WorldWideScience

Sample records for products electric motor-driven

  1. IEMDC IN-LINE ELECTRIC MOTOR DRIVEN COMPRESSOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael J. Crowley; Prem N. Bansal

    2004-10-01

    This report contains the final project summary and deliverables required by the award for the development of an In-line Electric Motor Driven Compressor (IEMDC). Extensive work was undertaken during the course of the project to develop the motor and the compressor section of the IEMDC unit. Multiple design iterations were performed to design an electric motor for operation in a natural gas environment and to successfully integrate the motor with a compressor. During the project execution, many challenges were successfully overcome in order to achieve the project goals and to maintain the system design integrity. Some of the challenges included limiting the magnitude of the compressor aerodynamic loading for appropriate sizing of the magnetic bearings, achieving a compact motor rotor size to meet the rotor dynamic requirements of API standards, devising a motor cooling scheme using high pressure natural gas, minimizing the impact of cooling on system efficiency, and balancing the system thrust loads for the magnetic thrust bearing. Design methods that were used on the project included validated state-of-the-art techniques such as finite element analysis and computational fluid dynamics along with the combined expertise of both Curtiss-Wright Electro-Mechanical Corporation and Dresser-Rand Company. One of the most significant areas of work undertaken on the project was the development of the unit configuration for the system. Determining the configuration of the unit was a significant step in achieving integration of the electric motor into a totally enclosed compression system. Product review of the IEMDC unit configuration was performed during the course of the development process; this led to an alternate design configuration. The alternate configuration is a modular design with the electric motor and compressor section each being primarily contained in its own pressure containing case. This new concept resolved the previous conflict between the aerodynamic flow

  2. Energy-Efficiency Policy Opportunities for Electric Motor-Driven Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This publication is the first global analysis of energy consumption and energy efficiency potential of EMDS (electric motor- driven system). The electric motors and systems they drive are the largest single electricity end use, accounting for more than 40% of global electricity consumption. Huge energy efficiency potential was found untapped in EMDS - around 25% of EMDS electricity use could be saved cost-effectively, reducing total global electricity demand by about 10%. However, the energy efficiency of EMDS has been relatively neglected in comparison with other sustainable energy opportunities. It is crucial to scale up the operations and resources committed to realizing the vast savings potential of optimized EMDS. This paper proposes a comprehensive package of policy recommendations to help governments realize the potential for energy savings in EMDS.

  3. Walking the Torque: Proposed Work Plan for Energy-Efficiency Policy Opportunities for Electric Motor-Driven Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Electric motor-driven system is the largest single energy end use accounting for more than 40% of global electricity consumption. This paper sets out an ambitious but achievable target with the global work plan to improve the energy efficiency of electric motor-driven system by 10% to 15% based on the finding of working paper ''Energy-Efficiency Policy Opportunities for Electric Motor-Driven Systems (Waide et al., 2011)''. If governments commit to the proposed work plan immediately and maintain resourcing levels, this could be achieved by 2030 and it would be equivalent to reducing total global electricity use by around 5%. The proposed work plan of this paper is to align regulatory settings within a globally applicable scheme. The IEA believes this target can only be achieved through global co-operation leading to aligned national policy settings that countries can unlock the economies of scale that will result from using more energy efficient EMDS.

  4. Study on the Rollover Characteristic of In-Wheel-Motor-Driven Electric Vehicles Considering Road and Electromagnetic Excitation

    OpenAIRE

    Di Tan; Haitao Wang; Qiang Wang

    2016-01-01

    For in-wheel-motor-driven electric vehicles, the motor is installed in the wheel directly. Tyre runout and uneven load can cause magnet gap deformation in the motor, which will produce electromagnetic forces that further influence the vehicle rollover characteristics. To study the rollover characteristics, a verified 16-degree-of-freedom rollover dynamic model is introduced. Next, the vehicle rollover characteristics both with and without electromagnetic force are analyzed under conditions of...

  5. Reliable fuzzy H∞ control for active suspension of in-wheel motor driven electric vehicles with dynamic damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xinxin; Naghdy, Fazel; Du, Haiping

    2017-03-01

    A fault-tolerant fuzzy H∞ control design approach for active suspension of in-wheel motor driven electric vehicles in the presence of sprung mass variation, actuator faults and control input constraints is proposed. The controller is designed based on the quarter-car active suspension model with a dynamic-damping-in-wheel-motor-driven-system, in which the suspended motor is operated as a dynamic absorber. The Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model is used to model this suspension with possible sprung mass variation. The parallel-distributed compensation (PDC) scheme is deployed to derive a fault-tolerant fuzzy controller for the T-S fuzzy suspension model. In order to reduce the motor wear caused by the dynamic force transmitted to the in-wheel motor, the dynamic force is taken as an additional controlled output besides the traditional optimization objectives such as sprung mass acceleration, suspension deflection and actuator saturation. The H∞ performance of the proposed controller is derived as linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) comprising three equality constraints which are solved efficiently by means of MATLAB LMI Toolbox. The proposed controller is applied to an electric vehicle suspension and its effectiveness is demonstrated through computer simulation.

  6. Study on the Rollover Characteristic of In-Wheel-Motor-Driven Electric Vehicles Considering Road and Electromagnetic Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Tan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For in-wheel-motor-driven electric vehicles, the motor is installed in the wheel directly. Tyre runout and uneven load can cause magnet gap deformation in the motor, which will produce electromagnetic forces that further influence the vehicle rollover characteristics. To study the rollover characteristics, a verified 16-degree-of-freedom rollover dynamic model is introduced. Next, the vehicle rollover characteristics both with and without electromagnetic force are analyzed under conditions of the Fixed Timing Fishhook steering and grade B road excitation. The results show that the electromagnetic force has a certain effect on the load transfer and can reduce the antirollover performance of the vehicle. Therefore, the effect of the electromagnetic force on the rollover characteristic should be considered in the vehicle design. To this end, extensive analysis was conducted on the effect of the road level, vehicle speed, and the road adhesion coefficient on the vehicle rollover stability. The results indicate that vehicle rollover stability worsens when the above-mentioned factors increase, the most influential factor being the road adhesion coefficient followed by vehicle speed and road level. This paper can offer certain theory basis for the design of the in-wheel-motor-driven electric vehicles.

  7. Modal Analysis of In-Wheel Motor-Driven Electric Vehicle Based on Bond Graph Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Tan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A half-car vibration model of an electric vehicle driven by rear in-wheel motors was developed using bond graph theory and the modular modeling method. Based on the bond graph model, modal analysis was carried out to study the vibration characteristics of the electric vehicle. To verify the effectiveness of the established model, the results were compared to ones computed on the ground of modal analysis and Newton equations. The comparison shows that the vibration model of the electric vehicle based on bond graph theory not only is able to better compute the natural frequency but also can easily determine the deformation mode, momentum mode, and other isomorphism modes and describe the dynamic characteristics of an electric vehicle driven by in-wheel motors more comprehensively than other modal analysis methods.

  8. Vibration mitigation for in-wheel switched reluctance motor driven electric vehicle with dynamic vibration absorbing structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yechen; He, Chenchen; Shao, Xinxin; Du, Haiping; Xiang, Changle; Dong, Mingming

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a new approach for vibration mitigation based on a dynamic vibration absorbing structure (DVAS) for electric vehicles (EVs) that use in-wheel switched reluctance motors (SRMs). The proposed approach aims to alleviate the negative effects of vibration caused by the unbalanced electromagnetic force (UMEF) that arises from road excitations. The analytical model of SRMs is first formulated using Fourier series, and then a model of the coupled longitudinal-vertical dynamics is developed taking into consideration the external excitations consisting of the aerodynamic drag force and road unevenness. In addition, numerical simulations for a conventional SRM-suspension system and two novel DVASs are carried out for varying road levels specified by ISO standards and vehicle velocities. The results of the comparison reveal that a 35% improvement in ride comfort, 30% improvement of road handling, and 68% improvement in air gap between rotor and stator can be achieved by adopting the novel DVAS compared to the conventional SRM-suspension system. Finally, multi-body simulation (MBS) is performed using LMS Motion to validate the feasibility of the proposed DVAS. Analysis of the results shows that the proposed method can augment the effective application of SRMs in EVs.

  9. A numerical method to enhance the performance of a cam-type electric motor-driven left ventricular assist device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huan; Yang, Ming; Lu, Cunyue; Xu, Liang; Zhuang, Xiaoqi; Meng, Fan

    2013-10-01

    Pulsatile left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) driven by electric motors have been widely accepted as a treatment of heart failure. Performance enhancement with computer assistance for this kind of LVAD has seldom been reported. In this article, a numerical method is proposed to assist the design of a cam-type pump. The method requires an integrated model of an LVAD system, consisting of a motor, a transmission mechanism, and a cardiovascular circulation. Performance indices, that is, outlet pressure, outlet flow, and pump efficiency, were used to select the best cam profile from six candidates. A prototype pump connected to a mock circulatory loop (MCL) was used to calibrate the friction coefficient of the cam groove and preliminarily evaluate modeling accuracy. In vitro experiments show that the mean outlet pressure and flow can be predicted with high accuracy by the model, and gross geometries of the measurements can also be reproduced. Simulation results demonstrate that as the total peripheral resistance (TPR) is fixed at 1.1 mm Hg.s/mL, the two-cycle 2/3-rise profile is the best. Compared with other profiles, the maximum increases of pressure and flow indices are 75 and 76%, respectively, and the maximum efficiency increase is over 51%. For different TPRs (0.5∼1.5 mm Hg.s/mL) and operation intervals (0.1∼0.4 s) in counterpulsation, the conclusion is also acceptable. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation.

  10. Implementation and Performance Evaluation of a Regenerative Braking System Coupled to Ultracapacitors for a Brushless DC Hub Motor Driven Electric Tricycle

    OpenAIRE

    Kuruppu, Sandun

    2010-01-01

    Research related to electrical vehicles is gaining importance due to the, energy crisis. An electric vehicle itself is far ahead of an internal combustion, engine based vehicle due to its efficiency. Using regenerative braking when, braking, improves the efficiency of an electric vehicle as it recovers energy that, could go to waste if mechanical brakes were used. A novel regenerative braking, system for neighborhood electric vehicles was designed, prototyped and tested., The proposed system ...

  11. Strategies to improve the performance of three-phase induction motor driven systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Fernando José Teixeira Estêvão

    2009-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento em Engenharia Electrotécnica (Sistemas de Energia) apresentada à Fac. de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade de Coimbra Electric motor driven systems (EMODS) account for over 40% of global electrical energy demand, i.e., 7400 TWh per year, and for about 70% of the demand for industrial electrical energy, being by far the most important electrical load. Furthermore, EMODS offer today large efficiency improvement potential, on average within 20% to 30%. If the energy s...

  12. Electricity production of Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czodor, T.

    2003-01-01

    Here is examined the spatial structure of electric energy production divided in hydropower plants (through-flow and re-pumping), thermal power plants as the most expensive way of electric energy production and nuclear power plants where high difficulty and long-term realisation of construction projects and spent financial resources are pointed out. Work describes present structure of electric energy production and consumption and refers to alternative electric energy sources

  13. Specialized motor-driven dusp1 expression in the song systems of multiple lineages of vocal learning birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruhito Horita

    Full Text Available Mechanisms for the evolution of convergent behavioral traits are largely unknown. Vocal learning is one such trait that evolved multiple times and is necessary in humans for the acquisition of spoken language. Among birds, vocal learning is evolved in songbirds, parrots, and hummingbirds. Each time similar forebrain song nuclei specialized for vocal learning and production have evolved. This finding led to the hypothesis that the behavioral and neuroanatomical convergences for vocal learning could be associated with molecular convergence. We previously found that the neural activity-induced gene dual specificity phosphatase 1 (dusp1 was up-regulated in non-vocal circuits, specifically in sensory-input neurons of the thalamus and telencephalon; however, dusp1 was not up-regulated in higher order sensory neurons or motor circuits. Here we show that song motor nuclei are an exception to this pattern. The song nuclei of species from all known vocal learning avian lineages showed motor-driven up-regulation of dusp1 expression induced by singing. There was no detectable motor-driven dusp1 expression throughout the rest of the forebrain after non-vocal motor performance. This pattern contrasts with expression of the commonly studied activity-induced gene egr1, which shows motor-driven expression in song nuclei induced by singing, but also motor-driven expression in adjacent brain regions after non-vocal motor behaviors. In the vocal non-learning avian species, we found no detectable vocalizing-driven dusp1 expression in the forebrain. These findings suggest that independent evolutions of neural systems for vocal learning were accompanied by selection for specialized motor-driven expression of the dusp1 gene in those circuits. This specialized expression of dusp1 could potentially lead to differential regulation of dusp1-modulated molecular cascades in vocal learning circuits.

  14. Sensible production processes with electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eerola, P.; Annala, T.; Wickstroem, T. [ed.

    1997-11-01

    Small and medium-sized industrial enterprises use electricity increasingly for both heating and production, as electricity offers easy adjustability and has little need for maintenance. In production processes, the advantages of electricity also include uniform quality, automation and cleanness

  15. What we learn from surveillance testing of standby turbine driven and motor driven pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christie, B.

    1996-12-01

    This paper describes a comparison of the performance information collected by the author and the respective system engineers from five standby turbine driven pumps at four commercial nuclear electric generating units in the United States and from two standby motor driven pumps at two of these generating units. Information was collected from surveillance testing and from Non-Test actuations. Most of the performance information (97%) came from surveillance testing. {open_quotes}Conditional Probabilities{close_quotes} of the pumps ability to respond to a random demand were calculated for each of the seven standby pumps and compared to the historical record of the Non-Test actuations. It appears that the Conditional Probabilities are comparable to the rate of success for Non-Test actuations. The Conditional Probabilities of the standby motor driven pumps (approximately 99%) are better than the Conditional Probabilities of the standby turbine driven pumps (82%-96% range). Recommendations were made to improve the Conditional Probabilities of the standby turbine driven pumps.

  16. What we learn from surveillance testing of standby turbine driven and motor driven pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christie, B.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a comparison of the performance information collected by the author and the respective system engineers from five standby turbine driven pumps at four commercial nuclear electric generating units in the United States and from two standby motor driven pumps at two of these generating units. Information was collected from surveillance testing and from Non-Test actuations. Most of the performance information (97%) came from surveillance testing. open-quotes Conditional Probabilitiesclose quotes of the pumps ability to respond to a random demand were calculated for each of the seven standby pumps and compared to the historical record of the Non-Test actuations. It appears that the Conditional Probabilities are comparable to the rate of success for Non-Test actuations. The Conditional Probabilities of the standby motor driven pumps (approximately 99%) are better than the Conditional Probabilities of the standby turbine driven pumps (82%-96% range). Recommendations were made to improve the Conditional Probabilities of the standby turbine driven pumps

  17. 30 CFR 18.51 - Electrical protection of circuits and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electrical protection of circuits and equipment... TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.51 Electrical protection of circuits and equipment. (a) An automatic...

  18. 30 CFR 18.91 - Electric equipment for which field approvals will be issued.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., by the owner-coal mine operator of such machines including any associated electrical equipment... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric equipment for which field approvals... OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT...

  19. Electricity economics. Production functions with electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Zhaoguang; Hu, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    The first book studies on the economics of electricity consumption. Compares the sector production functions with electricity and the commercial production functions with electricity. Introduces the global E-GDP function, the European E-GDP function and 12 national E-GDP functions. Presents the gene characters of EAI production functions and E-GDP functions for USA to see why USA's economy is entering an up-industrialization period. Discusses China's economic growth by production functions with electricity. Electricity Economics: Production Functions with Electricity studies the production output from analyzing patterns of electricity consumption. Since electricity data can be used to measure scenarios of economic performance due to its accuracy and reliability, it could therefore also be used to help scholars explore new research frontiers that directly and indirectly benefits human society. Our research initially explores a similar pattern to substitute the Cobb-Douglas function with the production function with electricity to track and forecast economic activities. The book systematically introduces the theoretical frameworks and mathematical models of economics from the perspective of electricity consumption. The E-GDP functions are presented for case studies of more than 20 developed and developing countries. These functions also demonstrate substantial similarities between human DNA and production functions with electricity in terms of four major characteristics, namely replication, mutation, uniqueness, and evolution. Furthermore, the book includes extensive data and case studies on the U.S., China, Japan, etc. It is intended for scientists, engineers, financial professionals, policy makers, consultants, and anyone else with a desire to study electricity economics as well as related applications.

  20. Electricity economics. Production functions with electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Zhaoguang [State Grid Energy Research Institute, Beijing (China); Hu, Zheng [Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The first book studies on the economics of electricity consumption. Compares the sector production functions with electricity and the commercial production functions with electricity. Introduces the global E-GDP function, the European E-GDP function and 12 national E-GDP functions. Presents the gene characters of EAI production functions and E-GDP functions for USA to see why USA's economy is entering an up-industrialization period. Discusses China's economic growth by production functions with electricity. Electricity Economics: Production Functions with Electricity studies the production output from analyzing patterns of electricity consumption. Since electricity data can be used to measure scenarios of economic performance due to its accuracy and reliability, it could therefore also be used to help scholars explore new research frontiers that directly and indirectly benefits human society. Our research initially explores a similar pattern to substitute the Cobb-Douglas function with the production function with electricity to track and forecast economic activities. The book systematically introduces the theoretical frameworks and mathematical models of economics from the perspective of electricity consumption. The E-GDP functions are presented for case studies of more than 20 developed and developing countries. These functions also demonstrate substantial similarities between human DNA and production functions with electricity in terms of four major characteristics, namely replication, mutation, uniqueness, and evolution. Furthermore, the book includes extensive data and case studies on the U.S., China, Japan, etc. It is intended for scientists, engineers, financial professionals, policy makers, consultants, and anyone else with a desire to study electricity economics as well as related applications.

  1. Local synaptic signaling enhances the stochastic transport of motor-driven cargo in neurons

    KAUST Repository

    Newby, Jay; Bressloff, Paul C

    2010-01-01

    The tug-of-war model of motor-driven cargo transport is formulated as an intermittent trapping process. An immobile trap, representing the cellular machinery that sequesters a motor-driven cargo for eventual use, is located somewhere within a

  2. A cycloidal wobble motor driven by shape memory alloy wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Donghyun; Higuchi, Toshiro

    2014-01-01

    A cycloidal wobble motor driven by shape memory alloy (SMA) wires is proposed. In realizing a motor driving mechanism well known as a type of reduction system, a cycloidal gear mechanism is utilized. It facilitates the achievement of bidirectional continuous rotation with high-torque capability, based on its high efficiency and high reduction ratio. The applied driving mechanism consists of a pin/roller based annular gear as a wobbler, a cycloidal disc as a rotor, and crankshafts to guide the eccentric wobbling motion. The wobbling motion of the annular gear is generated by sequential activation of radially phase-symmetrically placed SMA wires. Consequently the cycloidal disc is rotated by rolling contact based cycloidal gearing between the wobbler and the rotor. In designing the proposed motor, thermomechanical characterization of an SMA wire biased by extension springs is experimentally performed. Then, a simplified geometric model for the motor is devised to conduct theoretical assessment of design parametric effects on structural features and working performance. With consideration of the results from parametric analysis, a functional prototype three-phase motor is fabricated to carry out experimental verification of working performance. The observed experimental results including output torque, rotational speed, bidirectional positioning characteristic, etc obviously demonstrate the practical applicability and potentiality of the wobble motor. (paper)

  3. 30 CFR 18.82 - Permit to use experimental electric face equipment in a gassy mine or tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permit to use experimental electric face... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Machines Assembled With Certified or Explosion-Proof Components, Field...

  4. Thermal electric power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer, S.

    2001-01-01

    The basic principle of a thermal power plant is to heat up water in the pipe system of a boiler to generate steam, which exits the boiler with high pressure and releases its energy to a tandem-arranged turbine. This energy is transmitted to a generator over a common shaft. The generated electricity is fed into the power supply system. The processed steam is condensed to water by means of a condenser and transferred back into the pipe system of the boiler (feed water circuit). In general the following techniques are applied for the combustion of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels: dry bottom boiler, wet bottom boiler, grate firing, fluidized bed combustion, gasification systems - integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), oil firing technique, gas firing technique. Residues from power plants are generated by the following processes and emission reduction measures: separation of bottom ash or boiler slag in the boiler; separation of fly ash (particulate matter) by means of filters or electric precipitators; desulphurization through lime additive processes, dry sorption or spray absorption processes and lime scrubbing processes; desulphurization according to Wellmann-Lord and to the Walther process; reduction of NO x emissions by selective catalytic reduction (SCR). In this case spent catalyst results as a waste unless it is recycled. No residues are generated by the following measures to reduce NO x emissions: minimization of nitrogen by selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR); adaptations of the firing technology to avoid emissions - primary measures (low-NO x burners, CO reduction). However, this may change the quality of fly ash by increasing unburnt carbon. Combustion of fossil fuels (with the exception of gaseous fuels) and biomass generates large quantities of residues - with coal being the greatest contributor - either from the fuel itself in the form of ashes, or from flue gas cleaning measures. In coal-fired power plants huge amounts of inorganic residues

  5. Self-powered suspension criterion and energy regeneration implementation scheme of motor-driven active suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shuai; Sun, Weichao

    2017-09-01

    Active suspension systems have advantages on mitigating the effects of vehicle vibration caused by road roughness, which are one of the most important component parts in influencing the performances of vehicles. However, high amount of energy consumption restricts the application of active suspension systems. From the point of energy saving, this paper presents a self-powered criterion of the active suspension system to judge whether a motor-driven suspension can be self-powered or not, and then a motor parameter condition is developed as a reference to design a self-powered suspension. An energy regeneration implementation scheme is subsequently proposed to make the active suspension which has the potential to be self-powered achieve energy-saving target in the real application. In this implementation scheme, operating electric circuits are designed based on different working status of the actuator and power source and it is realizable to accumulate energy from road vibration and supply energy to the actuator by switching corresponding electric circuits. To apply the self-powered suspension criterion and energy regeneration implementation scheme, an active suspension system is designed with a constrained H∞ controller and calculation results indicate that it has the capability to be self-powered. Simulation results show that the performances of the self-powered active suspension are nearly the same as those of the active suspension with an external energy source and can achieve energy regeneration at the same time.

  6. Validation of Portable Muscle Tone Measurement Device Based on a Motor-Driven System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Jia-Jin

    2001-01-01

    .... The aim of this study is to extend a sophisticated motor-driven measurement system, developed in our previous research, as a validation platform for developing a portable muscle tone measurement system...

  7. Centralized or decentralized electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, H.A. de.

    1975-01-01

    Because of low overall efficiency in electric power generation, it is argued that energy provision based on gas, combined with locally decentralized electricity production, saves for the Netherlands slightly more fossile fuel than nuclear technologies and makes the country independent of uranium resources. The reason the Netherlands persues this approach is that a big part of the energy is finally used for heating in the normal or moderate temperatures

  8. Electric power production contra electricity savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleisner, L.; Grohnheit, P.E.; Soerensen, H.

    1991-01-01

    The expansion of electricity-producing plants has, in Denmark until now, taken place in accordance with the demand for electricity. Recently, it has been suggested that the cost of the further development of such systems is greater than the cost of instigating and carrying out energy conservation efforts. The aim of the project was to evaluate the consequences for power producing plants of a reduction of the electricity consumption of end-users. A method for the analysis of the costs involved in the system and operation of power plants contra the costs that are involved in saving electricity is presented. In developing a model of this kind, consideration is given to the interplay of the individual saving project and the existing or future electricity supply. Thus it can be evaluated to what extent it would be advisable to substitute investments in the development of the capacity of the power plants with investments in the reduction of electricity consumption by the end users. This model is described in considerable detail. It will be tested in representative situations and locations throughout the Nordic countries. (AB) 17 refs

  9. Local synaptic signaling enhances the stochastic transport of motor-driven cargo in neurons

    KAUST Repository

    Newby, Jay

    2010-08-23

    The tug-of-war model of motor-driven cargo transport is formulated as an intermittent trapping process. An immobile trap, representing the cellular machinery that sequesters a motor-driven cargo for eventual use, is located somewhere within a microtubule track. A particle representing a motor-driven cargo that moves randomly with a forward bias is introduced at the beginning of the track. The particle switches randomly between a fast moving phase and a slow moving phase. When in the slow moving phase, the particle can be captured by the trap. To account for the possibility that the particle avoids the trap, an absorbing boundary is placed at the end of the track. Two local signaling mechanisms-intended to improve the chances of capturing the target-are considered by allowing the trap to affect the tug-of-war parameters within a small region around itself. The first is based on a localized adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration gradient surrounding a synapse, and the second is based on a concentration of tau-a microtubule-associated protein involved in Alzheimer\\'s disease-coating the microtubule near the synapse. It is shown that both mechanisms can lead to dramatic improvements in the capture probability, with a minimal increase in the mean capture time. The analysis also shows that tau can cause a cargo to undergo random oscillations, which could explain some experimental observations. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  10. A local initiative for energy efficiency improvements in motor driven systems in public and private companies - case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamm, G. [Behoerde fuer Stadtentwicklung und Umwelt, Hamburg (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    In the free and hanseatic town Hamburg reduction potentials in public buildings are developed systematically in the context of the energy management by standardised efficiency programs. The City has had special means ready for financing energy saving measures for many years, because the investments amortize themselves by the operation cost reduction. Examples of efficient electrical motor systems in public buildings: ventilation facilities and air conditioning, heating pumps energy saving program. The city of Hamburg also offers a promotional program ''enterprises for resource protection'' for private investors from the Hamburg economy. With this program voluntary investment measures are initiated in private enterprises by financial subsidies to conserving resources. Examples of efficient electrical motor driven systems in enterprises: mill: speed controlled exhauster drives, spice mill: speed controlled mill drives, printer: efficient ventilation techniques at a paper exhaust system, wastewater treatment: adjustable fans for pressure aerators, hazardous waste incineration plant: optimisation of the SO{sub 2}-gas scrubbing system by mass flow controlled pumps. With these programs efforts to climate protection can be realised more economically. (orig.)

  11. Air pollution restrictions in electrical production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallizioli, G.

    1993-01-01

    A description of the principal characteristics regarding the Italian electrical power system and the evolution of standardization in air pollution control is given. Afterwards, ENEL (the Italian National Electricity Board) actions in the environmental protection field (with particular respect to thermo-electrical production) are presented. Finally, principal ENEL research programs on new air pollution control technologies are discussed

  12. Quantum control of a chiral molecular motor driven by femtosecond laser pulses: Mechanisms of regular and reverse rotations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaki, M.; Hoki, K.; Kono, H.; Fujimura, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Rotational mechanisms of a chiral molecular motor driven by femtosecond laser pulses were investigated on the basis of results of a quantum control simulation. A chiral molecule, (R)-2-methyl-cyclopenta-2,4-dienecarboaldehyde, was treated as a molecular motor within a one-dimensional model. It was assumed that the motor is fixed on a surface and driven in the low temperature limit. Electric fields of femtosecond laser pulses driving both regular rotation of the molecular motor with a plus angular momentum and reverse rotation with a minus one were designed by using a global control method. The mechanism of the regular rotation is similar to that obtained by a conventional pump-dump pulse method: the direction of rotation is the same as that of the initial wave packet propagation on the potential surface of the first singlet (nπ*) excited state S 1 . A new control mechanism has been proposed for the reverse rotation that cannot be driven by a simple pump-dump pulse method. In this mechanism, a coherent Stokes pulse creates a wave packet localized on the ground state potential surface in the right hand side. The wave packet has a negative angular momentum to drive reverse rotation at an early time

  13. Continuous Energy Improvement in Motor Driven Systems - A Guidebook for Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert A. McCoy and John G. Douglass

    2014-02-01

    This guidebook provides a step-by-step approach to developing a motor system energy-improvement action plan. An action plan includes which motors should be repaired or replaced with higher efficiency models, recommendations on maintaining a spares inventory, and discussion of improvements in maintenance practices. The guidebook is the successor to DOE’s 1997 Energy Management for Motor Driven Systems. It builds on its predecessor publication by including topics such as power transmission systems and matching driven equipment to process requirements in addition to motors.

  14. Reference costs of the electric power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    This study periodically realized by the DGEMP aims to compare the competitiveness of the different channels of electric power production, for different utilization conditions. The first part ''reference costs of the 2003 electric power production'' examines the prices of the electric power produced by different channels in particular in the framework of the industrial implementing in 2015. The nuclear and thermal power plants are concerned. The second part is devoted to the decentralized production channels (wind energy, photovoltaic, cogeneration heat-electricity) is under construction and will be presented next year. (A.L.B.)

  15. The ''reference costs'' of the electrical production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    This study objective is to give an aid for the investments choice in the field of electricity production and for national choices in the field of long-dated production. Important evolutions appeared since the last exercise ''reference costs'' of 1993. Electricity production costs, presented in this study, are actualized economic costs. They consider the following production facilities: nuclear, pulverized coal with fumes processing, circulating fluidized bed, combustion turbines, cogeneration and wind turbines. (A.L.B.)

  16. Export of electric power through industrial products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, J.B.L. de; David, J.M.S.; Campos, J.M.; Perecmanis, J.; Carneiro, N.S.

    1990-01-01

    We forecast the electrical energy incorporated to the exports of products of the industrial sectors of steel, aluminium, ferro-alloys, chlorine and caustic soda, pulp and paper and petrochemistry, accordingly to scenarios for these sectors consistent with a macro economic reference scenario, for the period 1990/2000. We also compare the electrical energy exported through those industrial products with the forecasted industrial and total markets of electrical energy. (author)

  17. Clinical application of the modified medially-mounted motor-driven hip gear joint for paraplegics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, S; Imahori, R; Saitoh, E; Tomita, Y; Domen, K; Chino, N

    2000-04-15

    This paper describes a motor-driven orthosis for paraplegics which has been developed. This orthosis is composed of a medially-mounted motor-driven hip joint and bilateral knee-ankle-foot orthosis. With the gear mechanism, the virtual axis of the hip joint of this orthosis is almost as high as the anatomical hip joint. A paraplegic patient with an injury level of T10/11 walked using bilateral lofstrand crutches and this new orthosis with or without the motor system. The motor is initiated by pushing a button attached at the edge of the grab of the crutches. Faster cadence and speed and smaller rotation angle of the trunk was obtained in motor walking compared with non-motor walking. The patient did not feel fearful of falling. The benefit of motor orthosis is that it can be used even in patients with lower motor lesions and that it provides stable regulation of hip flexion movement in spastic patients. In conclusion, this motor orthosis will enhance paraplegic walking.

  18. Universal Linear Motor Driven Leg Press Dynamometer and Concept of Serial Stretch Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamar, Dušan

    2015-08-24

    Paper deals with backgrounds and principles of universal linear motor driven leg press dynamometer and concept of serial stretch loading. The device is based on two computer controlled linear motors mounted to the horizontal rails. As the motors can keep either constant resistance force in selected position or velocity in both directions, the system allows simulation of any mode of muscle contraction. In addition, it also can generate defined serial stretch stimuli in a form of repeated force peaks. This is achieved by short segments of reversed velocity (in concentric phase) or acceleration (in eccentric phase). Such stimuli, generated at the rate of 10 Hz, have proven to be a more efficient means for the improvement of rate of the force development. This capability not only affects performance in many sports, but also plays a substantial role in prevention of falls and their consequences. Universal linear motor driven and computer controlled dynamometer with its unique feature to generate serial stretch stimuli seems to be an efficient and useful tool for enhancing strength training effects on neuromuscular function not only in athletes, but as well as in senior population and rehabilitation patients.

  19. Enhanced Component Performance Study: Motor-Driven Pumps 1998-2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, John Alton

    2016-01-01

    This report presents an enhanced performance evaluation of motor-driven pumps at U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. The data used in this study are based on the operating experience failure reports from fiscal year 1998 through 2014 for the component reliability as reported in the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The motor-driven pump failure modes considered for standby systems are failure to start, failure to run less than or equal to one hour, and failure to run more than one hour; for normally running systems, the failure modes considered are failure to start and failure to run. An eight hour unreliability estimate is also calculated and trended. The component reliability estimates and the reliability data are trended for the most recent 10-year period while yearly estimates for reliability are provided for the entire active period. Statistically significant increasing trends were identified in pump run hours per reactor year. Statistically significant decreasing trends were identified for standby systems industry-wide frequency of start demands, and run hours per reactor year for runs of less than or equal to one hour.

  20. Enhanced Component Performance Study: Motor-Driven Pumps 1998–2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, John Alton [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This report presents an enhanced performance evaluation of motor-driven pumps at U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. The data used in this study are based on the operating experience failure reports from fiscal year 1998 through 2014 for the component reliability as reported in the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The motor-driven pump failure modes considered for standby systems are failure to start, failure to run less than or equal to one hour, and failure to run more than one hour; for normally running systems, the failure modes considered are failure to start and failure to run. An eight hour unreliability estimate is also calculated and trended. The component reliability estimates and the reliability data are trended for the most recent 10-year period while yearly estimates for reliability are provided for the entire active period. Statistically significant increasing trends were identified in pump run hours per reactor year. Statistically significant decreasing trends were identified for standby systems industry-wide frequency of start demands, and run hours per reactor year for runs of less than or equal to one hour.

  1. New technologies and electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantoja Lopez, A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a general overview about the new electrical energy generation technologies, under development, in some cases with the spanish electrical utilities cooperation. The content has a brief introductory description about the highly changing scenario for the utilities, the most promising generation technologies from the point of view of efficiency, cost investment, and minimum environmental impact, and the main actions included in the Spanish Energetic Research Plan (PEN-91-2000). After a short presentation for the advanced clean coal technologies, as PFC,IGCC, fuel cells and MHD, as well as some ongoing research projects, it has been included a group of nuclear and renewable energy generation technologies and the main environmental control technologies, all of them with great interest for the near term electric utilities power generation. (Author)

  2. Decentralized electricity production. v. 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The first part of the symposium is concerned with market analysis, case studies and prospectives for the decentralized production of electricity in France: cogeneration, heat networks, municipal waste incineration, etc. Financing systems and microeconomical analysis are presented. The second part is devoted to macroeconomical outlooks (France and Europe mainly) on decentralized electricity production (cogeneration, small-scale hydroelectric power plants), to other countries experience (PV systems connected to the grid, cogeneration, etc.) and to price contracts and regulations

  3. Applications of a Navigation Instrument Based on a Micro-Motor Driven by Photons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge VALENZUELA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We report potential applications of a novel design of a micro-motor driven by light. The design, based on a scale of micro-machines fabrication, takes into consideration the concept of radiation pressure as a method of actuation. The micro-motor of diameter 15 mm is designed to be made in Silicon wafer. To decrease the weight of the rotational part, we designed a hollow structure metalized by Aluminum. To reduce friction, we suggest the use of octadecylphosphonic acid (ODPA as Aluminium coating and perfluoropolyoxyalkane (Z-DOL as Silicon coating. The materials selected lower friction by approximately 50 % and increase reflectivity, allowing a better conversion of the radiant energy into movement. Our design targets altimeter and inclinometer as major applications. It is clear that other applications such as measurement of light intensity, identification of wavelength of incident light, measurement of degree of polarization of light and others can be served by this design.

  4. Macroeconomic aspects of decentralized electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percebois, J.

    1991-01-01

    The development of decentralized electricity production should be viewed first and foremost as a means of adapting production resources to meet the needs of the users between 1995 and 1997. Consumer production and cogeneration are not, however, simply stopgap solutions operating on the fringe of electricity production. These methods serve to highlight a problem that has already been raised in the past: the real advantages and disadvantages of centralized systems managed by companies that exercise a virtual monopoly in either the public or private sector

  5. Nuclear energy products except the electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Technically the fission reactors, on service or under construction, can produce other products than the electric power. Meanwhile, these applications are known since the beginning of the reactors exploitation, they never have been developed industrially. This report examines the necessary technical characteristics for using the nuclear systems on non electric power applications with an economical efficiency. What are the markets for these products? What are the strategical challenges to favor the development of non electric power applications of the nuclear energy? (A.L.B.)

  6. Productivity incentives in the electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunekreeft, G.

    2000-01-01

    July 19, 1999, the Netherlands Electricity Regulatory Service ('Dienst uitvoering en toezicht elektriciteitswet Dte) issued the consultation document 'Price-cap regulation in the electric power sector'. The document is strongly based on a modern, UK inspired method of regulation. The methods, as proposed in the document, will have an impact on the final electricity tariffs, and thus of great importance for the consumers and the businesses involved. In this article the most striking element in the consultation document is discussed: how to determine the X (i.e. the expected growth of the productivity) in the price-cap regulation

  7. Environmental aspects of decentralized electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Renewable energy sources are the focus of considerable interest because they do not place future generations at risk; the development of cogeneration has been favorably received on the whole because it uses energy that would otherwise be lost. Difficulties are sometimes encountered in the development of small-scale hydroelectric facilities (older facilities negative aspects, over production impression in France, etc.). Environmental protection regulations do not distinguish between centralized and decentralized electricity production, but between large and small production facilities

  8. Integration of decentralized electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomekova, A.

    2004-01-01

    The project SustelNet also deals with the possibilities of future development of DG sources. Within the project frame a quite general concept of the so-called 'equal field' for centralized and decentralized production was chosen for the better integration of DG. Its aim was to the achieve demanded level on the market in the future term (by 2020). Looking at the problem in the wider context means, that both forms of the production should be admitted on the market on the same conditions. The result of this project is a regulatory map, which actually serves as a definite regulatory strategy for more effective employment of DG sources. On the basis of the national regulatory strategies a proposition of regulatory map for EU will be launched, including some recommendations for European Commission. A few expert papers (scenario of proceeding, benchmarking, economical tools and criteria) are also output of this project. Five member states of the EU and four entering countries have been involved in this project. The final results of this procedure will be presented from April 2004 on international and national conferences, seminaries, or by means of other ways of publicity

  9. Economic costs of electricity production in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeldman, M.; Solinski, J.

    1994-02-01

    This study presents a methodology for the calculation of the economic costs of the production of electricity. This methodology is applied to assess electricity production cost in Poland by type of power station for the years 1995 and 2000. In addition, an overview is presented of the methods used by the OECD countries, particularly in the Netherlands. The main conclusions of the study are: 1) the real economic costs to generate electricity in Poland are about two times higher compared with the traditional book-keeping data; 2) the investment costs will become the most important cost component in the near future; and 3) there are considerables differences in production cost per kWh for the different types of power plants in Poland. 4 appendices, 14 refs

  10. Productivity in Swedish electricity retail distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjalmarsson, L.; Veiderpass, A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines productivity growth in electricity retail distribution in Sweden in a multiple output-multiple input framework. The approach used is nonparametric Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Productivity is measured by means of the Malmquist index. Productivity comparisons are made between different types of ownership and between different service areas. The study indicates a high rate of productivity growth, due to economics of density, when measured over a period of 17 years. The results show no significant differences in productivity growth between different types of ownership or economic organization. (20 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.)

  11. Fiscal planning of private electricity production projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, R.

    2002-01-01

    Various fiscal considerations frequently encountered in the context of the planning of private electricity production projects were described. Two major themes were discussed: 1) the different jurisdictional vehicles that can be used during the planning of private electricity production projects and the associated fiscal considerations, and 2) the two main fiscal incentives of the Income Tax Act (Canada) which could impact on the financing and operation costs of such a project, namely the accelerated amortization and the possibility of deducting the costs associated to renewable energies and energy savings in Canada. This was a general presentation that did not go into specific details and did not represent a legal opinion. refs

  12. Microscopic origins of anisotropic active stress in motor-driven nematic liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Robert; Sweezy-Schindler, Oliver; Baldwin, Christopher; Hough, Loren E; Glaser, Matthew A; Betterton, M D

    2016-03-14

    The cytoskeleton, despite comprising relatively few building blocks, drives an impressive variety of cellular phenomena ranging from cell division to motility. These building blocks include filaments, motor proteins, and static crosslinkers. Outside of cells, these same components can form novel materials exhibiting active flows and nonequilibrium contraction or extension. While dipolar extensile or contractile active stresses are common in nematic motor-filament systems, their microscopic origin remains unclear. Here we study a minimal physical model of filaments, crosslinking motors, and static crosslinkers to dissect the microscopic mechanisms of stress generation in a two-dimensional system of orientationally aligned rods. We demonstrate the essential role of filament steric interactions which have not previously been considered to significantly contribute to active stresses. With this insight, we are able to tune contractile or extensile behavior through the control of motor-driven filament sliding and crosslinking. This work provides a roadmap for engineering stresses in active liquid crystals. The mechanisms we study may help explain why flowing nematic motor-filament mixtures are extensile while gelled systems are contractile.

  13. Tensegrity and motor-driven effective interactions in a model cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shenshen; Wolynes, Peter G.

    2012-04-01

    Actomyosin networks are major structural components of the cell. They provide mechanical integrity and allow dynamic remodeling of eukaryotic cells, self-organizing into the diverse patterns essential for development. We provide a theoretical framework to investigate the intricate interplay between local force generation, network connectivity, and collective action of molecular motors. This framework is capable of accommodating both regular and heterogeneous pattern formation, arrested coarsening and macroscopic contraction in a unified manner. We model the actomyosin system as a motorized cat's cradle consisting of a crosslinked network of nonlinear elastic filaments subjected to spatially anti-correlated motor kicks acting on motorized (fibril) crosslinks. The phase diagram suggests there can be arrested phase separation which provides a natural explanation for the aggregation and coalescence of actomyosin condensates. Simulation studies confirm the theoretical picture that a nonequilibrium many-body system driven by correlated motor kicks can behave as if it were at an effective equilibrium, but with modified interactions that account for the correlation of the motor driven motions of the actively bonded nodes. Regular aster patterns are observed both in Brownian dynamics simulations at effective equilibrium and in the complete stochastic simulations. The results show that large-scale contraction requires correlated kicking.

  14. Natural gas and production of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defago, E.

    2005-01-01

    The forthcoming power supply shortage in Switzerland due to increasing consumption is discussed, as are the possibilities for securing the future supply. Today, the main sources are hydroelectric (roughly 55 %) and nuclear (40 %) power. The share of electricity from natural gas amounts to only 1.4 %. The possibilities of further economic production of hydropower are practically exhausted. Therefore, further electric power has to be either imported or generated from other energy sources (renewable, nuclear, fossil) in the country itself. Due to the low acceptance of nuclear energy and the limited potential of renewable energy sources, natural gas is the most favoured candidate. The advantages of distributed production in cogeneration plants are compared with the centralized production in larger plants using combined cycles. Finally, a project currently under development is presented: an existing thermal power plant fueled with heavy fuel oil shall be refurbished and converted to natural gas as the new fuel

  15. An Economic Evaluation of Binary Cycle Geothermal Electricity Production

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fitzgerald, Crissie

    2003-01-01

    .... Variables such as well flow rate, geothermal gradient and electricity prices were varied to study their influence on the economic payback period for binary cycle geothermal electricity production...

  16. Cleaning capacity promoted by motor-driven or manual instrumentation using ProTaper Universal system: Histological analysis

    OpenAIRE

    da Frota, Matheus Franco; Filho, Idomeo Bonetti; Berbert, F?bio Luiz Camargo Villela; Sponchiado, Emilio Carlos; Marques, Andr? Augusto Franco; Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca Roberti

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the cleaning capacity of the Protaper system using motor-driven or manual instrumentation. Materials and Methods: Ten mandibular molars were randomly separated into 2 groups (n = 5) according to the type of instrumentation performed, as follows: Group 1 - instrumentation with rotary nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) files using ProTaper Universal System (Dentsply/Maillefer); and, Group 2 - instrumentation with Ni-Ti hand files using ProTaper Universal (Den...

  17. Vibration Analysis and Experimental Research of the Linear-Motor-Driven Water Piston Pump Used in the Naval Ship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye-qing Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the existing problems of traditional water piston pump used in the naval ship, such as low efficiency, high noise, large vibration, and nonintelligent control, a new type of linear-motor-driven water piston pump is developed and its vibration characteristics are analyzed in this research. Based on the 3D model of the structure, the simulation analyses including static stress analysis, modal analysis, and harmonic response analysis are conducted. The simulation results reveal that the mode shape under low frequency stage is mainly associated with the eccentricity swing of the piston rod. The vibration experiment results show that the resonance frequency of linear-motor-driven water piston pump is concentrated upon 500 Hz and 800 Hz in the low frequency range. The dampers can change the resonance frequency of the system to a certain extent. The vibration under triangular motion curve is much better than that of S curve, which is consistent with the simulation conclusion. This research provides an effective method to detect the vibration characteristics and a reference for design and optimization of the linear-motor-driven water piston pump.

  18. Safety policy in the production of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddall, E.

    1982-01-01

    When safety is properly understood, defined and quantified, it can be seen that the development of our present industrial civilization has resulted in a progressive improvement in human safety. Increased safety has come with increased wealth in such close association that a high degree of cause-and-effect relationship must be considered. The quantitative relationship between wealth production and safety improvement is derived from different sources of evidence. When this is applied to the wealth production from electricity generation in a standard module of population in an advanced society, a safety benefit is indicated which exceeds the assessed direct risk associated with the electricity generation by orders of magnitude. It appears that a goal or policy intended to confer the greatest safety benefit to the population would result in attitudes and actions diametrically opposite to those which are conventional at the moment

  19. Safety policy in the production of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddall, E.

    1983-01-01

    When safety is properly understood, defined and quantified, it can be seen that the development of our present industrial civilization has resulted in a progressive and great improvement in human safety which is still continuing. Increased safety has come with increased wealth in such close association that a high degree of cause-and-effect relationship must be considered. The quantitative relationship between wealth production and safety improvement is derived from different sources of evidence. When this is applied to the wealth production from electricity generation in a standard module of population in an advanced society, a safety benefit is indicated which exceeds the assessed direct risk associated with the electricity generation by orders of magnitude. It appears that a goal or policy intended to confer the greatest safety benefit to the population would result in attitudes and actions diametrically opposite to those which are conventional at the moment

  20. Nuclear desalination and electricity production for islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Dai Nghiep

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear desalination is an established and commercially proven technology that is now available and has the potential of further improvement. The technology of a small-sized reactor for desalination and electricity production will be an economically viable option and will also be suitable for islands with geographic, climatic, ecological and hydrological specifics. The operating experiences and achieved safety should benefit the early stage of a national nuclear power programme in developing countries. (author)

  1. Swiss electricity production into the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmann, Walter

    2008-01-01

    In January 2007 the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's work on energy perspectives up until 2035 were concluded and presented. The results form the basis for political debate on the future direction of Switzerland's energy and climate policies. The energy perspectives point to an increase in demand for electricity in Switzerland by 2035 of around 20% and a deficit of roughly 17 billion kWh if no extra measures are taken. This corresponds to twice the annual production of a Swiss nuclear power station. This development and the unharnessed potential in the areas of efficiency and renewable energies prompted Switzerland's Federal Council to decide on a reorientation of its energy policy in 2007. This is based on four pillars: 1. Improved energy efficiency; 2. Promotion of renewable energy; 3. Targeted extension and construction of large-scale power stations; 4. Intensification of foreign energy policy, particularly in terms of cooperation with the EU. 2008 has got off to a strong start in terms of energy policy - the CO 2 tax on fuels has been introduced and the first package of the new Energy Supply Act (StromVG) has entered into force. The new Electricity Supply Act creates the necessary conditions for a progressive opening of Switzerland's electricity market. From 2009 some 50,000 large customers with an annual electricity consumption of over 100 megawatt hours will be able to benefit from this partial opening and be free to choose their power suppliers. But all other power consumers will benefit right from the start too because their electricity suppliers will also be able to buy in their electricity from the free market and pass on any price savings to their customers. Furthermore, the Electricity Supply Act delivers a clear legal framework for cross-border trade in electricity. In actual fact the opening of the electricity market is already well advanced around Switzerland. Liberalisation also results in cost transparency: As the opening of the electricity market

  2. Adopting small-scale production of electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tengvard, Maria; Palm, Jenny (Linkoeping Univ., Dept. of Technology and Social Change, Linkoeping (Sweden)). e-mail: maria.tengvard@liu.se

    2009-07-01

    In Sweden in 2008, a 'new' concept for small-scale electricity production attracted massive media attention. This was mainly due to the efforts of Swedish company Egen El, which is marketing small-scale photovoltaics (PVs) and wind turbines to households, both homeowners and tenants. Their main selling point is simplicity: their products are so easy to install that everyone can do it. Autumn 2008 also saw IKEA announce that within three years it would market solar panels. How, then, do households perceive these products? Why would households choose to buy them? How do households think about producing their own electricity? Analysis of material based on in-depth interviews with members of 20 households reveals that environmental concerns supply the main motive for adopting PVs or micro wind power generation. In some cases, the adopting households have an extensively ecological lifestyle and such adoption represents a way to take action in the energy area. For some, this investment is symbolic: a way of displaying environmental consciousness or setting an example to others. For still others, the adoption is a protest against 'the system' with its large dominant actors or is a way to become self-sufficient. These microgeneration installations are rejected mainly on economic grounds; other motives are respect for neighbours and difficulties finding a place to install a wind turbine.

  3. Commercial green electricity products; Zakelijke groenestroomproducten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wielders, L.M.L.; Afman, M.R.

    2012-12-15

    The Dutch 100% Sustainable Energy: Green ICT campaign initiated by Hivos targets data centres, appealing to these companies to consider the environmental footprint of the electricity they use. Hivos is keen for a debate on greener alternatives and wanted a review of the sustainability of the various options available for buying 'green power' on the commercial market in the Netherlands, with a reasoned discussion of each. That review, laid down in this report, examines and discusses the various 'green power products' for the commercial market, providing a springboard for data centres to switch to a 'greener' product. To that end 'green power products' were categorized to highlight the differences between them. The highest score was given to renewable energy produced without any operating subsidy (the so-called SDE+ scheme), or with the higher price being paid for entirely by customers. Supply in these two categories is still fairly negligible, as this essentially represents an energy market in which renewables are cost-competitive with 'grey' electricity, or one in which customers are willing to pay (far) more for their electricity. The lowest scores were assigned to renewable power sourced in other countries and to 'grey' electricity [Dutch] De Hivos-bedrijvencampagne 100% Sustainable Energy: Green ICT richt zich op de datacenterbedrijven. De datacenterbedrijven worden aangesproken op de duurzaamheid van hun keuze voor de ingekochte elektriciteit. Hivos wil het gesprek aangaan over meer duurzame alternatieven. Hiervoor heeft Hivos behoefte aan een overzicht van de duurzaamheid van de verschillende opties voor de afname van duurzame elektriciteit (groene stroom) zoals die op de zakelijke markt in Nederland worden aangeboden, inclusief een onderbouwing. Dit rapport geeft een overzicht en inzicht in de verschillende groenestroomproducten voor de zakelijke markt zodat de datacenters kunnen overstappen op een

  4. 78 FR 20176 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ..., Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production, and Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factors and... renewable electricity production, refined coal production, and Indian coal production under section 45... resources, and to 2013 sales of refined coal and Indian coal produced in the United States or a possession...

  5. 77 FR 21835 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ..., Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production, and Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factors and... electricity production, refined coal production, and Indian coal production under section 45. DATES: The 2012... sales of refined coal and Indian coal produced in the United States or a possession thereof. Inflation...

  6. External costs of electricity production under scrutiny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, H.J.; Melchert, A.

    1993-01-01

    After a short introduction into the problems and questions surrounding the issue of external costs Chapter 2 presents the most important results of the studies under review and analysis in this work. Occasionally, minor discrepancies were found between the results given in the summary of a study and the data reported in the relevant chapters. Chapter 3 identifies and discusses differences in perspective between the studies under consideration. Chapter 4 analyses the most important premises and parameters adopted in the studies for the calculation of overall costs and net benefits of the different modes of electricity production. This serves to probe the reliability of the data, plausibility of the premises, and nature of the presupposed relationships. Chapter 5 examines the relationships of time assumed in the studies and gives a first comment on the more advanced Prognos study. Chapter 6, finally, offers a summarizing evaluation. (orig./UA) [de

  7. Three aspects of the Germany-France comparison on electricity. Electricity production and consumption in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laponche, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    As a comparative overview of the French and German situation regarding electric power, a first article proposes tables and graphs illustrating data evolution, and brief comments about these evolutions. Comparison focuses on household electricity consumption, on electricity exchanges, and on the production of electricity based on renewable energies. An appendix proposes a presentation of the German policy for energy transition: principles and objectives, phasing out nuclear, implementation. Then, an article, illustrated by data tables and graphs, discusses the evolution of electric power production and consumption in Germany between 2000 and 2013. The author addresses power final consumption, power total production and exchanges, the components of electric power production, and greenhouse gas emissions (by fossil fuel, by sector, and by electricity and heat production)

  8. Control of Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Qi; Chen, Yong; Li, Jian

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, the modeling of electric vehicle is discussed in detail. Then, the control of electric vehicle driven by different motors is discussed. Both brushed and brushless DC (Direct Current) motors are discussed. And for AC (Alternative Current) motors, the discussion is focused on induction motor and permanent magnet synchronous motor. The design of controllers for different motor-driven electric vehicle is discussed in-depth, and the tested high-performance control strategies for d...

  9. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Composite Data Products | Hydrogen and Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cells | NREL Vehicle Composite Data Products Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Composite Data Products The following composite data products (CDPs) focus on current fuel cell electric vehicle evaluations Cell Operation Hour Groups CDP FCEV 39, 2/19/16 Comparison of Fuel Cell Stack Operation Hours and Miles

  10. Electricity derivative markets: Investment valuation, production planning and hedging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naesaekkaelae, E.

    2005-07-01

    This thesis studies electricity derivative markets from a view point of an electricity producer. The traditionally used asset pricing methods, based on the no arbitrage principle, are extended to take into account electricity specific features: the non storability of electricity and the variability in the load process. The sources of uncertainty include electricity forward curve, prices of resources used to generate electricity, and the size of the future production. Also the effects of competitors' actions are considered. The thesis illustrates how the information in the derivative prices can be used in investment and production planning. In addition, the use of derivatives as a tool to stabilize electricity dependent cash flows is considered. The results indicate that the information about future electricity prices and their uncertainty, obtained from derivative markets, is important in investment analysis and production planning. (orig.)

  11. Electricity derivative markets: Investment valuation, production planning and hedging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naesaekkaelae, E.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis studies electricity derivative markets from a view point of an electricity producer. The traditionally used asset pricing methods, based on the no arbitrage principle, are extended to take into account electricity specific features: the non storability of electricity and the variability in the load process. The sources of uncertainty include electricity forward curve, prices of resources used to generate electricity, and the size of the future production. Also the effects of competitors' actions are considered. The thesis illustrates how the information in the derivative prices can be used in investment and production planning. In addition, the use of derivatives as a tool to stabilize electricity dependent cash flows is considered. The results indicate that the information about future electricity prices and their uncertainty, obtained from derivative markets, is important in investment analysis and production planning. (orig.)

  12. DISTRIBUTED ELECTRICAL POWER PRODUCTION SYSTEM AND METHOD OF CONTROL THEREOF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a distributed electrical power production system wherein two or more electrical power units comprise respective sets of power supply attributes. Each set of power supply attributes is associated with a dynamic operating state of a particular electrical power unit....

  13. The production of wind-generated electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-11-01

    After some key data on installed wind power and its evolution in the World (notably in China and in the USA), in European countries and in France, an overview of the sector economic evolution in France in terms of jobs in different fields (fabrication, electricity production, studies and installations), this publication comments the various benefits of wind energy and its necessary framework for a sane development. Strengths are discussed: a local and clean energy source, a predictable and manageable energy source, an increasing competitiveness. Issues to be considered are also discussed: control of acoustic and landscape impacts, protection of biodiversity, management of interactions with military, meteorological and civil aviation radars, a necessary more steady and coherent regulation. After a discussion of the possibilities offered by small wind energy installations (between 1 and 36 kW), actions undertaken by the ADEME are overviewed. A conclusion outlines the role of wind energy on the supply-demand balance in the French power system, its contribution to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, the positive environmental impact, the importance of societal appropriation, and the importance of developing this sector while keeping on reducing consumptions

  14. Electricity production shows improvement across Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    In the first half of 1991, electricity production from Canadian utilities improved substantially compared to the first half of 1990. Canada was a net importer of 5332 GWh in January-June 1990 while it was a net exporter of 5250 GWh in January-June 1991. The largest single factor in this reversal is the improved performance of Ontario Hydro's CANDU reactors. Total acid gas emissions by Ontario Hydro for 1991 are expected to total 240,000 tonnes, about the same as 1990, but at much higher capacity factors. A combination of recession, private power generation, and the startup of the Seabrook nuclear station have put a brake on power exports to the USA. New Brunswick Power exports were not only affected by the new capacity at Seabrook but also because of low water conditions at its hydroelectric plants. Hydro-Quebec generated 300 GWh more hydraulic energy in June 1991 than in June 1990 and its Gentilly-2 nuclear station has been operating at 96.7% capacity. The Quebec utility exported 1215 GWh to the USA and 2121 GWh to other Canadian utilities in January-June 1991, compared to 1602 GWh and 2232 GWh resspectively in January-June 1990. 1 tab

  15. Carbon emission intensity in electricity production: A global analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, B.W.; Su, Bin

    2016-01-01

    We study changes in the aggregate carbon intensity (ACI) for electricity at the global and country levels. The ACI is defined as the energy-related CO_2 emissions in electricity production divided by the electricity produced. It is a performance indicator since a decrease in its value is a desirable outcome from the environmental and climate change viewpoints. From 1990 to 2013, the ACI computed at the global level decreased only marginally. However, fairly substantial decreases were observed in many countries. This apparent anomaly arises from a geographical shift in global electricity production with countries having a high ACI increasingly taking up a larger electricity production share. It is found that globally and in most major electricity producing countries, reduction in their ACI was due mainly to improvements in the thermal efficiency of electricity generation rather than to fuel switching. Estimates of the above-mentioned effects are made using LMDI decomposition analysis. Our study reveals several challenges in reducing global CO_2 emissions from the electricity production sector although technically the reduction potential for the sector is known to be great. - Highlights: •Variations of aggregate carbon intensity (ACI) for electricity of world countries are analysed. •Main drivers of changes in ACI of major electricity producing countries are studied using index decomposition analysis. •Geographical shift in electricity production had a significant impact on global ACI. •Improvements in the thermal efficiency of generation were the main driver of reduction in ACI.

  16. Electricity consumption, industrial production, and entrepreneurship in Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Sizhong; Anwar, Sajid

    2015-01-01

    Within the context of a tri-variate vector autoregressive framework that includes entrepreneurship, this paper examines the link between electricity consumption and industrial production in Singapore's manufacturing sector. Unlike the existing studies, this paper focuses on one sector of the economy and utilises a unique monthly dataset. Empirical analysis based on Johansen's cointegration approach shows that the three variables are cointegrated – i.e., a stable long-run relationship exists among electricity consumption, output and entrepreneurship in Singapore's manufacturing sector. Empirical analysis based on data from January 1983 to February 2014 reveals that electricity consumption adjusts very slowly to shocks to industrial production and entrepreneurship. Furthermore, entrepreneurship Granger causes electricity consumption, which causes industrial production. As electricity consumption causes industrial output, the growth hypothesis concerning energy consumption and economic growth holds in Singapore's manufacturing sector and policies that restrict electricity production, without electricity imports, are likely to lead to a decline in the manufacturing output. - Highlights: • Using a unique monthly dataset, we focus on Singapore's manufacturing sector. • Electricity consumption, output and entrepreneurship are cointegrated. • Electricity consumption adjusts very slowly to shocks to the other variables. • Entrepreneurship causes electricity consumption which causes industrial production. • We find that growth hypothesis governs the electricity consumption and real output

  17. Electric plant cost and power production expenses 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    Electric Plant Cost and Power Production Expenses is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. This publication presents electric utility statistics on power production expenses and construction costs of electric generating plants. Data presented here are intended to provide information to the electric utility industry, educational institutions, Federal, State, and local governments, and the general public. These data are collected and published to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities of the Energy Information Administration (EIA), as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act (Public Law 93-275), as amended

  18. Electric plant cost and power production expenses 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Electric Plant Cost and Power Production Expenses is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels (CNEAF); Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. This publication presents electric utility statistics on power production expenses and construction costs of electric generating plants. Data presented here are intended to provide information to the electric utility industry, educational institutions, Federal, State, and local governments, and the general public. These data are collected and published to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities of the Energy Information Administration (EIA), as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act (Public Law 93-275), as amended

  19. Transition countries in the light of electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolin, I.

    2000-01-01

    The fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 could be closely considered as the beginning of transition in many countries. during this period, lasting for about ten years, unavoidable fluctuations and stoppages caused degradation of electricity production and economic decline as well. This can be mathematically evaluated by means of equation for electricity production, valid before the fall of the Berlin Wall. However, electricity decrease has not been the same in all the countries. Therefore, in order to investigate and evaluate the transition process in the light of electricity production, eight transition states, including croatia, are analysed and mutually compared. (author)

  20. Hybrid systems to address seasonal mismatches between electricity production and demand in nuclear renewable electrical grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, Charles

    2013-01-01

    A strategy to enable zero-carbon variable electricity production with full utilization of renewable and nuclear energy sources has been developed. Wind and solar systems send electricity to the grid. Nuclear plants operate at full capacity with variable steam to turbines to match electricity demand with production (renewables and nuclear). Excess steam at times of low electricity prices and electricity demand go to hybrid fuel production and storage systems. The characteristic of these hybrid technologies is that the economic penalties for variable nuclear steam inputs are small. Three hybrid systems were identified that could be deployed at the required scale. The first option is the gigawatt-year hourly-to-seasonal heat storage system where excess steam from the nuclear plant is used to heat rock a kilometer underground to create an artificial geothermal heat source. The heat source produces electricity on demand using geothermal technology. The second option uses steam from the nuclear plant and electricity from the grid with high-temperature electrolysis (HTR) cells to produce hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrogen is primarily for industrial applications; however, the HTE can be operated in reverse using hydrogen for peak electricity production. The third option uses variable steam and electricity for shale oil production. -- Highlights: •A system is proposed to meet variable hourly to seasonal electricity demand. •Variable solar and wind electricity sent to the grid. •Base-load nuclear plants send variable steam for electricity and hybrid systems. •Hybrid energy systems can economically absorb gigawatts of variable steam. •Hybrid systems include geothermal heat storage, hydrogen, and shale-oil production

  1. Evaluation of electrical energy production patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, F.; Graziani, G.; Zanantoni, C.

    1975-06-01

    The main features and typical applications of the code TOTEM, developed by the CCR under request of DG XVII are described. The code is used to evaluate the physical and economical consequences of electrical power station installation policies. The input data are: the time-dependent electrical energy demand and its load duration curve, the physical and economical characteristics of the power stations, and the splitting of the energy between the various types of stations, apart from the energy produced by a plutonium burner and plutonium producer, which is calculated by the code. The output includes; costs, fuel consumption, separative work requirements

  2. Electricity production from biogas in Serbia: Assessment of emissions reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Slobodan M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogas represents a promising source for the production of clean energy. The objective of this paper was to quantify the potential for the reduction of emissions to the environment during the production of electricity from biogas in comparison with environmental effects of the production of the same amount of electricity from fossil resources (coal from Kolubara basin and natural gas. Basis for comparison of environmental impacts in this work was the annual production of electricity in biogas plants of the total capacity of 80 MW. This study has shown that the annual production of electricity from biogas power plants of 80 MW results in: substitution of up to 840 kt of coal from Kolubara basin and 123.2 million m3 of natural gas; reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases in the range of 491.16 kt - 604.97 kt CO2-eq, depending on the energy efficiency of the process of electricity production from biogas; reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases up to 92.37 kt CO2-eq compared to the use of natural gas for electricity generation.

  3. Cleaning capacity promoted by motor-driven or manual instrumentation using ProTaper Universal system: Histological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Frota, Matheus Franco; Filho, Idomeo Bonetti; Berbert, Fábio Luiz Camargo Villela; Sponchiado, Emilio Carlos; Marques, André Augusto Franco; Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca Roberti

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the cleaning capacity of the Protaper system using motor-driven or manual instrumentation. Ten mandibular molars were randomly separated into 2 groups (n = 5) according to the type of instrumentation performed, as follows: Group 1 - instrumentation with rotary nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) files using ProTaper Universal System (Dentsply/Maillefer); and, Group 2 - instrumentation with Ni-Ti hand files using ProTaper Universal (Dentsply-Maillefer). Afterwards, the teeth were sectioned transversely and submitted to histotechnical processing to obtain histological sections for microscopic evaluation. The images were analyzed by the Corel Photo-Paint X5 program (Corel Corporation) using an integration grid superimposed on the image. Statistical analysis (U-Mann-Whitney - P < 0.05) demonstrated that G1 presented higher cleaning capacity when compared to G2. The rotary technique presented better cleaning results in the apical third of the root canal system when compared to the manual technique.

  4. An AAA Motor-Driven Mechanical Switch in Rpn11 Controls Deubiquitination at the 26S Proteasome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worden, Evan J; Dong, Ken C; Martin, Andreas

    2017-09-07

    Poly-ubiquitin chains direct protein substrates to the 26S proteasome, where they are removed by the deubiquitinase Rpn11 during ATP-dependent substrate degradation. Rapid deubiquitination is required for efficient degradation but must be restricted to committed substrates that are engaged with the ATPase motor to prevent premature ubiquitin chain removal and substrate escape. Here we reveal the ubiquitin-bound structure of Rpn11 from S. cerevisiae and the mechanisms for mechanochemical coupling of substrate degradation and deubiquitination. Ubiquitin binding induces a conformational switch of Rpn11's Insert-1 loop from an inactive closed state to an active β hairpin. This switch is rate-limiting for deubiquitination and strongly accelerated by mechanical substrate translocation into the AAA+ motor. Deubiquitination by Rpn11 and ubiquitin unfolding by the ATPases are in direct competition. The AAA+ motor-driven acceleration of Rpn11 is therefore important to ensure that poly-ubiquitin chains are removed only from committed substrates and fast enough to prevent their co-degradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. On the control performance of motors driven by long cables for remote handling at ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sol, Enrique del; Meek, Richard; Ruiz Morales, Emilio; Vitelli, Ricardo; Esqué, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We show the dangerous effects of reflections on the actuator’s system. • We prove how to solve the reflections issue with a commercial LC filter. • We study the filter influence for short cables on two control modes. • We show the filter performance under a real remote handling operation. • We study the excellent performance of the filter for different cable lengths. - Abstract: Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) is nowadays the most used method for controlling a servo-motor. When combining PWM with motors and long cables, such as the ones that will be found at ITER, the standing waves originated are potentially very harmful for both actuator’s life span and control performance. Several methods have been investigated to cope with this issue, such as the use of chokes, filters, snubbers or active modification of the PWM signal. Of all possible locations where an electrical servo-motor could be used at ITER, the most critical scenario arises when mounting a low power motor, with a low gear ratio, in a dexterous manipulator for bilateral teleoperation. In those circumstances cable lengths of more than 150 m are expected between manipulator and control cubicle. In this paper, the effects of long cables in the system safety are analysed on a custom made test bench. The most common solutions to cope with this issue are analysed and a commercial LC filter is selected for further experimentation. An extensive set of experiments are carried out in order to validate the proposed solution for being used on remote handling equipment at ITER.

  6. On the control performance of motors driven by long cables for remote handling at ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sol, Enrique del, E-mail: enrique.delsol@oxfordtechnologies.co.uk [Oxford Technologies Ltd., 7 Nuffield Way, Abingdon OX141RL (United Kingdom); Meek, Richard [Oxford Technologies Ltd., 7 Nuffield Way, Abingdon OX141RL (United Kingdom); Ruiz Morales, Emilio; Vitelli, Ricardo; Esqué, Salvador [Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla, 2, Barcelona 08019 (Spain)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • We show the dangerous effects of reflections on the actuator’s system. • We prove how to solve the reflections issue with a commercial LC filter. • We study the filter influence for short cables on two control modes. • We show the filter performance under a real remote handling operation. • We study the excellent performance of the filter for different cable lengths. - Abstract: Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) is nowadays the most used method for controlling a servo-motor. When combining PWM with motors and long cables, such as the ones that will be found at ITER, the standing waves originated are potentially very harmful for both actuator’s life span and control performance. Several methods have been investigated to cope with this issue, such as the use of chokes, filters, snubbers or active modification of the PWM signal. Of all possible locations where an electrical servo-motor could be used at ITER, the most critical scenario arises when mounting a low power motor, with a low gear ratio, in a dexterous manipulator for bilateral teleoperation. In those circumstances cable lengths of more than 150 m are expected between manipulator and control cubicle. In this paper, the effects of long cables in the system safety are analysed on a custom made test bench. The most common solutions to cope with this issue are analysed and a commercial LC filter is selected for further experimentation. An extensive set of experiments are carried out in order to validate the proposed solution for being used on remote handling equipment at ITER.

  7. 76 FR 21947 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ..., open-loop biomass, geothermal energy, solar energy, small irrigation power, municipal solid waste, qualified hydropower production, marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy have not been determined for... electricity produced from closed-loop biomass, open-loop biomass, geothermal energy, solar energy, small...

  8. 75 FR 16576 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., open-loop biomass, geothermal energy, solar energy, small irrigation power, municipal solid waste, qualified hydropower production, marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy have not been determined for... electricity produced from closed-loop biomass, open-loop biomass, geothermal energy, solar energy, small...

  9. 77 FR 25538 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Credit for Renewable Electricity Production... Reference Prices for Calendar Year 2012; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Correction to a publication of inflation adjustment factors and reference prices for calendar year 2012 as...

  10. The production of photovoltaic electricity in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livet, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    The author presents, comments and discusses various data related to photovoltaic energy production in France: evolution of installed power until 2013, installed power, production, hours per year and load factor for different countries (France, Spain, Germany and Italy) and for the different French regions. He highlights and comments the intermittency of photovoltaic production in France. This intermittency is related to the difference between day and night, to the difference between seasons, and to weather conditions. He discusses the possible solutions to this intermittency. In this respect, he outlines that the expansion of the photovoltaic production and the use of interconnection do not solve the problem, and discusses the possibility of massive storage and the possible interest of local consumption

  11. AN APPLICATION FOR ELECTRICAL PRODUCTION WITH SOLAR TOWER SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reşat SELBAŞ

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The requirement of electric energy rises with increasing of the population and faster improvement demands. Energy necessity generally is provided by using fossil based fuel sources. In order to supply energy requirements, today, using alternative sources became necessary because of the problems such as decreasing of available fossil fuel sources and environment pollution from this fuel. The solar energy which has a wide range of application potential is the most hopeful and unlimited energy source without environment pollution in electric energy production. In this paper, the electric production methods from solar energy are studied and the most suitable method for solar energy plant is tried to find out. The selected method, known as Solar Tower in literature is an electric production method. In this study, technical and cost analysis of an application using this method are carried out.

  12. Wave propagations of curvilinear motors driven by partially laminated piezoelectric actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smithmaitrie, Pruittikorn; Suybangdum, Panumas; Muensit, Supasarote; Tzou, Horn-Sen

    2008-01-01

    A piezoelectric arc stator is the key component delivering driving actions to an ultrasonic curvilinear motor. The arc stator drives the rotor along the arc structure to any specific angular position. Usually conventional stators in ultrasonic motors are fully bounded with piezoelectric patch actuators. To reduce production costs while maintaining similar driving characteristics, an arc stator partially bonded with piezoelectric actuators is proposed and its dynamic characteristics are analyzed in this study. The effect of actuator locations on the wave propagation is investigated. Both analytical and finite element results demonstrate similar dynamic responses. That is, the response of the wave propagation depends on specific locations of piezoelectric actuators. One of the two configurations investigated shows that the partially laminated piezoelectric actuator pattern can also generate rather steady traveling waves on the stator with consistent wave amplitude. This implies that the partially laminated actuator technique could be an alternative actuator pattern to the fully laminated actuators in the design of ultrasonic curvilinear motors or other finite-length ultrasonic motors

  13. Electricity production by advanced biomass power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solantausta, Y [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies; Bridgwater, T [Aston Univ. Birmingham (United Kingdom); Beckman, D [Zeton Inc., Burlington, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-11-01

    This report gives the results of the Pyrolysis Collaborative Project organized by the International Energy Agency (IEA) under Biomass Agreement. The participating countries or organizations were Canada, European Community (EC), Finland, United States of America, and the United Kingdom. The overall objective of the project was to establish baseline assessments for the performance and economics of power production from biomass. Information concerning the performance of biomass-fuelled power plants based on gasification is rather limited, and even less data is available of on pyrolysis based power applications. In order to gain further insight into the potential for these technologies, this study undertook the following tasks: (1) Prepare process models to evaluate the cost and performance of new advanced biomass power production concepts, (2) Assess the technical and economic uncertainties of different biomass power concepts, (3) Compare the concepts in small scale and in medium scale production (5 - 50 MW{sub e}) to conventional alternatives. Processes considered for this assessment were biomass power production technologies based on gasification and pyrolysis. Direct combustion technologies were employed as a reference for comparison to the processes assessed in this study. Wood was used a feedstock, since the most data was available for wood conversion

  14. Nanofibre production in spiders without electric charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel, Anna-Christin; Baumgartner, Werner

    2017-06-15

    Technical nanofibre production is linked to high voltage, because nanofibres are typically produced by electrospinning. In contrast, spiders have evolved a way to produce nanofibres without high voltage. These spiders are called cribellate spiders and produce nanofibres within their capture thread production. It is suggested that their nanofibres become frictionally charged when brushed over a continuous area on the calamistrum, a comb-like structure at the metatarsus of the fourth leg. Although there are indications that electrostatic charges are involved in the formation of the thread structure, final proof is missing. We proposed three requirements to validate this hypothesis: (1) the removal of any charge during or after thread production has an influence on the structure of the thread; (2) the characteristic structure of the thread can be regenerated by charging; and (3) the thread is attracted to or repelled from differently charged objects. None of these three requirements were proven true. Furthermore, mathematical calculations reveal that even at low charges, the calculated structural assembly of the thread does not match the observed reality. Electrostatic forces are therefore not involved in the production of cribellate capture threads. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Wind farm electrical power production model for load flow analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segura-Heras, Isidoro; Escriva-Escriva, Guillermo; Alcazar-Ortega, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The importance of renewable energy increases in activities relating to new forms of managing and operating electrical power: especially wind power. Wind generation is increasing its share in the electricity generation portfolios of many countries. Wind power production in Spain has doubled over the past four years and has reached 20 GW. One of the greatest problems facing wind farms is that the electrical power generated depends on the variable characteristics of the wind. To become competitive in a liberalized market, the reliability of wind energy must be guaranteed. Good local wind forecasts are therefore essential for the accurate prediction of generation levels for each moment of the day. This paper proposes an electrical power production model for wind farms based on a new method that produces correlated wind speeds for various wind farms. This method enables a reliable evaluation of the impact of new wind farms on the high-voltage distribution grid. (author)

  16. Production function application attempt in electricity generation forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamrat, W.; Augusiak, A.

    1996-01-01

    A modified Cobb-Douglas production function is applied to evaluate level of electricity generation for medium and long term prognosis (up to 2010) in an easy and simple way. The test calculations have been done for hard coal fired power plants, based on generation data supplied in Main Statistical Office of Poland publications.The model of electricity generation is defined using data on capital of a typical productivity power plant and its employment for time series 1980-90. The test calculation results based on the parameters of Rosenbroock's optimization procedure of electricity generation model are presented. The method described is distinguished for its high accuracy as compared to classical methods despite the relatively short time series. It is suitable for studies in electricity generation policy . 1 tab

  17. Reference costs of the electric power production; Couts de reference de la production electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    This study periodically realized by the DGEMP aims to compare the competitiveness of the different channels of electric power production, for different utilization conditions. The first part ''reference costs of the 2003 electric power production'' examines the prices of the electric power produced by different channels in particular in the framework of the industrial implementing in 2015. The nuclear and thermal power plants are concerned. The second part is devoted to the decentralized production channels (wind energy, photovoltaic, cogeneration heat-electricity) is under construction and will be presented next year. (A.L.B.)

  18. An investigation on motor-driven power steering-based crosswind disturbance compensation for the reduction of driver steering effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyuwon; Kim, Boemjun; Go, Youngil; Park, Jaeyong; Park, Joonhong; Suh, Insoo; Yi, Kyongsu

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes a lateral disturbance compensation algorithm for an application to a motor-driven power steering (MDPS)-based driver assistant system. The lateral disturbance including wind force and lateral load transfer by bank angle reduces the driver's steering refinement and at the same time increases the possibility of an accident. A lateral disturbance compensation algorithm is designed to determine the motor overlay torque of an MDPS system for reducing the manoeuvreing effort of a human driver under lateral disturbance. Motor overlay torque for the compensation of driver's steering torque induced by the lateral disturbance consists of human torque feedback and feedforward torque. Vehicle-driver system dynamics have been investigated using a combined dynamic model which consists of a vehicle dynamic model, driver steering dynamic model and lateral disturbance model. The human torque feedback input has been designed via the investigation of the vehicle-driver system dynamics. Feedforward input torque is calculated to compensate additional tyre self-aligning torque from an estimated lateral disturbance. The proposed compensation algorithm has been implemented on a developed driver model which represents the driver's manoeuvreing characteristics under the lateral disturbance. The developed driver model has been validated with test data via a driving simulator in a crosswind condition. Human-in-the-loop simulations with a full-scale driving simulator on a virtual test track have been conducted to investigate the real-time performance of the proposed lateral disturbance compensation algorithm. It has been shown from simulation studies and human-in-the-loop simulation results that the driver's manoeuvreing effort and a lateral deviation of the vehicle under the lateral disturbance can be significantly reduced via the lateral disturbance compensation algorithm.

  19. Free movement of the electricity product in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupiec, M.

    1992-06-01

    In the eyes of the Commission of the European Communities, electricity is an industrial product as an other; it must therefore, as stated in the Rome Treaty, be characterized and must benefit from free movement within the European Community. The purpose of this note is to set out the ideas and objectives of Brussels and authorities as regards the large European electricity market. Consequently, the proposals or objectives presented in this note do not necessarily reflect Electricite de France's position

  20. Features of electric drive sucker rod pumps for oil production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizatullin, F. A.; Khakimyanov, M. I.; Khusainov, F. F.

    2018-01-01

    This article is about modes of operation of electric drives of downhole sucker rod pumps. Downhole oil production processes are very energy intensive. Oil fields contain many oil wells; many of them operate in inefficient modes with significant additional losses. Authors propose technical solutions to improve energy performance of a pump unit drives: counterweight balancing, reducing of electric motor power, replacing induction motors with permanent magnet motors, replacing balancer drives with chain drives, using of variable frequency drives.

  1. Production inefficiency of electricity markets with hydro generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philpott, Andy; Guan, Ziming; Khazaei, Javad; Zakeri, Golbon

    2010-01-01

    Electricity market designs that decentralize decision making for participants can lead to inefficiencies in the presence of nonconvexity or missing markets. This has been shown in the case of unit-commitment problems that can make a decentralized market equilibrium less efficient than a centrally planned solution. Less attention has been focused on systems with large amounts of hydro-electric generation. We describe the results of an empirical study of the New Zealand wholesale electricity market that attempts to quantify production efficiency losses by comparing market outcomes with a counterfactual central plan. (author)

  2. Productivity growth and deregulation of Japanese electricity distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Mika; Sueyoshi, Toshiyuki

    2009-01-01

    Deregulation of Japanese electric power industry began in 1995. After the amendment of Electricity Utility Industry Law in 1995, competition was partially introduced in a generation sector and retail competition started from 2000. Eligibility to choose suppliers was gradually extended from larger to smaller customers. As of 2008, almost all customers except households can choose their electricity suppliers. Based upon both previous implementation result of competition policy and review on their achievement, Japanese government will begin new policy debate in 2013 to assess further retail competition which includes household customers. To prepare for policy suggestion on the future electric power industry, this study examines the cost structure of Japanese electricity distribution. For the purpose, we estimate a multi-product translog cost function of Japanese electricity distribution from 1983 to 2003. Using the estimated cost function, we calculate several economic measures such as productivity growth, technical change and economies of scale and scope. The empirical results of this study indicate the improvement in productivity growth after deregulation.

  3. Dashboard: biogas for electricity production - Third quarter 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaud, Denis

    2015-12-01

    This publication describes the situation of biogas-based electricity production in France and its evolution over the first quarters of 2015. A map indicates the level of connected power per district. Graphs illustrate the evolution of the number of new connections per quarter since 2009, the evolution of electricity quarterly production since 2011. Tables indicate the number of installations per power level (less than 0.5 MW, between 0.5 and 1.0 MW, more than 1 MW) and per installation type. Regional data are given in terms of number of installations, installed power in September 2015 and in December 2015, regional share and evolution

  4. Dashboard: biogas for electricity production - Forth quarter 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaud, Denis; Reynaud, Didier

    2016-02-01

    This publication describes the situation of biogas-based electricity production in France and its evolution over the first quarters of 2015. A map indicates the level of connected power per district. Graphs illustrate the evolution of the number of new connections per quarter since 2009, the evolution of electricity quarterly production since 2011. Tables indicate the number of installations per power level (less than 0.5 MW, between 0.5 and 1.0 MW, more than 1 MW) and per installation type. Regional data are given in terms of number of installations, installed power in December 2015, regional share and evolution

  5. Application Protocol, Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES), Layered Electrical Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Connell, L.J. [ed.

    1994-12-01

    An application protocol is an information systems engineering view of a specific product The view represents an agreement on the generic activities needed to design and fabricate the product the agreement on the information needed to support those activities, and the specific constructs of a product data standard for use in transferring some or all of the information required. This application protocol describes the data for electrical and electronic products in terms of a product description standard called the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES). More specifically, the Layered Electrical Product IGES Application Protocol (AP) specifies the mechanisms for defining and exchanging computer-models and their associated data for those products which have been designed in two dimensional geometry so as to be produced as a series of layers in IGES format The AP defines the appropriateness of the data items for describing the geometry of the various parts of a product (shape and location), the connectivity, and the processing and material characteristics. Excluded is the behavioral requirements which the product was intended to satisfy, except as those requirements have been recorded as design rules or product testing requirements.

  6. Institutional aspects of decentralized electricity production. Orientations of the CEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guibal, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the european commission is to remove the legal and administrative obstacles blocking the development of consumer production on the basis of combined production and waste combustion, and to oblige the public service to purchase the surplus electricity generated by consumer production at a price based on the avoided costs. The main difficulty faced by the Commission will be to develop a relatively flexible framework defining exactly how consumer production is to be integrated into the public service, given the diversity of the procedures existing in the different member states (projects THERMIE and SAVE)

  7. Options for electricity production, the actual opportunities and regulatory framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raphals, P.

    2006-01-01

    Thermal power and nuclear power represent the traditional methods of generating electricity. This paper presented opportunities for alternative centralized power production methods that include wind energy, biomass and solar energy. It also discussed decentralized alternatives for power generation, such as geothermal energy and cogeneration, including microturbines. The primary focus was on aspects of competitive market design for residential and small commercial applications as well as commercial and industrial applications. Law 116 of Quebec's Energy Board was reviewed in terms of energy policy and utility regulation. In particular, the framework agreement between Hydro-Quebec Production (HQP) and Hydro-Quebec Distribution (HQD) was discussed with reference to balancing electricity produced from renewable energy sources and energy security. The presentation also addressed issues regarding the role of competition, regulation and environmental implications of electricity trade. refs., tabs., figs

  8. Turkey's High Temperature Geothermal Energy Resources and Electricity Production Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Ö.

    2012-04-01

    Turkey is in the first 7 countries in the world in terms of potential and applications. Geothermal energy which is an alternative energy resource has advantages such as low-cost, clean, safe and natural resource. Geothermal energy is defined as hot water and steam which is formed by heat that accumulated in various depths of the Earth's crust; with more than 20oC temperature and which contain more than fused minerals, various salts and gases than normal underground and ground water. It is divided into three groups as low, medium and high temperature. High-temperature fluid is used in electricity generation, low and medium temperature fluids are used in greenhouses, houses, airport runways, animal farms and places such as swimming pools heating. In this study high temperature geothermal fields in Turkey which is suitable for electricity production, properties and electricity production potential was investigated.

  9. Production in Italian industry: Electric power demand indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajello, V.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of the recession in Italy were first evidenced during the period spanning 1990-1992 with a sharp drop in the international competitiveness of Italian products. This phase was then followed by a significant drop in internal demand, the devaluation of the Italian Lira and subsequent market uncertainty. This paper presents graphs of national and regional electric power production and consumption figures which reflect the downturn in the viability of the Italian economy, especially in the industrial sector

  10. Utilization of hydrogen gas production for electricity generation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilization of hydrogen gas production for electricity generation in fuel cell by Enterobacter aerogenes ADH 43 with many kinds of carbon sources in batch stirred tank reactor. MA Rachman, LD Eniya, Y Liasari, MM Nasef, A Ahmad, H Saidi ...

  11. Study of solar electric production potential in the Herault district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, Anthony; Baldini, Florent; Bruant, Marc; Bouchet, Jean-Alain; Bouzige, Romain

    2010-06-01

    The first part of this report presents various contextual issues: general context (commitments in production with renewable energies, aspects related to the national electric production, electric production and consumption in the Languedoc-Roussillon region), analysis of techniques and sectors of solar electric production (inventory of available or being developed technical and industrial sectors, potential environmental impacts), economic analysis of photovoltaic techniques (purchase tariffs, other financing sources, grid parity, installation costs, application to case study), and regulatory and administrative procedures. The second part reports a regional approach of this study: characterisation of the raw solar resource, territorial sensitivity analysis (influence of various factors: technical, geological, hydro-geological, urban, environmental, related to landscape, heritage and natural environment), definition of a territorial sensitivity grid. The third part reports the definition of the solar production potential: on buildings, in man-made locations (mines, landfills, industrial wastelands), and in ordinary non-built spaces. Appendices propose detailed economic data for case studies, presentations of purchase tariffs in 2010, and presentations of existing installations

  12. Procurement model for copper and polymer electrical products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sremac

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Procurement model for copper and polymer electrical products. Electrical cable structure (wire, insulation, filling and mantle is in accordance with the technical specifications of individual cable components in terms of the incorporated materials. Materials used in cable manufacture are copper, aluminum, rubber and polyvinyl chloride. One of the key issues in managing the flow of goods pertains to the timing of procurement. The combination of the two concepts can take advantage of individual strengths of fuzzy logic and neural networks in hybrid systems of homogeneous structure. The model has high practical significance, as, with minor modifications, it can be applied in any enterprise responsible for managing the goods flows.

  13. Electrical Integrity Tests during Production of the LHC Dipoles

    CERN Document Server

    de Rijk, G; Cornelis, M; Fessia, P; Miles, J; Modena, M; Molinari, G; Rinn, J; Savary, F; Vlogaert, J

    2006-01-01

    For the LHC dipoles, mandatory electrical integrity tests are performed to qualify the cold mass (CM) at four production stages: individual pole, collared coil, CM before end cover welding and final CM. A description of the measurement equipment and its recent development are presented. After passing the demands set out in the specification, the results of the tests are transmitted to CERN where they are further analyzed. The paper presents the most important results of these measurements. We also report a review of the electrical non-conformities encountered e.g. interturn shorts and quench heater failure, their diagnostic and the cures.

  14. Towards nuclear energy applications other than electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecomte, M.

    2007-01-01

    Use of nuclear energy relies on operation of a boiler, involving practically no greenhouse gas emission. Whereas production of electricity is, nowadays, virtually its sole purpose, demand for heat production could equally arise, particularly with the emergence of high-temperature, or even very-high-temperature reactors. With the abilities this involves, as regards the recovery of heavy crude oils from tar sands, seawater desalination, or, most importantly, production of hydrogen by electrolysis, or thermochemistry, this being the energy carrier of tomorrow. (authors)

  15. Wind energy status in renewable electrical energy production in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaygusuz, Kamil

    2010-01-01

    Main electrical energy sources of Turkey are thermal and hydraulic. Most of the thermal sources are derived from natural gas. Turkey imports natural gas; therefore, decreasing usage of natural gas is very important for both economical and environmental aspects. Because of disadvantages of fossil fuels, renewable energy sources are getting importance for sustainable energy development and environmental protection. Among the renewable sources, Turkey has very high wind energy potential. The estimated wind power capacity of Turkey is about 83,000 MW while only 10,000 MW of it seems to be economically feasible to use. Start 2009, the total installed wind power capacity of Turkey was only 4.3% of its total economical wind power potential (433 MW). However, the strong development of wind energy in Turkey is expected to continue in the coming years. In this study, Turkey's installed electric power capacity, electric energy production is investigated and also Turkey current wind energy status is examined. (author)

  16. Consequences of reduced production of electricity in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swedish Power Administration has assessed the possibilities of expanding electric power sources other than nuclear power plants for the years 1980 and 1985. Reports on costs in the form of loss of capital and increased operating costs involved in the dismantling of nuclear power plants are made in Supplement 1. The economics division of the Finance Department, starting with a long-range study model of the Swedish economy, has calculated the consequences of a cutback in electric power up to 1980 for Sweden's economy and employment in that year. The consequences of reduction of electricity supplies up to 1985 are summarized in Supplement 2 in this report. It is concluded that in order to be able to manage the problem of supplying electricity by 1985, it will be necessary to increase oil power above what was assumed in the energy policy program. There will have to be new oil-based power as well. According to the Power Administration, oil-power facilities can be expanded to varying degrees, depending upon when the decision is made. The Power Administration's calculations show that 125 TWh is possible in 1985 without nuclear power only if a decision for discontinuation is made in the fall of 1976. This is based on very optimistic assumptions about the time of execution of a program for oil-steam operation, and also on the assumption that extreme measures will be initiated to force expansion of both district-heating distribution and power + heat facilities. Oil consumption for production of electricity in such an electric power system would be about 9 million m 3 , which is about 5 times more than at present and about one-third of the present total consumption of petroleum products in Sweden

  17. Electrical stimulation in white oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida) production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshita, I.; Nurfazira, K. M. P.; Fern, C. Shi; Ain, M. S. Nur

    2017-09-01

    White oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida) is an edible mushroom that gained popularity due to its nutritional values, low production cost and ease of cultivation. There are several research reported on the mushroom fruiting bodies which were actively developed when applying electrical shock treatment. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of different electrical voltages on the growth and yield of white oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida). Five different electrical voltages had been applied during spawning period which were 6V, 9V, 12V, 15V and mushroom bags without any treatment served as control. Treatment at 6V showed the highest rate for mycelium growth while 15V took the shortest time for fruiting body formation. However, no significant different (P>0.05) among all the treatments was observed for the time taken for the mycelium to fill-up the bag and pinhead emergence. The total fresh weight and percentage of biological efficiency for treatment at 9V showed higher values compared to control. Treatment at 9V also showed the largest pileus diameter and the most firm in the pileus texture. Meanwhile, treatment at 6V showed the highest a* value (redness). In addition, different electrical voltage treatments applied did not show any significant effect on substrate utilization efficiency, colour L* and b* values. In conclusion, among all the electrical treatments applied, 9V could be considered as the best treatment to enhance the yield of white oyster mushroom.

  18. The impact of a carbon tax on Greek electricity production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vassos, S [Strategy and Planning Dept., Public Power Corp., Athens (Greece); Vlachou, A [Department of Economics, Athens Univ. of Economics and Business, Athens (Greece)

    1997-09-01

    The impact of proposed carbon taxes on the electric power industry, using the Greek power system as a case study, is investigated in this paper. It uses the WASP model for electric generation capacity expansion to explore the optimal expansion path under alternative carbon tax scenarios and to estimate their impact on CO{sub 2} and other types of emissions and on electricity production costs. The findings suggest that low carbon taxes would lead to a considerable reduction of the use of conventional lignite fired power plants counterbalanced predominantly by natural gas fired plants. High carbon taxes (100-200 US dollars per ton of carbon) would lead to a drastic reduction of the use of conventional lignite fired power plants which would be mainly replaced by coal or lignite fired technologies with CO{sub 2} removal capabilities, which are not available today but might become available within the time horizon of the present study. Hydropower and renewable sources would be the second least-cost alternatives to lignite under both low and high tax scenarios. The study provides evidence that carbon taxes also result in significant increases in the cost of producing electricity, implying adverse economic effects on electricity consumers and the Greek economy in general. (author). 35 refs, 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  19. The impact of a carbon tax on Greek electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassos, S.; Vlachou, A.

    1997-01-01

    The impact of proposed carbon taxes on the electric power industry, using the Greek power system as a case study, is investigated in this paper. It uses the WASP model for electric generation capacity expansion to explore the optimal expansion path under alternative carbon tax scenarios and to estimate their impact on CO 2 and other types of emissions and on electricity production costs. The findings suggest that low carbon taxes would lead to a considerable reduction of the use of conventional lignite fired power plants counterbalanced predominantly by natural gas fired plants. High carbon taxes (100-200 US dollars per ton of carbon) would lead to a drastic reduction of the use of conventional lignite fired power plants which would be mainly replaced by coal or lignite fired technologies with CO 2 removal capabilities, which are not available today but might become available within the time horizon of the present study. Hydropower and renewable sources would be the second least-cost alternatives to lignite under both low and high tax scenarios. The study provides evidence that carbon taxes also result in significant increases in the cost of producing electricity, implying adverse economic effects on electricity consumers and the Greek economy in general. (author). 35 refs, 1 fig., 7 tabs

  20. Electricity production from microbial fuel cell by using yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorasingha, A.; Souvakon, C.; Boonchom, K.

    2006-01-01

    The continuous search for methods to generate electricity from renewable sources such as water, solar energy, wind, nuclear or chemicals was discussed with particular focus on attaining the full power of the microbial fuel cell (MFC). Under ideal environmental conditions, the only byproducts of a biofuel cell would be water and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). The production of energy from renewables such as biomass is important for sustainable development and reducing global emissions of CO 2 . Hydrogen can also be an important component of an energy infrastructure that reduces CO 2 emissions if the hydrogen is produced from renewable sources and used in fuel cells. Hydrogen gas can be biologically produced at high concentration from the fermentation of high sugar substrates such as glucose and sucrose. Some of the issues of MFC design were addressed, including the use of cheap substrates to derive microbial electricity. In the MFC, yeast donates electrons to a chemical electron mediator, which in turn transfers the electrons to an electrode, producing electricity. Experimental results showed that glucose yielded the highest peak voltage, but a semi-processed sugar and molasses were similar to glucose in the electricity production pattern. It was noted that this technology is only at the research stages, and more research is needed before household microbial fuel cells can be made available for producing power for prolonged periods of time. Future research efforts will focus on increasing the efficiency, finding alternatives to hazardous electron mediators and finding new microbes. 12 refs., 6 figs

  1. Studi Perbedaan Niat Beli Green Electricity Product Berdasarkan Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tias Andarini Indarwati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Consumers adapt to this situation by considering environmental issue when shopping and  by their purchase behavior. The aims of this paper are examines of differences of environment awareness and purchase intentions between male and female of students of Surabaya State University. Secondly, examines also role linearly of environment awareness on purchase intentions. Examines role linearly of environment awareness on purchase intentions of green electricity product using simple linier regression analysis. The results indicate that there are no differences of environment awareness and purchase intentions at the students of Surabaya State University by gender. And finally, environmental awareness has also positive effect on purchase intentions. The results of this study have implications for marketers in identifying, designing, and managing marketing mix with consider discrepancy of purchase intentions in the green electricity product by gender.

  2. Application of the maximum entropy production principle to electrical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christen, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    For a simple class of electrical systems, the principle of the maximum entropy production rate (MaxEP) is discussed. First, we compare the MaxEP principle and the principle of the minimum entropy production rate and illustrate the superiority of the MaxEP principle for the example of two parallel constant resistors. Secondly, we show that the Steenbeck principle for the electric arc as well as the ohmic contact behaviour of space-charge limited conductors follow from the MaxEP principle. In line with work by Dewar, the investigations seem to suggest that the MaxEP principle can also be applied to systems far from equilibrium, provided appropriate information is available that enters the constraints of the optimization problem. Finally, we apply the MaxEP principle to a mesoscopic system and show that the universal conductance quantum, e 2 /h, of a one-dimensional ballistic conductor can be estimated

  3. What kind of liberalization of electricity production in Italy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Paoli, L.

    1993-01-01

    Critical analysis of the implications of the deregulation of electric power generation and distribution in Italy evidences severe problems regarding the definition of future regional and national regulatory frameworks and constraints regarding future expansion strategies of independent producers. In particular, local administrative bodies will faced with the difficult task of having to develop optimum pricing strategies so as to encourage production and healthy competition amongst private firms while at the same time safeguarding the rights and wishes of consumers

  4. Efficient promotion of electricity production from offshore wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panzer, Christian; Auer, Hans; Lettner, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Efficient promotion of electricity production from offshore wind stands in dynamic relationship with various influence factors, the most important of which are promotion instruments, topographic givens, regulation of grid connection, and supraregional market integration concepts. Using three case studies from different countries to highlight national differences in the promotion of offshore wind power plants the present analysis points out ways of improving the efficiency of promotion instruments.

  5. Resource-based optimization of electric power production (in Iran)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghzadeh, Mohammad

    1999-01-01

    This paper is about electric power production optimization and chiefly discusses on the types of resources available in Iran. The modeling has been based on the marginal cost of different energy resources and types of technologies used. the computed costs are the basic standards for optimization of the production system of energy. the costs associated with environmental pollution and also pollution control are considered. the present paper also studied gas fossil fuel, hydro, nuclear, renewable and co-generation of heat and power. The results are discussed and reported at the last of the paper

  6. Experimental implementation of a robust damped-oscillation control algorithm on a full-sized, two-degree-of-freedom, AC induction motor-driven crane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F.; Noakes, M.W.

    1994-01-01

    When suspended payloads are moved with an overhead crane, pendulum like oscillations are naturally introduced. This presents a problem any time a crane is used, especially when expensive and/or delicate objects are moved, when moving in a cluttered an or hazardous environment, and when objects are to be placed in tight locations. Damped-oscillation control algorithms have been demonstrated over the past several years for laboratory-scale robotic systems on dc motor-driven overhead cranes. Most overhead cranes presently in use in industry are driven by ac induction motors; consequently, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has implemented damped-oscillation crane control on one of its existing facility ac induction motor-driven overhead cranes. The purpose of this test was to determine feasibility, to work out control and interfacing specifications, and to establish the capability of newly available ac motor control hardware with respect to use in damped-oscillation-controlled systems. Flux vector inverter drives are used to investigate their acceptability for damped-oscillation crane control. The purpose of this paper is to describe the experimental implementation of a control algorithm on a full-sized, two-degree-of-freedom, industrial crane; describe the experimental evaluation of the controller including robustness to payload length changes; explain the results of experiments designed to determine the hardware required for implementation of the control algorithms; and to provide a theoretical description of the controller

  7. Product Quality Improvement Using FMEA for Electric Parking Brake (EPB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrescu, C. D.; Gruber, G. C.; Tişcă, I. A.

    2016-08-01

    One of the most frequently used methods to improve product quality is complex FMEA. (Failure Modes and Effects Analyses). In the literature various FMEA is known, depending on the mode and depending on the targets; we mention here some of these names: Failure Modes and Effects Analysis Process, or analysis Failure Mode and Effects Reported (FMECA). Whatever option is supported by the work team, the goal of the method is the same: optimize product design activities in research, design processes, implementation of manufacturing processes, optimization of mining product to beneficiaries. According to a market survey conducted on parts suppliers to vehicle manufacturers FMEA method is used in 75%. One purpose of the application is that after the research and product development is considered resolved, any errors which may be detected; another purpose of applying the method is initiating appropriate measures to avoid mistakes. Achieving these two goals leads to a high level distribution in applying, to avoid errors already in the design phase of the product, thereby avoiding the emergence and development of additional costs in later stages of product manufacturing. During application of FMEA method using standardized forms; with their help will establish the initial assemblies of product structure, in which all components will be viewed without error. The work is an application of the method FMEA quality components to optimize the structure of the electrical parking brake (Electric Parching Brake - E.P.B). This is a component attached to the roller system which ensures automotive replacement of conventional mechanical parking brake while ensuring its comfort, functionality, durability and saves space in the passenger compartment. The paper describes the levels at which they appealed in applying FMEA, working arrangements in the 4 distinct levels of analysis, and how to determine the number of risk (Risk Priority Number); the analysis of risk factors and established

  8. Future electricity production methods. Part 1: Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, Herve

    2011-01-01

    The global warming challenge aims at stabilizing the concentrations of Green House Gas (GHG) in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is the most effective of the anthropogenic GHG and is essentially produced by consumption of fossil fuels. Electricity production is the dominant cause of CO 2 emissions. It is, therefore, crucial that the share of 'carbon less' electricity production techniques increases at a fast pace. This is the more so, that 'clean' electricity would be useful to displace 'dirty' techniques in other fields such as heat production and transportation. Here we examine the extent to which nuclear energy could be operational in providing 'clean' electricity. A nuclear intensive scenario is shown to give the possibility to divide CO 2 emissions by a factor of 2 worldwide, within 50 years. However, the corresponding sharp increase in nuclear power will put a heavy burden on uranium reserves and will necessitate the development of breeding reactors as soon as possible. A review of present and future reactors is given with special attention to the safety issues. The delicate question of nuclear fuel cycle is discussed concerning uranium reserves and management of used fuels. It is shown that dealing with nuclear wastes is more a socio-political problem than a technical one. The third difficult question associated with the development of nuclear energy is the proliferation risk. It is advocated that, while this is, indeed, a very important question, it is only weakly related to nuclear power development. Finally, the possibilities of nuclear fusion are discussed and it is asserted that, under no circumstances, could nuclear fusion give a significant contribution to the solution of the energy problem before 50 years, too late for dealing with the global warming challenge.

  9. Dynamics of productivity change in the Australian electricity industry: Assessing the impacts of electricity reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghdam, Reza Fathollahzadeh, E-mail: reza_f_a@yahoo.com [Department of Finance and Economics, College of Industrial Management, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, PO Box 257, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-06-15

    The Australian electricity industry has undergone a significant reform, since the mid-1990s. Key changes comprised functional unbundling, market restructuring, regulatory reform, public corporatisation and privatisation. Technological development has been another indisputable constituent of these changes, in the wake of ICT revolution. The principle rationale behind these changes has been that they would improve productivity of the industry and social well-being of people. This paper examines the dynamics of productivity changes in the Australian electricity industry and conducts several hypotheses-testings to identify whether industry's efficiency measures are truly improved as a result of the reform-driven changes. Malmquist Total Factor Productivity Index approach and ANOVA are used for this purpose. The results reveal that the productivity gains in the industry have been largely driven by technological improvements and, to a lesser extent, by reform-induced comparative efficiency gains. On average at national level and for the entire industry, there are efficiency gains that, to large extents, can be attributed to functional unbundling and public corporatisation and, to a lesser extent, to market restructuring and privatisation. The results, however, reveal that the reform-driven changes have made insignificant contribution to comparative efficiency, at the level of thermal generation. - Highlights: > Dynamics of productivity changes in Australian electricity industry are examined. > Several hypotheses are also tested against reform-driven changes. > Technology impact is proved to be far larger than reform-induced impacts. > Unbundling and corporatisation had larger impacts than market restructuring and privatisation. > At thermal generation level, no reform-induced impact is encountered.

  10. Dynamics of productivity change in the Australian electricity industry: Assessing the impacts of electricity reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghdam, Reza Fathollahzadeh

    2011-01-01

    The Australian electricity industry has undergone a significant reform, since the mid-1990s. Key changes comprised functional unbundling, market restructuring, regulatory reform, public corporatisation and privatisation. Technological development has been another indisputable constituent of these changes, in the wake of ICT revolution. The principle rationale behind these changes has been that they would improve productivity of the industry and social well-being of people. This paper examines the dynamics of productivity changes in the Australian electricity industry and conducts several hypotheses-testings to identify whether industry's efficiency measures are truly improved as a result of the reform-driven changes. Malmquist Total Factor Productivity Index approach and ANOVA are used for this purpose. The results reveal that the productivity gains in the industry have been largely driven by technological improvements and, to a lesser extent, by reform-induced comparative efficiency gains. On average at national level and for the entire industry, there are efficiency gains that, to large extents, can be attributed to functional unbundling and public corporatisation and, to a lesser extent, to market restructuring and privatisation. The results, however, reveal that the reform-driven changes have made insignificant contribution to comparative efficiency, at the level of thermal generation. - Highlights: → Dynamics of productivity changes in Australian electricity industry are examined. → Several hypotheses are also tested against reform-driven changes. → Technology impact is proved to be far larger than reform-induced impacts. → Unbundling and corporatisation had larger impacts than market restructuring and privatisation. → At thermal generation level, no reform-induced impact is encountered.

  11. Green certificates will lead to increased electric power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, Oddvar

    2004-01-01

    The implementation of green certificates will lead to increased electricity production from renewable energy sources and less risk of price crises. For the time being, a common market for green certificates will be established with Sweden from January 1, 2006. It is possible to realise a ''compulsory total quota'' of 20 TWh by 2016. Green certificates will imply a premium on the electricity bill. However, the quota system will imply increased power generation, which in turn tends to lower the price. Norway should in principle follow Sweden's definition of renewable energy: all new hydroelectric power, wind power, solar energy, wave and tidal power, biomass energy, and energy recovery. The certificate regime will apply to new investments in renewable power production. However, it would be natural to include the established renewable power production that is currently receiving support. Some critics fear that the consumers rather than the authorities will subsidize the production of green power. The point is being made that central EU countries may save great sums by investing in renewable energy in Norway

  12. Future directions and cycles for electricity production from geothermal resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelides, Efstathios E.

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: 25% more power may be produced using binary-flashing geothermal cycles. - Highlights: • Power from geothermal power plants is continuously available and “dispatchable.” • The next generation of geothermal will include more binary plants. • Lower temperature geothermal resources will be utilized in the future. • Dry rock resources may produce a high fraction of electricity in several countries. - Abstract: Geothermal power production is economically competitive and capable to produce a high percentage of the electric power demand in several countries. The currently operating geothermal power plants utilize water from an aquifer at relatively higher temperatures and produce power using dry steam, flashing or binary cycles. A glance at the map of the global geothermal resources proves that there is a multitude of sites, where the aquifer temperature is lower. There are also many geothermal resources where a high geothermal gradient exists in the absence of an aquifer. It becomes apparent that the next generation of geothermal power plants will utilize more of the lower-temperature aquifer resources or the dry resources. For such power plants to be economically competitive, modified or new cycles with higher efficiencies must be used. This paper presents two methods to increase the efficiency of the currently used geothermal cycles. The first uses a binary-flashing system to reduce the overall entropy production, thus, producing more electric power from the resource. The second describes a heat extraction system to be used with dry hot-rock resources.

  13. The program of electricity production, an instrument of political economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiriet, Lucien

    1981-01-01

    The crisis of the western economies is now entering its 7th year. The structural factors of this depression probably prevail over the conjectural but explanations differ about it. In this article dealing with the progamm of electricity production, an instrument of political economy, the author first mentions what constitutes the present economic landscape in the world, the framework in which is necessarily placed the economical policy of the industrialised countries, among which France. The scrutiny of the way of action of the energetic policies in general, electrical and nuclear in particular, as an instrument of economical policy this depression, will then allow us to quantify and to appreciate this action at the national level [fr

  14. Financial incentive for the Environmental Quality of Electricity Production (MEP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    With the MEP subsidy regulation 'Environmental quality of electricity production' The Dutch minister of Economic Affairs focussed mainly on reaching the policy objective of the EU according to which 9% of all electricity used in the Netherlands should be generated with sustainable sources. According to the opinion of the Dutch Court of Audits not enough attention has been paid to the coherence of the MEP regulation with other policy objectives in the area of sustainability, such as air quality and CO2 reduction. The same goes for the effectiveness and the financial management of the MEP regulation. Moreover, the study, which was carried out by request of the Dutch Lower House, demonstrates that it is still uncertain if the policy objective for 2010 will be reached. The report consists of two parts: part 1: Conclusions, recommendations and administrative reactions, and Part 2: Answering Lower House questions.(mk) [nl

  15. Pulsed electric fields (PEF applications on wine production: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozturk Burcu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel techniques have been searched in the last decades as a result of increasing demand for high quality food products. Non-thermal processing technologies, such as pulsed electric fields (PEF have been improved to achieve inhibition of deleterious effects on quality-related compounds. The working principle of PEF is based on the application of pulses of high voltage (typically above 20 kV/cm up to 70 kV/cm to liquid foods placed between two electrodes. Pulsed electric fields technique has also been studied in winemaking process. Certain positive influences of PEF on vinification have been reported as elimination of pathogenic microorganisms, reduction of maceration time, increase in phenolic compounds extraction , acceleration of wine aging and inactivation of oxidative enzymes. The aim of this review is to summarize the potential applications of PEF in winemaking and to express its effects on quality of wine.

  16. Data feature: 1991 World electricity production and consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear's share of the electricity being generated in the world appears to have reached its peak in 1991 and is likely to undergo a gradual decline in the coming years. Conservative estimates on electricity demand growth rates suggest that nuclear's share could decline to as low as 15.2% by the year 2005 from the current 16.6% level. Only four nuclear power stations with a combined capacity of 3,673 MWe were connected to the electrical grid system in the Western World last year, and new construction was started on a total of two units with an aggregate capacity of 1,944 MWe. Not all projects currently under construction will necessarily be completed to the point of generating electricity. This is particularly true in the Commonwealth of Independent States. Add onto this the potential shutdown of still operating but unsafe Soviet-designed reactors, as well as extended outages in the Western World for periodic safety assessments and steam generator replacement in aging plants. NUKEM believes this global trend will not be counterbalanced even by the ever-improving performance of US nuclear power stations whose load factors have now reached Western European standards. Accordingly, nuclear's share in world power generation is expected to decline gradually from 1992 onwards. This month's data feature focuses on electrical production in Western Europe, North America, and the Far East. The ex-Soviet republics and the neighboring Eastern European countries will be examined in greater detail in upcoming issues of the NUKEM Market Report as more complete data becomes available

  17. Competitive nuclear production on the nordic deregulated electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohl, T.

    2000-01-01

    The Nordic electricity market has been partly deregulated since 1994. Today only Denmark follows the timetable recommended by the European Union, while Sweden, Norway and Finland are completely deregulated. As in most countries, the production of electricity is deregulated while the distribution is still a monopoly. This deregulation of the electricity market has created a new situation for plant life management. In order to be competitive on the market it is important to cut cost down a level when the nuclear power companies earn money again. All means to cut cost have to be used while still maintaining safety and the possibilities for operation over at least 40+ years. The possibilities to invest in modernization are limited to the absolutely necessary modifications. All investments must be very thoroughly questioned and the money can only be spent where most benefit is gained. This means new prerequisites for the absolute necessary long-strategic planning. New safety requirements from the authorities have to be discussed between the industry and the authority. The requirement cost must be compared to the benefit to safety. The authority is today requested to carry out such analyses and do so in most cases. Since the electricity market is international the requirements of the authorities must be harmonized on the whole market. The political threat against nuclear power is serious in many countries and it is important to continue working with public acceptance and lobbying. Especially in Sweden a lot of effort is spent on trying to change the taxation of nuclear power. In the near future increasing electricity demand will make the prices go up to a level when nuclear power companies earn money again. The very serious worries about climate change will also strengthen the competitiveness of nuclear power. (author)

  18. What about improving the productivity of electric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawroski, H.; Knecht, P.D.; Prideaux, D.L.; Zahner, R.R.

    1976-01-01

    The FEA in April of 1974 established an Interagency Task Group on Power Plant Reliability, which was charged with the broad objective of improving the productivity of existing and planned large fossil-fueled and nuclear power plants. It took approximately 11 months for the task force to publish a report, ''Report on Improving the Productivity of Electrical Power Plants'' (FEA-263-G), a detailed analysis and comparison of successful and below-average-performance power plants. The Nuclear Service Corp. portion of this study examined four large central-station power plants: two fossil (coal) and two nuclear plants. Only plants with electrical generation capacities greater than 400 MWe were considered. The study included the following: staff technical skill, engineering support, QA program, plant/corporate coordination, operation philosophy, maintenance programs, federal/state regulations, network control, and equipment problems. Personnel were interviewed, and checklists providing input from some 21 or more plant and corporate personnel of each utility were utilized. Reports and other documentation were also reviewed. It was recognized early that productivity is closely allied to technical skills and positive motivation. For this reason, considerable attention was given to people in this study

  19. Phased array UT (Ultrasonic Testing) used in electricity production plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodaira, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    Phased Array-Ultrasonic testing techniques widely used for detection and quantitative determination of the lattice defects which have been formed from fatigues or stress corrosion cracking in the materials used in the electricity production plants are presented with particular focus on the accurate determination of the defects depth (sizing) and defects discrimination applicable to weld metals of austenite stainless steels and Ni base alloys. The principle of this non-destructive analysis is briefly explained, followed by point and matrix focus phased array methods developed by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd are explained rather in detail with illustration and the evaluated results. (S. Ohno)

  20. Nano-powder production by electrical explosion of wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Zhiguo; Zou Xiaobing; Wang Xinxin; Jiang Weihua

    2010-01-01

    A device for nano-powder production by electrical explosion of wires was designed and built. Eight wires housed in the discharge chamber are exploded one by one before opening the chamber for the collection of the produced nano-powder. To increase the rate of energy deposition into a wire, the electrical behavior of the discharge circuit including the exploding wire was simulated. The results showed that both reducing the circuit inductance and reducing the capacitance of the energy-storage capacitor (keeping the storage energy constant) can increase the energy deposition rate. To better understand the physical processes of the nano-powder formation by the wire vapor, a Mach-Zehnder interferometer was used to record the time evolution of the wire vapor as well as the plasma. A thermal expansion lag of the dense vapor core as well as more than one times of the vapor burst was observed for the first time. Finally, nano-powders of titanium nitride, titanium dioxide, copper oxides and zinc oxide were produced by electrical explosion of wires. (authors)

  1. Renewal of nuclear electricity production: an economic trend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debontride, B.; Bouteille, F.; Goebel, A.; Czech, J.

    2004-01-01

    2004 price evolution on the market asks on nuclear generation profitability and competitiveness. There were over installed capacities in Europe since several years, but electricity consumption is steadily increasing and over capacities will disappear more or less at the end of the decade. On a world basis, electricity demand grows twice as much as energy demand, so that there is a need to invest in new electricity generation capacities. The recent US black out events shows the need for securing energy supply in capacities as well as in transmission and distribution. Competitiveness of the different possible sources of energy thus needs to be carefully assessed by all the worldwide decision makers in the field of power generation. In France, the economy of the electricity production is regularly assessed by a French Government study called 'Reference costs for Electricity production' which compares the levelized cost for base load power produced by a nuclear unit (latest design available) and other conventional power stations. In the latest release published in 2003 the nuclear option (the EPR) is compared with three fossil-fired units: A twin 400 MW combined-cycle gas plant, a twin 900 MW pulverized coal station and a 400 MW fluidized bed combustion coal plant. In all cases the nuclear option is the cheapest. If external costs, based on the EU studies (ExternE), are taken into account, the advantage of the nuclear option is significantly increased. In Finland a study performed by the Lappeenranta University in 2000 concluded also in the competitiveness of the Nuclear option. This result was important in the decision making process which resulted in the decision in principle of the Finnish Parliament to allow for the construction of the fifth Nuclear power station for which the EPR was selected. In China, the same kind of economical studies recently led the governmental authorities to launch new nuclear projects. These three examples, in three countries where

  2. A Greenhouse Gas Balance of Electricity Production from Co-firing Palm Oil Products from Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicke, B.; Dornburg, V.; Faaij, A.; Junginger, M.

    2007-05-01

    The Netherlands imports significant quantities of biomass for energy production, among which palm oil has been used increasingly for co-firing in existing gas-fired power plants for renewable electricity production. Imported biomass, however, can not simply be considered a sustainable energy source. The production and removal of biomass in other places in the world result in ecological, land-use and socio-economic impacts and in GHG emissions (e.g. for transportation). As a result of the sustainability discussions, the Cramer Commission in the Netherlands has formulated (draft) criteria and indicators for sustainable biomass production. This study develops a detailed methodology for determining the GHG balance of co-firing palm oil products in the Netherlands based on the Cramer Commission methodology. The methodology is applied to a specific bio-electricity chain: the production of palm oil and a palm oil derivative, palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD), in Northeast Borneo in Malaysia, their transport to the Netherlands and co-firing with natural gas for electricity production at the Essent Claus power plant

  3. Environmental impacts and cost estimation for electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devezeaux de Lavergne, J.G.

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews the different sources of energy used for electricity production in the view of the impact on environment. Coal, gas, wind energy, nuclear energy and hydro-energy are considered. The comparison of environmental performances requires common methodologies, 2 methodologies have been used ACV (analysis of a complete life cycle) and IPM (impact pathway methodology), both study all the exchanges of a system with the outside. The environmental performance is quantified by a series of parameters which represent the degradation of ecosystems. These parameters are divided into 4 groups: i) impact on public health, ii) impact on staff health, iii) impact on regional environment (agriculture, landscape alteration...) and iv) global impact on environment (greenhouse effect, acid rain, waste production, reduction of resources...). (A.C.)

  4. Possibility of direct electricity production from waste canola oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarczyk, Paweł P.; Włodarczyk, Barbara; Kalinichenko, Antonina

    2017-10-01

    Powering high-efficiency devices, such as fuel cells, with waste products will allow for a broader development of renewable energy sources and utilisation of by- products. This publication presents the possibility of electrooxidation of the emulsion of waste rapeseed oil, prepared on the basis of the detergent Syntanol DS-10. The process of electrooxidation was carried out on platinum electrode in alkaline (KOH) and acidic (H2SO4) electrolyte, in the temperature range of 293-333 K. In each analysed case the process of electrooxidation took place. The maximum current density obtained was 7 mA cm-2. Thus, it has been shown that it is possible to generate electricity directly from the emulsion of the waste rapeseed oil.

  5. Possibility of direct electricity production from waste canola oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodarczyk Paweł P.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Powering high-efficiency devices, such as fuel cells, with waste products will allow for a broader development of renewable energy sources and utilisation of by- products. This publication presents the possibility of electrooxidation of the emulsion of waste rapeseed oil, prepared on the basis of the detergent Syntanol DS-10. The process of electrooxidation was carried out on platinum electrode in alkaline (KOH and acidic (H2SO4 electrolyte, in the temperature range of 293-333 K. In each analysed case the process of electrooxidation took place. The maximum current density obtained was 7 mA cm-2. Thus, it has been shown that it is possible to generate electricity directly from the emulsion of the waste rapeseed oil.

  6. Electricity production from municipal solid waste in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordi, Guilherme Henrique; Palacios-Bereche, Reynaldo; Gallego, Antonio Garrido; Nebra, Silvia Azucena

    2017-07-01

    Brazil has an increasing production of municipal solid waste that, allied to the current waste management system, makes the search for alternatives of energy recovery essential. Thus, this work aims to study the incineration of municipal solid waste and the electricity production through steam cycles evaluating the influence of municipal solid waste composition. Several scenarios were studied, in which it was assumed that some fractions of municipal solid waste were removed previously. The municipal solid waste generated in Santo André city, São Paulo State, Brazil, was adopted for this study. Simulation results showed that the removal of organic matter and inert components impacts advantageously on the cycle performance, improving their parameters in some cases; in addition, there is the possibility of reusing the separated fractions. The separation of some recyclables, as plastic material, showed disadvantages by the reduction in the electricity generation potential owing to the high calorific value of plastics. Despite the high energy content of them, there are other possible considerations on this subject, because some plastics have a better recovery potential by recycling.

  7. Nanopowder production by gas-embedded electrical explosion of wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Xiao-Bing; Wang Xin-Xin; Jiang Wei-Hua; Mao Zhi-Guo

    2013-01-01

    A small electrical explosion of wire (EEW) setup for nanopowder production is constructed. It consists of a low inductance capacitor bank of 2 μF–4 μF typically charged to 8 kV−30 kV, a triggered gas switch, and a production chamber housing the exploding wire load and ambient gas. With the EEW device, nanosize powders of titanium oxides, titanium nitrides, copper oxides, and zinc oxides are successfully synthesized. The average particle size of synthesized powders under different experimental conditions is in a range of 20 nm−80 nm. The pressure of ambient gas or wire vapor can strongly affect the average particle size. The lower the pressure, the smaller the particle size is. For wire material with relatively high resistivity, such as titanium, whose deposited energy W d is often less than sublimation energy W s due to the flashover breakdown along the wire prematurely ending the Joule heating process, the synthesized particle size of titanium oxides or titanium nitrides increases with overheat coefficient k (k = W d /W s ) increasing. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)

  8. Modeling Electric Discharges with Entropy Production Rate Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Christen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Under which circumstances are variational principles based on entropy production rate useful tools for modeling steady states of electric (gas discharge systems far from equilibrium? It is first shown how various different approaches, as Steenbeck’s minimum voltage and Prigogine’s minimum entropy production rate principles are related to the maximum entropy production rate principle (MEPP. Secondly, three typical examples are discussed, which provide a certain insight in the structure of the models that are candidates for MEPP application. It is then thirdly argued that MEPP, although not being an exact physical law, may provide reasonable model parameter estimates, provided the constraints contain the relevant (nonlinear physical effects and the parameters to be determined are related to disregarded weak constraints that affect mainly global entropy production. Finally, it is additionally conjectured that a further reason for the success of MEPP in certain far from equilibrium systems might be based on a hidden linearity of the underlying kinetic equation(s.

  9. Intellectual Production Supervision Perform based on RFID Smart Electricity Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangqun; Huang, Rui; Shen, Liman; chen, Hao; Xiong, Dezhi; Xiao, Xiangqi; Liu, Mouhai; Xu, Renheng

    2018-03-01

    This topic develops the RFID intelligent electricity meter production supervision project management system. The system is designed for energy meter production supervision in the management of the project schedule, quality and cost information management requirements in RFID intelligent power, and provide quantitative information more comprehensive, timely and accurate for supervision engineer and project manager management decisions, and to provide technical information for the product manufacturing stage file. From the angle of scheme analysis, design, implementation and test, the system development of production supervision project management system for RFID smart meter project is discussed. Focus on the development of the system, combined with the main business application and management mode at this stage, focuses on the energy meter to monitor progress information, quality information and cost based information on RFID intelligent power management function. The paper introduces the design scheme of the system, the overall client / server architecture, client oriented graphical user interface universal, complete the supervision of project management and interactive transaction information display, the server system of realizing the main program. The system is programmed with C# language and.NET operating environment, and the client and server platforms use Windows operating system, and the database server software uses Oracle. The overall platform supports mainstream information and standards and has good scalability.

  10. Dispatchable Hydrogen Production at the Forecourt for Electricity Demand Shaping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla Rahil

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental issues and concerns about depletion of fossil fuels have driven rapid growth in the generation of renewable energy (RE and its use in electricity grids. Similarly, the need for an alternative to hydrocarbon fuels means that the number of fuel cell vehicles is also expected to increase. The ability of electricity networks to balance supply and demand is greatly affected by the variable, intermittent output of RE generators; however, this could be relieved using energy storage and demand-side response (DSR techniques. One option would be production of hydrogen by electrolysis powered from wind and solar sources. The use of tariff structures would provide an incentive to operate electrolysers as dispatchable loads. The aim of this paper is to compare the cost of hydrogen production by electrolysis at garage forecourts in Libya, for both dispatchable and continuous operation, without interruption of fuel supply to vehicles. The coastal city of Derna was chosen as a case study, with the renewable energy being produced via a wind turbine farm. Wind speed was analysed in order to determine a suitable turbine, then the capacity was calculated to estimate how many turbines would be needed to meet demand. Finally, the excess power was calculated, based on the discrepancy between supply and demand. The study looked at a hydrogen refueling station in both dispatchable and continuous operation, using an optimisation algorithm. The following three scenarios were considered to determine whether the cost of electrolytic hydrogen could be reduced by a lower off-peak electricity price. These scenarios are: Standard Continuous, in which the electrolyser operates continuously on a standard tariff of 12 p/kWh; Off-peak Only, in which the electrolyser operates only during off-peak periods at the lower price of 5 p/kWh; and 2-Tier Continuous, in which the electrolyser operates continuously on a low tariff at off-peak times and a high tariff at other

  11. Management of surplus electricity-production from a fluctuating renewable-energy source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Münster, E.

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses and analyses different national strategies for solving a surplus production problem in Denmark, caused by electricity production from turbines and CHP.......The paper discusses and analyses different national strategies for solving a surplus production problem in Denmark, caused by electricity production from turbines and CHP....

  12. External costs of electricity production: case study Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozicevic Vrhovcak, Maja; Tomsic, Zeljko; Debrecin, Nenad

    2005-01-01

    Because electricity production is one of the major sources of pollution, and at the same time is the most centralised one, environmental issues in power system operation and planning are gaining ever-increasing attention. It is very difficult to compare environmental impacts of various electricity generation technologies and fuel types because they are extremely divergent. The most widely accepted common denominator today is the so-called external cost by which a monetary value is associated with environmental damage. In this paper, damages to human health resulting from Croatian thermal power plants annual operation are presented. Stack emissions have been translated into ambient concentrations by atmospheric dispersion modelling. Existing data on relations between human health degradation and ground concentrations of the analysed pollutants have been used. Geographic information software has been used in order to account for spatially dependent data. Monetary values have been assigned to the estimated human health damage. External costs resulting from impact of Croatian thermal power plants airborne emissions on human health have been calculated. The total Croatian thermal power system external costs, resulting from impacts on human health, are presented and discussed

  13. Status of photoelectrochemical production of hydrogen and electrical energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byvik, C. E.; Walker, G. H.

    1976-01-01

    The efficiency for conversion of electromagnetic energy to chemical and electrical energy utilizing semiconductor single crystals as photoanodes in electrochemical cells was investigated. Efficiencies as high as 20 percent were achieved for the conversion of 330 nm radiation to chemical energy in the form of hydrogen by the photoelectrolysis of water in a SrTiO3 based cell. The SrTiO3 photoanodes were shown to be stable in 9.5 M NaOH solutions for periods up to 48 hours. Efficiencies of 9 percent were measured for the conversion of broadband visible radiation to hydrogen using n-type GaAs crystals as photoanodes. Crystals of GaAs coated with 500 nm of gold, silver, or tin for surface passivation show no significant change in efficiency. By suppressing the production of hydrogen in a CdSe-based photogalvanic cell, an efficiency of 9 percent was obtained in conversion of 633 nm light to electrical energy. A CdS-based photogalvanic cell produced a conversion efficiency of 5 percent for 500 nm radiation.

  14. Exergy recovery during LNG regasification: Electric energy production - Part two

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dispenza, Celidonio; Dispenza, Giorgio; Rocca, Vincenzo La; Panno, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    In liquefied natural gas (LNG) regasification facilities, for exergy recovery during regasification, an option could be the production of electric energy recovering the energy available as cold. In a previous paper, the authors propose an innovative process which uses a cryogenic stream of LNG during regasification as a cold source in an improved combined heat and power (CHP) plant. Considering the LNG regasification projects in progress all over the World, an appropriate design option could be based on a modular unit having a mean regasification capacity of 2 x 10 9 standard cubic meters/year. This paper deals with the results of feasibility studies, developed by the authors at DREAM in the context of a research program, on ventures based on thermodynamic and economic analysis of improved CHP cycles and related innovative technology which demonstrate the suitability of the proposal

  15. Electricity market clearing with improved dispatch of stochastic production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales González, Juan Miguel; Zugno, Marco; Pineda, Salvador

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider an electricity market that consists of a day-ahead and a balancing settlement, and includes a number of stochastic producers. We first introduce two reference procedures for scheduling and pricing energy in the day-ahead market: on the one hand, a conventional network...... attains higher market efficiency in expectation than the conventional day-ahead auction, it suffers from fundamental drawbacks with a view to its practical implementation. In particular, it requires flexible producers (those that make up for the lack or surplus of stochastic generation) to accept losses...... in some scenarios. Using a bilevel programming framework, we then show that the conventional auction, if combined with a suitable day-ahead dispatch of stochastic producers (generally different from their expected production), can substantially increase market efficiency and emulate the advantageous...

  16. Electricity production perspective regarding resource recovery center (RRC) in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masoud Aghajani Mir; Noor Ezlin Ahmad Basri; Rawshan Ara Begum; Sanaz Saheri

    2010-01-01

    Waste disposal is a global problem contributing to the ongoing climate change because of large emissions of greenhouse gases. So, using waste material as a resource instead of land filling, the greenhouse gas emissions from landfills are reduced. Also, Waste material can be used for waste incineration with energy recovery, thus decreasing the greenhouse gas emission from energy utilization by changing from fossil fuels to a partly renewable fuel. The production of Refuse Derived Fuels (RDF) involves the mechanical processing of household waste using screens, shredders and separators to recover recyclable materials and to produce a combustible product Regarding Resource Recovery Center/Waste to Energy (RRC/WtE) Facility in Malaysia that located in Semenyih. This System involves the removal of inert and compost able materials followed by pulverization to produce a feedstock which be incinerated in power stations. The purpose of this study is to evaluate and forecasting of the number of these facilities that Kuala Lumpur will need regarding to potential of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) generation and Refuse Derive Fuel that will be produce from that in future. This plant is able to produce average 7.5 MWh electricity from 700 ton MSW or 200 ton RDF per day that approximately is used 1.8 MWh per day inside the pant and it can sell around 5.7 MWh daily. Kuala Lumpur will generate around 7713 ton MSW per day and it is able to produce 2466 ton RDF per day. Regarding to potential of MSW and RDF generation by 2020 in Kuala Lumpur it will need around 11 plants to treatment of MSW that this number of plants is able to produce around 62.8 MWh electricity per day. (author)

  17. Predictive Models for Photovoltaic Electricity Production in Hot Weather Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabar H. Yousif

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The process of finding a correct forecast equation for photovoltaic electricity production from renewable sources is an important matter, since knowing the factors affecting the increase in the proportion of renewable energy production and reducing the cost of the product has economic and scientific benefits. This paper proposes a mathematical model for forecasting energy production in photovoltaic (PV panels based on a self-organizing feature map (SOFM model. The proposed model is compared with other models, including the multi-layer perceptron (MLP and support vector machine (SVM models. Moreover, a mathematical model based on a polynomial function for fitting the desired output is proposed. Different practical measurement methods are used to validate the findings of the proposed neural and mathematical models such as mean square error (MSE, mean absolute error (MAE, correlation (R, and coefficient of determination (R2. The proposed SOFM model achieved a final MSE of 0.0007 in the training phase and 0.0005 in the cross-validation phase. In contrast, the SVM model resulted in a small MSE value equal to 0.0058, while the MLP model achieved a final MSE of 0.026 with a correlation coefficient of 0.9989, which indicates a strong relationship between input and output variables. The proposed SOFM model closely fits the desired results based on the R2 value, which is equal to 0.9555. Finally, the comparison results of MAE for the three models show that the SOFM model achieved a best result of 0.36156, whereas the SVM and MLP models yielded 4.53761 and 3.63927, respectively. A small MAE value indicates that the output of the SOFM model closely fits the actual results and predicts the desired output.

  18. Use of low-cost aluminum in electric energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuk, Andrey Z.; Sheindlin, Alexander E.; Kleymenov, Boris V.; Shkolnikov, Eugene I.; Lopatin, Marat Yu.

    Suppression of the parasitic corrosion while maintaining the electrochemical activity of the anode metal is one of the serious problems that affects the energy efficiency of aluminum-air batteries. The need to use high-purity aluminum or special aluminum-based alloys results in a significant increase in the cost of the anode, and thus an increase in the total cost of energy generated by the aluminum-air battery, which narrows the range of possible applications for this type of power source. This study considers the process of parasitic corrosion as a method for hydrogen production. Hydrogen produced in an aluminum-air battery by this way may be further employed in a hydrogen-air fuel cell (Hy-air FC) or in a heat engine, or it may be burnt to generate heat. Therefore, anode materials may be provided by commercially pure aluminum, commercially produced aluminum alloys, and secondary aluminum. These materials are much cheaper and more readily available than special anode alloys of aluminum and high-purity aluminum. The aim of present study is to obtain experimental data for comparison of energy and cost parameters of some commercially produced aluminum alloys, of high-purity aluminum, and of a special Al-ln anode alloy in the context of using these materials as anodes for an Al-air battery and for combined production of electrical power and hydrogen.

  19. Nanopowder production by gas-embedded electrical explosion of wire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zou Xiao-Bing; Mao Zhi-Guo; Wang Xin-Xin; Jiang Wei-Hua

    2013-01-01

    A small electrical explosion of wire (EEW) setup for nanopowder production is constructed.It consists of a low inductance capacitor bank of 2 μF--4 μF typically charged to 8 kV-30 kV,a triggered gas switch,and a production chamber housing the exploding wire load and ambient gas.With the EEW device,nanosize powders of titanium oxides,titanium nitrides,copper oxides,and zinc oxides are successfully synthesized.The average particle size of synthesized powders under different experimental conditions is in a range of 20 nm-80 nm.The pressure of ambient gas or wire vapor can strongly affect the average particle size.The lower the pressure,the smaller the particle size is.For wire material with relatively high resistivity,such as titanium,whose deposited energy Wd is often less than sublimation energy Ws due to the flashover breakdown along the wire prematurely ending the Joule heating process,the synthesized particle size of titanium oxides or titanium nitrides increases with overheat coefficient k (k =Wd/Ws) increasing.

  20. Photon propagator and pair production in stationary electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhlin, A.N.; Olejnik, V.P.

    1978-01-01

    Effects related to pair production by an external field are discussed. It is shown that vacuum instability against pair production leads to an essential difference between the propagator and Feynman Green's function. Analysis of Yang-Feldman equations and of boundary conditions imposed upon the Green's function shows that using Feynman Green's function as a propagator contradicts the causality principle. The physical causality principle is satisfied by Heisenberg Green's function for which usual Schwinger-Dyson equations cannot be formulated. Heisenberg and Feynman Green's functions coincide for the case of stable vacuum state. All calculations are carried out using the technique of the so-called generalized Green's functions in terms of which the propagators are written. The polarization operator in the electric field is calculated in the one-loop approximation. Its' general structure is found. The photon propagator is obtained. Self oscillations of the photon vacuum are determined. It is shown that new modes correspond to collective excitations of the type ''photon+electron-positron pairs''

  1. Electricity production by hydro power plants: possibilities of forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkans, J.; Zicmane, I.

    2004-01-01

    Hydro energy accounts for 17% of global electricity production and is the most important source of renewable energies actively used today, being at the same time the least influential ecologically. Its only disadvantages is that this kind of energy is difficult to forecast, which hinders not only the planning of tariffs, year budgets and investments, but also contractual negotiations in particular month. The paper shows that the forecasting of hydro energy production can be linked to certain natural processes, namely, to the cyclic behaviour observed for water flows of the world's rivers. The authors propose a method according to which the forecasting procedure is performed using the data of observations as signals applied to special digital filters transforming the water flow process into integral and differential forms, which after appropriate treatment are expected again in usual water flow units. For this purpose the water flow integral function is to be divided, by means of spectral analysis, into 'low-frequency' (with a semi-period of 44 years) and 'high-frequency' (4-6 year semi-periods) components, which are of different origin. Each of them should be forecasted separately, with the following summation of the results. In the research it is shown that the cyclic fluctuations of world rivers' water flows are directly associated with variations in the Solar activity. (authors)

  2. 75 FR 18015 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ..., Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production, and Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factors and... coal production, and Indian coal production under section 45. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Philip... Coal, and Indian Coal:'', Line 26, the language ``is 2.15 cents per kilowatt hour on the'' is corrected...

  3. ANALYSIS OF GROSS REGIONAL PRODUCT FLUCTUATIONS AND ELECTRIC POWER CONSUMPTION IN 2005- 2014. RESERVES FOR DECREASING ELECTRIC POWER PRICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suslov N. I.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work we considered the trajectories of change in indicators characterizing the status of economics and power industry: gross regional product, electric power consumption, industrial production, energy prices and costs of delivering electric power to consumers in Russian regions for the last 10 years. Low global commodity prices and sanctions led to a sharp decrease of equipment import, which resulted in an acute problem of import substitution. The level of tariffs of natural monopolies is of great importance for industrial development. The goal of this work was to analyze possibilities for reducing electric power prices by changing the institutional and economic conditions of management. We analyzed not only the official information from Rosstat, but also government regulations, figures given in the official government publication «The Rossiyskaya Gazeta» as well as articles and interviews on economic problems of the electric power industry over the recent years published in «The Kommersant» newspaper. High tariffs of network marketing companies for electric energy transmission, state regulation of heating prices, financing the construction of new capacities by charging the payment in power provision contracts, high price of electric power of nuclear power plants lead to an annual increase in electric power prices for end users. In this work we considered possible solutions to limit the growth of electric power prices.

  4. Co-production of hydrogen and electricity with CO{sub 2} capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arienti, S.; Cotone, P.; Davison, J. [Foster Wheeler Italiana (Italy)

    2007-07-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a study carried out by Foster Wheeler for the IEA Greenhouse Gas R & D Programme that focused on different IGCC configurations with CO{sub 2} capture and H{sub 2} production. The three following main cases are compared: production of hydrogen, with minimum amount of electricity for a stand-alone plant production; co-production of the optimum hydrogen/electricity ratio; and co-production of hydrogen and electricity in a flexible plant that varies the hydrogen/electricity ratio. The paper reviews three available gasification technologies and presents the results of a more detailed evaluation of the selected one. The scope of this paper is to underline possible advantages of hydrogen and electricity co-production from coal, that is likely going to replace natural gas and petroleum as a source of hydrogen in the long term. Expected advantage of co-production will be the ability to vary the hydrogen/electricity ratio to meet market demands. A natural gas, diesel and gasoline demand market analysis has been performed for the Netherlands and the USA to determine the expected future hydrogen demand. Plant performance and costs are established and electric power production costs are evaluated. Electricity and hydrogen co-production plants are compared to plants that produce electricity only, with and without CO{sub 2} capture, to evaluate the costs of CO{sub 2} avoidance. 4 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Initial plasma production by induction electric field on QUEST tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Makoto; Nakamura, Kazuo; Sato, Kohnosuke

    2007-01-01

    Induction electric field by center solenoid coil plays a roll to produce initial plasma. According to Townsend avalanche theory, minimum electric field for plasma breakdown depends on neutral gas pressure and connection length. On QUEST spherical tokamak, a connection length is evaluated as 966m on null point neighborhood with coil current ratio I PF26 /I CS =0.1, and induction electric field considering eddy current of vacuum vessel is evaluated as about 0.1 V/m on null point neighborhood. With Townsend avalanche theory, these values manage to produce initial plasma on QUEST. (author)

  6. Electricity demand and conservation potential in the Chinese nonmetallic mineral products industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Ouyang, Xiaoling

    2014-01-01

    As the high energy-consuming manufacturing industry, electricity consumption of nonmetallic mineral products in China accounted for 7.93% of industrial, 5.84% of national and 1.33% of global electricity consumption in 2010. This study attempts to specify the determinants of sectoral electricity demand, forecast future electricity consumption by creating a model using the Johansen cointegration methodology and estimate the sectoral electricity conservation potential. Results indicate that GDP per capita is the leading force explaining the sectoral electricity consumption increase, while value-added per worker, R and D intensity and electricity price are the main factors contributing to the sectoral electricity consumption decrease. Results demonstrate that sectoral electricity consumption in 2020 will be 369.79–464.83 billion kWh under the low-growth scenario and 530.14–666.39 billion kWh under the high-growth scenario. Moreover, under the low-growth scenario, the sectoral electricity conservation potential in 2020 will be 33.72–95.03 billion kWh, accounting for 0.45–1.26% of China's total electricity demand in 2020; under the high-growth scenario, the sectoral electricity conservation potential in 2020 will be 48.34–136.24 billion kWh, accounting for 0.26–0.74% of world's total electricity consumption in 2010 respectively. Finally, we provide some policy recommendations for encouraging energy conservation in China's nonmetallic mineral products industry. - Highlights: • A long-term relationship of electricity demand in nonmetallic minerals industry is established. • Determinants of the sectoral electricity consumption are specified. • The sectoral electricity demand and saving potential are analyzed using scenarios analysis. • Electricity saving potential will be 48.34–136.24 billion kWh under the high-growth scenario

  7. Natural Gas Based Electricity Production and Low Carbon Technology Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concerns regarding air quality, global climate change, and the national energy security impacts of the intensive use of fossil fuels and their environmental impacts in the power generation sector have raised interest in alternative low carbon electricity generation technology and...

  8. Electric system management through hydrogen production - A market driven approach in the French context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansilla, C.; Dautremont, S.; Thais, F.; Louyrette, J.; Martin, J.; Albou, S.; Barbieri, G.; Collignon, N.; Bourasseau, C.; Salasc, B.; Valentin, S.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen is usually presented as a promising energy carrier that has a major role to play in low carbon transportation, through the use of fuel cells. However, such a development is not expected in the short term. In the meantime, hydrogen may also contribute to reduce carbon emissions in diverse sectors among which methanol production. Methanol can be produced by combining carbon dioxide and hydrogen, hence facilitating carbon dioxide emission mitigation while providing a beneficial tool to manage the electric system, if hydrogen is produced by alkaline electrolysis operated in a variable way driven by the spot and balancing electricity markets. Such a concept is promoted by the VItESSE project (Industrial and Energy value of CO 2 through Efficient use of CO 2 -free electricity - Electricity Network System Control and Electricity Storage). Through the proposed market driven approach, hydrogen production offers a possibility to help managing the electric system, together with an opportunity to reduce hydrogen production costs. (authors)

  9. The use of rotating electric arc for spherical particle production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bica, I.

    2000-01-01

    This work presents and experimental device designed to obtain spherical particles by mans of a rotating electric arc. A rotation frequency of the electric arc of 750 s''-1, a voltage of 50 V(dc) and a current of 100 A was used. The mass flow rate was 3 g.min''-1. Under these conditions particles of 15 to 20 μm in diameter were obtained. (Author) 8 refs

  10. Measuring efficiency and productivity change (PTF) in the Peruvian electricity distribution companies after reforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Reyes, Raul [Organismo Supervisor de la Inversion en Energia y Mineria, Osinergmin (Peru); Tovar, Beatriz [Infrastructure and Transport Research Group (EIT), Department of Applied Economics, University of Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    This paper analyzes the evolution of productivity of the electricity distribution companies in Peru, to assess whether reforms have improved the efficiency in this sector. The paper also identifies potential sources of productivity changes, based on market restructuring the electricity sector and changes in property. To do this, we rely on a set of data for 14 distribution companies, for the period 1996-2006. Our analysis suggests that improvements in the efficiency and productivity of electricity distribution in Peru have occurred, and that there is a relationship between the restructuring of distribution sector and the enhancement of productivity. (author)

  11. Measuring efficiency and productivity change (PTF) in the Peruvian electricity distribution companies after reforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Reyes, Raul; Tovar, Beatriz

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the evolution of productivity of the electricity distribution companies in Peru, to assess whether reforms have improved the efficiency in this sector. The paper also identifies potential sources of productivity changes, based on market restructuring the electricity sector and changes in property. To do this, we rely on a set of data for 14 distribution companies, for the period 1996-2006. Our analysis suggests that improvements in the efficiency and productivity of electricity distribution in Peru have occurred, and that there is a relationship between the restructuring of distribution sector and the enhancement of productivity. (author)

  12. Management of surplus electricity-production from a fluctuating renewable-energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, H.

    2003-01-01

    Renewable-energy sources and energy efficiency are important elements in Danish Energy Policy. The implementation of wind power and combined heat- and power-production (CHP) have already led to substantial fuel savings, and both technologies are intended for further expansion in the coming decade. Today, approximately 50% of both Danish electricity and heat demand are produced via CHP, and more than 15% of the electricity demands are produced by wind turbines. However, the electricity production from these technologies is linked to fluctuations either in wind or in heat demands rather than fluctuations in demand for electricity. Consequently, the electricity production exceeds the demand during certain periods and creates a problem of ''surplus production''. This paper discusses and analyses different national strategies for solving this problem. (author)

  13. Treatment of wastes from biomass used in electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillemes Peira, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to find an approach for the treatment of toxic waste condensates obtained during the generation of electricity from biomass that would transform them into wastewater. Two experimental conditions have been performed using a reactor. During the first condition, potentials were applied without following a defined path to electrically calibrate the system by observing responses. In the second experimental condition and based on these previous electrical observations, the potentials were applied. This technical approach has proven suitable for condensate treatment. However, given the aggressiveness of the residue, it is necessary to use a reactor which allows reaching and maintaining the necessary electro-oxidation potential and to combine it with an electrocoagulation reactor. (author)

  14. Utilization of hydrogen gas production for electricity generation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lecturer

    2012-05-03

    May 3, 2012 ... The main goals of this research were to use E. aerogenes ADH-43 for fermentation in order to decide the best carbon sources and ... by converting to electricity using fuel cells in 50 ml vial bottle, 2% total ... evolution compared with other biological hydrogen .... Erlenmeyer containing a solution of Ca (OH) 2.

  15. Utilization of hydrogen gas production for electricity generation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lecturer

    2012-05-03

    % total sugar concentration of sugar ... 107 cfu/ml, pH was nearly constant at 6.0, and finally the H2 was drifted to fuel cell to generate electrical power until 4 V ..... hybrid system, reverse micelles and by metabolic engi- neering.

  16. Production of pulsed electric fields using capacitively coupled electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, B. R. F.; Schwab, F. A. S.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that pulsed electric fields can be produced over extended volumes by taking advantage of the internal capacitances in a stacked array of electrodes. The design, construction, and performance of practical arrays are discussed. The prototype arrays involved fields of 100-1000 V/cm extending over several centimeters. Scaling to larger physical dimensions is straightforward.

  17. Submersible microbial fuel cell for electricity production from sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Olias, Lola Gonzalez; Kongjan, Prawit

    2010-01-01

    A submersible microbial fuel cell (SMFC) was utilized to treatment of sewage sludge and simultaneous generate electricity. Stable power generation (145±5 mW/m2) was produced continuously from raw sewage sludge for 5.5 days. The corresponding total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal efficiency...... of an effective system to treatment of sewage sludge and simultaneous recover energy....

  18. Electricity production without CO2 emissions. French abstract of the paper of Nature: electricity without carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, H.; Bonneville, J.M.; Poitou, J.

    2008-09-01

    Electricity generation provides 18000 TWh of energy a year, around 40 % of humanity's total energy use. In doing so it produces more than 10 giga-tons of carbon dioxide every year, the largest sectoral contribution of humanity's fossil-fuel derived emissions. Yet there is a wide range of technologies, from solar and wind to nuclear and geothermal, that can generate electricity without net carbon emissions from fuel. In its paper of 13 August 2008, Nature's News looks at how much carbon-free energy might ultimately be available and which sources make mots sense. In this paper the author gives his own evaluation under each section. (A.L.B.)

  19. Electrifying integration Electricity production and the South East Europe regional energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, Elizabeth; Medvedev, Andrei

    2009-01-01

    The paper provides an overview of the generation of electricity in 10 countries in South East Europe during 1995-2004. Using the latest available statistics, we explore the potential of the nascent integration of the electricity markets in South East Europe. We conduct a cross-country analysis of electricity production based on different types of fuel used. The region has a low level of gasification combined with few nuclear power generation facilities, while some countries heavily rely on hydro electric generation. Differences in countries' resource endowment and the possibility of intertemporal substitution between electricity generated from various fuels could stimulate a regional trade in electricity. As an alternative to nationally independent energy policy, regional trade could displace a proportion of the substantial investment in generation facilities required to avert serious supply shortages. Finally, we consider the environmental impact of electricity generation, and identify some of the key trade-offs between different policy objectives. (author)

  20. Material and Energy Flow Analysis (Mefa of the Unconventional Method of Electricity Production Based on Underground Coal Gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Czaplicka-Kolarz

    2014-01-01

    Originality/value: This is the first approach which contains a whole chain of electricity production from Underground Coal Gasification, including stages of gas cleaning, electricity production and the additional capture of carbon dioxide.

  1. THE MAIN DIRECTIONS OF IMPROVING THE EFFICIENCY OF PRODUCTION, TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Zhezhelenko

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The main directions of increase of efficiency of production, transmission and distribution of electric energy have been formulated. The relation between the values of electricity losses during transmission via power grids of different countries and the level of the economies of these countries characterized by the value of gross domestic product at purchasing power parity per capita has been established. In the countries with a gross domestic product at purchasing power parity per capita less than 20 thousand US dollars electricity losses during its transmission via power grids are 1.5–2.5 times more than the ones transmitted via power grids of the industrialized countries where the specified purchasing power parity is in the range of 30.4–54.5 thousand US dollars. In the countries with more developed economies the technical culture of production, transmission and distribution of electricity is higher; the modern control systems of operation modes of electrical networks are used as well as of monitoring and accounting of electricity; also there are solvent and disciplined consumers in such countries as well as clear regulatory framework and tariff regulation system. However, the process of transmission and distribution of electricity is effective if not only low relative losses take place, but the normal (contractual requirements for carrying capacity, quality and reliability of electricity supply are provided. The possibility of analytical determination of the optimum value of reserve capacity of power plants providing the required level of reliability of the power system has been considered.

  2. New Balancing Equipment for Mass Production of Small and Medium-Sized Electrical Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argeseanu, Alin; Ritchie, Ewen; Leban, Krisztina Monika

    2010-01-01

    The level of vibration and noise is an important feature. It is good practice to explain the significance of the indicators of the quality of electrical machines. The mass production of small and medium-sized electrical machines demands speed (short typical measurement time), reliability...

  3. Is Power Production Flexibility a Substitute for Storability? Evidence from Electricity Futures Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kilic (Mehtap); R. Huisman (Ronald)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractElectricity is not storable. As a consequence, electricity demand and supply need to be in balance at any moment in time as a shortage in production volume cannot be compensated with supply from inventories. However, if the installed power supply capacity is very flexible, variation in

  4. Electric heating of a unit for uranium trioxide production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faron, R.; Striff, A.

    1985-01-01

    Ammonium diuranate U 2 O 7 (NH 4 ) 2 containing about 50% of water is dried and transformed by calcination in uranium trioxide UO 3 . Drying and calcination was obtained by air heated by two burners using domestic fuel. In 1984 the plant was transformed for utilization of electric heating improving maintenance cost, decreasing heat losses and by energy saving the payback period on investment is of 2.6 years [fr

  5. Submersible microbial fuel cell for electricity production from sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Olias, Lola Gonzalez; Kongjan, Prawit

    2011-01-01

    A submersible microbial fuel cell (SMFC) was utilized to treat sewage sludge and simultaneously generate electricity. Stable power generation (145± 5 mW/m2, 470 Ω) was produced continuously from raw sewage sludge for 5.5 days. The maximum power density reached 190±5 mW/m2. The corresponding total...... system to treat sewage sludge and simultaneously recover energy....

  6. Statistical analysis of the electric energy production from photovoltaic conversion using mobile and fixed constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugała, Artur; Bednarek, Karol; Kasprzyk, Leszek; Tomczewski, Andrzej

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the most representative - from the three-year measurement time period - characteristics of daily and monthly electricity production from a photovoltaic conversion using modules installed in a fixed and 2-axis tracking construction. Results are presented for selected summer, autumn, spring and winter days. Analyzed measuring stand is located on the roof of the Faculty of Electrical Engineering Poznan University of Technology building. The basic parameters of the statistical analysis like mean value, standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis, median, range, or coefficient of variation were used. It was found that the asymmetry factor can be useful in the analysis of the daily electricity production from a photovoltaic conversion. In order to determine the repeatability of monthly electricity production, occurring between the summer, and summer and winter months, a non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test was used as a statistical solution. In order to analyze the repeatability of daily peak hours, describing the largest value of the hourly electricity production, a non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test was applied as an extension of the Mann-Whitney U test. Based on the analysis of the electric energy distribution from a prepared monitoring system it was found that traditional forecasting methods of the electricity production from a photovoltaic conversion, like multiple regression models, should not be the preferred methods of the analysis.

  7. Challenges of electricity production scenarios modelling for life cycle assessment of environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, Isabelle; Beloin-Saint-Pierre, Didier [MINES ParisTech, Sophia Antipolis (France). Observation, Impacts, Energy Center

    2013-07-01

    This communication presents a first attempt at making a life cycle assessment of prospective electricity production scenarios which were designed in the EnerGEO project. We start by a basic review of system (in this case, scenario) modelling expectations in today's LCA study. We then review some of the challenges of implementation due to the lack of detailed description of present and future electricity production systems. The importance of a detailed description is then shown with an evaluation of uncertainty of life cycle impact assessment results for three scenarios of German electricity production in 2030. The significant uncertainties we found, prevent us from detecting a relevant trend or making any comparison between the three chosen scenarios. We finally come to the conclusion that the LCA methodology will become relevant for the environmental assessment of electricity production scenarios when many more detailed information are accounted to describe future technologies, structures and sources of energy. (orig.)

  8. National and regional economic impacts of electricity production from energy crops in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlasblom, J.; Broek, R. van den; Meeusen-van Onna, M.

    1998-01-01

    Besides the known environmental benefits, national and regional economic impacts may form additional arguments for stimulating government measures in favour of electricity production from energy crops in the Netherlands. Therefore, we compared the economic impacts (at both national and regional

  9. Challenges of electricity production scenarios modelling for life cycle assessment of environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, Isabelle; Beloin-Saint-Pierre, Didier

    2013-01-01

    This communication presents a first attempt at making a life cycle assessment of prospective electricity production scenarios which were designed in the EnerGEO project. We start by a basic review of system (in this case, scenario) modelling expectations in today's LCA study. We then review some of the challenges of implementation due to the lack of detailed description of present and future electricity production systems. The importance of a detailed description is then shown with an evaluation of uncertainty of life cycle impact assessment results for three scenarios of German electricity production in 2030. The significant uncertainties we found, prevent us from detecting a relevant trend or making any comparison between the three chosen scenarios. We finally come to the conclusion that the LCA methodology will become relevant for the environmental assessment of electricity production scenarios when many more detailed information are accounted to describe future technologies, structures and sources of energy. (orig.)

  10. Pair production in an electric field in a time-dependent gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barut, A.O.; Duru, I.H.

    1989-07-01

    A new nonperturbative method of calculation of the pair production in a constant electric field is presented in which the propagator is evaluated entirely by path-integration in a time-dependent potential. This gauge and the path integration correctly define all the normalizations. As a by-product we get also the Unruh formula since the constant electric field provides an accelerated frame. (author). 11 refs

  11. Production-distribution of electric power in France: 1997-98 statistical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This document has been realized using the annual inquiry carried out by the French direction of gas, electricity and coal (Digec). It brings together the main statistical data about the production, transport and consumption of electric power in France: 1997 and 1998 balance sheets, foreign exchanges, long-term evolutions, production with respect to the different energy sources, consumption in the different departments and regions.. (J.S.)

  12. Public synthesis of the reference costs study of the electric power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Every 3 or 5 years, the DGEC published the reference costs study of the electric power production which evaluates, in a theoretical framework, the total cost of an electrical MWh, from different production ways. These studies bring information for the definition of the energy policy and the elaboration of the investments program. because of the great competition of the market, it was decided not to publish the absolute value of the hypothesis and the results but under indexed form. (A.L.B.)

  13. Evaluation Parameter to Determine the Sharing of Electricity Production Mix in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syirrazie Che Soh; Mohd Ashhar Khalid

    2011-01-01

    As Malaysia have various possible energy sources based on the fossil fuels and renewable energies, the optimization for the usage of the energy sources to produce electricity should be managed as good as possible. It should be managed based on the desired demand for electricity on distributed location and its activities. In Malaysia, the location is divided with the two categories of Off-grid System and On-Grid System. Thus, this paper discuss on the parameters that could be used to determine the sharing of electricity production mix to meet the electricity demand for a location in Malaysia with for both two types the grid system categories. (author)

  14. Slovenske elektrarne has fulfilled the plan of electric power production at 101 %

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2004-01-01

    Slovenske elektrarne, a. s., produced in 2003 year the electric power in capacity 26,047.6 GWh, whereby they fulfilled business plan at 101 %. In compare with the last year it is a reduction in production by 1,397.3 GWh. The biggest share of production - till 68.6 % of overall production of the Slovenske elektrarne, was provided by nuclear sources. Nuclear power plants fulfilled business plan at 104 %, when Jaslovske Bohunice NPP has produced 11,625 GWh and Mochovce NPP 6,238 GWh. The share of other power plants on the electricity production is presented

  15. Industry sector analysis, Mexico: Electric power production and distribution equipment. Export Trade Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, J.S.; Miller, R.W.

    1988-09-01

    The Industry Sector Analyses (I.S.A.) for electric power production and distribution equipment contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Mexican consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation - Mexican production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors, and market access - Mexican tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes and distribution channels. The I.S.A. provides the United States industry with meaningful information regarding the Mexican market for electric power production and distribution equipment

  16. The effect of the Fukushima accident on the electricity production and consumption in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livet, Frederic

    2013-01-01

    Based on statistics of the Japanese electricity production and consumption, the author analyses their evolution from 2008 to 2013 in order to study the influence of the Fukushima accident. If nuclear production fell down from its 25 per cent share, electricity consumption remained almost steady, in spite of Government calls for its reduction. This loss of nuclear production has been balanced by an increased use of fossil fuels (coal, oil products, and natural gas). The author also comments the evolution of CO 2 emissions which therefore increased after the accident, and the impact of these evolutions on the Japanese trade balance

  17. The Market Value and Cost of Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Production

    OpenAIRE

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01

    The high cost of power from solar photovoltaic (PV) panels has been a major deterrent to the technology’s market penetration. Proponents have argued, however, that typical analyses overlook many of the benefits of solar PV. Some of those benefits are in the realm of environmental and security externalities, but others occur within the electricity markets. In this paper, I attempt to do a more complete market valuation of solar PV. I incorporate the fact that power from solar PV panels is gene...

  18. Potential for reducing global carbon emissions from electricity production-A benchmarking analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, B.W.; Zhou, P.; Tay, L.P.

    2011-01-01

    We present five performance indicators for electricity generation for 129 countries using the 2005 data. These indicators, measured at the national level, are the aggregate CO 2 intensity of electricity production, the efficiencies of coal, oil and gas generation and the share of electricity produced from non-fossil fuels. We conduct a study on the potential for reducing global energy-related CO 2 emissions from electricity production through simple benchmarking. This is performed based on the last four performance indicators and the construction of a cumulative curve for each of these indicators. It is found that global CO 2 emissions from electricity production would be reduced by 19% if all these indicators are benchmarked at the 50th percentile. Not surprisingly, the emission reduction potential measured in absolute terms is the highest for large countries such as China, India, Russia and the United States. When the potential is expressed as a percentage of a country's own emissions, few of these countries appear in the top-five list. - Research highlights: → We study variations in emissions per kWh of electricity generated among countries. → We analyze emissions from electricity production through benchmarking. → Estimates of reduction in emissions are made based on different assumptions.

  19. The use of rotating electric are for spherical particle production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bica, Ion

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an experimental device designed to obtain spherical partióles by means of a rotating electric are. A rotation frequency of the electric are of 750 s-1, a voltage of 50 V (dc and a current of 100 A was used. The mass flow rate was 3 g.min-1. Under these conditions particles of 15 to 20 μm in diameter were obtained.

    Este trabajo presenta la instalación experimental destinada a la obtención de partículas esféricas utilizando un arco eléctrico rotatorio. Para ello se utilizó una frecuencia de rotación del arco eléctrico de 750 s-1 a un voltaje del arco de 50 V (cc y una corriente de 100 A. La velocidad de flujo de materia fue de 3 g.min-1 obteniéndose partículas de diámetros comprendidos entre 15 y 20 μm.

  20. Simultaneous electricity production and antibiotics removal by microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Zhu, Nengwu; Guo, Wenying; Wang, Yun; Huang, Xixian; Wu, Pingxiao; Dang, Zhi; Zhang, Xiaoping; Xian, Jinchan

    2018-04-07

    The removal of antibiotics is crucial for improvement of water quality in animal wastewater treatment. In this paper, the performance of microbial fuel cell (MFC) in terms of degradation of typical antibiotics was investigated. Electricity was successfully produced by using sludge supernatant mixtures and synthesized animal wastewater as inoculation in MFC. Results demonstrated that the stable voltage, the maximum power density and internal resistance of anaerobic self-electrolysis (ASE) -112 and ASE-116 without antibiotics addition were 0.574 V, 5.78 W m -3 and 28.06 Ω, and 0.565 V, 5.82 W m -3 and 29.38 Ω, respectively. Moreover, when adding aureomycin, sulfadimidine, roxithromycin and norfloxacin into the reactors, the performance of MFC was inhibited (0.51 V-0.41 V), while the output voltage was improved with the decreased concentration of antibiotics. However, the removal efficiency of ammonia nitrogen (NH 3 -N) and total phosphorus (TP) were both obviously enhanced. Simultaneously, LC-MS analysis showed that the removal efficiency of aureomycin, roxithromycin and norfloxacin were all 100% and the removal efficiency of sulfadimidine also reached 99.9%. These results indicated that antibiotics displayed significantly inhibitions for electricity performance but improved the quality of water simultaneously. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. New product- Electric bike’s development in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Yiding

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT The thesis highlights the development of a new product in Finnish market. According to international marketing knowledge, a marketing plan should be made to improve the strategy of the product’s development in four aspects. These are product, price, promotion and place. After a failing business experience in Nordic China Centre, Nordic Interflow wants to do the marketing research for the Chinese market, Finnish customers and Finnish competitors. The purpose of this thesis was...

  2. Historical plant cost and annual production expenses for selected electric plants, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This publication is a composite of the two prior publications, Hydroelectric Plant Construction Cost and Annual Production Expenses and Thermal-Electric Plant Construction Cost and Annual Production Expenses. Beginning in 1979, Thermal-Electric Plant Construction Cost and Annual Production Expenses contained information on both steam-electric and gas-turbine electric plant construction cost and annual production expenses. The summarized historical plant cost described under Historical Plant Cost in this report is the net cumulative-to-date actual outlays or expenditures for land, structures, and equipment to the utility. Historical plant cost is the initial investment in plant (cumulative to the date of initial commercial operation) plus the costs of all additions to the plant, less the value of retirements. Thus, historical plant cost includes expenditures made over several years, as modifications are made to the plant. Power Production Expenses is the reporting year's plant operation and maintenance expenses, including fuel expenses. These expenses do not include annual fixed charges on plant cost (capital costs) such as interest on debt, depreciation or amortization expenses, and taxes. Consequently, total production expenses and the derived unit costs are not the total cost of producing electric power at the various plants. This publication contains data on installed generating capacity, net generation, net capability, historical plant cost, production expenses, fuel consumption, physical and operating plant characteristics, and other relevant statistical information for selected plants

  3. Biodigester economic viability for electrical power production using biogas from swine waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervi, Ricardo Ghantous; Esperancini, Maura Seiko Tsutsui; Bueno, Osmar de Carvalho [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas], E-mail: ricardogc@fca.unesp.br; Souza, Samuel Nelson Melegari de [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (CCET/UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas

    2008-07-01

    The increase of energy use in agriculture and the raising prices of electricity demand studies on alternate sources of energy and improvement on biogas use efficiency so that agricultural activities become more competitive. Biogas production through anaerobic biodigestion represents an important breakthrough for the problem of swine waste and energy availability for rural areas. This work aimed to analyze the economy on biodigester investment for electrical power production using biogas from anaerobic biodigestion of swine waste. Two factors were used for this evaluation: the cost of electrical power production through biogas and time for equipment investment return. Results show that investment return time can be only 2.45 years for electrical power at peak time. (author)

  4. Electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Basford, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    Electricity Made Simple covers the fundamental principles underlying every aspect of electricity. The book discusses current; resistance including its measurement, Kirchhoff's laws, and resistors; electroheat, electromagnetics and electrochemistry; and the motor and generator effects of electromagnetic forces. The text also describes alternating current, circuits and inductors, alternating current circuits, and a.c. generators and motors. Other methods of generating electromagnetic forces are also considered. The book is useful for electrical engineering students.

  5. The limits of the integration of intermittent electricity productions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, Herve

    2013-01-01

    Addressing the issue of intermittency of renewable energies and the associated need of an available spare energy, the author states that the installed nuclear power cannot be significantly decreased by a development of photovoltaic and wind energy productions. He shows that the maximum share of renewable energy which can be used in the energy mix is its load factor. In the case of wind energy, he formulates a set of theorems which notably address the possibilities to avoid an overproduction of wind energy, the assessment of the controllable production, the maximum share of wind energy. Based on these theorems, he computes the purchase cost of wind energy and the avoided cost of nuclear production. He addresses the case of photovoltaic energy for which he outlines the perspectives and obstacles related to energy storage

  6. Time Domain Partitioning of Electricity Production Cost Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrows, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hummon, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jones, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hale, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Production cost models are often used for planning by simulating power system operations over long time horizons. The simulation of a day-ahead energy market can take several weeks to compute. Tractability improvements are often made through model simplifications, such as: reductions in transmission modeling detail, relaxation of commitment variable integrality, reductions in cost modeling detail, etc. One common simplification is to partition the simulation horizon so that weekly or monthly horizons can be simulated in parallel. However, horizon partitions are often executed with overlap periods of arbitrary and sometimes zero length. We calculate the time domain persistence of historical unit commitment decisions to inform time domain partitioning of production cost models. The results are implemented using PLEXOS production cost modeling software in an HPC environment to improve the computation time of simulations while maintaining solution integrity.

  7. Industry evolution, rational agents and the transition to sustainable electricity production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safarzynska, Karolina, E-mail: ksafarzy@wu.ac.at [Institute for the Environment and Regional Development, WU Vienna University of Economics and Business, Nordbergstrasse 15 (UZA4, 4B), A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. van den, E-mail: jeroen.bergh@uab.es [ICREA, Barcelona (Spain); Institute for Environmental Science and Technology and Department of Economics and Economic History, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici Cn-Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, and the Institute for Environmental Studies, VU University Amsterdam (Netherlands); Fellow of Tinbergen Institute and NAKE (Netherlands)

    2011-10-15

    Guiding a transition to low carbon electricity requires a good understanding of the substitution of old by new technologies in the electricity industry. With the aim of explaining historical change from coal to gas in the British electricity industry, we develop a formal model of technological change, where energy technologies diffuse through the construction of new power plants. We considered two model versions: with rational and boundedly rational investors. In each model version, we look at the causal relations between price and output setting mechanisms, fuel and labour use, and investment decisions for different institutional arrangements. We quantify model parameters on data for the United Kingdom. We find that the version of the model with rational investors is capable of replicating well core features of UK electricity history. This includes a rapid diffusion of gas in electricity production, the evolution of the average size of newly installed plants, and a high percentage of electricity sales covered by (forward) contracts-for-difference. In this model setting, nuclear and renewable energies have no chance to diffuse on the market. In the version of the model with boundedly rational investors, nuclear power typically dominates electricity production. We discuss implications of our modelling results for making a transition to low carbon electricity in the future. - Highlights: > We propose a model of a transition from coal to gas in electricity production. > Energy technologies diffuse through the construction of new power plants. > We considered two model versions: with rational and boundedly rational investors. > We quantify model parameters on data for the UK for the period 1990-2002. > We draw policy conclusions for guiding a transition to low carbon electricity.

  8. Industry evolution, rational agents and the transition to sustainable electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safarzynska, Karolina; Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. van den

    2011-01-01

    Guiding a transition to low carbon electricity requires a good understanding of the substitution of old by new technologies in the electricity industry. With the aim of explaining historical change from coal to gas in the British electricity industry, we develop a formal model of technological change, where energy technologies diffuse through the construction of new power plants. We considered two model versions: with rational and boundedly rational investors. In each model version, we look at the causal relations between price and output setting mechanisms, fuel and labour use, and investment decisions for different institutional arrangements. We quantify model parameters on data for the United Kingdom. We find that the version of the model with rational investors is capable of replicating well core features of UK electricity history. This includes a rapid diffusion of gas in electricity production, the evolution of the average size of newly installed plants, and a high percentage of electricity sales covered by (forward) contracts-for-difference. In this model setting, nuclear and renewable energies have no chance to diffuse on the market. In the version of the model with boundedly rational investors, nuclear power typically dominates electricity production. We discuss implications of our modelling results for making a transition to low carbon electricity in the future. - Highlights: → We propose a model of a transition from coal to gas in electricity production. → Energy technologies diffuse through the construction of new power plants. → We considered two model versions: with rational and boundedly rational investors. → We quantify model parameters on data for the UK for the period 1990-2002. → We draw policy conclusions for guiding a transition to low carbon electricity.

  9. Low Carbon Technology Options for the Natural Gas Electricity Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultimate goal of this task is to perform environmental and economic analysis of natural gas based power production technologies (different routes) to investigate and evaluate strategies for reducing emissions from the power sector. It is a broad research area. Initially, the...

  10. Short and long-term carbon balance of bioenergy electricity production fueled by forest treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Katharine C; Barnes, Kallie L; Ryan, Michael G; Neff, Jason C

    2014-01-01

    Forests store large amounts of carbon in forest biomass, and this carbon can be released to the atmosphere following forest disturbance or management. In the western US, forest fuel reduction treatments designed to reduce the risk of high severity wildfire can change forest carbon balance by removing carbon in the form of biomass, and by altering future potential wildfire behavior in the treated stand. Forest treatment carbon balance is further affected by the fate of this biomass removed from the forest, and the occurrence and intensity of a future wildfire in this stand. In this study we investigate the carbon balance of a forest treatment with varying fates of harvested biomass, including use for bioenergy electricity production, and under varying scenarios of future disturbance and regeneration. Bioenergy is a carbon intensive energy source; in our study we find that carbon emissions from bioenergy electricity production are nearly twice that of coal for the same amount of electricity. However, some emissions from bioenergy electricity production are offset by avoided fossil fuel electricity emissions. The carbon benefit achieved by using harvested biomass for bioenergy electricity production may be increased through avoided pyrogenic emissions if the forest treatment can effectively reduce severity. Forest treatments with the use of harvested biomass for electricity generation can reduce carbon emissions to the atmosphere by offsetting fossil fuel electricity generation emissions, and potentially by avoided pyrogenic emissions due to reduced intensity and severity of a future wildfire in the treated stand. However, changes in future wildfire and regeneration regimes may affect forest carbon balance and these climate-induced changes may influence forest carbon balance as much, or more, than bioenergy production.

  11. Firm size and productivity. Evidence from the electricity distribution industry in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovar, Beatriz; Javier Ramos-Real, Francisco; De Almeida, Edmar Fagundes

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we apply Stochastic Frontier Analysis through a distance function to investigate the impact of firm size on productivity development in electricity distribution. We use a sample of seventeen Brazilian firms from 1998 to 2005 and decompose productivity into technical efficiency, scale efficiency and technical change. Moreover, a further step is to decompose the technical change measurement into several components. The results indicate that firm size is important for industry's productivity, and therefore a key aspect to consider when making decisions that affect the market structure in the electricity distribution industry. (author)

  12. Challenges and prospects of electricity production from renewable energy sources in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mansour, Fouad; Sucic, Boris; Pusnik, Matevz

    2014-01-01

    Development of the utilisation of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency represents the main policy for sustainable development. The overall target of the European Union Directive on the promotion of the use of energy from renewables (RES) is to achieve at least a 20% share of energy from renewables in the gross final energy consumption in 2020. The mandatory national target for Slovenia is a 25% share of energy from RES in the gross final consumption. The share of RES in the gross final energy consumption in Slovenia was 18.8% in 2011 and the share of electricity production from RES was 30.8% in the gross electricity consumption. Electricity production from photovoltaics (PV) and biogas plants in agriculture has been growing fast after the adoption of the new supportive decree for electricity from RES in 2009. The very fast growth of PV plants has caused a problem for financing electricity from RES. Similar effects have been also recorded in the biogas sector, which represents a threat to food production. The state of the art, targets and challenges of electricity production from RES in Slovenia are described in the paper. - Highlights: • Slovenia's RES policy, regulatory frameworks and incentives are described. • The most important development challenges of the RES-E sector are discussed. • RES-E policy priorities need to be reassessed in view of recent global trends. • Responsible policy making and implementation follow-up are necessary

  13. Regulatory reforms and productivity: An empirical analysis of the Japanese electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Makiko; Managi, Shunsuke

    2008-01-01

    The Japanese electricity industry has experienced regulatory reforms since the mid-1990s. This article measures productivity in Japan's steam power-generation sector and examines the effect of reforms on the productivity of this industry over the period 1978-2003. We estimate the Luenberger productivity indicator, which is a generalization of the commonly used Malmquist productivity index, using a data envelopment analysis approach. Factors associated with productivity change are investigated through dynamic generalized method of moments (GMM) estimation of panel data. Our empirical analysis shows that the regulatory reforms have contributed to productivity growth in the steam power-generation sector in Japan

  14. Thermal electricity production at EDF: the technological ways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pin, M.

    1993-01-01

    In France, fossil fuel power plants are used for semi-base production (≤ 4.000 hours/year) and for peak periods (≤ 1.000 hours/year). Existing plants are renovated taking in account environmental protection: diminution of NO x and SO 2 concentrations. Three processes are used: circulating fluidized beds, fluidized beds under pressure, or integrated gasification combined cycle. (A.B.). 5 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Electricity and catholyte production from ceramic MFCs treating urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino Jimenez, Irene; Greenman, John; Ieropoulos, Ioannis

    2017-01-19

    The use of ceramics as low cost membrane materials for Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) has gained increasing interest, due to improved performance levels in terms of power and catholyte production. The catholyte production in ceramic MFCs can be attributed to a combination of water or hydrogen peroxide formation from the oxygen reduction reaction in the cathode, water diffusion and electroosmotic drag through the ion exchange membrane. This study aims to evaluate, for the first time, the effect of ceramic wall/membrane thickness, in terms of power, as well as catholyte production from MFCs using urine as a feedstock. Cylindrical MFCs were assembled with fine fire clay of different thicknesses (2.5, 5 and 10 mm) as structural and membrane materials. The power generated increased when the membrane thickness decreased, reaching 2.1 ± 0.19 mW per single MFC (2.5 mm), which was 50% higher than that from the MFCs with the thickest membrane (10 mm). The amount of catholyte collected also decreased with the wall thickness, whereas the pH increased. Evidence shows that the catholyte composition varies with the wall thickness of the ceramic membrane. The possibility of producing different quality of catholyte from urine opens a new field of study in water reuse and resource recovery for practical implementation.

  16. Scenarios for shale oil, syncrude and electricity production in Estonia in the interim 1995-2025

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oepik, I.

    1992-01-01

    This paper is based on the author's pre-feasibility studies of oil shale utilization in oil production, electricity generation and cement industry. The electricity generation has been calculated on the basis of 1.4 and 1.6 GW oil shale power plants with pulverized fuel combustion today. The three scenarios OILMIN, OILMED and OILMAX differ by annual oil production and different investment costs. The investments in the oil shale processing industry seem to be more profitable than those in electricity generation. It is also important to take into account that the very high sensitivity of oil market to geopolitical aspects of resources and to sudden crises, makes the crude price a stochastic parameter, which loses its indicative character for long term economic choice. Therefore it will be very important to have the electric power plants with flexible combined oil shale and coal combustion. 4 figs., 4 tabs., 6 refs

  17. Politics design of cleaner production in the electric sector for the energy scenarios of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa P, Woody; Smith Q, Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    Cleaner production (PML) in Colombia has been implemented as an agreement of wills between the companies of different productive sectors and the Colombian environment ministry. In the electric sector, the agreement of PML has been implemented with successes and difficulties. A concern that exists today among the companies of the electric sector involved in the agreement is about its long-term viability. Supported in the planning tool of scenarios, an analysis of the possible futures of PML in the Colombian electric sector, using the energy scenarios for Colombia (UPME, 2000), is made. PML policies are designed that will allow to analyze its long-term implementation. This work seeks to contribute in the long-term analysis about the evolution and tendencies of PML in the Colombian electric sector, according with the markets dynamics, trends and competitiveness that are gaining space in the international community

  18. High-temperature nuclear reactor power plant cycle for hydrogen and electricity production – numerical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudek Michał

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor (called HTR or HTGR for both electricity generation and hydrogen production is analysed. The HTR reactor because of the relatively high temperature of coolant could be combined with a steam or gas turbine, as well as with the system for heat delivery for high-temperature hydrogen production. However, the current development of HTR’s allows us to consider achievable working temperature up to 750°C. Due to this fact, industrial-scale hydrogen production using copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl thermochemical cycle is considered and compared with high-temperature electrolysis. Presented calculations show and confirm the potential of HTR’s as a future solution for hydrogen production without CO2 emission. Furthermore, integration of a hightemperature nuclear reactor with a combined cycle for electricity and hydrogen production may reach very high efficiency and could possibly lead to a significant decrease of hydrogen production costs.

  19. Consequences of flexible electricity production from biogas on the conventional power plant fleet and the CO2 emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzhammer, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    Electricity production using biogas is rather homogeneous throughout the year due to the compensational regulations. As a consequence of the fluctuating energy production from renewable energy sources a more flexible electricity production is needed. The contribution deals with the regulations and measures of the new renewable energy law 2012 and their impact on the conventional power plant fleet and the carbon dioxide emissions and their impact on an improvement of demand-oriented electricity production.

  20. Managing price risk in emerging electricity markets : OTC products and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, P.

    1998-01-01

    The evolution of power markets in the United States from traditional cost based rates to mature markets, characterized by significant specialization, high volume financial market and multiple futures/indices, is described. The meaning and characteristic features of the commodity market in electricity, OTC/futures products for the electricity markets, physical delivery vs. financial settlement, models for producer trading positions and consumer trading positions, long producer position, long spread option position, short consumer position, and long producer time spread position were explained

  1. Electricity production in a hydro system with a reservoir constraint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathiesen, Lars; Skaar, Jostein; Soergard, Lars

    2011-02-15

    The purpose of this article is to analyze how market power may affect the allocation of production between seasons (summer and winter) in a hydro power system with reservoir constraints and inflow uncertainty. We find that even without market power the price in the summer season may be lower than the expected price in the winter season. Market power may in some situations lead to higher sales and lower price in summer than the competitive outcome and in other situations to the opposite result. Furthermore, market power may lead to a smaller price difference between summer and winter than in a competitive market. (Author)

  2. Production of concentrates for supplying a national nuclear electric program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, C.M.

    An analysis was made of the yearly requirements of natural U to satisfy a nuclear power program in Mexico. On the basis of these requirements an evaluation was made of the concentrate production necessary to supply those needs. The lack of known commercial reserves to satisfy the concentrate needs is shown. An estimation is made of the costs for the discovery and exploitation of sufficient reserves. In evaluating the U needs and associated costs, three cases were considered: all BWR or PWR or HWR

  3. Gross domestic product estimation based on electricity utilization by artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanović, Mirjana; Vujičić, Slađana; Gajić, Aleksandar M.

    2018-01-01

    The main goal of the paper was to estimate gross domestic product (GDP) based on electricity estimation by artificial neural network (ANN). The electricity utilization was analyzed based on different sources like renewable, coal and nuclear sources. The ANN network was trained with two training algorithms namely extreme learning method and back-propagation algorithm in order to produce the best prediction results of the GDP. According to the results it can be concluded that the ANN model with extreme learning method could produce the acceptable prediction of the GDP based on the electricity utilization.

  4. Network connection of distributed electricity production - a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleym, Anngjerd; Mogstad, Olve

    2002-01-01

    It will be necessary to lower the barriers for utilisation of distributed energy sources in order to increase the use of such sources in Norway. A relatively extensive R and D activity would be required for reaching this goal. Available Norwegian and international guidelines and technical requirements with respect to network connection of the distributed energy sources are studied with the aim of exposing needs for further R and D initiatives. A limited monitor is also carried out among the Norwegian network businesses with distributed units in their networks. The results show that the main focus in the R and D activities has drifted away from establishing guidelines for technical requirements for network coupling. Some verification work remains in investigating the usefulness of the existing international and the specific commercial network guidelines. For the network industry the main focus must be on the two following areas: 1) How will large concentrations of distributed production units connected to the same network influence the voltage quality and the delivery reliability in the networks. 2) How can the network businesses employ the distributed production units in their networks. A Nordic project (Finland, Sweden, Norway) which will study these problems is being established. Large national scientific institutions will be involved. The executive committee will consist of representatives from Finenergy, Elforsk and EBL Kompetanse and other financing institutions and industries. A Finnish business Merinova, is to be appointed to the project leadership

  5. New production of electric power when accelerating nuclear power phaseout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    This investigation states that it is possible to eliminate nuclear power to the beginning of the year 2000. In this case the time for planning and construction of large coal power plants with condenser turbines should be set at seven years. The production cost excluding fuel will be 0.12 to 0.19 SEK per kWh. Investment cost is estimated to 5 500 to 8 200 SEK per kW. When using wood chips the cost will be 0.30 SEK and 11 300 SEK, respectively. A large part of the increased cost will include substantial flue gas purification. The existing plant of Karlshamn should be maintained with a minimum of charges and extensions

  6. Technologies for production of Electricity and Heat in Sweden. Wind energy in perspective of international development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Niels-Erik; Lawaetz, Henrik; Lemming, Jørgen Kjærgaard

    energy consumption in 2020 compared to 39.8% in 2005. To stimulate the development of wind energy and to promote a specific national goals Sweden is mainly using an electricity certificate system. The target is to increase the production of electricity from renewable sources by 17 TWh in 2016, relative...... to corresponding production in 2002. There is not at specific target for the use of wind energy. A future energy system that includes a high proportion of wind energy will be expected to meet the same requirements for security of supply and economic efficiency as the energy systems of today. The variability...... of wind power create a specific challenges for the future energy systems compared to those of today. The economics of wind power depends mainly of investment cost, operation and maintenance costs, electricity production and turbine lifetime. An average turbine installed in Europe has a total investment...

  7. Assessment of potential energy savings following the replacement of gear-motor-driven systems by frequency-converter-fed direct drives; Energiesparpotential bei Ersatz von Getriebemotoren durch FU-Antriebe. Potentialanalyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanner, R.; Riesen, H. J.

    2007-03-15

    This project deals with the energy saving potential that can be achieved by replacing gear motor driven systems by frequency converter fed direct drives. Estimates have shown that due to the high percentage of gear motor installations, which amounts to approximately 10% of all motor driven systems, a significant amount of energy could be saved. However, several barriers impose major restrictions to the broad application of such actions: With the exception of worm gears that reach about 20% of all gear drives, todays' gears already offer a high efficiency of 97-98%. Gear motors are often included in OEM integrated solutions. Many processes require complex adaptations that can complicate replacements or make it even impractical. For low speed or high torque requirements, gear motors may have a dominant advantage concerning the compactness. Our investigations have shown, that in spite of such barriers the replacement of gear motors by direct motors can sum up to a significant amount of energy savings in many cases. Looking at the worm gear systems and the restricted speed and torque ranges that are covered by the direct drives from several suppliers we assume a total saving potential of about 78 GWh per year for Switzerland. (author)

  8. Wind energy in electric power production. Preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lento, R; Peltola, E

    1984-01-15

    The wind speed conditions in Finland have been studied with the aid of the existing statistics of the Finnish Meteorological Institute. With the aid of the statistics also estimates on the available wind energy were made. 800 wind power plants, 1.5 MW each, on the windiest west coast would produce about 2 TWh energy per year. Far more information on the temporal, geographical and vertical distribution of the wind speed than the present statistics include is needed when the available wind energy is estimated, when wind power plants are dimensioned optimally, and when suitable locations are chosen for them. The investment costs of a wind power plant increase when the height of the tower or the diameter of the rotor is increased, but the energy production increases, too. Thus, overdimensioning the wind power plant in view of energy needs or the wind conditions causes extra costs. The cost of energy produced by wind power can not yet compete with conventional energy, but the situation changes to the advantage of wind energy, if the real price of the plants decreases (among other things due to large series production and increasing experience), or if the real price of fuels rises. The inconvinience on the environment caused by the wind power plants is considered insignificant. The noise caused by the plant attenuates rapidly with distance. No harmful effects birds and other animals caused by the wind power plants have been observed in the studies made abroad. Parts of a plant getting loose during an accident, or ice forming on the blades are estimated to fly even from a large plant only a few hundred meters.

  9. Effects of climate change on the production and consumption of electricity in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuivalainen, P.; Forsius, J.; Maekinen, P.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the latest knowledge about the greenhouse effect and its impact on electricity production and consumption in Finland and so to update the former study of Aittoniemi made at IVO in 1990. This research used the new climate change scenarios which were drawn up in the Nordic research project entitled Climate Change and Energy Production, financed by the Nordic Council of Ministers, and in the Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change, SILMU. These scenarios have been specially made for Finland, and are thus more suitable than the former global models. The base scenario was chosen to be the year 2025 with no climate change, and the climate change-affected years studied were 2025 and 2100. The base scenario of electricity consumption and production took advantage of the scenario of Ministry of Trade and Industry made at the end of the 1980s. Some changes were essential, however, since the present development proves that some of the assumptions concerning power production forms will not be relevant in 2025. Based on the known dependencies between electricity consumption and temperature, impacts were calculated for each affected consumption sector: electric heating, household consumption and industrial consumption, process industry excluded. The total effect on the supply system was estimated with the KAPAS model, developed for capacity planning of Finland. According to the results, the effects of the projected climate change on the total consumption and production of electricity will be limited. The structure of both electricity consumption and production will remain rather similar, the most important changes applying to hydro power. (13 refs.)

  10. Electricity production and microbial characterization of thermophilic microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Kun; Wen, Jun-Li; Zhang, Fang; Ma, Xi-Wen; Cui, Xiang-Yu; Zhang, Qi; Zhao, Ting-Jia; Zeng, Raymond J

    2017-11-01

    Thermophilic microbial fuel cell (TMFC) offers many benefits, but the investigations on the diversity of exoelectrogenic bacteria are scarce. In this study, a two-chamber TMFC was constructed using ethanol as an electron donor, and the microbial dynamics were analyzed by high-throughput sequencing and 16S rRNA clone-library sequencing. The open-circuit potential of TMFC was approximately 650mV, while the maximum voltage was around 550mV. The maximum power density was 437mW/m 2 , and the columbic efficiency in this work was 20.5±6.0%. The Firmicutes bacteria, related to the uncultured bacterium clone A55_D21_H_B_C01 with a similarity of 99%, accounted for 90.9% of all bacteria in the TMFC biofilm. This unknown bacterium has the potential to become a new thermophilic exoelectrogenic bacterium that is yet to be cultured. The development of TMFC-involved biotechnologies will be beneficial for the production of valuable chemicals and generation of energy in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Whatever the customer wants, the customer gets? Exploring the gap between consumer preferences and default electricity products in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaenzig, Josef; Heinzle, Stefanie Lena; Wüstenhagen, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    In liberalized electricity markets, residential customers can choose their preferred provider and select among a variety of different electricity products, including green power options. Successful product design and marketing strategies for green electricity may provide electricity providers with a competitive advantage, while at the same time contributing to energy policy objectives. This requires, however, a thorough understanding of customer preferences. We investigate the relative importance of different product attributes in creating customer value, and find that price and electricity mix are the two most important attributes. The German electricity customers we surveyed in 2009 expressed an implicit willingness to pay a premium of about 16% for electricity from renewable sources. We conclude that consumers are willing to pay a significant price premium for an upgrade from the current default electricity mix in Germany to a more environmentally friendly default electricity mix, and discuss implications for marketing strategy and energy policy. Our findings are based on a dataset of 4968 experimental choices made by 414 German residential consumers, collected in a stated preference survey. - Highlights: ► Study is based on 4968 experimental choices made by 414 German retail consumers. ► Apart from price, the electricity mix is the most important product attribute. ► Majority of consumers prefer nuclear-free electricity. ► Respondents are willing to pay a premium for green electricity. ► German default electricity mix does not correspond to current customer preferences.

  12. Disclosure of electricity products--lessons from consumer research as guidance for energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markard, Jochen; Holt, Edward

    2003-01-01

    In this article we compare recent findings from focus group research on electricity information disclosure in Switzerland with consumer research in the US. On the basis of the results, we provide an overview of disclosure schemes in the US and in Europe. Our aim is to summarize the key issues of electricity disclosure from a residential customer's point of view and to underline the potential of consumer research for energy policy making. The results are as follows: Consumer preferences for electricity disclosure are very similar in Switzerland and the US. There is a basic demand for trustworthy information and market transparency. Consumers want to compare electricity products with regard to price, generation sources, and environmental and contractual attributes. Thus, the disclosure of critical information is important to improve competition by increasing consumer confidence in their ability to choose among electricity offerings. Even more, electricity disclosure is a key element of consumer protection in general, and is a useful educational tool in regulated electricity markets

  13. Governmental policy and prospect in electricity production from renewables in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katinas, Vladislovas; Markevicius, Antanas; Erlickyte, Regina; Marciukaitis, Mantas

    2008-01-01

    In Lithuania, the generation of electricity is based on the nuclear energy and on the fossil fuels. After the decommissioning of Ignalina nuclear power plant in 2009, the Lithuanian Power Plant and other thermal plants will become the major sources of electricity. Consequently, the Lithuanian power sector must focus on the implementation of renewable energy projects, penetration of new technologies and on consideration of the future opportunities for renewables, and Government policy for promoting this kind of energy. Production of electricity from renewable energy is based on hydro, biomass and wind energy resources in Lithuania. Due to the typical climatic condition in Lithuania the solar photovoltaics and geothermal energy are not used for power sector. Moreover, the further development of hydropower plants is limited by environmental restrictions, therefore priority is given to wind energy development and installation of new biomass power plants. According to the requirements set out in the Directive 2001/77/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 September 2001 on the promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources in the internal electricity market [Official Journal L283, 33-40, 27 October 2001], 7% of gross consumption of electricity will be generated from renewable energy by 2010 in Lithuania. The aim of this paper is to show the estimation of the maximum renewable power penetration in the Lithuanian electricity sector and possible environmental impact

  14. Production planning of combined heat and power plants with regards to electricity price spikes : A machine learning approach

    OpenAIRE

    Fransson, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    District heating systems could help manage the expected increase of volatility on the Nordic electricity market by starting a combined heat and power production plant (CHP) instead of a heat only production plant when electricity prices are expected to be high. Fortum Värme is interested in adjusting the production planning of their district heating system more towards high electricity prices and in their system there is a peak load CHP unit that could be utilised for this purpose. The econom...

  15. Potential for reducing global carbon emissions from electricity production-A bench marking analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ang, B.W.; Zhou, P.; Tay, L.P. [National University of Singapore (Singapore). Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering

    2011-05-15

    We present five performance indicators for electricity generation for 129 countries using the 2005 data. These indicators, measured at the national level, are the aggregate CO{sub 2} intensity of electricity production, the efficiencies of coal, oil and gas generation and the share of electricity produced from non-fossil fuels. We conduct a study on the potential for reducing global energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions from electricity production through simple bench marking. This is performed based on the last four performance indicators and the construction of a cumulative curve for each of these indicators. It is found that global CO{sub 2} emissions from electricity production would be reduced by 19% if all these indicators are benchmarked at the 50th percentile. Not surprisingly, the emission reduction potential measured in absolute terms is the highest for large countries such as China, India, Russia and the United States. When the potential is expressed as a percentage of a country's own emissions, few of these countries appear in the top-five list. 14 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Ethanol from sugar cane with simultaneous production of electrical energy and biofertilizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filgueiras, G.

    1981-08-04

    A flexible nonpolluting industrial scheme is described for converting sugar cane into fuel-grade ethanol, fertilizer, and electric power. The cleaned cane is treated in a diffuser to separate the juice, which is enzymically hydrolyze d to ethanol, and bagasse containing 65-85% moisture, which is mechanically ground with the rest of the cane plant (leaves and buds) and biochemically digested to provide liquid and solid fertilizers as well as a methane-containing gas, which is burned in a gas turbine to generate electricity. The vinasse from the ethanol fermentation is also cycled to the digestion step. The process conditions can be varied depending upon the desired product ratio; if fuel is preferred, each ton of cane (dry weight) can produce 135 L ethanol, 50 kW electric power, and 150 kg fertilizer; if electric energy is preferred, each ton can give 75 L ethanol, 115 kW power, and 220 kg fertilizer.

  17. Determinants of Electricity Demand in Nonmetallic Mineral Products Industry: Evidence from a Comparative Study of Japan and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Du

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Electricity intensity is an important indicator for measuring production efficiency. A comparative study could offer a new perspective on investigating determinants of electricity demand. The Japanese non-metallic mineral products industry is chosen as the object for comparison considering its representative position in production efficiency. By adopting the cointegration model, this paper examines influencing factors of electricity demand in Japanese and Chinese non-metallic mineral products industries under the same framework. Results indicate that although economic growth and industrial development stages are different between the two countries, major factors that affect the sectoral energy consumption are the same. Specifically, economic growth and industrial activity contribute to the growth of sectoral electricity consumption, while R&D intensity, per capita productivity and electricity price are contributors to the decline of sectoral electricity consumption. Finally, in order to further investigate the development trend of sectoral electricity demand, future electricity consumption and conservation potential are predicted under different scenarios. Electricity demand of the Chinese non-metallic mineral products industry is predicted to be 680.53 TWh (terawatt-hours in 2020 and the sectoral electricity conservation potentials are estimated to be 118.26 TWh and 216.25 TWh under the moderate and advanced electricity-saving scenarios, respectively.

  18. Electric energy costs and firm productivity in the countries of the Pacific Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Anamaria

    This paper explores the relation between energy as an input of production and firm-level productivity for Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru, all country members of the Pacific Alliance economic bloc. The empirical literature, has explored the impact of infrastructure on productivity; however there is limited analysis on the impact of particular infrastructure variables, such as energy, on productivity at the firm level in Latin America. Therefore, this study conducts a quantitative assessment of the responsiveness of productivity to energy cost and quality for Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru. For this, the empirical strategy is to estimate a Cobb-Douglas production function using the World Bank's Enterprise Survey to obtain comparable measures of output and inputs of production. This approach provides estimates of input factor elasticities for all of the factors of production including energy. The results indicate that electric energy costs explain cross-country differences in firm level productivity. For the particular case of Colombia, the country exhibits the lowest capital and labor productivity of the PA, and firm output is highly responsive to changes in energy use. As a result, the evidence suggests that policies reducing electric energy costs are an efficient alternative to increase firm performance, particularly in the case of Colombia.

  19. Layered Electrical Product Application Protocol (AP). Draft: Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    An application protocol is an information systems engineering view of a specific product. The view represents an agreement on the generic activities needed to design and fabricate the product, the agreement on the information needed to support those activities, and the specific constructs of a product data standard for use in transfering some or all of the information required. This applications protocol describes the data for electrical and electronic products in terms of a product description standard called the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES). More specifically, the Layered Electrical Product IGES Application Protocol (AP) specifies the mechanisms for defining and exchanging computer-models and their associated data for those products which have been designed in two dimensional geometry so as to be produced as a series of layers in IGES format. The AP defines the appropriateness of the data items for describing the geometry of the various parts of a product (shape and location), the connectivity, and the processing and material characteristics. Excluded is the behavioral requirements which the product was intended to satisfy, except as those requirements have been recorded as design rules or product testing requirements.

  20. Energy and environmental impacts of electric vehicle battery production and recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaines, L.; Singh, M.

    1995-01-01

    Electric vehicle batteries use energy and generate environmental residuals when they are produced and recycled. This study estimates, for 4 selected battery types (advanced lead-acid, sodium-sulfur, nickel-cadmium, and nickel-metal hydride), the impacts of production and recycling of the materials used in electric vehicle batteries. These impacts are compared, with special attention to the locations of the emissions. It is found that the choice among batteries for electric vehicles involves tradeoffs among impacts. For example, although the nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride batteries are similar, energy requirements for production of the cadmium electrodes may be higher than those for the metal hydride electrodes, but the latter may be more difficult to recycle

  1. Summary - Advanced high-temperature reactor for hydrogen and electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    2001-01-01

    Historically, the production of electricity has been assumed to be the primary application of nuclear energy. That may change. The production of hydrogen (H 2 ) may become a significant application. The technology to produce H 2 using nuclear energy imposes different requirements on the reactor, which, in turn, may require development of new types of reactors. Advanced High Temperature reactors can meet the high temperature requirements to achieve this goal. This alternative application of nuclear energy may necessitate changes in the regulatory structure

  2. Dynamics of particle production by strong electric fields in non-Abelian plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, John F.; Mihaila, Bogdan; Cooper, Fred

    2010-01-01

    We develop methods for computing the dynamics of fermion pair production by strong color electric fields including backreaction using the semiclassical Boltzmann-Vlasov (B-V) equation. We implement the Schwinger pair production by inserting a source term in the B-V equation which includes Pauli-Blocking effects. We present numerical results for a model with SU(2) symmetries in (1+1) Cartesian dimensions.

  3. Influence of Electrical Conductivity, Days in Milk and Parity on Milk Production and Chemical Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Ionel Neamț

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to assess milk production and chemical composition during the first 100 days of lactation, under the influence of electrical conductivity, parity and days in milk. Study was conducted at Research and Development Station for Bovine Arad, on 66 Romanian Spotted cows (20 primiparous, 46 multiparous. Significantly higher values (p≤0.017 of electrical conductivity were recorded for primiparous (10.15±0.09 mS/cm compared with multiparous (8.79±0.15 mS/cm. During the first 30 DIM electrical conductivity was higher (9.7±0.12 mS/cm than for 31 to 60 DIM (9.04±0.12 mS/cm; p≤0.001 and for 61 to 100 DIM (8.17±0.11 mS/cm, p≤0.001. Multifactorial regression model applied highlights significant influence of month of calving (p≤0.001 and DIM (p≤0.034 on the electrical conductivity, while parity had no influence (p>0.36. Medium and negative correlations were calculated between electrical conductivity and some chemical components (fat R=-0.15, protein R=-0.13, while to milk production correlation was positive (R=0.12. No significant correlations were obtained according to lactose content (R=-0.013. Dynamics of milk production and chemical composition have been significantly influenced by month of calving (p≤0.001, DIM (p≤0.001 and parity (p≤0.002. This study found no significant influence of milk electrical conductivity on milk production or chemical composition (p>0.59.

  4. Renewable sustainable biocatalyzed electricity production in a photosynthetic algal microbial fuel cell (PAMFC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Terlouw, H.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2008-01-01

    Electricity production via solar energy capturing by living higher plants and microalgae in combination with microbial fuel cells are attractive because these systems promise to generate useful energy in a renewable, sustainable, and efficient manner. This study describes the proof of principle of a

  5. Radical production efficiency and electrical characteristics of a coplanar barrier discharge built by multilayer ceramic technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jõgi, Indrek; Erme, Kalev; Levoll, Erik

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the electrical characteristics and radical production efficiency of a coplanar barrier discharge (CBD) device manufactured by Kyocera by multilayer ceramic technology. The device consisted of a number of linear electrodes with electrode and gap widths of 0.75 mm...

  6. Externalities of biomass based electricity production compared to power generation from coal in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faaij, A.; Meuleman, B.

    1997-01-01

    Externalities of electricity production from biomass and coal are investigated and compared for the Dutch context. Effects on economic activity and employment are investigated with help of Input/Output and multiplier tables. Valuations of damage from emissions to air are based on generic data from

  7. Life cycle environmental performance of miscanthus gasification versus other technologies for electricity production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the life cycle environmental performance of miscanthus gasification for electricity production in Denmark is evaluated and compared with that of direct combustion and anaerobic digestion. Furthermore, the results obtained are compared to those of natural gas to assess the potential...

  8. Report on renewable electricity self-consumption and self-production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-12-01

    After having indicated the main conclusions of this study in terms of observations, of objectives of a support arrangement, and of recommendations for the photovoltaic sector, this report first presents the legal context and some definitions for energy self-production and self-consumption: foreign experiments, legal framework of photovoltaic electricity sales, definition of self-production and self-consumption. It proposes an overview of opportunities and stakes for self-production and self-consumption: potential benefits, impact on the electric grid, supply safety, grid control, supply-demand equilibrium, safety of persons and goods, flexibility of the electric system. It presents the different types of self-consumers and self-producers in the individual housing sector, in collective building and urban blocks, and in industrial and office buildings. It addresses the case of non-interconnected areas: context, opportunity, principles. It discusses the impact of self-production/self-consumption on the economic fundamentals of the electric system and on the financing of renewable energies. The remuneration and financing issues are then discussed (examples, net-metering system, additional premium system, other arrangements) as well as the architecture of a support system. Several contributions of an association of individual producers and of different professional bodies of the energy, photovoltaic, and building sectors are proposed in appendix

  9. Hazardous Waste Cleanup: Caribe General Electric Product in Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Caribe General Electric Product facility (GE Río Piedras) covers approximately 4 acres and is situated on the northern coastal plain in a relatively flat industrial/urban area of Río Piedras with an elevation between 20 and 40 feet above mean sea leve

  10. Electrifying white biotechnology: engineering and economic potential of electricity-driven bio-production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnisch, Falk; Rosa, Luis F M; Kracke, Frauke; Virdis, Bernardino; Krömer, Jens O

    2015-03-01

    The production of fuels and chemicals by electricity-driven bio-production (i.e., using electric energy to drive biosynthesis) holds great promises. However, this electrification of white biotechnology is particularly challenging to achieve because of the different optimal operating conditions of electrochemical and biochemical reactions. In this article, we address the technical parameters and obstacles to be taken into account when engineering microbial bioelectrochemical systems (BES) for bio-production. In addition, BES-based bio-production processes reported in the literature are compared against industrial needs showing that a still large gap has to be closed. Finally, the feasibility of BES bio-production is analysed based on bulk electricity prices. Using the example of lysine production from sucrose, we demonstrate that there is a realistic market potential as cost savings of 8.4 % (in EU) and 18.0 % (in US) could be anticipated, if the necessary yields can be obtained. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. A study on the implementation of the performance of electrical products standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkowitz, M A

    1984-03-01

    The Steering Committee on Electrical Products (SCOPEP) has developed a number of performance standards for selected electrical products and product attributes, under the direction of the Canadian Standards Association. Although the development of these standards shows that a successful standards writing process is in place, the initiation and implementation has been achieved by one or more stakeholder groups spearheading the requirement for the standard. As a result, SCOPEP has been unable to achieve its full potential in its role of developing peformance standards for electrical products. A study was undertaken with the aim of developing a strategic plan for SCOPEP which would be supported by marketing and other strategies. The major elements of the strategy include: selecting those products for which the benefits of a standards program significantly outweigh the costs; agreeing on the use of a framework which rigorously evaluates the cost-benefits of developing performance standards; producing a critical mass of products through the selection process so that revenues from label fees will ultimately balance program costs and support a full time SCOPEP secretariat; aggressively marketing the standards in all sectors, using a balanced push-and-pull strategy; and developing a protagonist attitude so that standards programs implemented are credible to all SCOPEP stakeholders. Detailed cost-benefit tables are appended. 11 figs., 18 tabs.

  12. Electric energy production and environmental licensing: citizenship in Brazil in time of ecological crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettencourt, Marcia Pires da Luz

    2017-01-01

    The choices of energy sources gain relevance in the face of the ecological crisis which has a central questioning on the modes of production and consumption and that stems from a system which changes everything into merchandise. On one hand, brazilian electricity generation has the advantage of using clean energy in great part of its composition, at least in discourse. On the other hand, though, there are high social and environmental costs, especially for communities living near the regions where projects for the electricity sector are built. This research aimed to identify and analyse different modes society takes part in the process of choosing energy sources for electricity generation in Brazil. It discusses the links between the ecological crisis and the production of electrical energy; how the institutional mechanisms for social participation on issues related to the production of electric power in Brazil work; and, how civil society participates in environmental licensing in the National Environment Council (CONAMA). A set of related approaches to the nature of the ecological crisis and the forms of social participation was adopted in the theoretical framework and an analysis of the electric sector panorama in Brazil has been drawn up. In order to investigate the forms society participates in issues related to the composition of the brazilian electricity matrix, the methodology comprised a documentary analysis and a case study. They included three categories of actors: (1) CONAMA's councilors, (2) experts from the Field; and (3) actors involved in the diagnosis study, planning and management of the electricity sector. The research identified inconsistencies, ambiguities and other relevant issues about the participation of society in the production of electrical energy. Such issues are related to: deficiencies in the mechanisms for information access; lack of transparency and patterns in internal documents; lack of social participation in the elaboration of

  13. Electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tombs, F.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is discussed, with particular reference to the electricity industry in the United Kingdom, under the headings; importance and scope of the industry's work; future fuel supplies (estimated indigenous fossil fuels reserves); outlook for UK energy supplies; problems of future generating capacity and fuel mix (energy policy; construction programme; economics and pricing; contribution of nuclear power - thermal and fast reactors; problems of conversion of oil-burning to coal-burning plant). (U.K.)

  14. Electricity mix and ecological assessments. Consequences of the choice of specific electricity mixes in analyses of the environmental performance of products and services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menard, M.; Dones, R.; Gantner, U.

    1998-12-01

    The study aims at analysing the methodological issues associated with the definition of electricity mixes and discussing the consequences of the choice of specific electricity mixes in analyses of the environmental performance of products and services, based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This report has been designed as a guideline to support LCA practitioners in the systematic identification of the most appropriate electricity mixes for LCA applications. A detailed checklist has been developed for this purpose. It includes the following items: type of electricity supply (from the net, self production, direct contracts); voltage level; country/place of utilisation; year of utilisation; season/daytime of utilisation; import/export model; and, marginal vs. average approach. A few examples, utilising published LCA studies, illustrate the impacts of the insights gained in the present work. Although primarily aimed at applications in Switzerland, the main concepts, the modelling and parts of the information provided can also be applied to other European countries. In addition to the three models proposed earlier for the assessment of the Swiss yearly average electricity mix, a new model (M4) has been developed in the frame of the present task in order to take into account the conditions characteristic for Switzerland as a transit land for electricity trades between its neighbour countries. All existing electricity mix models as well as selected environmental inventories are described and compared in the report. As an example of results, the CO 2 emissions calculated for the Swiss yearly electricity supply mix are relatively small (48 g/kWh with model M4, as compared with 497 g/kWh for the average UCPTE mix). Key information on the structure of electricity generation and trade in Europe is provided. The modelling of the electricity supply for most of the European countries is less sensitive to the choice of an electricity model than for Switzerland. Considering that

  15. Surplus electricity production in sugarcane mills using residual bagasse and straw as fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Moises; Ponce, Gustavo H.S.F.; Silva, Maria Aparecida; Ensinas, Adriano V.

    2015-01-01

    The cogeneration system is one of the most important parts of sugarcane mills which use the bagasse as fuel. In the recent years, modern equipments and energy efficiency measures made possible to the sugarcane industry, the production of surplus electricity which become, besides the sugar and ethanol, a third product from the same renewable source, the sugarcane. This work analyses the surplus electric power systems for three different schemes of cogeneration system in the sugarcane industry through the simulator Thermoflow"®. The analysis is made considering both the available bagasse and sugarcane straw recovery as fuel in three different scenarios for the industrial process energy requirements. The results show that the CEST (Condensing Extraction Steam Turbine) system can have a surplus of electricity of up to four times higher than the BPST (Backpressure Steam Turbine) system. The system CEST can have an increase in surplus power above 23% and 102% for the rate of 10% and 50% of cane straw recovery in the field respectively. The BPST-C (Backpressure and Condensing Turbines) system can produce similar values of surplus electricity when compared with the system CEST, but may represent an opportunity of flexible operation of the cogeneration systems in harvest and off-seasons. - Highlights: • At least three cogeneration system options are available in sugarcane mills. • Nowadays, only steam-based cycle cogeneration systems are used in sugarcane mills. • BPST system is limited to 70 e kWh/t cane of surplus electricity production. • CEST system increases the surplus electricity up to four times than the BPST. • Operation during off-season of the BPST-C system is an advantage for this option.

  16. Potential of brown algae for sustainable electricity production through anaerobic digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasahati, Peyman; Saffron, Christopher M.; Woo, Hee Chul; Liu, J. Jay

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Electricity production through anaerobic digestion of brown algae was assessed. • Breakeven electricity selling price of 18.81 ¢/kWh was calculated. • AD unit has highest energy consumption of 14% of generated electricity. • Seaweed cost has largest cost contribution of 11.95 ¢/kWh to the calculated BESP. • Impact of economic and process parameters on BESP was assessed. - Abstract: This paper assesses the economics of heat and power production from the anaerobic digestion (AD) of brown algae (Laminaria japonica) at a plant scale of 400,000 dry tons/year. The conversion process was simulated in Aspen Plus v.8.6 to obtain rigorous heat and material balance for energy assessments and the development of a techno-economic model. The breakeven electricity selling price (BESP) was found to be 18.81 ¢/kWh assuming 30 years of plant life and a 10% internal rate of return. The results show that the AD unit has the highest energy demand in the entire process and consumes approximately 14% of all electricity produced. In addition, the seaweed cost of 11.95 ¢/kWh is the largest cost component that contributes to the calculated BESP, which means that a reduction in the cost of seaweed cultivation can significantly decrease the electricity production cost. A sensitivity analysis was performed on the economic and process parameters in order to assess the impact of possible variations and uncertainties in these parameters. Results showed that solids loading, anaerobic digestion yield, and time, respectively, have the highest impact on BESP.

  17. The plant for co-production of synfuel and electricity with reduced CO{sub 2} emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kler, A.M.; Tyurina, E.A.; Mednikov, A.S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk (Russian Federation). Energy Systems Inst.

    2013-07-01

    Consideration is given to the prospective technologies for combined production of synthetic fuel (SF) and electricity. The mathematical models of plant for co-production of synfuel and electricity (PCSE) intended for combined production of electricity and synthesis of methanol and dimethyl ether or membrane-based hydrogen production from coal were developed. They were used in the optimization studies on the installations. As a result of the studies, the design characteristics for the plant elements, the relationships between the SF and electricity productions, etc. were determined. These data were used to identify the ranges of SF price for various prices of fuel, electricity and equipment, and estimate the profitability of SF production. Special attention is paid to modeling of CO{sub 2} removal system as part of PCSE and studies on PCSE optimization. The account is taken of additional capital investments and power consumption in the systems.

  18. Renewable electricity production costs-A framework to assist policy-makers' decisions on price support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinica, Valentina

    2011-01-01

    Despite recent progress, the production costs for renewable electricity remain above those for conventional power. Expectations of continuous reductions in production costs, typically underpin governments' policies for financial support. They often draw on the technology-focused versions of the Experience Curve model. This paper discusses how national-contextual factors also have a strong influence on production costs, such as geographic, infrastructural, institutional, and resource factors. As technologies mature, and as they reach significant levels of diffusion nationally, sustained increases in production costs might be recorded, due to these nationally contextual factors, poorly accounted for in policy-making decisions for price support. The paper suggests an analytical framework for a more comprehensive understanding of production costs. Based on this, it recommends that the evolution of specific cost levels and factors be monitored to locate 'sources of changes'. The paper also suggests policy instruments that governments may use to facilitate cost decreases, whenever possible. The application of the framework is illustrated for the diffusion of wind power in Spain during the past three decades. - Highlights: → Models, frameworks for policy-making on price support for renewable electricity production costs. → Policy instruments to help reduce production costs. → Limits to the influence of policies of production costs reductions.

  19. Steelmaking plants: towards lower energy consumption and lower CO2 production using more electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolle, R.

    2010-01-01

    Production processes of integrated steel plants, mostly based on coal as an energy source, produce about 2 tons of CO 2 per ton of steel. As specific CO 2 production has to be decreased by 20% in the mid-term (2020), immediate action is required to further decrease the specific energy consumption. The integrated plant is not energy self-sufficient as extra electricity must be bought from outside, but on the other hand, produces an excess of process gas that has to be used within the plant. Optimisation of the use of the internally produced gases is a key issue as either they are burned at the power plant with a conversion yield to electricity of about 40% and often much lower, or might be valued in the plant internal heat exchangers with a much higher efficiency such as ∼90% in the hot stoves or ∼65% or more in the present reheating furnaces. This paper shows that using the high-value coke oven gas as a chemical reactant (for DRI production) leads to significant extra metal production. From a global viewpoint, this extra metal production is almost carbon-free, as it requires only electricity for its manufacture. (author)

  20. Accelerating the introduction of HTS products for a broad range of electric power and industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Russell

    2002-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), as part of its Superconductivity Program for Electric Systems, is successfully pursuing the development of electric power and industrial devices, incorporating significant high-temperature superconducting (HTS) components or subsystems, through its innovative Superconducting Partnership Initiative (SPI). The objective of the SPI is to accelerate the commercial introduction of the HTS products for a broad range of electric power and industrial applications. DOE's approach to accomplishing the SPI objective is to support cost shared projects carried out by industry led teams. DOE will fund projects to develop HTS devices that are either in (1) the research and development stage (Phase 1), (2) the pre-commercialization stage (Phase II), or (3) the commercial entry stage (Phase III). DOE's industry partners must contribute at least half a project's costs. These teams will include capabilities needed to develop the device as well as to develop the business plan for the commercial product introduction. DOE's partners consist of vertically integrated teams consisting of equipment manufacturers, HTS wire and coil suppliers, national laboratories, and end users, primarily utilities. These partners carry out the multi-year technology development efforts, consisting generally of design, construction, and testing of the HTS system. Finally, commercialization of HTS products will be discussed primarily in terms of benefits these products will have over competing products based upon conventional conductors and the critical need for affordable, practical HTS materials and conductors for these applications. .

  1. Comparison of electricity production costs of nuclear and coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltzer, M.

    1980-01-01

    Electricity production costs of nuclear and coal-fired power plants their structure and future development are calculated and compared. Assumed beginning of operation is in the mid-1980. The technical and economical data are based on a nuclear power unit of 1 300 MW and on a coal-fired twin plant of 2 x 750 MW. The study describes and discusses the calculational method and the results. The costs for the electricity generation show an economic advantage for nuclear power. A sensitivity analysis shows that these results are valid also for changed input parameters. (orig.) [de

  2. Evaluation Of Electricity Production Cost Of Commercial Nuclear Power Plant Models

    OpenAIRE

    DÖNER, Nimeti

    2017-01-01

    The level of the development of countries is being measured by thecountry’s quantity of production and consumption energy. Concerning Turkey,according to an energy report of The World Energy Council Turkish NationalCommittee in order to meet the electricity needs of the country in 2010, there should befounded a 2000 MW(e) capacity nuclear power plant. For the nuclear electric powerplant considered to be founded in Turkey, three types of commercial reactor models,that are Pressiued Water React...

  3. Design, production and first commissioning results of the electrical feedboxes of the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perin, A.; Atieh, S.; Benda, V.; Bertarelli, A.; Bouillot, A.; CERN; Brodzinski, K.; Wroclaw Tech. U.; Folch, R.; CERN; Fydrych, J.; Wroclaw Tech. U.; Genet, M.; Koczorowski, S.; Metral, L.; CERN; Serpukhov, IHEP; Fermilab; CERN; Serpukhov, IHEP; CERN; Serpukhov, IHEP

    2007-01-01

    A total of 44 CERN designed cryogenic electrical feedboxes are needed to power the LHC superconducting magnets. The feedboxes include more than 1000 superconducting circuits fed by high temperature superconductor and conventional current leads ranging from 120 A to 13 kA. In addition to providing the electrical current to the superconducting circuits, they also ensure specific mechanical and cryogenic functions for the LHC. The paper focuses on the main design aspects and related production operations and gives an overview of specific technologies employed. Results of the commissioning of the feedboxes of the first LHC sectors are presented

  4. Fusion-product ash buildup in tokamak with radial electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downum, W.B.; Choi, C.K.; Miley, G.H.

    1979-01-01

    The buildup of thermalized fusion products (ash) in a tokamak can seriously limit burn times. Prior studies have concentrated on deposition profile effects on alpha particle transport in tokamaks but have not considered the effect on ash of radial electric fields (either created internally, e.g. due to high-energy alpha leakage, or generated externally). The present study focuses on this issue since it appears that electric fields might offer one approach to control of the ash. Approximate field and source profiles are used, based on prior calculations

  5. Production technology optimization of biscuit baked by electric-contact way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorenko, G. A.; Popov, V. P.; Khanina, T. V.; Maneeva, E. Sh; Krasnova, M. S.

    2018-03-01

    Electric-contact way of baking allows one to maintain more nutrients used in biscuit making. As a result of the biscuit production technology optimization, it is established that 30-62,5% is an optimal amount of starch brought instead of flour; 184-200% is optimal amount of egg melange; at this a complex indicator of organoleptic properties will be more than 340 degrees, a complex indicator of physical and chemical properties will be more than 3,3 degrees, and specific costs of energy spent on the biscuit electric-contact baking process will be less than 100 W/kg.

  6. Internalization of external cost for the production and distribution of electricity in Flanders, Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torfs, R.; De Nocker, L.; Schrooten, L.; Aernouts, K.; Liekens, I.

    2005-04-01

    This report elaborates the external costs of electricity production and distribution in Flanders, Belgium, and tests them against prices and taxes for electricity use. The authors examined whether these external costs decrease in time and whether such a decrease leads to internalization in the price for the users through taxes, levies or other economic instruments. The external costs mainly include external environmental costs caused by air pollution and greenhouse gases, but also damage caused by accidents, hindrance and radioactive substances that may be released. [nl

  7. Effects of climate change on the production and consumption of electricity in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsius, J.; Kuivalainen, P.; Maekinen, P. [Imatran Voima Oy, Helsinki (Finland). Environmental Protection Div.

    1996-12-31

    In the next few decades, the probable strengthening of the greenhouse effect may bring about considerable changes in energy production and consumption, which depend on climate. It is presumed that some of the changes will occur even if the rise in greenhouse gas concentration will be reduced. Because the investments in energy production have a long-term influence, decision-makers should have an idea about the impact of the strengthening of the greenhouse effect on energy production and consumption in Finland. According to the results of this study, the effects of climate change on the total consumption and production of electricity will be limited. The structure of both electricity consumption and production will remain rather similar, the most important changes applying to hydro power. The consumption of heating electricity will decrease substantially. Because the non- climate-dependent sectors of electricity consumption (process industry and services) account for more than a half of the total consumption, the effect on the total consumption is, however, rather small. The total annual hydropower production in Finland was estimated to be 2 % more both in the year 2025 and 2100 than at present. The annual mean discharges do not change very much compared to the present. The greatest difference in comparison with the present is the noticeable smoothing of the annual discharge variation. Particularly in Northern Finland the smoothing is considerable in average circumstances. In the scenario for the year 2100, in particular, the spring flood peak is, on average, significantly reduced, the flood peak takes place earlier and the average winter discharges increase

  8. Effects of climate change on the production and consumption of electricity in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsius, J; Kuivalainen, P; Maekinen, P [Imatran Voima Oy, Helsinki (Finland). Environmental Protection Div.

    1997-12-31

    In the next few decades, the probable strengthening of the greenhouse effect may bring about considerable changes in energy production and consumption, which depend on climate. It is presumed that some of the changes will occur even if the rise in greenhouse gas concentration will be reduced. Because the investments in energy production have a long-term influence, decision-makers should have an idea about the impact of the strengthening of the greenhouse effect on energy production and consumption in Finland. According to the results of this study, the effects of climate change on the total consumption and production of electricity will be limited. The structure of both electricity consumption and production will remain rather similar, the most important changes applying to hydro power. The consumption of heating electricity will decrease substantially. Because the non- climate-dependent sectors of electricity consumption (process industry and services) account for more than a half of the total consumption, the effect on the total consumption is, however, rather small. The total annual hydropower production in Finland was estimated to be 2 % more both in the year 2025 and 2100 than at present. The annual mean discharges do not change very much compared to the present. The greatest difference in comparison with the present is the noticeable smoothing of the annual discharge variation. Particularly in Northern Finland the smoothing is considerable in average circumstances. In the scenario for the year 2100, in particular, the spring flood peak is, on average, significantly reduced, the flood peak takes place earlier and the average winter discharges increase

  9. Abatement cost of GHG emissions for wood-based electricity and ethanol at production and consumption levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Dwivedi

    Full Text Available Woody feedstocks will play a critical role in meeting the demand for biomass-based energy products in the US. We developed an integrated model using comparable system boundaries and common set of assumptions to ascertain unit cost and greenhouse gas (GHG intensity of electricity and ethanol derived from slash pine (Pinus elliottii at the production and consumption levels by considering existing automobile technologies. We also calculated abatement cost of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions with respect to comparable energy products derived from fossil fuels. The production cost of electricity derived using wood chips was at least cheaper by 1 ¢ MJ-1 over electricity derived from wood pellets. The production cost of ethanol without any income from cogenerated electricity was costlier by about 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than ethanol with income from cogenerated electricity. The production cost of electricity derived from wood chips was cheaper by at least 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than the energy equivalent cost of ethanol produced in presence of cogenerated electricity. The cost of using ethanol as a fuel in a flex-fuel vehicle was at least higher by 6 ¢ km-1 than a comparable electric vehicle. The GHG intensity of per km distance traveled in a flex-fuel vehicle was greater or lower than an electric vehicle running on electricity derived from wood chips depending on presence and absence of GHG credits related with co-generated electricity. A carbon tax of at least $7 Mg CO2e-1 and $30 Mg CO2e-1 is needed to promote wood-based electricity and ethanol production in the US, respectively. The range of abatement cost of GHG emissions is significantly dependent on the harvest age and selected baseline especially for electricity generation.

  10. production-distribution of the electric power in France and in the regions in 2005 and 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the main statistical results available on the electric power production and the electricity transport and distribution. In a context of the european market deregulation, these data are very useful. They offer a tool to the government in favor of the the energy supply. They present a detailed description of the electric power park by each production channel (cogeneration, renewable energies...) and and by areas. (A.L.B.)

  11. System and method for integration of renewable energy and fuel cell for the production of electricity and hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmes, K.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a system and method for integrating renewable energy and a fuel cell for the production of electricity and hydrogen, wherein this comprises the use of renewable energy as fluctuating energy source for the production of electricity and also comprises the use of at least one

  12. Cogeneration/auto production influences form sugar cane bagasse for the electric power market in Northeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, P.G. da; Fiscina, G.B.

    1990-01-01

    This work intends to evaluate to what extent the co-generation/auto production influences the electric power market. For that purpose, two sceneries have been developed considering sugar cane bagasse remains, taking as a basis the historic content (per Northeast state) and the energy policy for PROALCOOL. The installed potential in plants/distilleries for utilization of the bagasse industrial remains has also been considered. It has been determined the investments required for new facilities, enabling the use of all bagasse remains for electric energy, the benefits for the North/Northeast electric system resulting from such measures (as the decrease in deficit risks), and the value of energy sale by the system auto producers/co-generators. (author)

  13. Photovoltaic electricity production of a grid-connected urban house in Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojic, Milorad; Blagojevic, Mirko

    2006-01-01

    A technically attractive solution for sustainable present and future is to integrate photovoltaic (PV) panels into building fabric of urban houses as an alternative to grid electricity, however, in Serbia this technology is rarely applied. To contribute to sustainability and create success conditions for renewable energy sources (RES) applications due its wish to join EU, Serbian government currently integrated RES into its new energy policy framework. In the near future in the separate law, the government will identify financial conditions to apply this policy and start RES use. To adequately inform this law, we calculated the electricity revenue during entire life of a two-floor house in Belgrade, Serbia and investment in PV panels (currently available on Serbian market) integrated in its entire envelope. It was discussed what are the current degree of economic viability of this solution and suggested level of state subventions needed to support the solar electricity production either by feed-in tariffs or other financial instruments

  14. An environmental assessment of electricity production from slaughterhouse residues. Linking urban, industrial and waste management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santagata, R.; Ripa, M.; Ulgiati, S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Animal by-products use for electricity generation is investigated as a case-study. • Different methodological approaches to deal with by-products are explored in LCA. • Adopting a holistic perspective is crucial to achieve a circular economy framework. - Abstract: The food processing industry continues to grow, generating large amount of organically rich waste flows per year: these processors face significant economic and environmental pressures for appropriate conversion and disposal of these waste flows. Solid waste disposal problems, mostly in highly urbanized environments, energy shortages (primarily oil) and/or high petroleum prices, as well as environmental issues such as the shrinking landfill capacity, can all be addressed by converting waste material into useful and saleable products. This paper brings to the attention a possible strategy in order to meet the general EU directives concerning the residues utilization and percentage contribution for the total energy consumption by 2020, by evaluating the use of animal by-products (category 3, as defined in the directive 2002/1774/EC) for energy purposes. Slaughterhouse waste represents an important potential source of renewable energy: on average, 40–50% of a live animal is waste, with a potential energy content close to diesel fuel. Treatment of animal waste from slaughterhouse and the subsequent conversion to electricity is investigated as a case study in the Campania Region (Italy): the animal waste undergoes a rendering process, to separate a protein-rich fraction useful for animal meal production and a fat-rich fraction, to be combusted in a diesel engine for power and heat generation (CHP). An environmental assessment of the entire process is performed by means of LCA, providing a quantitative understanding of the plant processing. The study aims to understand to what extent electricity production from animal fat is environmentally sound and if there are steps and/or components

  15. Analysis of Competitiveness and Support Instruments for Heat and Electricity Production from Wood Biomass in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klavs, G.; Kudrenickis, I.; Kundzina, A.

    2012-01-01

    Utilisation of renewable energy sources is one of the key factors in a search for efficient ways of reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases and improving the energy supply security. So far, the district heating supply in Latvia has been based on natural gas, with the wood fuel playing a minor role; the same is true for decentralised combined heat-power (CHP) production. The paper describes a method for evaluation of the economic feasibility of heat and electricity production from wood biomass under the competition between different fuel types and taking into account the electricity market. For the simulation, a cost estimation model is applied. The results demonstrate that wood biomass can successfully be utilised for competitive heat production by boiler houses, while for electricity production by CHP utilities it cannot compete on the market (even despite the low prices on wood biomass fuel) unless particular financial support instruments are applied. The authors evaluate the necessary support level and the impact of two main support instruments - the investment subsidies and the feed-in tariff - on the economic viability of wood-fuelled CHP plants, and show that the feed-in tariff could be considered as an instrument strongly affecting the competitiveness of such type CHP. Regarding the feed-in tariff determination, a compromise should be found between the economy-dictated requirement to develop CHP projects concerning capacities above 5 MWel - on the one hand, and the relatively small heat loads in many Latvian towns - on the other.

  16. Capabilities for managing high-volume production of electric engineering equipment at the Electrochemical Production Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podlednev, V.M.

    1996-04-01

    The Electromechanical Production Plant is essentially a research center with experimental facilities and power full testing base. Major products of the plant today include heat pipes and devices of their basis of different functions and power from high temperature ranges to cryogenics. This report describes work on porous titanium and carbon-graphite current collectors, electrocatalyst synthesis, and electrocatalyst applications.

  17. Electrical production for domestic and industrial applications using hybrid PV-wind system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essalaimeh, S.; Al-Salaymeh, A.; Abdullat, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Modeling and building hybrid system of PV and wind turbine. ► Investigation of the electrical generation under Amman–Jordan’s climate. ► Configuration of theoretical and actual characteristics of the hybrid system. ► Testing effects of dust, inclination and load on the electrical generation. ► Financial analysis for various applications. - Abstract: The present work shows an experimental investigation of using a combination of solar and wind energies as hybrid system for electrical generation under the Jordanian climate conditions. The generated electricity has been utilized for different types of applications and mainly for space heating and cooling. The system has also integration with grid connection to have more reliable system. Measurements included the solar radiation intensity, the ambient temperature, the wind speed and the output power from the solar PV panels and wind turbine. The performance characteristic of the PV panels has been obtained by varying the load value through a variable resistance. Some major factors have been studied and practically measured; one of them is the dust effect on electrical production efficiency for photovoltaic panels. Another factor is the inclination of the PV panels, where varying the angle of inclination has a seasonal importance for gathering the maximum solar intensity. Through mathematical calculation and the collected and measured data, a simple payback period has been calculated of the hybrid system in order to study the economical aspects of installing such a system under Jordanian climate conditions and for different usages and local tariffs including domestic, industrial and commercial applications. It was found through this work that the generated electricity of hybrid system and under Jordanian climate conditions can be utilized for electrical heating and cooling through split units and resistive heaters.

  18. Electricity production potential and social benefits from rice husk, a case study in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obaidullah Mohiuddin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan has been experiencing energy crisis owing to its sole dependence on fossil fuels. Reduction in local fossil fuel reserves has led to an increase in their prices, thereby increasing the cost of electricity. Since the tariff remains the same, Pakistan is over-burdened with circular debts and observes a daily power shortfall of about 12–14 h. Being an Agra-economic country, many major and minor crops are produced and exported in large quantities. This results in a bulk of the agricultural waste which are not utilized. The waste can be utilized to meet the country’s energy demand while mitigating climate change and its impact. The study examines the electricity production potential and social benefits of rice husk in Pakistan. It is estimated in this study that if 70% of rice husk residues are utilized, there will be annual electricity production of 1,328 GWh and the cost of per unit electricity by rice husk is found at 47.36 cents/kWh as compared to 55.22 cents/kWh of electricity generated by coal. Importantly, the study will increase the awareness of the benefits of utilizing agricultural waste for useful products such as silica, with several social and environmental benefits such as a reduction of 36,042 tCO2e/yr of methane, reducing carbon dioxide emissions, improving the air quality, and providing 4.5 k new jobs. The paper concludes with the policy recommendations based on this study.

  19. Estimating and decomposing productivity growth of the electricity generation industry in Malaysia: A stochastic frontier analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    See, Kok Fong; Coelli, Tim

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the total factor productivity (TFP) growth of the Malaysian electricity generation industry over the 1998 to 2005 period. The stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) approach is used to measure TFP change and decompose TFP growth into efficiency change and technical progress. We find that it achieved average annual TFP growth of 2.34%, with technical change contributing the most to the TFP growth over the eight year period. We hence hypothesise that the new power plants with their newer capital-embodied technologies commencing during the sample period are likely to be the main reason for this strong technical change. In addition, it is also noted that this estimate for the Malaysian electricity generation industry is larger than the estimate obtained for the electricity sector as a whole, where we obtain 1.34% per year for a comparable period. -- Highlights: •This is the first empirical study that examines the TFP growth of the Malaysian electricity generation industry using the SFA method. •An average annual TFP change of the Malaysian electricity generation industry over eight years (1998-2005) has been achieved at 2.34% per year. •The technical progress contributing the most to the TFP growth and technical efficiency change and scale change making small contributions over the sample period

  20. Examination of Electrical Resistance of Carburizers Used for Cast Iron Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Książek D.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The publication presents the results of examination of selected carburizers used for cast iron production with respect to their electric resistance. Both the synthetic graphite carburizers and petroleum coke (petcoke carburizers of various chemical composition were compared. The relationships between electrical resistance of tested carburizers and their quality were found. The graphite carburizers exhibited much better conductivity than the petcoke ones. Resistance characteristics were different for the different types of carburizers. The measurements were performed according to the authors’ own method based on recording the electric current flow through the compressed samples. The samples of the specified diameter were put under pressure of the gradually increased value (10, 20, 50, 60, and finally 70 bar, each time the corresponding value of electric resistance being measured with a gauge of high accuracy, equal to 0.1μΩ. The higher pressure values resulted in the lower values of resistance. The relation between both the thermal conductance and the electrical conductance (or the resistance is well known and mentioned in the professional literature. The results were analysed and presented both in tabular and, additionally, in graphic form.

  1. Short Term Electric Production Technology Switching Under Carbon Cap and Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald F. Larson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examines fuel switching in electricity production following the introduction of the European Union’s Emissions Trading System (EU ETS for greenhouse gas emissions. A short-run restricted cost equation is estimated with carbon permits, high-carbon fuels, and low carbon fuels as variable inputs. Shadow values and substitution elasticities for carbon-free energy resources from nuclear, hydroelectric and renewable sources are imputed from the cost equation. The empirical analysis examines 12 European countries using monthly data on fuel use, prices, and electricity generation during the first phase of the European Emissions Trading System. Despite low emission permit prices, this study finds statistically significant substitution between fossil fuels and carbon free sources of energy for electric power production. Significant substitution between fossil fuels and nuclear energy also was found. Still, while 18 of the 20 substitution elasticities are statistically significant, they are all less than unity, consistent with limited substitution. Overall, these results suggest that prices for carbon emission permits relative to prices for carbon and carbon free sources of energy do matter but that electric power producers have limited operational flexibility in the short-run to satisfy greenhouse gas emission limits.

  2. Potential Benefits from Improved Energy Efficiency of KeyElectrical Products: The Case of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Michael; Iyer, Maithili; Meyers, Stephen; Letschert,Virginie; McMahon, James E.

    2005-12-20

    The goal of this project was to estimate the net benefits that cost-effective improvements in energy efficiency can bring to developing countries. The study focused on four major electrical products in the world's second largest developing country, India. These products--refrigerators, room air conditioners, electric motors, and distribution transformers--are important targets for efficiency improvement in India and in other developing countries. India is an interesting subject of study because of it's size and rapid economic growth. Implementation of efficient technologies in India would save billions in energy costs, and avoid hundreds of megatons of greenhouse gas emissions. India also serves as an example of the kinds of improvement opportunities that could be pursued in other developing countries.

  3. Co-production of electricity and ethanol, process economics of value prior combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treasure, T.; Gonzalez, R.; Venditti, R.; Pu, Y.; Jameel, H.; Kelley, S.; Prestemon, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Economics of producing cellulosic ethanol and bio-power in the same facility using an autohydrolysis process. ► Feedstock considerably affect the economics of the biorefinery facility. ► Lower moisture content improves financial performance of the bio-power business. - Abstract: A process economic analysis of co-producing bioethanol and electricity (value prior to combustion) from mixed southern hardwood and southern yellow pine is presented. Bioethanol is produced by extracting carbohydrates from wood via autohydrolysis, membrane separation of byproducts, enzymatic hydrolysis of extracted oligomers and fermentation to ethanol. The residual solids after autohydrolysis are pressed and burned in a power boiler to generate steam and electricity. A base case scenario of biomass combustion to produce electricity is presented as a reference to understand the basics of bio-power generation economics. For the base case, minimum electricity revenue of $70–$96/MWh must be realized to achieve a 6–12% internal rate of return. In the alternative co-production cases, the ethanol facility is treated as a separate business entity that purchases power and steam from the biomass power plant. Minimum ethanol revenue required to achieve a 12% internal rate of return was estimated to be $0.84–$1.05/l for hardwood and $0.74–$0.85/l for softwood. Based on current market conditions and an assumed future ethanol selling price of $0.65/l, the co-production of cellulosic bioethanol and power does not produce financeable returns. A risk analysis indicates that there is a probability of 26.6% to achieve an internal rate of return equal or higher than 12%. It is suggested that focus be placed on improving yield and reducing CAPEX before this technology can be applied commercially. This modeling approach is a robust method to evaluate economic feasibility of integrated production of bio-power and other products based on extracted hemicellulose.

  4. Deregulated electricity markets with thermal losses and production bounds: models and optimality conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aussel, D.; Červinka, Michal; Marechal, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 1 (2016), s. 19-38 ISSN 0399-0559 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/12/1309; GA ČR GA201/09/1957 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Deregulated electricity market * production bounds * mathematical program with complementarity constraints * M-stationarity * calmness Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.550, year: 2016

  5. Electric dewatering and drying of fine-grained products; Elektrisk afvanding og toerring af finkornede produkter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, H.K.; Villumsen, A.

    2001-07-01

    The aim of the project was to elucidate four aspects related to using electric direct current to find an energy saving alternative to existing methods within dewatering of fine-grained products. The four aspects were a) electrophoresis forced sedimentation of chalk slurry, b) electro osmotic dewatering of chalk slurry, c) electro osmotic dewatering of agricultural chalk and d) electro osmotic dewatering of liquid organic wastes. (EHS)

  6. Evaluation of the electric power production cost growth due to decommissioning of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basso, G.

    1982-01-01

    The increase of production cost for electric power generated by nuclear plants, due to their decommissioning and the end of operating life, is analysed in respect to (a) waiting time from indefinite shut-down date to the start of dismantlement, (b) financing method, (c) interest and inflation rates. The analysis shows that the additional cost is always small for those solutions which have higher probability to be adopted

  7. Who invests in renewable electricity production? : Empirical evidence and suggestions for further research

    OpenAIRE

    Bergek, Anna; Mignon, Ingrid; Sundberg, Gunnel

    2013-01-01

    Transforming energy systems to fulfill the needs of a low-carbon economy requires large investments in renewable electricity production (RES-E). Recent literature underlines the need to take a closer look at the composition of the RES-E investor group in order to understand the motives and investment processes of different types of investors. However, existing energy policies generally consider RES-E investments made on a regional or national level, and target investors who evaluate their RES...

  8. Efficient promotion of electricity production from offshore wind; Effiziente Foerderung der Stromerzeugung aus Offshore-Wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panzer, Christian; Auer, Hans; Lettner, Georg [Technische Univ. Wien (Austria). Energy Economics Group (EEG)

    2014-03-15

    Efficient promotion of electricity production from offshore wind stands in dynamic relationship with various influence factors, the most important of which are promotion instruments, topographic givens, regulation of grid connection, and supraregional market integration concepts. Using three case studies from different countries to highlight national differences in the promotion of offshore wind power plants the present analysis points out ways of improving the efficiency of promotion instruments.

  9. CO-PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN AND ELECTRICITY USING PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhen Fan

    2006-05-30

    Foster Wheeler has completed work under a U.S. Department of Energy cooperative agreement to develop a gasification equipment module that can serve as a building block for a variety of advanced, coal-fueled plants. When linked with other equipment blocks also under development, studies have shown that Foster Wheeler's gasification module can enable an electric generating plant to operate with an efficiency exceeding 60 percent (coal higher heating value basis) while producing near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The heart of the equipment module is a pressurized circulating fluidized bed (PCFB) that is used to gasify the coal; it can operate with either air or oxygen and produces a coal-derived syngas without the formation of corrosive slag or sticky ash that can reduce plant availabilities. Rather than fuel a gas turbine for combined cycle power generation, the syngas can alternatively be processed to produce clean fuels and or chemicals. As a result, the study described herein was conducted to determine the performance and economics of using the syngas to produce hydrogen for sale to a nearby refinery in a hydrogen-electricity co-production plant setting. The plant is fueled with Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, produces 99.95 percent pure hydrogen at a rate of 260 tons per day and generates 255 MWe of power for sale. Based on an electricity sell price of $45/MWhr, the hydrogen has a 10-year levelized production cost of $6.75 per million Btu; this price is competitive with hydrogen produced by steam methane reforming at a natural gas price of $4/MMBtu. Hence, coal-fueled, PCFB gasifier-based plants appear to be a viable means for either high efficiency power generation or co-production of hydrogen and electricity. This report describes the PCFB gasifier-based plant, presents its performance and economics, and compares it to other coal-based and natural gas based hydrogen production technologies.

  10. An estimate of the cost of electricity production from hot-dry rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, K.G.; Livesay, B.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper gives an estimate of the cost to produce electricity from hot-dry rock (HDR). Employment of the energy in HDR for the production of electricity requires drilling multiple wells from the surface to the hot rock, connecting the wells through hydraulic fracturing, and then circulating water through the fracture system to extract heat from the rock. The basic HDR system modeled in this paper consists of an injection well, two production wells, the fracture system (or HDR reservoir), and a binary power plant. Water is pumped into the reservoir through the injection well where it is heated and then recovered through the production wells. Upon recovery, the hot water is pumped through a heat exchanger transferring heat to the binary, or working, fluid in the power plant. The power plant is a net 5.1-MW e binary plant employing dry cooling. Make-up water is supplied by a local well. In this paper, the cost of producing electricity with the basic system is estimated as the sum of the costs of the individual parts. The effects on cost of variations to certain assumptions, as well as the sensitivity of costs to different aspects of the basic system, are also investigated

  11. Thermodynamic analysis of direct expansion configurations for electricity production by LNG cold energy recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, Alessandro; Casarosa, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, after a brief review of the perspectives of the various schemes proposed for electricity generation from the regasification of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), a detailed analysis of two particular direct expansion solutions is proposed. The purpose is to identify the upper level of the energy that can be recovered with the aim of electricity production, using configurations with direct expansion. The analysis developed resorting to a simplified thermodynamic model, shows that using a direct expansion configurations with multistage turbine, values of power production typical of optimized ORC plant configurations (120 kJ for each kg of natural gas that flows through the plant) can be obtained. The development of a direct expansion plant with multistage turbine and internal heat recovery systems could permit to approach the production of more than 160 kJ for each kg of flowing liquefied natural gas. Considering values of the mass flow rate typical of LNG gas stations (e.g. 70 kg/s); this corresponds to an output power ranging between 8.3 MW and 11.4 MW. - Highlights: • Recovery of the cold energy contained in Liquefied Natural Gas. • Thermodynamic analysis of systems for electricity generation in regasification. • Direct expansion solutions with multistage expansion. • Comparison of direct expansion solutions with conventional ORC systems. • Power output in conditions typical of existing LNG regasification terminals

  12. The detection and measurement of the electrical mobility size distributions associated with radon decay products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fei, Lin.

    1996-04-01

    The potential risk of lung cancer has evoked interest in the properties of radon decay products. There are two forms of this progeny: either attached to ambient aerosols, or still in the status of ions/molecules/small clusters. This ''unattached'' activity would give a higher dose per unit of airborne activity than the ''attached'' progeny that are rather poorly deposited. In this thesis, a system for determining unattached radon decay products electrical mobility size distribution by measuring their electrical mobilities was developed, based on the fact that about 88% of 218 Po atoms have unit charge at the end of their recoil after decay from 222 Rn, while the remainder are neutral. Essential part of the setup is the radon-aerosol chamber with the Circular Electrical Mobility Spectrometer (CEMS) inside. CEMS is used for sampling and classifying the charged radioactive clusters produced in the chamber. An alpha- sensitive plastic, CR-39 disk, is placed in CEMS as an inlaid disk electrode and the alpha particle detector. CEMS showed good performance in fine inactive particles' classification. If it also works well for radon decay products, it can offer a convenient size distribution measurement for radioactive ultrafine particles. However, the experiments did not obtain an acceptable resolution. Suggestions are made for solving this problem

  13. Incorporating externalities in the assessment of different energy options for electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacomino, Vanusa Maria Feliciano; Souza, Jair Albo Marques de; Grynberg, Suely Epsztein; Aronne, Ivan Dionysio

    2002-01-01

    The production of electricity considering its full chain cycle arises major local, regional and global environmental impacts. This fact and the need of several countries to establish energy plans for the next decades and also the recognition that environmental issues are playing important role in the decision-making process justify the interest in appropriate and comprehensive methodologies and tools to deal with this matter, to be applied mainly in the power sector. The main aim of the present investigation was the implementation and application of a simplified methodology based on the impact pathway (or damage function) approach which is being proposed by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for the estimation of externalities arising from the full chain cycle of different energy sources for electricity production in its Member States. The externalities arising from different options, including coal, oil, gas and nuclear, were estimated. A computer model based on the optimization of non-linear functions was used as a support tool for decision-making in the power sector. Taking into consideration the externalities from the air emissions of different options, nuclear power is the best solution even taking into consideration the effects of high consequence/low probability accidents. It should be noted that this investigation is not only being used to implement an environmental database, but also in enhancing the Brazilian capability in evaluating the different energy options for electricity production in the framework of sustainable development. (author)

  14. Customers' preferences with regard to attributes of electric power products; Kundenpraeferenzen fuer leistungsrelevante Attribute von Stromprodukten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkhalter, Andreas; Kaenzig, Josef; Wuestenhagen, Rolf [Univ. St. Gallen (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Wirtschaft und Oekologie

    2009-06-15

    This article addresses whether standard electricity products in Switzerland meet the preferences of private customers. To determine customers' preferred electricity product we conducted an online survey with choice experiments implying 9420 choice decisions by 628 respondents in Switzerland. Using hierarchical Bayes estimation we determined customer preferences and the importance of individual product attributes in product choice. This procedure makes it possible to calculate part worth utilities for product attributes and to derive customers' implicit willingness to pay. The ''electricity mix'' had the most important influence on choice decisions, followed by ''monthly electricity costs'' and the ''location of the electricity generation''. The current Swiss electricity mix which consists of mainly nuclear and hydro power was only rated second to last in a comparison of five alternative mixes. Customers clearly prefer electricity mixes containing green energy. Findings of this study reveal strategic options for product design, positioning, and marketing for a liberalized electricity market. (orig.)

  15. Electrical production testing of the D0 Silicon microstrip tracker detector modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D0, SMT Production Testing Group; /Fermilab

    2006-03-01

    The D0 Silicon Microstrip Tracker (SMT) is the innermost system of the D0 detector in Run 2. It consists of 912 detector units, corresponding to 5 different types of assemblies, which add up to a system with 792,576 readout channels. The task entrusted to the Production Testing group was to thoroughly debug, test and grade each detector module before its installation in the tracker. This note describes the production testing sequence and the procedures by which the detector modules were electrically tested and characterized at the various stages of their assembly.

  16. Using climate response functions in analyzing electricity production variables. A case study from Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tøfte, Lena S.; Martino, Sara; Mo, Birger

    2016-04-01

    This study analyses whether and to which extent today's hydropower system and reservoirs in Mid-Norway are able to balance new intermittent energy sources in the region, in both today's and tomorrow's climate. We also investigate if the electricity marked model EMPS gives us reasonable results also when run in a multi simulation mode without recalibration. Climate related energy (CRE) is influenced by the weather, the system for energy production and transport, and by market mechanisms. In the region of Mid-Norway, nearly all power demand is generated by hydro-electric facilities. Due to energy deficiency and limitations in the power grid the region experiences a deficit of electricity. The region is likely to experience considerable investments in wind power and small-scale hydropower and the transmission grid within and out of the region will probably be extended, so this situation might change. In addition climate change scenarios for the region agree on higher temperatures, more precipitation in total and a larger portion of the precipitation coming as rain instead of snow, as well as we expect slightly higher wind speed and more storms during the winter. Changing temperatures will also change the electricity demand. EMPS is a tool for forecasting and planning in electricity markets, developed for optimization and simulation of hydrothermal power systems with a considerable share of hydro power. It takes into account transport constraints and hydrological differences between major areas or regional subsystems. During optimization the objective is to minimize the expected cost in the whole system subject to all constraints. Incremental water values (marginal costs for hydropower) are computed for each area using stochastic dynamic programming. A heuristic approach is used to treat the interaction between areas. In the simulation part of the model total system costs are minimized week by week for each climate scenario in a linear problem formulation. A detailed

  17. Potential benefits from improved energy efficiency of key electrical products: The case of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeil, Michael A.; Iyer, Maithili; Meyers, Stephen; Letschert, Virginie E.; McMahon, James E.

    2008-01-01

    The economy of the world's second most populous country continues to grow rapidly, bringing prosperity to a growing middle class while further straining an energy infrastructure already stretched beyond capacity. At the same time, efficiency policy initiatives have gained a foothold in India, and promise to grow in number over the coming years. This paper considers the maximum cost-effective potential of efficiency improvement for key energy-consuming products in the Indian context. The products considered are: household refrigerators, window air conditioners, motors and distribution transformers. Together, these products account for about 27% of delivered electricity consumption in India. The analysis estimates the minimum Life-Cycle Cost option for each product class, according to use patterns and prevailing customer marginal rates in each sector. This option represents an efficiency improvement ranging between 12% and 60%, depending on product class. If this level of efficiency was achieved starting in 2010, we estimate that total electricity consumption in India could be reduced by 4.7% by 2020, saving over 74 million tons of oil equivalent and over 246 million tons of carbon dioxide emissions. Net present financial savings of this efficiency improvement totals 8.1 billion dollars

  18. The Water Footprint Assessment of Electricity Production: An Overview of the Economic-Water-Energy Nexus in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Pier Paolo Miglietta; Domenico Morrone; Federica De Leo

    2018-01-01

    The term “water-energy nexus” has remarkable implications in the sustainable management of water resources. The aim of this paper is to analyse the production of electricity, from an economic and technical perspective, using the water footprint and economic water productivity approaches. After comparing the percentage of contribution of fossil and renewable sources to the production of the electricity sector, the study then compares the percentage of contribution of fossil and renewable sourc...

  19. N2O and CO production by electric discharge - Atmospheric implications. [Venus atmosphere simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, J. S.; Howell, W. E.; Hughes, R. E.; Chameides, W. L.

    1979-01-01

    Enhanced levels of N2O and CO were measured in tropospheric air samples exposed to a 17,500-J laboratory discharge. These enhanced levels correspond to an N2O production rate of about 4 trillion molecules/J and a CO production rate of about 10 to the 14th molecules/J. The CO measurements suggest that the primary region of chemical production in the discharge is the shocked air surrounding the lightning channel, as opposed to the slower-cooling inner core. Additional experiments in a simulated Venus atmosphere (CO2 - 95%, N2 - 5%, at one atmosphere) indicate an enhancement of CO from less than 0.1 ppm prior to the laboratory discharge to more than 2000 ppm after the discharge. Comparison with theoretical calculations appears to confirm the ability of a shock-wave/thermochemical model to predict the rate of production of trace species by an electrical discharge.

  20. Two tools for environmentally conscious designers and product developers of electrical & electronic equipment (EEE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poll, Christian; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents the two tools 1)"Product families - short cuts to environmental knowledge" and 2)"Eco-conscious design of electrical & electronic equipment (EEE)". Tool 1) comes in form of a handbook. The purpose of this handbook is to ease the work with developing more environmentally sound...... products, thus giving guidelines for development of new products without the companies themselves having to perform an LCA. The handbook describes 5 productfamilies: mobile phones, vacuum cleaners, industrial valves with electronic controls, lighting, ventilation. Tool 2) comes in form of a software tool...... with built in training, guidance, references, calculator and database. The tool provides the basic understanding of how EEE-products in general interact with the environment. The tool gives an overview of the tasks and responsibilities involved in Eco-Desing, and examples of how to choose and quantify...

  1. Externalities of biomass based electricity production compared to power generation from coal in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faaij, A.; Meuleman, B.

    1997-12-01

    Externalities of electricity production from biomass and coal are investigated and compared for the Dutch context. Effects on economic activity and employment are investigated by means of Input/Output and multiplier tables. Valuations of damage from emissions to air are based on generic data from other studies. In addition, external costs are estimated for nitrogen leaching and for the use of agrochemicals for energy crop production. The average private costs for biomass and coal based power generation are projected to be 68 and 38 mECU/kWh respectively in the year 2005. It is assumed that biomass production takes place on fallow land. Coal mining is excluded from the analysis. If the quantified external damages and benefits are included the cost range for bio-electricity is 53-70 mECU/kWh and 45-72 mECU/kWh for coal. Indirect economic effects (increment of Gross Domestic Product) and the difference in CO2 emissions are the most important distinguishing factors between coal and biomass in economic terms. Damage costs of other emissions to air (NOx, SO2, dust and CO) are of the same order of magnitude for both coal and biomass (coal mining excluded). In this analysis environmental impacts of energy farming are compared mainly to fallow land focused on the use of fertilizers and agrochemicals. The related damage costs appear to be low but should be considered as a preliminary estimate only. The quantitative outcomes should not be considered as the external costs of the two fuel cycles studied. Many impacts have not been valued and large uncertainties persist e.g. with respect to the costs of climate change and numerous dose response relations. More detailed analysis is required with respect to macro-economic impacts. The results serve as a first indication, but the outcomes plead for the support of bio-electricity production and/or taxation of coal based power generation. 88 refs

  2. Economic competitiveness of electricity production means inside smart grids: application to nuclear energy and variable renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppler, J.H.; Baritaud, M.; Berthelemy, M.

    2017-01-01

    For a long time the comparison of the production costs of electricity from various primary sources were made on the basis of levelised costs of electricity (LCOE). LCOE is in fact the cost of the technology used for the production. In recent years solar and wind energies have seen their LCOE drop sharply (-60 % for solar power in 5 years) while nuclear energy's LCOE is now stabilized. In order to assess the cost of renewable energies, LCOE are not sufficient because variable energies like solar or wind power require other means of production to compensate their variability. Another point is that renewable energies are decentralized and as a consequence require investments to develop the power distribution system. This analysis presents a new methodology to compare the costs of electricity production means. This methodology takes into account LCOE and a system cost that represents the cost of the effects of the technology on the rest of the electricity production system. (A.C.)

  3. The impact of Production Tax Credits on the profitable production of electricity from wind in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Lu; Tchou, Jeremy; McElroy, Michael B.; Nielsen, Chris P.

    2011-01-01

    A spatial financial model using wind data derived from assimilated meteorological condition was developed to investigate the profitability and competitiveness of onshore wind power in the contiguous U.S. It considers not only the resulting estimated capacity factors for hypothetical wind farms but also the geographically differentiated costs of local grid connection. The levelized cost of wind-generated electricity for the contiguous U.S. is evaluated assuming subsidy levels from the Production Tax Credit (PTC) varying from 0 to 4 cents /kWh under three cost scenarios: a reference case, a high cost case, and a low cost case. The analysis indicates that in the reference scenario, current PTC subsidies of 2.1 cents /kWh are at a critical level in determining the competitiveness of wind-generated electricity compared to conventional power generation in local power market. Results from this study suggest that the potential for profitable wind power with the current PTC subsidy amounts to more than seven times existing demand for electricity in the entire U.S. Understanding the challenges involved in scaling up wind energy requires further study of the external costs associated with improvement of the backbone transmission network and integration into the power grid of the variable electricity generated from wind. - Highlights: → Wind power competitiveness is driven by meteorology and proximity to the grid. → We spatially model U.S. onshore wind under ranges of subsidies and costs. → Wind power is competitive at a PTC subsidy of 2.1 cents/kWh. → Under current PTC levels, profitable wind potential far exceeds U.S. power demand.

  4. Proposal for the creation of an inquiry commission to investigate the reality of electricity production costs in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    After EDF's president has asked for a 20 percent rise for retail electricity prices in France, a group of members of the French Parliament has proposed the creation of an inquiry commission to investigate the costs of electricity production and transport in France (depending on production mode), evaluate the investments required to ensure a safe and reliable operation of nuclear plants, compare the investments needed depending on various electricity production modes for the next ten years in France, study various scenarios including the shutdown of all nuclear plants in the country, and therefore be able to evaluate the tariff evolutions that are required for the future

  5. Renewable sustainable biocatalyzed electricity production in a photosynthetic algal microbial fuel cell (PAMFC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strik, David P.B.T.B.; Terlouw, Hilde; Hamelers, Hubertus V.M.; Buisman, Cees J.N. [Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Sub-Dept. of Environmental Technology

    2008-12-15

    Electricity production via solar energy capturing by living higher plants and microalgae in combination with microbial fuel cells are attractive because these systems promise to generate useful energy in a renewable, sustainable, and efficient manner. This study describes the proof of principle of a photosynthetic algal microbial fuel cell (PAMFC) based on naturally selected algae and electrochemically active microorganisms in an open system and without addition of instable or toxic mediators. The developed solar-powered PAMFC produced continuously over 100 days renewable biocatalyzed electricity. The sustainable performance of the PAMFC resulted in a maximum current density of 539 mA/m{sup 2} projected anode surface area and a maximum power production of 110 mW/m{sup 2} surface area photobioreactor. The energy recovery of the PAMFC can be increased by optimization of the photobioreactor, by reducing the competition from non-electrochemically active microorganisms, by increasing the electrode surface and establishment of a further-enriched biofilm. Since the objective is to produce net renewable energy with algae, future research should also focus on the development of low energy input PAMFCs. This is because current algae production systems have energy inputs similar to the energy present in the outcoming valuable products. (orig.)

  6. Renewable sustainable biocatalyzed electricity production in a photosynthetic algal microbial fuel cell (PAMFC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strik, David P B T B; Terlouw, Hilde; Hamelers, Hubertus V M; Buisman, Cees J N

    2008-12-01

    Electricity production via solar energy capturing by living higher plants and microalgae in combination with microbial fuel cells are attractive because these systems promise to generate useful energy in a renewable, sustainable, and efficient manner. This study describes the proof of principle of a photosynthetic algal microbial fuel cell (PAMFC) based on naturally selected algae and electrochemically active microorganisms in an open system and without addition of instable or toxic mediators. The developed solar-powered PAMFC produced continuously over 100 days renewable biocatalyzed electricity. The sustainable performance of the PAMFC resulted in a maximum current density of 539 mA/m2 projected anode surface area and a maximum power production of 110 mW/m2 surface area photobioreactor. The energy recovery of the PAMFC can be increased by optimization of the photobioreactor, by reducing the competition from non-electrochemically active microorganisms, by increasing the electrode surface and establishment of a further-enriched biofilm. Since the objective is to produce net renewable energy with algae, future research should also focus on the development of low energy input PAMFCs. This is because current algae production systems have energy inputs similar to the energy present in the outcoming valuable products.

  7. The costs of the different pathways of electricity production and saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessus, B.

    2012-01-01

    The author discusses the content and methodology of a report published by the French Court of Audit on the assessment of the costs of the nuclear sector. He briefly recalls the principle adopted by the Court, i.e. the method of the economic current cost which calculates a global MWh cost on the whole operation duration of the selected production tool. The author discusses the application of this method to different electricity production and consumption sectors: ground-based wind energy, the Flamanville EPR, use of low-energy bulbs, air-air heat pumps, a refrigerator. He compares and discusses the results obtained for different electricity production sectors (EPR, ground-based wind energy, and gas combined cycle technology) and their sensitivity to adopted hypotheses. He comments the evolution of the investment cost of nuclear reactors in France, the economic current costs of offshore wind energy and small photovoltaic production. He finally discusses the economic current costs of the different ways of energy saving and their sensitivity to the adopted hypotheses

  8. Thermodynamic and economic evaluation of co-production plants for electricity and potable water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    Within the framework of the IAEA's activities related to seawater desalination using nuclear energy, a need was identified for developing criteria and methodologies in order to facilitate comparative economic evaluations of nuclear and fossil fuelled energy sources for desalination and generation of electricity. The aspect of costing of electricity and potable water from co-production plants is of particular interest. In response to these needs, the IAEA carried out a study to establish methodologies for allocating costs to the two final products of co-production plants based on thermodynamic criteria and to enable economic ranking of co-production plant alternatives. This publication describes the methodologies and presents the results obtained from analyzing a reference case, taken as an example. This publication has been discussed and reviewed at a consultants meeting convened by the IAEA in September 1996 in Vienna. The methodologies have been incorporated in an EXCEL spreadsheet routine which is available upon request from the IAEA. The IAEA staff member responsible for this publication is L. Breidenbach of the Division of Nuclear Power and the Fuel Cycle. 30 refs, figs, tabs

  9. Quark and gluon production from a boost-invariantly expanding color electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taya, Hidetoshi

    2017-07-01

    Particle production from an expanding classical color electromagnetic field is extensively studied, motivated by the early stage dynamics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions. We develop a formalism at one-loop order to compute the particle spectra by canonically quantizing quark, gluon, and ghost fluctuations under the presence of such an expanding classical color background field; the canonical quantization is done in the τ -η coordinates in order to take into account manifestly the expanding geometry. As a demonstration, we model the expanding classical color background field by a boost-invariantly expanding homogeneous color electric field with lifetime T , for which we obtain analytically the quark and gluon production spectra by solving the equations of motion of QCD nonperturbatively with respect to the color electric field. In this paper we study (i) the finite lifetime effect, which is found to modify significantly the particle spectra from those expected from the Schwinger formula; (ii) the difference between the quark and gluon production; and (iii) the quark mass dependence of the production spectra. Implications of these results to ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions are also discussed.

  10. Reducing Electrical Consumption in the Forest Products Industry Using Lean Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott William Lyon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The forest products industry has an opportunity to reduce energy costs using energy management practices, thereby boosting its global competitiveness. Increasing manufacturing costs have contributed significantly to the decline of the forest products manufacturing industries in the U.S.; these increasing costs limit manufacturers’ abilities to compete with their global competitors. U.S. companies are continually improving their products, processes, finances, and business practices to better compete with global marketplaces; however, they may not be seizing all of the opportunities available through more efficient energy consumption practices. By eliminating non-valued added activities, lean thinking is an example of one tool that may improve performance and reduce costs. A case study was conducted at a cabinet manufacturer in Virginia to examine the impact of lean thinking on the consumption of electricity in the manufacturing process. An energy management system was used to provide rapid feedback on electrical energy consumption for production operations. Significant changes were observed after implementing energy reduction practices identified by lean thinking tools.

  11. Electricity production and SO{sub 2} emissions in Poland`s power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salay, J.

    1996-09-01

    The report analyzes how the Polish power industry`s electricity production and SO{sub 2} emissions have changed between 1988 and 1994. It examines to what extent the Polish government`s reform of air pollution control and its reorganization of the power industry affected power plant`s SO{sub 2} emissions in the same period. SO{sub 2} emissions from Polish power plants fell by 37% in 1988-1994. The drop in emissions was partly a result of the fall in economic activity and electricity production in the early 1990s. The main reasons for the emission reduction were the introduction of hard budget constraints, increased coal prices, and stricter enforcement of air pollution control. These reforms created strong incentives for power plants to switch to high-quality coal with lower sulfur content and higher heating value. Improved efficiency of electricity generation also contributed to the fall in SO{sub 2} emissions. 32 refs, 15 figs, 1 tab

  12. Internalising external costs of electricity and heat production in a municipal energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmgren, Kristina; Amiri, Shahnaz

    2007-01-01

    Both energy supply and waste treatment give rise to negative effects on the environment, so-called external effects. In this study, monetary values on external costs collected from the EU's ExternE project are used to evaluate inclusion of these costs in comparison with an energy utility perspective including present policy instruments. The studied object is a municipal district heating system with a waste incineration plant as the base supplier of heat. The evaluation concerns fuels used for heat production and total electricity production, for scenarios with external costs included and for a scenario using the present policy instrument. Impacts of assumptions on marginal power producers (coal or natural gas power plants) are investigated, since locally produced electricity is assumed to replace marginal power and thus is credited for the avoided burden. Varying levels of external costs for carbon dioxide emissions are analysed. The method used is an economic optimisation model, MODEST. The conclusion is that present policy instruments are strong incentives for cogeneration, even when external costs are included. Waste is fully utilised in all scenarios. In cases where coal is the marginal power producer, more electricity is produced; when natural gas is the marginal power producer, less is produced. There are several uncertainties in the data for external costs, both methodological and ethical. In the ExternE data, not all environmental impacts are included. For waste incineration, ashes are not included, and another difficulty is how to treat the avoided burden of other waste treatment methods

  13. Electric field induced needle-pulsed arc discharge carbon nanotube production apparatus: Circuitry and mechanical design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kia, Kaveh Kazemi [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Islamic Azad University of Bonab, Bonab (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bonabi, Fahimeh [Department of Engineering, Islamic Azad University of Bonab, Bonab (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    A simple and low cost apparatus is reported to produce multiwall carbon nanotubes and carbon nano-onions by a low power short pulsed arc discharge reactor. The electric circuitry and the mechanical design details and a micro-filtering assembly are described. The pulsed-plasma is generated and applied between two graphite electrodes. The pulse width is 0.3 {mu}s. A strong dc electric field is established along side the electrodes. The repetitive discharges occur in less than 1 mm distance between a sharp tip graphite rod as anode, and a tubular graphite as cathode. A hydrocarbon vapor, as carbon source, is introduced through the graphite nozzle in the cathode assembly. The pressure of the chamber is controlled by a vacuum pump. A magnetic field, perpendicular to the plasma path, is provided. The results show that the synergetic use of a pulsed-current and a dc power supply enables us to synthesize carbon nanoparticles with short pulsed plasma. The simplicity and inexpensiveness of this plan is noticeable. Pulsed nature of plasma provides some extra degrees of freedom that make the production more controllable. Effects of some design parameters such as electric field, pulse frequency, and cathode shape are discussed. The products are examined using scanning probe microscopy techniques.

  14. Electric field induced needle-pulsed arc discharge carbon nanotube production apparatus: circuitry and mechanical design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kia, Kaveh Kazemi; Bonabi, Fahimeh

    2012-12-01

    A simple and low cost apparatus is reported to produce multiwall carbon nanotubes and carbon nano-onions by a low power short pulsed arc discharge reactor. The electric circuitry and the mechanical design details and a micro-filtering assembly are described. The pulsed-plasma is generated and applied between two graphite electrodes. The pulse width is 0.3 μs. A strong dc electric field is established along side the electrodes. The repetitive discharges occur in less than 1 mm distance between a sharp tip graphite rod as anode, and a tubular graphite as cathode. A hydrocarbon vapor, as carbon source, is introduced through the graphite nozzle in the cathode assembly. The pressure of the chamber is controlled by a vacuum pump. A magnetic field, perpendicular to the plasma path, is provided. The results show that the synergetic use of a pulsed-current and a dc power supply enables us to synthesize carbon nanoparticles with short pulsed plasma. The simplicity and inexpensiveness of this plan is noticeable. Pulsed nature of plasma provides some extra degrees of freedom that make the production more controllable. Effects of some design parameters such as electric field, pulse frequency, and cathode shape are discussed. The products are examined using scanning probe microscopy techniques.

  15. Electrical conductivity of the screening residuals of coke production in context of ferrochromium production in a submerged arc furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousu, Arto; Mattila, Olli [Lab. of Process Metallurgy, Univ. of Oulu (Finland)

    2009-11-15

    Coke is used as a reducing agent in the production of ferrochromium in a submerged arc furnace (SAF). Its good electrical conductivity compared to other input materials makes it a dominant current conductivity substance in the burden. The resistance of the coke has to be high enough to ensure the proper functionality of the furnace. Used cokes for submerged arc furnace production are relatively small in size compared to e.g. blast furnace (BF) cokes. A common practice is to use screening residual coke, which is too small for the BF, in SAF. The goal of this study was to show differences in the electrical properties of screening residual cokes compared to coke formed in different parts of the coke battery, in dependence of particle size. The resistances of different cokes were measured and XRD measurements were performed to define the crystallographic structure of the selected cokes. The results indicate that small coke particles have higher overall resistance, which is due to their internal properties. This small weakly carbonized coke is formed in the middle of the coking battery and is subject to changes in varying coking practices. Continuous quality control of screening residual coke is needed to use it in the SAF. (orig.)

  16. Production of electricity from the wind: a preliminary feasibility study for Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galanis, N

    1977-01-01

    Wind statistics for Greece show that the conditions prevailing on the Aegean islands--i.e. considerable amounts of wind energy, small electrical loads and high generation costs--are especially favorable for the installation of wind turbine generators (WTGs). This study gives preliminary design parameters for WTGs at six locations and evaluates their performance. The duration of operation varies from 5000 to 7400 hours annually and the specific production is between 2300 and 3600 kwh/kw. The installation of the WTGs would result in diesel fuel savings corresponding to a month's consumption. Finally, the cost of wind generated electricity will be lower than that from diesel engines one to three years after the installation of the WTGs.

  17. Productivity, pricing policy and investments in French and British nationalized electric companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chick, Martin; Huret, Romain

    2003-01-01

    This is a comparative study of the development of, and interaction between, pricing, investment and productivity in the nationalised electricity industries in the United Kingdom and France between 1945 and 1973. The paper concentrates on examining why the rate of diffusion of marginal approaches to pricing and investment was faster in France than in the UK, although it notes that, in theory at least, the coverage of marginalist ideas was greater in the UK than in France by the late 1960's. The paper highlights the influence of French engineers and economists such as Marcel Boiteux and Pierre Masse on the development of applied public economics in the UK, and suggests that the experiences of 1945- 1973 were to have a significant long-term impact on subsequent attitudes towards privatisation and the promotion of competition in the electricity industry in each economy

  18. Combining microbial cultures for efficient production of electricity from butyrate in a microbial electrochemical cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miceli, Joseph F.; Garcia-Peña, Ines; Parameswaran, Prathap; Torres, César I.; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Butyrate is an important product of anaerobic fermentation; however, it is not directly used by characterized strains of the highly efficient anode respiring bacteria (ARB) Geobacter sulfurreducens in microbial electrochemical cells. By combining a butyrate-oxidizing community with a Geobacter rich culture, we generated a microbial community which outperformed many naturally derived communities found in the literature for current production from butyrate and rivaled the highest performing natural cultures in terms of current density (~11 A/m2) and Coulombic efficiency (~70%). Microbial community analyses support the shift in the microbial community from one lacking efficient ARB in the marine hydrothermal vent community to a community consisting of ~80% Geobacter in the anode biofilm. This demonstrates the successful production and adaptation of a novel microbial culture for generating electrical current from butyrate with high current density and high Coulombic efficiency, by combining two mixed micro bial cultures containing complementing biochemical pathways. PMID:25048958

  19. Quality Assurance and Functionality Tests on Electrical Components during the ATLAS IBL Production

    CERN Document Server

    Bassalat, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    During the shutdown of 2013-2014, for the enhancement of the current ATLAS Pixel Detector, a fourth layer (Insertable B Layer, IBL) is being built and will be installed between the innermost layer and a new beam pipe. A new generation of readout chip has been developed, and two different sensor designs, a rather conventional planar and a 3D design, have been bump bonded to the Front Ends. Additionally, new staves and module flex circuits have been developed. A production QA test bench was therefore established to test all production staves before integration with the new beam pipe. Quality assurance measurements under cleanroom conditions, including temperature and humidity control, are being performed on the individual components during the various production steps of the IBL; namely, connectivity tests, electrical tests and signal probing on individual parts and assembled subsystems. This paper discusses the pre-assembly QC procedures, the capabilities of the stave qualification setup, and recent results fr...

  20. Enhanced methane production from pig slurry with pulsed electric field pre-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavi, Seyedeh Masoumeh; Unnthorsson, Runar

    2018-02-01

    Intensive amount of manure produced in pig breeding sectors represents negative impact on the environment and requires optimal management. Anaerobic digestion as a well-known manure management process was optimized in this experimental study by pulsed electric field (PEF) pre-treatment. The effect of PEF on methane production was investigated at three different intensities (15, 30 and 50 kWh/m 3 ). The results indicate that the methane production and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was improved by continuous escalation of applied intensity, up to 50 kWh/m 3 . In comparison with untreated slurry, methane production and COD removal were increased up to 58% and 44%, respectively.

  1. Thermoecological cost of electricity production in the natural gas pressure reduction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostowski, Wojciech J.; Usón, Sergio; Stanek, Wojciech; Bargiel, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a novel concept for thermodynamic evaluation of a selected energy system. The presented method has been developed by integration of the Thermo-Economic Analysis with the theory of Thermo-Ecological Cost. It can be applied as a thermodynamic evaluation method of rational resources management within any production system. It takes into account both the interrelation of irreversibility within the analyzed system and its influence on the global effects related to the depletion of non-renewable natural resources. The proposed method has been applied to evaluate the production of electricity in the process of natural gas transmission at pressure reduction stations. The expansion system is based on an existing plant integrated with a CHP module, characterized by a performance ratio of 89.5% and exergy efficiency of 49.2%. Within the paper, this expansion plant is supplied with natural gas transported from a natural deposit through a case-study transmission system with 4 compressor stations. The TEC (thermoecological cost) method was applied in conjunction with thermoeconomic analysis. As a result, TEC of the electricity generated in the expanders was determined at 2.42 kJ/kJ, TEC of electricity from the CHP module is 1.77, and the TEC of medium-pressure natural gas distributed to consumers is 1.022. - Highlights: • The chain of NG transmission with an exergy recovery expansion plant was analyzed. • New methodology coupling the TEC (thermoecological cost) and thermoeconomics. • Decomposition of the TEC formation process. • Case-study transmission system yields TEC of natural gas = 1.0222. • Expansion plant yields TEC of electricity 2.42 (expanders) and 1.77 (CHP module)

  2. The structure of atomic power industry with allowance for energy production other than electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, A.P.; Legasov, V.A.; Sidorenko, V.A.; Ponomarev-Stepnoj, N.N.; Protsenko, A.N.; Grebennik, V.N.; Glushkov, E.S.

    1977-01-01

    The important tendency in the development of nuclear power is broadening the scope of its application for substitution of mineral fuel by the nuclear one not only at the electrical power production but in other energy consuming fields of industry. The development of large-scale nuclear power plants permits the provision of the significant part of energy supply of all kinds and save on oil and gas. Scales and rates of development of nuclear power are estimated for the model society on the basis of predicted need energy consumption per capita. The possible rates and scales of nuclear power development are determined at some alternative amounts of potential reserves of organic fuel (oil, gas) per capita and within the economically and ecologically reasonable scales of coal utilization. There has been given the analysis of possible scopes of application of nuclear power industry: for production of electricity, central heating, hydrogen generation, gasification of coals, metallurgy, chemistry by means of medium- and high-temperature reactors. The conceivable relation between electrical energy and heat production in energetics and the nuclear power industry and the dynamics of change in this relation is being forecasted. The promising development of high temperature helium reactors has been discussed. Considerations on possible effect of thorium cycle on the structure of nuclear power industry are outlined. The nuclear power industry is being developed mainly on the basis of nuclear power plants with thermal reactors and it should not be expected for the next decade that its structure is to change significantly. However, the development of only this type reactors will require, as early as the end of this century, the significant consumption of natural uranium and considerable increase in capacities of uranium output and uranium enrichment industry. Therefore, in the following stages of development of nuclear power industry it is necessary to introduce fast breeders

  3. Internalizing environmental costs: A survey of progress in estimating the external environmental costs of electricity production and a review of market-based policies to incorporate them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eto, J.H.; Helcke, G.

    1991-01-01

    The production of electricity creates environmental insults whose costs are not fully reflected in the prices paid by consumers for electricity services. Failure to incorporate these external costs leads to economically inefficient production and consumption decisions. The present work reviews two related efforts to address this market distortion. The first concerns progress in estimating the uninternalized environmental costs of electricity production. The second concerns market-based approaches to internalizing these costs in electricity production and consumption decisions. 10 tabs.; 41 refs

  4. Comparison of Turkey's electrical energy consumption and production with some European countries and optimization of future electrical power supply investments in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunc, Murat; Camdali, Uenal; Parmaksizoglu, Cem

    2006-01-01

    Energy issues are directly related to the development of a country and the living standards of its people. Turkey is currently in a rapid industrialization process with a young and dynamic population of over 65 million. Due to relatively high growth rate of the population, increasing consumer oriented attitudes and as a result of rising levels of affluence, the primary energy demand is rising rapidly at an annual rate of 6.7 percent. In this study Turkey's energy resources, installed electric power capacity, electric energy production and consumption rates are investigated and compared with that of France, Germany and Switzerland. Turkey's electric energy consumption rates are predicted with regression analysis for the years of 2010 and 2020 and finally linear mathematical optimization model is developed to predict the distribution of future electrical power supply investments in Turkey

  5. Reduction of power consumption in motor-driven applications by using PM motors; PM = Permanent Magnet; Reduktion af elforbrug til motordrift ved anvendelse af PM motorer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hvenegaard, C.M.; Hansen, Mads P.R.; Groenborg Nikolaisen, C. (Teknologisk Institut, Taastrup (Denmark)); Nielsen, Sandie B. (Teknologisk Institut, AArhus (Denmark)); Ritchie, E.; Leban, K. (Aalborg Univ., Aalborg (Denmark))

    2009-12-15

    The traditional asynchronous motor with aluminum rotor is today by far the most widespread and sold electric motor, but a new and more energy efficient type of engine - the permanent magnet motor (PM motor) - is expected in the coming years to win larger and larger market shares. Several engine manufacturers in Europe, USA and Asia are now beginning to market the PM motors, which can replace the traditional asynchronous motor. The project aims to uncover the pros and cons of replacing asynchronous motors including EFF1 engines with PM motors, including the price difference. Furthermore, it is identified how the efficiency of PM motors is affected by low load levels and at various forms of control. Finally, the energy savings potential is analysed, by replacing asynchronous motors with PM motors. The study includes laboratory tests of PM motors, made in a test stand at Danish Technological Institute. (ln)

  6. Safety aspects of electric energy production and supplies in conditions of the Slovenske elektrarne, a.s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sip, M.; Danilak, M. et al.

    2005-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with safety aspects of electric energy production and supplies in conditions of the Slovenske elektrarne, a.s. Some terrorist attack and accidents are presented. Four video-sequences are included

  7. Is Power Production Flexibility a Substitute for Storability? Evidence from Electricity Futures Prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilic, M.; Huisman, R. [Erasmus School of Economics, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-07-15

    Electricity is not storable. As a consequence, electricity demand and supply need to be in balance at any moment in time as a shortage in production volume cannot be compensated with supply from inventories. However, if the installed power supply capacity is very flexible, variation in demand can be counterbalanced with flexible adjustment of production volumes. Therefore, supply flexibility can replace the role of inventory. In this paper, we question whether power production flexibility is a substitute for storability. To do so, we examine power futures prices from countries that differ in their power supply and test whether power futures prices contain information about expected future spot prices and risk premiums and examine whether futures prices from a market in which power supply is more flexible would lead to futures prices that are more in line with the theory of storage. We find the opposite; futures prices from markets with flexible power supply behave according to the expectations theory. The implicit view from futures prices is that flexibility is not a substitute for storability.

  8. Is Power Production Flexibility a Substitute for Storability? Evidence from Electricity Futures Prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, M.; Huisman, R.

    2010-07-01

    Electricity is not storable. As a consequence, electricity demand and supply need to be in balance at any moment in time as a shortage in production volume cannot be compensated with supply from inventories. However, if the installed power supply capacity is very flexible, variation in demand can be counterbalanced with flexible adjustment of production volumes. Therefore, supply flexibility can replace the role of inventory. In this paper, we question whether power production flexibility is a substitute for storability. To do so, we examine power futures prices from countries that differ in their power supply and test whether power futures prices contain information about expected future spot prices and risk premiums and examine whether futures prices from a market in which power supply is more flexible would lead to futures prices that are more in line with the theory of storage. We find the opposite; futures prices from markets with flexible power supply behave according to the expectations theory. The implicit view from futures prices is that flexibility is not a substitute for storability.

  9. Correlated wind-power production and electric load scenarios for investment decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baringo, L.; Conejo, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Investment models require an accurate representation of the involved uncertainty. ► Demand and wind power production are correlated and uncertain parameters. ► Two methodologies are provided to represent uncertainty and correlation. ► An accurate uncertainty representation is crucial to get optimal results. -- Abstract: Stochastic programming constitutes a useful tool to address investment problems. This technique represents uncertain input data using a set of scenarios, which should accurately describe the involved uncertainty. In this paper, we propose two alternative methodologies to efficiently generate electric load and wind-power production scenarios, which are used as input data for investment problems. The two proposed methodologies are based on the load- and wind-duration curves and on the K-means clustering technique, and allow representing the uncertainty of and the correlation between electric load and wind-power production. A case study pertaining to wind-power investment is used to show the interest of the proposed methodologies and to illustrate how the selection of scenarios has a significant impact on investment decisions.

  10. Public synthesis of the reference costs study of the electric power production; Synthese publique de l'etude des couts de reference de la production electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Every 3 or 5 years, the DGEC published the reference costs study of the electric power production which evaluates, in a theoretical framework, the total cost of an electrical MWh, from different production ways. These studies bring information for the definition of the energy policy and the elaboration of the investments program. because of the great competition of the market, it was decided not to publish the absolute value of the hypothesis and the results but under indexed form. (A.L.B.)

  11. Are uranium resources sufficient to face the expected revival of nuclear electricity production in the world?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyve, C.

    2007-11-01

    This article proposes a table containing assessments of uranium resources in 2005 in different countries, and comments the evolution of uranium prices between 1968 and 2008. It discusses whether it would be possible to cope with a dramatic increase of uranium prices, whether it would be already possible to save uranium with the same level of electricity production, whether there is still some uranium resources to be discovered, whether we could rely on non conventional uranium sources (phosphates, sea water), and the role of future reactors

  12. Comparative gross domestic production and electricity consumption per capita in the context of nuclear power prospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridzuan Abdul Mutalib; Maragatham Kumar; Nik Arlina Nik Ali; Abi Muttaqin Jalal Bayar; Aisya Raihan Abdul Kadir; Muhammed Zulfakar Zolkaffly; Azlinda Aziz; Jamal Khaer Ibrahim

    2008-08-01

    Malaysia, based on its economic and industrial growth level should be able to absorb nuclear technology and capacity in implementing a nuclear power programme. Malaysia Gross Domestic Production (GDP) and electricity consumption (kWh per capita is higher compared with other developing countries, which have already announced their plans to implement nuclear power programme. Furthermore, Asia reliance on nuclear power plants to meet growing energy needs in the near future is also significantly increasing. This paper presents the comparative GDP and kWh per capita in Asia and globally in the context of nuclear power prospect in Malaysia. (Author)

  13. Effect of cloudiness on the production of electricity by photovoltaic panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrobak Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the influence of different types of cloud on the production of electricity by photovoltaic panels. In the introductory part of the paper, processes in the atmosphere are described, giving rise to various types of clouds and, consequently, to the formation of cloud. In the next section of the paper, the system is described on which the research and the methodology of acquisition and data evaluation were carried out. The last part of the paper summarizes the overall results of the research.

  14. Overview of the electricity market of Estonia and the plausibility of nuclear energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtveer, M.; Tkaczyk, A.

    2010-01-01

    The Republic of Estonia is a small country in Northern Europe, with electrical energy production dependent mostly on oil shale. The local supply of oil shale has given Estonia its energetic independence but it also presents great challenges: it is waste-intensive and causes massive emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. It also causes damage to the landscape and to the health of the population living near the mining and energy producing area. Due to the above mentioned problems the use of nuclear power has been taken into consideration, but the debate is at its beginning and the need for further analyses is great

  15. The Spanish energetic mix; prevision and historic evolution of the electric production structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revuelta, J.; Lopez Sanz, R.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the past and forecasted evolution of the electric production of the Spanish system (excluding the Spanish isolated systems), according to the records of the System Operator, Red Electrica de Espana, and the studies of its Network Planning department. The behaviour of the demand is analysed, as well as the evolution of the generation mix. The article expose the main recent changes the sector has undergone and points out the main future challenge it will face regarding the forecasted evolution of the demand, the integration of renewable energy sources, and the energy objectives established at European and national level. (Author)

  16. A study of the optimum draft of multiple resonance power buoys for maximizing electric power production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuck-Min Kweon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To maximize electric power production using wave energy extractions from resonance power buoys, the maximum motion displacement spectra of the buoys can primarily be obtained under a given wave condition. In this study, wave spectra observed in shoaling water were formulated. Target resonance frequencies were established from the arithmetic means of modal frequency bands and the peak frequencies. The motion characteristics of the circular cylindrical power buoys with corresponding drafts were then calculated using numerical models without considering PTO damping force. Results showed that the heave motions of the power buoys in shoaling waters with insufficient drafts produced greater amplification effects than those in deep seas with sufficient drafts.

  17. Application of recourse optimization for risk management of electricity production with weekly and monthly horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparigliato, R.

    2008-06-01

    In this Phd, we focus on the problem of weekly risk management in electric production. In the first part of this work, we investigate how to take into account stochastic inflows in the optimal management of a hydraulic valley. Our model is based on robust optimization and linear decision rules. A validation procedure based on simulation over random scenarios shows that we are able to postpone constraints violations of volume at very low cost. The second part deals with the problem of active management of electrical power margin, defined as the difference between the total offer and the total demand, considering the different random parameters which affect the electrical system. The objective is to determine optimal solutions to be taken in order to satisfy the demand in 99% of the cases. In that purpose, we propose a new open-looped formulation, based on the stochastic process of power margin and on the use of probabilistic constraints. To be able to solve this problem, we generate power margin's scenarios using more realistic methods than those used in exploitation. At last, a closed-loop approach, based on the heuristic 'Stochastic Programming with Step Decision Rules', introduced by Thenie and Vial, is studied. First results are quite promising in comparison with the opened-loop ones. (author)

  18. Maximizing the transferred power to electric arc furnace for having maximum production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samet, Haidar; Ghanbari, Teymoor; Ghaisari, Jafar

    2014-01-01

    In order to increase production of an EAF (electric arc furnace) by reduction of melting time, one can increase transferred power to the EAF. In other words a certain value of energy can be transferred to the EAF in less time. The transferred power to the EAF reduces when series reactors are utilized in order to have stable arc with desired characteristics. To compensate the reduced transferred power, the secondary voltage of the EAF transformer should be increased by tap changing of the transformer. On the other hand, after any tap changing of the EAF transformer, improved arc stability is degraded. Therefore, the series reactor and EAF transformer tap changing should be simultaneously determined to achieve arc with desired characteristics. In this research, three approaches are proposed to calculate the EAF system parameters, by which the optimal set-points of the different series reactor and EAF transformer taps are determined. The electric characteristics relevant to the EAF for the all transformer and series reactor taps with and without SVC (static VAr compensator) are plotted and based on these graphs the optimal set-points are tabulated. Finally, an economic evaluation is also presented for the methods. - Highlights: • The main goal is to transfer the maximum power to electric arc furnace. • Optimal transformer and series reactor taps are determined. • Arc stability and transferred power to EAF determine the optimal performance. • An economic assessment is done and the number of increased meltings is calculated

  19. Utilization of Electric Arc Furnace Dust as raw material for the production of ceramic and concrete building products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikalidis, Constantine; Mitrakas, Manassis

    2006-01-01

    The up to 20 wt% addition of the Electric Arc Furnace Dust (EAFD) hazardous waste on the properties of extruded clay-based ceramic building products fired at various temperatures (850 to 1050 degrees C), as well as of dolomite-concrete products was investigated. Chemical, mineralogical and particle size distribution analyses were performed in order to characterize the used EAFD. The results showed that the ceramic specimens prepared had water absorption, firing shrinkage, apparent density, mechanical strength, colour and leaching behaviour within accepted limits. Addition of 7.5 to 15 wt% EAFD presented improved properties, while 20 wt% seems to be the upper limit. Dolomite-concrete specimens were prepared by vibration and press-forming of mixtures containing cement, sand, dolomite, EAFD and water. Modulus of rupture values were significantly increased by the addition of EAFD. The leaching tests showed stabilization of all toxic metals within the sintered ceramic structure, while the leaching behaviour of lead in dolomite-concrete products needs further detailed study.

  20. A Study of Digging Productivity of an Electric Rope Shovel for Different Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Babaei Khorzoughi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A performance monitoring study of an electric rope shovel operating in an open pit coal mine was conducted. As the mining industry moves toward higher productivity, profitability and predictability, the need for more reliable, productive and efficient mining shovels increases. Consequently, it is critical to study the productivity of these machines and to understand the effect of different operational parameters on that. In this paper a clustering analysis is performed to classify shovel digging effort and behaviour based on digging energy, dig time and payload per pass. Then the influence of the operator on the digging efficiency and productivity of the machine is analyzed with a focus on operator technique during digging. A statistical analysis is conducted on different cycle time components (dig time, swing time, return time for different operators. In addition to time components, swing and return angles as well as loading rate and mucking rate are observed and analyzed. The results of this study help to understand the effect of different operators on the digging productivity of the shovel and then to set the best operator practice.

  1. A new road map for the research in photovoltaic electricity production in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destruel, P.; Chataing, H.

    2009-01-01

    Dealing with the new road map published in 2009 by the NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology development Organization) for the research activity in photovoltaic electricity production in Japan from now until 2030, this brief embassy report first outlines the need for such a new road map as Japan's international competitiveness is more and more challenged: it only possesses 10% of the installed power in the world (50% in 2003) and ranks now in sixth position in terms of annual installed power. Beside this trend, environmental challenges and CO 2 emission reduction objectives, as well as oil price increase, have driven the NEDO to review its road map sooner as foreseen. The author describes the contents of the three main axis which have been defined for the photovoltaic development: photovoltaic profitability improvement (grid parity objective by 2030, production cost reduction), broadening of photovoltaic uses and applications, development and competitiveness of Japanese industries

  2. Gas power production, surplus concepts and the transformation of hydro-electric rent into resource rent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amundsen, Eirik S.

    1997-01-01

    The paper considers the effects of introducing large scale gas power production capacity into an electricity sector based on hydropower. In this process the economic rent is transmitted from the hydro power sector to the resource rent in the gas power sector, but is along the way intermingled with ordinary producer surplus and quasi-rent stemming from increasing cost conditions in the production infrastructure and capacity constraints. The net effect on total rent generated depends on development in demand, demand elasticities, costs saved from delaying hydropower projects and the existence of producer surplus in gas power generation. The paper closes with a discussion of possible tax base changes following from the introduction of a thermal power system based on natural gas

  3. A potention of renewable energy sources in Slovakia in term of production of electricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefan Kuzevič

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Electro-energetics of Slovak Republic is in this time in state of re-structuralization consequent from responsibilities which SR has with integration to the EU and on the other hand with actual status of production capacities of fossil fuels using in heat power stations and heat stations also the utilization of nuclear energy in nuclear power stations Jaslovské Bohunice and Mochovce. Paradoxically slim representation in production capacities have renewable energy sources, while only one relevant one is utilization of water in small hydro power stations. According to fact, that to the year 2010, the share of renewable sources of energy using in comparing with electric energy has to achieve 21,7% (direction of EU 77/2001. It is necessary to evaluate possibilities of utilization and to specify potential of utilization from technical and economical aspect.

  4. Technologies for production of electricity and heat in Sweden. Wind energy in perspective of international development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, Niels-Erik; Lawaetz, Henrik; Lemming, Joergen; Morthorst, Poul Erik

    2008-12-15

    The development of the wind energy technology has been very successful from the 1970s and up till now. Initially there was a battle between wind turbine concepts, but the commercial winner today is the three-bladed horizontal axis, upwind, electricity producing and grid connected wind turbine with availability on mature markets somewhere around 99%. An important contributor to the growth of the European market for wind energy technology has been EU framework legislation combined with legislation at the national level. The binding target for renewable energy in Sweden is proposed to be 49% of the final energy consumption in 2020 compared to 39.8% in 2005. To stimulate the development of wind energy and to promote a specific national goals Sweden is mainly using an electricity certificate system. The target is to increase the production of electricity from renewable sources by 17 TWh in 2016, relative to corresponding production in 2002. There is not at specific target for the use of wind energy. A future energy system that includes a high proportion of wind energy will be expected to meet the same requirements for security of supply and economic efficiency as the energy systems of today. The variability of wind power create a specific challenges for the future energy systems compared to those of today. The economics of wind power depends mainly of investment cost, operation and maintenance costs, electricity production and turbine lifetime. An average turbine installed in Europe has a total investment cost of 1.230 Euro/kW with a typically variation from approximately 1000 Euro/kW to approximately 1400 Euro/kW. The calculated costs per kWh wind generated power range from approximately 7-10 cEuro/kWh at sites with low average wind speeds to approximately 5-6.5 cEuro/kWh at good coastal positions, with an average of approximately 7cEuro/kWh at a medium wind site. Offshore costs are largely dependent on weather and wave conditions, water depth, and distance to the

  5. Reference-dependent electric vehicle production strategy considering subsidies and consumer trade-offs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we extend previous reference-dependence newsvendor research by incorporating both consumer trade-offs and government subsidies to evaluate the relevant influences on the optimal electric vehicle (EV) production decisions. We present the properties of the model, derive the closed-form solutions for the model given the relevant constraints, and use numerical experiments to illustrate the results. We find that subsidies, loss aversion, the performance of both EVs and internal combustion engine-powered vehicles (ICEVs), and the coefficient of variation of demand are significant factors influencing the optimal production quantity and the expected utilities of EV production. The high selling price and other high costs of ICEVs help offset the influence of loss aversion, whereas the high costs of EV enhance loss aversion. Our study enriches the literature on subsidies for EVs by establishing a behavioral model to incorporate the decision bias in terms of loss aversion at the firm level. These findings provide guiding principles for both policymakers and EV managers for making better strategies to promote EVs in the early immature market. - Highlights: • The performance of both electric vehicles (EVs) and internal combustion engine-power vehicles (ICEVs) influences the EV production decisions. • A loss averse EV manager produces less and obtains less the expected utility than a risk neutral one. • Subsidies help decrease the EV breakeven quantity, increase the optimal quantity, offset the influence of loss aversion. • Subsidies should be adjusted according to the performance of both EVs and the ICEVs, demand heterogeneity, and local conditions. • The high ICEVs costs help offset the influence of loss aversion, whereas the high EV costs enhance loss aversion

  6. Performance of the Lead-Alloy-Cooled Reactor Concept Balanced for Actinide Burning and Electricity Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hejzlar, Pavel; Davis, Cliff B.

    2004-01-01

    A lead-bismuth-cooled fast reactor concept targeted for a balanced mission of actinide burning and low-cost electricity production is proposed and its performance analyzed. The design explores the potential benefits of thorium-based fuel in actinide-burning cores, in particular in terms of the reduction of the large reactivity swing and enhancement of the small Doppler coefficient typical of fertile-free actinide burners. Reduced electricity production cost is pursued through a longer cycle length than that used for fertile-free burners and thus a higher capacity factor. It is shown that the concept can achieve a high transuranics destruction rate, which is only 20% lower than that of an accelerator-driven system with fertile-free fuel. The small negative fuel temperature reactivity coefficient, small positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, and negative core radial expansion coefficient provide self-regulating characteristics so that the reactor is capable of inherent shutdown during major transients without scram, as in the Integral Fast Reactor. This is confirmed by thermal-hydraulic analysis of several transients without scram, including primary coolant pump trip, station blackout, and reactivity step insertion, which showed that the reactor was able to meet all identified thermal limits. However, the benefits of high actinide consumption and small reactivity swing can be attained only if the uranium from the discharged fuel is separated and not recycled. This additional uranium separation step and thorium reprocessing significantly increase the fuel cycle costs. Because the higher fuel cycle cost has a larger impact on the overall cost of electricity than the savings from the higher capacity factor afforded through use of thorium, this concept appears less promising than the fertile-free actinide burners

  7. Performance of the Lead-Alloy Cooled Concept Balanced for Actinide Burning and Electricity Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavel Hejzlar; Cliff Davis

    2004-01-01

    A lead-bismuth-cooled fast reactor concept targeted for a balanced mission of actinide burning and low-cost electricity production is proposed and its performance analyzed. The design explores the potential benefits of thorium-based fuel in actinide-burning cores, in particular in terms of the reduction of the large reactivity swing and enhancement of the small Doppler coefficient typical of fertile-free actinide burners. Reduced electricity production cost is pursued through a longer cycle length than that used for fertile-free burners and thus a higher capacity factor. It is shown that the concept can achieve a high transuranics destruction rate, which is only 20% lower than that of an accelerator-driven system with fertile-free fuel. The small negative fuel temperature reactivity coefficient, small positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, and negative core radial expansion coefficient provide self-regulating characteristics so that the reactor is capable of inherent shutdown during major transients without scram, as in the Integral Fast Reactor. This is confirmed by thermal-hydraulic analysis of several transients without scram, including primary coolant pump trip, station blackout, and reactivity step insertion, which showed that the reactor was able to meet all identified thermal limits. However, the benefits of high actinide consumption and small reactivity swing can be attained only if the uranium from the discharged fuel is separated and not recycled. This additional uranium separation step and thorium reprocessing significantly increase the fuel cycle costs. Because the higher fuel cycle cost has a larger impact on the overall cost of electricity than the savings from the higher capacity factor afforded through use of thorium, this concept appears less promising than the fertile-free actinide burners

  8. The impact of electricity production upon the environment: the lessons drawn from recent european assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, H.; Beutier, D.

    2004-01-01

    European choices where energy policy is concerned must take account of the effects of each source of electricity production upon both man and the environment. In order to assess these effects, two approaches can be used: the external cost (EC) approach and the life cycle analysis (LCA) approach. Regarding nuclear energy, the documentation for life cycle analysis or for external cost type surveys is more comprehensive than for other forms of production and the values indicated are generally coherent. To a lesser extent, this is also the case of hydro-electricity. Therefore, in general it is relatively simple to establish reference thresholds for these sectors. The exercise becomes rather more difficult in the case of certain, so-called renewable energies, due to their intermittent nature and the high energy intensity processes that they include. This raises the question of national differences and the generic nature of the LCA. Indeed, the incorporation of secondary energy (or even replacement energy) leads to high levels of disparity according to the national mix concerned. A prime example of 'dependent' renewable energy is photovoltaic solar energy. Assessments remain incomplete for several sectors and other limitations apply to the accounting aspects of the LCA approach. (authors)

  9. Using supervised environmental composites in production and efficiency analyses. An application to Norwegian electricity networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orea, Luis [Oviedo Univ. (Spain). Oviedo Efficiency Group; Growitsch, Christian [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Energiewirtschaftliches Inst.; Jamasb, Tooraj [Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh (United Kingdom). Dept. of Economics

    2012-12-15

    Supervised dimension reduction methods have been extensively applied in different scientific fields like biology and medicine in recent years. However, they have hardly ever been used in micro economics, and in particular cost function modeling. Nonetheless, these methods can also be useful in regulation of natural monopolies such as gas, water, and electricity networks, where firms' cost and performance can be affected by a large number of environmental factors. In order to deal with this 'dimensionality' problem we propose using a supervised dimension reduction approach that aims to reduce the dimension of data without loss of information. Economic theory suggests that in the presence of other relevant production (cost) drivers, the traditional all-inclusive assumption is not satisfied and, hence, production or cost predictions (and efficiency estimates) might be biased. This paper shows that purging the data using a partial regression approach allows us to address this issue when analyzing the effect of weather and geography on cost efficiency in the context of the Norwegian electricity distribution networks.

  10. 78 FR 7394 - Notification of Proposed Production Activity; GE Appliances; Subzone 29C (Electric Water Heaters...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ..., freezers, apparel washing machines and dryers, electric ranges, and air-conditioners, under FTZ procedures...), fan motors, fans, filter/ dryers, expansion valves, accumulators, parts of electric water heaters...

  11. Quality assurance and functionality tests on electrical components during the ATLAS IBL production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jentzsch, J

    2013-01-01

    To improve performance of the ATLAS inner tracker, a fourth Pixel layer, called the Insertable B-layer (IBL), will be installed in 2014 on a new beam pipe. A new read out chip generation, FE-I4, has been developed and two different sensor designs, a rather conventional planar and a 3D design, have been flip chipped to these front ends. New staves holding new stave and module flex circuits have been developed as well. Therefore, a production QA test bench has been established to test all production staves before integration with the new beam pipe. This setup combines former ATLAS Pixel services and a new readout system, namely the RCE (Reconfigurable Cluster Element) system developed at SLAC. With this setup all production staves will be tested to ensure the installation of only those staves which fulfill the IBL criteria. Quality assurance measurements under cleanroom conditions, including temperature and humidity control, are performed on the individual components during the various production steps of the IBL, namely connectivity as well as electrical tests and signal probing on individual parts and assembled subsystems. The pre-assembly QC procedures, the capabilities of the stave qualification setup, and recent results from testing a prototype stave are presented and discussed.

  12. Quality assurance and functionality tests on electrical components during the ATLAS IBL production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jentzsch, J.

    2013-02-01

    To improve performance of the ATLAS inner tracker, a fourth Pixel layer, called the Insertable B-layer (IBL), will be installed in 2014 on a new beam pipe. A new read out chip generation, FE-I4, has been developed and two different sensor designs, a rather conventional planar and a 3D design, have been flip chipped to these front ends. New staves holding new stave and module flex circuits have been developed as well. Therefore, a production QA test bench has been established to test all production staves before integration with the new beam pipe. This setup combines former ATLAS Pixel services and a new readout system, namely the RCE (Reconfigurable Cluster Element) system developed at SLAC. With this setup all production staves will be tested to ensure the installation of only those staves which fulfill the IBL criteria. Quality assurance measurements under cleanroom conditions, including temperature and humidity control, are performed on the individual components during the various production steps of the IBL, namely connectivity as well as electrical tests and signal probing on individual parts and assembled subsystems. The pre-assembly QC procedures, the capabilities of the stave qualification setup, and recent results from testing a prototype stave are presented and discussed.

  13. Economic feasibility of electricity production from energy plantations present on community-managed forestlands in Madhya Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwivedi, Puneet; Alavalapati, Janaki R.R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses economic feasibility of utilizing community-managed degraded forest areas for raising energy crops and using the produced biomass for electricity production in the state of Madhya Pradesh, India through gasification technology. Three fast-growing species, three gasifiers of different capacities, three capital costs, and two scenarios of carbon payments were considered for analysis. Sensitivity and risk analyses were undertaken for determining the effects of variations in inputs on selected outputs. Results suggest that 5 million megawatt hour electricity can be generated annually which will prevent 4 million tons of carbon dioxide emissions per year. The production cost of a unit of electricity was found inversely related to the scale of production. The average cost of electricity at the consumer level produced using 100 kW gasifier was $0.15/kWh, which was greater than the price of electricity supplied from grid i.e. $0.08/kWh. The unit cost of producing electricity using Acacia nilotica was lowest among all the selected species. Technological advancements suitable government incentives are needed to promote electricity generation from forest biomass through gasification technology. This will help in spurring economic development and reducing overall ecological footprint of the state. (author)

  14. The Water Footprint Assessment of Electricity Production: An Overview of the Economic-Water-Energy Nexus in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Paolo Miglietta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The term “water-energy nexus” has remarkable implications in the sustainable management of water resources. The aim of this paper is to analyse the production of electricity, from an economic and technical perspective, using the water footprint and economic water productivity approaches. After comparing the percentage of contribution of fossil and renewable sources to the production of the electricity sector, the study then compares the percentage of contribution of fossil and renewable sources to the consumptive water footprint of Italian electricity production for each year analysed. Furthermore, distinguishing between renewable and fossil sources, the paper proceeds to assess the total consumptive water footprint generated by each energy source for the electricity production in Italy during the period 2007–2016. The study represents an original contribution for the identification of policies and managerial implications in the context of the energy sector, serving as a practical guide. The results, in fact, confirm the need for scientific and practical efforts to manage electricity production in an integrated perspective and provide a first glance at addressing the optimal design of energy source mix in the Italian regulation context, contributing to reducing the water footprint, without ignoring the economic aspects.

  15. Production of Fischer–Tropsch fuels and electricity from bituminous coal based on steam hydrogasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Xiaoming; Norbeck, Joseph M.; Park, Chan S.

    2012-01-01

    A new thermochemical process for (Fischer–Tropsch) FT fuels and electricity coproduction based on steam hydrogasification is addressed and evaluated in this study. The core parts include (Steam Hydrogasification Reactor) SHR, (Steam Methane Reformer) SMR and (Fisher–Tropsch Reactor) FTR. A key feature of SHR is the enhanced conversion of carbon into methane at high steam environment with hydrogen and no need for catalyst or the use of oxygen. Facilities utilizing bituminous coal for coproduction of FT fuels and electricity with carbon dioxide sequestration are designed in detail. Cases with design capacity of either 400 or 4000 TPD (Tonne Per Day) (dry basis) are investigated with process modeling and cost estimation. A cash flow analysis is performed to determine the fuels (Production Cost) PC. The analysis shows that the 400 TPD case due to a FT fuels PC of 5.99 $/gallon diesel equivalent results in a plant design that is totally uneconomic. The 4000 TPD plant design is expected to produce 7143 bbl/day FT liquids with PC of 2.02 $/gallon and 2.27 $/gallon diesel equivalent at overall carbon capture ratio of 65% and 90%, respectively. Prospective commercial economics benefits with increasing plant size and improvements from large-scale demonstration efforts on steam hydrogasification. -- Highlights: ► We develop a new thermochemical method for synthetic fuels production. ► Detailed plant design and process modeling for the Coal-to-Liquid facilities are performed. ► Economic analysis has been carried out in determining the fuel production cost and IRR. ► The fuels produced in this study can compete with petroleum when crude oil price is 100 $/bbl. ► Further economic benefit comes with plant scale-up and process commercial demonstration efforts.

  16. Impact of variable renewable production on electricity prices in Germany: a Markov switching model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin de Lagarde, Cyril; Lantz, Frederic

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at assessing the impact of renewable energy sources (RES) production on electricity spot prices. To do so, we use a two-regime Markov Switching (MS) model, that enables to disentangle the so-called 'merit-order effect' due to wind and solar photovoltaic productions (used in relative share of the electricity demand), depending on the price being high or low. We find that there are effectively two distinct price regimes that are put to light thanks to an inverse hyperbolic sine transformation that allows to treat negative prices. We also show that these two regimes coincide quite well with two regimes for the electricity demand (load). Indeed, when demand is low, prices are low and the merit-order effect is lower than when prices are high, which is consistent with the fact that the inverse supply curve is convex (i.e. has increasing slope). To illustrate this, we computed the mean marginal effects of RES production and load. On average, an increase of 1 GW of wind will decrease the price in regime 1 (resp. 2) by 0.77 euro /MWh (resp. 1 euro /MWh). The influence of solar is slightly weaker, as an extra gigawatt lowers the price of 0.73 euro /MWh in period 1, and 0.96 euro /MWh in regime 2. On the contrary, if the demand increases by 1 GW in regime 1 (resp. 2), the price increases on average by 0.93 euro /MWh (resp. 1.18 euro /MWh). Although we made sure these marginal effects are significantly different from one another, they are much more variable than the estimated coefficients of the model. Also, note that these marginal effects are only valid inside each regime when there is no switching. The latter regime partly corresponds to the high load regime, at the exception of periods during which RES production is high. The impact on volatility could also be observed: the variance of the (transformed) price is higher during the high-price regime than in the low-price one. In addition to the switching of the coefficients, we allowed the probabilities of

  17. Radical production efficiency and electrical characteristics of a coplanar barrier discharge built by multilayer ceramic technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jõgi, Indrek; Erme, Kalev; Levoll, Erik; Stamate, Eugen

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the electrical characteristics and radical production efficiency of a coplanar barrier discharge (CBD) device manufactured by Kyocera by multilayer ceramic technology. The device consisted of a number of linear electrodes with electrode and gap widths of 0.75 mm, immersed into a ceramic dielectric barrier. A closed flow-through system necessary for the measurements was prepared by placing a quartz plate at a height of 3 mm from the ceramic barrier. The production of nitrogen radicals was determined from the removal of a trace amount of NO in pure N 2 gas, while the production of oxygen radicals was determined by ozone production in pure O 2 or synthetic air. The production efficiency of N and O radicals and NO oxidation in synthetic air was comparable with the efficiency of a volume barrier discharge device. The power density per unit of surface area of the CBD device was more than two times larger than that of a similar volume barrier discharge setup, which makes the CBD device a compact alternative for gas treatment. The production of ozone and different nitrogen oxides was also evaluated for the open system of the CBD which is usable for surface treatment. The ozone concentration of this system was nearly independent from the input power, while the concentration of nitrogen oxides increased with input power. The open system of the CBD was additionally tested for the treatment of a silicon surface. An increase of applied power decreased the time required to reduce the water contact angle below 10 degrees but also started to have an impact on the surface roughness. (paper)

  18. Hydrogen or Fossil Combustion Nuclear Combined Cycle Systems for Baseload and Peak Load Electricity Production. Annex X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-12-15

    A combined cycle power plant is described that uses: (i) heat from a high temperature nuclear reactor to meet baseload electrical demands; and (ii) heat from the same high temperature reactor and burning natural gas, jet fuel or hydrogen to meet peak load electrical demands. For baseload electricity production, fresh air is compressed, then flows through a heat exchanger, where it is heated to between 700 and 900{sup o}C by using heat provided by a high temperature nuclear reactor via an intermediate heat transport loop, and finally exits through a high temperature gas turbine to produce electricity. The hot exhaust from the Brayton cycle gas turbine is then fed to a heat recovery steam generator that provides steam to a steam turbine for added electrical power production. To meet peak electricity demand, the air is first compressed and then heated with the heat from a high temperature reactor. Natural gas, jet fuel or hydrogen is then injected into the hot air in a combustion chamber, combusts and heats the air to 1300{sup o}C - the operating conditions for a standard natural gas fired combined cycle plant. The hot gas then flows through a gas turbine and a heat recovery steam generator before being sent to the exhaust stack. The higher temperatures increase the plant efficiency and power output. If hydrogen is used, it can be produced at night using energy from the nuclear reactor and stored until required. With hydrogen serving as the auxiliary fuel for peak power production, the electricity output to the electrical grid can vary from zero (i.e. when hydrogen is being produced) to the maximum peak power while the nuclear reactor operates at constant load. As nuclear heat raises air temperatures above the auto-ignition temperatures of the various fuels and powers the air compressor, the power output can be varied rapidly (compared with the capabilities of fossil fired turbines) to meet spinning reserve requirements and stabilize the electrical grid. This combined

  19. The most important structures utilizing primary and secondary hydroenergetic potential for electric energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacharovsky, M.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the construction, technological parameters and operation of Gabcikovo (primary hydro energy power) and Cierny Vah (secondary hydro energy power) are described. Construction of the hydroelectric power plant (HPP) Gabcikovo started in 1978 as a part of a system of hydro power projects Gabcikovo-Nagymaros. Basic technical data are: installed capacity 8 x 90 MW, production in an average aqueous year 2.650 GWh, number of hydroelectric generating sets (HGS) 8, turbine flow 8 x 413-636 m 3 /s, head 12.9-24 m.The Gabcikovo plant produced 9.163 GWh of electricity from the beginning of its operation till the end of 1966. The construction of the pumped storage plant (PSP) Cierny Vah started in 1976 and it was put into operation at the end of 1980. The main goal of the PSP Cierny Vah is to meet the control functions of an electrification system of the Slovak Republic, a substitute function in the cases of unexpected power outages and a planned electricity production from re-pumping. Technological parts are: six re-pumping vertical HGS in a three machine arrangement - a motor-generator, a turbine, a pump - are located in three double-blocks. Basic technical data: installed capacity 6 x 122.4 MW + 0.768 MW, yearly production 1,281 GWh, number of HGS 6, number of domestic hydroelectric generating sets 1, turbine flow 3 x 30 m / s, pump flow 6 x 22 m 3 /s, upper reservoir volume 3.7 mil. m 3 , max. head 434 m, peak time 5.71 hour, pumping time 7.78 hour, re-pumping cycle efficiency 74.36%. From putting the PSP into operation till the end of 1996, the HGS in operation 145,269 hours in total, including 53,332 hours in a turbine mode of operation, 70,293 hours in a pumping mode operation and 21,644 hours in a compensation mode operation. Whereas they supplied 5,346 GWh in the mains and the consumed 6,933 GWh of electricity for pumping. Hydroenergetic potential is a primary source of energy which is recyclable, i.e. unexhaustible and also ecologically the most tolerable

  20. The most important structures utilizing primary and secondary hydroenergetic potential for electric energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacharovsky, M [Slovenske elektrarne, a.s., Vodne elektrarne Trencin (Slovakia)

    1997-12-01

    In this paper the construction, technological parameters and operation of Gabcikovo (primary hydro energy power) and Cierny Vah (secondary hydro energy power) are described. Construction of the hydroelectric power plant (HPP) Gabcikovo started in 1978 as a part of a system of hydro power projects Gabcikovo-Nagymaros. Basic technical data are: installed capacity 8 x 90 MW, production in an average aqueous year 2.650 GWh, number of hydroelectric generating sets (HGS) 8, turbine flow 8 x 413-636 m{sup 3}/s, head 12.9-24 m.The Gabcikovo plant produced 9.163 GWh of electricity from the beginning of its operation till the end of 1966. The construction of the pumped storage plant (PSP) Cierny Vah started in 1976 and it was put into operation at the end of 1980. The main goal of the PSP Cierny Vah is to meet the control functions of an electrification system of the Slovak Republic, a substitute function in the cases of unexpected power outages and a planned electricity production from re-pumping. Technological parts are: six re-pumping vertical HGS in a three machine arrangement - a motor-generator, a turbine, a pump - are located in three double-blocks. Basic technical data: installed capacity 6 x 122.4 MW + 0.768 MW, yearly production 1,281 GWh, number of HGS 6, number of domestic hydroelectric generating sets 1, turbine flow 3 x 30 m{sup /}s, pump flow 6 x 22 m{sup 3}/s, upper reservoir volume 3.7 mil. m{sup 3}, max. head 434 m, peak time 5.71 hour, pumping time 7.78 hour, re-pumping cycle efficiency 74.36%. From putting the PSP into operation till the end of 1996, the HGS in operation 145,269 hours in total, including 53,332 hours in a turbine mode of operation, 70,293 hours in a pumping mode operation and 21,644 hours in a compensation mode operation. Whereas they supplied 5,346 GWh in the mains and the consumed 6,933 GWh of electricity for pumping. Hydroenergetic potential is a primary source of energy which is recyclable, i.e. unexhaustible and also ecologically the

  1. Geothermal power production in future electricity markets-A scenario analysis for Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purkus, Alexandra; Barth, Volker

    2011-01-01

    Development and diffusion of new renewable energy technologies play a central role in mitigating climate change. In this context, small-scale deep geothermal power has seen growing interest in recent years as an environmentally friendly, non-intermittent energy source with large technical potential. Following the first successful demonstration projects, the German geothermal industry is currently experiencing an internationally unparalleled growth. In this study we explore the factors driving this development, and the role geothermal power production could play in the future of the German electricity market. For this, we apply the scenario technique, based on literature analysis and interviews with companies operating actively in the field. Our findings highlight the importance of political support and framework conditions in the electricity market, with the best prospects in a decentralised energy system based on renewable energy sources, where high investment costs and the risk of discovery failure are balanced by the benefits of low-carbon base load power. - Research highlights: → Small scale geothermal plants could provide base load for RES based power systems. → New technologies allow its use even in geologically inactive regions like Germany. → Key factors for growth are political support and power market framework conditions. → Main investment barriers are comparatively high investment costs and discovery risks. → Scale of use depends on technological evolution and energy system structure.

  2. The independent power production and the reorganization of the electric power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    The transformation of the electric power production and distribution sector is in progress thanks to the progressive opening of markets and to the emergence of a new kind of actor: the independent producer. After the USA, the UK, and most of the emerging countries, the continental Europe is actively preparing its mutation. The historical actors try to protect their positions on their own national markets and at the same time to develop their international position. The newcomers (oil companies, independent power producers, collective service companies) have adopted a radically offensive strategy based on an international development and a skimming of the market. This study takes stock of the degree of liberalization of the different markets and analyzes their structuring elements and dynamism. An analytical presentation of the main actors of the electric power market is performed in order to evaluate their forces and feeblenesses in front of this mutation. Finally, it tries to answer the following questions: which are the most promising zones for the newcomers, and which companies will win this new deal? (J.S.)

  3. Biomass production from electricity using ammonia as an electron carrier in a reverse microbial fuel cell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendell O Khunjar

    Full Text Available The storage of renewable electrical energy within chemical bonds of biofuels and other chemicals is a route to decreasing petroleum usage. A critical challenge is the efficient transfer of electrons into a biological host that can covert this energy into high energy organic compounds. In this paper, we describe an approach whereby biomass is grown using energy obtained from a soluble mediator that is regenerated electrochemically. The net result is a separate-stage reverse microbial fuel cell (rMFC that fixes CO₂ into biomass using electrical energy. We selected ammonia as a low cost, abundant, safe, and soluble redox mediator that facilitated energy transfer to biomass. Nitrosomonas europaea, a chemolithoautotroph, was used as the biocatalyst due to its inherent capability to utilize ammonia as its sole energy source for growth. An electrochemical reactor was designed for the regeneration of ammonia from nitrite, and current efficiencies of 100% were achieved. Calculations indicated that overall bioproduction efficiency could approach 2.7±0.2% under optimal electrolysis conditions. The application of chemolithoautotrophy for industrial bioproduction has been largely unexplored, and results suggest that this and related rMFC platforms may enable biofuel and related biochemical production.

  4. Modification and tuning of diesel bus engine for biogas electricity production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sittiboon Siripornakarachai

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is to convert and tune a bus diesel engine for electricity production in a farm using biogas as fuel. The engine under study is a Hino K-13CTI 13,000 cc 24 valve turbocharged engine coupled to a 3 phase 4 pole induction motor to produce electricity at 50 Hz. Modifications include an addition of biogas carburetor for air-fuel mixing, replacing the fuel injection system with spark ignition system, reduction of compression ratio from the original 16:1 to 8:1 using a cylinder head spacer, and modification of the turbocharger waste gate so the boost pressure can be adjusted. When the induction motor is synchronized to the power grid, the running speed of the engine is 1,500 rpm. Optimal engine efficiency was achieved at 28.6% by setting the lambda factor at 1.097, ignition timing at 54o before top dead center, and the turbocharger boost at 56 kPa. With this setting, the generator power output is 134.20 kilowatt with emission of CO and NOX being 1,154 and 896 ppm respectively.

  5. Impact of the interaction of material production and mechanical processing on the magnetic properties of non-oriented electrical steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuning, Nora; Steentjes, Simon; Stöcker, Anett; Kawalla, Rudolf; Wei, Xuefei; Dierdorf, Jens; Hirt, Gerhard; Roggenbuck, Stefan; Korte-Kerzel, Sandra; Weiss, Hannes A.; Volk, Wolfram; Hameyer, Kay

    2018-04-01

    Thin laminations of non-grain oriented (NO) electrical steels form the magnetic core of rotating electrical machines. The magnetic properties of these laminations are therefore key elements for the efficiency of electric drives and need to be fully utilized. Ideally, high magnetization and low losses are realized over the entire polarization and frequency spectrum at reasonable production and processing costs. However, such an ideal material does not exist and thus, achievable magnetic properties need to be deduced from the respective application requirements. Parameters of the electrical steel such as lamination thickness, microstructure and texture affect the magnetic properties as well as their polarization and frequency dependence. These structural features represent possibilities to actively alter the magnetic properties, e.g., magnetization curve, magnetic loss or frequency dependence. This paper studies the influence of production and processing on the resulting magnetic properties of a 2.4 wt% Si electrical steel. Aim is to close the gap between production influence on the material properties and its resulting effect on the magnetization curves and losses at different frequencies with a strong focus on occurring interdependencies between production and mechanical processing. The material production is realized on an experimental processing route that comprises the steps of hot rolling, cold rolling, annealing and punching.

  6. Impact of the interaction of material production and mechanical processing on the magnetic properties of non-oriented electrical steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Leuning

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Thin laminations of non-grain oriented (NO electrical steels form the magnetic core of rotating electrical machines. The magnetic properties of these laminations are therefore key elements for the efficiency of electric drives and need to be fully utilized. Ideally, high magnetization and low losses are realized over the entire polarization and frequency spectrum at reasonable production and processing costs. However, such an ideal material does not exist and thus, achievable magnetic properties need to be deduced from the respective application requirements. Parameters of the electrical steel such as lamination thickness, microstructure and texture affect the magnetic properties as well as their polarization and frequency dependence. These structural features represent possibilities to actively alter the magnetic properties, e.g., magnetization curve, magnetic loss or frequency dependence. This paper studies the influence of production and processing on the resulting magnetic properties of a 2.4 wt% Si electrical steel. Aim is to close the gap between production influence on the material properties and its resulting effect on the magnetization curves and losses at different frequencies with a strong focus on occurring interdependencies between production and mechanical processing. The material production is realized on an experimental processing route that comprises the steps of hot rolling, cold rolling, annealing and punching.

  7. Very High Efficiency Reactor (VHER) Concepts for Electrical Power Generation and Hydrogen Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PARMA JR, EDWARD J.; PICKARD, PAUL S.; SUO-ANTTILA, AHTI JORMA

    2003-01-01

    The goal of the Very High Efficiency Reactor study was to develop and analyze concepts for the next generation of nuclear power reactors. The next generation power reactor should be cost effective compared to current power generation plant, passively safe, and proliferation-resistant. High-temperature reactor systems allow higher electrical generating efficiencies and high-temperature process heat applications, such as thermo-chemical hydrogen production. The study focused on three concepts; one using molten salt coolant with a prismatic fuel-element geometry, the other two using high-pressure helium coolant with a prismatic fuel-element geometry and a fuel-pebble element design. Peak operating temperatures, passive-safety, decay heat removal, criticality, burnup, reactivity coefficients, and material issues were analyzed to determine the technical feasibility of each concept

  8. Performances of nuclear power plants for combined production of electricity and hot water for district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronzen, S.

    The possibilities for using nuclear power plants for combined production of heat and power seem to be very good in the future. With the chosen 600 MWsub (e) BWR plant a heat output up to 1200 MW can be arranged. An alternative, consisting of steam extractions from the low-pressure turbine, offers a flexible solution for heat and power generation. With this alternative the combined plant can use components from normal condensing nuclear power plants. The flexible extraction design also offers a real possibility for using the combined plant in electric peak generation. However, urban siting requires long distance heat transmission and the pipe design for this transmission is a major problem when planning and optimizing the whole nuclear combined heat and power plant. (author)

  9. A combined hydro-nuclear-solar project for electric power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yiftah, S.

    1985-01-01

    Some of the main, general-perspective themes of Dr. Alvin Weinberg's leadership and long and varied work are: the effect of present and future nuclear energy projects on society, not only in the United States but throughout the world; analysis, comparison, and combination of various sources of energy; extensive multiple use of nuclear energy complexes (so-called NUPLEX, for nuclear complex) for various areas of the world; and use of ''Big Technology'' and ''Big Science'' for solving, or helping to solve, political problems. A combined hydro-nuclear-solar project for electric power production is discussed, as well as two other energy-related engineering projects. Some of the projects originated or were inspired by work done at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory under the leadership of Dr. Alvin Weinberg. Also reported are the technical characteristics and interrelationships of the three components of the envisaged hydronuclear-solar project

  10. Quality Assurance and Functionality Tests on Electrical Components during the ATLAS IBL Production

    CERN Document Server

    Jentzsch, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    For the first ATLAS pixel upgrade scheduled in 2013 a new front-end chip generation (FE- I4) has been developed. The second version (FE-I4B) hosting two different solid-state sensor technologies (planar silicon and 3D silicon) has been produced to be built into a new pixel layer (the Insertable B-Layer, IBL). Prototypes of these assembled modules have been tested in laboratory and testbeam measurements before and after irradiation. Quality assurance measurements under clean room conditions, including temperature and humidity control, have been and will be performed on the required parts during the various production steps of the IBL, namely connectivity as well as electrical tests and signal probing on individual parts and also assembled subsystems. Test results of measurements on flexes, modules and staves will be presented.

  11. Environmental performance of crop residues as an energy source for electricity production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to address the question, “What is the environmental performance of crop residues as an alternative energy source to fossil fuels, and whether and how can it be improved?”. In order to address the issue, we compare electricity production from wheat straw to that from coal and natural...... gas. The results on the environmental performance of straw for energy utilization and the two fossil fuel references are displayed first for different midpoint categories and then aggregated into a single score. The midpoint impact assessment shows that substitution of straw either for coal...... or for natural gas reduces global warming, non-renewable energy use, human toxicity and ecotoxicity, but increases eutrophication, respiratory inorganics, acidification and photochemical ozone. The results at the aggregate level show that the use of straw biomass for conversion to energy scores better than...

  12. Testing of Commercial Milk Production Technology Using A Combination of High Temperature Short Time and Pulsed Electric Field

    OpenAIRE

    Hadi A; Widjanarko SB; Kusnadi J

    2016-01-01

    The development of milk processing technology has grown excessively, and it contains advantage and disadvantage. This study used mixed between PEF (Pulsed Electric Field) and High Temperature Short Time (HTST) to produce milk processed product which is effective and efficient in killing milk microorganism without changing its color, scent, and nutrient content of processed product, therefore producing commercial sterile milk product in accord with milk Indonesian National Standard (SNI). The ...

  13. Order of the 23 March 2006 relative to the return rate on the immobilized capital for the electric power production installation in non connected areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-04-01

    This order fixes the return rate on the investments capital of electric power production in non connected areas, used for the calculation of the compensation expenses of the electric utilities. (A.L.B.)

  14. Mass media coverage of the changes in the environment of electricity production in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San Antonio, Santiago

    1998-01-01

    the idea of a public service under state control. The State's role in planning is restricted to electricity transport installations. Within this new market system, nuclear power will need to be competitive in relation to other energy sources, with emphasis laid on two highly important points: the reduction of production costs and the maintenance and improvement of levels of nuclear safety and radiological protection. The events leading up to the signing of the new Bill have served as a basis for a wide repercussion in the press. The period analysed with regard to the press is twelve months (December 1996 to November 1997). n total, almost 1,500 informative and opinion-leading articles were published during this period in both the national and local daily newspapers. The legislative reform in question also came in for a great deal of attention on radio and television. We have centred our analysis on the press because of the wide variety of information presented in the opinion pages and the way in which the news items have been handled. The information published on the new Electricity sector Bill has mainly been included in the economy and national news sections. The number of opinion leading articles which has appeared in the press exceeds what is normal. Underlining the messages most frequently appearing in the information published is necessary in order to be able to study what is known by public opinion in relation to the subject. The press messages having thus been identified, they are contrasted with those which should have been broadcast. The distance separating what was published and what should really have been underlined implies a knowledge gap for public opinion. In spite of the amount and amplitude - and in most cases the quality - of the information published in relation to the new legislation, certain of the most important concepts have gone unnoticed by the media. As is so often the case, the press has emphasised the more 'social' and controversial facts

  15. Local authorities faced with electricity market liberalization. The role of cities in electricity production and distribution in the Swiss Confederation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storelli, St.

    2008-01-01

    In Switzerland, cities are highly involved in producing and - mainly - distributing electrical power. To those cities, defining what universal service and public interest service are seems essential, when faced with the opening energy markets. Such services can be guaranteed through concession contracts granted to companies conducting business on the city's territory It is the interest of regional distribution companies (one thousand in Switzerland...) to free themselves of local political requirements that could impair their growth. This new independence, combined with the good community service guarantee, should help those companies continue to contribute to the economic and lasting growth of the regions they have always served. (author)

  16. Production of long chain alkyl esters from carbon dioxide and electricity by a two-stage bacterial process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, Tapio; Efimova, Elena; Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Santala, Suvi; Zhang, Tian; Santala, Ville

    2017-11-01

    Microbial electrosynthesis (MES) is a promising technology for the reduction of carbon dioxide into value-added multicarbon molecules. In order to broaden the product profile of MES processes, we developed a two-stage process for microbial conversion of carbon dioxide and electricity into long chain alkyl esters. In the first stage, the carbon dioxide is reduced to organic compounds, mainly acetate, in a MES process by Sporomusa ovata. In the second stage, the liquid end-products of the MES process are converted to the final product by a second microorganism, Acinetobacter baylyi in an aerobic bioprocess. In this proof-of-principle study, we demonstrate for the first time the bacterial production of long alkyl esters (wax esters) from carbon dioxide and electricity as the sole sources of carbon and energy. The process holds potential for the efficient production of carbon-neutral chemicals or biofuels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Study of solar electric production potential in Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur - Study synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-10-01

    While mainly proposing tables, graphs and maps, this report proposes a synthesis of a study performed to assess the potential production of solar electric energy in the PACA region. It briefly presents stakes of solar electric power development in the PACA region, outlines its potential benefits, briefly comments an assessment of existing photovoltaic installations in 2008 with an indication of the evolution since 2007, proposes an analysis of the different stakes related to the development of ground-based and of roof-based installations, an assessment of roof-based potential production and of ground-based potential production, an assessment of connection capacities for this potential production, and an assessment of PACA potential production by 2030

  18. Complex analysis of hazards to the man and natural environment due to electricity production in nuclear and coal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strupczewski, A.

    1990-01-01

    The report presents a complex analysis of hazards connected with electrical energy production in nuclear power plants and coal power plants, starting with fuel mining, through power plant construction, operation, possible accidents and decommissioning to long term global effects. The comparison is based on contemporary, proven technologies of coal fired power plants and nuclear power plants with pressurized water reactors. The hazards to environment and man due to nuclear power are shown to be much smaller than those due to coal power cycle. The health benefits due to electrical power availability are shown to be much larger than the health losses due to its production. (author). 71 refs, 17 figs, 12 tabs

  19. Electricity production costs of wind power and photovoltaic plants. A re-assessment; Stromgestehungskosten von Windkraft- und Photovoltaikanlagen. Eine Neubewertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bode, Sven [arrhenius Institut fuer Energie- und Klimapolitik, Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    Over the past few months a number of studies on the future development of the electricity production costs associated with the various green electricity production technologies have been presented, contributing to the discussion on the costs of the energy turnaround and the consequent necessity to amend the German Renewable Energy Law (EEG). However, the calculation base used in these cost surveys deserves questioning. More preferable would be a broadly based model which also takes account of systemic effects. This should also provide the basis for political decisions on the further course of development of renewable energy.

  20. Iron and steel industry and non-ferrous metal production - the electrical energy consumption and energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blazhev, Blagoja; Sofeski, Slobodan

    2002-01-01

    Companies of iron and steel industry and non-ferrous metal production are the largest individual consumers of electricity and other forms of energy. This paper presents the electricity consumption in the last twenty-year period as well as data for their contribution in creating the gross domestic product (GDP) and engagement of labor force in the country. For some of the companies there is data for energy efficiency (kWh/t i.e. MJ/t) in last five years. (Original)

  1. Spectral representation of the particle production out of equilibrium—Schwinger mechanism in pulsed electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    We develop a formalism to describe the particle production out of equilibrium in terms of dynamical spectral functions, i.e. Wigner transformed Pauli–Jordan's and Hadamard's functions. We take an explicit example of a spatially homogeneous scalar theory under pulsed electric fields and investigate the time evolution of the spectral functions. In the out-state we find an oscillatory peak in Hadamard's function as a result of the mixing between positive- and negative-energy waves. The strength of this peak is of the linear order of the Bogoliubov mixing coefficient, whereas the peak corresponding to the Schwinger mechanism is of the quadratic order. Between the in- and the out-states we observe a continuous flow of the spectral peaks together with two transient oscillatory peaks. We also discuss the medium effect at finite temperature and density. We emphasize that the entire structure of the spectral functions conveys rich information on real-time dynamics including the particle production. (paper)

  2. Regulation of the wind power production. Contribution of the electric vehicles and other energy storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateus, Carlos B. [Instituto de Meteorologia, Lisboa (Portugal); Estanqueiro, Ana [INETI/LNEG - National Laboratory for Energy and Geology, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2012-07-01

    The increase in penetration of variable renewable energy sources (RES) introduced additional difficulties regarding the management of the Portuguese Power System. This is mainly due to the high temporal variability and low controllability, characteristics of these kinds of sources. There is a real need to reduce the impact of non-dispatchable RES sources; maximizing their penetration and minimizing curtailment. This is especially true for wind power and run-of-the-river hydro (ROR); as it appears beneficial to combine their variable production with added capacity of energy storage and demand side management; thereby increasing the flexibility of the power system as a whole. This paper aims to assess the excess wind generation (and other non-dispatchable sources); this for periods of production's excess in a 2020 timeframe, and assuming different weather scenarios. The adjustment of wind power generation (WPG) profile to the load profile is also addressed; the result is computed in the form of the value of the energy temporally deferred, using Pumped Hydro Storage (PHS) power plants as well as electric Vehicles (EVs). (orig.)

  3. Classic articles and workbook: EPRI monographs on simulation of electric power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stremel, J.P.

    1991-12-01

    This monograph republishes several articles including a seminal one on probabilistic production costing for electric power generation. That article is given in the original French along with a English translation. Another article, written by R. Booth, gives a popular explanation of the theory, and a workbook by B. Manhire is included that carries through a simple example step by step. The classical analysis of non-probabilistic generator dispatch by L.K. Kirchmayer is republished along with an introductory essay by J.P. Stremel that puts in perspective the monograph material. The article in French was written by H. Baleriaux, E. Jamoulle, and Fr. Linard de Guertechin and first published in Brussels in 1967. It derived a method for calculating the expected value of production costs by modifying a load duration curve through the use of probability factors that account for unplanned random generator outages. Although the paper showed how pump storage plants could be included and how linear programming could be applied, the convolution technique used in the probabilistic calculations is the part most widely applied. The tutorial paper by Booth was written in a light style, and its lucidity helped popularize the method. The workbook by Manhire also shows how the calculation can be shortened significantly using cumulants to approximate the load duration curve

  4. Raising the avermectins production in Streptomyces avermitilis by utilizing nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinsong; Ma, Ruonan; Su, Bo; Li, Yinglong; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2016-05-01

    Avermectins, a group of anthelmintic and insecticidal agents produced from Streptomyces avermitilis, are widely used in agricultural, veterinary, and medical fields. This study presents the first report on the potential of using nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) to improve avermectin production in S. avermitilis. The results of colony forming units showed that 20 pulses of nsPEFs at 10 kV/cm and 20 kV/cm had a significant effect on proliferation, while 100 pulses of nsPEFs at 30 kV/cm exhibited an obvious effect on inhibition of agents. Ultraviolet spectrophotometry assay revealed that 20 pulses of nsPEFs at 15 kV/cm increased avermectin production by 42% and reduced the time for reaching a plateau in fermentation process from 7 days to 5 days. In addition, the decreased oxidation reduction potential (ORP) and increased temperature of nsPEFs-treated liquid were evidenced to be closely associated with the improved cell growth and fermentation efficiency of avermectins in S. avermitilis. More importantly, the real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that nsPEFs could remarkably enhance the expression of aveR and malE in S. avermitilis during fermentation, which are positive regulator for avermectin biosynthesis. Therefore, the nsPEFs technology presents an alternative strategy to be developed to increase avermectin output in fermentation industry.

  5. Production of durable expanded perlite microspheres in a Vertical Electrical Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotis, M.; Angelopoulos, P.; Taxiarchou, M.; Paspaliaris, I.

    2016-04-01

    Expanded perlite constitutes one of the most competitive insulating materials that is widely used in construction and manufacturing industry due to its unique properties combination; it is white, natural, lightweight, chemically inert, and exhibits superior insulating properties (thermal and acoustic) and fire resistance. Conventionally, perlite expansion is performed in vertical gas-fired furnaces; the conventional perlite expansion process has certain disadvantages which affect expanded products quality, thus limiting their performance and range of applications. In order to overcome the drawbacks of the conventional expansion technique, a new perlite expansion process has been designed based on a vertical electrical furnace (VEF). In the current study, fine perlite samples (-150 μm) from Milos Island, Greece, were expansed in the novel VEF and a conventional gas-fired furnace with the aim to evaluate and compare the main physical properties of the expanded products. The novel expanded perlite particles were characterised by superior properties, namely increased compression strength, competitive water and oil absorption capability, size homogeneity, spherical shape and decreased surface porosity in comparison to conventionally expanded samples.

  6. Multiobjective genetic algorithm strategies for electricity production from generation IV nuclear technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Adrien; Pibouleau, Luc; Azzaro-Pantel, Catherine; Domenech, Serge [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, 5 rue Paulin Talabot, 31700 Toulouse Cedex 1 (France); Latge, Christian [CEA Cadarache, DEN/DTN/DIR, Bat. 710, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Haubensack, David [CEA Cadarache, DEN/DER/SESI/LCSI, Bat. 212, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2010-04-15

    Development of a technico-economic optimization strategy of cogeneration systems of electricity/hydrogen, consists in finding an optimal efficiency of the generating cycle and heat delivery system, maximizing the energy production and minimizing the production costs. The first part of the paper is related to the development of a multiobjective optimization library (MULTIGEN) to tackle all types of problems arising from cogeneration. After a literature review for identifying the most efficient methods, the MULTIGEN library is described, and the innovative points are listed. A new stopping criterion, based on the stagnation of the Pareto front, may lead to significant decrease of computational times, particularly in the case of problems involving only integer variables. Two practical examples are presented in the last section. The former is devoted to a bicriteria optimization of both exergy destruction and total cost of the plant, for a generating cycle coupled with a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). The second example consists in designing the heat exchanger of the generating turbomachine. Three criteria are optimized: the exchange surface, the exergy destruction and the number of exchange modules. (author)

  7. Multiobjective genetic algorithm strategies for electricity production from generation IV nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Adrien; Pibouleau, Luc; Azzaro-Pantel, Catherine; Domenech, Serge; Latge, Christian; Haubensack, David

    2010-01-01

    Development of a technico-economic optimization strategy of cogeneration systems of electricity/hydrogen, consists in finding an optimal efficiency of the generating cycle and heat delivery system, maximizing the energy production and minimizing the production costs. The first part of the paper is related to the development of a multiobjective optimization library (MULTIGEN) to tackle all types of problems arising from cogeneration. After a literature review for identifying the most efficient methods, the MULTIGEN library is described, and the innovative points are listed. A new stopping criterion, based on the stagnation of the Pareto front, may lead to significant decrease of computational times, particularly in the case of problems involving only integer variables. Two practical examples are presented in the last section. The former is devoted to a bicriteria optimization of both exergy destruction and total cost of the plant, for a generating cycle coupled with a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). The second example consists in designing the heat exchanger of the generating turbomachine. Three criteria are optimized: the exchange surface, the exergy destruction and the number of exchange modules.

  8. New dawn for electricity? EU policy and the changing decision space for electricity production in Sweden; a CANES Working Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Maans

    2009-11-15

    The European Union has taken an increasing interest in governing the energy sector in its Member States. However, EU still competes with national-level policies as well as sectoral organizational fields with sticky institutions, norms and knowledge. Therefore, despite its high ambitions in the energy field, for instance in the promotion of renewables and market reform, it is not clear whether the EU really exerts a strong influence, and if there is such an influence, the processes of influence and 'filtering' through to national political and industrial structures are not well understood. This paper examines a recent strategic change amongst national actors in Sweden in the energy sector; the decision space for investment in electricity. It examines the influence of European policy change, national political and policy change and organizational field-level developments on this decision space. It finds that European policy has rarely been very coercive, partly because Sweden has been a forerunner both on electricity market reform and renewable energy promotion, but that its influence is notable both directly through its emissions trading directive and more indirectly through signalling its intentions and long-term goals. Still, it appears that domestic developments, both cognitive and normative structures in the organizational field, and national policy change remain more instrumental determinants of the changed decision space. (Author)

  9. Productivity measurement in the presence of externalities: An example from the electric power industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaston, Kelly Ann

    Traditional productivity measures have ensured that environmental regulations were seen as deterrents to productivity growth. Such measures are constructed in a manner which make this conclusion inevitable. Traditional productivity measures include the regulation-induced additions to inputs, whether qualitatively or quantitatively, while continuing to ignore the value of the pollution emitted. The measure proposed in this thesis is derived formally from a model of social welfare. With the exception of 'prices' for emitted pollutants, for which marginal damage estimates will proxy, the proposed measure relies upon market prices, which are then incorporated into a conventional Divisia framework. Data from the electricity generation industry are used to construct both the conventional and newly proposed TFP growth rates. The industry provides an ideal framework within which this growth measure can be tested. It is a large industry that affects a majority of society as it is both consumed as a final good and pervasively used as an intermediate good. The industry is also a large polluter. On an annual basis it has been responsible for approximately one-third of the emissions of carbon-dioxide, one-third of the emissions of nitrous oxides, and two-thirds of the sulfur dioxides emissions, nationally. Furthermore, performance of the proposed measure across various samples was allowed by the diversity of utilities in the industry both with respect to location and fuel mix. Incorporating the value of externalities results in a productivity growth measure which is substantially improved. The difference in calculated productivity gains between the two measures is shown to be sizable under a number of circumstances. As well, the empirical analysis offers some general lessons as to the treatment of various pollutants--it is clearly demonstrated that movement in one pollutant cannot be used to proxy movements in others, or be used as an indicator as to the bias of traditional TFP

  10. Motor-Driven Giant Magnetostrictive Actuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lihui; Xia, Yongming; Lu, Kaiyuan

    2015-01-01

    A typical giant magnetostrictive actuator (GMA) expands a magnetostrictive rod to generate strain by varying the current in the coil that surrounds the magnetostrictive rod. The heat generated by the current deteriorates the GMA performance. In particular, a constant current in the coil is required....... The magnetic field in the iron-gallium alloy (Galfenol), which is a type of magnetostrictive material, is periodically altered by rotating the permanent magnets instead of varying the coil current in the traditional GMA. The proposed MDGMA not only achieves continuous adjustment of the output strain, but can...... also maintain a constant output strain without consuming any power. In addition, the coil-free design releases the new MDGMA from the heat generated by the excitation coil, which allows the MDGMA to work more stably....

  11. Industry evolution, rational agents and the transition to sustainable electricity production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Safarzynska, K.E.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Guiding a transition to low carbon electricity requires a good understanding of the substitution of old by new technologies in the electricity industry. With the aim of explaining historical change from coal to gas in the British electricity industry, we develop a formal model of technological

  12. Investment in sustainable electricity production by Dutch banks. A case study for the Fair Bank Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Gelder, J.W.; Kouwenhoven, D.

    2010-05-01

    This report contains the results of the second case study commissioned by the Fair Bank Guide on the financing practices of twelve investigated banks in the Netherlands. It has been examined which part of the investments in electricity generation by Dutch banks involves electricity generation from sustainable sources (sustainable electricity generation) [nl

  13. Industry will meet productivity goals, but can it hold the line on prices: electrical Canada, 1967

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1967-01-01

    The Canadian electrical industry can expect to grow more muscle in 1967. Demand for electricity increases across the country and the big power projects will be the Nelson Columbia, Peace, Manicouagan, Outardes and Churchill Falls. With more promotion by utilities scheduled better electrical living will get a record shot in the arm.

  14. Co-production of bio-ethanol, electricity and heat from biomass residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reith, J.H.; Den Uil, H.; Van Veen, H. [ECN Biomass, Petten (Netherlands); De Laat, W.T.A.M.; Niessen, J.J. [Royal Nedalco, Bergen op Zoom (Netherlands); De Jong, E.; Elbersen, H.W.; Weusthuis, R. [Agrotechnological Research Institute ATO, BU Renewable Resources, Wageningen (Netherlands); Van Dijken, J.P.; Raamsdonk, L. [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2002-07-01

    The use of lignocellulose biomass residues as a feedstock offers good perspectives for large scale production of fuel ethanol at competitive costs. An evaluation was performed to assess the international status of lignocellulose-to-bioethanol technology and the economical and ecological system performance, to identify RandD approaches for further development. Deriving fermentable sugars from the hemicellulose and cellulose fractions of lignocellulose materials via suitable pretreatment and enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis is a critical RandD issue. Further development of pretreatment via mild, low temperature alkaline extraction or weak acid hydrolysis using CO2, dissolved in pressurized hot water ('carbonic acid process') shows good perspectives. Enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis with the currently available industrial cellulases accounts for 36-45% of ethanol production costs. At least a 10-fold increase of cellulase cost-effectiveness is required. Despite substantial RandD efforts, no suitable fermentation system is currently available for the fermentation of pentoses (mainly xylose) from the hemicellulose fraction. Several strains of anaerobic, thermophilic bacteria are able to convert all (hemi)cellulose components into ethanol. Follow-up RandD will focus on isolation of suitable strain(s) from this group. The system evaluation shows a 40-55% energetic efficiency (LHV basis) for conversion of lignocellulose feedstocks to ethanol. Thermal conversion of non-fermentable residues (mainly lignin) in a Biomass-Integrated-Gasifier/Combined Cycle (BIG/CC) system can provide the total steam and electricity requirement for the production process and an electricity surplus for export to the grid, giving a total system efficiency of 56-68%. Water consumption in the process (28-54 liter water/liter ethanol) is much higher than in current ethanol production (lo-15 l/l ethanol). The large amount of process water (used in the pretreatment and cellulose hydrolysis

  15. Time horizons and electricity futures: An application of Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen's general theory of economic production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrell, Katharine N. [Department of Economics, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Gibson Institute for Land, Food and Environment, Queen' s University of Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Mayumi, Kozo [Faculty of Integrated Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokushima (Japan)

    2009-03-15

    This paper reports theoretical economic production work and uses electricity futures trading to illustrate its argument. The focus is relationships between time, production and tradition both in Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen's analytical representation of the production process (i.e., flow/fund model) and in his dialectical scheme dealing with the evolutionary changes in the economic process. Our main arguments are (1) the flow/fund model is designed to be employed in conjunction with attention to how the boundaries of a given process are determined and (2) process boundaries are dialectical distinctions - between process and not-process - that are strongly related to time and tradition. We propose that Georgescu-Roegen's The Entropy Law and the Economic Process is best understood as the elaboration of a general theory of economic production and we developed two conceptual tools (time {open_square} and meta-funds), both of which are related to the dialectical distinction between process and not-process, which we use to operationalise this general theory. Finally, we demonstrate that, although trading in electricity futures is surprising if one uses a stock/flow vs services distinction (because electricity supply is classed as a service) it appears perfectly logical under Georgescu-Roegen's general theory: shortening time horizons, combined with a shift in the relationship between raw fuel supplies and power production procedures, lead to a shift in the status of electricity supply, from fund to flow. (author)

  16. Estimation of the externalities associated with atmospheric emissions of the electric power production cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacomino, Vanusa Maria Feliciano; Barreto, Alberto Avelar; Pereira, Maria Cristina; Branco, Otavio Eurico de Aquino; Aronne, Ivan Dionysio; Pinheiro, Ricardo Brant

    2000-01-01

    Nowadays the activities connected to energy generation and distribution are those that most contribute to local, regional and global degradation of the environment. One of the most important contribution for externalities estimation is the ExternE Project, which has established a methodological framework called damage function approach to quantify both health and environmental impacts from electricity generation as well as to quantify in monetary terms the damage resulting from these physical impacts. In order to incorporate economic, social and environmental aspects in the decision process of energy planning in Brazil, a joint research project sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency is being carried out. The primary objective of this Project is to perform a comparative assessment of external costs of alternative fuel cycles for electricity production. It includes not only the quantification of the physical impacts and damage costs associated with airborne emissions from the traditional fossil fuels (coal, gas and oil) and nuclear energy, but also those from renewable resources, most specifically from hydroelectric. The main objective of this paper is to present preliminary results of the external costs associated to atmospheric emissions of an oil fired plant. Applying the Damage Function Approach methodology the quantification of healthy impacts and damage cost was performed. These results will later be compared with those from nuclear energy option. Atmospheric dispersion studies were carried out using the Industrial Complex Source Model. The healthy impacts were estimated using the exposure-response curves recommended by the ExternE Project. The monetary unit cost for different public health endpoints considered in this study were obtained indirectly by using unit cost values taken from Contingent Valuation studies sponsored by the World Bank, which are specific for developing countries. (author)

  17. Potential for greenhouse gas emission reductions using surplus electricity in hydrogen, methane and methanol production via electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uusitalo, Ville; Väisänen, Sanni; Inkeri, Eero; Soukka, Risto

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Greenhouse gas emission reductions using power-to-x processes are studied using life cycle assessment. • Surplus electricity use led to greenhouse gas emission reductions in all studied cases. • Highest reductions can be achieved by using hydrogen to replace fossil based hydrogen. • High reductions are also achieved when fossil transportation fuels are replaced. - Abstract: Using a life cycle perspective, potentials for greenhouse gas emission reductions using various power-to-x processes via electrolysis have been compared. Because of increasing renewable electricity production, occasionally surplus renewable electricity is produced, which leads to situations where the price of electricity approach zero. This surplus electricity can be used in hydrogen, methane and methanol production via electrolysis and other additional processes. Life cycle assessments have been utilized to compare these options in terms of greenhouse gas emission reductions. All of the power-to-x options studied lead to greenhouse gas emission reductions as compared to conventional production processes based on fossil fuels. The highest greenhouse gas emission reductions can be gained when hydrogen from steam reforming is replaced by hydrogen from the power-to-x process. High greenhouse gas emission reductions can also be achieved when power-to-x products are utilized as an energy source for transportation, replacing fossil transportation fuels. A third option with high greenhouse gas emission reduction potential is methane production, storing and electricity conversion in gas engines during peak consumption hours. It is concluded that the power-to-x processes provide a good potential solution for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in various sectors.

  18. Greenhouse tomato production with electricity generation by roof-mounted flexible solar panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urena-Sanchez, Raul; Callejon-Ferre, Angel Jesus; Perez-Alonso, Jose; Carreno-Ortega, Angel [University of Almeria, Depto. de Ingenieia Rural, Almeria (Spain)], E-mail: acallejo@ual.es

    2012-07-15

    The integration of renewable energy sources into greenhouse crop production in southeastern Spain could provide extra income for growers. Wind energy could be captured by small to medium-sized wind turbines, gas could be produced from biomass, and solar energy could be gathered by solar panels. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of flexible solar panels, mounted on top of a greenhouse for electricity production, on yield and fruit quality of tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L., cv Daniela). This study was undertaken in a commercial raspa y amagado greenhouse, typical of the Almeria region (Spain). Tomato plantlets were planted at a density of 0.75 plants m{sup -2}. The flexible solar panels were mounted on two parts of the roof in different arrangements (T1 and T2), each blacking out 9.8 % of its surface area. A control area (T0 arrangement) was fitted with no panels. No difference was found in terms of total or marketable production under these three arrangements, although fruit mean mass and maximum diameter of T0 were significantly greater than T1 and T2. Fruit in T0 matured earlier with more intense color compared with those in T1 and T2. However, these differences had no effect on price as the tomatoes produced under three conditions fell into the same commercial class (G class; diameter 67-81 mm). Solar panels covering 9.8 % roof area of the greenhouse did not affect yield and price of tomatoes despite of their negative effect on fruit size and color. (author)

  19. Energy budget and greenhouse gas balance evaluation of sustainable coppice systems for electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lettens, Suzanna; Muys, Bart; Ceulemans, Reinhart; Moons, Ellen; Garcia, Juan; Coppin, Pol

    2003-01-01

    The use of bio-energy crops for electricity production is considered an effective means to mitigate the greenhouse effect, mainly due to its ability to substitute fossil fuels. A whole range of crops qualify for bio-energy production and a rational choice is not readily made. This paper evaluates the energy and greenhouse gas balance of a mixed indigenous hardwood coppice as an extensive, low-input bio-energy crop. The impact on fossil energy use and greenhouse gas emission is calculated and discussed by comparing its life cycle (cultivation, processing and conversion into energy) with two conventional bio-energy crops (short rotation systems of willow and Miscanthus). For each life cycle process, the flows of fossil energy and greenhouse gas that are created for the production of one functional unit are calculated. The results show that low-input bio-energy crops use comparatively less fossil fuel and avoid more greenhouse gas emission per unit of produced energy than conventional bio-energy crops during the first 100 yr. Where the mixed coppice system avoids up till 0.13 t CO 2 eq./GJ, Miscanthus does not exceed 0.07 t CO 2 eq./GJ. After 100 yr their performances become comparable, amounting to 0.05 t CO 2 eq./ha/GJ. However, if the land surface itself is chosen as a functional unit, conventional crops perform better with respect to mitigating the greenhouse effect. Miscanthus avoids a maximum of 12.9 t CO 2 eq./ha/yr, while mixed coppice attains 9.5 t CO 2 eq./ha/yr at the most

  20. Centralised electricity production from winter cereals biomass grown under central-northern Spain conditions: Global warming and energy yield assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastre, C.M.; Maletta, E.; González-Arechavala, Y.; Ciria, P.; Santos, A.M.; Val, A. del; Pérez, P.; Carrasco, J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We assess the sustainability of electricity production from winter cereals biomass. • Productivity ranks are generated from different genotypes cultivated in real farms. • GHG and energy balances show better performance compared to natural gas electricity. • Cereals yields below 8 odt/ha do not accomplish objective 60% of GHG savings. • Marginal yields and sustainability criteria are discussed suggesting optimization. - Abstract: The goal of this paper is to assess the sustainability of electricity production from winter cereals grown in one of the most important Spanish agricultural areas, Castilla y León Region, situated in central-northern Spain. This study analyses greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions and energy balances of electricity production in a 25 MWe power plant that was powered using straw biomass from three annual winter cereals (rye, triticale and oat) grown as dedicated energy crops. The results of these analyses were compared with those of electricity produced from natural gas in Spanish power plants. Assessments were performed using a wide range of scenarios, mainly based on the biomass yield variability obtained in demonstration plots of twelve different winter cereal genotypes. Demonstration plots were established in two different locations (provinces of Soria and León) of the Castilla y León Region during two crop seasons (2009/2010 and 2010/2011) using common management practices and input rates for rain-fed agriculture in these regions. Our results suggest that production of electricity from winter cereals biomass combustion yielded considerable reductions in terms of GHG emissions when compared to electricity from natural gas. Nevertheless, the results show that low biomass yields that are relatively frequent for Spanish farmers on low productivity lands may produce no significant reductions in GHG in comparison with electricity from natural gas. Consequently, the agronomic management of winter cereals should be re

  1. Characterization of ceramic electrical insulators discarded by the electricity distribution networks and compared with similar products without use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, C.S.; Mantovani, V.A.; Favero, M.; Morales, J.; Hasegawa, H.L.

    2010-01-01

    The maintenance of distribution networks for electricity generates a large amount of waste. Among these, one of the most representative weights is from porcelain, found in para-rays, braces, insulators. The aim of this study was to evaluate the recycling potential of two models of ceramic insulators, new and used. It had been subjected to comparative tests of scanning electron microscopy, coupled with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, contact angle, volatile content and density. In general, samples of new and used ceramic showed no differences that might be associated of material degradation by using. This indicates that the materials discarded and new ones are very close, which may encourage the reuse and recycling. (author)

  2. Co-Production of Electricity and Hydrogen Using a Novel Iron-based Catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilaly, Ahmad; Georgas, Adam; Leboreiro, Jose; Arora, Salil; Head, Megann; Trembly, Jason; Turk, Brian; Gupta, Raghubir

    2011-09-30

    circulating fluid-bed reactor system for hydrogen production. Although a technology can be technically feasible, successful commercial deployment also requires that a technology offer an economic advantage over existing commercial technologies. To effective estimate the economics of this steam-iron process, a techno-economic analysis of this steam iron process and a commercial pressure swing adsorption process were completed. The results from this analysis described in this report show the economic potential of the steam iron process for integration with a gasification plant for coproduction of hydrogen and electricity.

  3. Wind blows where (and when) it wants: an analysis of the French electricity production, September-December 2010 - preliminary analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This document analyses the set of data published on the RTE web site and concerning the electricity production and consumption in France from September to December 2010. Having a closer look to the wind energy production, it notably shows that, as expected, all steerable means of production play a coordinated role in covering the required power needs. The analysis of the wind energy power shows a 23 pc average efficiency which is associated to the strong fluctuations which are typical for this type of intermittent production. It notices that time and energy distributions of wind energy power supplied to the network are not related to increased electricity needs during this autumn period which is marked by several cold waves

  4. Taxes for energy products, electricity and CO2. Consequences of the revision of the Energy Taxation Directive for the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blom, M.J.; Schroten, A.; Geurts, F.

    2011-07-01

    Taxes on energy products, electricity and CO2 are compared for a number of EU countries (Germany, Belgium, Denmark, United Kingdom, France, Luxembourg, Spain, Sweden and the Netherlands) with special focus on the fiscal, economic and environmental impacts of the revision of the European Energy Directive for the Netherlands. [nl

  5. Upscaling from benchtop processing to industrial scale production: More factors to be considered for pulsed electric field food processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulsed electric field (PEF) processing has been intensively studied with benchtop scale experiments. However, there is still limited information regarding critical factors to be considered for PEF efficacy in microbial reduction with PEF processing at a pilot or commercial scale production of juice....

  6. 78 FR 28190 - Authorization of Production Activity; Foreign-Trade Subzone 29C; GE Appliances (Electric Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-7-2013] Authorization of Production Activity; Foreign-Trade Subzone 29C; GE Appliances (Electric Water Heaters); Louisville, Kentucky On January 7, 2013, GE Appliances, operator of Subzone 29C in Louisville, Kentucky, submitted a notification of proposed...

  7. Environmental life cycle assessment of methanol and electricity co-production system based on coal gasification technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwińska, Anna; Burchart-Korol, Dorota; Smoliński, Adam

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a life cycle assessment (LCA) of greenhouse gas emissions generated through methanol and electricity co-production system based on coal gasification technology. The analysis focuses on polygeneration technologies from which two products are produced, and thus, issues related to an allocation procedure for LCA are addressed in this paper. In the LCA, two methods were used: a 'system expansion' method based on two approaches, the 'avoided burdens approach' and 'direct system enlargement' methods and an 'allocation' method involving proportional partitioning based on physical relationships in a technological process. Cause-effect relationships in the analysed production process were identified, allowing for the identification of allocation factors. The 'system expansion' method involved expanding the analysis to include five additional variants of electricity production technologies in Poland (alternative technologies). This method revealed environmental consequences of implementation for the analysed technologies. It was found that the LCA of polygeneration technologies based on the 'system expansion' method generated a more complete source of information on environmental consequences than the 'allocation' method. The analysis shows that alternative technologies chosen for generating LCA results are crucial. Life cycle assessment was performed for the analysed, reference and variant alternative technologies. Comparative analysis was performed between the analysed technologies of methanol and electricity co-production from coal gasification as well as a reference technology of methanol production from the natural gas reforming process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The effects of rate of return and environmental regulations on the productivity performance in the US electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durongkaveroj, P.

    1991-01-01

    Productivity growth in the US electric power industry has been declining since the late 1960's. Rate of return regulation and environmental regulations are hypothesized to adversely affect the productivity performance. Employing a Divisa index of the total factor productivity (TEP) an electric utility's performance is measured based on a profit maximization framework subject to both regulatory constraints. The empirical analysis attempts to analyze the effects of these regulations on the productivity growth employing data from privately-owned, fossil-fueled electric utilities. Results show a consistent decline in productivity growth over time averaging at 2% annually during 1977 and 1982, as well as the existence of regional differences in TFP growth among utilities. It shows positive and significant relationships between TFP growth and the rate of return, regulatory lag, the use of future test year, and deferred tax credit in the rate-making process. In the environmental case, results show that a stringent emission standard, using scrubbers for sulfur reduction and the utilization of aging power plants all contribute to the decline in productivity growth

  9. Sulfur recirculation for increased electricity production in Waste-to-Energy plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Sven; Blomqvist, Evalena W; Bäfver, Linda; Jones, Frida; Davidsson, Kent; Froitzheim, Jan; Karlsson, Martin; Larsson, Erik; Liske, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Sulfur recirculation is a new technology for reducing boiler corrosion and dioxin formation. It was demonstrated in full-scale tests at a Waste to Energy plant in Göteborg (Sweden) during nearly two months of operation. Sulfur was recirculated as sulfuric acid from the flue gas cleaning back to the boiler, thus creating a sulfur loop. The new technology was evaluated by extensive measurement campaigns during operation under normal conditions (reference case) and operation with sulfur recirculation. The chlorine content of both fly ash and boiler ash decreased and the sulfur content increased during the sulfur recirculation tests. The deposit growth and the particle concentration decreased with sulfur recirculation and the dioxin concentration (I-TEQ) of the flue gas was reduced by approximately 25%. Sulfuric acid dew point measurements showed that the sulfuric acid dosage did not lead to elevated SO3 concentrations, which may otherwise induce low temperature corrosion. In the sulfur recirculation corrosion probe exposures, the corrosion rate decreased for all tested materials (16Mo3, Sanicro 28 and Inconel 625) and material temperatures (450 °C and 525 °C) compared to the reference exposure. The corrosion rates were reduced by 60-90%. Sulfur recirculation prevented the formation of transition metal chlorides at the metal/oxide interface, formation of chromate and reduced the presence of zinc in the corrosion products. Furthermore, measured corrosion rates at 525 °C with sulfur recirculation in operation were similar or lower compared to those measured at 450 °C material temperature in reference conditions, which corresponds to normal operation at normal steam temperatures. This implies that sulfur recirculation allows for higher steam data and electricity production without increasing corrosion. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Tokamak hybrid thermonuclear reactor for the production of fissionable fuel and electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velikhov, E.P.; Glukhikh, V.A.; Gur'ev, V.V.

    1978-01-01

    The results of feasibility studies of a tokamak- based hybrid reactor concept are presented. The system selected has a D-T plasma volume of 575 m 3 with additional plasma heating by injection of fast neutral particles. The method of heating makes it possible to achieve an economical two-component tokamak regime at ntau=(4-6)x10 13 sxcm -3 , i e. far below the Lawson criterion. Plasma and vacuum chamber are surrounded by a blanket where fissionable plutonium is produced and heat transformed into electric power is generated. Major plasma-neutron-physical characteristics of the 6905 MWth (2500 MWe) reactor and its electromagnetic system are presented. Evaluations show that the hybrid reactor can produce about 800 kg of Pu per 1GWth/yr as compared to 70-150 kg of Pu for fast breeder reactors. The increased Pu production rate is the major merit of the concept promising for both power generation and fuelling thermal fission reactions

  11. System-Level Value of a Gas Engine Power Plant in Electricity and Reserve Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti Alahäivälä

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Power systems require a certain amount of flexibility to meet varying demand and to be able to cope with unexpected events, and this requirement is expected to increase with the emergence of variable power generation. In this paper, we focus on gas engine power plant technology and the beneficial influence its flexible operation can have on a power system. The study introduces the concept of a combined-cycle gas engine power plant (CCGE, which comprises a combination of several gas-fired combustion engines and a steam turbine. The operation of CCGE is then comprehensively analyzed in electricity and reserve production in the South African power system and compared with combined-cycle gas turbine (CCGT technology. Even though CCGE is a form of technology that has already been commercialized, it is rarely considered as a source of flexibility in the academic research. That is the notion providing the motivation for this study. Our core contribution is to show that the flexibility of CCGE can be valuable in power systems. The methodology is based on the unit-level model of the studied system and the solving of a day-ahead unit commitment problem for each day of the simulated 11-year period. The simulation studies reveal how a CCGE is able to offer system flexibility to follow hourly load variations and capacity to provide reserve power effectively.

  12. Power unit with GT-MHR reactor plant for electricity production and district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiryushin, A.L.; Kodochigov, N.G.; Kuzavkov, N.G.; Golovko, V.F.

    2000-01-01

    Modular helium reactor with the gas turbine (GT-MHR) is a perspective power reactor plant for the next century. The project reactor is based on experience of operation more than 50 gas-cooled reactors on carbon dioxide and helium, and also on subsequent achievements in the field of realization direct gas turbine Brayton cycle. To the beginning of 90 years, achievements in technology of gas turbines, highly effective recuperators and magnetic bearings made it possible to start development of the reactor plant project combining a safe modular gas cooled reactor and a power conversion system, realizing the highly effective Brayton cycle. The conceptual project of the commercial GT-MHR reactor plant fulfilled in 1997 by joint efforts of international firms, combines a safe modular reactor with an annular active core of prismatic fuel blocks and a power conversion system with direct gas turbine cycle. The efficiency of GT-MHR gas turbine cycle at level of about 48% makes it competitive in the electricity production market in comparison with any fossil or nuclear power stations

  13. Effectiveness of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on saliva production in post-radiated oral cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakshi Ojha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS in stimulating salivary flow in post-radiated oral cancer patients, and to compare the salivary flow rate between unstimulated saliva and saliva stimulated with TENS in post-radiated oral cancer patients. Materials and Methods: In 30 patients who underwent radiotherapy for oral cancer, unstimulated saliva was collected every minute for 5 min in a graduated test tube. The TENS unit was activated and stimulated saliva was collected for 5 min in a separate graduated test tube, and the flow rate was compared with the unstimulated salivary flow rate. Results: A statistically significant improvement was seen in saliva production during stimulation (P < 0.001. In addition, statistically significant increase in TENS stimulated saliva was observed in patients aged ≥50 years compared to that in patients aged <50 years (P < 0.05. There was no significant difference in salivary flow rate between the two genders in both stimulated and unstimulated conditions, however, statistically significant increase in salivary flow rate was observed in males under stimulated condition (P < 0.01. Conclusion: TENS was highly effective in stimulating the whole salivary flow rate in post-radiated oral cancer patients. It is an effective supportive treatment modality in xerostomia patients caused by radiotherapy in oral cancer patients.

  14. Electricity Production and Characterization of High-Strength Industrial Wastewaters in Microbial Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetinkaya, Afsin Y; Ozdemir, Oguz Kaan; Demir, Ahmet; Ozkaya, Bestami

    2017-06-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) convert electrochemical energy into electrical energy immediately and have a big potential usage for the same time wastewater treatment and energy recovery via electro-active microorganisms. However, MFCs must be efficiently optimized due to its limitations such as high cost and low power production. Finding new materials to increase the cell performance and reduce cost for MFC anodes is mandatory. In the first step of this study, different inoculation sludges such as anaerobic gum industry wastewater, anaerobic brewery wastewater and anaerobic phosphate were tested, and MFC that was set up with anaerobic gum industry wastewater inoculation sludge exhibited the highest performance. In the second step of this study, various wastewaters such as chocolate industry, gum industry and slaughterhouse industry were investigated for anode bacteria sources. Several electrochemical techniques have been employed to elucidate how wastewaters affect the MFCs' performance. Among all the mentioned wastewaters, the best performance was achieved by the MFCs fed with slaughterhouse wastewater; this device produced a maximum power density of 267 mW·m -2 .

  15. Manufacturing cost analysis of a parabolic dish concentrator (General Electric design) for solar thermal electric power systems in selected production volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The manufacturing cost of a General Electric 12 meter diameter concentrator was estimated. This parabolic dish concentrator for solar thermal system was costed in annual production volumes of 100 - 1,000 - 5,000 - 10,000 - 50,000 100,000 - 400,000 and 1,000,000 units. Presented for each volume are the costs of direct labor, material, burden, tooling, capital equipment and buildings. Also presented is the direct labor personnel and factory space requirements. All costs are based on early 1981 economics.

  16. Developing electricity production with natural gas in the southern mediterranean countries: an example of north-south cooperation in the electricity and natural gas sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenon, M.; Nogaret, E.

    1995-01-01

    Southern Mediterranean countries are facing an important increase of electricity demand; in order to increase the production capacity at a minimum cost while preserving the environment, most of these countries are planning gas fired power stations due to important natural gas resources. The development of both the power plants and the infrastructures to produce and transport the natural gas is more and more performed through cooperation between companies of the northern and southern sides of the Mediterranean sea: technical assistance programs, joint financing and management of the infrastructures. 3 figs

  17. Thermic solar plants for the production of electricity in Mexico: present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almanza, R.

    1990-01-01

    During the last decade, there are have been some important achievements in generating electricity using solar concentrators. The Instituto de Ingenieria, of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), has started the design and construction of solar thermic plants for generating electricity , capable of reaching 1 Kw and 10 Kw. The Instituto continues developing the research and testing of new materials, because this way of generating electricity has become economically feasible: besides, it constitutes a non polluting alternative. (Author)

  18. A hybrid HTGR system producing electricity, hydrogen and such other products as water demanded in the Middle East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, X., E-mail: yan.xing@jaea.go.jp; Noguchi, H.; Sato, H.; Tachibana, Y.; Kunitomi, K.; Hino, R.

    2014-05-01

    Alternative energy products are being considered by the Middle East countries for both consumption and export. Electricity, water, and hydrogen produced not from oil and gas are amongst those desirable. A hybrid nuclear production system, GTHTR300C, under development in JAEA can achieve this regional strategic goal. The system is based on a 600 MWt HTGR and equipped to cogenerate electricity by gas turbine and seawater desalination by using only the nuclear plant waste heat. Hydrogen is produced via a thermochemical water-splitting process driven by the reactor's 950 °C heat. Additionally process steam may be produced for industrial uses. An example is shown of manufacturing soda ash, an internationally traded commodity, from using the steam produced and the brine discharged from desalination. The nuclear reactor satisfies nearly all energy requirements for the hybrid generations without emitting CO{sub 2}. The passive safety of the reactor as described in the paper permits proximity of siting the reactor with the production facilities to enhance energy transmission. Production flowsheet of the GTHTR300C is given for up to 300 MWe electricity, 58 t/day hydrogen, 56,000 m{sup 3}/day potable water, 3500 t/day steam, and 1000 t/day soda ash. The production thermal efficiency reaches 88%.

  19. Electric fields, electron production, and electron motion at the stripper foil in the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plum, M.

    1995-01-01

    The beam instability at the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring (PSR) most likely involves coupled oscillations between electrons and protons. For this instability to occur, there must be a strong source of electrons. Investigation of the various sources of electrons in the PSR had begun. Copious electron production is expected in the injection section because this section contains the stripper foil. This foil is mounted near the center of the beam pipe, and both circulating and injected protons pass through it, thus allowing ample opportunity for electron production. This paper discusses various mechanisms for electron production, beam-induced electric fields, and electron motion in the vicinity of the foil

  20. Measurements on a solar greenhouse combining cooling and electrical energy production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van Tuijl; Piet Sonneveld; H. Janssen; J. van Campen; G. Bot; Gert-Jan Swinkels

    2010-01-01

    Performance results are given of a new type of greenhouse, which combines reflection of near infrared radiation (NIR) with electrical power generation using hybrid photovoltaic cell/thermal collector modules. Besides the generation of electrical and thermal energy, the reflection of the NIR will

  1. Performance results of a solar greenhouse combining electrical and thermal energy production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, P.J.; Swinkels, G.L.A.M.; Campen, J.B.; Tuijl, van B.A.J.; Janssen, H.J.J.; Bot, G.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    Performance results are given of a new type of greenhouse, which combines reflection of near infrared radiation (NIR) with electrical power generation using hybrid photovoltaic cell/thermal collector modules. Besides the generation of electrical and thermal energy, the reflection of the NIR will

  2. Evaluation of electricity generation from lignin residue and biogas in cellulosic ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Bao, Jie

    2017-11-01

    This study takes the first insight on the rigorous evaluation of electricity generation based on the experimentally measured higher heating value (HHV) of lignin residue, as well as the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD 5 ) of wastewater. For producing one metric ton of ethanol fuel from five typical lignocellulose substrates, including corn stover, wheat straw, rice straw, sugarcane bagasse and poplar sawdust, 1.26-1.85tons of dry lignin residue is generated from biorefining process and 0.19-0.27tons of biogas is generated from anaerobic digestion of wastewater, equivalent to 4335-5981kWh and 1946-2795kWh of electricity by combustion of the generated lignin residue and biogas, respectively. The electricity generation not only sufficiently meets the electricity needs of process requirement, but also generates more than half of electricity surplus selling to the grid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor - a new production reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nulton, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    One of the reactor concepts being considered for application as a new production reactor (NPR) is a 350-MW(thermal) modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR). The proposed MHTGR-NPR is based on the design of the commercial MHTGR and is being developed by a team that includes General Atomics and Combustion Engineering. The proposed design includes four modules combined into a production block that includes a shared containment, a spent-fuel storage facility, and other support facilities. The MHTGR has a helium-cooled, graphite-moderated, graphite-reflected annular core formed from prismatic graphite fuel blocks. The MHTGR fuel consists of highly enriched uranium oxycarbide (UCO) microsphere fuel particles that are coated with successive layers of pyrolytic carbon (PyC) and silicon carbide (SiC). Tritium-producing targets consist of enriched 6 Li aluminate microsphere target particles that are coated with successive layers of PyC and SiC similar to the fuel microspheres. Normal reactivity control is implemented by articulated control rods that can be inserted into channels in the inner and outer reflector blocks. Shutdown heat removal is accomplished by a single shutdown heat exchanger and electric motor-driven circulator located in the bottom of the reactor vessel. Current plans are to stack spent fuel elements in dry, helium-filled, water-cooled wells and store them for ∼1 yr before reprocessing. All phases of MHTGR fuel reprocessing have been demonstrated

  4. A comparison of electricity and hydrogen production systems with CO2 capture and storage. Part B: Chain analysis of promising CCS options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, K.J.; van Troost, M.M.; Faaij, A.P.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10685903X; Turkenburg, W.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073416355

    2007-01-01

    Promising electricity and hydrogen production chains with CO2 capture, transport and storage (CCS) and energy carrier transmission, distribution and end-use are analysed to assess (avoided) CO2 emissions, energy production costs and CO2 mitigation costs. For electricity chains, the performance is

  5. Microbial Community Pathways for the Production of Volatile Fatty Acids From CO2 and Electricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Wenzel

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at elucidating the metabolic pathways involved in the production of volatile fatty acids from CO2 and electricity. Two bioelectrochemical systems (BES were fed with pure CO2 (cells A and B. The cathode potential was first poised at −574 mV vs. standard hydrogen electrode (SHE and then at −756 mV vs. SHE in order to ensure the required reducing power. Despite applying similar operation conditions to both BES, they responded differently. A mixture of organic compounds (1.87 mM acetic acid, 2.30 mM formic acid, 0.43 mM propionic acid, 0.15 mM butyric acid, 0.55 mM valeric acid, and 0.62 mM ethanol was produced in cell A while mainly 1.82 mM acetic acid and 0.23 mM propionic acid were produced in cell B. The microbial community analysis performed by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing showed a predominance of Clostridium sp. and Serratia sp. in cell A whereas Burkholderia sp. and Xanthobacter sp. predominated in cell B. The coexistence of three metabolic pathways involved in carbon fixation was predicted. Calvin cycle was predicted in both cells during the whole experiment while Wood-Ljungdahl and Arnon-Buchanan pathways predominated in the period with higher coulombic efficiency. Metabolic pathways which transform organic acids into anabolic intermediaries were also predicted, indicating the occurrence of complex trophic interactions. These results further complicate the understanding of these mixed culture microbial processes but also expand the expectation of compounds that could potentially be produced with this technology.

  6. Schwinger pair production in space- and time-dependent electric fields: Relating the Wigner formalism to quantum kinetic theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebenstreit, F.; Alkofer, R.; Gies, H.

    2010-01-01

    The nonperturbative electron-positron pair production (Schwinger effect) is considered for space- and time-dependent electric fields E-vector(x-vector,t). Based on the Dirac-Heisenberg-Wigner formalism, we derive a system of partial differential equations of infinite order for the 16 irreducible components of the Wigner function. In the limit of spatially homogeneous fields the Vlasov equation of quantum kinetic theory is rediscovered. It is shown that the quantum kinetic formalism can be exactly solved in the case of a constant electric field E(t)=E 0 and the Sauter-type electric field E(t)=E 0 sech 2 (t/τ). These analytic solutions translate into corresponding expressions within the Dirac-Heisenberg-Wigner formalism and allow to discuss the effect of higher derivatives. We observe that spatial field variations typically exert a strong influence on the components of the Wigner function for large momenta or for late times.

  7. Non-electric applications of nuclear power: Seawater desalination, hydrogen production and other industrial applications. Proceedings of an international conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Today, nuclear power plants contribute about 16% to the world's electricity generation. Because electricity represents less than one third of the primary energy uses, nuclear energy provides only about 6% of total energy consumption in the world. If nuclear energy were used for purposes other than electricity generation, it could play a more significant role in global energy supply. This could have also a significant impact on global goals for reduced greenhouse gas emissions for a cleaner environment. Nuclear power is the only large-scale carbon-free energy source that, in the near and medium term, has the potential to significantly displace limited and uncertain fossil fuels. To do this, however, nuclear power must move beyond its historical role as solely a producer of electricity to other non-electric applications. These applications include seawater desalination, district heating, heat for industrial processes, and electricity and heat for hydrogen production among others. These applications have tremendous potential in ensuring future worldwide energy and water security for sustainable development. In recent years, various agencies involved in nuclear energy development programmes have carried out studies on non-electric applications of nuclear power and useful reports have been published. The IAEA launched a programme on co-generation applications in the 1990's in which a number of Member States have been and continue to be actively involved. This programme, however is primarily concerned with seawater desalination, and district and process heating, utilizing the existing reactors as a source of heat and electricity. In recent years the scope of the Agency's programme has been widened to include other more promising applications such as nuclear hydrogen production and higher temperature process heat applications. OECD/NEA (OECD Nuclear Energy Agency), EURATOM (European Atomic Energy Community) and GIF (Generation IV International Forum) have also evinced

  8. Catalytic upgrading of gas from biofuels and implementation of electricity production. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espenaes, Bengt-Goeran; Frostaeng, Sten [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2000-04-01

    The project aimed at research and development concerning processes for production of fuel gas and systems for production of electricity in the small to intermediate size range (100 kW{sub e} to 5 MW{sub e}. The project included building and testing of a complete 'biomass-to-electricity' chain at scale of 100 kW{sub th}. Research work was focused on improvements in reduction of contents of tar and ammonia, and on the influences from sulphur on nickel catalysts, and from chlorine on dolomite catalysts. The project was divided into four main tasks, comprising 19 work packages which included basic and applied research and process development. The work was to some extent a further development of results obtained in a previous EC project (AIR2-CT93-1436). A pilot plant at scale 100 kW{sub th} was designed and erected by BTG. This system consists of a fluidized bed gasifier, a reversal flow tar converter (RFTC), a gas cooler, dust filter and a gas engine. A main effort was put into the optimisation of the RFTC. Tar contents obtained varied between 50 and 150 mg/Nm{sup 3} . Finally, a short test programme was executed, where the technical feasibility of the RFTC was demonstrated successfully at real conditions in the complete biomass-to-electricity system. Specific investment costs were estimated for scales of 0.4, 1 and 2 MW{sub el}. For the largest scale the specific investment costs were estimated to about 165 ECU/kW{sub el}. The fundamental work consisted of basic investigations of catalysts, catalysed reactions, catalyst poisoning by sulphur and tar characterisation. Issues addressed were such as factors that influence activity of different catalysts for elimination of tars, search for new catalysts and optimal use of known and new catalysts. Detailed kinetics of catalysed reactions that convert tar into desired permanent fuel gas components was determined for the most stable tar components, which play major roles in the overall conversion of tar. The

  9. Gas-based electricity production: which possibilities? - Thermal plants with steam generator; Perspectives for mini-cogeneration in collective housing; Electricity production by gas plants: which orientations on a middle term?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charrier, M.; Hubert, Charles-Emile; Lu, Long; Maire, Jacques; Bornard, Pierre; Garnier, Philippe-Jean; Jamme, Dominique; Cheylus, Jean-Christophe

    2012-01-01

    A set of articles proposes a comparison between coal fired and natural gas fired power stations, discusses the perspectives of low power cogeneration installations for collective housing (some examples are evoked). It also reports interventions of a meeting on middle-term orientation for gas-based electricity production during which interveners addressed several issues such as the opportunity of investment in new infrastructures, the evolution of the gas sector, modulation means

  10. BECCS potential in Brazil: Achieving negative emissions in ethanol and electricity production based on sugar cane bagasse and other residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, José Roberto; Romeiro, Viviane; Fuss, Sabine; Kraxner, Florian; Pacca, Sérgio A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Demonstrates the cost competitiveness of sugarcane based bioenergy carbon capture and storage (BECCS). • Evaluates BECCS based on emissions from sugar fermentation, which is the low hanging fruit technology available. • Determines the BECCS cost premium of CO_2, ethanol and electricity. • Determines the full mitigation potential of this BECCS technology in Brazil. • Discusses polices to enable BECCS deployment by society. - Abstract: Stabilization at concentrations consistent with keeping global warming below 2 °C above the pre-industrial level will require drastic cuts in Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions during the first half of the century; net negative emissions approaching 2100 are required in the vast majority of current emission scenarios. For negative emissions, the focus has been on bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS), where carbon-neutral bioenergy would be combined with additional carbon capture thus yielding emissions lower than zero. Different BECCS technologies are considered around the world and one option that deserves special attention applies CCS to ethanol production. It is currently possible to eliminate 27.7 million tonnes (Mt) of CO_2 emissions per year through capture and storage of CO_2 released during fermentation, which is part of sugar cane-based ethanol production in Brazil. Thus, BECCS could reduce the country’s emissions from energy production by roughly 5%. Such emissions are additional to those due to the substitution of biomass-based electricity for fossil-fueled power plants. This paper assesses the potential and cost effectiveness of negative emissions in the joint production system of ethanol and electricity based on sugar cane, bagasse, and other residues in Brazil. An important benefit is that CO_2 can be captured twice along the proposed BECCS supply chain (once during fermentation and once during electricity generation). This study only considers BECCS from fermentation because capturing

  11. Photovoltaic electricity production in a two-floor house in Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojic, M.; Blagojevic, M.

    2006-01-01

    An attractive solution for a sustainable present and future is to integrate photovoltaic (PV) panels into building envelopes. For these PV panels applied in a two-storey house in Belgrade-Serbia, we use software EnergyPlus to investigate its electricity generation and maximum power and determine the house orientation for which the panels produce maximum amount of electricity in a year. In addition, we determine that in order for these panels economically to produce electricity, the necessary government subsidies for PV panels located at the south roof are around 50%. (author)

  12. Photovoltaic electricity production in a two-floor house in Serbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojic, M. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kragujevac, Sestre Janjic 6, 34000 Kragujevac (Serbia and Montenegro) and CREFID (Bulgaria)]. E-mail: bojic@kg.ac.yu; Blagojevic, M. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kragujevac, Sestre Janjic 6, 34000 Kragujevac (Serbia and Montenegro) and CREFID (Bulgaria)]. E-mail: mirkob@kg.ac.yu

    2006-07-01

    An attractive solution for a sustainable present and future is to integrate photovoltaic (PV) panels into building envelopes. For these PV panels applied in a two-storey house in Belgrade-Serbia, we use software EnergyPlus to investigate its electricity generation and maximum power and determine the house orientation for which the panels produce maximum amount of electricity in a year. In addition, we determine that in order for these panels economically to produce electricity, the necessary government subsidies for PV panels located at the south roof are around 50%. (author)

  13. Energy Savings Potential and Opportunities for High-Efficiency Electric Motors in Residential and Commercial Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Sutherland, Timothy [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Reis, Callie [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2013-12-04

    This report describes the current state of motor technology and estimates opportunities for energy savings through application of more advanced technologies in a variety of residential and commercial end uses. The objectives of this report were to characterize the state and type of motor technologies used in residential and commercial appliances and equipment and to identify opportunities to reduce the energy consumption of electric motor-driven systems in the residential and commercial sectors through the use of advanced motor technologies. After analyzing the technical savings potential offered by motor upgrades and variable speed technologies, recommended actions are presented.

  14. Combined production of synthetic liquid fuel and electricity from coal using H2S and CO2 removal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina A. Tyurina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the research is to continue the studies on promising technologies of coal conversion into synthetic liquid fuel (methanol. The object of study is the plants for combined production of electricity and synthetic liquid fuel (PCPs, which are eco-friendly and more efficient as compared to the plants for separate production. The previous studies on PCPs consider the systems for fine cleaning of gasification products in a simplified way. This study presents the detailed mathematical modeling of the aforementioned systems and determines the values of energy consumption and investment in them. The obtained values are used to carry out the optimization studies and find the optimal parameters of PCPs with different degree of CO2 removal from gasification products providing fine cleaning of gasification products from H2S.

  15. Probabilistic Analysis of Electrical Energy Costs: Comparing Production Costs for Gas, Coal and Nuclear Power Plants. Annex III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-12-15

    The increase in electricity demand is linked to the development of the economy and living standards in each country. This is especially true in those developing countries in which electricity consumption is far below the average of industrialized countries. To satisfy the increased demand for electricity, it is necessary to build new electrical power plants that could, in an optimum way, meet the imposed acceptability criteria. The main criteria are the potential to supply the required energy and to supply it with minimum or, at least, acceptable costs and environmental impacts, to satisfy the licensing requirements and be acceptable to the public. The main competitors for electricity production in the next few decades are fossil fuel power plants (coal and gas) and nuclear power plants. Power plants making use of renewables (solar, wind, biomass) are also important, but due to limited energy supply potential and high costs, can only be a supplement to the main generating units. Large hydropower plants would be competitive under the condition that suitable sites for the construction of such plants exist. Unfortunately, both in Croatia and in the rest of central Europe, such sites are scarce.

  16. Biomass production from the U.S. forest and agriculture sectors in support of a renewable electricity standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Eric M.; Latta, Greg; Alig, Ralph J.; Skog, Kenneth E.; Adams, Darius M.

    2013-01-01

    Production of renewable energy from biomass has been promoted as means to improve greenhouse gas balance in energy production, improve energy security, and provide jobs and income. However, uncertainties remain as to how the agriculture and forest sectors might jointly respond to increased demand for bioelectricity feedstocks and the potential environmental consequences of increased biomass production. We use an economic model to examine how the agriculture and forest sectors might combine to respond to increased demands for bioelectricity under simulated future national-level renewable electricity standards. Both sectors are projected to contribute biomass, although energy crops, like switchgrass, produced on agriculture land are projected to be the primary feedstocks. At the highest targets for bioelectricity production, we project increased conversion of forest to agriculture land in support of agriculture biomass production. Although land conversion takes place in response to renewable electricity mandates, we project only minor increases in forest and agriculture emissions. Similarly, crop prices were projected to generally be stable in the face of increased bioelectricity demand and displacement of traditional agriculture crops. - Highlights: ► We model the response of forest and agriculture to increased bioelectricity demand. ► The agriculture sector, through energy crop production, is the key biomass provider. ► Increased land exchange is projected for the highest bioelectricity demands. ► Land exchange from forest to agriculture yield the greatest changes in GHG flux. ► Agriculture and forestry must be accounted for when considering bioenergy policy

  17. Effect of high-voltage pulsed electric field (HPEF pretreatment on biogas production rates of hybrid Pennisetum by anaerobic fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baijuan Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the raw materials of hybrid Pennisetum were pretreated in different conditions of high voltage pulsed electric field (HPEF to improve its material utilization ratios and biogas production rates of anaerobic fermentation. Then, anaerobic digestion experiments were conducted within 32 days at moderate temperature (35 °C with TS mass fraction (6%, inoculation rate (20% and initial pH (7.0. It is indicated that compared with the control group, 9 groups of hybrid Pennisetum pretreated by HPEF are obviously superior in gas production efficiency of anaerobic fermentation, and higher in cumulative gas production, peak daily gas production and maximum methane concentration; that the most remarkable stimulation occurs in the HPEF condition of 15 kV/120 Hz/60 min, in that situation, the cumulative gas production in the fermentation period of 32 days is up to 9587 mL, 26.95% higher than that of the control group, the peak daily gas production increases and the range of peak period extends. It is demonstrated that the optimal HPEF pretreatment time is 60 min and three HPEF parameters have a better effect on gas production in the order of voltage > time > frequency; and that the effect degree of treatment parameters on peak daily gas production is voltage, frequency and time in turn. It is concluded that HPEF can improve material utilization ratio and gas production rate of hybrid Pennisetum by anaerobic fermentation and shorten the gas production cycle. By virtue of this physical pretreatment method, the resource of Pennisetum is utilized sufficiently and the classes of energy plants are enlarged effectively. Keywords: Hybrid Pennisetum, Anaerobic fermentation, High voltage pulsed electric field (HPEF, Biogas, Material utilization ratio, Gas generation rate, Model, Stimulation

  18. Strength of the phase change materials on loading with the products of electric explosion of conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savenkov, Georgiy; Morozov, Viktor; Kats, Victor

    2018-05-01

    Results of the experimentation on the destruction of the phase change materials (beeswax and paraffin) by the electric explosion of conductors are presented. The process of the explosion of copper and nickel titanium wires in both pure PCM and its mixture with nonosized additives of cuprous oxide is analyzed. The effect of this additive on the process of the expansion of the electric-discharge plasma during the electric explosion of conductors and on the strength of composite materials is demonstrated. The piezoprobe-based method of measurement of the radial pressure during samples destruction is developed. The experiments made it possible to determine the dimensions of the melting channel formed inside the samples during the explosion and the subsequent expansion of the electric-discharge plasma. The experiments are performed on the generator of short-term high-voltage pulses capable to shape the voltage of (10-24) kV.

  19. Environmental Technology Verification Report - Electric Power and Heat Production Using Renewable Biogas at Patterson Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA operates the Environmental Technology Verification program to facilitate the deployment of innovative technologies through performance verification and information dissemination. A technology area of interest is distributed electrical power generation, particularly w...

  20. 77 FR 58869 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Electrical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ... are intended to aid in assuring the continued reliability of electrical apparatus, by providing good work practice guidance. Further, they are intended as guides for maintaining the energy efficiency of...

  1. Register of production installations connected to the electricity transport public network. Situation on 31 December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-06-01

    This document proposes maps and tables which indicate and identify sites of energy production, key data, characteristics of energy production sites, evolution of the energy production fleet during 2014, and, may the occasion occur, some additional and relevant information regarding production capacities and power plant distribution. These aspects are thus presented for the different energy sources, i.e. the wind energy production fleet, the solar energy production fleet, the hydraulic energy production fleet, the bio-energy production fleet, fossil-fuel based thermal plants, and the nuclear energy production fleet

  2. On Schwinger mechanism for gluon pair production in the presence of arbitrary time dependent chromo-electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavrilov, S.P. [Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, Department of General and Experimental Physics, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Gitman, D.M. [University of Sao Paulo, Institute of Physics, CP 66318, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-11-15

    Recently the paper ''Schwinger mechanism for gluon pair production in the presence of arbitrary time dependent chromo-electric field'' by G. C. Nayak was published [Eur. Phys. J. C. 59: 715, 2009; arXiv: 0708.2439]. Its aim is to obtain an exact expression for the probability of non-perturbative gluon pair production per unit time per unit volume and per unit transverse momentum in an arbitrary time-dependent chromo-electric background field. We believe that the obtained expression is open to question. We demonstrate its inconsistency on some well-known examples. We think that this is a consequence of using the so-called ''shift theorem'' [arXiv: hep-th/0609192 ] in deriving the expression for the probability. We make some critical comments on the theorem and its applicability to the problem in question. (orig.)

  3. 30 CFR 18.81 - Field modification of approved (permissible) equipment; application for approval of modification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES... having jurisdiction at the mine where such equipment is to be operated stating the modifications which...

  4. 30 CFR Appendix I to Subpart D of... - Appendix I to Subpart D of Part 18

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Machines Assembled With Certified or Explosion-Proof Components, Field Modifications of Approved Machines...

  5. The SONICHAR coal mine and electricity production thermal plant in Tchirozerine (Niger. Chemical analysis of drainage waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-06-01

    After a brief presentation of the coal mining and electricity production activities of the SONICHAR, and the related concerns about the environmental impacts of these activities, this document reports analyses performed on mine drainage waters, and on water samples coming from a pit located upstream the mine effluent and from a pit close to this effluent. Different sulfates and metals display much higher contents than those admitted for drinkable water in Europe

  6. A Revenue Equivalence Result in a Duopolistic Electricity Market where one of the suppliers has two production units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrella Alonso

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will model the electricity market auction as a two-person game with incomplete information under the assumption that bid-ders are asymmetric in units production, risk neutral and with unknownvalues.We characterize the strictly monotone bayesian Nash equilibrium andwe rank a family of auction models which contains the classic models Uniform, Discriminatory and Vickrey auction models.

  7. Observation of enhanced ozone in an electrically active storm over Socorro, NM: Implications for ozone production from corona discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minschwaner, K.; Kalnajs, L. E.; Dubey, M. K.; Avallone, L. M.; Sawaengphokai, P. C.; Edens, H. E.; Winn, W. P.

    2008-09-01

    Enhancements in ozone were observed between about 3 and 10 km altitude within an electrically active storm in central New Mexico. Measurements from satellite sensors and ground-based radar show cloud top pressures between 300 and 150 mb in the vicinity of an ozonesonde launched from Socorro, NM, and heavy precipitation with radar reflectivities exceeding 50 dBZ. Data from a lightning mapping array and a surface electric field mill show a large amount of electrical activity within this thunderstorm. The observed ozone enhancements are large (50% above the mean) and could have resulted from a number of possible processes, including the advection of polluted air from the urban environments of El Paso and Juarez, photochemical production by lightning-generated NOx from aged thunderstorm outflow, downward mixing of stratospheric air, or local production from within the thunderstorm. We find that a large fraction of the ozone enhancement is consistent with local production from corona discharges, either from cloud particles or by corona associated with lightning. The implied global source of ozone from thunderstorm corona discharge is estimated to be 110 Tg O3 a-1 with a range between 40 and 180 Tg O3 a-1. This value is about 21% as large as the estimated ozone production rate from lightning NOx, and about 3% as large as the total chemical production rate of tropospheric ozone. Thus while the estimated corona-induced production of ozone may be significant on local scales, it is unlikely to be as important to the global ozone budget as other sources.

  8. Study of the European market for industrial nuclear power plants for the mixed production of electricity and steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The opportunity of developing the mixed production of electricity and steam from nuclear power plants in the nine countries of the European Community is studied. Both public distribution and autonomous production are envisaged. An attempt is made to estimate the potentiel market for district heating and for chemical, agricultural and alimentary, textile, paper, car manufacture and wood industries. The reactors considered are LWR reactors of at least 1000MWth. Suggestions are given to overcome the difficulties and constraints that stand in the way of a nuclear solution [fr

  9. Emissions of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases From the Production and Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity

    OpenAIRE

    Delucchi, Mark

    1997-01-01

    The use of energy accounts for a major fraction of all anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (IPCC, 1995) , and in most industrialized countries the use of transportation fuels and electricity accounts for a major fraction of all energy-related emissions. In the transportation sector alone, emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the production and use of motor-vehicle fuels account for as much as 30% of CO2 emissions from the use of all fossil fuels (DeLuchi, 1991). The production and...

  10. Electricity mix and ecological assessments. Consequences of the choice of specific electricity mixes in analyses of the environmental performance of products and services; Strommix in Oekobilanzen. Auswirkungen der Strommodellwahl fuer Produkt- und Betriebs-Oekobilanzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menard, M.; Dones, R.; Gantner, U

    1998-12-01

    The study aims at analysing the methodological issues associated with the definition of electricity mixes and discussing the consequences of the choice of specific electricity mixes in analyses of the environmental performance of products and services, based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This report has been designed as a guideline to support LCA practitioners in the systematic identification of the most appropriate electricity mixes for LCA applications. A detailed checklist has been developed for this purpose. It includes the following items: type of electricity supply (from the net, self production, direct contracts); voltage level; country/place of utilisation; year of utilisation; season/daytime of utilisation; import/export model; and, marginal vs. average approach. A few examples, utilising published LCA studies, illustrate the impacts of the insights gained in the present work. Although primarily aimed at applications in Switzerland, the main concepts, the modelling and parts of the information provided can also be applied to other European countries. In addition to the three models proposed earlier for the assessment of the Swiss yearly average electricity mix, a new model (M4) has been developed in the frame of the present task in order to take into account the conditions characteristic for Switzerland as a transit land for electricity trades between its neighbour countries. All existing electricity mix models as well as selected environmental inventories are described and compared in the report. As an example of results, the CO{sub 2} emissions calculated for the Swiss yearly electricity supply mix are relatively small (48 g/kWh with model M4, as compared with 497 g/kWh for the average UCPTE mix). Key information on the structure of electricity generation and trade in Europe is provided. The modelling of the electricity supply for most of the European countries is less sensitive to the choice of an electricity model than for Switzerland. Considering

  11. Theory and algorithms for solving large-scale numerical problems. Application to the management of electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiche, A.

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript deals with large-scale optimization problems, and more specifically with solving the electricity unit commitment problem arising at EDF. First, we focused on the augmented Lagrangian algorithm. The behavior of that algorithm on an infeasible convex quadratic optimization problem is analyzed. It is shown that the algorithm finds a point that satisfies the shifted constraints with the smallest possible shift in the sense of the Euclidean norm and that it minimizes the objective on the corresponding shifted constrained set. The convergence to such a point is realized at a global linear rate, which depends explicitly on the augmentation parameter. This suggests us a rule for determining the augmentation parameter to control the speed of convergence of the shifted constraint norm to zero. This rule has the advantage of generating bounded augmentation parameters even when the problem is infeasible. As a by-product, the algorithm computes the smallest translation in the Euclidean norm that makes the constraints feasible. Furthermore, this work provides solution methods for stochastic optimization industrial problems decomposed on a scenario tree, based on the progressive hedging algorithm introduced by [Rockafellar et Wets, 1991]. We also focus on the convergence of that algorithm. On the one hand, we offer a counter-example showing that the algorithm could diverge if its augmentation parameter is iteratively updated. On the other hand, we show how to recover the multipliers associated with the non-dualized constraints defined on the scenario tree from those associated with the corresponding constraints of the scenario subproblems. Their convergence is also analyzed for convex problems. The practical interest of theses solutions techniques is corroborated by numerical experiments performed on the electric production management problem. We apply the progressive hedging algorithm to a realistic industrial problem. More precisely, we solve the French medium

  12. Methods for controlling pore morphology in aerogels using electric fields and products thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Olson, Tammy Y.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Rose, Klint A.

    2017-12-16

    In one embodiment, an aerogel or xerogel includes column structures of a material having minor pores therein and major pores devoid of the material positioned between the column structures, where longitudinal axes of the major pores are substantially parallel to one another. In another embodiment, a method includes heating a sol including aerogel or xerogel precursor materials to cause gelation thereof to form an aerogel or xerogel and exposing the heated sol to an electric field, wherein the electric field causes orientation of a microstructure of the sol during gelation, which is retained by the aerogel or xerogel. In one approach, an aerogel has elongated pores extending between a material arranged in column structures having structural characteristics of being formed from a sol exposed to an electric field that causes orientation of a microstructure of the sol during gelation which is retained by the elongated pores of the aerogel.

  13. Application of solar concentrators for combined production of hydrogen and electrical energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotevski, Darko

    2008-01-01

    New specific concept is application of solar dish concentrators in a process which allows solar energy to be used for splitting water in hydrogen and oxygen, with electrical energy as a byproduct. This is performed in two stages: The first stage uses highly concentrated solar energy to split CO 2 Into CO and O 2 . The second stage uses water-gas shifts reaction to cause the CO to react with water and produced hydrogen and CO 2 , Carbon dioxide is then recycled back into the system, and the waste heat is used to produce electricity in a steam turbine, Efficiency of the process is 45% , totaling 20% in chemical energy (H 2 ), and 25% electricity. This solar system is 80% more efficient than other solar technologies which make energy much cheaper. The environmentally friendly and low cost hydrogen can become a prime mover of fuel cell development especially in automotive application. (Author)

  14. Molecular physics. Production of trilobite Rydberg molecule dimers with kilo-Debye permanent electric dipole moments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, D; Rittenhouse, S T; Yang, J; Sadeghpour, H R; Shaffer, J P

    2015-04-03

    Permanent electric dipole moments are important for understanding symmetry breaking in molecular physics, control of chemical reactions, and realization of strongly correlated many-body quantum systems. However, large molecular permanent electric dipole moments are challenging to realize experimentally. We report the observation of ultralong-range Rydberg molecules with bond lengths of ~100 nanometers and kilo-Debye permanent electric dipole moments that form when an ultracold ground-state cesium (Cs) atom becomes bound within the electronic cloud of an extended Cs electronic orbit. The electronic character of this hybrid class of "trilobite" molecules is dominated by degenerate Rydberg manifolds, making them difficult to produce by conventional photoassociation. We used detailed coupled-channel calculations to reproduce their properties quantitatively. Our findings may lead to progress in ultracold chemistry and strongly correlated many-body physics. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Economic analysis for the electricity production in isolated areas in Cuba using different renewable sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales Salas, Joel; Moreno Figueredo, Conrado; Briesemeister, Ludwig; Arzola, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Despite the effort and commitment of the Cuban government in more of 50 year, there are houses without electricity in remote areas of the Electricity Network. These houses or communities have the promise and commitment of the local and national authorities to help them in improve his life quality. How the houses and communities are remote of the electricity network, the cost to extend the network is considerably high. For that reason, the use of renewable sources in these areas is an acceptable proposal. This article does an analysis to obtain different configurations depending to the number of houses. It do a proposal with the use of the Hydrothermal Carbonization process in the cases where is not feasible introduce different renewable source; a technology new in Cuba, and advantageous taking into consideration the kind of biomass that exist in Cuba. The study of the chemical process of the Hydrothermal Carbonization with the Cuban biomass should be further researched. (full text)

  16. Electrical predictive maintenance at Trillo I Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente, L. R.; Fernandez de la Mata, R.; Cano Gonzalez, J. C.

    1998-01-01

    An electrical predictive maintenance plan is currently being put into effect at Trillo I Nuclear Power Plant which is initially being applied to three types of equipment: motors, transformers and motor-driven valves. This paper describes the different phases considered in the implementation of the Predictive Maintenance Plan: study of existing techniques for such equipment (tangoδ, spectral analysis of stator current, chromatographic analysis of gases, spectral analysis of the axial stray magnetic flux, etc), study of the special characteristics of the electrical equipment at Trillo NPP, analysis of applicable techniques (characteristic parameters, alert-alarm values, experience with such techniques, etc), analysis of machine history records, study of the optimum preventive-predictive case, study of applicable frequencies and definition of the computerised predictive maintenance management tool. With the exception of the computerised predictive maintenance management applications which are presently being implemented, all the activities described above have been carried out on the three types of equipment mentioned. (Author)

  17. Structural analysis of electricity consumption by productive sectors. The Spanish case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcantara, Vicent [Departamento de Economia Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Economicas, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edificio B 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); del Rio, Pablo; Hernandez, Felix [Institute for Public Goods and Policies (IPP), Centro de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), C/Albasanz 26-28, Madrid 28037 (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    The aim of this paper is to identify those sectors that contribute most to electricity consumption in Spain, using a methodology based on input-output tables, and to derive some recommendations aimed at increasing energy efficiency in those sectors. This input-output approach is complemented with a sector-focused study in which the availability of electricity-efficient technologies per sector and the barriers to their uptake are identified. This hybrid approach is deemed useful to derive policy implications. We thus propose several instruments to remove those barriers. (author)

  18. Structural analysis of electricity consumption by productive sectors. The Spanish case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcantara, Vicent; Rio, Pablo del; Hernandez, Felix

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify those sectors that contribute most to electricity consumption in Spain, using a methodology based on input-output tables, and to derive some recommendations aimed at increasing energy efficiency in those sectors. This input-output approach is complemented with a sector-focused study in which the availability of electricity-efficient technologies per sector and the barriers to their uptake are identified. This hybrid approach is deemed useful to derive policy implications. We thus propose several instruments to remove those barriers.

  19. Gasification for electric energy production; Gaseificacao para producao de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Paulo Luiz Jardim de [Light Servicos de Eletricidade SA, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1988-12-31

    Development and research activities that lead the Fuel Gas Project into a success demonstrate the viability of using charcoal gas as an alternative fuel for diesel - driven electric generators. This viability came clear when satisfactory results were achieved in the reducing of oil and charcoal consumption as well as in the durability of diesel engines. All this adds up to great social benefits that arise from its use in the electric generation in northern Brazil and mid-west regions. (author) 17 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Consumer perception of the use of high-pressure processing and pulsed electric field technologies in food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Henriette Boel; Sonne, Anne-Mette; Grunert, Klaus G; Banati, Diana; Pollák-Tóth, Annamária; Lakner, Zoltán; Olsen, Nina Veflen; Zontar, Tanja Pajk; Peterman, Marjana

    2009-02-01

    The success of new food processing technologies is highly dependent on consumers' acceptance. The purpose of this paper is to study consumers' perceptions of two new processing technologies and food products produced by means of these novel technologies. To accomplish this, a qualitative study on consumer attitudes towards high-pressure processing (HPP) and pulsed electric field (PEF) processing of food was carried out. In all 97 adults between 20 and 71 years of age participated in 12 focus groups conducted in Slovenia, Hungary, Serbia, Slovakia, Norway and Denmark using a common guideline. Participants were introduced to the HPP and PEF technologies and then to the effect of the two new technologies on two specific product categories: juice and baby food. The transcribed data was content analysed and the coded data was transformed into diagrams using UCINET 5 and NETDRAW. The results show that consumers perceived the main advantages of HPP and PEF products to be the products' naturalness, improved taste and their high nutritional value, whereas the main disadvantage was the lack of information about the PEF and HPP products. The results of the participants' evaluation of the PEF and HPP processes showed that environmental friendliness and the more natural products were seen as the main advantages, while they were concerned about body and health, the higher price of the products, the lack of information about the technologies and a general scepticism. The study also shows that North European participants were a bit more sceptical towards PEF and HPP products than the East European participants.

  1. Silver carbonate and stability in colloidal silver: A by-product of the electric spark discharge method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, Kuo-Hsiung; Liao, Chih-Yu; Tien, Der-Chi

    2010-01-01

    Many methods of producing colloidal silver (CS) include the introduction of surfactants to improve the suspensivity of the silver particles. The electric spark discharge method (ESDM) which involves pulses of direct current being passed through a silver electrode submerged in deionized water has been shown to successfully produce colloidal silver in a stable suspension without the use of chemical additives. A by-product of the electric spark discharge method, a silver ion compound (AgX), is shown to be the cause of the high suspensivity of the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The silver ion compound has been identified as Ag 2 CO 3 using X-ray diffraction, and it has been determined that the Ag 2 CO 3 is formed during the electric spark discharge process through a reaction with atmospheric CO 2 . It has been shown that an Ag 2 CO 3 concentration of 10 ppm or more is sufficient to generate a stable suspension of silver particles. Because of the occurrence of Ag 2 CO 3 , the electric spark discharge method can produce stable colloidal silver.

  2. The impact of carbon sequestration on the production cost of electricity and hydrogen from coal and natural-gas technologies in Europe in the medium term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzimas, Evangelos; Peteves, Stathis D.

    2005-01-01

    Carbon sequestration is a distinct technological option with a potential for controlling carbon emissions; it complements other measures, such as improvements in energy efficiency and utilization of renewable energy sources. The deployment of carbon sequestration technologies in electricity generation and hydrogen production will increase the production costs of these energy carriers. Our economic assessment has shown that the introduction of carbon sequestration technologies in Europe in 2020, will result in an increase in the production cost of electricity by coal and natural gas technologies of 30-55% depending on the electricity-generation technology used; gas turbines will remain the most competitive option for generating electricity; and integrated gasification combined cycle technology will become competitive. When carbon sequestration is coupled with natural-gas steam reforming or coal gasification for hydrogen production, the production cost of hydrogen will increase by 14-16%. Furthermore, natural-gas steam reforming with carbon sequestration is far more economically competitive than coal gasification

  3. An FAHP-TOPSIS framework for analysis of the employee productivity in the Serbian electrical power companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snezana Pavle Knezevic

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to apply an integrated model, which combines methods of classical and fuzzy Multi-criteria decision making (MCDM in selected six large equity companies from the Serbian energy sector. The data considered are retrieved from the official financial statements. Four main criteria were analyzed, identified by the previous researchers and pointing to the employees productivity: Operating income/Number of employees, Equity/Number of employees, Net income/Number of employees and Total assets/Number of employees. The contribution of this paper lies in the application of a hybrid model that integrates two MCDM methods: Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP and Technique for Order Performance by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS to analyse the employee productivity in selected D-Electrical power supply companies operating in Serbia. The FAHP is an effective method for mathematical representation of uncertain and imprecise evaluations made by humans, while the TOPSIS method is an efficient way to rank the alternatives. Results show that operating income is of highest importance for estimating employee productivity and decision making, while equity is of the weakest. Furthermore, the most productive operations in large enterprises from selected companies of the sector D-Electrical power supply are found in the company PC EPS Beograd, and the lowest are in the ED Center llc Kragujevac.

  4. Microbial surface displayed enzymes based biofuel cell utilizing degradation products of lignocellulosic biomass for direct electrical energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shuqin; Hou, Chuantao; Liang, Bo; Feng, Ruirui; Liu, Aihua

    2015-09-01

    In this work, a bacterial surface displaying enzyme based two-compartment biofuel cell for the direct electrical energy conversion from degradation products of lignocellulosic biomass is reported. Considering that the main degradation products of the lignocellulose are glucose and xylose, xylose dehydrogenase (XDH) displayed bacteria (XDH-bacteria) and glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) displayed bacteria (GDH-bacteria) were used as anode catalysts in anode chamber with methylene blue as electron transfer mediator. While the cathode chamber was constructed with laccase/multi-walled-carbon nanotube/glassy-carbon-electrode. XDH-bacteria exhibited 1.75 times higher catalytic efficiency than GDH-bacteria. This assembled enzymatic fuel cell exhibited a high open-circuit potential of 0.80 V, acceptable stability and energy conversion efficiency. Moreover, the maximum power density of the cell could reach 53 μW cm(-2) when fueled with degradation products of corn stalk. Thus, this finding holds great potential to directly convert degradation products of biomass into electrical energy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Possible use of Fe/CO2 fuel cells for CO2 mitigation plus H2 and electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, Greg H.

    2004-01-01

    The continuous oxidation of scrap iron in the presence of a constant CO 2 -rich waste gas stream and water is evaluated as a means of sequestering anthropogenic CO 2 as well as generating hydrogen gas and electricity. The stoichiometry of the net reaction, Fe 0 + CO 2 + H 2 O → FeCO 3 + H 2 , and assumptions about reaction rates, reactant and product prices/values and overhead costs suggest that CO 2 might be mitigated at a net profit in excess of $30/tonne CO 2 . The principle profit center of the process would be hydrogen production, alone providing a gross income of >$160/tonne CO 2 reacted. However, the realization of such fuel cell economics depends on a number of parameters including: (1) the rate at which the reaction can be sustained, (2) the areal and volumetric density with which H 2 and electricity can be produced, (3) the purity of the H 2 produced, (4) the transportation costs of the reactants (Fe, CO 2 and H 2 O) and products (FeCO 3 or Fe(HCO 3 ) 2 ) to/from the cells and (5) the cost/benefit trade-offs of optimizing the preceding variables in a given market and regulatory environment. Because of the carbon intensity of conventional iron metal production, a net carbon sequestration benefit for the process can be realized only when waste (rather than new) iron and steel are used as electrodes and/or when Fe(HCO 3 ) 2 is the end product. The used electrolyte could also provide a free source of Fe 2+ ions for enhancing iron-limited marine photosynthesis and, thus, greatly increasing the CO 2 sequestration potential of the process. Alternatively, the reaction of naturally occurring iron oxides (iron ore) with CO 2 can be considered for FeCO 3 formation and sequestration, but this foregoes the benefits of hydrogen and electricity production. Use of Fe/CO 2 fuel cells would appear to be particularly relevant for fossil fuel gasification/steam reforming systems given the highly concentrated CO 2 they generate and given the existing infrastructure they

  6. Production costs and operative margins in electric energy generation from biogas. Full-scale case studies in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, C; Schievano, A; D'Imporzano, G; Adani, F

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the economic sustainability of three different biogas full scale plants, fed with different organic matrices: energy crops (EC), manure, agro-industrial (Plants B and C) and organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) (Plant A). The plants were observed for one year and total annual biomass feeding, biomass composition and biomass cost (€ Mg(-1)), initial investment cost and plant electric power production were registered. The unit costs of biogas and electric energy (€ Sm(-3)biogas, € kWh(-1)EE) were differently distributed, depending on the type of feed and plant. Plant A showed high management/maintenance cost for OFMSW treatment (0.155 € Sm(-3)biogas, 45% of total cost), Plant B suffered high cost for EC supply (0.130 € Sm(-3)biogas, 49% of total cost) and Plant C showed higher impact on the total costs because of the depreciation charge (0.146 € Sm(-3)biogas, 41% of total costs). The breakeven point for the tariff of electric energy, calculated for the different cases, resulted in the range 120-170 € MWh(-1)EE, depending on fed materials and plant scale. EC had great impact on biomass supply costs and should be reduced, in favor of organic waste and residues; plant scale still heavily influences the production costs. The EU States should drive incentives in dependence of these factors, to further develop this still promising sector. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Improving the cathode of a microbial fuel cell for efficient electricity production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijne, ter A.

    2010-01-01

    The worldwide demand for energy is increasing. At the same time, energy rich wastewaters are currently purified by oxygen supply, which costs a lot of energy. The Microbial Fuel Cell is a new technology that offers advantages in both directions: it produces electricity while purifying wastewaters.

  8. Sound production to electric discharge: sonic muscle evolution in progress in Synodontis spp. catfishes (Mochokidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Kelly S; Colleye, Orphal; Parmentier, Eric

    2014-09-22

    Elucidating the origins of complex biological structures has been one of the major challenges of evolutionary studies. Within vertebrates, the capacity to produce regular coordinated electric organ discharges (EODs) has evolved independently in different fish lineages. Intermediate stages, however, are not known. We show that, within a single catfish genus, some species are able to produce sounds, electric discharges or both signals (though not simultaneously). We highlight that both acoustic and electric communication result from actions of the same muscle. In parallel to their abilities, the studied species show different degrees of myofibril development in the sonic and electric muscle. The lowest myofibril density was observed in Synodontis nigriventris, which produced EODs but no swim bladder sounds, whereas the greatest myofibril density was observed in Synodontis grandiops, the species that produced the longest sound trains but did not emit EODs. Additionally, S. grandiops exhibited the lowest auditory thresholds. Swim bladder sounds were similar among species, while EODs were distinctive at the species level. We hypothesize that communication with conspecifics favoured the development of species-specific EOD signals and suggest an evolutionary explanation for the transition from a fast sonic muscle to electrocytes. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Electric energy production from food waste: Microbial fuel cells versus anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Xiaodong; Ma, Yingqun; Liu, Yu

    2018-05-01

    A food waste resourceful process was developed by integrating the ultra-fast hydrolysis and microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for energy and resource recovery. Food waste was first ultra-fast hydrolyzed by fungal mash rich in hydrolytic enzymes in-situ produced from food waste. After which, the separated solids were readily converted to biofertilizer, while the liquid was fed to MFCs for direct electricity generation with a conversion efficiency of 0.245 kWh/kg food waste. It was estimated that about 192.5 million kWh of electricity could be produced from the food waste annually generated in Singapore, together with 74,390 tonnes of dry biofertilizer. Compared to anaerobic digestion, the proposed approach was more environmentally friendly and economically viable in terms of both electricity conversion and process cost. It is expected that this study may lead to the paradigm shift in food waste management towards ultra-fast concurrent recovery of resource and electricity with zero-solid discharge. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hydropower Impacts on Electrical System Production Costs in the Southwest United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique M. Bain

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Colorado River is an important natural resource for the Southwestern United States. Predicted climate change impacts include increased temperature, decreased rainfall and increased probability of drought in this region. Given the large amount of hydropower on the Colorado River and its importance to the bulk electricity system, this purpose of this study was to quantify the value hydropower in operating the electrical system, and examined changes in hydropower value and electricity costs under different possible future drought conditions and regional generation scenarios. The goal was to better understand how these scenarios affect operating costs of the bulk electrical system, as well as the value of the hydropower produced, and proposed a method for doing so. The calculated value of the hydroelectric power was nearly double the mean locational marginal price in the study area, about $73 to $75 for most scenarios, demonstrating a high value of the hydropower. In general, it was found that reduced water availability increased operating costs, and increased the value of the hydropower. A calculated value factor showed that when less hydroelectric power is available, the hydropower is more valuable. Furthermore, the value factor showed that the value of hydro increases with the addition of solar or the retirement of thermal generating resources.

  11. Possibilities for electricity production from geothermal energy in Slovenia in the next decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Rajver

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended to raise awareness of the public, with the aim that anyone can judge reality and accuracyof records that appear in the media on the exploitation of geothermal energy. It provides a comprehensive overviewof geothermal systems, potential of hydrothermal and enhanced geothermal systems, of mechanisms and characteristicsof middle and high enthalpy geothermal resources. It also deals with a mode of their conversion into electricity.Featured are the main factors affecting the decision on effectiveness of conversion of geothermal energy intoelectricity. Given are the review of the research necessary to establish the geothermal potential and assessment oftechnological and economic possibilities of installing geothermal power plants in Slovenia. The paper also describesthe state of knowledge of middle- and high temperature geothermal resources in Slovenia with initial conditions forconstructing geothermal power plants. In addition, we present theoretical calculations of the conversion efficiencyof geothermal energy into electricity with conventional turbines and present some problems for the exploitationof geothermal energy, which are associated with additional costs and further reduce the efficiency of investment.Described are the characteristics and performance of binary geothermal power plants and foreign experience inobtaining electricity from the EGS (Enhanced Geothermal System. We also address the overlapping of the oil andgas industry with the operation of the EGS and the possibility of exploiting oil and gas wells for producing thegeothermal electricity.

  12. Traveling wire electrode increases productivity of Electrical Discharge Machining /EDM/ equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotora, J., Jr.; Smith, S. V.

    1967-01-01

    Traveling wire electrode on electrical discharge machining /EDM/ equipment reduces the time requirements for precision cutting. This device enables cutting with a minimum of lost material and without inducing stress beyond that inherent in the material. The use of wire increases accuracy and enables tighter tolerances to be maintained.

  13. Standardization of soil apparent electrical conductivity using multi-temporal surveys across multiple production fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa) is an efficient technique for understanding within-field variability of physical and chemical soil characteristics. Commercial devices are readily available for collecting ECa on whole fields and used broadly for crop management in precision agriculture; h...

  14. The Impact of Intermittent Renewable Production and Market Coupling on the Convergence of French and German Electricity Prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppler, Jan Horst; Le Pen, Yannick; Phan, Sebastien; Boureau, Charlotte

    2014-10-01

    Interconnecting two adjacent areas of electricity production generates benefits in combined consumer surplus and welfare by allowing electricity to flow from the low cost area to the high cost area. It will lower prices in the high cost area, raise them in the low cost area and will thus have prices in the two areas converge. With unconstrained interconnection capacity, price convergence is, of course, complete and the two areas are merged into a single area. With constrained interconnection capacity, the challenge for transport system operators (TSOs) and market operators is using the available capacity in an optimal manner. This was the logic behind the 'market coupling' mechanism installed by European power market operators in November 2009 in the Central Western Europe (CWE) electricity market, of which France and Germany constitute by far the two largest members. Market coupling aims at optimising welfare by ensuring that buyers and sellers exchange electricity at the best possible price taking into account the combined order books all power exchanges involved as well as the available transfer capacities between different bidding zones. By doing so, interconnection capacity is allocated to those who value it most. As predicted by theory and common sense, electricity prices in France and Germany converged substantially in 2010 and 2011 in the wake of market coupling with substantive increases of consumer surplus. These benefits accrued in both areas. In first approximation, France exports base-load power, while Germany exports peak-load power, thus exporting and importing at different times of the day. However since 2012, electricity prices between France and Germany diverged, a process that accelerated during 2013. The hypothesis this paper is exploring is that this divergence is due to the significant production of variable renewables (wind and solar PV) in Germany, which tends to cluster during certain hours. Typically, solar production around noontime

  15. Developing electricity production with natural gas in the southern mediterranean countries. An example of north-south cooperation in the electricity and natural gas sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenon, M.; Nogaret, E.

    1996-01-01

    The countries of the Southern Mediterranean region are facing an important increase of electricity demand due to their socio-economic development. In order to increase the production capacity at a minimum cost while preserving the environment, most countries of the region are planning gas fired power stations due to the important natural gas resources in the area. Overall investments in new power plants could reach the total of 100 billion dollars, up to the horizon 2010. The development of both the power plants and the infrastructure to produce and transport the natural gas needed is more and more performed through cooperation between companies of the two shores of the Mediterranean and represent an example of North- South cooperation in the energy field. This cooperation is taking place through technical assistance programs and also joint financing and management of the infrastructure required. A special importance is given to the development of highly efficient combined cycle power plants in the Southern Mediterranean countries and to the increase of the activities related to the exploration and production of natural gas. (author)

  16. Product service systems and sustainable mobility : An electric vehicle introduction case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beella, S.K.; Silvester, S.; Brezet, J.C.; Van Timmeren, A.; Bauer, P.; Quist, J.; Van Dijk, S.

    2010-01-01

    A product service system (PSS) is a function-oriented business model aimed at providing sustainability of both consumption and production. A PSS is defined as a marketable set of products and services capable of jointly fulfilling user needs. In theory PSSs are normally shown realized with smart

  17. Effect of corona electric field on the production of gamma-poly glutamic acid based on bacillus natto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Hong; Na, Ri; Xin, Jiletu; Jie Xie, Ya; Guo, Jiu Feng

    2013-03-01

    Bacillus Natto is an important strain for gamma-poly glutamic acid (γ-PGA) production. The mutagenesis of Bacillus Natto 20646 under corona electric field and the screening of high γ-PGA producing mutant were investigated. A new mutant bacillus natto Ndlz01 was isolated from Bacillus Natto 20646 after mutation in corona electric field at 9kV for 2min. The Ndlz01 exhibited genetic stability of high γ-PGA producing ability even after five generation cultures. When the bacterium was mutated in streamer discharge state at 9kV for 2min, its death rate was more than 90%. Compared with the yield of γ-PGA based on the original Bacillus Natto 20646, the γ-PGA yield of mutant bacillus natto Ndlz01 increased from 2.6 to 5.94 g/L, with an increase rate of 129.78%.

  18. Effect of corona electric field on the production of gamma-poly glutamic acid based on bacillus natto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Hong; Na, Ri; Xin, Jiletu; Xie, Ya Jie; Guo, Jiu Feng

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus Natto is an important strain for gamma-poly glutamic acid (γ-PGA) production. The mutagenesis of Bacillus Natto 20646 under corona electric field and the screening of high γ-PGA producing mutant were investigated. A new mutant bacillus natto Ndlz01 was isolated from Bacillus Natto 20646 after mutation in corona electric field at 9kV for 2min. The Ndlz01 exhibited genetic stability of high γ-PGA producing ability even after five generation cultures. When the bacterium was mutated in streamer discharge state at 9kV for 2min, its death rate was more than 90%. Compared with the yield of γ-PGA based on the original Bacillus Natto 20646, the γ-PGA yield of mutant bacillus natto Ndlz01 increased from 2.6 to 5.94 g/L, with an increase rate of 129.78%.

  19. The evolution and main determinants of productivity in Brazilian electricity distribution 1998-2005. An empirical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos-Real, Francisco Javier [Fac. CC. Economicas y Empresariales e IUDR - Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Programa de investigacion Energia y Cambio Climatico Fedea-Abengoa (Spain); Tovar, Beatriz [Dpto. de Analisis Economico Aplicado y EIT - Universidad las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Iootty, Mariana [UFRRJ Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); De Almeida, Edmar Fagundes; Pinto, Helder Queiroz Jr. [IE-UFRJ Instituto de Economia - Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2009-03-15

    This paper estimates changes in the productivity of the Brazilian electricity distribution sector using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) on a panel of 18 firms from 1998 to 2005. The study decomposes the productivity change of these distribution firms in terms of technical efficiency, scale-efficiency and technical progress. This exercise aims to help the understanding of the main determinants of the evolution of productivity, focusing its relationship with the restructuring process implemented in the 1990s. TFP index records a yearly positive growth rate of 1.3% in the whole period under analysis for all firms. Technical change was the main component behind this evolution, with an average growth of 2.1% per year, while technical efficiency presented a yearly negative performance of - 0.8%. The results prove that, in general terms, the incentives generated in the reform process do not seem to have led the firms to behave in a more efficient manner. (author)

  20. Nitrogen removal and electricity production at a double-chamber microbial fuel cell with cathode nitrite denitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yangyang; Zhao, Jianqiang; Wang, Sha; Zhao, Huimin; Ding, Xiaoqian; Gao, Kun

    2017-12-01

    Double-chamber microbial fuel cell was applied to investigate the performance of the electricity production and nitrite denitrification through feeding nitrite into the cathode. Factors influencing denitrification performance and power production, such as external resistance, influent nitrite concentration and Nitrite Oxygen Bacteria inhibitors, were studied. The results show that when the concentration of nitrite nitrogen and external resistance were 100 mg L -1 and 10 Ω, respectively, the nitrite denitrification reached the best state. The NaN 3 can inhibit nitrite oxidation effectively; meanwhile, the nitrite denitrification with N 2 O as the final products was largely improved. The [Formula: see text] was reduced to [Formula: see text], causing the cathode denitrification coulombic efficiency to exceed 100%. In chemoautotrophic bio-nitrification, microorganisms may utilize H 2 O to oxidize nitrite under anaerobic conditions. Proteobacteria might play a major role in the process of denitrification in MFC.

  1. Climate effects of electricity production fuelled by coal, forest slash and municipal solid waste with and without carbon capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathre, Roger; Gustavsson, Leif; Truong, Nguyen Le

    2017-01-01

    We analyse the climate implications of producing electricity in large-scale conversion plants using coal, forest slash and municipal solid waste with and without carbon capture and storage (CCS). We calculate the primary energy, carbon dioxide (CO_2) and methane (CH_4) emission profiles, and the cumulative radiative forcing (CRF) of different systems that produce the same amount of electricity. We find that using slash or waste for electricity production instead of coal somewhat increases the instantaneous CO_2 emission from the power plant, but avoids significant subsequent emissions from decaying slash in forests or waste in landfills. For slash used instead of coal, we find robust near- and long-term reductions in total emissions and CRF. Climate effects of using waste instead of coal are more ambiguous: CRF is reduced when CCS is used, but without CCS there is little or no climate benefits of using waste directly for energy, assuming that landfill gas is recovered and used for electricity production. The application of CCS requires more fuel, but strongly reduces the CO_2 emissions. The use of slash or waste together with CCS results in negative net emissions and CRF, i.e. global cooling. - Highlights: • Using slash or waste for energy emits CO_2 from power plants, but avoids CO_2 and CH_4 emissions from forests or landfills. • Using forest slash for energy instead of coal gives robust short- and long-term climate benefits. • Using waste instead of coal gives questionable climate benefits, if the waste would otherwise be landfilled properly.

  2. Quantifying the emissions and air quality co-benefits of lower-carbon electricity production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachinski, Steven D.; Holloway, Tracey; Meier, Paul J.; Nemet, Gregory F.; Rrushaj, Arber; Oberman, Jacob T.; Duran, Phillip L.; Voigt, Caitlin L.

    2014-09-01

    The impact of air emissions from electricity generation depends on the spatial distribution of power plants and electricity dispatch decisions. Thus, any realistic evaluation of the air quality impacts of lower-carbon electricity must account for the spatially heterogeneous changes in associated emissions. Here, we present an analysis of the changes in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) associated with current, expected, and proposed energy efficiency and renewable energy policies in Wisconsin. We simulate the state's electricity system and its potential response to policies using the MyPower electricity-sector model, which calculates plant-by-plant reductions in NOx and SO2 emissions. We find that increased efficiency and renewable generation in a 2024 policy scenario substantially reduce statewide emissions of NOx and SO2 (55% and 59% compared to 2008, 32% and 33% compared to 2024 business-as-usual, BAU). PM2.5 is quantified across the Great Lakes region using the EPA Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model for some emissions scenarios. We find that summer mean surface concentrations of sulfate and PM2.5 are less sensitive to policy changes than emissions. In the 2024 policy scenario, sulfate aerosol decreases less than 3% over most of the region relative to BAU and 3-13% relative to 2008 over most of Wisconsin. The lower response of these secondary aerosols arises from chemical and meteorological processing of electricity emissions, and mixing with other emission sources. An analysis of model performance and response to emission reduction at five sites in Wisconsin shows good model agreement with observations and a high level of spatial and temporal variability in sulfate and PM2.5 reductions. In this case study, the marginal improvements in emissions and air quality associated with carbon policies were less than the technology, renewable, and conservation assumptions under a business-as-usual scenario. However, this analysis for Wisconsin shows how

  3. Evaluation of electrical stunning of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) in seawater and killing by chilling: wel;fare aspects, product quality and possibilities for implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambooij, E.; Gerritzen, M.A.; Reimert, H.G.M.; Burggraaf, D.; Andre, G.; Vis, van de J.W.

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to assess neural, behavioural responses and product quality in farmed sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) upon electrical stunning in seawater. The electrical sinusoidal 50 Hz or pulse square wave alternating 133 Hz current induced a general epileptiform insult with a current of

  4. Electrical Field Guided Electrospray Deposition for Production of Gradient Particle Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wei-Cheng; Xie, Jingwei; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2018-06-06

    Our previous work demonstrated the uniform particle pattern formation on the substrates using electrical field guided electrospray deposition. In this work, we reported for the first time the fabrication of gradient particle patterns on glass slides using an additional point, line, or bar electrode based on our previous electrospray deposition configuration. We also demonstrated that the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coating could result in the formation of uniform particle patterns instead of gradient particle patterns on glass slides using the same experimental setup. Meanwhile, we investigated the effect of experimental configurations on the gradient particle pattern formation by computational simulation. The simulation results are in line with experimental observations. The formation of gradient particle patterns was ascribed to the gradient of electric field and the corresponding focusing effect. Cell patterns can be formed on the particle patterns deposited on PDMS-coated glass slides. The formed particle patterns hold great promise for high-throughput screening of biomaterial-cell interactions and sensing.

  5. Wind energy generation for electric power production, preliminary studies. Part I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, A

    1976-03-01

    Studies of wind power generation done by SAAB-Scania during 1975 are described. The project deals with generation of electricity for delivery to the transmission system. Both plants with horizontal axis and plants with vertical axis have been studied. A projected pilot plant with a rotor of 18 meter and an effect of 50 kW at 10 m/s wind velocity is described. Suggestions are made for a continuation of the project.

  6. Effectiveness of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on saliva production in post-radiated oral cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Sakshi Ojha; Thimmarasa V Bhovi; Prashant P Jaju; Manas Gupta; Neha Singh; Kriti Shrivastava

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in stimulating salivary flow in post-radiated oral cancer patients, and to compare the salivary flow rate between unstimulated saliva and saliva stimulated with TENS in post-radiated oral cancer patients. Materials and Methods: In 30 patients who underwent radiotherapy for oral cancer, unstimulated saliva was collected every minute for 5 min in a graduated test tube. The TENS unit was act...

  7. Possibilities for electricity production from geothermal energy in Slovenia in the next decade

    OpenAIRE

    Dušan Rajver; Andrej Lapanje; Nina Rman

    2012-01-01

    This article is intended to raise awareness of the public, with the aim that anyone can judge reality and accuracyof records that appear in the media on the exploitation of geothermal energy. It provides a comprehensive overviewof geothermal systems, potential of hydrothermal and enhanced geothermal systems, of mechanisms and characteristicsof middle and high enthalpy geothermal resources. It also deals with a mode of their conversion into electricity.Featured are the main factors affecting t...

  8. Production of electricity using methane generated from landfill site at Mehmood Booti, Lahore, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahjabeen, A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to find out the potential of municipal solid waste of Lahore to generate electricity from the methane gas produced during anaerobic decomposition of rapidly decomposable organic waste fraction separated from the MSW i.e., food and yard waste. The objectives of the study were to determine the composition of waste in order to find out the emission of methane from its decomposition and to calculate the amount of electricity that can be generated using this methane. The study was conducted with a multi-method approach, including direct field observation, questionnaire-based surveys, and document surveys. The findings of the study highlight that municipal solid waste of Lahore, is composed of 28.3% recycle able waste (paper, tetra pack, textiles, wood and straw, plastic and polythene, glass and metal, rubber and leather), 32.7% inert material (bricks, stones and miscellaneous wastes) and 39.4% rapidly decompose able organic matter named as compostables (food and yard wastes). Gas produced during the anaerobic decomposition of food and yard waste comprises of 51.54% methane and 48.46% carbon dioxide gas. Further calculations reveal that 24 MW electricity could be produced from methane emitted from Mehmood Booti landfill site. More extensive research and application of the research work can be very useful to humans as well as to the environment. (author)

  9. Evaluation of solar radiation abundance and electricity production capacity for application and development of solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahim, Mustamin [Department of Architecture, Khairun University, Ternate (Indonesia); Environmental and Renewable Energy Systems Division, Graduate School of Engineering, Gifu University (Japan); Yoshino, Jun; Yasuda, Takashi [Environmental and Renewable Energy Systems Division, Graduate School of Engineering, Gifu University (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    This study was undertaken to analyze solar radiation abundance to ascertain the potential of solar energy as an electrical energy resource. Local weather forecasting for predicting solar radiation is performed using a meteorological model MM5. The prediction results are compared with observed results obtained from the Japan Meteorological Agency for verification of the data accuracy. Results show that local weather forecasting has high accuracy. Prediction of solar radiation is similar with observation results. Monthly average values of solar radiation are sufficiently good during March–September. Electrical energy generated by photovoltaic cells is almost proportional to the solar radiation amount. Effects of clouds on solar radiation can be removed by monthly averaging. The balance between supply and demand of electricity can be estimated using a standard curve obtained from the temporal average. When the amount of solar radiation every hour with average of more than 100 km radius area does not yield the standard curve, we can estimate the system of storage and auxiliary power necessary based on the evaluated results of imbalance between supply and demand.

  10. Design, simulation, and prototype production of a through the road parallel hybrid electric motorcycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaei, Behzad; Habibidoost, Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Design, simulation, and manufacturing of a hybrid electric motorcycle are explained. • The electric machine is mounted in the front wheel hub of an ordinary motorcycle. • Two different energy control strategy are implemented. • The simulation results show that the motorcycle performance is improved. • The acceleration is improved and the fuel consumption and pollutions are decreased. - Abstract: In this paper, design, simulation, and conversion of a normal motorcycle to a Hybrid Electric Motorcycle (HEM) is described. At first, a simple model designed and simulated using ADVISOR2002. Then, the controller schematic and its optimized control strategy are described. A 125 cc ICE motorcycle is selected and converted into a HEM. A brushless DC (BLDC) motor assembled in the front wheel and a normal internal combustion engine in the rear wheel propel the motorcycle. The nominal powers are 6.6 kW and 500 W for the ICE and BLDC respectively. The original motorcycle has a Continuous Variable Transmission (CVT) that is the best choice for a HEM power transmission because it can operate in the automatic handling mode and has high efficiency. Moreover, by using the CVT, the ICE can be started while motorcycle is running. Finally, three operating modes of HEM, two implemented energy control strategies, and HEM engine control system by servomotors, and LCD display are explained

  11. ORC power plant for electricity production from forest and agriculture biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsukiewicz-Gozdur, A.; Wiśniewski, S.; Mocarski, S.; Bańkowski, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Results for three variants of CHP plant fuelled by sawmill biomass are presented. • Octamethyltrisiloxane, MDM, methanol and H 2 O working fluids was conducted in CHP. • CHP with internal regeneration and “dry” working fluid has the highest electric power. • Power output, drying heat and drying temperature depend on CHP variant and ORC fluid. - Abstract: The paper presents the calculation results for three variants of CHP plant fuelled by sawmill biomass. The plant shall produce electricity and heat for a drying chamber. An analysis of the system efficiency for four different working fluids was conducted: octamethyltrisiloxane, methylcyclohexane, methanol and water. The highest electric power was obtained for the system with internal regeneration and methylcyclohexane applied as the “dry” working fluid, the highest temperature to supply the drying chamber was obtained for the system with external regeneration and octamethyltrisiloxane applied as the working fluid. The results of the analysis indicate that, by proper choice of the working fluid and of the regeneration variant (internal or external), it is possible to “adjust” the work of the system to the needs and expectations of the plant investor (user)

  12. Approach to valuing visual pollution from Western Electricity Production. [For Western Systems Coordinating Council area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, L.E.

    1977-02-01

    This paper outlines an approach to valuing visual pollution from electric power plants. The differences between public-good pollution externalities, such as these aesthetic damages, and other market failures are discussed. Approaches generally used to value externalities are briefly described. The approach used relies heavily on an earlier application of bidding games to estimate people's willingness to pay for abatement of emissions from the Four Corners fossil-fuel power plant in northwestern New Mexico. The results of these surveys were used here to estimate the value of visual pollution from electric power plants for residents of and visitors to the Four Corners Air Quality Control Region, as a function of power plant emissions in that region. The approach presented here for the Four Corners region is structured so that replication for other air quality control regions is relatively easy. Preliminary results of this procedure for all of the air quality control regions in the Western Systems Coordinating Council area are presented. Visual pollution damages from electric power plants to residents of and recreational visitors to these western regions are estimated to total more than $100 million annually by 1985. These damages are expected to occur unless additional pollution controls are implemented, even if these subject populations do not increase.

  13. Ordinance nr 2016-1059 of the 3 rd of August 2016 related to the production of electricity from renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollande, Francois; Valls, Manuel; Royal, Segolene

    2016-01-01

    This legal text defines arrangements applicable to installations of electric power production from renewable energies under mandatory purchase, arrangements related to the call for competition procedure, and aspects related to the integration of renewable energies into the power system

  14. Measuring efficiency and productivity change in power electric generation management companies by using data envelopment analysis: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fallahi, Alireza; Ebrahimi, Reza; Ghaderi, S.F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical analysis of the determinants of energy efficiency in 32 power electric generation management companies over the period 2005–2009. The study uses non-parametric Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to estimate the relative technical efficiency and productivity change of these companies. In order to verify the stability of our DEA model and the importance of each input variable, a stability test is also conducted. The results of the study indicate that average technical efficiency of companies decreased during the study period. Nearly half of the companies (14) are below this average level of 88.7% for five years. Moreover, it is shown that the low increase of productivity changes is more related to low efficiency rather than technology changes. -- Highlights: ► DEA was applied on the 32 power electric generation management companies. ► A stability test is applied to verify the stability of DEA model. ► Average technical efficiency of companies decreased during the study period. ► The low increase of productivity changes is more related to low efficiency changes.

  15. GAMMA RADIATION INTERACTS WITH MELANIN TO ALTER ITS OXIDATION-REDUCTION POTENTIAL AND RESULTS IN ELECTRIC CURRENT PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turick, C.; Ekechukwu, A.; Milliken, C.

    2011-05-17

    The presence of melanin pigments in organisms is implicated in radioprotection and in some cases, enhanced growth in the presence of high levels of ionizing radiation. An understanding of this phenomenon will be useful in the design of radioprotective materials. However, the protective mechanism of microbial melanin in ionizing radiation fields has not yet been elucidated. Here we demonstrate through the electrochemical techniques of chronoamperometry, chronopotentiometry and cyclic voltammetry that microbial melanin is continuously oxidized in the presence of gamma radiation. Our findings establish that ionizing radiation interacts with melanin to alter its oxidation-reduction potential. Sustained oxidation resulted in electric current production and was most pronounced in the presence of a reductant, which extended the redox cycling capacity of melanin. This work is the first to establish that gamma radiation alters the oxidation-reduction behavior of melanin, resulting in electric current production. The significance of the work is that it provides the first step in understanding the initial interactions between melanin and ionizing radiation taking place and offers some insight for production of biomimetic radioprotective materials.

  16. Green technological change. Renewable energies, policy mix and innovation. Results of the GRETCHEN project on the impact of policy mixes on the technological and structural change in renewable energy electricity production technologies in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogge, Karoline S.; Breitschopf, Barbara; Mattes, Katharina; Cantner, Uwe; Graf, Holger; Herrmann, Johannes; Kalthaus, Martin; Lutz, Christian; Wiebe, Kirsten

    2015-09-01

    The report on the GRETCHEN project that was concerned with the impact of policy mixes on the technological and structural change in renewable energy electricity production technologies in Germany covers the following issues: market and technology development of renewable energy electricity production technologies; the policy mix for renewable electricity production technologies, innovative impact of the policy mix; subordinate conclusions for politics and research.

  17. Pedelec, the electric assisted bike : market and product opportunities in Canada 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russel, A.

    2002-01-01

    The mission statement of Airstream Technologies Corp. is to become the Canadian leader in marketing and distribution of advanced personal hybrid electric vehicles. This Power Point presentation describes the trends of the bicycle industry, with reference to environment, air pollution and urban transport. A new role is emerging for the bicycle as society ages and peoples' attitudes towards health awareness changes. A graph depicting the bicycle market size in major countries around the world showed that China is the world leader in market size, followed by the European Union, United States and Japan, with Canada ranking at number 12 out of 17 countries. The paper presented the Pedelec electric bike, a completely new class of vehicle which is neither a motorcycle nor a bicycle. The idea was first developed by Panasonic/National Bicycle Co. in 1978. Since then, the technology has evolved, enabling lightweight, long-range bikes. In a Pedelec, the motor is linked to muscle power, unlike a classic electric bike in which the motor is independent from pedalling. The pedal electric cycle helps the user by delivering aid when pedaling becomes strenuous. The electric motor augments the pedaling action and is only active while pedaling. The intelligent battery system allows for greater range and more precise readout of remaining charge. In major cities in Japan and China, there are currently many parking facilities with outlets for charging these bikes. The environmental benefits of these bikes include zero emission transportation and no noise. The bikes range in price from $1500 to $3000 CDN. They are perceived to be just as safe as regular bicycles. The market outlook for the bikes appears promising with potential buyers being enthusiastic baby boomers, retirees, and youth. The paper describes some of the current and future models suitable for the Canadian marketplace and describes a possible rental infrastructure. Pedelec is already federally legislated. The bikes are legal

  18. The potential of agro-industrial residues and municipal solid waste for production of biogas and electricity in Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kivaisi, A K [Univ. of Dar es Salaam, Botany Dept., Applied Microbiology Unit (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    This paper gives an overview of the energy demands in Tanzania, and highlights the current serious shortage of electricity. Government strategy to alleviate the problem include exploitation of the country`s big natural gas reserves for power generation, and utilization of the renewable energies such as solar, wind and biogas. Important agro-industrial residues and municipal solid wastes with large potentials for anaerobic converstion into biogas and electricity have been identified and quantified. Tanzania is estimated to generate about 615,000 organic matter from coffee, sisal, sugar and cereal residues and households in main towns are estimated to generate about 600,000 tons of organic matter annually. Laboratory scale determinations of methane yields from the residues gave 400 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/ton VS of sisal pulp; 400 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/ton VS of sisal production wastewater; 400 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/ton VS of Robusta coffee solid waste, 350 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/ton VS of sugar processing wastewater; 250 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/ton VS of sugar filter mat, 450 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/ton VS maize bran and 300 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/ton VS of mixed household waste. Based on these results the estimated total annual potential electricity production from these residues is 1.4 million MW. The total oil substitution from these residues has been estimated at 0.35 million tonnes crude diesel oil per annum equivalent to 2% of the total energy consumption in Tanzania. Case studies onthe coffee and sisal processing factories indicate that exploitation of the residues for the production of electricity on site these factories is feasible. Utilization of agro-industrial residues and municipal waste for biogas production has enormous potential for reduction of environmental pollution. The potential substitution of fossil fuel with biogas represents an annual reduction in the net CO{sub 2} emission to the atmosphere of approximately 1.3 million tonnes. By treating the residues in controlled

  19. The potential of agro-industrial residues and municipal solid waste for production of biogas and electricity in Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kivaisi, A.K. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam, Botany Dept., Applied Microbiology Unit (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    This paper gives an overview of the energy demands in Tanzania, and highlights the current serious shortage of electricity. Government strategy to alleviate the problem include exploitation of the country`s big natural gas reserves for power generation, and utilization of the renewable energies such as solar, wind and biogas. Important agro-industrial residues and municipal solid wastes with large potentials for anaerobic converstion into biogas and electricity have been identified and quantified. Tanzania is estimated to generate about 615,000 organic matter from coffee, sisal, sugar and cereal residues and households in main towns are estimated to generate about 600,000 tons of organic matter annually. Laboratory scale determinations of methane yields from the residues gave 400 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/ton VS of sisal pulp; 400 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/ton VS of sisal production wastewater; 400 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/ton VS of Robusta coffee solid waste, 350 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/ton VS of sugar processing wastewater; 250 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/ton VS of sugar filter mat, 450 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/ton VS maize bran and 300 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/ton VS of mixed household waste. Based on these results the estimated total annual potential electricity production from these residues is 1.4 million MW. The total oil substitution from these residues has been estimated at 0.35 million tonnes crude diesel oil per annum equivalent to 2% of the total energy consumption in Tanzania. Case studies onthe coffee and sisal processing factories indicate that exploitation of the residues for the production of electricity on site these factories is feasible. Utilization of agro-industrial residues and municipal waste for biogas production has enormous potential for reduction of environmental pollution. The potential substitution of fossil fuel with biogas represents an annual reduction in the net CO{sub 2} emission to the atmosphere of approximately 1.3 million tonnes. By treating the residues in controlled

  20. Electromagnetically induced transparency with large delay-bandwidth product induced by magnetic resonance near field coupling to electric resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hai-ming; Liu, Shao-bin, E-mail: lsb@nuaa.edu.cn; Liu, Si-yuan; Zhang, Hai-feng; Bian, Bo-rui; Kong, Xiang-kun [Key Laboratory of Radar Imaging and Microwave Photonics, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Wang, Shen-yun [Research Center of Applied Electromagnetics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China)

    2015-03-16

    In this paper, we numerically and experimentally demonstrate electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-like spectral response with magnetic resonance near field coupling to electric resonance. Six split-ring resonators and a cut wire are chosen as the bright and dark resonator, respectively. An EIT-like transmission peak located between two dips can be observed with incident magnetic field excitation. A large delay bandwidth product (0.39) is obtained, which has potential application in quantum optics and communications. The experimental results are in good agreement with simulated results.