greater than the 2020 Healthy People goal. Conclusions During 2004–2012, smoking prevalence declined in the majority of industry and occupation groups. The decline rate varied by industry and occupation groups. Projections suggest that certain groups may not reach the 2020 Healthy People goal. Consequently, smoking cessation, prevention, and intervention efforts may need to be revised and strengthened, particularly in specific occupational groups. PMID:25239956

  9. To what degree is the association between educational inequality and laryngeal cancer explained by smoking, alcohol consumption, and occupational exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, Irene; Kroll, Lars Eric; Dietz, Andreas; Becher, Heiko; Ramroth, Heribert

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the extent to which the association between socioeconomic status and laryngeal cancer among males is mediated by smoking, alcohol consumption, and occupational exposure. We used Karlson et al's decomposition method for logit models, which returns the percentage of change in odds ratios (OR) due to confounding. This population-based, case-control study on laryngeal cancer was conducted in Germany in 1998-2000 and included 208 male cases and 702 controls. Information on occupational history, smoking, alcohol consumption, and education was collected through face-to-face interviews. Jobs coded according to ISCO-68 were linked to a recently developed job-classification index covering physical and psychosocial dimensions. A sub-index focused on jobs involving potentially carcinogenic agents (CAI) for the upper-aero digestive tract. When adjusted for smoking and alcohol consumption, higher OR were found for lower education. This OR decreased after further adjustment using the overall job index [2.9, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.4-6.2], similar to the OR using the sub-index CAI (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.3-5.8). Applying the Karlson et al method, 25.4% (95% CI 22.6-28.2%) of the reduction in these OR was due to occupational exposure (CAI), while smoking and alcohol consumption contributed to around 26.1% (95% CI 23.2-28.9%) and 2.7% (95% CI 1.7-3.8%), respectively. Occupational aspects, in particular the exposure to carcinogenic agents, explain a large portion of the association between low educational level and laryngeal cancer risk among males. Occupational effects are now easier to quantify using this recently developed and easily applicable index.

  10. [Rehabilitation after occupational accidents in professional dancers: advice with due regard to dance specific aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanke, E M; Quarcoo, D; Uibel, S; Groneberg, D A

    2012-08-01

    The highly specialized occupation of professional dancers is a combination of sport and artistic expression. The exertion is only possible with a fully operative body. Although professional dancers may be compared with elite athletes and acute injuries frequently happen, dancers do not seem to be granted an appropriate therapy after accidents as compared with athletes. Although even minor injuries may potentially endanger the career of a professional dancer, physiotherapeutic or physical treatment methods are applied in every tenth case only. Alternative and holistic concepts such as Pilates or dance-specific re-integration that proved successful in professional dancers, are used in even fewer instances. The aim of this study is to develop a rehabilitation concept for professional dancers focusing on dance-medicine aspects. It has been taken into account that the best physical outcomes are reflected in an optimized, holistic, dance-specific therapy and rehabilitation. Intensifying and exploiting dance-specific methods of treatment can not only reduce costs in the end but can even contribute to reducing the duration of rehabilitation after injuries of dancers. Preconditions for realization of the rehabilitative model are a high qualification of all persons working in the rehabilitative field as well as a marked willingness to cooperate in the various dance fields. Both gender-specific and dance-style particularities are to be taken into account to ensure a successful rehabilitation. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. What’s So Special about STEM? A Comparison of Women’s Retention in STEM and Professional Occupations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassler, Sharon; Levitte, Yael; Michelmore, Katherine M.

    2014-01-01

    We follow female college graduates in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and compare the trajectories of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM)-related occupations to other professional occupations. Results show that women in STEM occupations are significantly more likely to leave their occupational field than professional women, especially early in their career, while few women in either group leave jobs to exit the labor force. Family factors cannot account for the differential loss of STEM workers compared to other professional workers. Few differences in job characteristics emerge either, so these cannot account for the disproportionate loss of STEM workers. What does emerge is that investments and job rewards that generally stimulate field commitment, such as advanced training and high job satisfaction, fail to build commitment among women in STEM. PMID:25554713

  12. How working in cross-functional teams relates to core attributes of professional occupations and the moderating role of personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molleman, Eric; Broekhuis, Manda

    In this study, we related the extent to which professional workers participate in cross-functional teams (CFTs) to 3 facets of professional occupations: domain distinctiveness, accountability, and task autonomy. Furthermore, we investigated whether these relationships are moderated by 3 personality

  13. Lung Cancer Risk from Occupational and Environmental Radon and Role of Smoking in Two Czech Nested Case-Control Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Tomasek

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the risk of lung cancer from combined exposure to radon and smoking. Methodologically, it is based on case-control studies nested within two Czech cohort studies of nearly 11,000 miners followed-up for mortality in 1952–2010 and nearly 12,000 inhabitants exposed to high levels of radon in homes, with mortality follow-up in 1960–2010. In addition to recorded radon exposure, these studies use information on smoking collected from the subjects or their relatives. A total of 1,029 and 370 cases with smoking information have been observed in the occupational and environmental (residential studies, respectively. Three or four control subjects have been individually matched to cases according to sex, year of birth, and age. The combined effect from radon and smoking is analyzed in terms of geometric mixture models of which the additive and multiplicative models are special cases. The resulting models are relatively close to the additive interaction (mixing parameter 0.2 and 0.3 in the occupational and residential studies, respectively. The impact of the resulting model in the residential radon study is illustrated by estimates of lifetime risk in hypothetical populations of smokers and non-smokers. In comparison to the multiplicative risk model, the lifetime risk from the best geometric mixture model is considerably higher, particularly in the non-smoking population.

  14. Towards a smoke-free hospital: how the smoking status of health professionals influences their knowledge, attitude and clinical activity. Results from a hospital in central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, E; Marani, A; Salvati, O; Mangiaracina, G; Prestigiacomo, C; Osborn, J F; Cattaruzza, M S

    2015-01-01

    In Italy, the prevalence of smoking among health professionals is higher than in the general population and this might hamper their role in the promotion of health. This study aimed to investigate how the smoking status of healthcare professionals might influence knowledge, attitudes and clinical practice in a hospital in central Italy in order to enforce effective tobacco control measures. Physicians and professionals of the hospital were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire which yielded epidemiological and environmental information on knowledge, attitude, clinical practice and quality of the hospital environments, in relation to smoking. Overall, among the employees of the hospital, the smoking prevalence was 47%, (42% among physicians and 43% among nurses); 30% admitted smoking in the hospital and three quarters of the smokers would like to quit. Some knowledge, opinions and attitudes differ statistically among the smoking categories. For example, only 35% of the smokers admitted that smoking is more dangerous to health than atmospheric and car pollution compared with 60% of the ex or never smokers (p=0.04). Fewer smokers realize that their behavior is seen as a role model by patients. A greater percentage of smokers state that patients (34%) and visitors (43%) often smoke in hospital and these percentages are significantly higher than those reported by ex or never smokers (p≤0.05). All smokers claim that they never smoke in patient rooms, infirmaries and clinics, whereas over 20% of ex or never smokers report that smoking sometimes occurs in these places (p=0.015). The mean concentration of PM 2.5 in the 25 rooms was 2.4 μg/m3 with a range from 1 to 7 μg/m3. This study implies that the prevalence of smoking among health professionals may be very high, and might be twice the rate observed in the general population. Generally, smokers report less knowledge compared with ex and never-smokers and it seems that they systematically underestimate the

  15. Combined effect of smoking habits and occupational exposure to hard metal on total IgE antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirakawa, T.; Kusaka, Y.; Morimoto, K. (Department of Hygiene and Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Osaka University (Japan))

    1992-06-01

    A survey was made within a population of workers (n = 706) exposed to hard metal dust (an alloy including cobalt), an agent known to cause occupational allergy. Twenty-seven (4 percent) of 733 workers were eliminated from consideration in this study because of atopic status identified prior to starting work in the plant. Using a Phadebas PRIST, the subjects' total IgE levels were determined and related to their smoking and exposure status. Nonexposed male smokers (n = 135) had a higher geometric mean IgE level (39.7 IU/ml) than did nonexposed subjects who had never smoked (33.1 IU/ml; n = 99); those with a higher Brinkman index (greater than 300), a smoking index obtained by multiplying the number of cigarettes per day by the duration of smoking in years, had significantly (p less than 0.05) decreased IgE levels. Although ex-smokers (n = 72) had a higher geometric mean IgE level (73.3 IU/ml) than did those who had never smoked, their serum IgE level declined with age since the time they quit smoking, regardless of their hard metal exposure status. Hard metal (cobalt) exposure may play a significant role as an adjuvant in the production of total IgE. A multivariate analysis demonstrated that hard metal exposure and a smoking habit together arithmetically (p less than 0.05) increased total IgE levels. These two factors may be preventable risk factors for occupational allergy in hard metal workers.

  16. Variation in occupational exposure associated with musculoskeletal complaints: a cross-sectional study among professional bassists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldendorp, Kees H; Boonstra, Anne M; Arendzen, J Hans; Reneman, Michiel F

    2017-10-20

    Variation in occupational exposure is assumed to have a protective effect against the development of musculoskeletal complaints (MSC), but this common assumption is not strongly supported by the literature. Among musicians, who have a high prevalence of MSC, many play more than one type of instrument (multi-instrumentalism) for many hours a day. Since multi-instrumentalism implies greater variation in ergonomic load of specific musculoskeletal areas than mono-instrumentalism, musicians are a suitable study population to test whether the above assumption is true. To investigate in a sample of professional bass players whether multi-instrumentalists are less likely to have MSC than mono-instrumentalists. Participants were 141 professional and professional student double bassists and bass guitarists. Demographic, MSC and exposure characteristics were collected online with self-constructed and existing questionnaires. Logistic regression analysis was used to test the association between multi- versus mono-instrumentalism and MSC, adjusted for confounders. The prevalence of having MSC in the neck, back, right shoulder area and both wrist areas did not differ significantly between the two groups. Further analysis revealed that the likelihood of having MSC in the left shoulder area was higher in multi-instrumentalists compared to mono-instrumentalists (Odds ratio 0.30, 95% CI 0.119-0.753, p = 0.010). In this sample of professional bass players, no protective effect of multi-instrumentalism against MSC was found. Multi-instrumentalism was associated with a higher prevalence of MSC in the left shoulder. This result challenges theoretical and clinical assumptions in occupational and pain medicine.

  17. Occupational exposure assessment of airborne chemical contaminants among professional ski waxers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freberg, Baard Ingegerdsson; Olsen, Raymond; Daae, Hanne Line; Hersson, Merete; Thorud, Syvert; Ellingsen, Dag G; Molander, Paal

    2014-06-01

    Ski waxes are applied onto the skis to improve the performance. They contain different chemical substances, e.g. perfluoro-n-alkanes. Due to evaporation and sublimation processes as well as mechanically generated dust, vapours, fumes, and particulates can contaminate the workroom atmosphere. The number of professional ski waxers is increasing, but occupational exposure assessments among professional ski waxers are lacking. The aim was to assess exposure to airborne chemical contaminants among professional ski waxers. It was also a goal to construct a ventilation system designed for ski waxing work operations. Forty-five professional ski waxers were included. Personal measurements of the inhalable and the respirable aerosol mass fractions were executed in 36 different waxing cabins using Conical Inhalable Sampler cassettes equipped with 37-mm PVC filters (5 µm) and Casella respirable cyclones equipped with 37-mm PVC filters (0.8 µm), respectively. Volatile organic components were collected using Anasorb CSC charcoal tubes. To examine time trends in exposure patterns, stationary real-time measurements of the aerosol mass fractions were conducted using a direct-reading Respicon® sampler. Mean aerosol particle mass concentrations of 3.1 mg·m(-3) (range: 0.2-12.0) and 6.2 mg·m(-3) (range: 0.4-26.2) were measured in the respirable and inhalable aerosol mass fractions, respectively. Real-time aerosol sampling showed large variations in particle concentrations, with peak exposures of ~10 and 30 mg·m(-3) in the respirable and the inhalable aerosol particle mass fractions, respectively. The custom-made ventilation system reduced the concentration of all aerosol mass fractions by more than 90%. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  18. Ventilation Requirements for Control of Occupancy Odor and Tobacco Smoke Odor: Laboratory Studies Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, W. S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Isseroff, R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Leaderere, B. P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lipsitt, E. D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Huey, R. J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Perlman, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bergland, L. G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dunn, J. D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1981-04-01

    A sensitive chemical analysis of the air in a building will characteristically reveal a large number of organic substances, many at concentrations too low to have discernible biological impact. If the concentrations of the chemicals increase, the first sign of their presence may occur via the sense of smell. The air may become odorous. In the general absence of any better or faster indicator, smell will serve as the principal means to decide whether the air in a room is acceptable. Accordingly, this modality has long figured directly or indirectly in the choice of ventilation rates. The cost of ventilation, on the average more than 25% of the operating cost of a building, increases proportionally with the cost of energy and therefore provides a strong incentive to search for energy efficiency. A previous report reviewed the literature relevant to odor perception, odor control, and ventilation (1). The report highlighted prospects for research that might point to ways to achieve both acceptable air quality and energy efficiency in ventilation. The present report provides an account of laboratory research stimulated by that review. The report focuses on ventilation requirements for occupancy odor (Part l) and tobacco smoke odor (Part 2), and offers some preliminary observations on how filtration may aid ventilation (Part 3).

  19. Respiratory Abnormalities among Occupationally Exposed, Non-Smoking Brick Kiln Workers from Punjab, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya Tandon

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brick manufacturing industry is one of the oldest and fast-growing industries in India that employs a large section of people. Brick kiln workers are occupationally exposed to air pollutants. Nonetheless, only a few studies have so far been conducted on their respiratory health. Objective: To investigate the extent of respiratory impairment in brick kiln workers and to correlate it with the duration of exposure. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted. Spirometric parameters of 110 non-smoking male brick kiln workers aged 18–35 years in Patiala district, Punjab, India, were compared with an age-matched comparison group of 90 unexposed individuals. Results: Brick kiln workers showed a significant (p8 years of exposure, the mean values of FEV1 (1.92 L, FVC (2.01 L, FEF25-75% (2.19 L/s and PEFR (4.81 L/s were significantly (p<0.05 lower than those recorded in workers with <8 years of exposure in whom the values were 2.01 L, 2.68 L, 2.71 L/s, and 5.76 L/s, respectively. Conclusion: There is a significant association between exposure to workplace pollutants and lung function deterioration among brick kiln workers.

  20. [Occupational asthma: Clinical and professional profile of the Tunisian asthmatic worker].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toujani, S; Hedhli, A; Mjid, M; Ben Salah, N; Ouahchy, Y; Louzir, B; Daghfous, J; Mhiri, N; Cherif, J; Beji, M

    2016-08-01

    Asthma takes up a great importance in occupational diseases but remains underestimated as it is insufficiently diagnosed. We aimed to access the clinical and professional profile of the Tunisian asthmatic worker. It was a retrospective descriptive study in a professional pathology unit in a university hospital. All patients referred by their doctor for symptoms suggestive of occupational asthma, during a period from 2000 to 2008, were included. Forty-eight patients were selected from 172. The mean age was 40 years, with a male predominance (56 %). In 2/3 of the cases, it was the textile workers, food and chemical industry. The etiological agents incriminated were textile dust in 18.8 % of cases followed by isocyanates and flour. Typical episodes of wheezing dyspnea were present in 52 % and atopy in 54.2 % of workers. In 2 % of cases, symptoms disappeared and worsened in 18.8 %. The prognosis of OA depends on early end accurate diagnosis. The physician's role is to initiate the appropriate diagnostic approach, which must comply with the Tunisian conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Problem-based learning in occupational therapy: why do health professionals choose to tutor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Mary; Tryssenaar, Joyce; Jung, Bonny

    2001-10-01

    For over 20 years the occupational therapy programmes offered by McMaster University and Mohawk College, Hamilton, Ontario have used small-group, problem-based learning tutorials as a major component of their curriculum. These programmes were among the first occupational therapy programmes in the world to use a problem-based tutorial format. The inclusion as tutors of both full-time faculty and clinicians, from all clinical practice areas, was central to the design of the problem-based learning courses. A survey of all tutors from the last 20 years collected information about why health professionals are motivated to tutor and what they see as challenges to maintaining this educational role. Three primary themes emerged from the data: being an educator; being a learner and present and future challenges to continuing with the tutoring role. Within the educator theme there was a secondary theme of professional duty or obligation. In addition, the participants identified suggestions for enhanced support and continuing education for tutors. This article summarizes the findings of the survey.

  2. Occupation, smoking, and chronic obstructive respiratory disorders: a cross sectional study in an industrial area of Catalonia, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaén, Ángeles; Zock, Jan Paul; Kogevinas, Manolis; Ferrer, Antonio; Marín, Albert

    2006-01-01

    Background Few studies have investigated the independent effects of occupational exposures and smoking on chronic bronchitis and airflow obstruction. We assessed the association between lifetime occupational exposures and airflow obstruction in a cross-sectional survey in an urban-industrial area of Catalonia, Spain. Methods We interviewed 576 subjects of both sexes aged 20–70 years (response rate 80%) randomly selected from census rolls, using the ATS questionnaire. Forced spirometry was performed by 497 subjects according to ATS normative. Results Lifetime occupational exposure to dust, gases or fumes was reported by 52% of the subjects (63% in men, 41% in women). Textile industry was the most frequently reported job in relation to these exposures (39%). Chronic cough, expectoration and wheeze were more prevalent in exposed subjects with odds ratios ranging from 1.7 to 2.0 being highest among never-smokers (2.1 to 4.3). Lung function differences between exposed and unexposed subjects were dependent on duration of exposure, but not on smoking habits. Subjects exposed more than 15 years to dusts, gases or fumes had lower lung function values (FEV1 -80 ml, 95% confidence interval (CI) -186 to 26; MMEF -163 ml, CI -397 to 71; FEV1/FVC ratio -1.7%, CI -3.3 to -0.2) than non-exposed. Conclusion Chronic bronchitis symptoms and airflow obstruction are associated with occupational exposures in a population with a high employment in the textile industry. Lung function impairment was related to the duration of occupational exposure, being independent of the effect of smoking. PMID:16476167

  3. [The role of the occupational health physician in smoking cessation programmes: the experience of the "Clinica del Lavoro" of Milan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivolta, G; Agnelli, Gianna Maria; Bordini, L; Riboldi, L

    2005-01-01

    Clinica del Lavoro"of Milan>. The "Centre for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of tobacco dependency", set up at the Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases Section of the Clinica del Lavoro in Milan in September 2000, can count on multidisciplinary expertise, including occupational health physicians, pneumologists and clinical psychologists. Each step of the diagnostic and therapeutic process is based on an integrated approach that considers both the biological aspects of tobacco dependency and the psychological and behavioural aspects. The Centre, moreover, within the framework of "Health Promotion" programmes, offers advice to businesses as regards the new legislation that prohibits smoking at the workplace. The proposed treatment programme is based on psychological and motivational support (personal or team work), that can be associated with pharmacological therapy, either as an alternative or an addition. The drug preferred is slow-releasing buproprione, which has proved to be extremely effective compared to other drugs in increasing the probability of smoking cessation and decreasing side effects. In an occupational population of more than 2000 workers, we succeeded in treating about 51% of the subjects, who had stopped smoking, after one year from the beginning of the programme. The best results were achieved using the association of psychological support and buproprione therapy (54%), compared with the other methods (psychological support alone: 42%; psychological support and free nicotine replacement therapy: 33%).

  4. Associations of smoking status with other lifestyle behaviors are modified by sex and occupational category among urban civil servants in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashibata, Takahiro; Wakai, Kenji; Okada, Rieko; Nakagawa, Hiroko; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the associations of current smoking with five other unhealthy lifestyle behaviors among urban civil servants in Japan according to sex and occupational category. The study included 10,232 urban civil servants in Japan who presented for a health check-up in 2011. We analyzed data on anthropometric measurements and self-reported lifestyle factors. Current smokers had a higher BMI than never smokers in white-collar workers, but not in blue-collar workers of both sexes. There were strong associations of current smoking with irregular breakfasting regardless of sex and occupational category. In males, current smokers were less likely to take exercise than ex-smokers in both occupational categories. The associations of current smoking with other unhealthy behaviors were modified by sex and occupational category. These results are useful for understanding the health risks among smokers according to sex and occupational category.

  5. Absence of multiplicative interactions between occupational lung carcinogens and tobacco smoking: a systematic review involving asbestos, crystalline silica and diesel engine exhaust emissions

    OpenAIRE

    El Zoghbi, Mohamad; Salameh, Pascale; Stücker, Isabelle; Brochard, Patrick; Delva, Fleur; Lacourt, Aude

    2016-01-01

    Background Tobacco smoking is the main cause of lung cancer, but it is not the sole causal factor. Significant proportions of workers are smokers and exposed to occupational lung carcinogens. This study aims to systematically review the statistical interaction between occupational lung carcinogens and tobacco smoking, in particular asbestos, crystalline silica and diesel engine exhaust emissions. Methods Articles were identified using Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science, and were limited to th...

  6. Absence of multiplicative interactions between occupational lung carcinogens and tobacco smoking: a systematic review involving asbestos, crystalline silica and diesel engine exhaust emissions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    El Zoghbi, Mohamad; Salameh, Pascale; Stücker, Isabelle; Brochard, Patrick; Delva, Fleur; Lacourt, Aude

    ...]. Many of them are found in occupational settings such as all forms of asbestos, crystalline silica and diesel engine exhaust emissions, which are among the top most frequent occupational exposures [8-11]. The rate of smoking is higher among blue-collar workers than white-collar workers [12]. Thus a significant proportion of workers are concomitantl...

  7. Occupational stress and psychopathology in health professionals: an explorative study with the multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliceto, Paolo; Pompili, Maurizio; Spencer-Thomas, Sally; Ferracuti, Stefano; Erbuto, Denise; Lester, David; Candilera, Gabriella; Girardi, Paolo

    2013-03-01

    Occupational stress is a multivariate process involving sources of pressure, psycho-physiological distress, locus of control, work dissatisfaction, depression, anxiety, mental health disorders, hopelessness, and suicide ideation. Healthcare professionals are known for higher rates of occupational-related distress (burnout and compassion fatigue) and higher rates of suicide. The purpose of this study was to explain the relationships between occupational stress and some psychopathological dimensions in a sample of health professionals. We investigated 156 nurses and physicians, 62 males and 94 females, who were administered self-report questionnaires to assess occupational stress [occupational stress inventory (OSI)], temperament (temperament evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego autoquestionnaire), and hopelessness (Beck hopelessness scale). The best Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes model with five OSI predictors yielded the following results: χ2(9) = 14.47 (p = 0.11); χ2/df = 1.60; comparative fit index = 0.99; root mean square error of approximation = 0.05. This model provided a good fit to the empirical data, showing a strong direct influence of casual variables such as work dissatisfaction, absence of type A behavior, and especially external locus of control, psychological and physiological distress on latent variable psychopathology. Occupational stress is in a complex relationship with temperament and hopelessness and also common among healthcare professionals.

  8. Prevalence of smoking habits, attitudes, knowledge and beliefs among Health Professional School students: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita Ferrante

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine smoking prevalence, attitudes, knowledge and behaviours/beliefs among Health Professional School students according to the Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS approach. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Catania University Medical Schools. The GHPSS questionnaires were self-administered. Logistic regression model was performed. The level of significance was p < 0.05. RESULTS: 422 students answered to the questionnaire. Prevalence of current smokers was 38.2%. 94.3% of the total sample believe that health professionals should receive specific training to quit smoking, but only 21.3% of the sample received it during the study courses. CONCLUSIONS: Given the high prevalence of smokers among health professionals and their key role both as advisers and behavioral models, our results highlight the importance of focusing attention on smoking cessation training addressed to them.

  9. Smoking, Smoking Cessation, and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes among Japanese Adults: Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamima Akter

    Full Text Available To examine the association of smoking status, smoking intensity, and smoking cessation with the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D using a large database.The present study included 53,930 Japanese employees, aged 15 to 83 years, who received health check-up and did not have diabetes at baseline. Diabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dl, random plasma glucose ≥200 mg/dl, HbA1c ≥6.5% (≥48 mmol/mol, or receiving medication for diabetes. Cox proportional-hazards regression models were used to investigate the association between smoking and the risk of diabetes.During 3.9 years of median follow-up, 2,441 (4.5% individuals developed T2D. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% CI for diabetes were 1 (reference, 1.16 (1.04 to 1.30 and 1.34 (1.22 to 1.48 for never smokers, former smokers, and current smokers, respectively. Diabetes risk increased with increasing numbers of cigarette consumption among current smokers (P for trend <0.001. Although the relative risk of diabetes was greater among subjects with lower BMIs (< 23 kg/m2, attributable risk was greater in subjects with higher BMIs (≥ 23 kg/m2. Compared with individuals who had never smoked, former smokers who quit less than 5 years, 5 to 9 years, and 10 years or more exhibited hazards ratios for diabetes of 1.36 (1.14 to 1.62, 1.23 (1.01 to 1.51, and 1.02 (0.85 to 1.23, respectively.Results suggest that cigarette smoking is associated with an increased risk of T2D, which may decrease to the level of a never smoker after 10 years of smoking cessation.

  10. Interaction of atopy and smoking on respiratory effects of occupational dust exposure: a general population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schouten Jan P

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For individual exposures, effect modification by atopy or smoking has been reported on the occurrence of occupational airway disease. It is unclear if effect modification can be studied in a general population by an aggregated exposure measure. Assess relationship between airway obstruction and occupational exposure using a job-exposure-matrix (JEM classifying jobs into 3 broad types of exposure, and test for effect modification by atopy, and smoking. Methods Data from 1,906 subjects were analyzed, all participants of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Job titles were categorized by an a priori constructed job exposure matrix into three classes of exposure to respectively organic dust, mineral dust, and gases/ fumes. Relationships were assessed for 'current wheeze', bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR, 'current asthma' (wheeze+BHR, and 'chronic bronchitis' (morning phlegm or morning cough, and lung function. Results Subjects with organic dust exposure in their work environment more frequently had 'current asthma' (OR 1.48, 95% C.I. 0.95;2.30, and a lower FEV1 (-59 mL, 95% C.I. -114;-4. The relationship was only present in asthmatic workers, and their risk was four-fold greater than in subjects with either atopy or exposure alone. Mineral dust exposure was associated with 'chronic bronchitis' (OR 2.22, 95% C.I. 1.16;4.23 and a lower FEV1/FVC ratio (-1.1%, 95% C.I. -1.8;-0.3. We observed an excess risk in smokers, greater than the separate effects of smoking or mineral dust exposure together. Conclusion Occupational exposure to organic dust is associated with an increased risk of asthma, particularly in atopics. Chronic bronchitis occurs more frequently among individuals exposed to mineral dust, and smoking doubles this risk.

  11. Interaction of atopy and smoking on respiratory effects of occupational dust exposure: a general population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Meer, Gea; Kerkhof, Marjan; Kromhout, Hans; Schouten, Jan P; Heederik, Dick

    2004-06-02

    For individual exposures, effect modification by atopy or smoking has been reported on the occurrence of occupational airway disease. It is unclear if effect modification can be studied in a general population by an aggregated exposure measure. Assess relationship between airway obstruction and occupational exposure using a job-exposure-matrix (JEM) classifying jobs into 3 broad types of exposure, and test for effect modification by atopy, and smoking. Data from 1,906 subjects were analyzed, all participants of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Job titles were categorized by an a priori constructed job exposure matrix into three classes of exposure to respectively organic dust, mineral dust, and gases/ fumes. Relationships were assessed for 'current wheeze', bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR), 'current asthma' (wheeze+BHR), and 'chronic bronchitis' (morning phlegm or morning cough), and lung function. Subjects with organic dust exposure in their work environment more frequently had 'current asthma' (OR 1.48, 95% C.I. 0.95;2.30), and a lower FEV1 (-59 mL, 95% C.I. -114;-4). The relationship was only present in asthmatic workers, and their risk was four-fold greater than in subjects with either atopy or exposure alone. Mineral dust exposure was associated with 'chronic bronchitis' (OR 2.22, 95% C.I. 1.16;4.23) and a lower FEV1/FVC ratio (-1.1%, 95% C.I. -1.8;-0.3). We observed an excess risk in smokers, greater than the separate effects of smoking or mineral dust exposure together. Occupational exposure to organic dust is associated with an increased risk of asthma, particularly in atopics. Chronic bronchitis occurs more frequently among individuals exposed to mineral dust, and smoking doubles this risk.

  12. Absence of multiplicative interactions between occupational lung carcinogens and tobacco smoking: a systematic review involving asbestos, crystalline silica and diesel engine exhaust emissions

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    Mohamad El Zoghbi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoking is the main cause of lung cancer, but it is not the sole causal factor. Significant proportions of workers are smokers and exposed to occupational lung carcinogens. This study aims to systematically review the statistical interaction between occupational lung carcinogens and tobacco smoking, in particular asbestos, crystalline silica and diesel engine exhaust emissions. Methods Articles were identified using Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science, and were limited to those published in English or French, without limitation of time. The reference list of selected studies was reviewed to identify other relevant papers. One reviewer selected the articles based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Two reviewers checked the eligibility of articles to be included in the systematic review. Data were extracted by one reviewer and revised by two other reviewers. Cohorts and case–control studies were analyzed separately. The risk of bias was evaluated for each study based on the outcome. The results of the interaction between the tobacco smoking and each carcinogen was evaluated and reported separately. Results Fifteen original studies were included for asbestos-smoking interaction, seven for silica-smoking interaction and two for diesel-smoking interaction. The results suggested the absence of multiplicative interaction between the three occupational lung carcinogens and smoking. There is no enough evidence from the literature to conclude for the additive interaction. We believe there is a limited risk of publication bias as several studies reporting negative results were published. Conclusion There are no multiplicative interactions between tobacco smoking and occupational lung carcinogens, in particular asbestos, crystalline silica and diesel engine exhaust emissions. Even though, specific programs should be developed and promoted to reduce concomitantly the exposure to occupational lung carcinogens and tobacco

  13. Absence of multiplicative interactions between occupational lung carcinogens and tobacco smoking: a systematic review involving asbestos, crystalline silica and diesel engine exhaust emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Zoghbi, Mohamad; Salameh, Pascale; Stücker, Isabelle; Brochard, Patrick; Delva, Fleur; Lacourt, Aude

    2017-02-02

    Tobacco smoking is the main cause of lung cancer, but it is not the sole causal factor. Significant proportions of workers are smokers and exposed to occupational lung carcinogens. This study aims to systematically review the statistical interaction between occupational lung carcinogens and tobacco smoking, in particular asbestos, crystalline silica and diesel engine exhaust emissions. Articles were identified using Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science, and were limited to those published in English or French, without limitation of time. The reference list of selected studies was reviewed to identify other relevant papers. One reviewer selected the articles based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Two reviewers checked the eligibility of articles to be included in the systematic review. Data were extracted by one reviewer and revised by two other reviewers. Cohorts and case-control studies were analyzed separately. The risk of bias was evaluated for each study based on the outcome. The results of the interaction between the tobacco smoking and each carcinogen was evaluated and reported separately. Fifteen original studies were included for asbestos-smoking interaction, seven for silica-smoking interaction and two for diesel-smoking interaction. The results suggested the absence of multiplicative interaction between the three occupational lung carcinogens and smoking. There is no enough evidence from the literature to conclude for the additive interaction. We believe there is a limited risk of publication bias as several studies reporting negative results were published. There are no multiplicative interactions between tobacco smoking and occupational lung carcinogens, in particular asbestos, crystalline silica and diesel engine exhaust emissions. Even though, specific programs should be developed and promoted to reduce concomitantly the exposure to occupational lung carcinogens and tobacco smoking.

  14. Using professional certification criteria to assess occupational safety curricula in degree programs investigating accreditation

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    Todd William Loushine

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to demonstrate a novel assessment method developed to determine if the curriculum from two separate safety degree programs provided sufficient opportunity for students to obtain the knowledge required for professional practice in occupational safety. The method relies on the Board of Certified Safety Professionals (BCSP examination blueprints. In the graduate program case study, over 88% of the BCSP criteria were met through an explicit means and up to 64% through assignments or better. Aggregating criteria into respective subject areas showed that the curriculum covered anywhere from 58% to 100% of the items within each BCSP topic. In the undergraduate case study, over 96% of the BCSP criteria through an explicit means, and 82.8% of knowledge items were assessed in assignments, exams or better. Aggregating criteria into respective subject areas showed that the curriculum covered anywhere from 75% to 100% of the items within each BCSP topic. Once briefed on the results, all faculty/instructors agreed that the approach helped identify strengths and weaknesses in their current curriculum. Most importantly, presentation of results acted as a catalyst for curricular discussions amongst the faculty that resulted in improvement priorities and a better understanding of student learning potential in course assignments. DOI: 10.18870/hlrc.v3i2.113

  15. Secondary Traumatic Stress and Burnout in Child Welfare Workers: A Comparative Analysis of Occupational Distress across Professional Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprang, Ginny; Craig, Carlton; Clark, James

    2011-01-01

    This study describes predictors of secondary traumatic stress and burnout in a national sample of helping professionals, with a specific focus on the unique responses of child welfare (CW) workers. Specific worker and exposure characteristics are examined as possible predictors of these forms of occupational distress in a sample of 669…

  16. Burnout and work-related stress in Italian rehabilitation professionals: A comparison of physiotherapists, speech therapists and occupational therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschini, Marco; Carli, Antonella; Burla, Franco

    2018-01-01

    Healthcare workers are exposed to work related stresses that significantly increase their risk of burnout. To evaluate and compare burnout and work related stress levels in three categories of health professionals: physiotherapists, speech therapists and occupational therapists. A convenience sample of 391 health professionals participated, including 210 physiotherapists, 101 speech therapists and 80 occupational therapists. We collected general socio-demographic information and administered the standardized Italian version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) Management Standards Indicator Tool. We found the proportion of professionals with high-risk scores in the three dimensions of the MBI to be as follows: Emotional Exhaustion 32%, Depersonalisation 13% and Personal Accomplishment 9%. Overall, 14% of participants were at high risk of burnout. No significant differences were found between the three professional categories. Five subscales of the HSE were associated with burnout: Control (p burnout. There are common mechanisms underlying burnout in the different professional groups investigated. Further research in occupational health in rehabilitation settings is needed to prevent burnout.

  17. [Influence of sociodemographic, occupational and life style factors on the levels of burnout in palliative care health professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Sánchez, J C; Pérez Mármol, J M; Peralta Ramírez, M I

    2017-12-07

    Palliative care health professionals have reported high levels of burnout. An understanding of factors associated with this syndrome in this population could foster new prevention and intervention strategies. The objectives were to evaluate the levels of burnout in each of its dimensions in a sample of palliative care health professionals and to analyze the relationship between levels of burnout and sociodemographic, occupational and lifestyle characteristics in this sample. The total sample was composed of 92 palliative care health professionals. Sociodemographic, occupational and lifestyle characteristics were registered. The levels of burnout syndrome were evaluated by the Maslach Burnout Inventory - Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS). The total sample was divided into three groups, depending on the level of burnout (non-burnout group, burnout group meeting one criterion, and burnout group meeting two or three criteria). Comparisons were performed amongst groups for all characteristics evaluated. The non-burnout professionals were significantly older and slept more than the professionals with more than one altered dimension; in addition, they had greater job seniority in the unit than those with a single altered dimension and did physical exercise more frequently than either of the burnout groups. The younger professionals, with more job seniority in the units of palliative care, and less hours of sleep and physical activity showed higher levels of burnout. Therefore, these factors should be considered for enhancing prevention and intervention strategies for these health professionals.

  18. The influence of occupational stress factors on nicotine dependence among students of health and nonhealth care professional colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Amandeep; Lakhanpal, Manav; Gupta, Nidhi; Suri, Varun; Kaur, Gurwant; Bhudhiraja, Swati

    2015-01-01

    To study the relationship between perceived job stress measured using Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) scale and nicotine dependence using Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) scale among students of health and nonhealth care professional colleges. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried on convenient sample of 408 health and nonhealth care professional who were current smokers. Nicotine dependence was measured using the FTND. The extent of the stress factors experienced at work was assessed using the ERI. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used for the statistical analysis. Occupational stress factors are actually associated with higher levels of nicotine dependence (odds ratio = 4.523). The degree of nicotine dependence and stress imbalance was found to be more among health care professional students as compared to nonhealth care professional students (P stress and being nonhealth care professional have a significant effect on the prevention of nicotine dependence.

  19. Health care professionals implementing a smoke-free policy at inpatient psychiatric units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Lyle G; Oliffe, John L; Johnson, Joy L; Bottorff, Joan L

    2014-12-01

    Smoke-free grounds policies (SFGPs) were introduced to inpatient psychiatric hospital settings to improve health among patients, staff, and visitors. We conducted an ethnographic study in Northern British Columbia, Canada, to describe how the implementation of SFGPs is affected by institutional cultures. Data reported here included participant observation, document review, informal discussions (n = 11), and interviews with health care professionals (HCPs; n = 19) and staff (n = 2) at two hospitals. We used iterative and inductive processes to derive thematic findings. Findings related to HCPs illustrate how local contexts and cultural factors affect SFGP implementation. These factors included individual beliefs and attitudes, the influence of group norms, leadership and consensus building, and locale-specific norms. Strong, consultative leadership, in which leaders solicited input from and long-term support of people most directly responsible for policy implementation, was key to success. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Teaching Evidence-Based Practice across Curricula-An Overview of a Professional Development Course for Occupational Therapy Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Marta M; DeAngelis, Tina M

    2017-01-01

    A professional development course for occupational therapy educators about teaching evidence-based practice (EBP) was developed and piloted. The course was developed to promote increased awareness of resources and methods for teaching EBP that are applicable across entry-level curricula. Participants included full-time faculty (n = 7) from one entry-level occupational therapy program in the New York City area. The results of the pilot informed refinement of the course in preparation for delivery to a wider audience of educators. This paper provides a description of the course, results of the pilot, and implications for future delivery of the course.

  1. Primary health care professionals understanding on the practices of Occupational Therapy in the family health support center

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    Andréa Saraiva de Andrade

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The expansion of the multi-professional team in Primary Health Care (APS input professional categories that have traditionally worked in the service of medium and high complexity. The lack of knowledge on the assignments of these new jobs can be an obstacle to effective interdisciplinary and sharing practices. Objective: The study aimed to analyze the professional healthcare team understanding on the Family and Support Center for Family Health (NASF and the practices of Occupational Therapy in APS, as a member of NASF team. Method: This study is characterized as exploratory and qualitative field, with data collected individually, through semi-structured interviews with professionals of a Family Health Team and a NASF team. We used content analysis for data processing. Results: We identified that the understanding of the teams on the role of the occupational therapist is partial, linking their practices basically with mental health and rehabilitation, confusing their duties with the other team members. Conclusion: It was difficult to differentiate occupational therapist own practices, even when the work is shared. This suggests the need to implement strategies, such as matrix-based strategies to overcome the gaps in knowledge between the team and the specifics of each profession engaged in APS.

  2. Quitting smoking and experience of smoking cessation interventions among UK Bangladeshi and Pakistani adults: the views of community members and health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Martin; Bush, Judith; Kai, Joe; Bhopal, Raj; Rankin, Judith

    2006-05-01

    To explore attitudes to quitting smoking and experience of smoking cessation among Bangladeshi and Pakistani ethnic minority communities. Qualitative study using community participatory methods, purposeful sampling, interviews and focus groups, and a grounded approach to data generation and analysis. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK, 2000-2002. 53 men and 20 women aged 18-80 years, including smokers, former smokers, and smokers' relatives, from the Bangladeshi and Pakistani communities; and eight health professionals working with these communities. Motivation to quit was high but most attempts had failed. "Willpower" was the most common approach to quitting. For some, the holy month of Ramadan was used as an incentive, however few had been successful in quitting. Perceived barriers to success included being tempted by others, everyday stresses, and withdrawal symptoms. Few participants had sought advice from health services, or received cessation aids, such as nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) or buproprion. Family doctors were not viewed as accessible sources of advice on quitting. Health professionals and community members identified common barriers to accessing effective smoking cessation, including: language, religion and culture; negative attitudes to services; and lack of time and resources for professionals to develop necessary skills. High levels of motivation do not seem to be matched by effective interventions or successful attempts to quit smoking among Bangladeshi and Pakistani adults in the UK. There is a need to adapt and test effective smoking cessation interventions to make them culturally acceptable to ethnic minority communities. UK tobacco control policies need to give special attention to the needs of ethnic minority groups.

  3. Self-perception of professional competencies in sports professionals - the effect of the occupational area and experience

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    Paula Batista

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract According to Cheetham and Chivers (1998, the professional competence is a specific concept influenced by a variety of factors, including self and hetero perception of competence. In this line of understanding Nascimento (1999 says that professional success hinges not only on knowledge and procedures, but also of the domain demonstrated in relation with themselves. This study has, as main purpose, to examine the levels of competence self-perception in sport professionals. The sample consists of 1514 subjects who exercised their profession in three contexts of practice: Physical Education, Coaching and Fitness. We used three likert-type scales of self-perception of professional competence specific for the sport professional (adapted from Nascimento, 1999; Feitosa, 2002: one directed to PE teachers, the other to Coaches, and a third to teachers/instructors of Fitness. In the data processing we used the basic descriptive measures and the multivariate analysis for dependent variables (General Linear Model Multivariate to see if the factors professional area, professional experience and institution are different in the levels of self-perception of professional competence. For additional analysis we also used the T-test for independent measures and the T test for one sample. The significance's level was maintained at p ≤ 0.05. The results indicate an interaction of the factors in the professional area, professional experience and institution with self-perception of competence. Keywords:  Competence self-perception, Professional competence

  4. Pediatrician or Professional Athlete? Gender, Ethnicity, and Occupational Aspirations of Urban Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the occupational aspirations of beginning high school students by gender and ethnicity, and examined the relationship between the educational demands of the occupations desired by students and their academic performance before and after entering high school. Desired occupations were obtained from 662 entering 9th-grade students…

  5. The influence of the arts-and-crafts movement on the professional status of occupational therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, R E

    1987-04-01

    This paper explores why occupational therapists use arts and crafts as therapeutic modalities. Beginning with the turn-of-the-century origins of occupational therapy, the paper traces the similarities and differences in the ideas and beliefs of the founders of occupational therapy and the proponents of the arts-and-crafts movement.

  6. Factors influencing work functioning after cancer diagnosis: a focus group study with cancer survivors and occupational health professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Dorland, H. F.; Abma, F. I.; Roelen, C. A. M.; Smink, J. G.; Ranchor, A V; Bultmann, U.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Cancer survivors (CSs) frequently return to work, but little is known about work functioning after return to work (RTW). We aimed to identify barriers and facilitators of work functioning among CSs. Methods Three focus groups were conducted with CSs (n?=?6, n?=?8 and n?=?8) and one focus group with occupational health professionals (n?=?7). Concepts were identified by thematic analysis, using the Cancer and Work model as theoretical framework to structure the results. Results Long-las...

  7. Human Connections and Their Roles in the Occupational Well-being of Healthcare Professionals: A Study on Loneliness and Empathy

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    Jorge Soler-Gonzalez

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Human connections are key to the promotion of health and prevention of illness; moreover, illness can cause deterioration of human connections. Healthcare professional–patient relationships are key to ensuring the preservation of adequate human connections. It is important for healthcare professionals to develop their ability to foster satisfactory human connections because: (i they represent social support for patients; and (ii they prevent work-related stress. In this study we assessed the relationship between absence (loneliness and presence (empathy of human connections with the occupational well-being of healthcare professionals. The Scale of Collateral Effects, which measures somatization, exhaustion, and work alienation; the Jefferson Scale of Empathy; and the Social and Emotional Loneliness Scale for Adults, were mailed to 628 healthcare professionals working in Spanish public healthcare institutions. The following explanatory variables were used to evaluate work well-being: (a empathy, as a professional competence; (b loneliness, age, and family burden, as psychological indicators; and (c professional experience, work dedication, and salary, as work indicators. Comparison, correlation, and regression analyses were performed to measure the relationships among these variables and occupational well-being. Of 628 surveys mailed, 433 (69% response rate were returned fully completed. Adequate reliability was confirmed for all instruments. The entire sample was divided into four groups, based on the combined variable, “occupation by sex.” Comparative analyses demonstrated differences among “occupation by sex” groups in collateral effects (p = 0.03 and empathy (p = 0.04, but not loneliness (p = 0.84. Inverse associations between empathy and collateral effects were confirmed for somatization (r = -0.16; p < 0.001, exhaustion (r = -0.14; p = 0.003, and work alienation (r = -0.16; p < 0.001. Furthermore, loneliness was positively

  8. Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... many of the same problems as smokers do. E-cigarettes often look like cigarettes, but they work differently. They are battery-operated smoking devices. Not much is known about the health risks of using them. Quitting smoking can reduce your ...

  9. Mental health education in occupational therapy professional preparation programs: Alignment between clinician priorities and coverage in university curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Justin Newton; Meredith, Pamela J; Haracz, Kirsti; Ennals, Priscilla; Pépin, Geneviève; Webster, Jayne S; Arblaster, Karen; Wright, Shelley

    2017-06-29

    Occupational therapy programs must prepare graduates for work in mental health. However, this area of practice is complex and rapidly changing. This study explored the alignment between educational priorities identified by occupational therapists practising in mental health and level of coverage of these topics in occupational therapy programs in Australia and New Zealand. Surveys were distributed to heads of all occupational therapy programs across Australia and New Zealand. The survey included educational priorities identified by occupational therapists in mental health from a previous study. Respondents were requested to identify the level of coverage given to each of these priorities within their curriculum. These data were analysed to determine a ranking of educational topics in terms of level of coverage in university programs. Responses were received for 19 programs from 16 universities. Thirty-four topics were given 'High-level coverage' in university programs, and these were compared against the 29 topics classified as 'Essential priorities' by clinicians. Twenty topics were included in both the 'Essential priorities' and 'High-level coverage' categories. Topics considered to be 'Essential priorities' by clinicians which were not given 'High-level coverage' in university programs included the following: mental health fieldwork experiences; risk assessment and management; professional self-care resilience and sensory approaches. While there appears to be overall good alignment between mental health curricula and priorities identified by practising occupational therapists, there are some discrepancies. These discrepancies are described and establish a strong foundation for further discussion between clinicians, academics and university administration to support curriculum review and revision. © 2017 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  10. Secondary traumatic stress and burnout in child welfare workers: a comparative analysis of occupational distress across professional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprang, Ginny; Craig, Carlton; Clark, James

    2011-01-01

    This study describes predictors of secondary traumatic stress and burnout in a national sample of helping professionals, with a specific focus on the unique responses of child welfare (CW) workers. Specific worker and exposure characteristics are examined as possible predictors of these forms of occupational distress in a sample of 669 professionals from across the country who responded to mailed (e-mail and post) invitations to participate in an online survey. E-mail and home mailing addresses were secured from licensure boards and professional membership organizations in six states from across the country that had high rates of child related deaths in 2009. Respondents completed the Professional Quality of Life IV (Stamm, 2005) to ascertain compassion fatigue (CF) and burnout symptoms. Being male, young, Hispanic, holding rural residence, and endorsing a lack of religious participation were significant predictors of secondary traumatic stress. Similarly, being male and young predicted high burnout rates, while actively participating in religious services predicted lower burnout. CW worker job status as a professional was significantly more likely to predict CF and burnout compared to all other types of behavioral healthcare professionals. Based on the findings from this study, this paper proposes strategies for enhancing self-care for CW workers, and describes the essential elements of a trauma-informed CW agency that addresses secondary traumatic stress and burnout.

  11. THE OCCUPATIONAL STRESS ON HEALTH’S PROFESSIONALS TO LEGAL MEDICAL INSTITUTE LEONIDIO RIBEIRO, FEDERAL DISTRICT - BRAZIL

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    P. C. Quaresma

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Occupational stress is defined as a psychological syndrome resulting in chronic interpersonal stressors at work and characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. It is observed that the pressures generated by continuous social and economic changes have made the individual more vulnerable to psychosomatic and organic pathologies. As a condition with high incidence rate you have, the stress has a negative impact on occupational life of the individual. This study was conducted on health-care workers of the LMI (Legal Medical Institute of the Federal District, Brazil; who work in the areas of anatomy, nursing, laboratory, radiology and medicine and is justified by the development of professional activities. The methodology used in this article was a descriptive study with a qualitative and quantitative approach as a tool for data collection was used a structured questionnaire with closed questions about the activities that will evoke stress on work activities. Fourty-nine per cent have more than 10 years of service time and 54.7 % (n = 53, rank among medium and high load stress suffering. The answers on the elements that are evocative of stress, 75 % think that 'deal with the pain of the family', with 51 % and 'removal of corpses in hard-to access/dangerous', with 24%, the most important stressors. We can consider that the occupational stress experienced by professionals in DF, Brazil, LMI should not be ignored by the institution , since its employees are subject to a great physical and mental load, which, if ignored even for short periods, may, at some point, lead to depletion of capacity for work, causing losses in the professional quality of life and, consequently, reduced the productivity of the institution as a result of increased absence professional.

  12. Impact of a physical activity program on the anxiety, depression, occupational stress and burnout syndrome of nursing professionals

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    Anderson Rodrigues Freitas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to assess the effects of a workplace physical activity (WPA program on levels of anxiety, depression, burnout, occupational stress and self-perception of health and work-related quality of life of a nursing team in a palliative care unit.METHODS: the WPA was conducted five days per week, lasting ten minutes, during three consecutive months. Twenty-one nursing professionals were evaluated before and after the intervention, with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Maslch Burnout Inventory, and the Job Stress Scale. The changes in self-perceived health and work-related quality of life were measured using a semi-structured questionnaire.RESULTS: the WPA did not yield significant results on the levels of anxiety, depression, burnout or occupational stress. However, after the intervention, participants reported improved perceptions of bodily pain and feeling of fatigue at work.CONCLUSION: the WPA did not lead to beneficial effects on occupational stress and psychological variables, but it was well accepted by the nursing professionals, who reported improvement in perceptions of health and work-related quality of life.

  13. Impact of a physical activity program on the anxiety, depression, occupational stress and burnout syndrome of nursing professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Anderson Rodrigues; Carneseca, Estela Cristina; Paiva, Carlos Eduardo; Paiva, Bianca Sakamoto Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    to assess the effects of a workplace physical activity (WPA) program on levels of anxiety, depression, burnout, occupational stress and self-perception of health and work-related quality of life of a nursing team in a palliative care unit. the WPA was conducted five days per week, lasting ten minutes, during three consecutive months. Twenty-one nursing professionals were evaluated before and after the intervention, with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Maslch Burnout Inventory, and the Job Stress Scale. The changes in self-perceived health and work-related quality of life were measured using a semi-structured questionnaire. the WPA did not yield significant results on the levels of anxiety, depression, burnout or occupational stress. However, after the intervention, participants reported improved perceptions of bodily pain and feeling of fatigue at work. the WPA did not lead to beneficial effects on occupational stress and psychological variables, but it was well accepted by the nursing professionals, who reported improvement in perceptions of health and work-related quality of life.

  14. A systematic review of the physical health impacts from non-occupational exposure to wildfire smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia C; Pereira, Gavin; Uhl, Sarah A; Bravo, Mercedes A; Bell, Michelle L

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is likely to increase the threat of wildfires, and little is known about how wildfires affect health in exposed communities. A better understanding of the impacts of the resulting air pollution has important public health implications for the present day and the future. We performed a systematic search to identify peer-reviewed scientific studies published since 1986 regarding impacts of wildfire smoke on health in exposed communities. We reviewed and synthesized the state of science of this issue including methods to estimate exposure, and identified limitations in current research. We identified 61 epidemiological studies linking wildfire and human health in communities. The U.S. and Australia were the most frequently studied countries (18 studies on the U.S., 15 on Australia). Geographic scales ranged from a single small city (population about 55,000) to the entire globe. Most studies focused on areas close to fire events. Exposure was most commonly assessed with stationary air pollutant monitors (35 of 61 studies). Other methods included using satellite remote sensing and measurements from air samples collected during fires. Most studies compared risk of health outcomes between 1) periods with no fire events and periods during or after fire events, or 2) regions affected by wildfire smoke and unaffected regions. Daily pollution levels during or after wildfire in most studies exceeded U.S. EPA regulations. Levels of PM10, the most frequently studied pollutant, were 1.2 to 10 times higher due to wildfire smoke compared to non-fire periods and/or locations. Respiratory disease was the most frequently studied health condition, and had the most consistent results. Over 90% of these 45 studies reported that wildfire smoke was significantly associated with risk of respiratory morbidity. Exposure measurement is a key challenge in current literature on wildfire and human health. A limitation is the difficulty of estimating pollution specific to wildfires

  15. A systematic review of the physical health impacts from non-occupational exposure to wildfire smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia C.; Pereira, Gavin; Uhl, Sarah A.; Bravo, Mercedes A.; Bell, Michelle L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Climate change is likely to increase threat of wildfires, and little is known about how wildfires affect health in exposed communities. A better understanding of the impacts of the resulting air pollution has important public health implications for the present day and the future. Method We performed a systematic search to identify peer-reviewed scientific studies published since 1986 regarding impacts of wildfire smoke on health in exposed communities. We reviewed and synthesized the state of science of this issue including methods to estimate exposure, and identified limitations in current research. Results We identified 61 epidemiological studies linking wildfire and human health in communities. The U.S. and Australia were the most frequently studied countries (18 studies on the U.S., 15 on Australia). Geographic scales ranged from a single small city (population about 55,000) to the entire globe. Most studies focused on areas close to fire events. Exposure was most commonly assessed with stationary air pollutant monitors (35 of 61 studies). Other methods included using satellite remote sensing and measurements from air samples collected during fires. Most studies compared risk of health outcomes between 1) periods with no fire events and periods during or after fire events, or 2) regions affected by wildfire smoke and unaffected regions. Daily pollution levels during or after wildfire in most studies exceeded U.S. EPA regulations. Levels of PM10, the most frequently studied pollutant, were 1.2 to 10 times higher due to wildfire smoke compared to non-fire periods and/or locations. Respiratory disease was the most frequently studied health condition, and had the most consistent results. Over 90% of these 45 studies reported that wildfire smoke was significantly associated with risk of respiratory morbidity. Conclusion Exposure measurement is a key challenge in current literature on wildfire and human health. A limitation is the difficulty of estimating

  16. The occupational toxicologist: professionalism, morality and ethical standards in the context of legal and non-litigation issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, Bryan

    2005-01-01

    By its very nature, practice and intended applications, the profession of occupational toxicology has individual and collective responsibilities related to the design, conduct, interpretation and extrapolation of laboratory and controlled human clinical studies in order to determine the potential for industrial xenobiotics to produce adverse effects. The implications for health-related adverse effects in the workplace, and in the domestic and general environment carries many and various responsibilities for the toxicologist which are related to multiple and wide-ranging ethical issues. This review presents and discusses some of the major areas where the occupational toxicologist may experience potential ethical problems related to the conduct of routine professional activities. Emphasis is placed on the design, conduct, interpretation and reporting of laboratory studies; animal welfare; regulatory activities; human clinical volunteer studies; roles and responsibilities in defining workplace safety and protective measures; malpractices in various disciplines and work practices; misconduct in publication; and codes of ethical behavior. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Stress and Coping among Black Women Employed in Non-professional Service and Professional Occupations in Florida and Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, Faye A; Yarandi, Hossein; Hassan, Mona

    2015-08-01

    Culture enhances the ability to address the stressors related to ethnicity/race, employment, and lifestyle. From this interaction, two coping patterns emerge: individualist-oriented or collectivist-oriented, of which women prefer the latter. However, there is limited knowledge about the impact of ethnicity/race on the coping strategies of Black working women in the USA. Therefore, the purpose of this cross-sectional survey was to examine the coping strategies of two groups of Black women, those who work in non-professional service-related jobs and those employed as professionals. We explored Black women from two southern states, Florida and Georgia, in their use of coping strategies for everyday stressors. A modified version of Lazarus and Folkman's Transactional Model was used as the framework of this study. The sample for this cross-sectional survey consisted of 313 Black women employed in non-professional service jobs and 343 in professional roles. The thoughts and actions related to coping in everyday stressors were measured with The Ways of Coping Questionnaire.

  18. Attitudes to social media use as a platform for Continuing Professional Development (CPD) within occupational therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Kelly; Ward, Kath

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This study explored what influences the use of social media platforms within the CPD of occupational therapy students and qualified occupational therapists. It also considered perceived barriers to its use and whether age in line with generation theory, in particular digital natives vs digital immigrants impacted on willingness to utilise social media within CPD.\\ud \\ud Method: A mixed method survey design was utilised to collect qualitative and quantitative data through an onli...

  19. [The nursing students of Public Higher Medical Professional School in Opole spreading non-smoking lifestyle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtal, Mariola; Kurpas, Donata; Bielska, Dorota; Steciwko, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    The promotion of health is a science and art of helping people to change their environment and lifestyle to a health friendly one, in order to strengthen and build up their wellbeing. Smoking cigarettes is a most disadvantageous element of a lifestyle. Important elements of promotion of non-smoking lifestyle, by our students, as future Health Service members, are: promoting of smoke-free environment, encouraging of non-smoking fashion, education of health consequences of smoking cigarettes, motivation to quit smoking, advisement in the field of smoking addiction treatment. Public health and health promotion, these are classes where smoking cigarettes' problem has been discussed mostly. Over 90% of students' respondents claim that were able to give a nonsmoking advice to any patient. Because of the awareness of health threats caused by smoking cigarettes and because of the role of education in prevention and addiction fighting, over 82.4% of students were convinced that every doctor should ask every patient, about his/her attitude towards smoking cigarettes.

  20. Cigarette smoking and health care professionals at Mayo Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Asad Khizar; Chaudhry, Asma; Karamat, Aamnah; Arif, Nadia; Cheema, Muhammad Arshad; Rauf, Abdul

    2010-06-01

    To observe the frequency of cigarette smoking in doctors and paramedics and study various variables associated with it. An anonymous questionnaire was given to randomly selected 250 Doctors and 250 Paramedics at Mayo Hospital in 2009. Information about demographic characteristics, smoking status in family, number of cigarettes smoked per day, influence for starting smoking, reason for continuation of smoking and use of nicotine replacement therapy was obtained. A total of 234 questionnaires from doctors and 207 from paramedics were received back (88.2% response rate). There were 280 males (163 Doctors; 117 Paramedics) and 161 females (71 Doctors; 90 Paramedics). Eightyseven (37.18%) Doctors and 74 (35.74%) Paramedics were smokers with 82 (50.31%) male doctors and 5 (7.04%) females. Similar results were obtained in Paramedics 72 (61.53%) males and 2 (2.22%) females. Of the smokers, majority started smoking between 11-20 years age with 39 (44.83%) Doctors and 48 (64.86%) Paramedics. Twenty three (26.44%) Doctors and 31 (41.89%) Paramedics smoked 11-20 cigarettes per day. Smoking was initiated due to the influence of friends by 48 (55.17%) Doctors and 56 (75.68%) Paramedics. Most smokers, 29 (33.33%) Doctors and 33 (44.59%) Paramedics found use of cigarette smoking as "Relaxing". Addiction was the main reason for difficulty in quitting cigarette smoking as reported by 33 (37.93%) Doctors and 31 (41.89%) Paramedics. Of the smokers, 61 (70.11%) doctors and 50 (32.43%) paramedics had no intention to quit smoking in the next 6 months. A significant number of doctors and paramedics, especially males, in Pakistan smoke cigarettes, which requires proper attention.

  1. Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Lampert, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Every year on May 31 is World No Tobacco Day (WNTD). The current issue of GBE kompakt deals with the prevalence and development of tobacco use in Germany. Data of the telephone survey "German Health Update" 2009 (GEDA) show a decrease in smoking for the last years but only for the younger age groups.

  2. Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation from the perspective of nursing professionals in hemodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Martins Gallo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify the security measures taken and the control of occupational exposure to ionizing radiation in units of hemodynamic, from the perspective of nursing, this quantitative descriptive study was developed during January and February, 2011. A check-list of binary responses (yes / no was made based on the legislation and updated literature and it was applied in four hospitals in the northern region of Paraná State. The analysis of the data showed that 29 employees have knowledge about occupational exposure and apply barrier methods effectively to minimize doses of ionizing radiation. The data also showed that employees are participating in ongoing updating on the subject, and that they claim that this participation has a positive effect so that the occupational exposure occurs consciously, and also, the workers did not refuse to participate in any action facing their individual protection.

  3. Practising Ethics: Bildungsroman and Community of Practice in Occupational Therapists' Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisbrooke, Jani

    2013-01-01

    Professional ethics has currently raised its public profile in the UK as part of social anxiety around governance of health and social care, fuelled by catastrophically bad practice identified in particular healthcare facilities. Professional ethics is regulated by compliance with abstracted, normative codes but experienced as contextualised…

  4. [Occupational orientation in medical rehabilitation and measures for participation in the professional life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Fahrnow, W; Greitemann, B; Radoschewski, F M; Gerwinn, H; Hansmeier, T

    2005-10-01

    Return-to-work and protection of work-related participation is stated as a primary objective of rehabilitation by the statutory pension insurance institutes. A general continuous management of work-related participation in rehabilitation is a prerequisite for optimal results in view of stay in work and return to work. This means an extended vocational orientation in medical rehabilitation, individualized occupational rehabilitation according to need and capacity in connection with closer linkages between medical and occupational rehabilitation. In the course of the "Rehabilitation Sciences" research funding programme and beyond it, quite a few research projects and scientific activities aimed at development, testing and evaluation of -new screenings and diagnostic instruments with better findings of vocational related needs in medical and occupational rehabilitation, -specific methods of therapy and models for treatment settings with immediate reference to the work related restriction and capacity, as well as -models of the organization and forms of cooperation between medical and occupational rehabilitation. This paper reviews the projects and findings in these research fields in relation to the requirements for an increase of general continuous vocational orientation in rehabilitation.

  5. An Organizational and Task Perspective Model Aimed at Enhancing Teachers’ Professional Development and Occupational Expertise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, Arnoud; Van der Heijden, Béatrice; Kreijns, Karel; Gerrichhauzen, John

    2017-01-01

    Currently, many countries, including the Netherlands, are “plagued” by severe, both quantitative and qualitative, teacher shortages that are even expected to increase in the years to come. Teachers’ occupational development, therefore, has become an important issue on the research agenda of the

  6. Investigating the purpose of an online discussion group for health professionals: a case example from forensic occupational therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieleman, Crystal; Duncan, Edward A S

    2013-07-03

    Thousands of health-related online discussion groups are active world-wide however, very little is known about the purpose and usefulness of such groups. In 2003 an online discussion group called 'forensic occupational therapy' was established in the United Kingdom. This group was examined to gain an understanding of the purpose and use of online discussion groups for health professionals who may be practically and geographically isolated from others in similar areas of practice. Following a case study design, descriptive characteristics on members' locations and number of posts were collected from the forensic occupational therapy online discussion group. Eight years of posts (2003-2011) were examined using a theoretical thematic analysis process to identify and describe the purposes for which members were using the group. Members from 20 countries contributed to the discussion group; the vast majority of posts being from members in the United Kingdom. Activity within the group was consistently high for the first five years however, activity within the group declined in the final three years. Six purposes for which members use the online discussion group were identified: seeking and giving advice, networking, requesting and sharing material resources, service development, defining the role of occupational therapists, and student learning. Findings suggest that health professionals in specialized and often isolated areas of practice are keen to connect with colleagues and learn from each other's experiences. The main purposes for which the online discussion group was used could be summarized as communication, information sharing and networking; though activity within the group declined significantly during the last three years of the data collection period. This raises questions about the sustainability of online discussion groups within the rapidly developing social media environment.

  7. Investigating the purpose of an online discussion group for health professionals: a case example from forensic occupational therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Thousands of health-related online discussion groups are active world-wide however, very little is known about the purpose and usefulness of such groups. In 2003 an online discussion group called ‘forensic occupational therapy’ was established in the United Kingdom. This group was examined to gain an understanding of the purpose and use of online discussion groups for health professionals who may be practically and geographically isolated from others in similar areas of practice. Methods Following a case study design, descriptive characteristics on members’ locations and number of posts were collected from the forensic occupational therapy online discussion group. Eight years of posts (2003–2011) were examined using a theoretical thematic analysis process to identify and describe the purposes for which members were using the group. Results Members from 20 countries contributed to the discussion group; the vast majority of posts being from members in the United Kingdom. Activity within the group was consistently high for the first five years however, activity within the group declined in the final three years. Six purposes for which members use the online discussion group were identified: seeking and giving advice, networking, requesting and sharing material resources, service development, defining the role of occupational therapists, and student learning. Conclusions Findings suggest that health professionals in specialized and often isolated areas of practice are keen to connect with colleagues and learn from each other’s experiences. The main purposes for which the online discussion group was used could be summarized as communication, information sharing and networking; though activity within the group declined significantly during the last three years of the data collection period. This raises questions about the sustainability of online discussion groups within the rapidly developing social media environment. PMID:23822895

  8. Professional Women’s Well-Being: The Role of Discrimination and Occupational Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Maddox, Torsheika

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the association between perceived discrimination, workplace racial composition, and three outcomes--psychological distress, life dissatisfaction, and job dissatisfaction--among a sample of professional Black (n=72) and White (n=74) women. As a comparison, these relationships were analyzed to determine if they varied from those observed in more traditionally studied populations: Whites and non-professional Blacks, using data from a population of working women in the 1995 De...

  9. Professional women's well-being: the role of discrimination and occupational characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Torsheika

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the association between perceived discrimination, workplace racial composition, and three outcomes-psychological distress, life dissatisfaction, and job dissatisfaction-among a sample of Black (n = 72) and White (n = 74) professional women. As a comparison, these relationships were analyzed to determine if they varied from those observed in more traditionally studied populations: Whites and non-professional Blacks, using data from a population of working women in the 1995 Detroit Area Study (N = 533). Perceived discrimination was associated with differences in psychological distress and job dissatisfaction but not with life dissatisfaction. The correlation between perceived discrimination and psychological distress was larger for White professional women than for Black professional women (White women odds ratio [OR]: 1.99; Black women OR: 0.80). A larger correlation between race and job dissatisfaction was observed for Black professional women than for Black non-professional women. The racial composition of the workplace was unrelated to any of the outcomes. Study results emphasized the importance of decreasing the frequency of discrimination for positive mental health and underscored the need for more systematic research on discrimination and health among Black women of higher socioeconomic status, a growing sub-population in the United States.

  10. A review of strategies to stimulate dental professionals to integrate smoking cessation interventions into primary care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosseel, J.P.; Jacobs, J.E.; Plasschaert, A.J.M.; Grol, R.P.T.M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarise evidence regarding the effectiveness of various implementation strategies to stimulate the delivery of smoking cessation advice and support during daily dental care. BASIC RESEARCH DESIGN: Search of online medical and psychological databases, correspondence with authors and

  11. Assessment of professional competency and need of smoking cessation counseling for dental students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajani A. Dable

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the smoking prevalence among dental students and to assess the need for promoting tobacco education and intervention by exploring their knowledge about smoking related risk factors. The study also examined the attitudes and practices of the students toward tobacco consumption, and their responsibilities toward the community. Methods: In total, 53 male students participated in the study (21 juniors and 32 seniors. The training program was divided into three modules, and the questionnaire was administered before and after the counseling sessions, which provided the comparative data on the students’ views about smoking cessation. Results: The most commonly practiced mode of tobacco consumption was found to be cigarette smoking (90.6 %, while a few consumed Gutkha (9.4%. All the junior students (100% reported to have been benefitted by the counseling program, while 68.8% of the students from the senior group reported the same. Bivariate statistical analysis was conducted using the Pearson’s chi-square test for testing the difference across the age groups. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Conclusion: Curbing tobacco influence on dental students in their initial days can ensure a smoke-free life for them, as well as prevents them from feeling embarrassed or experiencing a lack of confidence while seeing their patients. Thus, tobacco education and intervention programs can motivate the students and increase their potential to be credible advisors regarding smoking cessation.

  12. Barriers to the Adoption of Wearable Sensors in the Workplace: A Survey of Occupational Safety and Health Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schall, Mark C; Sesek, Richard F; Cavuoto, Lora A

    2018-01-01

    To gather information on the (a) types of wearable sensors, particularly personal activity monitors, currently used by occupational safety and health (OSH) professionals; (b) potential benefits of using such technologies in the workplace; and (c) perceived barriers preventing the widespread adoption of wearable sensors in industry. Wearable sensors are increasingly being promoted as a means to improve employee health and well-being, and there is mounting evidence supporting their use as exposure assessment and personal health tools. Despite this, many workplaces have been hesitant to adopt these technologies. An electronic survey was emailed to 28,428 registered members of the American Society of Safety Engineers (ASSE) and 1,302 professionals certified by the Board of Certification in Professional Ergonomics (BCPE). A total of 952 valid responses were returned. Over half of respondents described being in favor of using wearable sensors to track OSH-related risk factors and relevant exposure metrics at their respective workplaces. However, barriers including concerns regarding employee privacy/confidentiality of collected data, employee compliance, sensor durability, the cost/benefit ratio of using wearables, and good manufacturing practice requirements were described as challenges precluding adoption. The broad adoption of wearable technologies appears to depend largely on the scientific community's ability to successfully address the identified barriers. Investigators may use the information provided to develop research studies that better address OSH practitioner concerns and help technology developers operationalize wearable sensors to improve employee health and well-being.

  13. Knowledge Representation and Ontological Model based on Software Engineering Body of Knowledge as a tool to Evaluate Professional and Occupational Profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo- Alejandro Quezada Sarmiento

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge representation is a multidisciplinary subject that needs to apply theories, and techniques from logic, ontology, and computation, for this reason the Bodies of Knowledge (BOK, contain the relevant information for an area of knowledge, and it is necessary for the development of the science, and application in the professional, occupational profiles, and the possible incidence in the industry. This paper showed an evaluation of professional, and occupational profiles based on standard Software Engineering Body of Knowledge (SWEBOK, and ontological model as tool in order to obtain the necessary information to establish the relationship in these contexts.

  14. Evaluating Interactive Fatigue Management Workshops for Occupational Health Professionals in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Ali

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Fatigue can lead to severe functional impairment with adverse workplace outcomes. One-day workshops can be effective in training OH professionals in how to diagnose and manage fatigue and CFS. Training may increase general knowledge of fatigue and confidence in fatigue management in an OH setting.

  15. African American Professionals: Coping with Occupational Stress in Predominantly White Work Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Judith C.; Vaux, Alan

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 112 African-American professionals in predominantly White workplaces found that work- and race-related stressors independently influenced job satisfaction. Internal locus of control and collegial/supervisory support lessened stress. Nonwork social support did not buffer effects of race-related stressors. (SK)

  16. Relational Professionalism in a Bilingual Teacher Association: Promoting Occupational Identities and Pedagogic Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Chris Milk

    2017-01-01

    Relational professionalism in education is a way of regarding teaching as a profession which privileges relationality, or engaged and connected relationships with the self, with others and one's teaching practice. In this article, I examine a bilingual teacher association who use their annual conference as a vehicle to support and strengthen their…

  17. An Occupation's Responsibility: The Role of Social Foundations in the Cultivation of Professionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunzenhauser, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    In this essay, the author argues that inquiry and engagement in the social foundations of education is fundamental to cultivating professionalism in education. As many commentators on the subject have noted, teaching does not meet many of the criteria of a profession derived from the sociological study of fields of work. As Joseph Newman observes,…

  18. Low back pain among professional bus drivers: ergonomic and occupational-psychosocial risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperovitch-Najenson, Deborah; Santo, Yoav; Masharawi, Youssef; Katz-Leurer, Michal; Ushvaev, Diana; Kalichman, Leonid

    2010-01-01

    Professional drivers have been found to be at high risk for developing low back pain. However, the exact reasons are poorly understood. To assess the prevalence of LBP among Israeli professional urban bus drivers, and evaluate the association between LBP in drivers and work-related psychosocial and ergonomic risk factors. A total of 384 male full-time urban bus drivers were consecutively enrolled to this cross-sectional study. Information on regular physical activity and work-related ergonomic and psychosocial stressing factors was collected during face-to-face interviews. The prevalence of LBP was assessed using the Standardized Nordic Questionnaire. From the total cohort, 164 bus drivers (45.4%) reported experiencing LBP in the previous 12 months. Ergonomic factors associated with LBP were uncomfortable seat (odds ratio 2.6, 95% confidence interval 1.4-5.0) and an uncomfortable back support (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4-4.5). In the group of drivers with LBP, 48.5% reported participation in regular physical activities vs. 67.3% in the group without LBP (Prelated ergonomic and psychosocial factors showed a significant association with LBP in Israeli professional urban bus drivers. Prevention of work-related stress, organizational changes targeted to reduce stressful situations, improvement in seat comfort, and encouraging regular sports activity need to be evaluated as prevention strategies for LBP in professional bus drivers.

  19. [The influence of occupational environment and professional factors on the risk of cardiovascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obelenis, Vytautas; Malinauskiene, Vilija

    2007-01-01

    The article reviews the recent scientific literature and the authors' studies on this topic. Occupational conditions and psychological factors have been shown to play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Their effect is often indirect, through damage to the central nervous, respiratory, and neuroendocrine systems. Hot climate in the workplace and intense infrared radiation cause the water and electrolyte imbalance and chronic hyperthermia and manifests as neurovegetative dystonia. The long-term effects of low temperatures condition ischemic lesions in circulatory system, trophic organ destruction. The influence of ultrahigh-frequency electromagnetic radiation on the cardiovascular system is directly related to the central nervous system and neurohumoral lesions. "Microwave disease" often manifests as polymorphic dystonia. Exposure to occupational vibration causes "white finger" syndrome or Raynaud's phenomenon together with cerebral vascular lesions. Recent studies have confirmed that noise as a chronic stressor causes the imbalance in the central and vegetative nervous systems and changes in homeostasis. Noise increases catecholamine and cholesterol concentration in blood, has an effect on plasma lipoprotein levels, increases heart rate, arterial blood pressure, and risk of myocardial infarction. Psychophysiological changes caused by long-term stress influence constant pathological changes in the central nervous system, endocrine and cardiovascular systems. The long-term effect of psychogenic stressors is very important in the etiopathogenesis of psychosomatic diseases.

  20. Professionalization of occupational health and safety management in Danish companies and the effects on worker participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seim, Rikke; Limborg, Hans Jørgen; Jensen, Per Langaa

    2015-01-01

    The development of the internal OHS management is studied in sixty Danish companies, the results indicates an increase in professionalization, where employees - employed specifically with the purpose of managing OHS – are either supplementing or taking over from the mandatory OHS - committees...... leaving the role of employee elected OHS rep as an empty formality without any powers or duties associated with the OHS management and removing initiative and commitment from the OHS reps....

  1. Professionalism in Physician Assistant, Physical Therapist, Occupational Therapist, Clinical Psychology, and Biomedical Sciences Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noronha, Sandhya; Anderson, Deborah; Lee, Michelle M; Krumdick, Nathaniel D; Irwin, Kent E; Burton-Hess, Judith; Ciancio, Mae; Wallingford, Minetta; Workman, Gloria M

    2016-01-01

    Interprofessional collaboration for healthcare requires a better understanding of the commonalities and differences in student perceptions of professionalism. 217 students in five programs (PA 71, PT 46, OT 29, CP 12, and BMS 59) completed a 22-item survey (response rate 79.5%). A Likert scale grading from 1 (hardly ever) to 5 (always) was used to assess professional attitudes and behaviors. A mixed-model MANOVA, supplemented with post-hoc analyses, showed significant group by time interactions for 5 items. Sensitivity to differences and diversity of other people increased for BMS students, but decreased for PT students. Timeliness increased for BMS students, but did not change for PA students. Seeking out new learning experiences increased for BMS students, but did not change for PA or PT students. Taking a group leadership role increased for BMS students, decreased for PT students, while PA and OT students showed no change. Volunteering time to serve others decreased for OT and PA students, while BMS and BM students showed no change. It is plausible that these findings emerge from differences in program curricula and specific training objectives. The findings provide initial insight to educators on ways that attitudes and behaviors pertaining to professionalism sometimes vary among students in different health science programs.

  2. The Occupational Well-Being of School Staff and Maintenance of Their Ability to Work in Finland and Estonia--Focus on the School Community and Professional Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaranen, Terhi; Sormunen, Marjorita; Pertel, Tiia; Streimann, Karin; Hansen, Siivi; Varava, Liana; Lepp, Kadi; Turunen, Hannele; Tossavainen, Kerttu

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present the baseline results of a research and development project targeted to improve the occupational well-being of school staff and maintain their ability to work, in Finland and Estonia. It reveals the most problematic factors in the various aspects of the school community and professional competence and outlines…

  3. Associating with Occupational Depictions: How African American College Women Are Influenced by the Portrayals of Women in Professional Careers on Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlinden, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined ways portrayals of professional Black women on television influence the higher education and occupational choices of African American college women. The central research question of this study was: How do college age African American women make meaning of the portrayals of the people they see on television? Two analytic…

  4. Interventions by Health Care Professionals Who Provide Routine Child Health Care to Reduce Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Children: A Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Justine B; Mackenzie, Lisa J; Freund, Megan; Wolfenden, Luke; Roseby, Robert; Wiggers, John H

    2016-02-01

    Reducing child exposure to tobacco smoke is a public health priority. Guidelines recommend that health care professionals in child health settings should address tobacco smoke exposure (TSE) in children. To determine the effectiveness of interventions delivered by health care professionals who provide routine child health care in reducing TSE in children. A secondary analysis of 57 trials included in a 2014 Cochrane review and a subsequent extended search was performed. Controlled trials (published through June 2015) of interventions that focused on reducing child TSE, with no restrictions placed on who delivered the interventions, were identified. Secondary data extraction was performed in August 2015. Controlled trials of routine child health care delivered by health care professionals (physicians, nurses, medical assistants, health educators, and dieticians) that addressed the outcomes of interest (TSE reduction in children and parental smoking behaviors) were eligible for inclusion in this review and meta-analysis. Study details and quality characteristics were independently extracted by 2 authors. If outcome measures were sufficiently similar, meta-analysis was performed using the random-effects model by DerSimonian and Laird. Otherwise, the results were described narratively. The primary outcome measure was reduction in child TSE. Secondary outcomes of interest were parental smoking cessation, parental smoking reduction, and maternal postpartum smoking relapse prevention. Sixteen studies met the selection criteria. Narrative analysis of the 6 trials that measured child TSE indicated no intervention effects relative to comparison groups. Similarly, meta-analysis of 9 trials that measured parental smoking cessation demonstrated no overall intervention effect (n = 6399) (risk ratio 1.05; 95% CI, 0.74-1.50; P = .78). Meta-analysis of the 3 trials that measured maternal postpartum smoking relapse prevention demonstrated a significant overall intervention effect (n

  5. The impacts of occupational risks and their effects on work stress levels of health professional (The sample from the Southeast region of Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulutaşdemir, Nilgün; Balsak, Habip; Berhuni, Özlem; Özdemir, Emine; Ataşalan, Esra

    2015-11-01

    This study was performed to determine the occupational risks and their effects on the work stress of the health professionals working in state hospitals in the Southeast of Turkey. This cross-sectional and descriptive study was composed of 360 health professionals of the Pazarcık, Ergani, and Şehitkamil State Hospitals between December 2014 and January 2015. The data of the study were obtained by performing the survey which was composed of questions related to the socio-demographic characteristics, factors that were thought to affect the occupational risks and job stress, as well as, the questions of the Work Stress Scale. The analyses of the data have been performed using Student's t test and one-way analysis of variance. The working hours, the number of being on-duty, insomnia, and burnout in health professionals were determined to be with the highest mean scores among other stressful risks and hazards. The mean work stress level, which increases the success by creating the group-stimulus effect, was indicated as 2.4 and 2.5 for the health professionals in Pazarcık and Ergani State Hospital, respectively. However, the stress level which poses a threat for the group-health and efficiency was found to be 4.0 for the health professionals of the Şehitkamil State Hospital. As the exposure of the occupational risks increases in the health professionals, the work stress scores also increase (p stress of the health professionals in the Şehitkamil State Hospital should be evaluated in terms of occupational health and safety.

  6. Occupational health

    CERN Document Server

    Fingret, Dr Ann

    2013-01-01

    Offers a comprehensive view of health and safety issues at work. An invaluable resource for managers, personnel professionals and occupational health practitioners. Recommended by the Institute of Personnel Management.

  7. [Analysis of Possible Sociodemographic and Occupational Risk Factors and the Prevalence of Professional Exhaustion Syndrome (Burnout) in Mexican Dentists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda Aguilera, Enrique; García de Alba García, Javier E

    2013-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of professional exhaustion syndrome (burnout) in dentists and to analyze possible sociodemographic and occupational risk factors . An observational, descriptive and cross-sectional survey of 203 dental staff of the Metropolitan Zone of Guadalajara, Mexico, from the Mexican Social Security Institute, University of Guadalajara, and those in private practice. A self-reported identification form and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey were used to gather data. Descriptive statistics and inferential analyzes were performed using SPSS 15.0 support and EpiInfo V6.1. There was an 88.3% response. Professional exhaustion syndrome (burnout) was detected in 52.2% of them. Significant differences were obtained depending on the employment contract. A negative correlation was observed between the subscales emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, and a positive one between the lack of personal accomplishment at work. Professional exhaustion syndrome (burnout) is common (52.2%) for dentists, their possible risk factors: working in a public institution, being male, over 40 years, without a regular partner, and with more than 15 years with a partner, not having children, being a specialist with 10 years or more in an institution and the current job, morning shift, permanent recruitment, and having another job. The involvement of emotional exhaustion behaves like the syndrome. Average levels of the subscales are generally near normal. A negative correlation was found between the subscales emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, and positive between the lack of personal fulfillment at work with the presence of the syndrome. This leads us to consider the need for preventive measures in the workplace and personnel, as well as intervention programs at an individual, social or organizational level to reduce the prevalence found. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. Smoking among French infertility specialists: habits, opinions and patients' management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freour, Thomas; Dessolle, Lionel; Jean, Miguel; Barriere, Paul

    2011-03-01

    The deleterious effects of tobacco on fertility are now largely demonstrated. Little is known, however, about how infertility doctors communicate on smoking and about their own smoking habits. In this study, we examined smoking habits among French infertility specialists and their attitudes towards infertile couples' exposure to tobacco. A postal survey was sent in 2009 to the 803 French certified physicians (gynaecologists, urologists, endocrinologists and embryologists) specializing in infertility. Demographical data, smoking habits and attitude towards patients' smoking were recorded. Statistical analysis and multiple correspondence analysis were performed in order to identify differences among physicians according to age, gender, occupation or smoking status. Response rate was 42.3%. Half of the respondents were male, 41% were under 45 years, 37% were embryologists and 53.3% were gynaecologists. Thirteen percent reported current smoking. More than 80% always asked their patients about smoking status and cannabis consumption. Most physicians specifically informed infertile couples on tobacco, advised them to quit and proposed smoking cessation therapies. Only 24% refused care unless smoking cessation occurred. Statistical analysis showed some differences among subgroups according to gender, occupation or age. Surprisingly, results were comparable according to smoking status. Most infertility specialists are aware of the deleterious effects of tobacco on fertility and ask their patients to quit. The heterogeneity in infertile patients' management, however, underlines the need for better professional and patients' information on smoking. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Occupational risk factors for hand dermatitis among professional cleaners in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabelli, Maria C.; Vizcaya, David; Margarit, Anna Martí; Antó, Josep Maria; Arjona, Lourdes; Barreiro, Esther; Orriols, Ramon; Gimenez-Arnau, Ana; Zock, Jan-Paul

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Dermatitis is an important health outcome for workers whose jobs put them in contact with irritants or sensitizing agents. Objectives We conducted analysis of data from the Epidemiological Study on the Risk of Asthma in Cleaning Workers 2 (EPIASLI2) study to assess worksites and cleaning products as risk factors for hand dermatitis among professional cleaning workers. Materials/Methods We distributed 4 993 questionnaires to employees of 37 cleaning companies and used data from 818 (16%) respondents who provided information about skin symptoms and cleaning-related exposures. We assessed associations between the frequencies of worksite and cleaning product exposures and a symptom-based definition of hand dermatitis among current cleaning workers (n=693) and a comparison population (n=125). Results Hand dermatitis was reported by 28% of current cleaning workers, versus 18% of the comparison population, and was associated with cleaning outdoor areas and schools, and the use of hydrochloric acid (prevalence ratio [PR]: 1.92, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22, 3.02) and dust mop products (PR: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.11, 2.75). Conclusions Professional cleaning workers may not be sufficiently protected from cutaneous disease at work. Future research should further investigate the roles of multiple product exposures and personal protective equipment. PMID:22268785

  10. [Investigation of Legionella pneumophila seropositivity in the professional long distance drivers as a risky occupation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Yusuf; Ergin, Cağri; Kaleli, Ilknur; Pinar, Ahmet

    2007-04-01

    an occupational risk factor for legionellosis especially for drivers who travel to the west and south parts of our country (mean temperature in August 2004: 30-35 degrees C), since the bus air-conditioning and air-circulating systems are active during the travel. Further studies on air spreading of Legionella in intercity buses can reveal how the exposure occurs for bus drivers.

  11. Evaluation of systematic assessment of asthma-like symptoms and tobacco smoke exposure in early childhood by well-child professionals: A randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hafkamp-de Groen, E.; Valk, R.J.P. van der; Mohangoo, A.D.; Wouden, J.C. van der; Duijts, L.; Jaddoe, V.W.; Hofman, A.; Koning, H.J. de; Jongste, J.C. de; Raat, H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of systematic assessment of asthma-like symptoms and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure during regular preventive well-child visits between age 1 and 4 years by wellchild professionals. Methods: Sixteen well-child centres in

  12. Sound Practice– Improving occupational health and safety for professional orchestral musicians in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwen Jane Ackermann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Sound Practice Project is a five-year study involving baseline evaluation, development and implementation of musician-specific work health and safety initiatives. A cross-sectional population physical and psychological survey and physical assessment were conducted at the same time, with an auditory health assessment conducted later. The results were used to guide the development of a series of targeted interventions, encompassing physical, psychological and auditory health components. This paper provides an overview of the project but focuses on the health findings arising from the cross-sectional survey.377 musicians from the eight professional symphony orchestras in Australia took part in the cross-sectional study (about 70% of eligible musicians. Eighty-four percent (84% of musicians reported past performance-related musculoskeletal disorder (PRMD episodes; 50% were suffering a current PRMD. Of the 63% who returned hearing surveys, 43% believed they had hearing loss, and 64% used earplugs at least intermittently. Noise exposure was found to be high in private practice, although awareness of risk and earplug use in this environment was lower than in orchestral settings. Improved strategic approaches, acoustic screens and recently developed active earplugs were found to provide effective new options for hearing protection. With respect to psychosocial screening, female musicians reported significantly more trait anxiety, music performance anxiety, social anxiety, and other forms of anxiety and depression than male musicians. The youngest musicians were significantly more anxious compared with the oldest musicians. Thirty-three percent (33% of musicians may meet criteria for a diagnosis of social phobia; 32% returned a positive depression screen and 22% for post-traumatic stress disorder. PRMDs and trigger point discomfort levels were strongly associated with increasing severity of psychological issues such as depression and music

  13. Tabagismo no Brasil: desigualdades regionais e prevalência segundo características ocupacionais Tobacco smoking in Brazil: regional inequalities and prevalence according to occupational characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aluísio J. D. Barros

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O estudo descreveu a prevalência do tabagismo diário segundo sexo, idade, renda domiciliar e ocupação dos moradores de 15 anos ou mais, no Brasil e regiões, baseado nos dados da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra Domiciliar 2008 (PNAD/IBGE. A análise considerou o desenho da amostra e incluiu 252.768 indivíduos. A prevalência de fumo diário no Brasil foi 15,1%, variando de 12,8% na região Norte a 17,4% na região Sul, sendo 62% maior nos homens que mulheres. A prevalência de fumo foi inversamente proporcional à renda domiciliar, sendo 18,6% entre os 20% mais pobres e 11,5% entre os 20% mais ricos. As mesmas tendências para sexo, idade e renda foram observadas nas diferentes regiões do país. O consumo diário de cigarros foi 3% maior entre os trabalhadores comparados com não trabalhadores. Trabalhadores não manuais apresentaram prevalências de fumo abaixo de 10%, enquanto trabalhadores manuais relataram frequências acima de 20%. A associação entre tabagismo e ocupação permaneceu após ajuste para sexo, idade e renda. As desigualdades encontradas devem ser consideradas no planejamento e direcionamento de ações efetivas para redução do tabagismo. Os grupos ocupacionais mais expostos deveriam ter prioridade nas intervenções.This study describes the prevalence of daily tobacco smoking according to sex, age, per capita household income and occupation of residents aged 15 years or more in Brazil and regions using data from the 2008 National Household Sample Survey (PNAD/IBGE. The analysis was adjusted for the sampling design and included 252.768 individuals. Daily smoking prevalence in Brazil was 15.1%, varying from 12.8% in the North region to 17.4% in the South region, and it was 62% higher in men compared to women. Smoking prevalence was inversely proportional to household income, 18.6% among the poorest 20% and 11.5% among the wealthiest 20%. The same trends for gender, age and income were observed in the different regions of

  14. Occupational therapy evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristina Tomra; Wæhrens, Eva Ejlersen

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Occupational Therapy Intervention Process Model (OTIPM) serves to guide occupational therapists in their professional reasoning. The OTIPM prescribes evaluation of task performance based on both self-report and observation. Although this approach seems ideal, many clinicians raise...

  15. [The criteria for the relationship between hearing impairment and professional occupation and the criteria for professional suitability in terms of hearing among the aeronautical personnel engaged in civilian aviation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankova, V B

    This article describes the main clinical features associated with the development and manifestations of disturbed sound perception in the members of the aeronautical personnel engaged in the Russian civilian aviation. The main expert criteria for the relationship between the diseases of the organs of hearing (as exemplified by chronic sensorineural hearing impairment) and professional occupation have been developed based on the results of the clinical and diagnostic examination with the use of whispered and loud speech acumetry, tonal threshold audiometry, speech audiometry, impedancometry and evoked optoacoustic emission. Civilian aviation sectoral approaches to the evaluation of professional suitability in terms of hearing among the aeronautical personnel are considered in accordance with the criteria adopted by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), a specialized UN agency that sets the international standards for the civilian aviation and co-ordinates its development with the purpose of enhancing the safety and effectiveness of flights. The criteria are formulated for the solution of the expert problems arising from the relationship between the professional occupation and the diseases of the organs of hearing and for the evaluation of the professional suitability in terms of hearing among the aeronautical personnel engaged in civilian aviation.

  16. Marijuana in the Workplace: Guidance for Occupational Health Professionals and Employers: Joint Guidance Statement of the American Association of Occupational Health Nurses and the American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jennan A; Holland, Michael G; Baldwin, Debra D; Gifford-Meuleveld, Linda; Mueller, Kathryn L; Perkison, Brett; Upfal, Mark; Dreger, Marianne

    2015-04-01

    Employers are often put in a difficult position trying to accommodate state laws that allow the use of marijuana for medical purposes while enforcing federal rules or company drug-use policies based on federal law. To ensure workplace safety as well as compliance with state and federal legislation, employers should review state laws on discrimination against marijuana users and ensure that policies enacted are consistent with the state’s antidiscrimination statutes. Although it appears that in most states that allow medical marijuana use, employers can continue enforcing policies banning or restricting the use of marijuana, this approach may change on the basis of future court decisions. The Joint Task Force recommends that marijuana use be closely monitored for all employees in safety-sensitive positions, whether or not covered by federal drug-testing regulations. Best practice would support employers prohibiting marijuana use at work. Employers, in compliance with applicable state laws, may choose to simply prohibit their employees from working while using or impaired by marijuana. In some states, employers may choose to prohibit marijuana use by all members of their workforce whether on or off duty. Nevertheless, in all cases, a clear policy to guide decisions on when marijuana use is allowed and how to evaluate for impairment must be widely distributed and carefully explained to all workers. Legal consultation during policy development and continual review is imperative to ensure compliance with federal, state, and case law. Drug-use and drug-testing policies should clearly delineate expectations regarding on-the-job impairment and marijuana use outside of work hours. Specific criteria for use by supervisors and HR personnel when referring employees suspected of impairment for an evaluation by a qualified occupational health professional are critical. Detailed actions based on the medical evaluation results must also be clearly delineated for HRs, supervisors

  17. Impact of personal competencies and market value of type of occupation over objective employability and perceived career opportunities of young professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Bargsted

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The research of employability shows tension in the social field of career, where variables such as market value, gender, and personal skills are important. The aim of this study was to identify the predicted weight of market value of type of occupation, sex, and career competences (self-efficacy, pro-activity, and locus of control over objective employability and perceived opportunities for a future career and satisfaction of young professionals. In this study, 294 graduates from 27 different undergraduate degree programs participated, describing their labor situation, satisfaction with career opportunities, and their level in the studied competences. Each type of occupation has a specific market value score, according to national and international criteria. It was possible to identify that the market value of their occupations had significant effects on objective employability (p < .000, f = .48. Also, self-efficacy and locus of control were significant predictors of perceived employability opportunities (p < .000, f = .26. This predictive value of personal variables was different between males (p = .011, f = .82, and females (p < .000, f = .34, and between occupations with low market value (p=.016, f=.45, medium market value (p < .000, f = .34, and high market value (p = .006, f = .21, which allows the development of specific intervention strategies to promote equality in labor opportunities and job placement.

  18. [CHEMICAL AIR POLLUTION OF THE OCCUPATIONAL ENVIRONMENT AS A FACTOR FOR PROFESSIONAL RISK FOR WORKERS OF MAIN OCCUPATIONS IN THE COPPER AND NICKEL METALLURGY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipatov, G Ia; Adrianovskiĭ, V I; Gogoleva, O I

    2015-01-01

    There are presented the results of hygienic researches of the harmful substances content in the air of the working area ofthe copper and nickel metallurgy. Sulfur-containing gases (primarily sulfur dioxide), to the effects of which there are exposed workers of drying, smelting, converter conversion, are shown to play a leading role among professional factors.

  19. The Contribution of Health Professionals to the Creation of Occupational Health Standards: The Impact of Professional Ethics in the Case of Asbestos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plomp, H.N.

    2013-01-01

    ln the Netherlands, as in other Western countries, there is a great time lag between the evidence of the carcinogenicity of asbestos (1949) and the launching of first legislation that reduces the occupational exposure (1971) and finally, the complete ban of the production and application of asbestos

  20. Health professionals in Flanders perceive the potential health risks of vaping as lower than those of smoking but do not recommend using e-cigarettes to their smoking patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gucht, Dinska; Baeyens, Frank

    2016-06-24

    vaping in enclosed public places. Health professionals in Flanders perceive the potential health risks of vaping as lower than those of smoking but do not recommend using e-cigs to their smoking patients.

  1. Barriers and facilitators to smoking cessation in a cancer context : a qualitative study of patient, family and professional views

    OpenAIRE

    Wells, Mary; Aitchison, Patricia; Harris, Fiona; Ozakinci, Gozde; Radley, Andrew; Bauld, Linda; Entwistle, Vikki; Munro, Alastair John; Haw, Sally; Culbard, Bill; Williams, Brian

    2017-01-01

    This study was funded by the Chief Scientist Office, Scotland CZH/4/807. Background Continued smoking after cancer adversely affects quality of life and survival, but one fifth of cancer survivors still smoke. Despite its demands, cancer presents an opportunity for positive behaviour change. Smoking often occurs in social groups, therefore interventions which target families and individuals may be more successful. This qualitative study explored patients, family members and health professi...

  2. Evaluating an online training module on protecting children from secondhand smoke exposure: impact on knowledge, confidence and self-reported practice of health and social care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Laura L; McEwen, Andy

    2015-11-16

    Healthcare professionals report that a lack of training is the primary barrier to raising the issue of secondhand smoke (SHS). An open access online training module was therefore developed for those working with smoking families to deliver effective very brief advice on SHS. The current study aimed to evaluate the following: (1) does knowledge increase as a result of participating in the online training module, and (2) does the module impact on participant confidence and self-reported practice relating to SHS. Those accessing the module were invited to participate in an evaluation to assess participants' knowledge about, and confidence in, delivering very brief advice on SHS. Change in knowledge was assessed via ten multiple choice questions and confidence was assessed by Likert scale responses to three statements. Data were collected across three time points: pre-training, post-training and after 3 months. Data were also collected at 3 months post module completion on self-reported changes in practice and key learning points. Data at all three time points were available for 178 participants (~1 % of those who visited the module homepage over a 2 year period). Knowledge and confidence to deliver effective very brief advice for SHS significantly increased between the pre- and post-training assessments and was maintained at 3 months. Eighty-four percent self-reported that they perceived taking part in the training had led to positive changes in their clinical practice. There is potential for this module to be embedded within training programmes across health and social care professions, which may help to increase the knowledge and confidence of health and social care professionals to deliver very brief advice for SHS to smoking families. Future research needs to explore whether the smoking families who receive very brief advice for SHS are motivated to make changes to their home smoking behaviours and whether roll-out of this intervention would be cost-effective.

  3. Health professionals' perceptions of the barriers and facilitators to providing smoking cessation advice to women in pregnancy and during the post-partum period: a systematic review of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemming, Kate; Graham, Hilary; McCaughan, Dorothy; Angus, Kathryn; Sinclair, Lesley; Bauld, Linda

    2016-03-31

    Reducing smoking in pregnancy is a policy priority in many countries and as a result there has been a rise in the development of services to help pregnant women to quit. A wide range of professionals are involved in providing these services, with midwives playing a particularly pivotal role. Understanding professionals' experiences of providing smoking cessation support in pregnancy can help to inform the design of interventions as well as to improve routine care. A synthesis of qualitative research of health professionals' perceptions of the barriers and facilitators to providing smoking cessation advice to women in pregnancy and the post-partum period was conducted using meta-ethnography. Searches were undertaken from 1990 to January 2015 using terms for maternity health professionals and smoking cessation advisors, pregnancy, post-partum, smoking, and qualitative in seven electronic databases. The review was reported in accordance with the 'Enhancing transparency in reporting the synthesis of qualitative research' (ENTREQ) statement. Eight studies reported in nine papers were included, reporting on the views of 190 health professionals/key informants, including 85 midwives and health visitors. The synthesis identified that both the professional role of participants and the organisational context in which they worked could act as either barriers or facilitators to an individual's ability to provide smoking cessation support to pregnant or post-partum women. Underpinning these factors was an acknowledgment that the association between maternal smoking and social disadvantage was a considerable barrier to addressing and supporting smoking cessation The review identifies a role for professional education, both pre-qualification and in continuing professional development that will enable individuals to provide smoking cessation support to pregnant women. Key to the success of this education is recognising the centrality of the professional-client/patient relationship

  4. Associations Between Age, Psychosocial Work Conditions, Occupational Well-Being, and Telomere Length in Geriatric Care Professionals: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmelar, Caroline; Jörres, Rudolf A; Kronseder, Angelika; Müller, Andreas; Nowak, Dennis; Weigl, Matthias

    2017-10-01

    We identified associations between age, psychosocial work characteristics, occupational well-being, and-as a measure of biological age-leukocyte telomere length in geriatric care professionals. This is a multisource study of self-reports on psychosocial work characteristics, standardized physician's evaluations of health, and relative telomere length measures of peripheral blood leukocytes. We included 141 geriatric care professionals. Telomere length was assessed by an improved polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method. Increased depersonalization was associated with shorter telomeres. Their association with age was not moderated by psychosocial work conditions. There was, however, a significant three-way interaction of social support and work ability with the age-telomere association. Additionally, social support and adverse general health moderated the age-telomere length relationship. A supportive work environment and work-related health may influence the association between age and telomere length.

  5. Development of health inter-professional telemedicine practice through simulation scenario training with students of physiotherapy-, occupational therapy-, medical laboratory technology-, and nursing education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nortvig, Anne-Mette; Vestergaard*, Kitt

    Background: Welfare technology is considered to be cost effective and to promote consistent quality in health care (1, 2). Due to the pervasive deployment of telemedicine and the political focus thereon, it is very important that health professional students gain an understanding of its benefits...... technology-, and nursing education. •to motivate and retain male students by the use of simulation training that involves technology. Methodology: The project was settled as a cross-professional telemedicine course on health educations. Nursing students (N=20) and physiotherapy students (N=34) participated...... and motivation. Results: Evaluations and follow-up research showed that students developed competences equivalent to novice level through simulation training (3). The project gave rise to wide project on Occupational Therapy education and medical laboratory technology education too. Follow-up research concludes...

  6. Development of health inter-professional telemedicine practice through simulation scenario training with students of physiotherapy-, occupational therapy-, medical laboratory technology, and nursing education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nortvig, Anne-Mette; Vestergaard, Kitt

    Background: Welfare technology is considered to be cost effective and to promote consistent quality in health care (1, 2). Due to the pervasive deployment of telemedicine and the political focus thereon, it is very important that health professional students gain an understanding of its benefits...... and retain male students by the use of simulation training that involves technology. Methodology: The project was settled as a cross-professional telemedicine course on health educations. Nursing students (N=20) and physiotherapy students (N=34) participated actively and the scenarios were filmed and enacted...... showed that students developed competences equivalent to novice level through simulation training (3). The project gave rise to wide project on Occupational Therapy education and medical laboratory technology education too. Follow-up research concludes that the boys who participated in the project...

  7. Status of occupational hazards and their prevention among dental professionals in Chandigarh, India: A comprehensive questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Abhishek; Gupta, Mohit; Upadhyaya, Nancy

    2013-07-01

    To assess the status of occupational hazards and their prevention among the practicing dentists in Chandigarh city, India. A closed-ended questionnaire was prepared to record demographic status, types of occupational hazards encountered, and status of measures used for their prevention. A total 113 out of 130 dentists completed the questionnaire and the response rate was 86.9%. Frequency tables were prepared and coefficient of correlation was computed to check correlation between different variables. Statistical significance was set at P occupational hazards among the studied group was high and certain preventive measures were not being followed properly. Therefore, there is a need to improve the knowledge of dentists regarding these hazards and their prevention.

  8. [Relationship between perceived emotional intelligence and professional quality of life with the achievement of occupational objectives in the costa del sol primary health care district].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías Fernández, Antonio José; Gutiérrez-Castañeda, Carlos; Carmona González, Francisco Jesús; Crespillo Vílchez, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    To examine the relationship between "Quality of Professional Life" and "Perceived Emotional Intelligence" and the relationship of both of these with the level of achievement of occupational objectives in the Costa del Sol Primary Health Care District. Multicentre descriptive cross-sectional observational study. The Costa del Sol Primary Health Care District in the province of Málaga. Sample of Employees of all categories in fixed and contracted employment in the Management Units of the Costa del Sol District. (N=303). Respondents 247 (81.5%) The data collected was that of the percentage of achievement of objectives in 2010 and the socio-demographic data of the participants, using ad hoc designed self-report questionnaires. The TMMS -24 questionnaire was used to measure the "Perceived Emotional Intelligence", with the following dimensions: Perception, comprehension, and emotional control, and the CVP-35 measuring: management support, work demands, and intrinsic motivation. Significant correlationas were observed between Quality of Professional Life and Emotional Intelligence in the Regulation (p<.01) and Comprehension categories (p<0.05). There were also significant correlations between the profession and the type of contract in the achievement of objectives (p<.005), and quality of professional life and type of contract (p<.05). The perceived quality of professional life is related to perception and regulation dimensions of Emotional Intelligence. Knowledge of emotion management methods should be promoted by management organisations for all employees. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. From "Old Miss" to New Professional: A Portrait of Women Educators under the American Occupation of Japan, 1945-52.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roden, Donald

    1983-01-01

    In 1949, 17 Japanese women educators attended a training course to discuss the issues of coeducation and counseling in a society undergoing broad social reforms. They talked freely about their deepest feelings and personal struggles over two decades of economic depression, war, and military occupation. (RM)

  10. Fostering Metacognition in a Professional Course: towards redesign of a Master’s programme in Occupational Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    Metacognitive skills such as critical reflection, problem solving and contextual/situational awareness are core employability skills (amongst others); they also foster deep, constructivist approaches to learning and facilitate lifelong learning via critical reasoning and transformation of prior learning in Piagetian terms (Montgomery, 1994; Biggs, 2003). These skills are also desired outcomes for occupational psychology master’s students/consultants-in-training (my own subject teaching area)....

  11. Status of occupational hazards and their prevention among dental professionals in Chandigarh, India: A comprehensive questionnaire survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Mehta

    2013-01-01

    Frequency tables were prepared and coefficient of correlation was computed to check correlation between different variables. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: The most common occupational hazard reported was injury from "sharps" (77%, out of which needle prick injury was the most frequent. Of the other occupational problems job related stress (43.3%, musculoskeletal problems (39.8%, and allergies (23.8% from things used in dental clinics were most common. A reasonably high percentage of dentists were immunized against hepatitis-B virus (88.4% and were following proper infection control measures and hospital waste disposal methods. Very few dentists were following the correct method of disposal of excess amalgam (11% and measurement of radiation exposure (27.5% within their clinic. Most of them (90.2% were satisfied with their current working hours and job. Conclusion: Prevalence of occupational hazards among the studied group was high and certain preventive measures were not being followed properly. Therefore, there is a need to improve the knowledge of dentists regarding these hazards and their prevention.

  12. Professionals vs. role-professionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella; Skrypnyk, Oleksandra

    2010-01-01

    several occupations in the field of adult education that position themselves along a continuum. Consequently the authors suggest that professionalization among adult education practitioners should be assessed in light of the knowledge about adult learning theories practitioners possess, the ethical...

  13. The Influence of Recognition and Social Support on European Health Professionals' Occupational Stress: A Demands-Control-Social Support-Recognition Bayesian Network Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Herrero, Susana; Lopez-Garcia, Jose R; Herrera, Sixto; Fontaneda, Ignacio; Báscones, Sonia Muñoz; Mariscal, Miguel A

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare professionals undergo high levels of occupational stress as a result of their working conditions. Thus, the aim of this study is to develop a model that focuses on healthcare professionals so as to analyze the influence that job demands, control, social support, and recognition have on the likelihood that a worker will experience stress. The data collected correspond to 2,211 healthcare workers from 35 countries, as reported in the sixth European Working Condition Survey (EWCS). The results obtained from this study allow us to infer stress under several working condition scenarios and to identify the more relevant variables in order to reduce this stress in healthcare professionals, which is of paramount importance to managing the stress of workers in this sector. The Bayesian network proposed indicates that emotional demands have a greater influence on raising the likelihood of stress due to workload than do family demands. The results show that the support of colleagues, in general, has less effect on reducing stress than social support from superiors. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis shows that, in high-demand and low-control situations, recognition clearly impacts stress, drastically reducing it.

  14. Students' attitudes and perceptions of teaching and assessment of evidence-based practice in an occupational therapy professional Master's curriculum: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Aliki; Han, Lu; Osler, Brittony P; Turnbull, Emily A; Douglas, Erin

    2017-03-27

    Most health professions, including occupational therapy, have made the application of evidence-based practice a desired competency and professional responsibility. Despite the increasing emphasis on evidence-based practice for improving patient outcomes, there are numerous research-practice gaps in the health professions. In addition to efforts aimed at promoting evidence-based practice with clinicians, there is a strong impetus for university programs to design curricula that will support the development of the knowledge, attitudes, skills and behaviours associated with evidence-based practice. Though occupational therapy curricula in North America are becoming increasingly focused on evidence-based practice, research on students' attitudes towards evidence-based practice, their perceptions regarding the integration and impact of this content within the curricula, and the impact of the curriculum on their readiness for evidence-based practice is scarce. The present study examined occupational therapy students' perceptions towards the teaching and assessment of evidence-based practice within a professional master's curriculum and their self-efficacy for evidence-based practice. The study used a mixed methods explanatory sequential design. The quantitative phase included a cross-sectional questionnaire exploring attitudes towards evidence-based practice, perceptions of the teaching and assessment of evidence-based practice and evidence-based practice self-efficacy for four cohorts of students enrolled in the program and a cohort of new graduates. The questionnaire was followed by a focus group of senior students aimed at further exploring the quantitative findings. All student cohorts held favourable attitudes towards evidence-based practice; there was no difference across cohorts. There were significant differences with regards to perceptions of the teaching and assessment of evidence-based practice within the curriculum; junior cohorts and students with previous

  15. Occupational Employment Projections to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Daniel E.

    2001-01-01

    Employment in professional and related occupations and service occupations will increase the fastest and add the most jobs from 2000 to 2010. Changes in technology or business operations will cause the largest declines in occupational demand. Occupations requiring a postsecondary award or academic degree will account for 42 percent of total job…

  16. How Much Is Enough? Involving Occupational Experts in Setting Standards on a Specific-Purpose Language Test for Health Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pill, John; McNamara, Tim

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers how to establish the minimum required level of professionally relevant oral communication ability in the medium of English for health practitioners with English as an additional language (EAL) to gain admission to practice in jurisdictions where English is the dominant language. A theoretical concern is the construct of…

  17. Assessing and Validating an Educational Resource Package for Health Professionals to Improve Smoking Cessation Care in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Bar-Zeev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Australian Aboriginal pregnant women have a high smoking prevalence (45%. Health professionals lack adequate educational resources to manage smoking. Resources need to be tailored to ensure saliency, cultural-sensitivity and account for diversity of Indigenous populations. As part of an intervention to improve health professionals’ smoking cessation care in Aboriginal pregnant women, a resource package was developed collaboratively with two Aboriginal Medical Services. The purpose of this study was to assess and validate this resource package. A multi-centred community-based participatory 4-step process (with three Aboriginal Medical Services from three Australian states, included: (1 Scientific review by an expert panel (2 ‘Suitability of Materials’ scoring by two Aboriginal Health Workers (3 Readability scores (4 Focus groups with health professionals. Content was analysed using six pre-determined themes (attraction, comprehension, self-efficacy, graphics and layout, cultural acceptability, and persuasion, with further inductive analysis for emerging themes. Suitability of Material scoring was adequate or superior. Average readability was grade 6.4 for patient resources (range 5.1–7.2, and 9.8 for health provider resources (range 8.5–10.6. Emergent themes included ‘Getting the message right’; ‘Engaging with family’; ‘Needing visual aids’; and ‘Requiring practicality under a tight timeframe’. Results were presented back to a Stakeholder and Consumer Aboriginal Advisory Panel and resources were adjusted accordingly. This process ensured materials used for the intervention were culturally responsive, evidence-based and useful. This novel formative evaluation protocol could be adapted for other Indigenous and culturally diverse interventions. The added value of this time-consuming and costly process is yet to be justified in research, and might impact the potential adaption by other projects.

  18. An online learning module focused on smoking education and prevention for college students: implications for college health instructors and allied health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Abundo, Michelle Lee; Marinaro, Laura Marie; Fiala, Kelly Ann

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to pilot-test the effectiveness of an online learning module focused on smoking for an undergraduate general education fitness and wellness course. Students enrolled in a required fitness and wellness course were given the opportunity to participate. Participants (n = 510) completed a brief demographic questionnaire and a 10-question pretest about the effects of smoking before viewing a 15-minute presentation about the effects of smoking and completing the same 10 questions as a post-test. Repeated measures ANOVAs were conducted to evaluate knowledge gains. An overall time effect was observed (pretest score 4.9 +/- 1.3, post-test score 7.2 +/- 2.1). Significantly greater knowledge gains were found in nonsmokers (2.1 +/- 2.2) than in smokers (1.1 +/- 2.2). Females (2.3 +/- 2.3) had significantly greater knowledge gains than males (1.5 +/- 2.2). Evidence supporting the effectiveness of the online learning module included significant knowledge gains for both smokers and nonsmokers, and the participants who smoked agreed the online learning module encouraged them to quit. In this research, students were also grouped by major (health-related majors vs non-health-related). There were 118 health-related majors in the sample, with 110 of those students completing the entire learning module. In this research, a learning module for college students was developed, but practical applications are provided not only for college health instructors but also for allied health professionals.

  19. Doctors and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igić, R

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present cigarette smoking as the greatest risk factor for premature death, the nature of smoking dependence, the methods for its cessation, and to establish the importance of the leadership of health care providers in smoking prevention. Because smoking as a risk factor is preventable, it is necessary to conduct rigorous preventive measures, including educational programs and various legal actions, such as restrictions on the purchase of tobacco products to teenagers and creation of smoke-free areas. Reduction in the prevalence of smoking among physicians and other health care professionals also significantly influences willingness of society to recognize the health consequences of smoking and perhaps lead to the decline of the smoking epidemic. Therefore, a special attempt should be made to reduce smoking among health professionals, including medical students. An effort of medical students in Yugoslavia to promote prevention of smoking in the public by introducing "January 31st--A Day Without a Cigarette" is described. The best way to discourage smoking is by approaching children and adolescents since most people start smoking in their teenage years. This age group must recognize the harmful effects of smoking. Banning advertising and other promotional activities of tobacco producers, as well as smoking in hospitals, workplaces, restaurants, and public transportation is a very strong weapon against smoking.

  20. Quit Smoking >

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quit smoking; Stop smoking; Quit smoking women; Stop smoking women easy way for women to stop smoking; Smoking effects on women; effects of smoking on women; effects of smoking in women; smoking side effects for women; quit smoking cigarettes; smoking cessation; smoking cessation women

  1. Smoke-free nurses: leading by example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halcomb, Kathleen A

    2005-05-01

    Occupational health nurses' scope of practice includes health promotion and restoration of health from environmental hazards (American Association of Occupational Health Nurses, n.d.). Because the nursing profession is the largest constituent of health care providers, it is essential that occupational health nurses tackle the smoking epidemic among the nursing profession. By encouraging smoking cessation among nurses, occupational health nurses reduce the environmental hazard of second-hand smoke and improve the health of nurses who smoke. When occupational health nurses take an active role in encouraging smoking cessation among nurses, they become leaders in reducing smoking within their communities. Members of the nursing profession are also role models. Occupational health nurses must help nurses become healthy role models and credible educators in the battle against smoking.

  2. Cigarette smoking in young-adult workers: a cross-sectional analysis from Abruzzo, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Chiatti

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The “Valentino” cross-sectional study is aimed at evaluating the prevalence and pattern of cigarette smoking according to occupational group in a representative sample of workers aged 18-35 years from Abruzzo, Italy.

    Methods: Randomly selected workers anonymously self-compiled a structured questionnaire containing validated items. Job type was coded according to the International Standard Classification of Occupations.

    Results: The sample consisted of 3989 workers. Current smoking prevalence was 45.9%, varying across occupational groups and ranged from 37.2% among clerical support workers, up to 57.1% among craft, agricultural and fishery sector workers. After controlling for several potential confounders using logistic regression, craft, agricultural, forestry and fishery workers (adjusted odds ratio 1.65; 95%confidence intervals 1.21-2.27, and call-center operators (1.91; 1.44-2.53 were significantly more likely to be current smokers than professionals and clerical or support workers. Interestingly, when alcohol and cannabis use were included in multivariate analysis, the association between smoking and gender was no longer significant.

    Conclusions: An independent association was found between specific occupational classes and tobacco smoking, suggesting occupation type should be considered in prioritizing subsets of populations towards which smoking cessation campaigns should be targeted first.

  3. [Hyperthermic intraoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC): evaluation, prevention and policies to avoid occupational exposure for operating room personnel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, L; Halilou, M-C; Gladieff, L; Gadiou, M; Herin, F; Hennebelle, I; Chatelut, E; Ferron, G

    2009-10-01

    To develop a treatment strategy for peritoneal carcinomatosis using a combination of extended peritoneal resections, local destructive procedures and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy creates great concern between healthcare workers involved in these procedures. New professional risks exist: risk of exposure to cytotoxic drugs, environmental risks (inhalation of smoke, aerosolization of chemotherapy agents). Information, education and training of healthcare workers is mandatory in order to ensure proper evaluation, prevention, and management of professional exposure risks in coordination with the occupational health office.

  4. Occupational therapy students' perceptions of occupational therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpin, Merrill June; Rodger, Sylvia; Hall, Anna R

    2012-10-01

    An understanding of students' perceptions of occupational therapy on entry is required to recognise how professional socialisation occurs through curriculum. Findings pertain to a qualitative study investigating students' perceptions of occupational therapy upon entry to two occupational therapy programmes in Australia. Students commencing Bachelor of Occupational Therapy and Masters of Occupational Therapy Studies programmes participated in the study (n = 462). A purpose-designed questionnaire was distributed to students in the first lecture of each programme. Preliminary analysis comprised identification of keywords/phrases and coding categories were generated from patterns of keywords. Frequency counts and percentages of keywords/phrases within categories were completed. Students' responses were categorised as 'what' occupational therapists do; 'how' they do it; 'why' they do it; and 'who' they work with. In 'what' occupational therapists do students frequently described 'helping' people. Both undergraduate and graduate entry masters students used the term 'rehabilitation' to describe how occupational therapy is done, with graduate entry students occasionally responding with 'through occupation' and 'modifying the environment'. Students perceived the 'why' of occupational therapy as getting back to 'everyday activities', with some students emphasising returning to 'normal' activities or life. Regarding the 'who' category, students also thought occupational therapists worked with people with an 'injury' or 'disability'. Students entered their occupational therapy programmes with perceptions consistent with the general public's views of occupational therapy. However, graduate entry students exposed to a pre-reading package prior to entry had more advanced occupational therapy concepts than undergraduate students. © 2011 The Authors. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal © 2011 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  5. Occupational risk of overweight and obesity: an analysis of the Australian Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merom Dafna

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adults spend about one third of their day at work and occupation may be a risk factor for obesity because of associated socioeconomic and behavioral factors such as physical activity and sedentary time. The aim of this study was to examine body mass index (BMI and prevalence of overweight and obesity by occupation and explore the contributions of socioeconomic factors and lifestyle behaviors (including leisure time and commuting physical activity, diet, smoking, and alcohol to occupational risk. Methods Secondary analyses of the National Health Survey in Australia (2005 were conducted for working age adults (20 to 64 years. Linear and logistic regression models using BMI as either dichotomous or continuous response were computed for occupation type. Model 1 was age-adjusted, Model 2 adjusted for age and socioeconomic variables and Model 3 adjusted for age, socioeconomic variables and lifestyle behaviours. All models were stratified by gender. Results Age-adjusted data indicated that men in associate professional (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.10-1.63 and intermediate production and transport (OR 1.24 95% CI 1.03-1.50 occupations had a higher risk of BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 than those without occupation, and women in professional (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.61-0.82, management (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.56-0.92 and advanced clerical and service occupations (OR 0.73 95% CI 0.58-0.93 had a lower risk. After adjustment for socioeconomic factors no occupational group had an increased risk but for males, professionals, tradesmen, laborers and elementary clerical workers had a lower risk as did female associate professionals and intermediate clerical workers. Adjustment for lifestyle factors explained the lower risk in the female professional and associate professionals but failed to account for the lower odds ratios in the other occupations. Conclusions The pattern of overweight and obesity among occupations differs by gender. Healthy lifestyle behaviors appear to

  6. OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE AND COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtz, Else Toft

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a common disease. The main risk factor is smoking although 15% of the COPD cases are expected to be preventable if the occupational exposures from vapour, gas, dust, and fume were eliminated; the population attributable fraction (PAF). The thesis...... addresses the association between occupational exposure and COPD in a population-based cohort of Danes aged 45-84-years. 4717 participants were included at baseline and 2624 at the four year follow-up. COPD was defined by spirometry and the occupational exposure was based on specialist defined jobs...... and questionnaires. The main occupational exposure was organic dust and 49% reported no lifetime occupational exposure. The results suggest occupational exposures to be associated to COPD also in never smokers and women. We found an exposure-response relation in the cross sectional analyses. The results...

  7. Occupational risk factors for Parkinson's disease: a case-control study in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawamura Nobutoshi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evidence for associations between occupational factors and the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD is inconsistent. We assessed the risk of PD associated with various occupational factors in Japan. Methods We examined 249 cases within 6 years of onset of PD. Control subjects were 369 inpatients and outpatients without neurodegenerative disease. Information on occupational factors was obtained from a self-administered questionnaire. Relative risks of PD were estimated using odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs based on logistic regression. Adjustments were made for gender, age, region of residence, educational level, and pack-years of smoking. Results Working in a professional or technical occupation tended to be inversely related to the risk of PD: adjusted OR was 0.59 (95% CI: 0.32-1.06, P = 0.08. According to a stratified analysis by gender, the decreased risk of PD for persons in professional or technical occupations was statistically significant only for men. Adjusted ORs for a professional or technical occupation among men and women were 0.22 (95% CI: 0.06-0.67 and 0.99 (0.47-2.07, respectively, and significant interaction was observed (P = 0.048 for homogeneity of OR. In contrast, risk estimates for protective service occupations and transport or communications were increased, although the results were not statistically significant: adjusted ORs were 2.73 (95% CI: 0.56-14.86 and 1.74 (95% CI: 0.65-4.74, respectively. No statistical significance was seen in data concerning exposure to occupational agents and the risk of PD, although roughly a 2-fold increase in OR was observed for workers exposed to stone or sand. Conclusion The results of our study suggest that occupational factors do not play a substantial etiologic role in this population. However, among men, professional or technical occupations may decrease the risk of PD.

  8. A Literature Review-Problem Definition Studies on Selected Toxic Chemicals. Volume 1. Occupational Health and Safety Aspects of Diesel Fuel and White Smoke Generated from It

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-04-01

    chemical analysis as well as toxico - logical investigations of white smoke inhalation, and skin contact, feeding and metabolism of diesel fuel with...research include chemical analysis as well as toxico -logical investigations of white smoke inhalation, and skin contact, feeding and metabolism of

  9. Specifying content and mechanisms of change in interventions to change professionals' practice: an illustration from the Good Goals study in occupational therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolehmainen, Niina; Francis, Jill J

    2012-10-18

    It is widely agreed that interventions to change professionals' practice need to be clearly specified. This involves (1) selecting and defining the intervention techniques, (2) operationalising the techniques and deciding their delivery, and (3) formulating hypotheses about the mechanisms through which the techniques are thought to result in change. Descriptions of methods to achieve these objectives are limited. This paper reports methods and illustrates outputs from a study to meet these objectives, specifically from the Good Goals study to improve occupational therapists' caseload management practice. (1) Behaviour change techniques were identified and selected from an existing matrix that maps techniques to determinants. An existing coding manual was used to define the techniques. (2) A team of occupational therapists generated context-relevant, acceptable modes of delivery for the techniques; these data were compared and contrasted with previously collected data, literature on caseload management, and the aims of the intervention. (3) Hypotheses about the mechanisms of change were formulated by drawing on the matrix and on theories of behaviour change. (1) Eight behaviour change techniques were selected: goal specified; self-monitoring; contract; graded tasks; increasing skills (problem solving, decision making, goal setting); coping skills; rehearsal of relevant skills; social processes of encouragement, support, and pressure; demonstration by others; and feedback. (2) A range of modes of delivery were generated (e.g., graded tasks' consisting of series of clinical cases and situations that become increasingly difficult). Conditions for acceptable delivery were identified (e.g., 'self-monitoring' was acceptable only if delivered at team level). The modes of delivery were specified as face-to-face training, task sheets, group tasks, DVDs, and team-based weekly meetings. (3) The eight techniques were hypothesized to target caseload management practice through

  10. Occupational asthma caused by samba (Triplochiton scleroxylon) wood dust in a professional maker of wooden models of airplanes: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk-Szulc, Patrycja; Wiszniewska, Marta; Pałczyński, Cezary; Nowakowska-Świrta, Ewa; Kozak, Anna; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta

    2014-06-01

    Wood dust is a known occupational allergen that may induce, in exposed workers, respiratory diseases including asthma and allergic rhinitis. Samba (obeche, Triplochiton scleroxylon) is a tropical tree, which grows in West Africa, therefore, Polish workers are rarely exposed to it. This paper describes a case of occupational asthma caused by samba wood dust. The patient with suspicion of occupational asthma due to wood dust was examined at the Department of Occupational Diseases and Clinical Toxicology in the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine. Clinical evaluation included: analysis of occupational history, skin prick tests (SPT) to common and occupational allergens, determination of serum specific IgE to occupational allergens, serial spirometry measurements, metacholine challenge test and specific inhalation challenge test with samba dust SPT and specific serum IgE assessment revealed sensitization to common and occupational allergens including samba. Spirometry measurements showed mild obstruction. Metacholine challenge test revealed a high level of bronchial hyperactivity. Specific inhalation challenge test was positive and cellular changes in nasal lavage and induced sputum confirmed allergic reaction to samba. IgE mediated allergy to samba wood dust was confirmed. This case report presents the first documented occupational asthma and rhinitis due to samba wood dust in wooden airplanes model maker in Poland.

  11. Smoking and Passive Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Russell V. Luepker, MD, MS

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on associations between cardiovascular diseases and tobacco use, including recent trends in smoking behaviors and clinical approaches for cessation of smoking. Methods: A literature review of recent scientific findings for smoking and cardiovascular diseases and recommendations for obtaining cessation. Results: Tobacco smoking is causally related to cardiovascular disease, with nearly a half million deaths annually attributed to cigarette smoking in the Uni...

  12. Evaluation of systematic assessment of asthma-like symptoms and tobacco smoke exposure in early childhood by well-child professionals: a randomised trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Hafkamp-de Groen

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of systematic assessment of asthma-like symptoms and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure during regular preventive well-child visits between age 1 and 4 years by well-child professionals.Sixteen well-child centres in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, were randomised into 8 centres where the brief assessment form regarding asthma-like symptoms and ETS exposure was used and 8 centres that applied usual care. 3596 and 4179 children (born between April 2002 and January 2006 and their parents visited the intervention and control centres, respectively. At child's age 6 years, physician-diagnosed asthma ever, wheezing, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO, airway resistance (Rint, health-related quality of life (HRQOL and ETS exposure at home ever were measured. Linear mixed models were applied.No differences in asthma, wheezing, FeNO, Rint or HRQOL measurements between intervention and control group were found using multilevel regression in an intention-to-treat analysis (p>0.05. Children of whom the parents were interviewed by using the brief assessment form at the intervention well-child centres had a decreased risk on ETS exposure at home ever, compared to children who visited the control well-child centres, in an explorative per-protocol analysis (aOR = 0.71, 95% CI:0.59-0.87.Systematic assessment and counselling of asthma-like symptoms and ETS exposure in early childhood by well-child care professionals using a brief assessment form was not effective in reducing the prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma ever and wheezing, and did not improve FeNO, Rint or HRQOL at age 6 years. Our results hold some promise for interviewing parents and using information leaflets at well-child centres to reduce ETS exposure at home in preschool children.Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN15790308.

  13. Quit Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Quit Smoking Print This Topic En español Quit Smoking Browse Sections The Basics Overview Secondhand Smoke How ... to be active with your family and friends. Smoking hurts almost every part of the body. Smoking ...

  14. Professionalism: rise and fall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, M S

    1979-01-01

    Historically, the early professionalization movements in medicine and the law appear as organizational projects which aspire to monopolize income and opportunities in markets of services or labor and to monopolize status and work privileges in occupational hierarchies. Their central task is to standardize training and link it to actual or potential markets of labor or services, a linkage that is structurally effected in the modern university. The second wave of professionalization has different protagonists than the older "market professions": placed in a different structural situation, the bureaucratic professions transform the model of profession (which they adopt as a strategy of collective ascension) into an ideology. The import of the ideology of professionalism is examined in relation to two issues: the relationships between professional occupations and bureaucratic organizations; and the position of professional occupations within the larger structure of inequality. Analysis of the first point requires consideration of the distinctions between professional occupations in the public and private sectors, the use of professional knowledge and the image of profession in bureaucratic organizations, and the specific characteristics of professions that produce their own knowledge. In the discussion of the second point, professional occupations and their ideology are examined in relation to other occupations and to the possibilities of political awareness generated by uncertain professional statuses.

  15. Occupational exposure to second hand smoke and respiratory and sensory symptoms: A cross-sectional survey of hospital workers in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Radwan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Exposure to Second Hand Smoke (SHS has been associated with an increased risk of respiratory symptoms, upper and lower respiratory tract diseases and an increased risk of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The majority of cases of mortality and morbidity is attributable to exposure of adults to SHS and is related to cardiovascular diseases and lung cancer. In Egypt, comprehensive smoke-free laws exist, however, in many workplaces they are poorly enforced consequently exposing workers to the detrimental health hazards of SHS. We aimed at determination of workplace exposure to Second Hand Smoke (SHS and its association with respiratory and sensory irritation symptoms in hospital workers in Port-said governorate in Egypt. Material and methods: A cross-sectional face to face survey was conducted by the use of a standardised questionnaire among 415 adult hospital workers; representing 50% of all employees (81% response rate; recruited from 4 randomly selected general hospitals in Port-said governorate in Egypt. Results: All hospitals employees reported exposure to SHS - on average 1.5 (SD = 2.5 hours of exposure per day. After controlling for potential confounders, exposure to SHS at work was significantly associated with an increased risk of wheezes (OR = 1.14, p < 0.01, shortness of breath (OR = 1.17, p < 0.01, phlegm (OR = 1.23, p < 0.01, running and irritated nose (OR = 1.14, p < 0.01 as well as a sore, scratchy throat (OR = 1.23. Conclusions: These findings point out that workplace exposure to SHS is evident in hospitals in Port-said governorate and that workers are adversely affected by exposure to it at work. This underlines the importance of rigorous enforcement of smoke-free policies to protect the workers' health in Egypt.

  16. 0BOccupational Risk Factors in Iranian Professional Drivers and their Impacts on Traffic Accidents

    OpenAIRE

    MEHDI JAHANGIRI; ALI KARIMI; SAMIRA SLAMIZAD; MOHAMMAD OLYAEI; SEKHAVAT MOOSAVI; FATEMEH AMIRI

    2015-01-01

      In many countries road crashes are the main cause of fatal accidents related to job. The aim of our study was to characterize a population of Iranian professional drivers with regard to history of drivers’ road crash incidents and some occupational factors. Using Swedish version of the Nordic Questionnaire information about musculoskeletal pain prevalence in last 12 months, demographic features, smoking habits, age, job experience, road crash, job consent, self-perceived job stress, working...

  17. Work environment factors, health, lifestyle and marital status as predictors of job change and early retirement in physically heavy occupations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, T.M.; Iversen, Lars; Poulsen, Kjeld B.

    2001-01-01

    Occupational health, work environment, retirement, uemployment, disability pension, epidemiology, follow-up, smoking, job mobility......Occupational health, work environment, retirement, uemployment, disability pension, epidemiology, follow-up, smoking, job mobility...

  18. [Hand and occupational diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensefa-Colas, Lynda; Choudat, Dominique

    2013-12-01

    Hand is frequently the site of work accidents or occupational diseases. The musculoskeletal upper limb is the first recognized occupational disease and carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common of them. The most common location of occupational dermatoses is the hand. Their causes are often multifactorial, involving chemical irritants, physical, allergens and endogenous factors (mainly atopic dermatitis). Occupational exposure to microtrauma and iterative use of vibrating tools may also be the cause of hypothenar hammer syndrome and acrosyndromes. The frequent chronicity and functional impairment induced by these attacks can cause lasting disabilities, an inability to source workstation. Occupational physician is a focal point for helping to maintain the position and the prevention of socioprofessional disinsertion. Many pathologies of the hand related to professional activity may benefit from a statement in occupational disease and thus allow the patient to obtain compensation and employment protection. Prevention of occupational hand diseases should be made by all health actors, especially in occupations and industries at risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Smoking and Passive Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell V. Luepker, MD, MS

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review the literature on associations between cardiovascular diseases and tobacco use, including recent trends in smoking behaviors and clinical approaches for cessation of smoking. Methods: A literature review of recent scientific findings for smoking and cardiovascular diseases and recommendations for obtaining cessation. Results: Tobacco smoking is causally related to cardiovascular disease, with nearly a half million deaths annually attributed to cigarette smoking in the United States. The human, economic, medical, and indirect costs are enormous. Secondhand smoke as inhaled from the environment also plays an important role in the genesis of cardiovascular diseases. A recent trend in the use of e-cigarettes is noted particularly among youth. For children, prevention is the best strategy. For adult smokers, behavioral treatments, self-help approaches, and pharmacologic therapies are readily available. Clinicians can have a significant impact on patients’ smoking habits. Adding to individual strategies, regulatory community and public health approaches provide the potential for eliminating the use of tobacco. Conclusion: Tobacco smoke causes cardiovascular morbidity and death. Clinicians can play a role in preventing smoking and promoting cessation.

  20. Stress ocupacional em profissionais de saúde: um estudo com médicos e enfermeiros portugueses Occupational stress in health professionals: a study with portuguese doctor's and nurse practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição de Melo Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo analisa o stress ocupacional em 155 profissionais da área da saúde (exemplo: médicos e enfermeiros a trabalharem em instituições hospitalares e centros de saúde da região norte de Portugal. Foram avaliadas as fontes de stress, o burnout, o coping proactivo, o comprometimento organizacional e a satisfação e realização profissional. Os resultados apontaram 15% de profissionais com experiências significativas de stress e 6% com problemas de exaustão emocional. As análises comparativas (MANOVA e teste t para amostras independentes demonstraram maior tendência para problemas de stress ocupacional nos seguintes grupos: a mulheres (embora os homens evidenciem maior despersonalização; b enfermeiros mais novos e com menor experiência profissional; c solteiros; d classe profissional dos enfermeiros; e profissionais que exercem funções em centros de saúde; f profissionais com situações contratuais mais instáveis; e g profissionais que realizam trabalho por turnos rotativos. No final, são apresentadas algumas indicações para a investigação futura.This work analyzes occupational stress in 155 health professionals (example: doctors and nurses from hospitals and health care centres in the north of Portugal. We evaluated the following variables: stress, burnout, proactive coping, organizational commitment and satisfaction/professional fulfilment. Results revealed significant stress experiences in 15% of the professionals and emotional exhaustion problems in 6%. Comparative analysis (MANOVA and t-test for independent samples suggested a higher tendency to experience occupational stress in the following groups: a females (although males showed more depersonalization problems; b younger and less experienced professionals; c single persons; d nurses practitioners; e professionals that worked in health care centres; f those professionals with short-term working contracts; and g the professionals working on a shift

  1. Occupational exposure to HIV in a developing country: assessing knowledge and attitude of healthcare professional before and after an awareness symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Samina; Awan, Safia; Naeem, Rubaba; Siddiqui, Sarfraz; Afzal, Badar; Jamil, Bushra; Khan, Uzma Rahim

    2018-02-15

    Health care providers (HCPs) are at risk of occupational exposure to HIV infection. In developing world these exposure occur due to general lack of awareness, education and structured training of HCPs. The objective of the study was to asses if continuing medical education symposium can be used as an effective educational tool to improve attitude, awareness and knowledge regarding occupational exposure to HIV infection. This quasi-experimental study was conducted among HCPs from Karachi, Pakistan. After assessing the baseline knowledge, awareness, and attitude by means of pretest; HCPs were reassessed with posttest after an education symposium on occupational exposure to HIV infection. Among 364 participating HCPs, 14.2% had previous training on post exposure prophylaxis. There was an overall statistically significant (P value HIV was observed after the education symposium.

  2. Teaching evidence-based practice in a distance education occupational therapy doctoral program: strategies for professional growth and advancing the profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Stacey

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Centennial Vision of the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA) projects that by 2017 all occupational therapy (OT) practice areas will be supported by evidence. Achieving this goal requires preparing clinicians with the skills to assimilate, analyze, and apply research to their areas of practice and communicate the value of OT services to consumers and payers. These skills are at the heart of evidence-based practice (EBP). Educators must be prepared to teach EBP skills in both entry-level and postprofessional programs. This article outlines how EBP can be taught to postprofessional occupational therapy clinical doctoral students using a distance education format. Key features of a successful EBP course include having access to full-text electronic articles, opportunities for students to explore the literature in their own areas of interest, consistent and timely feedback on written work and discussion topics, and opportunities to collaborate with peers.

  3. Occupation and mammographic density: A population-based study (DDM-Occup).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, Javier; Pollán, Marina; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; González-Sánchez, Mario; Cortés Barragán, Rosa Ana; Maqueda Blasco, Jerónimo; González-Galarzo, María Carmen; Alba, Miguel Ángel; van der Haar, Rudolf; Casas, Silvia; Vicente, Cándida; Medina, Pilar; Ederra, María; Santamariña, Carmen; Moreno, María Pilar; Casanova, Francisco; Pedraz-Pingarrón, Carmen; Moreo, Pilar; Ascunce, Nieves; García, Montse; Salas-Trejo, Dolores; Sánchez-Contador, Carmen; Llobet, Rafael; Lope, Virginia

    2017-11-01

    High mammographic density is one of the main risk factors for breast cancer. Although several occupations have been associated with breast cancer, there are no previous occupational studies exploring the association with mammographic density. Our objective was to identify occupations associated with high mammographic density in Spanish female workers. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study of occupational determinants of high mammographic density in Spain, based on 1476 women, aged 45-68 years, recruited from seven screening centers within the Spanish Breast Cancer Screening Program network. Reproductive, family, personal, and occupational history data were collected. The latest occupation of each woman was collected and coded according to the 1994 National Classification of Occupations. Mammographic density was assessed from the cranio-caudal mammogram of the left breast using a semi-automated computer-assisted tool. Association between mammographic density and occupation was evaluated by using mixed linear regression models, using log-transformed percentage of mammographic density as dependent variable. Models were adjusted for age, body mass index, menopausal status, parity, smoking, alcohol intake, educational level, type of mammography, first-degree relative with breast cancer, and hormonal replacement therapy use. Screening center and professional reader were included as random effects terms. Mammographic density was higher, although non-statistically significant, among secondary school teachers (e β = 1.41; 95%CI = 0.98-2.03) and nurses (e β = 1.23; 95%CI = 0.96-1.59), whereas workers engaged in the care of people (e β = 0.81; 95%CI = 0.66-1.00) and housewives (e β = 0.87; 95%CI = 0.79-0.95) showed an inverse association with mammographic density. A positive trend for every 5 years working as secondary school teachers was also detected (p-value = 0.035). Nurses and secondary school teachers were the occupations with the highest

  4. Assessment of occupational exposure of dental professionals to mercury in dental offices of a public primary health care in Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil - 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v34ispec.13428

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Gasparetto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the occupational exposure of dental professionals to metallic mercury in dental offices of a public primary health care in the city of Maringá, Brazil, samples of blood and urine were collected from 149 dental professionals (group exposed, and 51 healthy adults similar for age and gender of the exposed group (control group in September and October, 2008. Urinary mercury was determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, urea and creatinine in blood and urine by UV/VIS spectrophotometry and analysis of physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics of the urine by reactive bands. The program ‘Statistic’ version 7.1 and the software R version 2.6.2 were used for the statistical calculations. Urinary mercury was 2.08 ± 2.11 µg g-1 creatinine in workers exposed to mercury and 0.36 ± 0.62 µg g-1 creatinine in the control group (p -1 creatinine; 11% of these professionals (n = 16 had mercury levels above the reference value (5.0 µg g-1 creatinine, whereas the maximum value found was 13 µg g-1 creatinine. The dental professionals of public primary health care in the city of Maringa was exposed to metallic mercury at levels 5.8 times higher than the non-exposed subjects.  

  5. Occupational stress in professionals of public security: a study with military agents of the Republican National Guard / Stress ocupacional em profissionais de segurança pública: um estudo com militares da Guarda Nacional Republicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge M. P. Afonso

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzes occupational stress in 95 Portuguese military agents of the Republican National Guard. We applied an evaluation protocol with measures of global stress, burnout, proactive coping, organizational commitment, satisfaction with life, and professional satisfaction/accomplishment. The fidelity and validity results of the instruments were very acceptable. The results of burnout pointed out a remarkable level of emotional exhaustion (12% followed by cynicism (10% and low professional effectiveness (8% (but we have not found any participant with burnout values in the three dimensions simultaneously, and different variables were observed in the prediction of those three areas. The discriminant analysis among subgroups allowed us to verify two main aspects: (a lower levels of organizational commitment and more use of proactive coping in younger and/or inexperienced military agents and (b higher desire to leave the job/profession and cynicism in older and/or more experienced professionals. At the end, the authors discuss the importance of future research to analyze the effects of a higher tendency to use cynicism as their age increase and the consequences of a lower organizational commitment in terms of professional efficacy of the younger agents.

  6. The relationship between career mobility and occupational expertise. A retrospective study among higher-level Dutch professionals in three age groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Beatrice

    2003-01-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between two career-related variables and occupational expertise of higher-level employees from large working organisations in three different age groups. The factors in question are: total number of jobs that have been performed; and the average period

  7. Assembly 6: occupation and epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Christer Janson

    2016-01-01

    Assembly 6 is an interdisciplinary assembly that gathers together pneumologists, epidemiologists, clinicians, statisticians, occupational doctors, air pollution scientists and health educators. The assembly now has almost 500 members and has seen a steady growth in membership. Assembly 6 comprises four different groups that complement each other and often work together in joint activities. The groups are: 6.1) epidemiology; 6.2) occupational and environmental health; 6.3) tobacco, smoking con...

  8. Smoking habits of nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Jacka

    1984-09-01

    Full Text Available There is little debate as to the harmful effects of cigarette smoking on health. Most health workers advise their patients to cease the practice. The impact of the advice is however diluted if it is seen to be ignored by the professionals themselves. As nurses play an increasing role in all levels of health care a survey was undertaken to investigate the smoking habits of two groups of nurses - those operating within the community and those working in institutions.

  9. Waterpipe smoking in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, H R; Zhang, Y; Newman, I M; Shell, D F

    2010-11-01

    A nonrandom sampIe of 2972 Kuwaitis answered a questionnaire about smoking behaviour and beliefs. More than one-third (35%) were nonsmokers, 45% smoked only the waterpipe, 12% only cigarettes and 8% both waterpipe and cigarettes. Compared with cigarette smokers, waterpipe smokers were more likely to be female and to be unskilled manual workers than professionals or students. Waterpipe smokers started the habit at an older age on average than cigarette smokers. Most waterpipe smokers smoked only 1 bowl per day, and smoked mostly at coffee houses. Factor analysis of beliefs about waterpipe smoking resulted in 4 groups of beliefs which explained 50% of the variance. The results are discussed in terms of public health policy and possible risk reduction strategies.

  10. Smoking and dental implants

    OpenAIRE

    Kasat, V.; Ladda, R

    2012-01-01

    Smoking is a prevalent behaviour in the population. The aim of this review is to bring to light the effects of smoking on dental implants. These facts will assist dental professionals when implants are planned in tobacco users. A search of “PubMed” was made with the key words “dental implant,” “nicotine,” “smoking,” “tobacco,” and “osseointegration.” Also, publications on tobacco control by the Government of India were considered. For review, only those articles published from 1988 onward in ...

  11. Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that being around someone who smokes is also bad for your health? Secondhand smoke comes from the smoke that ... the body. If you smoke , try to quit. Quitting isn't easy because smoking ... can help you kick the habit. And just consider the benefits: You'll look, ...

  12. Pathways to STEMM Support Occupations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, V. Scott; Kimmel, Linda G.; Miller, Jon D.

    2012-01-01

    The preceding articles in this issue of the "Peabody Journal of Education" have focused on preparation for and entry into professional positions in science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine (STEMM). This article shifts the focus from professional positions to STEMM support occupations, focusing on the preparation necessary for…

  13. Occupational dermatosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alchorne, Alice de Oliveira de Avelar; Alchorne, Maurício Mota de Avelar; Silva, Marzia Macedo

    2010-01-01

    Occupational Dermatosis is described as any alteration in the skin, mucosa or annexes that is directly or indirectly caused, conditioned, maintained or aggravated by agents present in the occupational...

  14. Teen Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tween and teen health Want to prevent teen smoking? Understand why teens smoke and how to talk ... teen about cigarettes. By Mayo Clinic Staff Teen smoking might begin innocently, but it can become a ...

  15. Occupational health in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrikow, B; Algranti, E; Buschinelli, J T; Morrone, L C

    1997-01-01

    Brazil is a recently industrialised country with marked contrasts in social and economic development. The availability of public/private services in its different regions also varies. Health indicators follow these trends. Occupational health is a vast new field, as in other developing countries. Occupational medicine is a required subject in graduation courses for physicians. Specialisation courses for university graduated professionals have more than 700 hours of lectures and train occupational health physicians, safety engineers and nursing staff. At the technical level, there are courses with up to 1300 hours for the training of safety inspectors. Until 1986 about 19,000 occupational health physicians, 18,000 safety engineers and 51,000 safety inspectors had been officially registered. Although in its infancy, postgraduation has attracted professionals at university level, through residence programmes as well as masters and doctors degrees, whereby at least a hundred good-quality research studies have been produced so far. Occupational health activities are controlled by law. Undertakings with higher risks and larger number of employees are required to hire specialised technical staff. In 1995 the Ministry of Labour demanded programmes of medical control of occupational health (PCMSO) for every worker as well as a programme of prevention of environmental hazards (PPRA). This was considered as a positive measure for the improvement of working conditions and health at work. Physicians specialising in occupational medicine are the professionals more often hired by the enterprises. Reference centres (CRSTs) for workers' health are connected to the State or City Health Secretariat primary health care units. They exist in more populated areas and are accepted by workers as the best way to accomplish the diagnosis of occupational diseases. There is important participation by the trade unions in the management of these reference centres. For 30 years now employers

  16. Smoking behavior among hospital staff still influences attitudes and counseling on smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willaing, Ingrid; Ladelund, Steen

    2004-01-01

    Smoking among health professionals has been shown to influence smoking-related knowledge and counseling in clinical practice. The evidence regarding smoking as a risk factor has increased in the past decade. The present study was carried out in 2000 and investigated the associations between...... individual smoking behavior among hospital staff and (a). smoking-related knowledge, (b). attitudes toward counseling on smoking, and (c). self-reported smoking-related counseling provided by the staff. The study was based on a survey using self-administered questionnaires given to all hospital staff......-related counseling, smoking-related counseling practices, and self-rated qualifications for counseling were main outcome measures. Health professionals who were current smokers systematically underestimated the health consequences of smoking and differed significantly from nonsmokers in their assessments of smoking...

  17. [Occupational medicine services in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Rey, Carlos H; Conde-Sierra, Juan V; Checa-Guerrero, Diana M; Díaz-Criollo, Sonia M; Palma-Parra, Ruth M; Varona-Uribe, Marcela E

    2012-08-01

    Characterizing the technical quality of occupational medicine services being provided by occupational health supply providing institutions (OHSPI) in Colombia's main cities. This was a national descriptive cross-sectional study (2009- 2010) in which a diagnostic survey was used for obtaining data regarding 192 OHSPI. The study demonstrated that 76 % of the OHSPI had a license for offering occupational medicine services. Institutions provide services by subcontracting professionals and the necessary equipment. It also revealed infrequent use of integral attention for evidence-based occupational health guidelines (EBOHG). Deficiencies affecting the quality of occupational medicine services were identified. Such deficiencies hampered in-depth studies about the effects of the risk factors on workers' health, meaning that monitoring and controlling occupational health care services offered by the OHSPI must be reinforced to assure the availability of resources and the execution of disease prevention programs to maintain and improve workers' state of health.

  18. Occupational Biographical Decisions of U.S. Nursing Professionals for Doing a PhD.--Consequences for the Education in Nursing Science in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltrecht, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    In Germany, nursing science has been developing since the early 1990s. Since then it is possible for nursing professionals (partly with, partly without prior 3-year vocational training) to do a bachelor's or master's degree in nursing science at universities of applied sciences. However, to do a Ph.D. they need to change to a university as in…

  19. Occupational Well-Being and Stress among Early Childhood Professionals: The Use of an Innovative Strategy to Measure Stress Reactivity in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nislin, M.; Sajaniemi, N.; Sims, M.; Suhonen, E.; Maldonado, E. F.; Hyttinen, S.; Hirvonen, A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine early childhood professionals' (ECPs) work engagement, burnout and stress regulation in integrated special day-care groups. The participants consisted of 89 ECPs from 21 integrated special day-care groups in Helsinki, Finland. ECPs' work-related well-being was assessed using self-report questionnaires that…

  20. SMOKING HABITS AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %) were tobacco users (smoking, sniffing or chewing tobacco). Among mothers, being a tobacco user (as reported by their offspring) increases with higher education, occupational status and with having their son or daughter in a private school.

  1. The values of occupational therapy: Perceptions of occupational therapists in Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drolet, Marie-Josée; Désormeaux-Moreau, Marjorie

    2016-07-01

    Recently, there has been increasing interest in the values of occupational therapy and the values held by occupational therapists. A wide range of values has been reported in the literature. Furthermore, despite the fact that values are an important part of professional identity, empirical studies have demonstrated that several occupational therapists possess an ambiguous professional identity. This study was undertaken to explore the values of Canadian occupational therapists, specifically French-speaking occupational therapists in Quebec. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 26 occupational therapists. Their narratives were subject to hermeneutic analysis, a method of textual analysis common in philosophical research. A total of 16 values were identified in the discourses of the occupational therapists interviewed: autonomy; human dignity; occupational participation; social justice and equity; professionalism; holism; partnership, environment, or ecological approach; quality of life; solicitude; honesty; integrity; health; creativity; professional autonomy; effectiveness; and spirituality. The results of this study are, in general, consistent with those reported in the few other empirical studies that have documented the values perceptions of occupational therapists. Finally, the explanation of the values of occupational therapists may reinforce their professional identity and favour best, or at least desirable, professional practices related to ethics and culture.

  2. Smoking and Older Adults

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-27

    This podcast discusses the importance of older adults quitting smoking and other tobacco products. It is primarily targeted to public health and aging services professionals.  Created: 10/27/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/20/2008.

  3. Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... half of the people who don't quit smoking will die of smoking-related problems. Quitting smoking is important for your health. Soon after you ... they succeed. There are many ways to quit smoking. Some people stop "cold turkey." Others benefit from ...

  4. Secondary Professional Socialization through Professional Organizations: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, K. Andrew; Eberline, Andrew D.; Templin, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Secondary professional socialization is a phase of occupational socialization theory that focuses on graduate education in preparation for a career in academia. Due to the need to present and publish research and make professional contacts, professional organizations likely serve an important socializing function during graduate education. The…

  5. Smoking behavior among hospital staff still influences attitudes and counseling on smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willaing, Ingrid; Ladelund, Steen

    2004-01-01

    Smoking among health professionals has been shown to influence smoking-related knowledge and counseling in clinical practice. The evidence regarding smoking as a risk factor has increased in the past decade. The present study was carried out in 2000 and investigated the associations between...... individual smoking behavior among hospital staff and (a). smoking-related knowledge, (b). attitudes toward counseling on smoking, and (c). self-reported smoking-related counseling provided by the staff. The study was based on a survey using self-administered questionnaires given to all hospital staff...... in a large university hospital in Denmark. Altogether, 82% of staff (2561) returned a completed questionnaire. Analyses focused on a subsample consisting of health professionals in the clinical wards (1429). Multivariate analyses were performed in which smoking-related knowledge, attitudes toward smoking...

  6. [Smoking at workplace - Legislation and health aspect of exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipińska-Ojrzanowska, Agnieszka; Polańska, Kinga; Wiszniewska, Marta; Kleniewska, Aneta; Dörre-Kolasa, Dominika; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco smoke contains thousands of xenobiotics harmful to human health. Their irritant, toxic and carcinogenic potential has been well documented. Passive smoking or exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) in public places, including workplace, poses major medical problems. Owing to this fact there is a strong need to raise workers' awareness of smoking-related hazards through educational programs and to develop and implement legislation aimed at eliminating SHS exposure. This paper presents a review of reports on passive exposure to tobacco smoke and its impact on human health and also a review of binding legal regulations regarding smoking at workplace in Poland. It has been proved that exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy may lead to, e.g., preterm delivery and low birth weight, sudden infant death syndrome, lung function impairment, asthma and acute respiratory illnesses in the future. Exposure to tobacco smoke, only in the adult age, is also considered as an independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, acute and chronic respiratory diseases and cancer. Raising public awareness of tobacco smoke harmfulness should be a top priority in the field of workers' health prevention. Occupational medicine physicians have regular contacts with occupationally active people who smoke. Thus, occupational health services have a unique opportunity to increase employees and employers' awareness of adverse health effects of smoking and their prevention. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  7. Smoking at workplace – Legislation and health aspect of exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Lipińska-Ojrzanowska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoke contains thousands of xenobiotics harmful to human health. Their irritant, toxic and carcinogenic potential has been well documented. Passive smoking or exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS in public places, including workplace, poses major medical problems. Owing to this fact there is a strong need to raise workers’ awareness of smoking-related hazards through educational programs and to develop and implement legislation aimed at eliminating SHS exposure. This paper presents a review of reports on passive exposure to tobacco smoke and its impact on human health and also a review of binding legal regulations regarding smoking at workplace in Poland. It has been proved that exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy may lead to, e.g., preterm delivery and low birth weight, sudden infant death syndrome, lung function impairment, asthma and acute respiratory illnesses in the future. Exposure to tobacco smoke, only in the adult age, is also considered as an independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, acute and chronic respiratory diseases and cancer. Raising public awareness of tobacco smoke harmfulness should be a top priority in the field of workers’ health prevention. Occupational medicine physicians have regular contacts with occupationally active people who smoke. Thus, occupational health services have a unique opportunity to increase employees and employers’ awareness of adverse health effects of smoking and their prevention. Med Pr 2015;66(6:827–836

  8. Smoking and Passive Smoke Exposure Among Adolescents in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Benjamin; Lampert, Thomas

    2016-01-22

    Children and adolescents are the most important target group for smoking prevention and non-smoker protection measures (smoke-free legislation). In this article, we discuss trends over time and differences between social groups with regard to smoking and passive smoke exposure among adolescents in Germany. The data evaluated in this article were collected in two different study periods of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), namely, 2003-2006 and 2009-2012. Adolescents aged 11 to 17 were asked about their smoking behavior and passive smoke exposure (6812 and 5258 respondents in the two study periods, respectively). Their social status was rated with an index based on information supplied by the adolescents' parents about their level of education, occupation, and income. The prevalence of smoking among adolescents fell in approximately six years from 20.4% to 12.0% (psmoking from 13.3% to 5.4% (psmoking declined from 35.1% to 18.8% (psmoke daily and to have regular passive exposure to smoking. The findings suggest that the measures implemented in recent years to protect adolescents from the health risks of active and passive smoking have been beneficial independently of the adolescents' social backgrounds.

  9. Occupational therapy in Colombian law related to armed conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Luz Peñas-Felizzola

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: Occupational therapy should be promoted by professionals in settings different from the clinical context. The lack of clarity in the population and the ignorance of legislators regarding the scope of professional occupational therapists can be one of the causes of the omission of occupational therapy in the analyzed provisions. Challenges include the participation in scenarios involved in public policies, the dissemination of professional experiences in violent conflicts and the promotion of programs aimed at armed groups.

  10. Corporate Cost of Occupational Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.; Impgaard, M.

    2004-01-01

    The systematic accident cost analysis (SACA) project was carried out during 2001 by The Aarhus School of Business and PricewaterhouseCoopers Denmark with financial support from The Danish National Working Environment Authority. Its focused on developing and testing a method for evaluating...... occupational costs of companies for use by occupational health and safety professionals. The method was tested in nine Danish companies within three different industry sectors and the costs of 27 selected occupational accidents in these companies were calculated. One of the main conclusions is that the SACA...... method could be used in all of the companies without revisions. The evaluation of accident cost showed that 2/3 of the costs of occupational accidents are visible in the Danish corporate accounting systems reviewed while 1/3 is hidden from management view. The highest cost of occupational accidents...

  11. Decision Tree of Occupational Lung Cancer Using Classification and Regression Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Woo Kim

    2010-12-01

    Conclusion: We found that exposure to lung carcinogens, latency and smoking history were predictive factors of approval for occupational lung cancer. Further studies for work-relatedness of occupational disease are needed.

  12. Influence of Knowledge and Attitudes on Smoking Habits Among Young Military Conscripts in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoh-Shiang Lin

    2010-08-01

    Conclusion: Knowledge and attitudes about smoking are significantly associated with the status of cigarette smoking. These findings can help public health professionals develop effective policies and smoking prevention and cessation programs among young military conscripts in Taiwan.

  13. Smoking Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Division of Reproductive Health More CDC Sites Quitting Smoking Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... You are never too old to quit . Stopping smoking is associated with the following health benefits: 1, ...

  14. Occupational health-related experiences in rural Tasmania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Barbara; Berens, Heidi

    2010-07-01

    This descriptive, explorative study sought to identify the occupational-related health experiences of community nurses in their workday within rural North West Tasmania. Tasmania is one of eight states and territories that form Australia. The findings indicate the majority of community nurses consider their health average or better, although 30% reported being overweight; 5% reported smoking; 60% reported feeling tense, anxious or depressed sometimes during the week. In the 12 months prior to survey 48% of participants had experienced a work-related injury or illness. At least two thirds of participants spent an average of 1.5 hours teaching nursing students and 2 hours teaching medical students, per week. Hazards (needlestick injury, items obstructing passageways, debris within homes), dogs and use of mobile telephones were regularly associated with weekly work incidents. Interestingly, more time was spent in a day on documentation than with clients or professional development.

  15. Wildfire Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ways. Smoke can hurt your eyes, irritate your respiratory system, and worsen chronic heart and lung diseases. This ... Do not smoke tobacco or other products, because smoking puts even more pollution ... and about your respiratory management plan if you have asthma or another ...

  16. Occupational Therapists

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bachelor’s degree and specific coursework, including biology and physiology. Many programs also require applicants to have volunteered ... of many conditions and ailments commonly associated with aging, such as arthritis and stroke. Occupational therapists also ...

  17. Occupational Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational health problems occur at work or because of the kind of work you do. These problems can include ... by exposure to radiation Exposure to germs in health care settings Good job safety and prevention practices ...

  18. Occupational Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the enzymes of the bacteria Bacillus subtilis, while bakers may develop an allergy and occupational asthma symptoms ... counts Continuing education center Find an allergist / immunologist Journals Login / My membership Search your symptoms Shop the ...

  19. Urinary levels of monohydroxyl PAH metabolites in portuguese firefighters: background levels and impact of tobacco smoke

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, M.; Slezakova, K.; Gomes,Maria José; Azevedo, Ana; Teixeira, J.P.; Delerue-Matos, C.; Pereira, M. C.; Morais, S.

    2016-01-01

    Firefighting occupational exposure is classified as possible carcinogen to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer and the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health [1,2].  Tobacco smoke is a very important factor in the assessment of occupational exposure of workers, since the prolonged exposure to tobacco smoke is by itself the major cause of lung cancer [3]. The consumption of tobacco is responsible for the exposure to many smoke co...

  20. Occupational justice--bridging theory and practice. Previously published in Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy 2010; 17: 57-63.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Ingeborg; Townsend, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The evolving theory of occupational justice links the concept to social justice and to concerns for a justice of difference: a justice that recognizes occupational rights to inclusive participation in everyday occupations for all persons in society, regardless of age, ability, gender, social class, or other differences. The purpose of this descriptive paper is to inspire and empower health professionals to build a theoretical bridge to practice with an occupational justice lens. Using illustrations from a study of leisure and the use of everyday technology in the lives of very old people in Northern Sweden, the authors argue that an occupational justice lens may inspire and empower health professionals to engage in critical dialogue on occupational justice; use global thinking about occupation, health, justice, and the environment; and combine population and individualized approaches. The authors propose that taking these initiatives to bridge theory and practice will energize health professionals to enable inclusive participation in everyday occupations in diverse contexts.

  1. Occupational health nurses: interdisciplinary experience in occupational health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roloff, Daniela Inês Thier; Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Bonow, Clarice Alves; Lautert, Liana; Sant'Anna, Cynthia Fontella; Couto, Andréia Martins do

    2016-01-01

    to analyze the relationship of occupational health nurses with the other members of the Specialized Service in Safety Engineering and Occupational Medicine (SESMT) and characterize joint actions of these professionals in occupational health. qualitative, exploratory, and descriptive study with 34 professionals of seven companies from the South Macroregion of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Interviews and observations were conducted for content analysis of Bardin. the SESMTs are multidisciplinary and intersectoral workers. Nurses have working relations of an interpersonal, technical/legal, and management of logistics/organizational nature, influenced by the technical division of work and by the division in the work environment of the staff, which distances areas, generates conflicts, and fragments the actions of the service. SESMT faces challenges to develop a work befitting their legal objectives, once staff and companies need to understand the importance of interdisciplinarity for the success of actions on the workers' health and safety.

  2. Occupational skin cancer: Systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Suellen Sena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Objective: To analyze the epidemiological profile, risk factors in the workplace environment and prevention methods for professionals at risk of skin cancer. Method: A systematic review of articles on occupational skin cancer, published in the Lilacs, Scielo, Medline and Cochrane Library from January 1st, 2008, to December 31st, 2013, was performed. The search included the following terms: “neoplasias cutâneas” (DeCS, “exposição ocupacional” (DeCS, “epidemiologia” (DeCS as well as the keyword “prevenção”, and their equivalents in English. Results: After analyzing the titles and summaries of articles, the search strategy resulted in 83 references, of which 22 articles met the eligibility criteria. Discussion: We found that sun exposure is the main occupational risk factor for skin cancer, causing outdoor workers to be the most vulnerable to developing occupational skin cancer. Professionals with low levels of education and European descent are at increased risk of developing this cancer. Conclusion: Outdoor workers are more vulnerable to developing occupational skin cancer, estimating that professionals with low level of education and European descent are at increased risk of developing this cancer. Therefore, companies need to invest more in the health of workers by providing protective equipment and thus preventing occupational skin cancer.

  3. Occupational hazards facing orthopedic surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, J D; Hsu, S; Ahmad, C S

    2012-03-01

    Physicians are exposed to occupational hazards of which they are often unaware. Orthopedic surgery has a particularly hazardous work environment in which surgeons are at increased risk for exposure to infection, radiation, smoke, chemicals, excessive noise, musculoskeletal injuries, as well as emotional and psychological disturbances. Understanding these risks and the precautions that can be taken to avoid them will help protect orthopedic surgeons from potential harm.

  4. Occupation and cancer in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, L; Bagga, S; Bevan, R; Brown, T P; Cherrie, J W; Holmes, P; Fortunato, L; Slack, R; Van Tongeren, M; Young, C; Hutchings, S J

    2010-04-27

    Prioritising control measures for occupationally related cancers should be evidence based. We estimated the current burden of cancer in Britain attributable to past occupational exposures for International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) group 1 (established) and 2A (probable) carcinogens. We calculated attributable fractions and numbers for cancer mortality and incidence using risk estimates from the literature and national data sources to estimate proportions exposed. 5.3% (8019) cancer deaths were attributable to occupation in 2005 (men, 8.2% (6362); women, 2.3% (1657)). Attributable incidence estimates are 13 679 (4.0%) cancer registrations (men, 10 063 (5.7%); women, 3616 (2.2%)). Occupational attributable fractions are over 2% for mesothelioma, sinonasal, lung, nasopharynx, breast, non-melanoma skin cancer, bladder, oesophagus, soft tissue sarcoma, larynx and stomach cancers. Asbestos, shift work, mineral oils, solar radiation, silica, diesel engine exhaust, coal tars and pitches, occupation as a painter or welder, dioxins, environmental tobacco smoke, radon, tetrachloroethylene, arsenic and strong inorganic mists each contribute 100 or more registrations. Industries and occupations with high cancer registrations include construction, metal working, personal and household services, mining, land transport, printing/publishing, retail/hotels/restaurants, public administration/defence, farming and several manufacturing sectors. 56% of cancer registrations in men are attributable to work in the construction industry (mainly mesotheliomas, lung, stomach, bladder and non-melanoma skin cancers) and 54% of cancer registrations in women are attributable to shift work (breast cancer). This project is the first to quantify in detail the burden of cancer and mortality due to occupation specifically for Britain. It highlights the impact of occupational exposures, together with the occupational circumstances and industrial areas where exposures to carcinogenic agents

  5. Occupational therapy practice in emergency care: Occupational therapists' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spang, Lisa; Holmqvist, Kajsa

    2015-01-01

    Emergency care takes place in a complex work environment that is characterized by critically ill patients, short hospital stays, and a wide variety of different healthcare professionals. Studies of occupational therapists' (OTs) experiences of working within emergency care have shown that they often experience difficulties in explaining the essence of occupational therapy and have to justify their approaches. Much effort has been made in Sweden to help OTs dispel the notion that occupational therapy is difficult to explain, and the aim of this study was to describe how Swedish OTs perceive their work in emergency care. A qualitative descriptive approach was taken, and 14 interviews were conducted with OTs working in emergency care. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data. The overall theme that emerged was "Feeling established through deliberate occupation-based work". The underlying categories showed different strategies used by the OTs to provide occupational therapy in an emergency care context. Deliberate strategies were used to demonstrate the effectiveness of occupational therapy and its approaches to patients and other health care professionals, and this resulted in the OTs feeling both established and needed. Unlike the OTs in previous studies, the Swedish OTs experienced no difficulties in explaining occupational therapy and could make convincing arguments for their interventions. Parallel to their clinical work, the OTs worked with on-going development to find ways to improve their approaches. In summary, these Swedish OTs seem to have been provided with a professional language and the knowledge required to establish themselves in an emergency care setting.

  6. MEASURES OF OCCUPATIONAL MISMATCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Mihaela MAER MATEI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The research developed in this paper is based on micro data available in Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC. The research aimed to estimate the size of both forms of labour market mismatch: education mismatch and skill mismatch. The first measure of job mismatch is based on workers’ self-assessment. The second one uses the PIAAC assessment regarding the proficiency for each skill dimension (literacy, numeracy and problem solving in technology rich environments. The labor market mismatch was measured for Spain and Italy datasets for the higher education graduates whose occupations are included in Major Group two Professionals, according to the International Standard Classification of Occupations. The estimation results showed that the two measures of labour market mismatch are not correlated.

  7. Occupation and cancer in Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rushton, L.; Bagga, S.; Bevan, R.; Brown, T.P.; Cherrie, J.W.; Holmes, P.; Fortunato, L.; Slack, R.; Van Tongeren, M.; Young, C.; Hutchings, S.J. [University of London Imperial College of Science Technology & Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-27

    Prioritising control measures for occupationally related cancers should be evidence based. We estimated the current burden of cancer in Britain attributable to past occupational exposures for International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) group 1 (established) and 2A (probable) carcinogens. We calculated attributable fractions and numbers for cancer mortality and incidence using risk estimates from the literature and national data sources to estimate proportions exposed. 5.3% (8019) cancer deaths were attributable to occupation in 2005 (men, 8.2% (6362); women, 2.3% (1657)). Attributable incidence estimates are 13, 679 (4.0%) cancer registrations (men, 10 063 (5.7%); women, 3616 (2.2%)). Occupational attributable fractions are over 2% for mesothelioma, sinonasal, lung, nasopharynx, breast, non-melanoma skin cancer, bladder, oesophagus, soft tissue sarcoma, larynx and stomach cancers. Asbestos, shift work, mineral oils, solar radiation, silica, diesel engine exhaust, coal tars and pitches, occupation as a painter or welder, dioxins, environmental tobacco smoke, radon, tetrachloroethylene, arsenic and strong inorganic mists each contribute 100 or more registrations. Industries and occupations with high cancer registrations include construction, metal working, personal and household services, mining, land transport, printing/publishing, retail/hotels/restaurants, public administration/defence, farming and several manufacturing sectors. 56% of cancer registrations in men are attributable to work in the construction industry (mainly mesotheliomas, lung, stomach, bladder and non-melanoma skin cancers) and 54% of cancer registrations in women are attributable to shift work (breast cancer).

  8. Occupational Health and the Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkamp, David L; McCann, Michael; Babin, Angela

    2017-09-01

    Work in the visual arts, performing arts, and writing can involve exposures to occupational hazards, including hazardous materials, equipment, and conditions, but few art workplaces have strong occupational health resources. Literature searches were conducted for articles that illustrate these concerns. Medical databases were searched for art-related health articles. Other sources were also reviewed, including, unindexed art-health publications, and popular press articles. Information was located that described some exposed populations, art-related hazards, and resulting disorders. Anecdotal reports were used when more complete data were not available. Health hazards in the arts are significant. Occupational health professionals are familiar with most of these concerns and understand their treatment and prevention. The occupational health approach can reduce the health hazards encountered by at-risk art workers. Additional research would benefit these efforts. Resources for further information are available.

  9. Occupational mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This paper aims to present the methods and main results from the Danish occupational mortality studies, and to set the Danish studies into the international context of occupational mortality studies. RESEARCH TOPICS: The first Danish occupational mortality study from 1970......-1975 revealed a considerable social class gradient in male mortality where university teachers and farmers had a 40% lower mortality and waiters and seamen had an about 100% higher mortality than the average for economically active men. The social class gradient was less steep for women. A similar pattern...... was found in 1996- 2005. CONCLUSION: In view of the considerable societal changes which have taken place from the beginning of the 1970s to the turn of the century, surprisingly small changes have taken place in the mortality pattern across social groups....

  10. Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Quiz: What's Your Stress Level? Practice Mindfulness Mood Management Smoking & Depression Understanding Depression Quiz: Are You Depressed? Coping With Emotions Boost Your Mood Do Good to Feel Good ...

  11. Sleep quality of professional firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrdad, Ramin; Haghighi, Khosro Sadeghniiat; Esfahani, Amir Hossein Naseri

    2013-09-01

    Firefighting is a unique job with contradictious demands that expose firefighters to many well documented causal factors of sleep debt, but no studies in Iran and only a few worldwide studies have investigated their sleep quality while sleep problems may lead to catastrophes especially in critical service workers. The aim of this study is to evaluate sleep quality and its related factors among a sample of professional Iranian firefighters. Using simple random sampling method in a cross-sectional study, 427 personnel of fire and rescue service were invited. They completed the Persian version of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and a data collection sheet about their demographic and occupational features during an individual face to face interview in central office and firehouses throughout Tehran. Response rate was 88.7%. The mean ± SD global PSQI score was 7.97 ± 3.77. Sleep latency was the component of PSQI with the greatest degree of abnormality. 69.9% of participants were poor sleepers. Interestingly, we found no significant differences between sleep quality of shift workers and non shift workers. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, only having another job, smoking and years of job experience were predictors of poor sleep. In comparison with adult population of Tehran, sleep quality deterioration is notably more common in Tehran firefighters which require health promotion interventions to prevent its serious adverse outcomes.

  12. Sleep quality of professional firefighters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Mehrdad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Firefighting is a unique job with contradictious demands that expose firefighters to many well documented causal factors of sleep debt, but no studies in Iran and only a few worldwide studies have investigated their sleep quality while sleep problems may lead to catastrophes especially in critical service workers. The aim of this study is to evaluate sleep quality and its related factors among a sample of professional Iranian firefighters. Methods: Using simple random sampling method in a cross-sectional study, 427 personnel of fire and rescue service were invited. They completed the Persian version of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI and a data collection sheet about their demographic and occupational features during an individual face to face interview in central office and firehouses throughout Tehran. Response rate was 88.7%. Results: The mean ± SD global PSQI score was 7.97 ± 3.77. Sleep latency was the component of PSQI with the greatest degree of abnormality. 69.9% of participants were poor sleepers. Interestingly, we found no significant differences between sleep quality of shift workers and non shift workers. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, only having another job, smoking and years of job experience were predictors of poor sleep. Conclusions: In comparison with adult population of Tehran, sleep quality deterioration is notably more common in Tehran firefighters which require health promotion interventions to prevent its serious adverse outcomes.

  13. Stress ocupacional em profissionais de segurança pública: um estudo com militares da Guarda Nacional Republicana Occupational stress in professionals of public security: a study with military agents of the Republican National Guard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge M. P. Afonso

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa o "stress" ocupacional em 95 militares da Guarda Nacional Republicana Portuguesa. Para tal, utilizámos um protocolo de avaliação com medidas do "stress" global, "burnout", "coping" proactivo, comprometimento organizacional, satisfação com a vida e satisfação/realização profissional. Os indicadores de fidelidade e validade dos instrumentos foram muito aceitáveis. Os resultados de "burnout" por dimensão apontaram níveis apreciáveis de exaustão emocional (12%, seguidos do cinismo (10% e da baixa eficácia profissional (8% (mas nenhum participante registou valores de "burnout" nas três dimensões, em simultâneo, observando-se também variáveis distintas na predição destas três áreas. A análise discriminante entre subgrupos da amostra permitiu verificar dois aspectos principais: (a menores níveis de comprometimento organizacional e maior utilização de "coping" proactivo nos militares mais novos e/ou inexperientes e (b maior desejo de abandonar o emprego/trabalho bem como maior cinismo parecem identificar os profissionais mais velhos e/ou mais experientes. No final, os autores discutem a importância de a investigação futura analisar os efeitos da maior tendência para o cinismo com o aumento da idade dos participantes e os efeitos do menor comprometimento organizacional por parte dos mais novos em termos da sua eficácia profissional.This work analyzes occupational stress in 95 Portuguese military agents of the Republican National Guard. We applied an evaluation protocol with measures of global stress, burnout, proactive coping, organizational commitment, satisfaction with life, and professional satisfaction/accomplishment. The fidelity and validity results of the instruments were very acceptable. The results of burnout pointed out a remarkable level of emotional exhaustion (12% followed by cynicism (10% and low professional effectiveness (8% (but we have not found any participant with burnout values

  14. Occupational therapists in primary care health management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Giovana Furlan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The expansion of the working field of occupational therapists in non-hospital environments and asylums in the last few decades, which came along with the territorial health practices in the National Health System, shows the relationship between the possibilities of professional performance and the existing public policies, including management functions and services. Objectives: To characterize the role of occupational therapists in the management of primary health care in the Distrito Federal and the professional knowledge used in this practice. Method: This was a qualitative research with production and analysis of data carried out through ethnography. Data were produced with aid of observations, field diary, semi-structured interviews and literature review. The study subjects were two occupational therapists from the State Secretariat of Health of the Distrito Federal who work in the management of primary health care. Results: The expansion of the concept of health has resulted in the incorporation of different professionals to compose the management of service and programs. The role of occupational therapists depends on their knowledge about management, collective projects and integral health care. Occupational therapists of this study work on central management and welfare programs to specific populations. Conclusion: The research made it possible to analyze the expansion of the working space of occupational therapists, contributing to future discussions on professional training. It was evident that the formation of the professional core provides subsidies for a larger management practice, such as skills for group and team work, and the work with socially excluded people.

  15. Sleep duration and quality among different occupations--China national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenjie; Yu, Yaqin; Yuan, Jingqin; Li, Changwei; Liu, Tingting; Lin, Dongdong; Lau, Abby; Zhong, Chongke; Xu, Tan; Shan, GuangLiang

    2015-01-01

    To examine the associations between occupation, sleep duration and sleep quality. The data for this study was extracted from data collected from the 2008 Chinese Sub-optimal Health Study. Our study sample consisted of 18,316 Chinese subjects aged 18-65. Occupation and other relevant characteristics to sleep were collected. We used the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) to measure sleep quality and multiple logistic regression models to examine the association of occupation with shortened sleep duration and poor sleep quality. Farmers had the longest sleep duration (mean=8.22 hours) while the civil servants had the shortest sleep duration (mean=7.85 hours). Farmers also had the best sleep quality (mean score=3.74) while professional workers had the worst sleep quality (mean score=4.87). Compared to civil servants, the OR of shortened sleep duration and poor sleep quality for blue collar workers is 1.39 (95%CI: 1.11-1.73) and 1.28 (95%-CI: 1.15-1.42), respectively, after adjusting for age, sex, marital status, education, area, smoking, drinking, pain, and health status. sleep duration and quality varied among different Chinese occupation populations. The blue collar workers are more likely to have shortened sleep duration and poor sleep quality.

  16. Sleep duration and quality among different occupations--China national study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie Sun

    Full Text Available To examine the associations between occupation, sleep duration and sleep quality.The data for this study was extracted from data collected from the 2008 Chinese Sub-optimal Health Study. Our study sample consisted of 18,316 Chinese subjects aged 18-65. Occupation and other relevant characteristics to sleep were collected. We used the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI to measure sleep quality and multiple logistic regression models to examine the association of occupation with shortened sleep duration and poor sleep quality.Farmers had the longest sleep duration (mean=8.22 hours while the civil servants had the shortest sleep duration (mean=7.85 hours. Farmers also had the best sleep quality (mean score=3.74 while professional workers had the worst sleep quality (mean score=4.87. Compared to civil servants, the OR of shortened sleep duration and poor sleep quality for blue collar workers is 1.39 (95%CI: 1.11-1.73 and 1.28 (95%-CI: 1.15-1.42, respectively, after adjusting for age, sex, marital status, education, area, smoking, drinking, pain, and health status.sleep duration and quality varied among different Chinese occupation populations. The blue collar workers are more likely to have shortened sleep duration and poor sleep quality.

  17. Occupational health nursing education for the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullagh, Marjorie C

    2012-04-01

    Occupational health nurses are the largest group of occupational health professionals, and are critical to the delivery of quality health care services to the nation's work force. Educational preparation of occupational health nurses has advanced in recent years, and the need for occupational health nurses with advanced degrees is expected to increase. Occupational health nurses use licensure, continuing education, certification, supervisor and peer assessment of job performance, formal education, and practice to maintain their professional competence and protect the public's health. New strategies must be developed to prepare nurses to promote a safe and healthful work force. Funding for programs to prepare occupational health nurses will be essential for meeting this demand. Continuing education programs for occupational health nurses must be developed that demonstrate effectiveness in developing occupational health nurses' skills while minimizing their time away from the workplace. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Health promotion: Smoking control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the largest single preventable cause of illness and premature death in the United States. It is the major single cause of cancer mortality in the United States and is a causal factor for coronary heart disease and arteriosclerotic peripheral vascular disease; is associated with increased risk of coronary atherosclerosis; and is the most important cause of chronic obstructive lung disease. Cigarette smoking increases the risk of bladder, pancreatic, and renal cancer, and peptic ulcer disease. Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy causes: retarded fetal growth; an increased risk for spontaneous abortion, fetal death, and neonatal death; and, possibly, slight impairment of growth and development during early childhood. Cigarette smoking acts synergistically with oral contraceptives to increases the risk for coronary heart disease and some forms of cerebrovascular disease; with alcohol to increase the risk of cancer of the larynx, oral cavity, and esophagus; with asbestos and some other occupationally encountered substances to increase the likelihood of cancer of the lung and larynx; and with other coronary risk factors such as hypercholesteremia to enhance cardiovascular risk. Smoking is the major identifiable cause of residential fire deaths and injuries as well as a contributor to accidental injuries. Cigarette smokers have a 70 percent higher overall death rate than nonsmokers, and tobacco is associated with an estimate in excess of 300,000 premature deaths a year. It is estimated that smoking contributes to as many as 225,000 deaths from coronary heart disease, the major cause of death among men and women in the United States; more than 100,000 deaths from cancers; and more than 20,000 deaths from chronic obstructive lung disease. Another 10 million Americans currently suffer from debilitating chronic disease caused by smoking. But substantial progress has been made since the release of the first Surgeon General's Report in 1964. More

  19. Home smoking restrictions and adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proescholdbell, R J; Chassin, L; MacKinnon, D P

    2000-05-01

    The prevention of adolescent smoking has focused on peer influences to the relative neglect of parental influences. Parents socialize their children about many behaviors including smoking, and parental rules about their child's smoking have been related to lower levels of adolescent smoking. Moreover, among adults, indoor smoking restrictions have been associated with decreased smoking. Accordingly, the current study tested the relation of adolescent smoking to home smoking policy (rules regulating where adults are allowed to smoke in the home). Results showed that restrictive home smoking policies were associated with lower likelihood of trying smoking for both middle and high school students. However, for high school students this relation was restricted to homes with non-smoking parents. Home smoking policies were not associated with current regular smoking for either middle or high school students. Home smoking policies may be useful in preventing adolescent smoking experimentation, although longitudinal and experimental research is necessary to confirm this hypothesis.

  20. About Occupational Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if}} {{{tweet}}} About Occupational Therapy What Is Occupational Therapy? Occupational therapy practitioners ask, "What matters to you?" not, " ... about our science-driven and evidence-based profession. Occupational Therapy: Improving Function While Controlling Costs 4 4 The ...

  1. [The prevalence of low back pain in hospital staff and its relationship with chronic fatigue syndrome and occupational factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzi, Rabia; Altın, Firuzan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of low back pain in hospital employees during the previous year and its correlation with demographic data, occupational factors and chronic fatigue syndrome. All participants provided information on their socio-demographic background, occupational characteristics, their experience of low back pain during the previous year, and chronic fatigue syndrome. The study included 365 volunteers (221 male and 144 female). The mean age was 33.1 ± 7.2. Of the 365 participants, 218 (59.7%) had experienced low back pain in the last year. No statistically significant difference was detected in age, height, weight, level of education, smoking habits, occupation, professional working hours, shift work or levels of income between the groups with and without low back pain. Low back pain was more frequent (pChronic fatigue syndrome was statistically significant in the group suffering from low back pain (pchronic fatigue syndrome. We detected a statistically significant relationship (pchronic fatigue syndrome, occupational duration and shift work. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first to show the relationship between low back pain and chronic fatigue syndrome in hospital employees. Shift work and length of time in occupation are risk factors for chronic fatigue syndrome.

  2. Problem of professional personality formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pryazhnikova E.Yu.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the current approaches to the problem of professional personality formation. It ana-lyzes the impact of professional identity of students on the choice of the specialist field they make. The article highlights certain aspects of the educational environment which promote to formation of compe-tences in students, relating to their choice of professional occupations. The article presents the analysis of students’ internal and external strivings after graduation from the university and their fulfillment.

  3. Occupational violence against dental professionals in southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-physical violence in form of loud shouting (50.0%) threat (22.7%), sexual harassment (6.8%) and swearing (2.3%) constituted the majority while physical violence in form of bullying and hitting constituted the remaining 18.2%. The main perpetrators of the violence were patients (54.5%) and patient's relatives/friends ...

  4. Teacher Views Regarding Workaholism and Occupational Professionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nartgun, Senay Sezgin; Ekinci, Serkan; Tukel, Hayrettin; Limon, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    While educational organizations are in the pursuit of survival, they also feel existing and increasing public and environmental pressures. To overcome these pressures requires employees who can respond to these pressures. This also leads the employees to work harder and necessitates them to be more enduring and responsive. If such teachers are…

  5. Occupational hazards of chemical carcinogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indulski, J.; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N.

    1984-01-01

    Current problems are presented resulting from the evaluation of occupational risk of chemical carcinogens in the national economy. In addition, conditions and activities facilitating the actual evaluation of exposure, i.e. one of the indirect purposes of the control program of work-induced cancer, undertaken within the Government Program PR-6 ''Cancer Control'', the problem ''Work Environment Cancerogenesis'', have been indicated. The numbers of those occupationally exposed to specific carcinogens, based on the data from sanitary-epidemiological stations, demonstrated great differences in professional preparation and technological capabilities of regional supervision authorities in the field concerned.

  6. Nottingham mothers stop smoking project -- baseline survey of smoking in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeley, R J; Gillies, P A; Power, F L; Symonds, E M

    1989-05-01

    In the largest survey of smoking in pregnancy to date in the United Kingdom, 3882 women attending the two antenatal clinics in Nottingham during July and August 1986, were asked about their smoking habits. Thirty-seven per cent of pregnant women were smoking and only one in four of these was successful at stopping at some point during pregnancy. However, 55 per cent of the mothers who smoked at the start of pregnancy claimed to smoke less during pregnancy. No change was reported in the habits of one-quarter of the mothers who smoked during pregnancy and this proportion may represent an 'irreducible minimum'. Mothers were more likely to continue to smoke if younger (14-20 years), single, living with a partner who smoked, who left school at 16 years and were from manual working families. Those who succeeded in giving up smoking during pregnancy were more likely to be from professional and managerial families. Antenatal booklets about the dangers of smoking were the source of information cited most frequently. Half of the smoking mothers claimed not to have received advice from their family practitioners about the hazards of smoking nor information about how to give up the habit. Even fewer received such advice from hospital doctors, or midwives. This represents a major challenge to professional training in health education.

  7. Stop smoking support programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokeless tobacco - stop smoking programs; Stop smoking techniques; Smoking cessation programs; Smoking cessation techniques ... You can find out about smoking cessation programs from: Your ... Your employer Your local health department The National Cancer ...

  8. Occupational trajectories and immigrant worker health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crollard, Allison; de Castro, A B; Tsai, Jenny Hsin-Chun

    2012-11-01

    During their initial years in the receiving country, many immigrants experience occupational downgrading. Downgrading is a loss of occupational status between one's last job in the home country and first job in the receiving country, often resulting in overeducation or overqualification. Although the extent and determinants of such occupational trajectories have been characterized, the connection to immigrant worker health has not been widely examined. However, an emerging body of knowledge indicates that negative health outcomes are associated with overeducation and overqualification in general worker populations, suggesting similar experiences by immigrant workers. This article provides an overview of the magnitude and conceptualization of occupational downgrading, overeducation, and overqualification and discusses implications for immigrant worker health. Occupational health professionals should spearhead research efforts on occupational downgrading, raise public awareness about the issue, and serve as advocates for immigrant workers' rights.

  9. Occupational epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidotti, T L

    2000-02-01

    The epidemiological literature for assessing risk in many, if not most, modern occupations has now become sufficiently obsolete that it can no longer be depended upon to guide either prevention or adjudication of compensation. This obsolescence must be dealt with by developing new sources of information pertinent to occupational hazards and the risks associated with most occupations. Ideally, a comprehensive surveillance mechanism that would be automatically updated for the changing risk in a changing economy would be ideal and may be attainable with further developments in health information technology. The characteristics of such a system are described. However, there are many obstacles to such a system which appear insurmountable in the short term. A more eclectic plan for cooperation and data-sharing would help in the short term and would establish a pattern of collaboration that could both place adjudication on a more solid foundation and avoid allegations of collusion in business. The general outline for a practical programme of collaboration along these lines is presented.

  10. Smoking in urban pregnant women in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unborn child. During pregnancy there is frequent contact with heatth professionals, making it an ideal opportunity for intervention,"~particularly since so many women smokers in. this stUdy attempted to change their smoking patterns (the contemplative stage of smoking cessation).2! Pregnant women appear to quit smoking ...

  11. Profissionais de saúde mental: estresse e estressores ocupacionais stress e estressores ocupacionais em saúde mental Profesionales de la salud mental: estrés y estresores ocupacionalesestrés y estresores ocupacionales en salud mental Mental health professionals: stress and occupational stressors stress and occupational stressors of mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flávia de Oliveira Santos

    2010-06-01

    ón en el trabajo fueron los factores más frecuentemente asociados a la percepción de estar bajo estrés. Se concluye que los profesionales vivencian estresores asociados a los cambios relativos al paradigma psicosocial de atención, apuntando a la necesidad de intervención dirigida al desarrollo de estrategias de enfrentamiento de las situaciones ocupacionales estresoras.Mental health professionals are particularly vulnerable to stress, considering the characteristics of the work they develop. The purpose of this study was to assess the manifestation of stress, self-perception of stress, and stressing work factors in substitutive mental health service professionals. Twenty-five workers, working for at least six months, took part in the study. The instruments employed were Lipp's Inventory of Stress Symptoms in Adults and a Complementary Script. Quantitative data were treated by descriptive statistics, and the remaining data were analyzed qualitatively. It was observed that 36.0% of the professional had stress manifestations, and 44.0% perceived they were under stress. Work conditions and relationships at work were the most frequent factors associated to the perception of being under stress. In conclusion, professionals experience stressors associated with the changes implied in the psychosocial paradigm of care. Thus, there is a need to make direct interventions toward the development of coping strategies in stressing occupational situations.

  12. Impact of an educational intervention on smoking counseling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Oral health professionals are important in smoking cessation and prevention as their role is very crucial given the impact of smoking on oral health. Therefore, dental professionals need adequate education in tobacco use prevention and cessation skills to increase their confidence and be able to help patients ...

  13. Occupational Exposures and Chronic Airflow Limitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Dimich-Ward

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent literature was reviewed to evaluate whether chronic airflow limitation is associated with occupational exposures to dusts. Only those studies that controlled for the effects of smoking were included. There is compelling evidence that exposure to inorganic dusts, such as from coal and hardrock mining or asbestos, are associated with the development of chronic airflow limitation, independently of pneumoconiosis. Nonsmoking gold miners are particularly at high risk of airflow obstruction and emphysema. Findings from studies of organic dusts, such as exposures to wood, cotton, grain or other agricultural dusts, or to mixed dust exposures, were less consistent but tended to show positive dose-response associations. In the majority of studies, no statistical interaction was shown between dust exposures and smoking; however, the effects of the dust exposures were often more pronounced. An occupational history should be considered, in addition to a smoking history, as an integral part of an investigation of chronic airflow limitation in a patient.

  14. Changes in occupational class differences in leisure-time physical activity: a follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahelma Eero

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity is known to have health benefits across population groups. However, less is known about changes over time in socioeconomic differences in leisure-time physical activity and the reasons for the changes. We hypothesised that class differences in leisure-time physical activity would widen over time due to declining physical activity among the lower occupational classes. We examined whether occupational class differences in leisure-time physical activity change over time in a cohort of Finnish middle-aged women and men. We also examined whether a set of selected covariates could account for the observed changes. Methods The data were derived from the Helsinki Health Study cohort mail surveys; the respondents were 40-60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki at baseline in 2000-2002 (n = 8960, response rate 67%. Follow-up questionnaires were sent to the baseline respondents in 2007 (n = 7332, response rate 83%. The outcome measure was leisure-time physical activity, including commuting, converted to metabolic equivalent tasks (MET. Socioeconomic position was measured by occupational class (professionals, semi-professionals, routine non-manual employees and manual workers. The covariates included baseline age, marital status, limiting long-lasting illness, common mental disorders, job strain, physical and mental health functioning, smoking, body mass index, and employment status at follow-up. Firstly the analyses focused on changes over time in age adjusted prevalence of leisure-time physical activity. Secondly, logistic regression analysis was used to adjust for covariates of changes in occupational class differences in leisure-time physical activity. Results At baseline there were no occupational class differences in leisure-time physical activity. Over the follow-up leisure-time physical activity increased among those in the higher classes and decreased among manual workers, suggesting the emergence of

  15. Occupational risk factors and voice disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilkman, E

    1996-01-01

    From the point of view of occupational health, the field of voice disorders is very poorly developed as compared, for instance, to the prevention and diagnostics of occupational hearing disorders. In fact, voice disorders have not even been recognized in the field of occupational medicine. Hence, it is obviously very rare in most countries that the voice disorder of a professional voice user, e.g. a teacher, a singer or an actor, is accepted as an occupational disease by insurance companies. However, occupational voice problems do not lack significance from the point of view of the patient. We also know from questionnaires and clinical studies that voice complaints are very common. Another example of job-related health problems, which has proved more successful in terms of its occupational health status, is the repetition strain injury of the elbow, i.e. the "tennis elbow". Its textbook definition could be used as such to describe an occupational voice disorder ("dysphonia professional is"). In the present paper the effects of such risk factors as vocal loading itself, background noise and room acoustics and low relative humidity of the air are discussed. Due to individual factors underlying the development of professional voice disorders, recommendations rather than regulations are called for. There are many simple and even relatively low-cost methods available for the prevention of vocal problems as well as for supporting rehabilitation.

  16. Occupation: nurse; occupational hazard: radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickson, K.

    1984-03-01

    The work of the occupational health nurses at the Pickering Generating Station is described. A staff of two nurses teach first aid and safety, practice an emergency plan, and monitor personnel for minimum health standards for radiation workers. Special attention is paid to problems which might be aggravated by radiation, such as skin complaints, respiratory diseases, emotional stability, or phobias regarding heights, plastic suits, or radiation itself. Procedures used in treating contaminated personnel are outlined.

  17. [Smoking restrictions in medical schools in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, R; Asano, M; Oshima, A; Minowa, M

    1993-10-01

    The theme of the 6th WHO World Non-Smoking Day in 1993 was "Health services: our window to a tobacco-free world". A survey of the public health departments of all medical schools and universities was conducted in April, 1992 in order to investigate the state of smoking restrictions in those departments responsible for training in health services. Responses were received from 76 schools out of 80. The results were as follows: 1) In school cafeteria: Smoking prohibited (17.8%), Separate smoking/non-smoking areas (21.9%), Unrestricted smoking (60.3%), In student lounges: Smoking prohibited (2.9%), Separate Smoking/non-smoking areas (7.1%), Unrestricted smoking (90.0%), 2) The number of schools with tobacco vending machines: 59 schools (77.6%), 3) In medical faculty meetings: Smoking prohibited--32 schools (42.1%), Unrestricted smoking--22 schools (28.9%), No rules but no smokers--22 schools (28.9%), A total of 54 schools (71.0%) have established non-smoking meetings. 4) The number of school that give no attention to raking students aware of smoking risks: 6 schools As a result of this investigation, one national and one private medical school initiated prohibition of smoking at medical faculty meetings. In order to stimulate consciousness of the health hazards of smoking in future medical professionals, freshmen orientation should be utilized for teaching about the risks of both tobacco and "chug-a-lugging" of alcoholic beverages. In addition, the elimination of tobacco vending machines from all medical department area is strongly indicated.

  18. Smoking cessation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    physical nicotine dependence, but also to introduce cognitive behavioural therapy to deal with his or her emotional attachment to smoking.7. Tobacco use ... interventions, the primary healthcare provider can use the 5. As (Figure 1) to help to ...

  19. Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cycle Glossary of Terms FAQ Infographics Shareable Media Subscription Services Publication Catalog Get Email Updates To receive ... 770-488-5493. Fact Sheets Adult Data Cessation Economics Fast Facts Health Effects Secondhand Smoke Smokeless Tobacco ...

  20. Smoking cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur K; Juneja S; Kaushal S

    2008-01-01

    Kirandeep Kaur, Shivani Juneja, Sandeep KaushalDepartment of Pharmacology, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, IndiaWith reference to the article published under the title "Pharmacologic agents for smoking cessation: A clinical review", we would like to add some information related to smoking cessation therapy among pregnant females. In that article, in the nicotine replacement therapy section, pregnancy has been considered as a contraindication...

  1. Secondhand smoke exposure, indoor smoking bans and smoking-related knowledge in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yue; Wang, Ling; Lu, Bo; Ferketich, Amy K

    2014-12-01

    Although previous studies have provided strong evidence that Chinese individuals are exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) and lack knowledge of its harmful effects, there has not been an in-depth exploration of the variability in exposure and knowledge by geographic region, occupation, and socioeconomic status. The objectives of this study were to examine: (1) the demographic factors associated with the level of knowledge of the harmful effects of smoking; (2) the factors related to implementation of in-home and workplace smoking bans; and (3) geographic differences in being exposed to SHS in government buildings, healthcare facilities, restaurants, public transportations, and schools. We used data from the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey-China. Chi-square tests were used for statistical analysis. The results suggested that among Chinese citizens age 15 years and older, there is poor knowledge of the harmful effects of tobacco, and knowledge varies with region and socioeconomic status. Over three-quarters of the households had no smoking restrictions, and a large percentage of workers reported working in places with no smoking ban. In public places, exposure to SHS was high, particularly in rural areas and in the Southwest. These results suggest Chinese individuals are not well informed of smoking and SHS associated risks and are regularly exposed to SHS at home, work and public places.

  2. Secondhand Smoke Exposure, Indoor Smoking Bans and Smoking-Related Knowledge in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Jin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Although previous studies have provided strong evidence that Chinese individuals are exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS and lack knowledge of its harmful effects, there has not been an in-depth exploration of the variability in exposure and knowledge by geographic region, occupation, and socioeconomic status. The objectives of this study were to examine: (1 the demographic factors associated with the level of knowledge of the harmful effects of smoking; (2 the factors related to implementation of in-home and workplace smoking bans; and (3 geographic differences in being exposed to SHS in government buildings, healthcare facilities, restaurants, public transportations, and schools. We used data from the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey-China. Chi-square tests were used for statistical analysis. The results suggested that among Chinese citizens age 15 years and older, there is poor knowledge of the harmful effects of tobacco, and knowledge varies with region and socioeconomic status. Over three-quarters of the households had no smoking restrictions, and a large percentage of workers reported working in places with no smoking ban. In public places, exposure to SHS was high, particularly in rural areas and in the Southwest. These results suggest Chinese individuals are not well informed of smoking and SHS associated risks and are regularly exposed to SHS at home, work and public places.

  3. Occupational physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Toomingas, Allan; Tornqvist, Ewa Wigaeus

    2011-01-01

    In a clear and accessible presentation, Occupational Physiology focuses on important issues in the modern working world. Exploring major public health problems-such as musculoskeletal disorders and stress-this book explains connections between work, well-being, and health based on up-to-date research in the field. It provides useful methods for risk assessment and guidelines on arranging a good working life from the perspective of the working individual, the company, and society as a whole.The book focuses on common, stressful situations in different professions. Reviewing bodily demands and r

  4. The effectiveness of interventions for primary care physicians to assist in smoking cessation in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Stoyka

    2017-05-01

    Implementation of standards for health care professionals to aid to quit smoking is extremely important for public health in Ukraine. Creating a system of antismoking education of health workers - the only way of forming their professional relationship to smoking cessation- and one of the most effective measures to protect people from illness and death associated with smoking.

  5. A survey of the prevalence of smoking and smoking cessation advice received by inpatients in a large teaching hospital in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bartels, C

    2012-01-06

    BACKGROUND: The adverse effects of smoking are well documented and it is crucial that this modifiable risk factor is addressed routinely. Professional advice can be effective at reducing smoking amongst patients, yet it is not clear if all hospital in-patient smokers receive advice to quit. AIMS: To explore smoking prevalence amongst hospital in-patients and smoking cessation advice given by health professionals in a large university teaching hospital. METHODS: Interviews were carried out over 2 weeks in February 2011 with all eligible in-patients in Beaumont Hospital. RESULTS: Of the 205 patients who completed the survey, 61% stated they had been asked about smoking by a healthcare professional in the past year. Only 44% of current\\/recent smokers stated they had received smoking cessation advice from a health professional within the same timeframe. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions to increase rates of healthcare professional-provided smoking cessation advice are urgently needed.

  6. Occupational therapy evaluation: use of self-report and/or observation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristina Tomra; Wæhrens, Eva Elisabet Ejlersen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Occupational Therapy Intervention Process Model (OTIPM) serves to guide occupational therapists in their professional reasoning. The OTIPM prescribes evaluation of task performance based on both self-report and observation. Although this approach seems ideal, many clinicians raise...

  7. Ventilatory Function and Cigarette Smoking in Cement Handlers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Occupational exposure to dust and cigarette smoking play important roles in the pathogenesis of lung diseases, particularly in developing countries. To determine the effects of outdoor cement dust exposure and cigarette smoking on lung health, we compared ventilatory function in cement handlers (smokers ...

  8. Chronic cough due to occupational factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A Groneberg; Dennis Nowak; Anke Wussow; Axel Fischer [Free University and Humboldt-University, Berlin (Germany). Division of Allergy Research, Otto-Heubner-Centre, Charite School of Medicine

    2006-07-01

    Within the large variety of subtypes of chronic cough, either defined by their clinical or pathogenetic causes, occupational chronic cough may be regarded as one of the most preventable forms of the disease. Next to obstructive airway diseases such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which are sometimes concomitant with chronic cough, this chronic airway disease gains importance in the field of occupational medicine since classic fiber-related occupational airway diseases will decrease in the future. Apart from acute accidents and incidental exposures which may lead to an acute form of cough, there are numerous sources for the development of chronic cough within the workplace. Over the last years, a large number of studies has focused on occupational causes of respiratory diseases and it has emerged that chronic cough is one of the most prevalent work-related airway diseases. Best-known examples of occupations related to the development of cough are coal miners, hard-rock miners, tunnel workers, or concrete manufacturing workers. As chronic cough is often based on a variety of non-occupational factors such as tobacco smoke, a distinct separation into either occupational or personally-evoked can be difficult. However, revealing the occupational contribution to chronic cough and to the symptom cough in general, which is the commonest cause for the consultation of a physician, can significantly lead to a reduction of the socioeconomic burden of the disease.

  9. Occupational hazard during hemodialyzers reprocessing

    OpenAIRE

    Heloisa Helena Karnas Hoefel; Liana Lautert

    2014-01-01

    Backgound and Objectives: The observation of hazards during processing of hemodialyzers showed the need to study these events. The aim of the study was to identify occupational accidents and hazards recognized by nursing professionals in the reprocessing of hemodialyzers. Methods: It was performed an exploratory-descriptive study in a haemodialysis unit of a university hospital using recall. Six nurses and fifteen nursing technicians answered the questions about risks in re-processing dialyze...

  10. Is there a relationship between periodontal disease and smoking after adjusting for job classification in Japanese employed males?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Ichizo; Sheiham, Aubrey; Nakagaki, Haruo; Yoshii, Saori; Mizuno, Kinichiro; Sabbah, Wael

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine whether the well-known association between periodontal disease and smoking persists after adjusting for job classification. A sample of 16,110 employed Japanese males aged 20-69 years was included in the study. Periodontal examinations were conducted using the Community Periodontal Index. The association between periodontal disease and smoking status was examined using logistic regression adjusting for age, diabetes and job classification. Job classification was based on criteria of the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. There are nine major job groups: (1) Professional (professionals, specialists), (2) Managers, (3) Office workers (computer operators, clerks, secretaries), (4) Skilled worker (factory workers, construction workers), (5) Salesperson (shop assistants), (6) Service occupations (superintendents, cleaners or car park attendants), (7) Security (guards), (8) Farmers and fishermen, (9) Transport and telecommunication workers (truck drivers). Current and former smokers were more likely to have periodontal disease than non-smokers. Adjusting for job classification attenuated the association between smoking and periodontal disease but did not eliminate the association. The odds ratios for the association between smoking and Community Periodontal Index score 3 or 4 attenuated from 2.25 to 2.04 and from 2.62 to 2.52 for individuals aged 20 to 39 and 40 to 69 years, respectively. The effect of job classification on the association between periodontal disease and smoking was higher among younger participants aged 20 to 39 years. Smoking persisted as an important determinant of periodontal disease after adjusting for job classification in Japanese employed males.

  11. Self-employment in joinery: An occupational risk facor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois-Xavier Lesage

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Only a few studies have analyzed the health of self-employed workers. This cross-sectional study is the first to compare health status among craftsmen joiners and paid joiners. Material and Methods: Clinical and paraclinical data for self-employed craftsmen and employees were collected by occupational health doctors according to a standardized protocol and compared. Health data and professional status relationships were analyzed by logistic regression. Results: A total of 171 craftsmen and 196 paid workers were included. Craftsmen had more dermatologic pathologies (odds ratio (OR = 2.67, p < 0.05, ear/nose/throat symptoms (OR = 3.38, p < 0.001, pulmonary symptoms (OR = 2.46, p < 0.05, musculoskeletal symptoms (OR = 3.09, p < 0.001, and abnormal audiogram (OR = 3.50, p < 0.001. The FEV1 was significantly lower among craftsmen (p < 0.01, independently of tobacco smoke exposure. Conclusions: This survey highlights a high morbidity rate among self-employed craftsmen, suggesting that among woodworkers, professional status can be a risk factor for health. The preventive medical system for craftsmen has to be rethought to guarantee better safety for this population.

  12. Effect of Acute Smoking on Diastolic Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M A Akbarzadeh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is a known risk factor of atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, athermanous plaque rupture, unstable coronary syndrome and sudden cardiac death. Methods: The present study comprised 40 randomly selected healthy male hospital staff without a history of hypertension or cardiac or pulmonary disease. Participants were divided into two groups. The first group included 20 professional smokers (at least 5 pack/year till the time of study and the second group consisted of 20 non-professional smokers defined as 0.5 pack/ year or less till the time of study. Participants were instructed not to smoke for 6 hours before the study. Patients underwent echocardiography before smoking. The participants were then asked to smoke a whole cigarette. After smoking, echocardiography was repeated within 7 to 15 minutes. Echocardiographic indices of diastolic function (E wave, A wave, Ea, E/A ratio and deceleration time were measured before and after smoking.Results: There was no statistically significant difference in the baseline measures in both groups before smoking and also there was no significant difference between measures in the two groups after smoking. The analysis of the pooled data from two groups showed that, smoking resulted in significant increase of heart rate (P<0.001. A wave, E wave, Ea, E/A ratio and deceleration time changed significantly after smoking (P<0.001, P=0.027, P=0.011, P<0.001 and P<0.001 respectively. Conclusion: Smoking of only a cigarette in both professional and nonprofessional smokers, resulted in the same significant diastolic dysfunction. Background: Smoking is a known risk factor of atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, athermanous plaque rupture, unstable coronary syndrome and sudden cardiac death. Methods: The present study comprised 40 randomly selected healthy male hospital staff without a history of hypertension or cardiac or pulmonary disease. Participants were divided into two groups. The first

  13. A survey of the prevalence of smoking and smoking cessation advice received by inpatients in a large teaching hospital in Ireland.

    OpenAIRE

    Bartels, Constantin; AbuHaliga, Abdullah RY; McGee, Hannah; Morgan, Karen; McElvaney, Noel G.; Doyle, Frank

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The adverse effects of smoking are well documented and it is crucial that this modifiable risk factor is addressed routinely. Professional advice can be effective at reducing smoking amongst patients, yet it is not clear if all hospital in-patient smokers receive advice to quit. AIMS: To explore smoking prevalence amongst hospital in-patients and smoking cessation advice given by health professionals in a large university teaching hospital. METHODS: Interviews were carried out ove...

  14. Occupational risk for oral cancer in nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarvainen, Laura; Suojanen, Juho; Kyyronen, Pentti

    2017-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate occupational risk for cancer of the tongue, oral cavity or pharynx after adjustment for alcohol and tobacco use. Materials and Methods: The data covered 14.9 million people and 28,623 cases of cancer of the tongue, oral cavity and pharynx in the Nordic countries 1961-2005. Alcohol...... consumption by occupation was estimated based on mortality from liver cirrhosis and incidence of liver cancer. Smoking by occupation was estimated based on the incidence of lung cancer. Results: Only few occupations had relative risks of over 1.5 for cancer of the tongue, oral cavity and pharynx....... These occupations included dentists, artistic workers, hairdressers, journalists, cooks and stewards, seamen and waiters. Conclusion: Several occupational categories, including dentists, had an increased relative risk of tongue cancer. This new finding remains to be explained but could be related to occupational...

  15. Occupational burnout among nursing personel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Wieder-Huszla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Occupational stress and the related burnout syndrome is undoubtedly one of the most important challenges for public health. Objectives . The objective of the study was identifying occupational burnout among nurses. Material and methods . The questionnaire was responded by 408 professionally active male and female nurses, working in the territory of the West Pomeranian Voivodeship. In the evaluation of occupational burnout the standardized Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI was applied. Results . Mean values of the level of occupational burnout for the study group amounted to 39.3 ± 30.9 with regard to emotional exhaustion, 30.64 ± 27.89 with respect to the depersonalization subscale and 66.26 ± 27.94 – the lowered level of job satisfaction. Conclusions . 1. The studied nursing personnel showed symptoms of occupational burnout in all dimensions of the syndrome, i.e. high levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization as well as low job satisfaction. 2. Individuals with higher education scored lower on the emotional exhaustion scale. 3. Emotional exhaustion is influenced by workplace and position.

  16. A Literature Review - Problem Definition Studies on Selected Toxic Chemicals. Volume 4. Occupational Health and Safety Aspects of the Fog Oils SGF No. 1 and SGF No. 2 and Smoke Screens Generated from Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-04-01

    3, 4): 1. Deasphalting: reduces carbon residue in fuel and lube oils through extraction or precipitant action of solvents (e.g. propane , alcohol or...ingested and/or to hypersensitivity from repeated occupational exposure (48). Liquid aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures cause chemical pneumonitis with...identifying a population subgroup with evidence either of ex- posure to mineral oil or of hypersensitivity to mineral oil exposurE or both, then the

  17. Creating smoke-free homes for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, April; Ritchie, Deborah; O'Donnell, Rachel; Amos, Amanda; Mills, Lynsey M; Semple, Sean E; Turner, Stephen W; Wilson, Inga S

    This article describes a tool that was designed to help nurses deliver health education on the subject of passive smoking. The tool is based on a Scottish study, which encouraged mothers to identify their own strategies for reducing smoking in the home in order to protect their children from being exposed to second-hand smoke. It is designed to give nurses and other health professionals who work with families and children the knowledge, skills and confidence they need to raise the issue of second-hand smoke with parents and help them to find their own solutions to reducing smoking in the home. This article also takes into consideration the implications for nursing practice that relate to raising the issue of exposing children to second-hand smoke with parents and carers.

  18. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among South Korean adults: a cross-sectional study of the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha Eun-Hee

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have identified that environmental tobacco smoke exposure is associated with sociodemographic factors such as age, sex, and socioeconomic status, but few studies have been conducted in South Korea. In this study, the authors investigated the extent of environmental tobacco smoke exposure and factors related in a nationally representative sample of Korean adults. Methods The data of 7,801 adults aged 19 years and over collected during the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Information on smoking habits and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke was obtained by self-reports using a standardized questionnaire. Risks of environmental tobacco smoke exposure conferred by sociodemographic variables and behavioral risk factors were evaluated using logistic regression methods. Results Overall, 36.1% of nonsmokers (defined as those not currently smoking and 50.1% of current smokers were found to be exposed to environmental tobacco smoke either at work or at home. Among the nonsmokers, women were more likely to be exposed to environmental tobacco smoke at home (OR = 5.22, 95%CI, 4.08-6.67. Furthermore, an inverse relationship was found between education level and the risk of environmental tobacco smoke exposure at home (OR = 1.73, 95%CI, 1.38-2.17 for those with a high school education; OR = 2.30, 95%CI, 1.68-3.16 for those with a middle school education; and OR = 2.58, 95%CI, 1.85-3.59 for those with less than an elementary school education vs. those with a college education or more. In addition, those with office, sales service, or manual labor jobs were found to be at significantly higher risk of environmental tobacco smoke exposure at work than those with professional, administrative, or managerial jobs. Also, the risk of environmental tobacco smoke exposure in the workplace was significantly higher for alcohol drinkers than non-drinkers (OR = 1.23, 95%CI, 1.07-1.47. After adjusting

  19. Smoke detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A.; Frank, Steven Shane

    2017-10-17

    Various apparatus and methods for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method of training a classifier for a smoke detector comprises inputting sensor data from a plurality of tests into a processor. The sensor data is processed to generate derived signal data corresponding to the test data for respective tests. The derived signal data is assigned into categories comprising at least one fire group and at least one non-fire group. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) training is performed by the processor. The derived signal data and the assigned categories for the derived signal data are inputs to the LDA training. The output of the LDA training is stored in a computer readable medium, such as in a smoke detector that uses LDA to determine, based on the training, whether present conditions indicate the existence of a fire.

  20. Smoke detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A.; Frank, Steven Shane

    2016-09-06

    Various apparatus and methods for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method of training a classifier for a smoke detector comprises inputting sensor data from a plurality of tests into a processor. The sensor data is processed to generate derived signal data corresponding to the test data for respective tests. The derived signal data is assigned into categories comprising at least one fire group and at least one non-fire group. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) training is performed by the processor. The derived signal data and the assigned categories for the derived signal data are inputs to the LDA training. The output of the LDA training is stored in a computer readable medium, such as in a smoke detector that uses LDA to determine, based on the training, whether present conditions indicate the existence of a fire.

  1. Smoke detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A.; Frank, Steven Shane

    2015-10-27

    Various apparatus and methods for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method of training a classifier for a smoke detector comprises inputting sensor data from a plurality of tests into a processor. The sensor data is processed to generate derived signal data corresponding to the test data for respective tests. The derived signal data is assigned into categories comprising at least one fire group and at least one non-fire group. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) training is performed by the processor. The derived signal data and the assigned categories for the derived signal data are inputs to the LDA training. The output of the LDA training is stored in a computer readable medium, such as in a smoke detector that uses LDA to determine, based on the training, whether present conditions indicate the existence of a fire.

  2. Occupational Therapy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Late for the Flu Vaccine? Eating Disorders Arrhythmias Occupational Therapy KidsHealth > For Parents > Occupational Therapy Print A A ... for some kids. continue Kids Who Might Need Occupational Therapy According to the AOTA, kids with these medical ...

  3. Smoke Mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Smoke inhalation injury from the noxious products of fire combustion accounts for as much as 80 percent of fire-related deaths in the United States. Many of these deaths are preventable. Smoke Mask, Inc. (SMI), of Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, is working to decrease these casualties with its line of life safety devices. The SMI personal escape hood and the Guardian Filtration System provide respiratory protection that enables people to escape from hazardous and unsafe conditions. The breathing filter technology utilized in the products is specifically designed to supply breathable air for 20 minutes. In emergencies, 20 minutes can mean the difference between life and death.

  4. Are quit attempts among U.S. female nurses who smoke different from female smokers in the general population? An analysis of the 2006/2007 tobacco use supplement to the current population survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarna Linda

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is a significant women's health issue. Examining smoking behaviors among occupational groups with a high prevalence of women may reveal the culture of smoking behavior and quit efforts of female smokers. The purpose of this study was to examine how smoking and quitting characteristics (i.e., ever and recent quit attempts among females in the occupation of nursing are similar or different to those of women in the general population. Methods Cross-sectional data from the Tobacco Use Supplement of the Current Population Survey 2006/2007 were used to compare smoking behaviors of nurses (n = 2, 566 to those of non-healthcare professional women (n = 93, 717. Smoking characteristics included years of smoking, number of cigarettes, and time to first cigarette with smoking within the first 30 minutes as an indicator of nicotine dependence. Logistic regression models using replicate weights were used to determine correlates of ever and previous 12 months quit attempts. Results Nurses had a lower smoking prevalence than other women (12.1% vs 16.6%, p p = 0.0002; but not in the previous 12 months (42% vs 43%, p = 0.77. Among those who ever made a quit attempt, nurses who smoked within 30 minutes of waking, were more likely to have made a quit attempt compared to other women (OR = 3.1, 95% CI: 1.9, 5.1. When considering quit attempts within the last 12 months, nurses whose first cigarette was after 30 minutes of waking were less likely to have made a quit attempt compared to other females (OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.98. There were no other significant differences in ever/recent quitting. Conclusions Smoking prevalence among female nurses was lower than among women who were not in healthcare occupations, as expected. The lack of difference in recent quit efforts among female nurses as compared to other female smokers has not been previously reported. The link between lower level of nicotine dependence, as reflected by the longer

  5. A review of smoking policies in airports around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillman, Frances A; Soong, Andrea; Kleb, Cerise; Grant, Ashley; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2015-11-01

    To review smoking policies of major international airports, to compare these policies with corresponding incountry tobacco control legislation and to identify areas of improvement for advancing smoke-free policy in airports. We reviewed smoking policies of 34 major international airports in five world regions, and collected data on current national and subnational legislation on smoke-free indoor places in the corresponding airport locations. We then compared airport smoking policies with local legislation. Additionally, we collected anecdotal information concerning smoking rules and practices in specific airports from an online traveller website. We found that 52.9% of the airports reviewed had indoor smoking rooms or smoking areas; smoking policy was unknown or unstated for two airports. 55.9% of the airports were located in countries where national legislation allowed designated smoking rooms and areas, while 35.3% were in smoke-free countries. Subnational legislation restricted smoking in 60% of the airport locations, while 40% were smoke-free. 71.4% of the airport locations had subnational legislation that allowed smoke-free laws to be more stringent than at the national level, but only half of these places had enacted such laws. Despite the increasing presence of smoke-free places and legal capacity to enact stricter legislation at the local level, airports represent a public and occupational space that is often overlooked in national or subnational smoke-free policies. Secondhand smoke exposure in airports can be reduced among travellers and workers by implementing and enforcing smoke-free policies in airports. Additionally, existing information on smoke-free legislation lacks consistent terminology and definitions, which are needed to inform future tobacco control policy within airports and in the law. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. Therapeutic Adherence in Smoking Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Salvador Manzano

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic adherence is a complex and multidimensional concept. The percentage of adherence to treatments involving a change in lifestyle, such as quitting smoking, is lower than in other disorders, a fact which has relevant clinical, psychological and economic consequences. This paper aims to review the associated factors with adherence to therapy in smoking treatment. Strategies to enhance therapeutic adherence involve the adequate choice of treatment, to know the smoker´s characteristics, breaking down organizational barriers in health system and the training of health professionals in communication skills with patients.

  7. Professional capital contested: A bourdieusian analysis of conflicts between professionals and managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Noordegraaf (Mirko); W. Schinkel (Willem)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAlthough Bourdieu paid scant attention to (and in fact discredited) the notion of professionalism, his social theory is well-equipped to understand the evolution of professional work. Professionalism can be conceived as a set of symbolic resources that (re)produce an occupational order,

  8. Image processing occupancy sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackney, Larry J.

    2016-09-27

    A system and method of detecting occupants in a building automation system environment using image based occupancy detection and position determinations. In one example, the system includes an image processing occupancy sensor that detects the number and position of occupants within a space that has controllable building elements such as lighting and ventilation diffusers. Based on the position and location of the occupants, the system can finely control the elements to optimize conditions for the occupants, optimize energy usage, among other advantages.

  9. Chronic rhinosinusitis and occupational risk factors among 20- to 75-year-old Danes-A GA(2) LEN-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilsing, Trine; Rasmussen, Jesper; Lange, Bibi

    2012-01-01

    estimates revealed an increased risk of CRS among female blue collar workers compared to female white collar workers. Among men the effect of occupation depended on smoking status. Occupational exposure to gasses, fumes, dust, or smoke increased the overall risk of CRS. CRS was reported approximately four...... times as often in subjects with asthma and in subjects with nasal allergy. Current smoking doubled the CRS prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: CRS prevalence was affected by occupation (blue vs. white collar), but the observed effect depended on gender and smoking status. Exposure to airway irritants (occupational...

  10. Wildfire smoke exposure and human health: Significant gaps in research for a growing public health issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Carolyn; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes; Bassein, Jed A; Miller, Lisa A

    2017-10-01

    Understanding the effect of wildfire smoke exposure on human health represents a unique interdisciplinary challenge to the scientific community. Population health studies indicate that wildfire smoke is a risk to human health and increases the healthcare burden of smoke-impacted areas. However, wildfire smoke composition is complex and dynamic, making characterization and modeling difficult. Furthermore, current efforts to study the effect of wildfire smoke are limited by availability of air quality measures and inconsistent air quality reporting among researchers. To help address these issues, we conducted a substantive review of wildfire smoke effects on population health, wildfire smoke exposure in occupational health, and experimental wood smoke exposure. Our goal was to evaluate the current literature on wildfire smoke and highlight important gaps in research. In particular we emphasize long-term health effects of wildfire smoke, recovery following wildfire smoke exposure, and health consequences of exposure in children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Birthweight of term infants and maternal occupation in a prospective cohort of pregnant women. The ALSPAC Study Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrow, A; Shea, K M; Little, R E

    1998-01-01

    To study the relation between birthweight of term infants and maternal occupation. Information on job titles since the age of 16, and sociodemographic and other lifestyle factors were obtained by means of questionnaires as part of the Avon longitudinal study of pregnancy and childhood (ALSPAC), from a cohort of 14,000 pregnant women. The British 1990 standard occupational classification was used to code jobs within nine major job groups. For 9282 women who delivered term infants and reported a job for the relevant period, there was a significant difference in mean birthweight among the nine major job groups. A 148 g difference was found between the mean birthweight of infants born to women with professional occupations and those with plant and machine operative jobs. Multiple regression analysis adjusted for sex of infant, parity, maternal height, smoking, caffeine consumption, and race. After adjustment the maternal job was no longer significantly associated with birthweight. Despite the absence of a significant association between birthweight and job after adjustment, there were several findings which agreed with publications on maternal occupation and pregnancy outcome. The major job groups with the lowest birthweights included the following jobs; metal forming or welding, electric or electronic work, jobs in the textile trade, and assembling and working with equipment (mobile and stationary). The lack of an association may indicate that the study was of insufficient power to detect a small difference; it may indicate the presence of confounding variables that were not adjusted for or it may indicate that no association exists.

  12. Occupational health risks of pathologists - results from a nationwide online questionnaire in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritzsche Florian Rudolf

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pathologists are highly trained medical professionals who play an essential part in the diagnosis and therapy planning of malignancies and inflammatory diseases. Their work is associated with potential health hazards including injuries involving infectious human tissue, chemicals which are assumed to be carcinogenic or long periods of microscope and computer work. This study aimed to provide the first comprehensive assessment of the health situation of pathologists in Switzerland. Methods Pathologists in Switzerland were contacted via the Swiss Society of Pathologists and asked to answer an ethically approved, online anonymous questionnaire comprising 48 questions on occupational health problems, workplace characteristics and health behaviour. Results 163 pathologists participated in the study. Forty percent of pathologists reported musculoskeletal problems in the previous month. The overall prevalence was 76%. Almost 90% of pathologists had visual refraction errors, mainly myopia. 83% of pathologists had experienced occupational injuries, mostly cutting injuries, in their professional career; more than one fifth of participants reported cutting injuries in the last year. However, long lasting injuries and infectious diseases were rare. Depression and burnout affected every eighth pathologist. The prevalence of smoking was substantially below that of the general Swiss population. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that more care should be taken in technical and personal protective measures, ergonomic workplace optimisation and reduction of work overload and work inefficiencies. Despite the described health risks, Swiss pathologists were optimistic about their future and their working situation. The high rate of ametropia and psychological problems warrants further study.

  13. STRESS MANAGEMENT FOR HEALTHCARE PROFESSIONALS

    OpenAIRE

    Odigie, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare professionals are exposed to several job stressors that can adversely affect both their mental and physical health, decrease their efficiency at work, for a successful intervention, the causes and management of stress in any healthcare unit or among healthcare professionals must be diligently documented. The aim of this study is to explore issues on specific occupational stress related to job performance, the role of healthcare in stress management and the effects of job resourc...

  14. Influence of occupational factors on lung function in French dairy farmers. A 5-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venier, A G; Chaudemanche, H; Monnet, E; Thaon, I; Fury, R; Laplante, J J; Dalphin, J C

    2006-04-01

    Dairy farming is associated with a high prevalence of respiratory disorders but the respective influence of occupational exposures, environmental, and individual factors on lung function remain unclear. In 1994 and 1999, dairy farmers were examined in the Doubs province, France. Spirometric measures and allergological tests were performed. Medical and professional data were obtained by questionnaires. A multiple linear regression analysis was performed. An accelerated decline in lung function parameters was associated with age, male sex, traditional farm (as opposed to modern farms), and a high rate of total IgE (P < 10(-2)). Blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) was significantly positively linked with the modernization of the farm and negatively with age, smoking status, and log IgE (P < 10(-2)). Geographical factors (altitude and climatic conditions) had no significant effect. The modernization of the farm has an important and beneficial impact on lung functiony. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Developing occupational therapy students' practice habits via qualitative inquiry education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marterella, Abbey L; Aldrich, Rebecca M

    2015-04-01

    Accreditation standards and practice competencies underscore the importance of research for occupational therapy practice, but they do not guide how occupational therapy education addresses research. Despite the prominence of qualitative research in the health professions, there exists a need to articulate how and why qualitative inquiry is taught in occupational therapy education. We discuss how qualitative inquiry education can develop habits of reflection and reflexivity, criticality, and active engagement in preparation for occupational therapy practice. We hold that our students' professional abilities to practice in a well-reasoned, ethical, and responsive manner are enhanced by experiences with qualitative inquiry and suggest that there is potential in linking qualitative inquiry experiences to professional habit formation in occupational therapy education. In addition to teaching research for its own sake, we suggest that educators can adopt a broader view of how qualitative inquiry functions within occupational therapy education.

  16. The contribution of lone parenthood and economic difficulties to smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahkonen, Ossi; Laaksonen, Mikko; Karvonen, Sakari

    2005-07-01

    Smoking is more prevalent among lower socioeconomic status groups, among those who perceive economic difficulties and among lone mothers. Less is known of how these factors contribute to smoking independently. The aim of this study was first to examine the association between smoking and both economic difficulties and lone parenthood. We then also studied to what extent smoking among people experiencing economic difficulties and lone parenthood is due to other factors such as socioeconomic status and social relations. The data derive from surveys conducted among the employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland, in 2000 and 2001 including 6243 respondents aged 40-60 yr (response rate 68%). The measures were daily smoking, economic difficulties and family type, as well as socioeconomic status (education, occupational social class, household income, housing tenure) and social relations. The more had respondents experienced economic difficulties, the more prevalent was their smoking. Smoking among lone parents was more common than among parents living together; this was true for both men and women. After controlling for socioeconomic status and housing tenure, the association between smoking and economic difficulties, as well as that between smoking and lone parenthood, attenuated but remained statistically significant. However, after controlling for social relations the associations became stronger. Both economic difficulties and lone parenthood were associated with smoking independent of education, occupational social class, household disposable income, housing tenure or social relations for both men and women.

  17. [To smoke or not to smoke, in restaurants, hotels, and bars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Antuñano, Francisco Javier; Tovar-Guzmán, Victor José

    2002-01-01

    A MEDLINE search was conducted to identify relevant references, to review the information on adverse effects of tobacco smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Occupational exposure to ETS causes significant damages to food industry workers. High levels of mutagenic substances have been demonstrated in restaurant air as well as in the urine samples from those workers. Exposition to 3-aminophenyl, a hemoglobin-associated carcinogen. The best way to protect these workers is the reduction of tobacco smoking in restaurants, hotels, bars and taverns. In restaurant workers, ETS attributable risk for lung cancer is evident.

  18. Socioeconomic position and smoking behaviour in Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Holstein, B; Avlund, K

    2001-01-01

    ) indicator, are associated with ever, current and ex-smoking. METHODS: Data on smoking behaviour were collected in five cross-sectional surveys of random samples of the general Danish population aged 20 years or more at intervals between 1982 and 1994. In total, 8,054 men and 8,281 women participated....... Logistic regression was used to analyse the influence of education and occupation on smoking behaviour controlling for sex and birth cohort. RESULTS: In cohorts born after 1930 ever and current smoking were related to years of school education and current occupation. The prevalences of ever and current......: Smoking behaviour is strongly associated with both individual and structural indicators of socioeconomic position in Danish adults in all cohorts except for those born before 1930....

  19. Determination and support as successful factors for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echer, Isabel Cristina; Barreto, Sérgio Saldanha Menna

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze determination and support as successful factors for smoking cessation. Qualitative study in which 16 individuals from Porto Alegre, Brazil, who had ceased smoking for more than six months, with score > or = 5 according to Fagerström scale, were interviewed. Information was examined through Content Analysis according to the following steps: pre-analysis, material investigation and result treatment. Smoking cessation was a consequence of a group of factors, with determination (the will to cease smoking and the difficulty to cease smoking) and the received support (occupational; family; social, and spiritual, and through a specific course and support groups) as the focus of this article. The results suggest that the smoker's determination to cease smoking together with the support of society segments and the benefits from that are helpful factors in the smoking cessation process.

  20. Prevalence of occupational voice disorders in teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelillo, M; Di Maio, G; Costa, G; Angelillo, N; Barillari, U

    2009-03-01

    In Italy the number of teachers among private and public schools is around one million. Voice disorders are thought to be one of the major occupational hazards of school teaching; in fact the teachers often use their voice with high-intensity, in noisy classes, for a long time and without suitable breaks. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of voice problems in teachers of Naples district, identifying risk factors for developing voice pathology. In this study we evaluated 504 teachers (322 F-182 M) with an age ranging between 24 and 62 years, randomly choiced in 28 schools of the district of Naples submitted to a questionnaire to determine the prevalence of voice disorders. In our study we have also introduced a comparison group of not-teachers workers of 402 subjects (244 F-158 M); they were in the same age range as the teacher sample (range: 22-65 years). The control group was also submitted to a questionnaire regarding sociodemographic characteristics, smoking and alcohol use, a self-report of voice problems, voice symptoms, frequency of acute and chronic voice problems, absenteeism due to voice problems. The prevalence of reporting a current voice problem was significantly greater in teachers compared with not-teachers (8.7% vs 2.9%), as the prevalence of voice disorders during their lifetime too (51.4% vs 25.9%), chi2 = 86.672, p teachers group (23.01%) have been forced, during their professional activity, to miss job for problems related to voice; only 22 subjects of control group (5.47%) instead, missed job for voice troubles. This study confirms that teachers have a higher rate of self-reported voice problems than subjects working in other occupations. Teachers, compared with not-teachers, were significantly more likely to have experienced multiple voice symptoms including hoarseness, discomfort while using their voice, difficulty projecting their voice and tiring or change in voice quality after short use. Large proportion of these problems

  1. [Tobacco smoking treatment strategy in COPD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamplona, Paula; Mendes, Berta

    2009-01-01

    Smoking cessation is one of the most important ways of improving the prognosis of COPD patients. Based on currently available evidence professional health workers should take a proactive and continuous role with smokers, motivating them to stop smoking and providing treatment to aid smoking cessation. The treatment should include pharmacotherapy in addition to behavioural support and should be part of management of the patient's chronic respiratory condition, as the COPD National Prevention and Treatment Programme recommends. Respiratory physicians and other professional health workers should receive training to ensure they have the necessary knowledge, attitude and skills to undertake these initiatives or to refer the smokers to a suitable qualified specialist. In the near future specialised smoking units should provide specific support, promote training, improve research and awareness and establish tobacco control measures in hospitals and primary health care centres.

  2. Developing an Occupational Health Program: The Team Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Prossin, Albert

    1985-01-01

    Occupational health and safety programs involve professionals in occupational medicine and nursing, industrial hygiene, safety and accident prevention, psychology, sociology and health physics. Occupational health programs should allow regular health evaluations of workers, and the recognition, evaluation, and control of environmental hazards. When designing in-plant medical facilities, accommodation should be made for possible future expansion, disabled people, and an access route for an amb...

  3. Equine-Assisted Experiential Learning in Occupational Therapy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Lynne; Wilson, Jacqueline; Greenberg, Stacey

    2017-01-01

    Equine-assisted occupational therapy (EAOT) employs horse and human cooperation in activities that facilitate social, emotional, and cognitive development. The potential benefits of equine-assisted activities for students may influence the development of these types of skills in professional occupational therapy practice. This study explored the…

  4. A public health perspective of occupational therapy: Promoting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health professionals are constantly being challenged to redefine their roles as the context and nature of health care services changes. In this paper we explore the role of occupational therapy in promoting adolescent health in mainstream school settings. Two occupational therapists were involved in a school-based, risk ...

  5. Smoking is a cause of social inequality in health, but is social position is cause of smoking?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2011-01-01

    The paper by Hart and colleagues describes occupational class differences in cause specific mortality among women who had never smoked.1 In the accompanying commentary smoking is discussed as if it was a mediator of the relationship between social position and health.2 But the uptake of smoking...... will likely take place many years before the individual's own social position has formed. For example, this author moved into occupational class I at age 26, but ceased being a never smoker around age 14. A similar argument can be made for weight gains over the life course that, in the end, result in obesity...... (for an elaborate example of these misconceptions, see e.g. Mortensen et al.).3 I think this highlights the need for great caution when we apply prescriptive interpretations to descriptive studies. Smoking is a cause of social inequality in health: If smoking was eliminated social differences would...

  6. Occupational hazard during hemodialyzers reprocessing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Helena Karnas Hoefel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Backgound and Objectives: The observation of hazards during processing of hemodialyzers showed the need to study these events. The aim of the study was to identify occupational accidents and hazards recognized by nursing professionals in the reprocessing of hemodialyzers. Methods: It was performed an exploratory-descriptive study in a haemodialysis unit of a university hospital using recall. Six nurses and fifteen nursing technicians answered the questions about risks in re-processing dialyzers. Results: 44 occupational hazards were reported: 30 (70% with the participant and 14 (30% with colleagues. Eleven (25% were touching clean surfaces with blood visible on gloves and ten (23% direct contact with blood. Disinfectants appeared in fifteen (34% cases: five contacts with the skin and mucous membranes, six to toxic fumes and three unspecified. Two reports about touching surfaces possibly contaminated but no visible blood. Conclusion: The risks reported were those that could be seen or felt, such as blood spatter and germicides, strong odors. Risks not visible were rare. KEYWORDS: Occupational risks. Occupational health. Renal Dialysi. Nursing.

  7. [The ABC of smoking cessation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bölcskei, Pál L; Walden, Kerstin

    2008-05-01

    The professional support increased chances of success for smoking cessation and is an important goal in health politics. A short advice by pharmacists can make a significant contribution to this. This article describes tobacco dependence and the "stages of change-model". Afterwards we explain possible therapies: besides cognitive-behavioral intervention, different forms of medical treatment, e.g. nicotin replacement therapy, bupropion and varenicline, will be discussed.

  8. Effective Factors on Unassisted Smoking Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül Karalezli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the contribution which effective factors on who self-quitting smoking. Methods: The study had been included in over 18 years old people who not received any pharmacological treatment or psychological support. The research was performed at the 95% ±3.09 confidence interval. Age, gender, educational status, occupation, monthly income, smoking situation and effective factors on self-quitting smoking. Results: The participants had been 50.9% (509 male and 49.5 (498 female. Median age was 35 (18-87 years old; female’s median age 35 (18-83 and male’s median age 36 (18-87. From İstanbul 351 (35%, Ankara 301 (30%, Konya 207 (20%, Antalya 148 (15% were people interviewed. This study had been the most effective factor in unassisted smoking cessation one’s own disease. The second factor had been getting fear of sick and third family pressure.The most people had been quit smoking due to diseases of respiratory system. The most fearful disease was cancer. Financial status was forth effective factor on quitting smoking. Conclusion: As a result effective factors on unassisted smoking cessation had been getting fear of sick as well as own disease. Therefore, in the process of quitting smoking, and especially young people in the project will be designed to prevent smoking was thought should be given to these issues. Also important in this regard is increasing the cigarette sales price. The compliance with laws issued to prevent smoking in closed areas, in particular young people can influence their thoughts about the hazards of smoking.

  9. Occupational Stress among Nigerian Police Officers: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    They also responded to self- report scale on the use of alcohol, smoking, religiousity and seeking for ... Policemen and women as professional law enforcement officers are subjected to a number of ..... Olff, M. (1999). “Stress, depression and immunity: The role of defense and coping styles. Psychiatry Research 85(1): 7-15.

  10. Small proportions of actively-smoking patrons and high PM2.5 levels in southern California tribal casinos: support for smoking bans or designated smoking areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klepeis Neil E

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nearly all California casinos currently allow smoking, which leads to potentially high patron exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke pollutants. Some argue that smoking restrictions or bans would result in a business drop, assuming > 50% of patrons smoke. Evidence in Nevada and responses from the 2008 California tobacco survey refute this assertion. The present study investigates the proportion of active smokers in southern California tribal casinos, as well as occupancy and PM2.5 levels in smoking and nonsmoking sections. Methods We measured active-smoker and total-patron counts during Friday or Saturday night visits (two per casino to smoking and nonsmoking gaming areas inside 11 southern California casinos. We counted slot machines and table games in each section, deriving theoretical maximum capacities and occupancy rates. We also measured PM2.5 concentrations (or used published levels in both nonsmoking and smoking areas. Results Excluding one casino visit with extremely high occupancy, we counted 24,970 patrons during 21 casino visits of whom 1,737 were actively smoking, for an overall active- smoker proportion of 7.0% and a small range of ~5% across casino visits (minimum of 5% and maximum of 10%. The differences in mean inter-casino active-smoker proportions were not statistically significant. Derived occupancy rates were 24% to 215% in the main (low-stakes smoking-allowed slot or table areas. No relationship was found between observed active-smoker proportions and occupancy rate. The derived maximum capacities of nonsmoking areas were 1% to 29% of the overall casino capacity (most under 10% and their observed occupancies were 0.1 to over 3 times that of the main smoking-allowed casino areas. Seven of twelve visits to nonsmoking areas with no separation had occupancy rates greater than main smoking areas. Unenclosed nonsmoking areas don’t substantially protect occupants from PM2.5 exposure. Nonsmoking areas

  11. [Cigarette smoking and psychosocial work stress in middle-management employees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, R; Siegrist, J; Stork, J; Mann, H; Labrot, B

    1991-01-01

    The association between psychosocial work stress and cigarette smoking is analyzed in a socioeconomically and professionally homogeneous group of 163 middle managers (40-55 years; 48.4 +/- 4.5) in a large industrial company. Psychosocial stress is defined in terms of an imbalance between effort spent and reward obtained at work. The relative risk of regular smoking is 4.34 (odds ratio after controlling for age; 95% CI 1.50-12.54) in those middle managers who suffer from a marked imbalance between effort and reward, compared to those who are free from this type of psychosocial stress at work. This effect persists in the older age group although the proportion of smokers decreases with age. Within the group of regular smokers, every second middle manager suffering from a marked imbalance between effort and reward is a heavy smoker (greater than or equal to 20 cigarettes/day) whereas in the group experiencing less stress at work, only 28% heavy smokers are found. However, due to small numbers this difference is not statistically significant. In conclusion, the data reported in this study demonstrate an association between psychosocial stress at work in terms of high effort and low reward and the risk of regular smoking. This association is not confounded by age, socio-economic status or type of occupation.

  12. The effect of the Irish smoke-free workplace legislation on smoking among bar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullally, Bernie J; Greiner, Birgit A; Allwright, Shane; Paul, Gillian; Perry, Ivan J

    2009-04-01

    On 29 March 2004, the Republic of Ireland (ROI) became the first EU country to introduce a nationwide ban on workplace smoking. While the focus of this measure was to protect worker health by reducing exposure to second-hand smoke, other effects such as a greater reduction in smoking prevalence and consumption were likely among bar workers. A random sample of bar workers from Cork city were surveyed before (n = 129) and after (n = 107; 82.9% follow-up rate) implementation of the smoke-free legislation. Self report and combined self report and cotinine concentration were used to determine smoking status. For comparison a cross-sectional random telephone survey of the general population (ROI) was conducted before and 1 year after the smoke-free legislation. There were 1240 pre- and 1221 participants post-ban in the equivalent age and occupational subset of the general population. There was a non-significant decline in smoking prevalence among bar workers 1 year post-ban (self report: -2.8% from 51.4% to 48.6%, P = 0.51; combined self report and cotinine: -4.7% from 56.1% to 51.4%, P = 0.13), but a significant decline in consumption of four cigarettes (95% CI 2.21-6.36) per day. Within the occupationally equivalent general population sub-sample there was a significant drop (3.5%, P = 0.06) in smoking prevalence but no significant change in consumption. Ireland's smoke-free workplace legislation was accompanied by a drop in smoking prevalence in both bar workers and the general population sub-sample.

  13. Smoke free policies in Europe. An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Florence Berteletti

    2009-01-01

    This article is an overview of the current status of implementation of smoke free legislation in Europe and particularly in Romania. It overviews mostly how these laws are put to work. Comments are made on the scientific evidence of the harm induced by second-hand smoking, well known cause of lung cancer, cardiac disease, low birth weight and chronic respiratory diseases like bronchitis and asthma, especially in children. In the countries where the smoke free legislation was successfully implemented (Ireland, Italy, Scotland) there is evidence of reduced prevalence of the smoking induced diseases, especially acute coronary attacks. The article emphasizes on the major role of healthcare professionals in reducing the smoking level, but also on the involvement of politicians, especially the newly elected Romanians in the European political organisms.

  14. 78 FR 4324 - Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories (Non-Mandatory Appendix); Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... gloves have been worn. (k) Eating, drinking, smoking, gum chewing, applying cosmetics, and taking... Michaels, Ph.D., MPH, Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Department of...

  15. Doctor of Professional Counseling: The Next Step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern, Stephen; Cade, Rochelle; Locke, Don W.

    2012-01-01

    Professional doctorates have been established in the allied health professions by clinicians seeking the highest levels of independent practice. Allied health professional doctorates include nursing practice (DNP), occupational therapy (OTD), psychology (PsyD), social work (DSW), and marriage and family therapy (DMFT). Lessons learned from the…

  16. Professions in Organizations, Professional Work in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderstraeten, Raf

    2007-01-01

    Professions are occupational arrangements for dealing with human problems. Professional "people work" requires a certain interactive closeness; face-to-face communication is prominent in professional-client relations. This also seems the case in the educational system. But in education, organization provides the "raison d'etre" of this profession.…

  17. Profiling Teachers' Sense of Professional Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canrinus, Esther T.; Helms-Lorenz, Michelle; Beijaard, Douwe; Buitink, Jaap; Hofman, Adriaan

    2011-01-01

    This study shows that professional identity should not be viewed as a composed variable with a uniform structure. Based on the literature and previous research, we view teachers' job satisfaction, self-efficacy, occupational commitment and change in the level of motivation as indicators of teachers' professional identity. Using two-step cluster…

  18. Role of Sonographic Imaging in Occupational Therapy Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Occupational therapy practice is grounded in the delivery of occupation-centered, patient-driven treatments that engage clients in the process of doing to improve health. As emerging technologies, such as medical imaging, find their way into rehabilitation practice, it is imperative that occupational therapy practitioners assess whether and how these tools can be incorporated into treatment regimens that are dually responsive to the medical model of health care and to the profession’s foundation in occupation. Most medical imaging modalities have a discrete place in occupation-based intervention as outcome measures or for patient education; however, sonographic imaging has the potential to blend multiple occupational therapy practice forms to document treatment outcomes, inform clinical reasoning, and facilitate improved functional performance when used as an accessory tool in direct intervention. Use of medical imaging is discussed as it relates to occupational foundations and the professional role within the context of providing efficient, effective patient-centered rehabilitative care. PMID:25871607

  19. Occupation and chronic bronchitis among Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstev, Srmena; Ji, Bu-Tian; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Gao, Yu-Tang; Blair, Aaron; Lubin, Jay; Vermeulen, Roel; Dosemeci, Mustafa; Zheng, Wei; Rothman, Nathaniel; Chow, Wong-Ho

    2008-01-01

    To examine the association between occupation and chronic bronchitis among a cross section of Chinese women who participated in the Shanghai Women's Health Study. Cases were 4873 women who self-reported a physician-diagnosed bronchitis during adulthood. Controls were 9746 women randomly selected from Shanghai Women's Health Study participants and matched with the cases by year of birth and age at diagnosis. Lifetime occupational histories were obtained. Logistic regressions were used to evaluate the association between chronic bronchitis and occupation, adjusting for smoking, education, family income, and concurrent asthma. We observed excess prevalence of bronchitis for textile occupation (odds ratio, OR = 1.09; 95% CI = 1.00-1.18) and industry (OR = 1.11; 95% CI = 1.03-1.19), welders (OR = 1.40; 95% CI = 1.01-1.92), packing and baling workers (OR = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.15-1.68), and warehousing industry (OR = 1.58; 95% CI = 1.08-2.30) We also identified several new associations that may warrant further exploration and confirmation, including employment in some metal fabrication industries, postal and telecommunication industry, and a few white-collar occupations and industries. Our study indicates that the risk of chronic bronchitis among women may be increased in some occupations and industries.

  20. Occupational exposures and risk of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santibañez, Miguel; Vioque, Jesús; Alguacil, Juan; de la Hera, Manuela García; Moreno-Osset, Eduardo; Carrato, Alfredo; Porta, Miquel; Kauppinen, Timo

    2010-10-01

    The objective was to analyze the relationship between occupation (and specific occupational exposures) and risk of exocrine pancreatic cancer (EPC). We conducted a multicenter hospital-based case-control study in Eastern Spain. We included 161 incident cases of EPC (59.6% men, 94 with histological confirmation, of whom 80% had ductal adenocarcinoma). Cases were frequency-matched with 455 controls by sex, age and province of residence. Information was elicited using structured questionnaires. Occupations were coded according to the Spanish version of the International Standard Classification of Occupations 1988. Occupational exposure to a selection of carcinogenic substances was assessed with the Finnish Job-Exposure Matrix (FINJEM). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by multiple logistic regression, adjusting for sex, age, province, education, alcohol and smoking. A higher risk of EPC was associated with having worked as 'Miners, shotfirers, stone cutters and carvers', 'Machinery mechanics and fitters', 'Building trades workers' and 'Motor vehicle drivers' in men, 'Office Clerks' in women, and 'Waiters' in both sexes. Cases with ductal adenocarcinomas were more likely to have been exposed to chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents (OR = 4.1, 95% CI: 1.1-15.2, p-trend = 0.04). We also observed significant associations with exposure to 'synthetic polymer dust exposure' and 'ionizing radiation'. Suggestive increases in risk were observed for 'pesticides', 'diesel and gasoline engine exhaust', and 'hydrocarbon solvents'. Results support the hypothesis that occupational exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents is associated with exocrine pancreatic cancer.

  1. How does individual smoking behaviour among hospital staff influence their knowledge of the health consequences of smoking?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willaing, Ingrid; Jørgensen, Torben; Iversen, Lars

    2003-01-01

    AIMS: This study examined associations between individual smoking habits among hospital staff and their knowledge of the health consequences of smoking and passive smoking. The a priori hypothesis was a higher level of knowledge among non-smokers compared with smokers. METHODS: A survey...... and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Main outcome measures were knowledge of the health consequences of smoking, passive smoking and other lifestyle factors. RESULTS: A total of 445 of 487 employees (91%) from all professional groups returned the questionnaire. Compared with ex- and never...... smokers, smokers systematically underestimate the health consequences of smoking and passive smoking independent of profession, department, sex, and age. There is no consistent association between knowledge of the health consequences of smoking and profession and department. There are significant inverse...

  2. [Effect of tobacco smoking on albumin concentration and β-glucuronidase activity in urine of smelters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizonń, Anna; Witt, Katarzyna; Milnerowicz, Malgorzata; Milnerowicz, Halina

    2014-01-01

    The aim of present study was to estimate the nephrotoxicity of occupational exposure to heavy metals on albumin concentration and β-glucuronidase activity in the urine of smoking and non-smoking smelters. The study was performed in urine of 101 smoking and non-smoking smelters as well as 65 smoking and non-smoking male subjects unexposed to heavy metals. Section into smoking and non-smoking groups was made on basis on direct personal interview and by determination of serum cotinine concentration. The concentration of albumin in urine was measured with commercial test (Micro-Albumin ELISA Cat. No 5MA 74212, ORGENTEC Diagnostika Gmbh, Germany). The activity of β-glucuronidase in urine were determined in urine using 4-nitrophenyl β D-glucuronide (Cat. No 73677, Sigma Aldrich, Germany) as a substrate. We have observed higher albumin concentration and β-glucuronidase activity in urine of smoking and non-smoking smelters when compared to control groups. We have also found the influence of tobacco smoke as well as amount of cigarettes smoked on albumin concentration in urine of smoking smelters. A statistically significant difference was detected between activity of β-glucuronidase in urine of smoking and non-smoking smelters, which suggest as additional negative factor of exposure to tobacco smoke. Analyzing the impact of smoking intensity we have found higher albumin concentration and β-glucuronidase activity in urine of smelters smoking ≥20 cigarettes per day when compared to smelters smoking urine of workers occupational exposure to heavy metals and tobacco smoke indicated, that environmental exposure on these factors can disorders kidney functions.

  3. Smoking Programs for Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Bernard H., Jr., Ed.; And Others

    The youth smoking problem is discussed and assistance is provided for teachers in developing smoking prevention and cessation programs. Four chapters serve as guides to understanding and working with the youth smoking problem. "Teenage Smoking in America" reviews trends in teenage smoking behavior and the factors that influence the initiation of…

  4. Secondhand Smoke and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español 1-800-4-CANCER Live Chat Publications Dictionary Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors ... What is secondhand smoke? Secondhand smoke (also called environmental tobacco smoke, involuntary smoke, and passive smoke) is ...

  5. Occupational contact allergic dermatitis in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikov, Ivan; Turkalj, Ivan; Jovanović, Marina

    2011-06-01

    Dental professionals may be at increased risk of developing occupational allergic diseases specially to methacrylates that can permeate protective disposable gloves. We presented a case of occupational allergic contact dermatitis in a 28-year-old dental technician. The patient had complained of itching and cracking of fingers for 6 months. The dermatitis improved over weekends. Skin erythema and scaling were present with primarily involvement of the fingertips. Patch testing with dental series gave positive vesicular reaction to methyl methacrylate. Follow-up after 6 months of allergen avoidance showed a complete regression of dermatitis. Methacrylates serve as bases for acrylic resins which are used in prosthetics. Methyl methacrylate as a small molecular acrylate can permeate thin protective disposable gloves. Using adequate personal protective equipment, like nitrile rubber gloves, is the most important preventive measure in this occupation. Health practitioners should recognize possible occupational hazards in dentistry and implement appropriate preventive measures to protect health of workers.

  6. Occupational risk involving students of health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éder Oliveira Rocha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the social representations of occupational risks involving students in the area of health. Method: Exploratory research with 160 students from nursing, medicine and dentistry, through interviews. The data were processed in ALCESTE 4.8 and lexical analysis done by descending hierarchical classification. Results: In four semantic classes, namely: occupational risks involving students in the area of health, the work environment and occupational risks, exposure to accidents with sharps and adoption of standard precautions as biosecurity measures. Conclusion: Students healthcare represent occupational risks, such as a concern for the prevention of cross infection in the workplace, should both professionals and students of health, adopt standard precautions and biosecurity measures in the environment work.

  7. Is occupational stress associated with work engagement ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Rosimeire Simprini; Chiavegato, Luciana Dias; Cabral, Cristina Maria Nunes; Almeid, Talita; Ortiz, Thais; Carregaro, Rodrigo Luiz

    2012-01-01

    The occupational stress is associated with dissatisfaction, excessive demand at work and personal factors. Those factors can reduce work performance and can predispose workers to various diseases. Workers' health may be protected if there is encouragement to face challenges, which may lessen the impact on psychological and somatic stress and thus have greater personal and professional satisfaction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between occupational stress and work engagement. Participated in this study 457 male and female workers of a metallurgical industry. Subjects answered personal data, and the Job Stress Scale and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale were applied. Results showed an association between occupational stress and work engagement (P=0,001). The way the individual deals with his frustrations, or rather the work engagement, is associated with the occupational stress.

  8. Inbound, Outbound or Peripheral: The Impact of Discourses of "Organisational" Professionalism on Becoming a Teacher in English Further Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathmaker, Ann-Marie; Avis, James

    2013-01-01

    This article explores constructions of teacher identities at a time of significant changes to public service professionalism. The article draws on different discourses of professionalism, contrasting "organisational" and "occupational" professionalism, with discourses of "personal" and "critical"…

  9. Possible causes of quitting smoking among women in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarenko, Ksenia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. According to the Global Adult Tobacco Survey completed in 2010 in Ukraine, 28,8% (about 11,5 million of adults aged 15 years and older are current smokers. Among women, prevalence of current smoking is 11,2%, which is considerably less than among men (50%. The goal of the study was to reveal the determinants of quitting smoking among women.METHODS. The sample included 571 women, who were current or former daily smokers. Firstly, the bivariate analysis (cross-tabulation and chi-square test was conducted. Then, the significant determinants from bivariate analysis were included to binary logistic regression. The women’s smoking status (current daily smokers vs. former daily smokers was considered an outcome measure. Independent variables included education, age, occupation, income, religion, marital status, variation in prices for tobacco products, awareness of the negative consequences of smoking, permission to smoke at home, and whether the woman received an advice to quit smoking from a health worker.RESULTS. Bivariate analysis showed that there was statistically significant relationships with age, marital status, occupation, permission to smoke at home, having received information about the dangers of smoking from the radio, newspapers, and other sources. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that the unemployed women and women from households where smoking was banned were more likely to quit smoking. Unmarried women were less likely to quit smoking than married.CONCLUSIONS. Quitting smoking among women was associated with being married, unemployed, and living in a home where smoking is banned. Major limitations of the study are the small sample size and cross-sectional nature of the study; hence, the inerrant conclusions about cause-effect relationships are not possible. So, longitudinal study with larger sample could be a better future option.

  10. Smoking among Saudi students: a review of risk factors and early intentions of smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almutairi, Khalid M

    2014-10-01

    This review aims to determine the prevalence of smoking among Saudi students and to study and to identify, synthesize and summarize the predictors that initiate smoking among students in different ages in Saudi Arabia. Different databases were searched (Web of Science, Google Scholar, Pub Med and Science Direct) with keywords. This search was carried out in October 2013. Studies that included were evaluated for methodological soundness by giving a quality score based on Russell and Gregory's criteria. A total 12 relevant articles were included in this review. The findings show that the prevalence of smoking is still in higher rates. The age of smoking was started among adolescents ranged from 10 to 15 years old while from university students were from 16 years old. The main reason for smoking among adolescents was influenced by friends. Among college students were peer pressure followed by the stress, media and imitation of others. Curiosity was a reason for having tried smoking and parents was perceived to be the first source for smoking. Religion was considered the main factor against smoking among the adolescent non-smokers and health consideration among college students. Appropriate smoking control programs on adolescent should be initiated they become the future professionals of the society. Smoking control programs should be considered in this group.

  11. Pattern of Smoking Habit among Greek Blue and White Collar Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Hadjichristodoulou

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of smoking in a Greek working population. A questionnaire regarding smoking habit was collected from 1,005 out of 1,200 blue and white-collar employees (response rate: 84%. The overall smoking prevalence was 48.4% and did not differ by sex, age, education, and occupation. The mean cigarette consumption per day was 25.54, with no difference observed by occupation. The above-mentioned findings, if confirmed by further research, are alarming and inconsistent with the prevalent pattern of smoking habits in the West.

  12. Pattern of Smoking Habit among Greek Blue and White Collar Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachiotis, George; Karydis, Ioannis; Drivas, Spyros; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2009-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of smoking in a Greek working population. A questionnaire regarding smoking habit was collected from 1,005 out of 1,200 blue and white-collar employees (response rate: 84%). The overall smoking prevalence was 48.4% and did not differ by sex, age, education, and occupation. The mean cigarette consumption per day was 25.54, with no difference observed by occupation. The above-mentioned findings, if confirmed by further research, are alarming and inconsistent with the prevalent pattern of smoking habits in the West. PMID:19578462

  13. The New Nurse in Industry. A Guide for the Newly Employed Occupational Health Nurse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jane A.

    These guidelines for professional nurses and employers in industrial settings present basic and fundamental nursing principles, duties, and responsibilities in the practice of occupational health. The content is presented in four chapters. The first briefly introduces occupational health. Chapter 2 on occupational health nursing service covers…

  14. Perceptions and Attitudes of Occupational Therapy Faculty towards the Scholarship of Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordinetz, Sue Ann

    2009-01-01

    Occupational therapy educators have been encouraged to engage in the scholarship of teaching as a form of best practice in education. Despite professional documents and encouragement by leaders in the field of occupational therapy, there is very little known about occupational therapy educators' perceptions, attitudes, and engagement in the…

  15. Swedish entrepreneurs' use of occupational health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, Kristina; Andersson, Ing-Marie; Josephson, Malin

    2011-10-01

    Small-scale enterprises are less often covered by occupational health services and have insufficient awareness about health and risks in the work environment. This study investigated how Swedish entrepreneurs in small-scale enterprises use occupational health services. The study used a questionnaire sent in two waves, 5 years apart. At baseline, 496 entrepreneurs responded, and 251 participated 5 years later. The questionnaire included items about affiliation with and use of occupational health services, physical and psychosocial work environments, work environment management, sources of work environment information, and membership in professional networks. Only 3% of entrepreneurs without employees and 19% of entrepreneurs with employees were affiliated with an occupational health service. Entrepreneurs affiliated with occupational health services were more active in work environment management and gathering information about the work environment. The occupational health services most used were health examinations, health care, and ergonomic risk assessments. Affiliation with occupational health services was 6% at both measurements, 4% at baseline, and 10% 5 years later. 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Asthma and Wheeze Prevalence among Nursing Professionals in Western Japan: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Kurai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although adult asthma is attributable to occupational factors, few reports are available on asthma prevalence among health care workers in Japan. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of asthma and wheeze among Japanese nursing professionals. A cross-sectional study was conducted by postal survey using a translated version of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey questionnaire from April to June 2013. The analysis included 4634 nursing professionals (257 men and 4377 women and the overall response rate was 84.8%. The prevalence of current asthma and wheeze were 10.7% (95% confidence interval (CI, 9.9%–11.7% and 15.6% (95% CI, 14.5%–16.6%, respectively. More than one year of work experience as a nursing professional and more than one year of experience with bed-making tasks were associated with odds ratios (ORs of 1.95 (95% CI, 1.12–3.39 and 1.64 (95% CI, 1.15–2.23 for wheeze, respectively. Current smoking was significantly associated with the presence of wheeze, with ORs of 2.27 for men (95% CI, 1.11–4.64 and 2.01 for women (95% CI, 1.54–2.64. Among female nurses, latex allergy was associated with wheeze (OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.56–2.23, as was body mass index ≥30 (OR, 2.76; 95% CI, 1.65–4.62. This study has provided the prevalence of asthma and wheeze among Japanese nursing professionals. Employment period, bed-making tasks, latex allergy, obesity, and smoking may be risk factors for prevalent wheeze among nursing professionals.

  17. Impact of smoking and obesity on rheumatic disease in persons of productive age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusianawaty Tana

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Arthritis is a disease of the joints that causes pain and musculoskeletal stiffness, and may cause limitation of joint movement. Age, obesity, smoking behavior, and occupation are risk factors for rheumatic diseases. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the role of body mass index (BMI, smoking behavior, and occupation on rheumatic disease among persons of productive age in Indonesia. A cross-sectional study was conducted using National Basic Health Research data. The inclusion criterion was age 15-64 years. Rheumatic disease diagnosis was based on interview results and was defined as the presence of a history of rheumatic disease diagnosed by health professionals and/or rheumatic symptoms in the past 12 months. The study sample consisted of 609.097 persons who fulfilled the inclusion criterion. Compared to persons with normal BMI, rheumatic disease was more prevalent in the overweight (OR 1.25; 95%CI 1.21—1.29 and the obese (OR 1.52; 95%CI 1.47—1.56, but less prevalent in the underweight (OR 0.91; 95%CI 0.88—0.93. Compared to non-smokers, rheumatic disease was more prevalent in every day smokers (OR 1.65; 95%CI 1.60—1.70, occasional smokers (OR 1.41; 95%CI 1.35—1.47, and ex-smokers (OR 1.85; 95%CI 1.76—1.95. Measures for prevention of rheumatic disease are needed, e.g. through education to increase knowledge about the impact of smoking and obesity on rheumatic disease.

  18. Occupational Structure in European Countries: What do Forecasts Predict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Vishnevskaya

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the future occupational structure of the labour force in European members of the Organisation for Co-operation and Development (OECD. Occupational structure forecasts allow researchers to evaluate the quality of job openings and, consequently, overall future labour market performance. Identification of demand for certain occupations in Europe can facilitate assessment of whether processes occurring in the Russian labour market are consistent with global trends. The paper discusses the methodology of labour force forecasting and basic research approaches to the prediction of occupational structure changes. It emphasizes the dynamics of demand for representatives of certain occupations in Europe by identifying the fastest growing and declining occupations and suggests possible reasons for changing demand. The paper demonstrates that the main occupational trend over the next decade will consist in the increasing importance of professionals, as well as technicians and associate professionals. The increase in demand for health professionals and representatives of occupations providing scientific and technological innovation will be most significant. At the same time, it is expected that demand for elementary occupations will also rise. This process will evolve simultaneously with the decrease in the total number of skilled and semi-skilled blue-collar occupations due to globalization and the reduction of industrial production in developed economies. The ongoing “mechanization” of many job functions will not eliminate the need for occupations such as cleaners, labourers, domestic servants or personal workers. The need for these jobs allow employees with low levels of education to enter the labour market rather than depending on the social benefit system. Another tendency for all countries with developed economies will be reduced demand for many whitecollar occupations as modern computer technologies and the automation of many

  19. Smoking and COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000696.htm Smoking and COPD To use the sharing features on this page, ... enable JavaScript. Smoking is the leading cause of COPD. Smoking is also a trigger for COPD flare- ...

  20. Smoking and surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surgery - quitting smoking; Surgery - quitting tobacco; Wound healing - smoking ... Tar, nicotine, and other chemicals from smoking can increase your risk of many health problems. These include heart and blood vessel problems, such as: Blood clots and aneurysms in ...

  1. Smoking and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking cigarettes has many health risks for everyone. However, the younger you are when you start smoking, the more problems it can cause. People who start smoking before the age of 21 have the hardest ...

  2. Second Hand Smoke: Danger

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Second Hand Smoke: Danger! Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Make ... the United States are still exposed to secondhand smoke, even though cigarette smoking rates are dropping and ...

  3. Secondhand Smoke and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Secondhand Smoke and Children Secondhand Smoke and Children Patient Health ... in homes with at least one adult smoker. Smoke’s effect on…... The fetus and newborn Maternal, fetal, ...

  4. Transforming values into action: Advocacy as a professional imperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsh, Bonnie H

    2015-10-01

    The goal of enabling meaningful occupation for all requires occupational therapy to become a more socially and politically responsible discipline. This paper argues that occupational therapy's dominant individualist perspective is too narrow to meet this goal. It presents an argument for integrating advocacy into occupational therapy identity and discusses why we should advocate at political and public levels. Although the dominant paradigm and political climate pose challenges, there must be a realignment of the balance between helping individuals who are facing disruptions in their occupational lives and addressing systems and structures that prevent them from moving forward. Adopting a broader sociopolitical approach involves engaging in advocacy as a key strategy. Indeed, advocacy is a professional imperative for occupational therapy. Advocacy must become part of the process of professional socialization. A new set of competencies is needed in our educational programs and in our professional development, accompanied by a sense of self-confident idealism.

  5. Parental Smoking Exposure and Adolescent Smoking Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Stephen E.; Rende, Richard; Luta, George; Tercyak, Kenneth P.; Niaura, Raymond S.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In a multigenerational study of smoking risk, the objective was to investigate the intergenerational transmission of smoking by examining if exposure to parental smoking and nicotine dependence predicts prospective smoking trajectories among adolescent offspring. METHODS: Adolescents (n = 406) ages 12 to 17 and a parent completed baseline interviews (2001–2004), and adolescents completed up to 2 follow-up interviews 1 and 5 years later. Baseline interviews gathered detailed information on parental smoking history, including timing and duration, current smoking, and nicotine dependence. Adolescent smoking and nicotine dependence were assessed at each time point. Latent Class Growth Analysis identified prospective smoking trajectory classes from adolescence into young adulthood. Logistic regression was used to examine relationships between parental smoking and adolescent smoking trajectories. RESULTS: Four adolescent smoking trajectory classes were identified: early regular smokers (6%), early experimenters (23%), late experimenters (41%), and nonsmokers (30%). Adolescents with parents who were nicotine-dependent smokers at baseline were more likely to be early regular smokers (odds ratio 1.18, 95% confidence interval 1.05–1.33) and early experimenters (odds ratio 1.04, 95% confidence interval 1.04–1.25) with each additional year of previous exposure to parental smoking. Parents’ current non-nicotine–dependent and former smoking were not associated with adolescent smoking trajectories. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to parental nicotine dependence is a critical factor influencing intergenerational transmission of smoking. Adolescents with nicotine-dependent parents are susceptible to more intense smoking patterns and this risk increases with longer duration of exposure. Research is needed to optimize interventions to help nicotine-dependent parents quit smoking early in their children’s lifetime to reduce these risks. PMID:24819567

  6. A call for sustainable practice in occupational therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Carole W; Dorsey, Julie A; Gitlow, Lynn

    2015-06-01

    The ability of the earth to sustain health among humans and in the natural world is under threat from overpopulation, environmental degradation, and climate change. These global threats are anticipated to harm health and human occupation in many direct and indirect ways. Strategies are needed to mitigate the effects of these threats and to build individual and community capacities to foster resilience. This paper links issues of sustainability with occupational therapy philosophy and discusses how employing a sustainability lens with professional reasoning can help practitioners integrate sustainability into their practice. Human occupation is inseparable from the environments in which people live. Human occupation has caused the current environmental crisis, and targeted human action is required to safeguard future health and well-being. Occupational therapists have an ethical obligation to use professional reasoning strategies that, taken collectively, can help to build a sustainable and resilient future.

  7. Maori nurses and smoking: what do we know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Heather; Wilson, Denise; Boulton, Amohia; Walker, Leonie; Shepherd-Sinclair, Wiki

    2013-10-18

    A research partnership between NZNO, Whakauae Research, and Taupua Waiora aimed to determine Maori registered and student nurses' smoking behaviours and attitudes to smoking cessation. We analysed a national web-based survey that explored the behaviours and views of 410 NZNO Maori nurses, student nurses and other health workers using descriptive statistical analysis. Findings confirm a smoking prevalence rate of 21.5% for all respondents--32% for Maori nursing students and 20% for Maori nurses. Of smokers, 75% of nurses smoke fewer than 10 cigarettes per day, 84% smoked outside their homes, and almost 20% indicated they were considering quitting within the next month. Most nurses who had attempted to, or had, quit did not use the range of smoking cessation interventions available. Maori nurses see the value in smoking cessation for improving their own and other's health, although many did not necessarily see themselves as effective in supporting Maori with smoking prevention and cessation. Prevalence rates for smoking among Maori registered nurses was lower than previous research and many of those still smoking indicate a strong intention to quit. Quit attempts in this occupation group could be better informed by evidence. Increasing the number of Maori nurses who are smoke-free will have the added benefit of increasing the efficacy of cessation interventions with patients and whanau (extended families).

  8. Structure fires, smoke production, and smoke alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Michael D

    2011-01-01

    Smoke inhalation injury causes severe morbidity and death. In the United States, the majority of fatalities from fire and burns occur because of inhalation of smoke. Medical treatment is only supportive; there is no known antidote to the damaging effects of smoke toxicants on pulmonary tissue. Without question, minimization of the morbidity and mortality that are caused by smoke inhalation is best accomplished by prevention of the injury. Effective prevention programs depend on a thorough and detailed understanding of the mechanism of damage caused by smoke, as well as of the available options for efficacious prevention. This summary presents details of smoke production from structure fires, the effects of smoke on physiology, and the devices currently in use to prevent damage and death from smoke.

  9. Percepções de profissionais de enfermagem sobre intervenções de Terapia Ocupacional em Saúde Mental em hospital universitário Percepciones de profesionales de enfermería sobre intervenciones de Terapia Ocupacional en Salud Mental en hospital universitario Perceptions of professional nurses about occupational therapy interventions in mental health at a university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Tedesco

    2011-01-01

    al sujeto y su experiencia; la terapia ocupacional como proceso de ayuda y cuidado para el equipo; el grupo de Terapia Ocupacional como espacio de resonancia y facilitación en el manejo del paciente en razón de la percepción de aspectos relacionales. CONCLUSIÓN: Las estrategias fueron percibidas, tanto como promotoras de la reorganización de la situación vivida por el paciente en el internamiento, así como oportunidades de enseñanza y apoyo para el equipo de enfermería.OBJECTIVE: To identify the perceptions of professional nurses on group interventions by occupational therapists in mental health with patients admitted to a university hospital. METHODS: A qualitative study of the type described. The notes of the coordinators of occupational therapy groups were analyzed in relation to the interviews held with a professional and technical nursing staff that participated in the occupational therapy intervention group for a period of two years. The results were analyzed using the collective subject discourse (DSC method. RESULTS: We identified four central ideas of the DSC: occupational therapy as favoring integrated care, valuing the subject and his experience, the occupational therapy process to help and care for their own team, the occupational therapy group as a space of resonance and facilitation of the management with the patient because of the perception of relational aspects. CONCLUSION: The strategies were perceived, either as promoters of the reorganization of the life situation experienced by the patient on admission, or as learning opportunities and support for nursing staff.

  10. International survey of occupational health nurses' roles in multidisciplinary teamwork in occupational health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Bonnie; Kono, Keiko; Marziale, Maria Helena Palucci; Peurala, Marjatta; Radford, Jennifer; Staun, Julie

    2014-07-01

    Access to occupational health services for primary prevention and control of work-related injuries and illnesses by the global workforce is limited (World Health Organization [WHO], 2013). From the WHO survey of 121 (61%) participating countries, only one-third of the responding countries provided occupational health services to more than 30% of their workers (2013). How services are provided in these countries is dependent on legal requirements and regulations, population, workforce characteristics, and culture, as well as an understanding of the impact of workplace hazards and worker health needs. Around the world, many occupational health services are provided by occupational health nurses independently or in collaboration with other disciplines' professionals. These services may be health protection, health promotion, or both, and are designed to reduce health risks, support productivity, improve workers' quality of life, and be cost-effective. Rantanen (2004) stated that basic occupational health services must increase rather than decline, especially as work becomes more complex; workforces become more dynamic and mobile, creating new models of work-places; and jobs become more precarious and temporary. To better understand occupational health services provided by occupational health nurses globally and how decisions are made to provide these services, this study examined the scope of services provided by a sample of participating occupational health nurses from various countries. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. World Federation of occupational therapists' position statement on telehealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to state the World Federation of Occupational Therapists' (WFOT) position on the use of telehealth for the delivery of occupational therapy services. Telehealth is the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) to deliver health-related services when the provider and client are in different physical locations. Additional terms used to describe this service delivery model include: tele-occupational therapy, telerehabilitation, teletherapy, telecare, telemedicine, and telepractice, among other terms. Telehealth may be used by occupational therapy practitioners for evaluation, intervention, monitoring, supervision, and consultation (between remote therapist, client, and/or local health-care provider) as permitted by jurisdictional, institutional, and professional regulations and policies governing the practice of occupational therapy. Occupational therapy services via telehealth should be appropriate to the individuals, groups and cultures served, and contextualized to the occupations and interests of clients. Important considerations related to licensure/registration, collaboration with local occupational therapists, client selection, consent to treat, professional liability insurance, confidentiality, personal and cultural attributes, provider competence/standards of care, reimbursement/payer guidelines, and authentic occupational therapy practice are discussed.

  12. World Federation of Occupational Therapists' Position Statement on Telehealth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    World Federation of Occupational Therapists

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this document is to state the World Federation of Occupational Therapists’ (WFOT position on the use of telehealth for the delivery of occupational therapy services. Telehealth is the use of information and communication technologies (ICT to deliver health-related services when the provider and client are in different physical locations. Additional terms used to describe this service delivery model include: tele-occupational therapy, telerehabilitation, teletherapy, telecare, telemedicine, and telepractice, among other terms. Telehealth may be used by occupational therapy practitioners for evaluation, intervention, monitoring, supervision, and consultation (between remote therapist, client, and/or local health-care provider as permitted by jurisdictional, institutional, and professional regulations and policies governing the practice of occupational therapy.Occupational therapy services via telehealth should be appropriate to the individuals, groups and cultures served,and contextualized to the occupations and interests of clients. Important considerations related to licensure/registration, collaboration with local occupational therapists, client selection, consent to treat, professional liability insurance, confidentiality, personal and cultural attributes, provider competence/standards of care, reimbursement/payer guidelines, and authentic occupational therapy practice are discussed.

  13. Professional Confidence and the Graduate Student's Double Bind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolensky, Robert P.

    The socialization of sociology graduate students is examined to determine why graduate students often lack professional confidence, promise, and maturity. A review of professional development literature indicates possible problems. The student who lacks professional and occupational objectives, commitment, and works at less than full potential is…

  14. I only smoke when I have nothing to do

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, A.B.; Hounsgaard, Lise

    2013-01-01

    professionals and semi-structured interviews with 4 smokers (2 women and 2 men). Data were analysed with a phenomenological hermeneutic approach. Results: All informants were daily smokers. During work hours, they smoked fewer cigarettes due to control policy as well as having something to do. At home......Smoking-related illnesses, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease and lung cancer, are common in Greenland. Factors such as age, gender, cigarette use, restricted smoking at home and socio-economic determinants are well-known predictors for smoking and smoking...... cessation. In 2005, 66% of the adult population in were Greenland smokers, despite widespread smoking cessation campaigns. It is therefore imperative to identify the factors that influence the low levels of smoking cessation to be able to offer cessation interventions of high quality. Aim: To develop...

  15. Smoking Cessation in Adolescents: targeted approaches that work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towns, Susan; DiFranza, Joseph R; Jayasuriya, Geshani; Marshall, Tracey; Shah, Smita

    2017-03-01

    Smoking Cessation in adolescents can be considered in a developmental context to enable the clinician to individualise the appropriate assessment and management of the young person they are seeing whether it is in a primary or tertiary care setting. Adolescence is a time of rapid neurocognitive and hormonal change with these factors affected by personality and behavioural factors as well as family, cultural and psychosocial context. Adolescents are uniquely vulnerable to smoking initiation and nicotine addiction throughout these years. Increased awareness of the risks of smoking and using opportunities to assess and intervene regarding smoking cessation are integral to clinical practice for all clinicians seeing young people. This review will discuss the demographics of adolescent smoking, risk factors, assessing smoking and nicotine addiction, the importance of brief interventions, the evidence base for appropriate interventions, particularly in high risk groups and will emphasise innovative training for health professionals in adolescent smoking cessation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Recommendations to improve smoking cessation outcomes from people with lung conditions who smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Masefield

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to gain insight into the impact of lung conditions on smoking behaviour and smoking cessation, and identify recommendations for smoking cessation and professional-patient communications. The study was led by the European Lung Foundation in collaboration with the European Respiratory Society Task Force on “Statement on smoking cessation on COPD and other pulmonary diseases and in smokers with comorbidities who find it difficult to quit”. A web-based observational cross-sectional questionnaire was developed from a patient-centered literature review. Topics covered were: cohort characteristics; perspectives on smoking cessation; interactions with healthcare professionals; and recommendations to improve cessation outcomes. The questionnaire was disseminated via existing patient and professional networks and social media channels. The survey was available online for a period of 4 months in 16 languages. The data were analysed as a whole, not by country, with thematic analysis of the open responses. Common characteristics were: male (54%; age 40–55 years (39%; 11–20 cigarettes a day (39%; smokes within 30 min of waking (61%; and has made 1–5 cessation attempts in the previous 12 months (54%. 59% had tried cessation treatments, but, of these, 55% had not found any treatments helpful. Recommendations were: earlier intervention; discussion of the patient's smoking beliefs, behaviours and motivation; giving constructive advice; understanding addiction; informed decision-making; and treatment options. Areas for new and further research have been highlighted through exploring the smoking cessation perspectives and recommendations of people with lung conditions in Europe who smoke.

  17. Smoking in Movies and Adolescent Smoking Initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Matthis; Sargent, James D.; Engels, Rutger C.M.E.; Scholte, Ron H.J.; Florek, Ewa; Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen; Mathis, Federica; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2013-01-01

    Background Longitudinal studies from the U.S. suggest a causal relationship between exposure to images of smoking in movies and adolescent smoking onset. Purpose This study investigates whether adolescent smoking onset is predicted by the amount of exposure to smoking in movies across six European countries with various cultural and regulatory approaches to tobacco. Methods Longitudinal survey of 9987 adolescent never-smokers recruited in the years 2009–2010 (mean age 13.2 years) in 112 state-funded schools from Germany, Iceland, Italy, The Netherlands, Poland, and the United Kingdom (UK), and followed-up in 2011. Exposure to movie smoking was estimated from 250 top-grossing movies in each country. Multilevel mixed-effects Poisson regressions were performed in 2012 to assess the relationship between exposure at baseline and smoking status at follow-up. Results During the observation period (M=12 months), 17% of the sample initiated smoking. The estimated mean exposure to on-screen tobacco was 1560 occurrences. Overall, and after controlling for age; gender; family affluence; school performance; TVscreen time; personality characteristics; and smoking status of peers, parents, and siblings, exposure to each additional 1000 tobacco occurrences increased the adjusted relative risk for smoking onset by 13% (95% CI=8%, 17%, pmovie smoking exposure and smoking initiation was significant in all countries; after covariate adjustment, the relationship remained significant in Germany, Iceland, The Netherlands, Poland, and UK. Conclusions Seeing smoking in movies is a predictor of smoking onset in various cultural contexts. The results confirm that limiting young people’s exposure to movie smoking might be an effective way to decrease adolescent smoking onset. PMID:23498098

  18. Occupational factors and risk of adult bone sarcomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merletti, Franco; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Bertoni, Franco

    2006-01-01

    sarcoma (68 chondrosarcomas and 28 osteosarcomas) were compared to 2,632 population (68%) or colon cancer (32%) controls. Subjects were interviewed to obtain information on occupational, medical and reproductive history, smoking and alcohol consumption and selected exposures including use of pesticides...

  19. Smoking habits, knowledge about and attitudes toward smoking among employees in health institutions in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Miodrag

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. According to the number of active smokers, Serbia occupies a high position in Europe, as well as worldwide. More than 47% of adults are smokers according to WHO data, and 33.6% according to the National Health Survey Serbia in 2006. Smoking physicians are setting a bad example to patients, they are uncritical to this habit, rarely ask patients whether they smoke and rarely advise them not to smoke. These facts contribute to the battle for reducing the number of medical workers who smoke, as well as the number of smokers among general population. The aim of the study was to determine the smoking behavior, knowledge and attitudes and cessation advice given to patients by healthcare professionals in Serbia. Methods. A stratified random cluster sample of 1,383 participants included all types of health institutions in Serbia excluding Kosovo. The self administrated questionnaire was used to collect data about smoking habits, knowledge, attitudes and cessation advice to patients given by health professionals in Serbia. Results. Out of 1,383 participants, 45.60% were smokers, of whom 34.13% were physicians and 51.87% nurses. There were 46.4% male and 45.4% female smokers. The differences in agreement with the statements related to the responsibilities of health care professionals and smoking policy are significant between the “ever” and “never” smokers, and also between physicians and nurses. Twenty-five percent of nurses and 22% of doctors claimed they had received formal training. However, only 35.7% of the healthcare professionals felt very prepared to counsel patients, while 52.7% felt somewhat prepared and 11.6% were not prepared at all. Conclusions. According to the result of this survey, there are needs for more aggressive nationwide non-smoking campaigns for physicians and medical students. Experiences from countries where physicians smoke less and more effectively carry out smoking cessation practices need to be shared

  20. Smoking habits, knowledge about and attitudes toward smoking among employees in health institutions in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanović, Miodrag; Musović, Dijana; Petrović, Branislav; Milosević, Zoran; Milosavljević, Ivica; Visnjić, Aleksandar; Sokolović, Dusan

    2013-05-01

    According to the number of active smokers, Serbia occupies a high position in Europe, as well as worldwide. More than 47% of adults are smokers according to WHO data, and 33.6% according to the National Health Survey Serbia in 2006. Smoking physicians are setting a bad example to patients, they are uncritical to this habit, rarely ask patients whether they smoke and rarely advise them not to smoke. These facts contribute to the battle for reducing the number of medical workers who smoke, as well as the number of smokers among general population. The aim of the study was to determine the smoking behavior, knowledge and attitudes and cessation advice given to patients by healthcare professionals in Serbia. A stratified random cluster sample of 1,383 participants included all types of health institutions in Serbia excluding Kosovo. The self administrated questionnaire was used to collect data about smoking habits, knowledge, attitudes and cessation advice to patients given by health professionals in Serbia. Out of 1,383 participants, 45.60% were smokers, of whom 34.13% were physicians and 51.87% nurses. There were 46.4% male and 45.4% female smokers. The differences in agreement with the statements related to the responsibilities of health care professionals and smoking policy are significant between the "ever" and "never" smokers, and also between physicians and nurses. Twenty-five percent of nurses and 22% of doctors claimed they had received formal training. However, only 35.7% of the healthcare professionals felt very prepared to counsel patients, while 52.7% felt somewhat prepared and 11.6% were not prepared at all. According to the result of this survey, there are needs for more aggressive nationwide non-smoking campaigns for physicians and medical students. Experiences from countries where physicians smoke less and more effectively carry out smoking cessation practices need to be shared with Serbian physicians in order to improve their smoking behavior and

  1. Smoking and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking and Pregnancy Smoking can cause problems for a woman trying to become pregnant or who is already pregnant, and for her baby ... too early • Pregnancy occurs outside of the womb Smoking causes these health effects. Smoking could cause these ...

  2. Depression and Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... smokers might get depression more easily because they smoke. No matter what the cause, there are treatments that work for both depression and smoking. How is depression different from withdrawal from smoking? Mood changes are common after quitting smoking. You might ...

  3. Occupational Asthma in a Cable Manufacturing Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attarchi, Mirsaeed; Dehghan, Faezeh; Yazdanparast, Taraneh; Mohammadi, Saber; Golchin, Mahdie; Sadeghi, Zargham; Moafi, Masoud; Seyed Mehdi, Seyed Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: During the past decade, incidence of asthma has increased, which might have been due to environmental exposures. Objectives: Considering the expansion of cable manufacturing industry in Iran, the present study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of occupational asthma in a cable manufacturing company in Iran as well as its related factors. Patients and Methods: This study was conducted on employees of a cable manufacturing company in Yazd, Iran, in 2012. The workers were divided into two groups of exposure (to toluene diisocyanate, polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene or polypropylene) and without exposure. Diagnosis of occupational asthma was made based on the subjects’ medical history, spirometry and peak flowmetry, and its frequency was compared between the two groups. Results: The overall prevalence of occupational asthma was 9.7%. This rate was 13.8% in the exposed group. Logistic regression analysis showed that even after adjustment for confounding factors, a significant correlation existed between the frequency of occupational asthma and exposure to the produced dust particles (P < 0.05). In addition, age, work experience, body mass index, cigarette smoking and shift work had significant correlations with the prevalence of occupational asthma (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Considering the high prevalence of occupational asthma among cable manufacturing company workers in Iran, this issue needs to be addressed immediately in addition to reduction of exposure among subjects. Reduction in work shift duration, implementation of tobacco control and cessation programs for the personnel, and performing spirometry tests and respiratory examinations in shorter periods may be among effective measures for reducing the incidence of occupational asthma in this industry. PMID:25558389

  4. MassBuilt: effectiveness of an apprenticeship site-based smoking cessation intervention for unionized building trades workers

    OpenAIRE

    Okechukwu, Cassandra A; Krieger, Nancy; Sorensen, Glorian; Li, Yi; Barbeau, Elizabeth M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Blue-collar workers are difficult to reach and less likely to successfully quit smoking. The objective of this study was to test a training site-based smoking cessation intervention. Methods This study is a randomized-controlled trial of a smoking cessation intervention that integrated occupational health concerns and was delivered in collaboration with unions to apprentices at 10 sites (n?=?1,213). We evaluated smoking cessation at 1 and 6?months post-intervention. Results The base...

  5. E-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids: a survey among practitioners in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Lazuras, Lambros; Muzi, Milena; Grano, Caterina; Lucidi, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe experiences with and beliefs about e-cigarettes as safe and useful aids for smoking cessation among healthcare professionals providing smoking cessation services. Methods Using a cross-sectional design, anonymous structured questionnaires were completed by 179 healthcare professionals in public smoking cessation clinics across 20 regions in Italy. Results Service providers reported that considerably more smokers made inquiries about e-cigarettes in 2014 than in 2013. Th...

  6. [Cardiovascular risk, occupation and exposure to occupational carcinogens in a group of workers in Salamanca].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sánchez, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Identify the cardiovascular risk factors in a group of workers in the province of Salamanca, protected by external prevention services, as regards exposure to occupational carcinogens, by sector of activity and gender. An observational descriptive epidemiological study was conducted. The sample selection was by stratified random sampling in each entity. The variables collected by questionnaire were, sociodemographic characteristics, exposure to occupational carcinogens, and cardiovascular risk factors (smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes), using the clinical-work histories as a source of information. Statistically significant differences were observed in cardiovascular risk according to the exposure to occupational carcinogens (p cardiovascular risk in the work place. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Smoking and Social Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Poutvaara, Panu; Siemens, Lars-H. R.

    2007-01-01

    We study the social interaction of non-smokers and smokers as a sequential game, incorporating insights from social psychology and experimental economics into an economic model. Social norms a®ect human behavior such that non-smokers do not ask smokers to stop smoking and stay with them, even though disutility from smoking exceeds utility from social interaction. Overall, smoking is unduly often accepted when accommodating smoking is the social norm. The introduction of smoking and non-smokin...

  8. Professional Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    WaterSense recognizes certification programs for irrigation professionals that meet the specification criteria. Certification programs cover three areas: irrigation system design, installation and maintenance, and system auditing.

  9. Tobacco smoke exposure and impact of smoking legislation on rural and non-rural hospitality venues in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buettner-Schmidt, Kelly; Lobo, Marie L; Travers, Mark J; Boursaw, Blake

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study in a stratified random sample of 135 bars and restaurants in North Dakota was to describe factors that influenced tobacco smoke pollution levels in the venues; to compare the quantity of tobacco smoke pollution by rurality and by presence of local ordinances; and to assess compliance with state and local laws. In data collection in 2012, we measured the indoor air quality indicator of particulate matter (2.5 microns aerodynamic diameter or smaller), calculated average smoking density and occupant density, and determined compliance with state and local smoking ordinances using observational methods. As rurality increased, tobacco smoke pollution in bars increased. A significant association was found between stringency of local laws and level of tobacco smoke pollution, but the strength of the association varied by venue type. Compliance was significantly lower in venues in communities without local ordinances. Controlling for venue type, 69.2% of smoke-free policy's impact on tobacco smoke pollution levels was mediated by observed smoking. This study advances scientific knowledge on the factors influencing tobacco smoke pollution and informs public health advocates and decision makers on policy needs, especially in rural areas. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Lung cancer and occupation: A New Zealand cancer registry-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Marine; McLean, David; Mannetje, Andrea 't; Dryson, Evan; Walls, Chris; McKenzie, Fiona; Maule, Milena; Cheng, Soo; Cunningham, Chris; Kromhout, Hans; Blair, Aaron; Pearce, Neil

    2011-02-01

    There are many proven and suspected occupational causes of lung cancer, which will become relatively more important over time, as smoking prevalence decreases. We interviewed 457 cases aged 20-75 years notified to the New Zealand Cancer Registry during 2007-2008, and 792 population controls. We collected information on demographic details, potential confounders, and employment history. Associations were estimated using logistic regression adjusted for gender, age, ethnicity, smoking, and socio-economic status. Among occupations of a priori interest, elevated odds ratios (ORs) were observed for sawmill, wood panel and related wood-processing plant operators (OR 4.63; 95% CI 1.05-20.29), butchers (OR 8.77, 95% CI 1.06-72.55), rubber and plastics products machine operators (4.27; 1.16-15.66), heavy truck drivers (2.24; 1.19-4.21) and workers in petroleum, coal, chemical and associated product manufacturing (1.80; 1.11-2.90); non-significantly elevated risks were also observed for loggers (4.67; 0.81-27.03), welders and flame-cutters (2.50; 0.86-7.25), pressers (5.74; 0.96-34.42), and electric and electronic equipment assemblers (3.61; 0.96-13.57). Several occupations and industries not of a priori interest also showed increased risks, including nursing associate professionals (5.45; 2.29-12.99), enrolled nurses (7.95; 3.10-20.42), care givers (3.47; 1.40-8.59), plant and machine operators and assemblers (1.61; 1.20-2.16), stationary machine operators and assemblers (1.67; 1.22-2.28), food and related products processing machine operators (1.98; 1.23-3.19), laborers and related elementary service workers (1.45; 1.05-2.00), manufacturing (1.34; 1.02-1.77), car retailing (3.08; 1.36-6.94), and road freight transport (3.02; 1.45-6.27). Certain occupations and industries have increased lung cancer risks in New Zealand, including wood workers, metal workers, meat workers, textile workers and drivers. Am. J. Ind. Med. 54:89-101, 2011. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Copyright

  11. Smoking in context – a multilevel approach to smoking among females in Helsinki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahkonen Ossi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is associated with disadvantage. As people with lower social status reside in less privileged areas, the extent of contextual influences for smoking remains unclear. The aims were to examine the spatial patterning of daily smoking within the city of Helsinki, to analyse whether contextual variation can be observed and which spatial factors associate with current daily smoking in the employed female population. Methods Data from a cross-sectional questionnaire were collected for municipal employees of Helsinki (aged 40–60 years. The response rate was 69%. As almost 4/5 of the employees are females, the analyses were restricted to women (n = 5028. Measures included smoking status, individual level socio-demographic characteristics (age, occupational social class, education, family type and statistical data describing areas in terms of social structure (unemployment rate, proportion of manual workers and social cohesion (proportions of single parents and single households. Logistic multilevel analysis was used to analyse data. Results After adjusting for the individual-level composition, smoking was significantly more prevalent according to all social structural and social cohesion indicators apart from the proportion of manual workers. For example, high unemployment in the area of domicile increased the risk of smoking by almost a half. The largest observed area difference in smoking – 8 percentage points – was found according to the proportion of single households. Conclusion The large variation in smoking rates between areas appears mainly to result from variation in the characteristics of residents within areas. Yet, living in an area with a high level of unemployment appears to be an additional risk for smoking that cannot be fully accounted for by individual level characteristics even in a cohort of female municipal employees.

  12. Professional confidence: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Kathlyn; Middleton, Lyn; Uys, Leana

    2012-03-01

    Professional confidence is a concept that is frequently used and or implied in occupational therapy literature, but often without specifying its meaning. Rodgers's Model of Concept Analysis was used to analyse the term "professional confidence". Published research obtained from a federated search in four health sciences databases was used to inform the concept analysis. The definitions, attributes, antecedents, and consequences of professional confidence as evidenced in the literature are discussed. Surrogate terms and related concepts are identified, and a model case of the concept provided. Based on the analysis, professional confidence can be described as a dynamic, maturing personal belief held by a professional or student. This includes an understanding of and a belief in the role, scope of practice, and significance of the profession, and is based on their capacity to competently fulfil these expectations, fostered through a process of affirming experiences. Developing and fostering professional confidence should be nurtured and valued to the same extent as professional competence, as the former underpins the latter, and both are linked to professional identity.

  13. Language, identity and representation: occupation and occupational therapy in acute settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilding, Clare; Whiteford, Gail

    2008-09-01

    This article presents findings from a participatory action research study into the experience and use of occupation, theory and evidence in the everyday practice of a group of occupational therapists working in a large metropolitan hospital delivering a range of acute services, in Melbourne, Australia. Narrative data gathered from 11 individual interviews and 10 group discussions were analysed through numerous iterative cycles to explore research issues and evaluate research actions. This article discusses why the participating occupational therapists chose to change the language they used to describe their practice from a focus on 'function' to a focus on 'occupation'. This change improved the therapists' levels of confidence, strengthened their professional identities and provided for a sense of renewed empowerment within the organisation. The findings suggest that occupational therapists in acute settings can utilise language more effectively to augment their ability to promote the vital and unique contribution that occupational therapy has to make. Such small, yet powerful changes can empower occupational therapists to address long-standing dilemmas of representation and enable transformative practices.

  14. The social definition of women's smoking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkind, A K

    1985-01-01

    The history of women's smoking behaviour is one of changing normative definitions. Recent trends have been explained in terms of the symbolic value of smoking, representing for women freedom and independence. This view is emphasised by advertising. However, other evidence suggests the continued existence of an older, more negative cultural stereotype. A two-part study of young women undergoing professional training for nursing and teaching throws some light on the way in which female smoking behaviour is currently socially interpreted. The first phase indicated that among the minority of parents who had expressed their attitudes towards their daughter's smoking in relation to sex-role norms, smoking was presented as unacceptable for women. More than half the sample perceived a negative cultural stereotype to be operating in contemporary society and two-thirds recognised its existence in the past. This stereotype presents smoking as a male behaviour and hence inappropriate for women. Women who do smoke are liable to be labelled as having unfeminine or degrading attributes. The stereotype operated more strongly in the general social background rather than in reference to personal relationships and hence its influence on contemporary behaviour is likely to be limited. It was rejected as out-dated or a male belief by some but nevertheless it represented the personal opinion of others. In terms of a more favourable definition the female smoker was perceived in terms of an elegant/sophisticated dimension and in relation to an extrovert personality. The view of sample members that the growing acceptability of women's smoking was related to social change indirectly supported the view that sees smoking as symbolic of independence. Those who saw smoking in neutral terms, i.e. as not having sex-role attributes, perceived smoking in this sense as normal social behaviour for men and women alike. The second phase suggested that smokers and non-smokers have divergent views about

  15. Client-centred practice in occupational therapy: critical reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammell, Karen R Whalley

    2013-05-01

    The occupational therapy profession has long proclaimed its commitment to a client-centred philosophy of practice and the assumption that occupational therapists consistently practice in a client-centred manner has become central to the profession's self-image and public rhetoric. However, client-centred practice has been subjected to little critical reflection within the occupational therapy profession. The aim of this paper is to foster critical reflection concerning the authenticity and veracity of the profession's commitment to client-centred practices. Client-centred practice is defined without evident reference to clients' perspectives. Few occupational therapy researchers have sought clients' perceptions of the client-centred nature of their occupational therapy services. Occupational therapy research is neither consistently undertaken in a collaborative manner, nor are the profession's theories developed through explicit reference to a diversity of clients' perspectives. Professional practices and service evaluations do not consistently seek clients' viewpoints. Client-centred rhetoric is politically expedient and may be a professionalizing strategy employed to increase status and entrench power. Although exemplary client-centred occupational therapy practices exist, evidence suggests that the profession does not adhere consistently to its espoused client-centred principle in all its practices. The client-centred practice of occupational therapy should be subjected to assiduous critical reflection.

  16. Efficiency of workplace surveys conducted by Finnish occupational health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savinainen, Minna; Oksa, Panu

    2011-07-01

    In Finland, workplace surveys are used to identify and assess health risks and problems caused by work and make suggestions for continuous improvement of the work environment. With the aid of the workplace survey, occupational health services can be tailored to a company. The aims of this study were to determine how occupational health professionals gather data via the workplace survey and the effect survey results have on companies. A total of 259 occupational health nurses and 108 occupational health physicians responded to the questionnaire: 84.2% were women and 15.8% were men. The mean age of the respondents was 48.8 years (range, 26 to 65 years). Usually occupational health nurses and foremen and sometimes occupational health physicians and occupational safety and health representatives initiate the workplace survey. More than 90% of the surveys were followed by action proposals, and about 50% of these were implemented. The proposals implemented most often concerned personal protective equipment and less often leadership. Survey respondents should have both the opportunity and the authority to affect resources, the work environment, work arrangements, and tools. Teamwork among occupational health and safety professionals, management, and employees is vital for cost-effectively solving today's complex problems at workplaces around the globe. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Occupational health related concerns among surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Anjuman Gul; Naeem, Zahid; Zaman, Atif; Zahid, Faryal

    2016-01-01

    The surgeon’s daily workload renders him/her susceptible to a variety of the common work-related illness. They are exposed to a number of occupational hazards in their professional work. These hazards include sharp injuries, blood borne pathogens, latex allergy, laser plumes, hazardous chemicals, anesthetic gases, equipment hazards, static postures, and job related stressors. However, many pay little attention to their health, and neither do they seek the appropriate help when necessary. It is observed that occupational hazards pose a huge risk to the personal well-being of surgeons. As such, the importance of early awareness and education alongside prompt intervention is duly emphasized. Therefore, increased attention to the health, economic, personal, and social implications of these injuries is essential for appropriate management and future prevention. These risks are as great as any other occupational hazards affecting surgeons today. The time has come to recognize and address them. PMID:27103909

  18. A tool to enhance occupational therapy reasoning from ICF perspective: The Hasselt Occupational Performance Profile (H-OPP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghysels, R; Vanroye, E; Westhovens, M; Spooren, A

    2017-03-01

    In order to enhance occupational therapy reasoning in clinical practice, different elements such as client-centred approach, evidence-based care and interdisciplinary work should be taken into account, but is a challenge. To describe the development of the digital Hasselt Occupational Performance Profile (H-OPP © ) that enhances occupational therapy reasoning from ICF perspective. A participative qualitative design was used to create the H-OPP © in an iterative way in which occupational therapy lectures, ICF experts, students and occupational therapists in the field were involved. After linking occupational therapy terminology to the ICF, different stages of the H-OPP were identified and elaborated with main features: generating an occupational performance profile based on inventarization of problems and possibilities, formulating an occupational performance diagnosis and enabling to create an intervention plan. In all stages, both the perspectives of the client and the occupational therapist were taken into account. To increase practical use, the tool was further elaborated and digitalized. The H-OPP © is a digital coach that guides and facilitates professional reasoning in (novice) occupational therapists. It augments involvement of the client system. Furthermore, it enhances interdisciplinary communication and evidence-based care.

  19. Occupant Controlled Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Logadóttir, Ásta

    2011-01-01

    The studies presented in this thesis explore opportunities and limitations of using the method of adjustment for occupant controlled lighting. The method of adjustment is studied with respect to occupant preferences and energy efficiency. The work presents three types of studies using the method...... of adjustment. Firstly, there was preliminary laboratory study exploring the influence of daylight on occupant controlled dynamic lighting in a laboratory office environment. Secondly, there was non-daylit laboratory study on occupant preferences for illuminance, and thirdly a scale model study on occupant...... preferences for correlated colour temperature (CCT). The results suggest that the method of adjustment, previously used in the lighting literature, is not adequate to generalize about occupant preferences for illuminance or CCT. Factors that influence occupants’ lighting preference when applying the method...

  20. Essential Occupational Health Services.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucel Demiral,Ali Naci Yildiz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Coverage of the occupational health services varies between 15%-90% of the workforce. Available services do not always fit the requirements of the occupational health necessities. Moreover, the need for the occupational health services has been growing while the working life has changed in the globalization era. International Labor Office instruments and World Health Organisation primary health care approach and health for all strategy have suggested universal and comprehensive occupational health services. From this point of view, World Health Organisation / International Labor Office and International Commission on Occupational Health jointly developed and proposed basic occupational health services to tackle this challenge. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(6.000: 673-676

  1. Smoking behaviour predicts tobacco control attitudes in a high smoking prevalence hospital: A cross-sectional study in a Portuguese teaching hospital prior to the national smoking ban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguiar Pedro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have investigated attitudes to and compliance with smoking bans, but few have been conducted in healthcare settings and none in such a setting in Portugal. Portugal is of particular interest because the current ban is not in line with World Health Organization recommendations for a "100% smoke-free" policy. In November 2007, a Portuguese teaching-hospital surveyed smoking behaviour and tobacco control (TC attitudes before the national ban came into force in January 2008. Methods Questionnaire-based cross-sectional study, including all eligible staff. Sample: 52.9% of the 1, 112 staff; mean age 38.3 ± 9.9 years; 65.9% females. Smoking behaviour and TC attitudes and beliefs were the main outcomes. Bivariable analyses were conducted using chi-squared and MacNemar tests to compare categorical variables and Mann-Whitney tests to compare medians. Multilogistic regression (MLR was performed to identify factors associated with smoking status and TC attitudes. Results Smoking prevalence was 40.5% (95% CI: 33.6-47.4 in males, 23.5% (95% CI: 19.2-27.8 in females (p Conclusions Smoking prevalence was high, especially among the lower socio-economic groups. The findings showed a very high level of support for smoking bans, despite the pro-smoking environment. Most staff reported passive behaviour, despite high SHS exposure. This and the high smoking prevalence may contribute to low compliance with the ban and low participation on smoking cessation activities. Smoking behaviour had greater influence in TC attitudes than health professionals' education. Our study is the first in Portugal to identify potential predictors of non-compliance with the partial smoking ban, further emphasising the need for a 100% smoke-free policy, effective enforcement and public health education to ensure compliance and promote social norm change.

  2. Occupational asbestos exposure and risk of pleural mesothelioma, lung cancer, and laryngeal cancer in the prospective netherlands cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offermans, N.S.M.; Vermeulen, R.; Burdorf, A.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Kauppinen, T.; Kromhout, H.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To study the association between occupational asbestos exposure and pleural mesothelioma, lung cancer, and laryngeal cancer, specifically addressing risk associated with the lower end of the exposure distribution, risk of cancer subtypes, and the interaction between asbestos and smoking.

  3. Cessation of smoking after first-ever stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Søren; Sindrup, Søren Hein; Alslev, Torben

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cessation of smoking is widely recommended in patients with stroke to reduce the risk of myocardial infarction and recurrent stroke, but little is known regarding how patients modify their smoking habits after a stroke. We used data from a prospective follow-up study...... to assess modification of smoking habits and to identify predictors of persistent smoking after first-ever stroke. METHODS: All patients admitted to the only neurology department of Funen County (465 000 inhabitants) with first-ever stroke from August 1, 1999, to January 31, 2001, were prospectively...... identified. A comprehensive structured interview was completed both during hospitalization and at 6-month follow-up. The interview comprised questions on education, occupation, marital status, lifestyle, concomitant diseases, and functional disability. We estimated the relative risk of persistent smoking...

  4. Does occupational therapy play a role for communication in children with autism spectrum disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, Michèle L J; Kehayia, Eva; Prelock, Patricia; Wood-Dauphinee, Sharon; Snider, Laurie

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates occupational therapy for early communication in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The research explored the role of occupational therapists in supporting children with ASD to become better communicators by considering their inter-professional collaboration with speech-language pathologists. Convenience samples of 21 clinical occupational therapists and speech-language pathologists were recruited to participate in semi-structured audio-recorded focus groups, using a qualitative design. Distinct views included a child-centred focus from speech-language pathologists, whereas occupational therapists spoke of the child through societal viewpoints, which later pointed to occupational therapists' proficiency in enabling skill generalization in ASD. An equal partnership was consistently reported between these clinicians, who identified the same objectives, shared strategies, joint treatments, and ongoing collaboration as the four main facilitators to inter-professional collaboration when treating children with ASD. Three unique roles of occupational therapy comprised developing non-verbal and verbal communication pre-requisites, adapting the setting, educating-partnering-advocating for the child, and providing occupation-based intervention. These three themes meshed with the discipline-specific occupational therapy domains represented in the Person-Environment-Occupation framework. When working in inter-professional collaboration, speech-language pathologists and occupational therapists agree that occupational therapy is indispensable to early intervention in enabling communication in ASD.

  5. Acute toxicology of components of vegetation smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dost, F N

    1991-01-01

    Only in recent times, systematic attention has been paid to the occupational health of forest firefighters and workers who manage prescribed fire. Two parts of the effort to learn the impact on worker health are medical observation of those workers, and study of occupational hygiene. It is also necessary to learn what components of smoke are most likely to affect firefighters, and to learn something of the manner in which those substances might compromise health; this review is a step toward that end. The number of possible products of vegetation combustion is almost limitless, and every fuel and condition of burning produces a unique pattern. Nonetheless, it is possible and practical to select a limited number of products that are most likely to be involved in the acute toxicity of smoke. Two products that are almost certainly important are formaldehyde and acrolein. Both appear to occur in all smoke. The toxicology of both is well studied; in particular both are powerful mucosal irritants. Estimates of exposure suggest strongly that concentrations are high enough in smoke to contribute some or all of the irritant activity. There seems to be a reasonable prospect that free radical precursors with half-lives in the tens of minutes are produced when cellulosic materials burn. If so, they will reach the respiratory tract, and liberate free radicals that react immediately on or in pulmonary cells. Ozone is not produced in the fire, but the various hydrocarbons of smoke are substrates for reactions that eventually produce ozone, and that production may continue for miles down-plume. Some measured plume concentrations approach the threshold for human health effects. The effects of the best known component, the particulate material, are unknown in isolation from all of the other substances in smoke. In spite of that ignorance, particulate loading is the principal index of smoke pollution for regulatory purposes, and sometimes is incorrectly used to represent smoke

  6. Parental occupations, educational levels, and income and prevalence of dental caries in 3-year-old Japanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hiromasa; Tanaka, Keiko; Shimizu, Ken; Nagata, Chisato; Furukawa, Shinya; Arakawa, Masashi; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2017-12-13

    Most studies have investigated the association between parental socioeconomic factors and dental caries in children based on educational and income levels; studies focusing on parental occupation, however, have been relatively limited. This cross-sectional study examined the associations between parental occupations and levels of education and household income and the prevalence of dental caries in Japanese children aged 3 years. Study subjects were 6315 children. Oral examination results were obtained from the parents or guardians, who transcribed the information recorded by medical staff at a public health center from their maternal and child health handbooks to our self-administered questionnaire. Children were classified as having dental caries if one or more primary teeth had decayed or had been filled. Adjustment was made for sex, age, region of residence, breastfeeding duration, between-meal snack frequency, toothbrushing frequency, use of fluoride, regular dental check-ups, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and living with at least one household smoker. The prevalence of dental caries was 14.7%. Compared with having an unemployed father, having a father employed in professional and engineering, clerical, sales, security, or manufacturing process was significantly associated with a lower prevalence of dental caries. Compared with having an unemployed mother, having a mother employed in professional and engineering or service was significantly inversely associated with the prevalence of dental caries. Significant inverse associations were observed between parental levels of education and household income and the prevalence of dental caries. The findings of our study suggest that parental occupation affects the prevalence of dental caries in children. We confirm that higher levels of parental education and household income decreased the prevalence of dental caries.

  7. [Smoking and periodontal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shizukuishi, Satoshi

    2007-02-01

    Over the past 20 years, numerous investigations have demonstrated epidemiologically and biologically that smoking is one of the most significant risk factors with respect to the development and progression of periodontal disease. In terms of the mechanism via which smoking influences periodontitis progression, various factors contribute to the deleterious periodontal effects of smoking, including alteration of both microbial and host response factors. Furthermore, since it is well known that smoking is also a risk factor of osteoporosis, the combination of smoking with osteoporosis further enhances the risk of periodontal disease. Recent investigations reported that passive smoking exposure may be a risk factor of periodontal disease and may stimulate inflammatory responses of periodontal tissue.

  8. Human biological monitoring of occupational genotoxic exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Sorsa, M

    1993-01-01

    .g. the quantitation of identified DNA-adducts or substance unspecific as is the measurement of DNA-repair. The sample material used for analysis must be well characterized and subject to uniform processing for comparison of the results. Confounding factors of smoking, age and sex must be well controlled......) occupational exposure limit value of styrene in ambient air. The consideration of ethical issues in human genetic monitoring is an important but often overlooked aspect. This includes the scientific and preventional relevance of performing a test on individuals, pre- and post study information of donors......Human biological monitoring is a valuable tool for exposure assessment in groups of persons occupationally exposed to genotoxic agents. If the monitoring activity covers genetic material the term genetic monitoring is used. The methods used for genetic monitoring are either substance specific, e...

  9. Facilitation of research-based evidence within occupational therapy in stroke rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Hanne Kaae; Borg, T.; Hounsgaard, Lise

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the facilitation of evidence-based practice with the use of everyday life occupations and client-centred practice within occupational therapy in three settings of stroke rehabilitation. Method: The study was based on a phenomenological hermeneutical research...... of the implementation of evidence-based occupational therapy....... adapted to local contexts. The implementation resulted in various new working routines. Learning processes became part of developing the occupational therapists' professional identities, expressed in more professional confidence. Collaboration in the organisation of the implementation process...

  10. Teacher's Guide to Occupational Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

    This guide is specifically designed to accompany materials developed for occupational orientation (particularly in Illinois) in the following five cluster areas: Applied biological and agricultural occupations; personal and public service occupations; health occupations; business, marketing, and management occupations; and industrial oriented…

  11. Smoking, periodontal disease and the role of the dental profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgers, K K; Kinane, D F

    2004-05-01

    Epidemiological investigations support a firm relationship between smoking and periodontal disease. The likely benefits of smoking cessation programmes are considerable for periodontal disease, cancers and nearly all chronic systemic diseases. The mechanisms by which smoking may influence the development and progression of periodontal disease are as yet unclear, but may include changes in the vasculature, the immune and inflammatory systems, tissue oxygenation and the healing processes. Unfortunately, although dental professionals have more opportunities to encourage smokers to quit (most people visit their dentist more frequently than their doctor), dentists claim that they are not well informed on this subject. The purpose of this review is to describe the evidence for a link between smoking and periodontal disease, the possible pathology induced by smoking on the periodontal tissues and its impact on therapy, and to outline the smoking cessation techniques that are currently available.

  12. Exploration of nurses’ knowledge regarding occupational hazards and Hepatitis B

    OpenAIRE

    Panagiota Iordanou; Konstantina Antoniou; Georgia Vasilopoulou

    2009-01-01

    Occupational hazards and infections of hepatitis B virus consist the most common dangers that health professionals face in their daily clinical practice.Purpose: The aim of the present research study was to explore health professional’s information regarding occupational hazards and infections of hepatitis B virus, as well as the the existence and apply of safety practice guidelines in their daily clinical practice.Method and material: The sample study included 454 nurses that were working i...

  13. Socio-demographic determinants of cigarette smoking among adults ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Social factors such as older age, higher education and lower occupational class influence tobacco smoking behavior among adults in Lagos and the level of knowledge of harmful health effects of tobacco is low among all participants. There is need to design tobacco control programs targeted at adults in the ...

  14. Not all COPD is caused by cigarette smoking

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    example, the WHO estimates that, although smoking is the leading cause of COPD, about 400 000 deaths per year occur from exposure to BM fuel pollution. ... as asthma. Conversely, occupational asthma that has progressed to fixed airway obstruction may be misclassified as COPD. There is growing evidence from large.

  15. Exposure to teachers smoking and adolescent smoking behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, L H; Osler, M; Roberts, C

    2002-01-01

    To determine whether adolescent smoking behaviour is associated with their perceived exposure to teachers or other pupils smoking at school, after adjustment for exposure to smoking at home, in school, and best friends smoking.......To determine whether adolescent smoking behaviour is associated with their perceived exposure to teachers or other pupils smoking at school, after adjustment for exposure to smoking at home, in school, and best friends smoking....

  16. TIME SPENT WITH SMOKING PARENTS AND SMOKING TOPOGRAPHY IN ADOLESCENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Charles C.; Lippmann, Brad M.; Lo, Suzanne J.; Moolchan, Eric T.

    2008-01-01

    Although the relationship between parental and adolescent smoking has been linked to health consequences of smoking, limited study has explored the specific association between exposure to smoking and adolescent smoking topography (the way a cigarette is smoked). As a first step in this line of enquiry, smoking topography measures were collected from 67 adolescent dependent smokers. Participants smoked one cigarette of their own brand while being monitored by a computer-based smoking-topograp...

  17. Tobacco smoking among government employees in six cities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Neil; Zhang, Chen; Hua, Xinwei; Redmon, Pamela; Eriksen, Michael; Koplan, Jeffrey; Ali, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Employer-based tobacco control interventions have been highly successful in developed countries, and, recently, Chinese officials announced a focus on quitting among government employees. However, there are few data offering estimates of smoking prevalence among government workers from developing nations. In this study, we investigate smoking behaviours among government workers in six Chinese cities stratified by educational attainment and occupational grade. Individual-level study of Chinese government employees. Tobacco-Free Cities Initiative of China Tobacco Control Partnership. Employed adults aged 18-61 at government worksites in six cities were included (N=6176). Prevalence of current and former smoking across educational (postgraduate, graduate, high school, secondary school or less) and occupational (senior executives, mid-level managers, workers) groups were compared. Overall prevalence of male current smoking was 40.7% (95% CI 39.1% to 42.4%). Age-adjusted smoking prevalence was lowest among those with a postgraduate degree (26.2% (95% CI 21.0% to 31.4%)) compared with those with lower levels of education (college (39.8%; 37.7% to 41.8%); high school (51.0%; 95% CI 45.0% to 57.0%); secondary or less (45.1%; 95% CI 40.3% to 49.8%)). There was no evidence of an association between current smoking and occupational grade. Prevalence of smoking was low in women (1.5%). Smoking prevalence among male government employees at all levels of education was high and patterned by educational attainment. Government initiatives to address tobacco control among employees should consider targeted interventions for different educational levels.

  18. Objective measurement of area differences in 'private' smoking behaviour: observing smoking in vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vimal; Thomson, George; Wilson, Nick

    2013-03-01

    The objective is to (a) refine and use methods to measure the point prevalence of smoking and of secondhand smoke exposure in moving vehicles and (b) compare these prevalences (1) between two areas of contrasting socioeconomic status and (2) over time. The authors developed and tested a single-observer method and observed the point prevalence of smoking in vehicles in Wellington, New Zealand. The two observation sites represented high and low areas of socioeconomic deprivation (based on a small area deprivation index). A total of 149 886 vehicles were observed. The mean point prevalence of smoking in vehicles at both sites combined was 3.2% (95% CI 3.1% to 3.3%). Of those vehicles with smoking, 4.1% had children present. Smoking point prevalence in vehicles was 3.9 times higher in the area of high deprivation than in the area of low deprivation (95% CI 3.6 to 4.2). The same pattern was seen for vehicles with only the driver at 3.6 times (95% CI 3.4 to 4.0), in vehicles with other adults at 4.0 times (95% CI 3.4 to 4.7) and in vehicles with children at 10.9 times (95% CI 6.8 to 21.3), with all results adjusted for vehicle occupancy. Observing smoking in vehicles using a single-observer method provides a feasible and objective indicator of the different smoking behaviours, especially around children, within an area. This study further supports the evidence from this country and internationally that adults and children from high-deprivation areas are much more likely to be exposed to secondhand smoke.

  19. Occupational therapy and culture: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Daniela; Dahlin-Ivanoff, Synneve; Mårtensson, Lena

    2014-11-01

    Occupational therapy has culture as a relevant phenomenon of interest. Culture appears increasingly often in occupational therapy research, from diverse approaches and foci. As culture is difficult to define, and has political and ethical implications, an investigation into its usage is warranted. To identify and describe how culture as a broad phenomenon is expressed in OT research published between 2006 and 2011, regarding knowledge development in the discipline and its impact on practice. A qualitative study was carried out, using an integrative literature review. Thirty-nine studies in English were included. From the analysis, two dimensions concerning expressions of culture emerged: "culture is alive" and "occupational therapy as a culture". Aside from these dimensions, a group of forces that have an impact on these dimensions is described. In its understanding of expressions of culture, occupational therapy stands at a crossroads between traditional and critical approaches. A lack of critical insight into professional knowledge increases the risk that occupational therapy will remain satisfied with the current understanding of culture, based on the dominant knowledge. The discipline could fail to address the political, ethical, and theoretical issues required to reach the targeted diversity in its practice.

  20. Leadership and Occupational Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickle, Fred E.; Scott, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    In a leadership position, it is important to understand what stress is and how it affects others. In an occupational setting, stressors vary according to personality types, gender, and occupational rank. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the foundations of stress and to explore how personality characteristics influence stress.…

  1. Occupational Mortality, Background on

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth

    2016-01-01

    The study of occupational mortality involves the systematic tabulation of mortality by occupational or socioeconomic groups. Three main methods are used to conduct these studies: cross-sectional studies, death certificate studies, and follow-up studies. Cross-sectional studies were undertaken in ...... the mortality rates of blue- and white-collar workers....

  2. The American Occupational Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, Peter M.; Duncan, Otis Dudley

    The objective of this book is to present a systematic analysis of the American occupational structure, and, thus, of the major foundation of the stratification system in this society. Processes of social mobility from one generation to the next and from career beginnings to occupational destinations are considered to reflect the dynamics of the…

  3. Dimensions of Occupational Prestige

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Marie R.; Widdison, Harold A.

    1975-01-01

    Eight dimensions of occupational prestige are examined for their effect on the general prestige ratings accorded various occupations within the medical profession. Stepwise multiple regression analyzes the relative weight of these dimension among 410 persons. The findings suggested that public stereotypes exert a normative pressure on individual…

  4. Occupational rehabilitation in Singapore and Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kay-Fei; Tan, Charlie W C; Yeo, Doreen S C; Tan, Heidi S K; Tan, F L; Tan, E W; Szeto, Grace P Y; Cheng, Andy S K

    2011-03-01

    Asia is the new and favored magnet of economic attention and foreign investments after it made an almost uneventful rebound from the depths of financial crisis of 2008/2009. Not many Western observers fully understand the diversity that is Asia other than perhaps its 2 growing economic giants of China and India. Indeed many smaller countries like Singapore and Malaysia in South East Asia along with Australia and Hong Kong (a Special Administrative Region within China) look to symbiotic relationships with these two economic giants. The purpose of this discussion paper is to examine the current issues related to the development and provision of occupational rehabilitation services in Singapore and Malaysia with a forward-looking view of how Asia's different developing societies could potentially benefit from better alignment of occupational rehabilitation practices and sharing of expertise through international collaboration and dialogue platforms. Seven therapists and one physician who are frequently involved in occupational rehabilitation services in their home countries critically reviewed the current issues in Singapore and Malaysia which included analysis of the prevalence and cost of occupational injury; overview of workers' compensation system; current practices, obstacles, and challenges in providing occupational rehabilitation and return to work practices. They also offered opinions about how to improve the occupational rehabilitation programs of their two home countries. Even though Malaysia and Singapore are two different countries, in many ways their current provision of occupational rehabilitation services and the problems they face with are very similar. There is a lot of room for systemic improvements that require government support and action. Most prominently, the training of more healthcare professionals in the assessment and rehabilitation of the injured worker should be encouraged. There could be better liaison between the many stakeholders and

  5. Current and new challenges in occupational lung diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara De Matteis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Occupational lung diseases are an important public health issue and are avoidable through preventive interventions in the workplace. Up-to-date knowledge about changes in exposure to occupational hazards as a result of technological and industrial developments is essential to the design and implementation of efficient and effective workplace preventive measures. New occupational agents with unknown respiratory health effects are constantly introduced to the market and require periodic health surveillance among exposed workers to detect early signs of adverse respiratory effects. In addition, the ageing workforce, many of whom have pre-existing respiratory conditions, poses new challenges in terms of the diagnosis and management of occupational lung diseases. Primary preventive interventions aimed to reduce exposure levels in the workplace remain pivotal for elimination of the occupational lung disease burden. To achieve this goal there is still a clear need for setting standard occupational exposure limits based on transparent evidence-based methodology, in particular for carcinogens and sensitising agents that expose large working populations to risk. The present overview, focused on the occupational lung disease burden in Europe, proposes directions for all parties involved in the prevention of occupational lung disease, from researchers and occupational and respiratory health professionals to workers and employers.

  6. Occupational therapy in Australian acute hospitals: A modified practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Lauren; Rosenwax, Lorna; McNamara, Beverley

    2016-08-01

    Ongoing changes to health-care funding Australia wide continue to influence how occupational therapists practise in acute hospitals. This study describes the practice challenges experienced by Western Australian acute care occupational therapists. Then, it explores if and how acute care occupational therapists are modifying their practice in response to these practice changes. This study used a qualitative grounded theory approach. Semi-structured interviews were completed with 13 purposively selected acute care occupational therapists from four Western Australian metropolitan hospitals. Data were analysed using a constant comparative method to provide detailed descriptions of acute care occupational therapy practice and to generate theory. Five conceptual categories were developed. The first two addressed practice challenges: pragmatic organisational influences on client care and establishing a professional identity within the multidisciplinary team. Three categories related to therapist responses are as follows: becoming the client advocate, being the facilitator and applying clinical reasoning. Finally, modified practice was identified as the core category which explains the process whereby acute care occupational therapists are ensuring they remain relevant and authentic in the acute care context. Western Australian acute care occupational therapists are practising in a highly complex health context that presents many challenges. They are responding by using a modified form of practice that ensures occupational therapy skills remain relevant within the narrow confines of this health setting. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  7. The Relationship Between Burnout and Occupational Stress in Genetic Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Brittney; Kaiser, Amy; Injeyan, Marie C; Sappleton, Karen; Chitayat, David; Stephens, Derek; Shuman, Cheryl

    2016-08-01

    Burnout represents a critical disruption in an individual's relationship with work, resulting in a state of exhaustion in which one's occupational value and capacity to perform are questioned. Burnout can negatively affect an individual's personal life, as well as employers in terms of decreased work quality, patient/client satisfaction, and employee retention. Occupational stress is a known contributor to burnout and occurs as a result of employment requirements and factors intrinsic to the work environment. Empirical research examining genetic counselor-specific burnout is limited; however, existing data suggests that genetic counselors are at increased risk for burnout. To investigate the relationship between occupational stress and burnout in genetic counselors, we administered an online survey to members of three genetic counselor professional organizations. Validated measures included the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (an instrument measuring burnout on three subscales: exhaustion, cynicism, and professional efficacy) and the Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised (an instrument measuring occupational stress on 14 subscales). Of the 353 respondents, more than 40 % had either considered leaving or left their job role due to burnout. Multiple regression analysis yielded significant predictors for burnout risk. The identified sets of predictors account for approximately 59 % of the variance in exhaustion, 58 % of the variance in cynicism, and 43 % of the variance in professional efficacy. Our data confirm that a significant number of genetic counselors experience burnout and that burnout is correlated with specific aspects of occupational stress. Based on these findings, practice and research recommendations are presented.

  8. Allegheny County Smoking Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Smoking rates for each Census Tract in Allegheny County were produced for the study “Developing small-area predictions for smoking and obesity prevalence in the...

  9. Secondhand Smoke Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Being Comfortable in Your Own Skin Your Weight Loss Expectations & Goals Healthier Lifestyle Healthier Lifestyle Physical Fitness Food & Nutrition Sleep, Stress & Relaxation Emotions & Relationships HealthyYouTXT Tools Home » Quit Smoking » Second Hand Smoke ...

  10. Smoking and asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000504.htm Smoking and asthma To use the sharing features on ... your allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Smoking is a trigger for many people who have ...

  11. Smoking and skin disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, S F; Sørensen, L T

    2010-01-01

    suggest that tobacco smoking is a contributing factor in systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, palmoplantar pustulosis, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, hidradenitis suppurativa, and genital warts. In contrast, smoking may confer some protective effects and mitigate other skin diseases, notably...

  12. Smoking Stinks! (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Say About: Tobacco Helping a Parent Who Smokes Smoking and Asthma Your Lungs & Respiratory System Dealing With Peer ... Us Partners Editorial Policy Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination ...

  13. Smoked Tobacco Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cigarette, emphasizing its cool and refreshing taste. In reality, menthol reduces the harshness of cigarette smoke, which ... the use of non-cigarette smoked tobacco products increased dramatically. The largest increases were in use of ...

  14. Smoking during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... Is it safe? > Smoking during pregnancy Smoking during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...

  15. Cigar Smoking and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... When You Decide To Quit Smoking . Selected References Baker F, Ainsworth SR, Dye JT, et al. Health risks associated with cigar smoking. Journal of the American Medical Association 2000; 284(6): ...

  16. Smart smoke alarm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A; Frank, Steven Shane

    2015-04-28

    Methods and apparatus for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a smoke detector uses linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to determine whether observed conditions indicate that an alarm is warranted.

  17. Professional Synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, P. R.

    1981-01-01

    True professionals develop and create together a better future by their human endeavors in synergy. They must operate comfortably in two cultures--the industrial culture which is disappearing, and the superindustrial or cyberculture which is emerging. (CT)

  18. Exposure to occupational therapy as a factor influencing recruitment to the profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Nicole

    2015-08-01

    This article provides insight into the impact that exposure to an occupational therapist, in personal capacity or via a professional interaction, has on the decision to enter an occupational therapy undergraduate programme. A quantitative survey was completed by 139 occupational therapy students. The survey tool focussed on the students' exposure to a range of allied health professions (e.g. occupational therapy, physiotherapy, psychology) and investigated how exposure to occupational therapy had influenced their decision to enter the programme. The results indicated that over 70% of respondents had personal professional exposure to occupational therapy prior to making a career decision. Exposure most frequently involved occupational therapy intervention of a friend or family member. The majority of students who had professional exposure to occupational therapy (e.g. family, self, friend received occupational therapy) identified that it was the most influential factor in their career choice. Forty per cent of the occupational therapy students did not enter the programme straight from school and the influence of 'working with an occupational therapist' was noteworthy for mature aged students. Occupational therapists need to consider that every interaction they have with the community provides valuable information regarding the profession and gives insight into occupational therapy as a potential career path for other people. Additionally, the current research identifies there were differences in the impact, type and number of exposures for different student groups, and this potentially offers some insight into ways in which occupational therapy could target specific groups within the community to increase future diversity in the profession. © 2015 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  19. Occupational stress among dentists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Rod

    2011-01-01

    Dentists report a high degree of occupational stress.(Cooper, Mallinger, and Kahn, 1978;Coster, Carstens, and Harris, 1987;DiMatteo, Shugars, and Hays, 1993;Hakeberg et al., 1992;Möller and Spangenberg, 1996;Moore, 2000;Myers and Myers, 2004;O'Shea, Corah, and Ayer, 1984) This chapter reviews...... the literature of studies that elaborate on the circumstances of occupational stress of dentists. These will include the frequency of occurrence of occupational stress among dentists in several countries, frequency and intensity of identified stressors specific to dentistry, as well as the consequences...... of this occupational stress. The literature on consequences includes effects on dentists' physical health, personal and occupational performance, including "burnout" phenomena, as well as topics of alcohol or substance abuse and reports of suicidal behaviour among dentists. One specific and less conventionally...

  20. Occupational medicine and toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Axel

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This editorial is to announce the Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, a new Open Access, peer-reviewed, online journal published by BioMed Central. Occupational medicine and toxicology belong to the most wide ranging disciplines of all medical specialties. The field is devoted to the diagnosis, prevention, management and scientific analysis of diseases from the fields of occupational and environmental medicine and toxicology. It also covers the promotion of occupational and environmental health. The complexity of modern industrial processes has dramatically changed over the past years and today's areas include effects of atmospheric pollution, carcinogenesis, biological monitoring, ergonomics, epidemiology, product safety and health promotion. We hope that the launch of the Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology will aid in the advance of these important areas of research bringing together multi-disciplinary research findings.

  1. PROFESSIONAL CATEGORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Fildan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The transition process which Romanian commercial law underwent has affected both the term of ‘trader’, by redefining it, and the classification of professional categories. Currently, the term of ‘professional’ is conveyed by a descriptive listing of the categories of persons it comprises: traders, entrepreneurs, business operators, as well as any other person authorized to carry out economic or professional activities.

  2. Occupation, well-being, and culture: Theory and cultural humility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammell, Karen R Whalley

    2013-10-01

    The Canadian Model of Occupational Performance and Engagement depicts individuals embedded within cultural environments that afford occupational possibilities. Culture pertains not solely to ethnicity or race but to any dimension of diversity, including class, gender, sexual orientation, and ability. This paper highlights specific dimensions of cultural diversity and their relationships to occupational engagement and well-being. Cultural variations constitute the basis for a socially constructed hierarchy of traits that significantly determine occupational opportunities and impact mental health and well-being. Cultural humility is an approach to redressing power imbalances in client-therapist relationships by incorporating critical self-evaluation and recognizing that cultural differences lie not within clients but within client-therapist relationships. It is proposed that theoretical relevance would be enhanced if culturally diverse perspectives were incorporated into theories of occupation. Cultural humility is advocated as an approach to theoretical development and in efforts to counter professional Eurocentrism, ethnocentrism, and intellectual colonialism.

  3. Smoking and Periodontal Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Torkzaban; Khalili; Ziaei

    2013-01-01

    Context The aim of this review was to examine evidences for the association between smoking and periodontal disease, to discuss possible biological mechanisms whereby smoking may adversely affect the periodontium, and to consider the effect of smoking on periodontal treatment. Evidence Acquisition A web-based search in PubMed and Google Scholar was performed to identify publications regarding the effects of smoking on various aspe...

  4. Synthetic biology and occupational risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, John; Murashov, Vladimir; Schulte, Paul

    2017-03-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging interdisciplinary field of biotechnology that involves applying the principles of engineering and chemical design to biological systems. Biosafety professionals have done an excellent job in addressing research laboratory safety as synthetic biology and gene editing have emerged from the larger field of biotechnology. Despite these efforts, risks posed by synthetic biology are of increasing concern as research procedures scale up to industrial processes in the larger bioeconomy. A greater number and variety of workers will be exposed to commercial synthetic biology risks in the future, including risks to a variety of workers from the use of lentiviral vectors as gene transfer devices. There is a need to review and enhance current protection measures in the field of synthetic biology, whether in experimental laboratories where new advances are being researched, in health care settings where treatments using viral vectors as gene delivery systems are increasingly being used, or in the industrial bioeconomy. Enhanced worker protection measures should include increased injury and illness surveillance of the synthetic biology workforce; proactive risk assessment and management of synthetic biology products; research on the relative effectiveness of extrinsic and intrinsic biocontainment methods; specific safety guidance for synthetic biology industrial processes; determination of appropriate medical mitigation measures for lentiviral vector exposure incidents; and greater awareness and involvement in synthetic biology safety by the general occupational safety and health community as well as by government occupational safety and health research and regulatory agencies.

  5. The Occupations of Literacy: Occupational Therapy's Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolek Clark, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Nationally, student proficiency in reading and writing is very low and requires ongoing focus from state and local agencies. With almost 25% of occupational therapists working in early intervention and school settings (AOTA, 2015), their role of facilitating literacy (e.g., reading, writing, speaking and listening) is critical. Occupational…

  6. Lung cancer and occupation in nonsmokers: a multicenter case-control study in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeka, Ariana; Mannetje, Andrea't; Zaridze, David; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Rudnai, Peter; Lissowska, Jolanta; Fabiánová, Eleonóra; Mates, Dana; Bencko, Vladimir; Navratilova, Marie; Cassidy, Adrian; Janout, Vladimir; Travier, Noemie; Fevotte, Joelle; Fletcher, Tony; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo

    2006-11-01

    Tobacco smoking is the main cause for lung cancer worldwide, making it difficult to examine the carcinogenic role of other risk factors because of possible confounding by smoking. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the association between lung cancer and occupation independent of smoking. A case-control study of lung cancer was carried out between March 1998 and January 2002 in 16 centers from 7 European countries, including 223 never-smoking cases and 1039 controls. Information on lifestyle and occupation was obtained through detailed questionnaires. Job and industries were classified as entailing exposure to known or suspected carcinogens; in addition, expert assessment provided exposure estimates to specific agents. The odds ratio of lung cancer among women employed for more than 12 years in suspected high-risk occupations was 1.75 (95% confidence interval = 0.63-4.85). A comparable increase in risk was not detected for employment in established high-risk occupations or among men. Increased risk of lung cancer was suggested among individuals exposed to nonferrous metal dust and fumes, crystalline silica, and organic solvents. Occupations were found to play a limited role in lung cancer risk among never-smokers. Jobs entailing exposure to suspected lung carcinogens should receive priority in future studies among women. Nonferrous metal dust and fumes and silica may exert a carcinogenic effect independently from smoking.

  7. [Occupational asthma: current state of the problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousová, Karin

    2004-01-01

    Occupational asthma is a disease with serious medical, social and economical consequences. Most patients have to change their jobs and very often they lose their professional qualification. This article gives a current review of the problems of occupational bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis in the region of Eastern Bohemia. The results obtained are compared with the situation in the whole Czech Republic and in the world. The number of new cases of occupational asthma and allergic rhinitis discovered in the contact area of the Department of Occupational Medicine at the University Hospital in Hradec Králové fluctuates around 15-20 cases per year, and 80-100 new cases are reported in the whole republic. The rate of occupational asthma and occupational allergic rhinitis of the total asthma and rhinitis incidence in the Czech population fluctuates between 5-15%. Regarding the number of affected employees, flour is considered the most important allergen. Other important noxas include agricultural allergens, textile dust, diisocyanates and disinfectious preparations. The importance of the alergogenius effect of natural rubber latex and diisocyanates has increased in occupational medicine mainly in the last 20 years. Regarding latex, its harmful effect has been especially demonstrated in health providers who wear protective latex gloves, which results not only in contact eczema-dermatitis, but also in bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis. Diisocyanates, highly reactive and aggressive substances, originate during polyurethane production which has a wide industrial application (production of polyurethane foam and rubber, paints, adhesives, injected substances, glues, varnishes etc.). The incidence of occupational asthma diseases in workers exposed to diisocyanates is high. Typically, a development of the disease begins after a short time exposure. In this thesis, a diagnostic method in suspected occupational allergic disease of the airways is suggested and

  8. The terms occupation and activity over the history of official occupational therapy publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauerschmidt, Bree; Nelson, David L

    2011-01-01

    The history of articles in the American Journal of Occupational Therapy and its predecessors reflects trends and changes in professional terminology and the thoughts underlying that terminology. In this study, we investigate use of occupation, activity, and related terms across 9 decades of occupational therapy literature from the 1920s to the 2000s. The literature for 3 years of each of the 9 decades was scanned electronically. A random numbers table was used to equalize the number of words across decades, and a computer search function was used to determine each term's frequency of use for each decade. Results indicated that the term occupation was widely used in the 1920s but then declined until the 1980s. With a rapid increase in use in the 2000s, the term occupation actually appeared more often than it did in the 1920s. The term activity appeared infrequently in the 1920s but gained popularity from the 1930s to the 1960s. From the 1970s to the 1990s, the use of both terms was quite low. This study shows that basic occupational therapy terminology has fluctuated dramatically over time. Given the essential link between terminology and theory, these changes arguably reflect authors' and editors' changing viewpoints on the profession's fundamental nature.

  9. Wildfire Smoke Emissions webinar

    Science.gov (United States)

    This webinar presented by Wayne Cascio will highlight updates to the Wildfire Smoke Guide, as well as the Smoke Sense app, which is a mobile application that gets air quality information to people impacted by wildfire smoke, and helps those affected learn

  10. Predicting Adolescent Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaul, Kevin D.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine variables which would predict smoking among 297 seventh graders and to test the validity of the variables in a followup one year later. The most valid predictors were number of friends and siblings who smoked and the intention to smoke in the future. (PP)

  11. Smoking among Teenage Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Eric F.; Atkins, Jana H.

    2000-01-01

    Summarizes recent epidemiological data concerning gender differences in the rates of various smoking behaviors among adolescents. Discusses how gender may influence smoking initiation, maintenance, and cessation among adolescents. Reviews adolescent smoking interventions. Provides recommendations for ways in which the effectiveness of smoking…

  12. Teenage Smoking in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tsung O.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the increasing problem of teenage smoking in modern China. Reviews China's smoking control efforts, a major feature of which has been to educate the youth against smoking so as to prevent them from starting and reduce the overall number of new smokers. (Contains 61 references.) (Author/GCP)

  13. The effect of psychosocial stress on single mothers’ smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests an increased risk of smoking among single mothers as compared to their cohabitating counterparts. This article examines the role of psychosocial stress in mediating the relationship between single motherhood and smoking. Methods Data were derived from a cross-sectional population based sample of German women (n = 3129) with underage children (0–18 years of age). Perceived stress was measured with 13 items covering socioeconomic as well as family- and parenting-related stressors. According to Baron and Kenny (1986) a series of logistic regression models was applied to investigate the role of psychosocial stress as a mediator on the relationship between single motherhood and smoking. Results About 44.0% of single mothers smoked daily, whereas only 26.2% of cohabitating mothers did. Single mothers reported more stress related to their economic situation, occupation and family than partnered mothers. Out of the original 13 stressors only 'conflicts with the partner or ex-partner’ and 'financial worries’ remained significant in explaining single mothers’ higher risk of smoking. Against expectation, stress due to household requirements and family demands was associated with lower odds of single mothers’ smoking. After controlling for psychosocial stress, the odds ratio of single mothers’ moderate smoking (smoking (≥ 20 cig./day) more pronounced from 2.56 to 2.01 (XF = 35.3%). Conclusions It can be stated that single mothers’ heavy more than moderate smoking appeared to be mediated by perceived psychosocial stress. Out of all stressors considered, financial worries were of paramount significance in explaining single mothers’ heavy smoking while some family-related stressors rather appeared to keep single mothers from smoking. Overall, a higher stress exposure explains partly but not sufficiently single mothers’ increased smoking rates. PMID:24304663

  14. Promoting smoking cessation among parents: Effects on smoking-related cognitions and smoking initiation in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuck, K.; Otten, R.; Kleinjan, M.; Bricker, J.B.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Parental smoking is associated with an increased risk of smoking among youth. Epidemiological research has shown that parental smoking cessation can attenuate this risk. This study examined whether telephone counselling for parents and subsequent parental smoking cessation affect

  15. Is workplace smoking policy equally prevalent and equally effective among immigrants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osypuk, T L; Subramanian, S V; Kawachi, I; Acevedo-Garcia, D

    2009-10-01

    This study examined whether immigrants were less likely to be covered by a smoke-free workplace policy and whether workplace smoking policies garnered comparable associations with smoking for immigrants and for those born in the USA. Investigators applied multiple logistic regression to the 2001-2 Current Population Survey Tobacco Use Supplement among US indoor workers (n = 85,784). The study examined first, whether nativity (immigrants vs US born) was independently associated with smoke-free policy coverage, and second, whether the smoke-free policy association with current smoking was differential by nativity (effect modification). Immigrants were less likely to work in smoke-free workplaces than those born in the USA; however, occupation and industry accounted for these disparities. Employment in a workplace that was not smoke free was associated with higher odds of smoking (vs smoke-free workplaces), both before (OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.74 to 1.92) and after (OR 1.36, CI 1.29 to 1.44) covariate adjustment among the US born, but associations were weaker among immigrants (OR 1.39, CI 1.20 to 1.61, unadjusted; OR 1.15 CI 0.97 to 1.35 adjusted). Worker industry partly explained (16% of) the weaker policy-smoking association among immigrants, while other socioeconomic variables reduced the policy-smoking association without explaining the disparity. The patchwork of US workplace smoking restriction policy at different governmental levels, combined with a voluntary regime among some employers, generates coverage inequalities. Workplace smoke-free policies may be less effective for immigrants, and this is related to differential coverage by such policies due to occupational segregation. Understanding the complex patterns of the social context of smoking is important for understanding how policy interventions might have heterogeneous effects for different demographic groups.

  16. Work-related stress management between workplace and occupational health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen-Amoroso, Maritta; Liira, Juha

    2016-06-13

    Work-related stress has been evaluated as one of the most important health risks in Europe. Prevention of work related stress and interventions to reduce risk factors for stress in the workplace are conducted together by the enterprise and occupational health services. The aim of the study was to examine the experiences of Finnish occupational physicians on the stress management with enterprises. From the Finnish Association of Occupational Health Physicians membership list 207 physicians responded to self-administered anonymous questionnaire. The data were analysed using SPSS 17.0. The client enterprises contacted occupational health services frequently about work-related stress. Collaboration between occupational health and enterprises was strongest in companies' own occupational health services and generally with most experienced physicians. Occupational health services and enterprises shared responsibility for managing work-related stress. Professional experience and close contact with organisation management favours successful stress management between occupational health and enterprises.

  17. Occupational physicians' attitudes and practices in relation to occupational cancer prevention: a qualitative study in southeastern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verger, Pierre; Pardon, Claire; Dumesnil, Helene; Charrier, Danielle; De Labrusse, Benoit; Lehucher-Michel, Marie-Pascale; Viau, Alain; Arnaud, Sandrine; Souville, Marc

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a qualitative survey of 20 occupational physicians (OPs) in southeastern France in 2008 to study their attitudes and practices regarding the prevention of occupational cancers. Occupational physicians' practices regarding occupational cancers centered mainly on prevention. Numerous difficulties impeded these activities: attitudes that minimized the carcinogenic risks by employers and employees, the absence or inadequacy of mandatory risk assessment to identify health hazards, and difficulties in obtaining individual exposure forms, which employers are supposed to complete to identify employees exposed to carcinogens. Other problems were related to the resources available to OPs and the constraints on their time. Finally, some OPs reported that they lacked self-efficacy. The results of this study suggested the need to strengthen OPs' initial training, draft and adopt good practice guidelines for various aspects of their practices, and improve collaborations between OPs and other professionals specialized in the prevention of occupational risks.

  18. Hospital doctors' smoking behavior and attitude towards smoking cessation interventions for patients: a survey in an Italian Comprehensive Cancer Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lina, Micaela; Mazza, Roberto; Borreani, Claudia; Brunelli, Cinzia; Bianchi, Elisabetta; Munarini, Elena; De Marco, Cinzia; Pozzi, Paolo; Boffi, Roberto

    2016-06-02

    Tobacco control guidelines recommend all healthcare professionals to ask patients about their smoking status and to offer them at least minimal cessation advice. However, few data are available about the daily practice of hospital clinicians who work with smoking cancer patients. This study assesses, in a comprehensive cancer center, the physicians' smoking habit, their clinical practice in offering a smoking cessation intervention to patients who smoke, and the training they received in this field. A Web-based survey was sent to 285 physicians. The survey response rate was 75%. Sixty-two percent, 24%, and 14% of responders were never, former, and current smokers, respectively. Six percent of all responding physicians have already participated in smoking cessation training and 43% of them declared their willingness to be trained. Eighty-six percent of all responding physicians asked about the patients' smoking status, 50% routinely advised patients to quit smoking, and 32% assessed their motivation to do so. Smoking cessation guidelines were not followed mostly for lack of time, fear to increase patients' stress, and lack of smoking cessation training. Ninety-four percent of responding physicians knew the smoking cessation service for outpatients and 65% referred at least one patient, 66% of responding physicians knew the service for inpatients, and 36% of them asked for at least one intervention in the ward. This study pointed out partial adherence of the physicians working in a leading cancer center to the smoking cessation guidelines. The clinicians' smoking habits did not influence the training and the clinical practice in offering patients smoking cessation interventions.

  19. Prevalencia del habito de fumar en jóvenes y sus padres: asociaciones relevantes con educacion y ocupación Prevalência do hábito de fumar em jovens e seus pais: associações de importância com educação e ocupação Prevalence of smoking in young people and their parents: important assocations with education and occupation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Poletto

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de conocer la prevalencia del hábito de fumar cigarrillos en los jóvenes, se estudiaron muestras aleatorias de varones de 18 años y de estudiantes universitarios de medicina y de economía, los que respondieron un cuestionario referido al hábito, escolaridad y ocupación propias y de sus padres, así como sus opiniones y motivaciones. La prevalencia del hábito fue mayor en los varones en ambas generaciones, en los estudiantes de medicina que en los de economía, y en los padres con nivel universitario. Se encontró asociación entre el hábito de los jóvenes de la problación general con el de sus padres (pCom o objetivo de conhecer a prevalência de hábito de fumar cigarros entre os jovens, estudaram-se amostras aleatórias de homens de 18 anos e de estudantes universitários de medicina e de economia, que responderam um questionário sobre o hábito, escolaridade e ocupação, próprios e de seus pais. A prevalência do hábito de fumar foi maior nos homens de ambas as gerações, nos estudantes de medicina, que nos de economia, e nos pais com educação universitária. Achou-se associação entre o hábito dos jovens representativos da população geral (p Rosario, with a million inhabitants, is the second major urban concentration in Argentina and serves as the commercial and industrial center for a large area. In view of the lack of information on the present prevalence of smoking in this area as for the country as a whole, a study was performed on random samples of young people and university students of medicine and economics, as well as on their parents. Information was obtained on their life smoking habits, education and occupation. The prevalence of the habit was higher: a in men, both in the youngsters and their parents; b in medical students than in those of the economic sciences; c in parents with university education. The smoking habit of these subjects and parents was highly associated (p < 0.001 in the

  20. Occupational Risk Factors of Lymphohematopoietic Cancer in Rayong Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punjindasup, Apinya; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Ekpanyaskul, Chatchai

    2015-11-01

    The Lymphohematopoietic Cancer (LHC) incidence rate in Thailand has been rising over the past decade with unknown etiology, including Rayong province. One hypothesis of LHC risks is exposure to occupational carcinogens. To determine the association of occupational exposure and LHC risks in Rayong province, Thailand. This matched hospital-based case-control study was conducted in a Rayong provincial hospital from September 2009 to January 2013. One LHC case was matched with four controls in gender and age, ±5 years. Demographic data, residential factors, behavioral factors, and occupational exposure-including chemical exposure-were obtained by interviews and collected by occupational health care officers. The risk factor was analyzed by conditional logistic regression and reported in odds ratio with 95% confidence interval. This study found 105 LHC cases which met the inclusion criteria and were included in the study, yielding a 66% cover rate of cases reported in the database. The histology of LHC were 51 leukemia cases (47.7%), 43 lymphoma cases (42.0%), and 11 multiple myeloma cases (10.3%). The results revealed that occupational exposure to pesticide and smoke were statistically significantly associated with LHC with adjusted ORs 2.26 (95% CI 1.30-3.91) and 1.99 (95% CI = 1.13-3.51), respectively. When stratified to histological subtype of LHC by WHO 2000, leukemia was statistically significantly associated with occupational exposure to smoke, adjusted ORs 2.43 (95% CI 1.11-5.36), with occupational pesticide exposure a significant risk of lymphoma, adjusted ORs 4.69 (95% CI 2.01-10.96). However, neither fumes, wood dust, working outdoors, cleaners, contact with animals, petroleum products and chlorine; nor occupational exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as benzene or organic solvents, were statistically significant risk factors of LHC. In addition, there were no significant risks in the demographic data, residential factors, and behavioral

  1. Occupational Accidents Aboard Merchant Ships

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    H. L. Hansen; D. Nielsen; M. Frydenberg

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational...

  2. Cardiovascular Disease and Type 2 Diabetes Risk Across Occupational Groups and Industry in a State Wide Study of an Australian Working Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsall, Helen Louise; Fernando, Palamandadige Harsha Suranga; Gwini, Stella May; Sim, Malcolm Ross

    2017-11-13

    To investigate prevalence of type 2 diabetes (diabetes) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in occupational and industry groups in a large, diverse working population. 500,000 Victorian workers undertook health checks including lifestyle, anthropometric and biomedical cardiovascular risk factor assessment. 5-year diabetes (AUSDRISK) and absolute CVD risk were estimated. High diabetes and CVD risk was increased in many occupational groups and industries relative to managers and Professional/Scientific/Technical Services respectively. Significantly more blue collar workers had high diabetes risk (males prevalence ratio PR 1.19 (95% CI 1.17-1.20); females 1.34 (1.30-1.38)), high CVD risk (males 1.45 (1.37-1.53); females 1.48 (1.17-1.88), and risk factors including smoking (males 2.26 (2.22-2.30); females 2.20 (2.13-2.27), compared with white collar workers. Targeting occupational and industry groups within sustainable workplace programs could assist in reducing chronic diseases, lowering sickness absence and improving productivity.

  3. Occupational Therapy and Veteran Suicide: A Call to Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwa, Amy; Sweetman, Melissa M; Helgeson, Loriann

    Suicide in the U.S. military veteran population is an epidemic with a wide-ranging impact on individuals, families, and society. Death by suicide is preventable. The purpose of this article is to ignite a professional discussion about veteran suicide, a serious mental health issue that is underrepresented in the occupational therapy research literature. Occupational therapy practitioners respond to the changing needs of populations and promote preventive measures to improve health. Actively exploring occupational therapy's role in suicide prevention is a professional responsibility aligned with tenets of the Centennial Vision and Vision 2025. Applying the concept of the scholarship of integration, the authors present a case for the inclusion of suicide prevention training as a professional competency and explore opportunities to address suicide risk through the use of evidence-based interventions for posttraumatic stress disorder, combat stress, and depression. Professional implications include the need to advance professional knowledge through education, advocacy, and intervention research targeting the veteran population. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  4. Family Beliefs and Behaviors About Smoking and Young Children's Secondhand Smoke Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Marisa E; Riekert, Kristin A; Hovell, Melbourne F; Rand, Cynthia S; Welkom, Josie S; Eakin, Michelle N

    2015-09-01

    Home smoking bans (HSBs) reduce children's secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe), a contributor to health disparities. General psychosocial characteristics and SHSe beliefs and behaviors within the family may relate to HSB existence. This study's aim was to identify general psychosocial characteristics and SHSe beliefs associated with HSB presence and lower SHSe among children living with a smoker. Caregivers (n = 269) of Head Start preschool students (age 1-6 years) living with a smoker reported on HSBs, caregiver depressive symptoms and stress, family routines, SHSe beliefs, and household smoking characteristics. SHSe biomarkers included air nicotine in 2 areas of the home and child salivary cotinine. One-quarter of families reported complete HSBs, and HSBs were more common among nonsmoking (37%) versus smoking caregivers (21%; p importance of HSBs differed between nonsmoking (9.7±1.0) versus smoking caregivers (9.1±2.0; p importance of HSBs among nonsmoking versus smoking primary caregivers, SHSe reduction self-efficacy and intent are protective for Head Start students at high-risk for exposure. Pediatric healthcare providers and early education professionals may be able to support SHSe reduction efforts (e.g., smoking cessation, HSB implementation) and reduce children's SHSe with counseling strategies to address caregivers' HSB self-efficacy, intent, and related behaviors. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. [Smoking behavior, knowledge, and attitudes towards anti-smoking regulations of nursing students in Sousse, Tunisia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Rejeb, M; Abroug, H; Khefacha-Aissa, S; Ben Fredj, M; Dhidah, L; Said-Latiri, H

    2016-04-01

    Smoking prevalence has reached high rates among health professionals. Our study aimed to assess smoking behavior, knowledge and attitudes towards anti-smoking regulations of nursing students. In 2013, we conducted a cross-sectional study among nursing students enrolled in private and state nursing institutions of Sousse (Tunisia). In our study, 440 students were selected. The mean age was 22 ± 2 years. The sex ratio was 0.65. The prevalence of smoking was 20.6%. It was significantly higher in men than women (50% vs 4.5%, P < 10(-3)). Strong dependency was noted in 9%. One-third of smokers stated they wanted to quit smoking. Prohibiting the sale of cigarettes to minors and smoking in enclosed public places were the two most mentioned anti-smoking regulations. Our rate was lower than those reported in the literature. This result should encourage policymakers to continue actions and ensure sustainability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Alcoholism and occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkinuora, M

    1984-12-01

    Occupational roles are a dominant force in many aspects of social life. Occupation signifies a complex of social and psychological factors that reflect intelligence, education, personality, ambition, social status, and life-style. The consumption of alcohol and alcoholism have many correlations with occupational roles. Mortality from cirrhosis of the liver reflects the per capita consumption of alcohol. In certain occupations such mortality rates are clearly above average. The highest risk is found in occupations associated with the serving of food and beverages. A Finnish study has shown that the alcohol-related use of health services among males is the highest among unskilled workers, painters, seamen, and construction workers and the lowest among executives and farmers. Many population studies have shown that blue-collar workers and laborers have the highest level of drinking. This pattern is not necessarily true among females. The risk factors associated with occupation include the availability of alcohol at work, social pressure to drink on the job, separation from normal social relationships, and freedom from supervision. The opportunity to obtain alcoholic beverages relatively inexpensively, when combined with social pressure by peers to drink heavily, is an especially powerful explanation for high rates of alcoholism within an occupation.

  7. Occupational skin cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawkrodger, D.J. [Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Dermatology

    2004-10-01

    Skin cancer due to occupation is more common than is generally recognized, although it is difficult to obtain an accurate estimate of its prevalence. Over the past two centuries, occupational skin cancers have particularly been due to industrial exposure of men (it seems more so than women) to chemical carcinogens such as polycyclic hydrocarbons (e.g. from coal tar products) or to arsenic. Industrial processes have improved in most Western countries to limit this type of exposure, but those with outdoor occupations are still exposed to solar ultraviolet irradiation without this being widely recognized as an industrial hazard. Ionizing radiation such as X-rays can also cause skin cancer. Occupational skin cancers often resemble skin tumours found in non-occupational subjects, e.g. basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, but some pre-malignant lesions can be more specific and point to an occupational origin, e.g. tar keratoses or arsenical keratoses. An uncommon but well-recognized cause of occupational skin cancer is that which results from scar formation following an industrial burn. In the future it will be necessary to focus on preventative measures, e.g. for outdoor workers, the need to cover up in the sun and use sun protective creams and a campaign for earlier recognition of skin cancers, which are usually curable if treated in their early stages.

  8. Occupational Risk for Oral Cancer in Nordic Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvainen, Laura; Suojanen, Juho; Kyyronen, Pentti; Lindqvist, Christian; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Lynge, Elsebeth; Sparen, Par; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Pukkala, Eero

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate occupational risk for cancer of the tongue, oral cavity or pharynx after adjustment for alcohol and tobacco use. The data covered 14.9 million people and 28,623 cases of cancer of the tongue, oral cavity and pharynx in the Nordic countries 1961-2005. Alcohol consumption by occupation was estimated based on mortality from liver cirrhosis and incidence of liver cancer. Smoking by occupation was estimated based on the incidence of lung cancer. Only few occupations had relative risks of over 1.5 for cancer of the tongue, oral cavity and pharynx. These occupations included dentists, artistic workers, hairdressers, journalists, cooks and stewards, seamen and waiters. Several occupational categories, including dentists, had an increased relative risk of tongue cancer. This new finding remains to be explained but could be related to occupational chemical exposures, increased consumption of alcohol and tobacco products, or infection with human papilloma virus. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  9. Occupational cancer in Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiqun; Osman, John

    2012-01-01

    Although only a relatively small proportion of cancer is attributable to occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents, the estimated number of deaths due to occupational cancer is high when compared to other deaths due to work-related ill health and injury. However, risk from occupational exposure to carcinogens can be minimised through proportionate but effective risk management. The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) is the regulator of workplace health and safety in Great Britain. As part of its aim to reduce ill health arising from failures to control properly exposure to hazards at work, HSE commissioned the research presented elsewhere in this supplement to enable it to identify priorities for preventing occupational cancer. The research has shown that occupational cancer remains a key health issue and that low-level exposure of a large number of workers to carcinogens is important. The finding that a small number of carcinogens have been responsible for the majority of the burden of occupational cancer provides key evidence in the development of priorities for significant reduction of occupational cancer. Although the research presented in this supplement reflects the consequences of past exposures to carcinogens, occupational cancer remains a problem. The potential for exposure to the agents considered in this research is still present in the workplace and the findings are relevant to prevention of future disease. In this article, the principle approaches for risk reduction are described. It provides supporting information on some of the initiatives already being undertaken, or those being put in place, to reduce occupational cancer in Great Britain. The need also for systematic collection of exposure information and the importance of raising awareness and changing behaviours are discussed. PMID:22710673

  10. Smoking in the movies increases adolescent smoking: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlesworth, Annemarie; Glantz, Stanton A

    2005-12-01

    Despite voluntary restrictions prohibiting direct and indirect cigarette marketing to youth and paid product placement, tobacco use remains prevalent in movies. This article presents a systematic review of the evidence on the nature and effect of smoking in the movies on adolescents (and others). We performed a comprehensive literature review. We identified 40 studies. Smoking in the movies decreased from 1950 to approximately 1990 and then increased rapidly. In 2002, smoking in movies was as common as it was in 1950. Movies rarely depict the negative health outcomes associated with smoking and contribute to increased perceptions of smoking prevalence and the benefits of smoking. Movie smoking is presented as adult behavior. Exposure to movie smoking makes viewers' attitudes and beliefs about smoking and smokers more favorable and has a dose-response relationship with adolescent smoking behavior. Parental restrictions on R-rated movies significantly reduces youth exposure to movie smoking and subsequent smoking uptake. Beginning in 2002, the total amount of smoking in movies was greater in youth-rated (G/PG/PG-13) films than adult-rated (R) films, significantly increasing adolescent exposure to movie smoking. Viewing antismoking advertisements before viewing movie smoking seems to blunt the stimulating effects of movie smoking on adolescent smoking. Strong empirical evidence indicates that smoking in movies increases adolescent smoking initiation. Amending the movie-rating system to rate movies containing smoking as "R" should reduce adolescent exposure to smoking and subsequent smoking.

  11. Cognitive and emotional effects of occupational stress in nursing professionals Efectos cognitivos y emocionales del estrés ocupacional en profesionales de enfermería Efeitos cognitivos e emocionais do estresse ocupacional em profissionais de enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Paschoalini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Investigating the indicators of stress, anxiety, depression and the cognitive changes in members of the nursing team at Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Assis SP. METHODS: 66 nursing professionals participated in the study, evaluated by psychological and cognitive tracking instruments. RESULTS: The stress experience was not homogenous in the nursing team; high scores in the depression tracking were associated to low cognitive scores. CONCLUSION: Nursing auxiliaries and technicians were affected by stress. Therefore, worker's healthcare should be provided for the whole nursing team.OBJETIVOS: Investigar, de forma integrada, posibles indicadores de alteraciones cognitivas, depresión, ansiedad y agentes estresores ocupacionales en auxiliares y técnicos de enfermería así como de enfermeros de diversos sectores de la Santa Casa de Misericordia de Asís-SP, por medio de instrumentos de rastreo psicológico y cognitivo. MÉTODOS: Participaron en el estudio 66 profesionales de enfermería, evaluados por instrumentos de rastreo psicológico y cognitivo. RESULTADOS: La experiencia de estrés no fue homogénea en el equipo de enfermería; los escores altos en el rastreo de depresión fueron asociados a escores cognitivos bajos. CONCLUSIÓN: Los auxiliares y técnicos de enfermería y enfermeros se vieron afectados por el estrés por lo que la atención a la salud del trabajador, debe ser ofrecida a todo el equipo de enfermería.OBJETIVOS: Investigar, de forma integrada, possíveis indicadores de alterações cognitivas, depressão, ansiedade e agentes estressores ocupacionais em auxiliares e técnicos de enfermagem e enfermeiros de diversos setores da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Assis-SP, por meio de instrumentos de rastreio psicológico e cognitivo. MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 66 profissionais de enfermagem, avaliados por instrumentos de rastreio psicológico e cognitivo. RESULTADOS: A experiência de estresse não foi homogênea na

  12. Differences in Preseason Aerobic Fitness Screening in Professional and Pre-professional Modern Dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, Shaw; Codman, Emma; Hash-Campbell, Dana; Ojofeitimi, Sheyi

    2016-03-01

    The aerobic demands of today's dance repertoire warrant understanding of the current cardiorespiratory fitness of dancers. The purpose of this study was to compare aerobic fitness levels of professional and pre-professional modern dancers and determine change over time. A retrospective analysis of four groups, two professional, and two pre-professional, was conducted in preseason annual screens, occurring before the professional dancers' rehearsal period and the students' academic training. Resting (HRrest), peak (HRpeak), and recovery (HRrecov) heart rate, and blood pressure (BP) were compared in 577 dancers, using an accelerated 3-minute step test. Smoking, asthma, and aerobic and cross training rates between groups were also compared. A 4 (group) X 2 (gender) MANOVA design determined differences between groups and genders in all dependent variables (p dance students over time. Additional aerobic training is recommended for pre-professional modern dance students to prepare them for the performance demands of a professional career.

  13. Profiling teachers' sense of professional identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canrinus, Esther T.; Helms-Lorenz, Michelle; Beijaard, Douwe; Buitink, Jaap; Hofman, Adriaan

    2011-01-01

    This study shows that professional identity should not be viewed as a composed variable with a uniform structure. Based on the literature and previous research, we view teachers' job satisfaction, self-efficacy, occupational commitment and change in the level of motivation as indicators of teachers'

  14. Professional Socialisation of Valuers: Program Directors Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Geoff

    2007-01-01

    An examination of the professional socialisation process is critical in changing the way graduates are trained and how they are supported post graduation. This article summarises key mechanisms to facilitate socialisation from recent socialisation studies undertaken in the fields of medicine, physical therapy nursing, occupational therapy, and…

  15. Smoking behaviour, knowledge and attitudes among Family Medicine physicians and nurses in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broers Teresa

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking rates among the general population in Bosnia and Herzegovina are extremely high, and national campaigns to lower smoking rates have not yet begun. As part of future activities of the Queen's University Family Medicine Development Program in the Balkans Region, technical assistance may be provided to Bosnia and Herzegovina to develop of national tobacco control strategies. This assistance may focus on training doctors and nurses on smoking cessation strategies with a view to helping their patients to stop smoking. Given this important role that health professionals have, data is needed on smoking rates as well as on smoking behaviour among doctors and nurses in Bosnia and Herzegovina. This study therefore seeks to determine the smoking rates and behaviour of family medicine physicians and nurses in Bosnia and Herzegovina and to determine how well prepared they feel with respect to counselling their patients on smoking cessation strategies. Methods The WHO Global Health Professional Survey, a self-administered questionnaire, was distributed to physicians and nurses in 19 Family Medicine Teaching Centres in Bosnia and Herzegovina in June 2002. Smoking rates and behaviour, as well as information on knowledge and attitudes regarding smoking were determined for both physicians and nurses. Results Of the 273 physicians and nurses currently working in Family Medicine Teaching Centres, 209 (77% completed the questionnaire. Approximately 45% of those surveyed currently smoke, where 51% of nurses smoked, compared to 40% of physicians. With respect to knowledge and attitudes, all respondents agreed that smoking is harmful to one's health. However, "ever" smokers, compared to "never" smokers, were less likely to agree that health professionals who smoke were less likely to advise patients to quit smoking than non-smoking health professionals. Less than half of physicians and nurses had received formal training in smoking

  16. Occupational hazards to dental staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamshid Ayatollahi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental professionals are predisposed to a number of occupational hazards. These include exposure to infections (including Human Immunodeficiency Virus and viral hepatitis; percutaneous exposure incidents, dental materials, radiation, and noise; musculoskeletal disorders; psychological problems and dermatitis; respiratory disorders; and eye insults. Percutaneous exposure incidents remain a main concern, as exposure to serious infectious agents is a virtual risk. Minimizing percutaneous exposure incidents and their consequences should continue to be considered, including sound infection control practices, continuing education, and hepatitis B vaccination. Basically, for any infection control strategies, dentists should be aware of individual protective measures and appropriate sterilization or other high-level disinfection utilities. Strained posture at work disturbs the musculoskeletal alignment and leads to stooped spine. The stooped posture also involved certain groups of muscles and joints. This may lead to diseases of the musculoskeletal system. Continuous educating and appropriate intervention studies are needed to reduce the complication of these hazards. So, it is important for dentists to remain constantly up-to-date about measures on how to deal with newer strategies and dental materials, and implicates the need for special medical care for this professional group.

  17. Occupational hazards to dental staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayatollahi, Jamshid; Ayatollahi, Fatemah; Ardekani, Ali Mellat; Bahrololoomi, Rezvan; Ayatollahi, Jahangir; Ayatollahi, Ali; Owlia, Mohammad Bagher

    2012-01-01

    Dental professionals are predisposed to a number of occupational hazards. These include exposure to infections (including Human Immunodeficiency Virus and viral hepatitis); percutaneous exposure incidents, dental materials, radiation, and noise; musculoskeletal disorders; psychological problems and dermatitis; respiratory disorders; and eye insults. Percutaneous exposure incidents remain a main concern, as exposure to serious infectious agents is a virtual risk. Minimizing percutaneous exposure incidents and their consequences should continue to be considered, including sound infection control practices, continuing education, and hepatitis B vaccination. Basically, for any infection control strategies, dentists should be aware of individual protective measures and appropriate sterilization or other high-level disinfection utilities. Strained posture at work disturbs the musculoskeletal alignment and leads to stooped spine. The stooped posture also involved certain groups of muscles and joints. This may lead to diseases of the musculoskeletal system. Continuous educating and appropriate intervention studies are needed to reduce the complication of these hazards. So, it is important for dentists to remain constantly up-to-date about measures on how to deal with newer strategies and dental materials, and implicates the need for special medical care for this professional group.

  18. Characteristics of Cigarette Smoking in Individuals in Smoking Concordant and Smoking Discordant Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooley, Erin M; Borrelli, Belinda

    2017-06-01

    Partner smoking status may impact smoking cessation outcomes. The purpose of this study is to compare smokers in smoking concordant couples (both partners smoke) to smokers in smoking discordant couples (one partner smokes) on variables that have been shown to be important for quitting smoking. Participants were 123 cigarette smokers with cohabitating romantic partners (smoking discordant: n=60, smoking concordant: n=63, 63.9% females). We used one-way MANCOVA, controlling for age and number of cigarettes smoked/day, to examine differences between groups on smoking outcome expectancies, motivation to quit smoking, and dyadic efficacy to quit smoking. We examined smoking behavior in a series of exploratory analyses. We found a significant multivariate difference between individuals in smoking concordant and discordant couples (p < .05) such that 20.3% of the variation in the linear combination of dependent variables was accounted for by group membership. Follow-up univariate ANCOVA analyses indicated that those in smoking discordant couples reported greater positive outcome expectancies for cigarettes with regard to facilitating social situations and reducing boredom than those in the smoking concordant group. Participants in smoking concordant couples smoked more cigarettes when their partners were present, fewer cigarettes without their partners present, and were more likely to prefer that their partner be involved in their smoking cessation treatment than those in smoking discordant couples. The results of this study may guide the development of smoking cessation interventions that attend to the unique needs of smoking concordant and discordant couples.

  19. Occupational Overuse Syndrome (Technological Diseases): Carpal Tunnel Syndrome, a Mouse Shoulder, Cervical Pain Syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Merita Tiric-Campara; Ferid Krupic; Mirza Biscevic; Emina Spahic; Kerima Maglajlija; Zlatan Masic; Lejla Zunic; Izet Masic

    2014-01-01

      Technological diseases are diseases of the modern era. Some are caused by occupational exposures, and are marked with direct professional relation, or the action of harmful effects in the workplace...

  20. Gossip and Occupational Ideology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rysman, Alexander R.

    1976-01-01

    Defines the transmission of gossip as an essential social process reflecting a shared group membership and discusses the ways in which gossip supports ideologies held by members of a specific occupation. (MH)