WorldWideScience

Sample records for production opportunities risks

  1. A qualitative risk assessment approach for Swiss dairy products: opportunities and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez González, S; Hartnack, S; Berger, T; Doherr, M; Breidenbach, E

    2011-05-01

    Switzerland implemented a risk-based monitoring of Swiss dairy products in 2002 based on a risk assessment (RA) that considered the probability of exceeding a microbiological limit value set by law. A new RA was launched in 2007 to review and further develop the previous assessment, and to make recommendations for future risk-based monitoring according to current risks. The resulting qualitative RA was designed to ascertain the risk to human health from the consumption of Swiss dairy products. The products and microbial hazards to be considered in the RA were determined based on a risk profile. The hazards included Campylobacter spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, coagulase-positive staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin. The release assessment considered the prevalence of the hazards in bulk milk samples, the influence of the process parameters on the microorganisms, and the influence of the type of dairy. The exposure assessment was linked to the production volume. An overall probability was estimated combining the probabilities of release and exposure for each combination of hazard, dairy product and type of dairy. This overall probability represents the likelihood of a product from a certain type of dairy exceeding the microbiological limit value and being passed on to the consumer. The consequences could not be fully assessed due to lack of detailed information on the number of disease cases caused by the consumption of dairy products. The results were expressed as a ranking of overall probabilities. Finally, recommendations for the design of the risk-based monitoring programme and for filling the identified data gaps were given. The aims of this work were (i) to present the qualitative RA approach for Swiss dairy products, which could be adapted to other settings and (ii) to discuss the opportunities and limitations of the qualitative method. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. International ROR: risk, opportunity, reward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krentz, D.; Gair, J.

    1996-01-01

    Norcen Energy Resources Limited's pursuit of international oil and gas opportunities since the late 1980s were outlined. By 1994 Norcen had exploration and production concessions in 12 countries stretching from Algeria, Russia, Argentina, Indonesia to offshore Australia. The company had seen its share of risks, opportunities and rewards. Since 1994 international efforts of the Company have been focused on lower risk opportunities with exploration upside in defined core areas of South America, particularly in Venezuela, a country with conventional, heavy and ultra-heavy oil resources exceeding that of Saudi Arabia. These, and other similar foreign investments in the formerly closed national oil industries of South America have been greatly facilitated by the political liberalization, economic reforms and stabilization that have taken place there over the past ten years. The story of Norcen's successful bidding on the Oritupano-Leona production block in 1993 and Delta Centro exploration block in 1996 was the subject of this presentation

  3. Contract of Shared Risk. New investment opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    1997-01-01

    In order to offering to the private capital, new investment opportunities in exploration and production in Colombia, ECOPETROL settled down since 1996 the Contract of Shared Risk. This is a novel recruiting modality, because the shared risk is applied to the exploratory areas that are assigned for the direct operation of ECOPETROL

  4. Biochar production and applications in sub-Saharan Africa: opportunities, constraints, risks and uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwenzi, Willis; Chaukura, Nhamo; Mukome, Fungai N D; Machado, Stephen; Nyamasoka, Blessing

    2015-03-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) experiences soil degradation, food and livelihood insecurity, environmental pollution and lack of access to energy. Biochar has gained international research attention, but few studies have investigated the potential of biochar to address the challenges in SSA. This paper seeks to identify and evaluate generic potential opportunities and constraints associated with biochar application in sub-Saharan Africa using Zimbabwe as case study. Specific objectives were to; (1) identify and quantify feedstocks for biochar production; (2) review literature on the biochar properties, and evaluate its potential applications in agriculture, environmental remediation and energy provision, and (3) identify research gaps, risks and constraints associated with biochar technology. Biochar feedstocks in Zimbabwe were estimated to be 9.9 Mton yr(-1), predominantly derived from manure (88%) and firewood (10%). This will yield 3.5, 1.7 and 3.1 Mton yr(-1) of biochar, bio-oil and synthetic gas, respectively. Land application of the 3.5 Mton yr(-1) of biochar (≈63% C) would sequester approximately 2.2 Mton yr(-1) of soil carbon in Zimbabwe alone, while simultaneously minimizing the environmental and public health risks, and greenhouse gas emissions associated with solid organic wastes. Biochar potentially enhances soil and crop productivity through enhanced nutrient and soil moisture availability, amelioration of acidic soils and stimulation of microbial diversity and activity. Due to its excellent adsorption properties, biochar has potential applications in industrial and environmental applications including water and wastewater treatment, remediation and revegetation of contaminated soils and water. Biochar products have energy values comparable or higher than those of traditional biomass fuels; thereby making them ideal alternative sources of energy especially for poor households without access to electricity. Before the benefits of biochar can be

  5. Analysis of risks and investments’ opportunities in water sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fjona Zeneli

    2016-01-01

    These opportunities result from the difference between water supply and water demand; an increasingly difference that requires capital investments in production and water treatment technologies. Investments need to be combined with the knowledge on the legislation, regulatory framework and technological developments. This article may serve to clarify type of investments in drinking water sector, known by literature, to identify opportunities of investment in this sector, indicating the theoretical framework of beta and alpha risk ratio coefficient calculation and to suggest how these types of investments can be allocated to the investment portfolios.

  6. Opportunities to reduce risk associated with nuclear logging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wraight, P.D.; Robinson, E.; de Fleurieu, R.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear logging provides petroleum exploration and production companies with data that are critical to their decisions and operations. Because this type data is so important, environmentally conscious well-logging and service companies are constantly reviewing the risks to people and environment associated with nuclear sources with the ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle in mind. Opportunities to additionally reduce risks, which can be accomplished only with the active involvement of oil companies, are proposed in this paper

  7. [Strategies for reducing risks in smoking: opportunity or threat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba, Rodrigo; Nerín, Isabel

    2009-12-01

    The smoking control policies recommended by the World Health Organisation have achieved a slight decrease in smoking prevalence in the developed countries, although associated mortality is still very high. The use of tobacco products other than cigarettes and even medicinal nicotine (known as nicotine replacement therapy (NRT)) has been proposed as a risk reduction strategy. Among the tobacco products with less individual risk than cigarettes would be any type of tobacco without smoke (smokeless) with a low content in nitrosamines and modified cigarettes; both forms included under the PREP (Potentially Reduced Exposure Products) concept. The idea would be to promote these products among those who cannot quit smoking or wish to reduce their risk without giving up nicotine intake. The possible effects of risk reduction strategies, including PREP, on the decreased prevalence and morbidity and mortality are reviewed, and the possible implications that this measure could have in our country are analysed. Tobacco control measures in Spain are recent and still insufficient. Therefore, the current priority in Spain is the development of policies of control that have shown to more than effective. The marketing and advertising of new tobacco products, even with reduced potential risk, seems more a serious threat than an opportunity for the development of smoking control policies.

  8. On Risks and Opportunities in Financial Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Lansdorp, Simon

    2012-01-01

    textabstractInvesting in financial securities inevitably involves risks on the one hand and opportunities on the other hand. This thesis bundles four different studies on risks and/or opportunities in financial markets. In one study, we examine the cross-sectional explanatory power of different risk-measures in pricing U.S. stocks and find that investors dislike downside risk. In the second study, we show that conventional short-term reversal strategies exhibit dynamic exposures to systematic...

  9. On Risks and Opportunities in Financial Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.D. Lansdorp (Simon)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractInvesting in financial securities inevitably involves risks on the one hand and opportunities on the other hand. This thesis bundles four different studies on risks and/or opportunities in financial markets. In one study, we examine the cross-sectional explanatory power of different

  10. Production of unconventional natural gas. Risks and opportunities of fracking; Foerderung von unkonventionellem Erdgas. Risiken und Chancen des Fracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toepfer, Frank-Rainer; Kreutz, Giannina [Baker und McKenzie, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    Through its legislation for the promotion of electricity production from renewable resources and the nuclear phase-out the German Federal Republic has taken decisive steps in orienting its energy policy towards the envisioned energy turnaround. Production of natural gas from unconventional natural gas sources could assist in implementing this policy while at the same time improving Germany's energy self-sufficiency. After intensive discussions in the public arena as well as in expert rounds the Federal Ministers of the Environment and of Economic Affairs have agreed on a draft for an ordinance on the exploitation of unconventional gas resources by means of hydraulic fracturing (fracking). On sober analysis of the risks and opportunities involved in this technology one obtains an overall picture which, taking into account the differentiated view it affords on the various aspects involved, ultimately reveals that, on condition of strict compliance with the necessary requirements, for all the risks associated with it fracking is a viable option for Germany.

  11. The opportunity-threat theory of decision-making under risk

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan Pandey

    2018-01-01

    A new theory of decision-making under risk, the Opportunity-Threat Theory is proposed. Analysis of risk into opportunity and threat components allows description of behavior as a combination of opportunity seeking and threat aversion. Expected utility is a special case of this model. The final evaluation is an integration of the impacts of opportunity and threat with this expectation. The model can account for basic results as well as several ``new paradoxes'' that refuted c...

  12. SME's Implementing a Quality Management System- Risks and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luise ZEININGER

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Part of our daily lives, risk ceased to be just something that managers are desperate to alleviate if not eliminate. It is now rightfully considered a path to explore new opportunities. The last version of the ISO 9001, the 2015 edition, is asking from organization implementing it to determine the risk and opportunities associated with their main processes, the impact over relevant third parties and the context, both internal and external. With this duality as starting point, we have investigated among SME's implementing a quality management system what would they consider to be the risk and opportunities associated to this action. Our paper presents hereinafter the partial results of a wider study on Romanian SME's management, especially the findings related to what managers consider as risk or opportunity when implementing a quality management system.

  13. Sustainability of biofuels in Latin America: Risks and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, Rainer, E-mail: rainer.janssen@wip-munich.de [WIP Renewable Energies, Sylvensteinstrasse 2, 81369 Munich (Germany); Rutz, Dominik Damian [WIP Renewable Energies, Sylvensteinstrasse 2, 81369 Munich (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Several Latin American countries are setting up biofuel programmes to establish alternative markets for agricultural commodities. This is mainly triggered by the current success of Brazilian bioethanol production for the domestic market and for export. Furthermore, the global biofuel market is expected to increase due to ambitious biofuel programmes in the EU and in the USA. Colombia, Venezuela, Costa Rica and Guatemala are focusing on bioethanol production from sugarcane whereas biofuel production in Argentina is based on soy biodiesel. Recent developments of the biofuel sector take place extremely rapid especially in Argentina, which became one of the five largest biodiesel producers in the world in 2008. Till date no specific biofuel sustainability certification systems have been implemented in Latin American, as well as on global level. This fact and the predominant use of food crops for biofuel production raise concerns about the sustainability of biofuel production related to environmental and social aspects. This paper provides an overview of the hotspots of conflicts in biofuel production in Latin America. It investigates presently available sustainability tools and initiatives to ensure sustainable biofuel production in Latin America. Finally, it provides an outlook on how to integrate sustainability in the Latin American biofuel sector. - Research Highlights: > This study investigates risks and opportunities of biofuels in Latin America. > Latin American countries are setting up programmes to promote biofuel development. > Strong biofuel sectors provide opportunities for economic development. > Potential negative impact includes deforestation and effects on food security. > Sustainability initiatives exist to minimise negative impact.

  14. Sustainability of biofuels in Latin America: Risks and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, Rainer; Rutz, Dominik Damian

    2011-01-01

    Several Latin American countries are setting up biofuel programmes to establish alternative markets for agricultural commodities. This is mainly triggered by the current success of Brazilian bioethanol production for the domestic market and for export. Furthermore, the global biofuel market is expected to increase due to ambitious biofuel programmes in the EU and in the USA. Colombia, Venezuela, Costa Rica and Guatemala are focusing on bioethanol production from sugarcane whereas biofuel production in Argentina is based on soy biodiesel. Recent developments of the biofuel sector take place extremely rapid especially in Argentina, which became one of the five largest biodiesel producers in the world in 2008. Till date no specific biofuel sustainability certification systems have been implemented in Latin American, as well as on global level. This fact and the predominant use of food crops for biofuel production raise concerns about the sustainability of biofuel production related to environmental and social aspects. This paper provides an overview of the hotspots of conflicts in biofuel production in Latin America. It investigates presently available sustainability tools and initiatives to ensure sustainable biofuel production in Latin America. Finally, it provides an outlook on how to integrate sustainability in the Latin American biofuel sector. - Research Highlights: → This study investigates risks and opportunities of biofuels in Latin America. → Latin American countries are setting up programmes to promote biofuel development. → Strong biofuel sectors provide opportunities for economic development. → Potential negative impact includes deforestation and effects on food security. → Sustainability initiatives exist to minimise negative impact.

  15. Formal Modeling and Verification of Opportunity-enabled Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Aldini, Alessandro; Seigneur, Jean-Marc; Ballester Lafuente, Carlos; Titi, Xavier; Guislain, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of the Bring-Your-Own-Device (BYOD) trend, mobile work is achieving a widespread diffusion that challenges the traditional view of security standard and risk management. A recently proposed model, called opportunity-enabled risk management (OPPRIM), aims at balancing the analysis of the major threats that arise in the BYOD setting with the analysis of the potential increased opportunities emerging in such an environment, by combining mechanisms of risk estimation with trust an...

  16. Nontimber forest product opportunities in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Pilz; Susan J. Alexander; Jerry Smith; Robert Schroeder; Jim. Freed

    2006-01-01

    Nontimber forest products from southern Alaska (also called special forest products) have been used for millennia as resources vital to the livelihoods and culture of Alaska Natives and, more recently, as subsistence resources for the welfare of all citizens. Many of these products are now being sold, and Alaskans seek additional income opportunities through...

  17. Productivity improvement opportunities at Navy public works activities

    OpenAIRE

    Dieffenbach, Richard Jacob

    1992-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This study identifies six principal opportunities for productivity improvement at Navy Public Works in-house maintenance activities: improving work assignment, increasing shop supervisor effectiveness, reducing long lunches and early quits (through understanding of work impediments as demotivational contributors), improving service order management, improving job quality and miscellaneous opportunities. Activity "productivity opportu...

  18. Mastery of risks and operational safety, risks and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Creating socially useful richness is certainly the prime reason for companies to exist. Reaching this always moving target leads to seize opportunities and to take risks at the same time. For companies, risks and opportunities are two indissociable factors. Any decision making has to deal with an uncertain environment with random events of technological, economical, biological, human, environmental or natural origin. Because of the fear of uncertainty, risk acts as a brake to initiatives. In front of this problem, companies have to adopt a prevention policy based on a global and systemic approach, by identifying, evaluating, quantifying, sorting, mastering and managing unwanted events and by communicating about the way to treat them. In front of uncertainties, the operational safety, thanks to its methods and tools, supplies an incomparable contribution in the form of an help to any decision made with uncertainties. Operational safety contributes to the evaluation of costs and makes more realistic the economical estimations by taking into account the foreseeable and unforeseeable risks. The mastery of unwanted events, of their stakes and uncertainties, allows companies to carry out their projects in non-determined contexts and in a competitive environment. This colloquium concerns all socio-economical actors: industrialists, investors, decision makers, university and laboratory staffs, etc., who need a better evaluation of risks for a better mastery of their decisions in all sectors of activity. Seventeen papers of this conference, dealing with safety analysis and risk assessment at nuclear facilities and at other energy-related facilities, have been selected for Inis. (J.S.)

  19. Climate Variability and Change in Bihar, India: Challenges and Opportunities for Sustainable Crop Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kindie Tesfaye

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and associated uncertainties have serious direct and indirect consequences for crop production and food security in agriculture-based developing regions. Long-term climate data analysis can identify climate risks and anticipate new ones for planning appropriate adaptation and mitigation options. The aim of this study was to identify near-term (2030 and mid-term (2050 climate risks and/or opportunities in the state of Bihar, one of India’s most populous and poorest states, using weather data for 30 years (1980–2009 as a baseline. Rainfall, maximum and minimum temperatures, and evapotranspiration will all increase in the near- and mid-term periods relative to the baseline period, with the magnitude of the change varying with time, season and location within the state. Bihar’s major climate risks for crop production will be heat stress due to increasing minimum temperatures in the rabi (winter season and high minimum and maximum temperatures in the spring season; and intense rainfall and longer dry spells in the kharif (monsoon season. The increase in annual and seasonal rainfall amounts, and extended crop growing period in the kharif season generally provide opportunities; but increasing temperature across the state will have considerable negative consequences on (staple crops by affecting crop phenology, physiology and plant-water relations. The study helps develop site-specific adaptation and mitigation options that minimize the negative effects of climate change while maximizing the opportunities.

  20. Towards sustainable soy : an assessment of opportunities and risks for soybean production based on a case study Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkum, van S.; Bindraban, P.S.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates opportunities for and implications of expanding soybean production in developing countries. Increasing soybean production is expected to take place mainly in Latin America. However the international community is increasingly concerned about managing the natural resources in

  1. Risk-based regulation: Challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    Over the last twenty years, man has witnessed a gradual but steady movement toward increased usage of risk-based methods and results in the regulatory process. The ''risk perspective'' as a supportive view to existing (non-risk-based or deterministic) information used in decision making has a firm foothold now in most countries that regulate nuclear power. Furthermore, in the areas outside the nuclear power field, such as health risk assessment, risk-based information is used increasingly to make decisions on potential impacts of chemical, biological, and radiological exposures. Some of the principal concepts and issues that are pertinent to risk-based regulation are reviewed. There is a growing interest in most countries in the use of risk-based methods and results to facilitate decision-making associated with regulatory processes. A summary is presented of the challenges and opportunities related to expanded use of risk-based regulation

  2. Processing Challenges and Opportunities of Camel Dairy Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berhe, Tesfemariam; Seifu, Eyassu; Ipsen, Richard

    2017-01-01

    A review on the challenges and opportunities of processing camel milk into dairy products is provided with an objective of exploring the challenges of processing and assessing the opportunities for developing functional products from camel milk. The gross composition of camel milk is similar...... to bovine milk. Nonetheless, the relative composition, distribution, and the molecular structure of the milk components are reported to be different. Consequently, manufacturing of camel dairy products such as cheese, yoghurt, or butter using the same technology as for dairy products from bovine milk can...... result in processing difficulties and products of inferior quality. However, scientific evidence points to the possibility of transforming camel milk into products by optimization of the processing parameters. Additionally, camel milk has traditionally been used for its medicinal values and recent...

  3. Hibernia production opportunities: A report on business and employment opportunities within the production phase of Hibernia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The offshore industry in Newfoundland is evolving into a new phase as construction of the Hibernia offshore platform continues and plans are being developed for the operation of the facility to extract oil from deposits on the Grand Banks. A study was conducted to identify the business and employment opportunities available to Newfoundland firms and individuals during Hibernia's production phase. To operate the platform, the Hibernia Management and Development Company (HMDC) and its contractors will employ ca 700-800 people directly. Average annual expenditures will be ca $400 million over the project life of 19 y. Ca 38% of these expenditures represent the operator's own costs, with the rest spent on downhole services, modifications and repairs, logistics and transportation, replacement equipment and materials, and routine maintenance. It is clearly stated that in formulating strategies to pursue production phase opportunities, companies must understand the greenfield characteristics of the Hibernia oil field and the implications that has on the operator's philosophy to procuring goods and services. Paramount to the discussion on procurement is the operator's choice of contracting out and performing services in-house. A number of approaches used by North Sea operators to procure goods and services are reviewed, and a trend is noted toward partnering agreements which are defined as multipurpose, long-term contractual relationships. HMDC is considering entering such agreements. HMDC's employment policies are outlined and business opportunities are described in alphabetical order by sector, giving a description of the opportunity, contracting strategy, and a list of typical companies involved in the sector. 2 figs., 7 tabs

  4. Opportunities for the forest products industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan W. Rudie

    2011-01-01

    The concept of sustainable harvests is not new to lumber and paper companies—they have been concerned about it and been practicing it for decades, long before it became the headline in a newspaper article. After decades of static products and markets, the industry is offered an opportunity to add products in a new business sector—fuels and chemicals. Although paper...

  5. ARIES Oxide Production Program Assessment of Risk to Long-term Sustainable Production Rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitworth, Julia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lloyd, Jane Alexandria [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Majors, Harry W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-04

    This report describes an assessment of risks and the development of a risk watch list for the ARIES Oxide Production Program conducted in the Plutonium Facility at LANL. The watch list is an active list of potential risks and opportunities that the management team periodically considers to maximize the likelihood of program success. The initial assessments were made in FY 16. The initial watch list was reviewed in September 2016. The initial report was not issued. Revision 1 has been developed based on management review of the original watch list and includes changes that occurred during FY-16.

  6. From Risk to Opportunity. How Insurers Can Proactively and Profitably Manage Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, E.; Lecomte, E.

    2006-08-01

    Last year's USD 45 billion of insured losses from Hurricane Katrina was only the latest reminder of why investors and consumers are concerned about the impacts of climate change on the insurance industry. Twelve months after the devastating storm hit New Orleans, insurers and their shareholders are still feeling the ripples. Record insured losses, rating downgrades, coverage pullbacks and class-action lawsuits are just a few of the reverberations that have been felt across the industry. Meanwhile, consumers are feeling the combined sting of price shocks and reduced availability. So serious is the issue that 20 leading investors, representing over $800 billion in assets, called on the nation's largest insurance companies to disclose their financial exposure from climate change and steps they are taking to reduce those financial impacts. But, while most of the attention is focused on the growing risks, climate change also creates vast business opportunities to be part of the solution to global warming. Just as the industry has historically asserted its leadership to minimize risks from building fires and earthquakes, insurers have a huge opportunity today to develop creative loss-prevention products and services that will reduce climate-related losses for consumers, governments and insurers, while trimming the emissions causing global warming. This report focuses on the encouraging progress made by insurers to develop these new products and services. It identifies more than 190 concrete examples available, or soon-to-be-available, from dozens of insurance providers in 16 countries. In addition to benefiting insurers' core business and investment activities, these programs afford insurers the opportunity to differentiate their products from their competitors, while also enhancing their reputation with customers who are increasingly looking for all sectors of the industry to come forward with effective responses to the threats caused by climate change. More than half

  7. Opportunity Loss Minimization and Newsvendor Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinsheng Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the decision bias in newsvendor behavior, this paper introduces an opportunity loss minimization criterion into the newsvendor model with backordering. We apply the Conditional Value-at-Risk (CVaR measure to hedge against the potential risks from newsvendor’s order decision. We obtain the optimal order quantities for a newsvendor to minimize the expected opportunity loss and CVaR of opportunity loss. It is proven that the newsvendor’s optimal order quantity is related to the density function of market demand when the newsvendor exhibits risk-averse preference, which is inconsistent with the results in Schweitzer and Cachon (2000. The numerical example shows that the optimal order quantity that minimizes CVaR of opportunity loss is bigger than expected profit maximization (EPM order quantity for high-profit products and smaller than EPM order quantity for low-profit products, which is different from the experimental results in Schweitzer and Cachon (2000. A sensitivity analysis of changing the operation parameters of the two optimal order quantities is discussed. Our results confirm that high return implies high risk, while low risk comes with low return. Based on the results, some managerial insights are suggested for the risk management of the newsvendor model with backordering.

  8. Big Data and Health Economics: Opportunities, Challenges and Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Bodas-Sagi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Big Data offers opportunities in many fields. Healthcare is not an exception. In this paper we summarize the possibilities of Big Data and Big Data technologies to offer useful information to policy makers. In a world with tight public budgets and ageing populations we feel necessary to save costs in any production process. The use of outcomes from Big Data could be in the future a way to improve decisions at a lower cost than today. In addition to list the advantages of properly using data and technologies from Big Data, we also show some challenges and risks that analysts could face. We also present an hypothetical example of the use of administrative records with health information both for diagnoses and patients.

  9. Biorefinery opportunities for the forest products industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan W. Rudie

    2013-01-01

    Wood residues offer biorefinery opportunities for new products in our industries including fuel and chemicals. But industry must have two capabilities to succeed with biorefineries. Most forest products companies already have the first capability: knowing where the resource is, how to get it, and how much it will cost. They will need to integrate the acquisition of...

  10. Medium and Long-term Opportunities and Risks of the Biotechnological Production of Bulk Chemicals from Renewable Resources. The Potential of White Biotechnology. The BREW Project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, M.; Crank, M.; Dornburg, V.; Hermann, B.; Roes, L. [Department of Science, Technology and Society NWS, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Huesing, B. [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research FhG-ISl, Karlsruhe (Germany); Overbeek, L. [Plant Research International PRI, Wageningen (Netherlands); Terragni, F.; Recchia, E. [CERISS, Centro per I' Educazione, la Ricerca, I' lnformazione su Scienza e Society, Milan (Italy)

    2006-09-15

    This study investigates the medium and long-term opportunities and risks of the biotechnological production of organic chemicals. The objective is to gain better understanding of the techno-economic and the societal viability of White Biotechnology in the coming decades. The key research questions are which products could be made with White Biotechnology, whether these products can contribute to savings of energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, under which conditions the products become economically viable, which risks may originate from the use of genetically modified organisms (GMO) in fermentation and what the public perception is. The main purpose of Chapter 2 is to provide an overview of emerging key White Biotechnology products and to explain which chemicals could be produced on their basis. For a selection of these products, detailed environmental and economic assessments are conducted in Chapter 3 (in specific terms, i.e. per tonne of product). Chapter 3 discusses also the so-called Generic Approach which is the methodology we developed and applied to assess future processes and processes, for which very little information is available. In Chapter 4, three scenario projections are developed for Europe (EU-25), thereby assuming benign, moderate and disadvantageous conditions for bio-based chemicals. The purpose of this chapter is hence to understand to which extent restructuring of the chemical sector might occur under which conditions. In Chapter 5, the risks related to the use of White Biotechnology are addressed. The main purpose of this chapter is to give insight into the main risk components influencing the overall risk and of the knowledge gaps. Both conventional risks (e.g., human toxicity and accidents) and risks related to generic modification (e.g., horizontal gene transfer) are analyzed. Since the public perception may play an important role for the implementation of White Biotechnology on a large scale, these issues are discussed in

  11. Processing Challenges and Opportunities of Camel Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfemariam Berhe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A review on the challenges and opportunities of processing camel milk into dairy products is provided with an objective of exploring the challenges of processing and assessing the opportunities for developing functional products from camel milk. The gross composition of camel milk is similar to bovine milk. Nonetheless, the relative composition, distribution, and the molecular structure of the milk components are reported to be different. Consequently, manufacturing of camel dairy products such as cheese, yoghurt, or butter using the same technology as for dairy products from bovine milk can result in processing difficulties and products of inferior quality. However, scientific evidence points to the possibility of transforming camel milk into products by optimization of the processing parameters. Additionally, camel milk has traditionally been used for its medicinal values and recent scientific studies confirm that it is a rich source of bioactive, antimicrobial, and antioxidant substances. The current literature concerning product design and functional potential of camel milk is fragmented in terms of time, place, and depth of the research. Therefore, it is essential to understand the fundamental features of camel milk and initiate detailed multidisciplinary research to fully explore and utilize its functional and technological properties.

  12. Assessment of herbal medicinal products: Challenges, and opportunities to increase the knowledge base for safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, Scott A.; Cunningham, David G.; Marles, Robin J.

    2010-01-01

    Although herbal medicinal products (HMP) have been perceived by the public as relatively low risk, there has been more recognition of the potential risks associated with this type of product as the use of HMPs increases. Potential harm can occur via inherent toxicity of herbs, as well as from contamination, adulteration, plant misidentification, and interactions with other herbal products or pharmaceutical drugs. Regulatory safety assessment for HMPs relies on both the assessment of cases of adverse reactions and the review of published toxicity information. However, the conduct of such an integrated investigation has many challenges in terms of the quantity and quality of information. Adverse reactions are under-reported, product quality may be less than ideal, herbs have a complex composition and there is lack of information on the toxicity of medicinal herbs or their constituents. Nevertheless, opportunities exist to capitalise on newer information to increase the current body of scientific evidence. Novel sources of information are reviewed, such as the use of poison control data to augment adverse reaction information from national pharmacovigilance databases, and the use of more recent toxicological assessment techniques such as predictive toxicology and omics. The integration of all available information can reduce the uncertainty in decision making with respect to herbal medicinal products. The example of Aristolochia and aristolochic acids is used to highlight the challenges related to safety assessment, and the opportunities that exist to more accurately elucidate the toxicity of herbal medicines.

  13. Opportunities and risks in Turkmenistan’s quest for diversification of its gas export routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yusin

    2014-01-01

    This paper applies two hypotheses regarding weak state foreign policy to analyze the opportunities and risks in Turkmenistan’s quest to diversify its gas export routes, especially since 2006. The first hypothesis, related to opportunities, is that competition among major powers over the allegiance of weak states strengthens their bargaining power. The second hypothesis, related to risks, is that the diversification policies of weak states in times of decreasing competition among great powers incur the danger of simply replacing an old master with a new one. I argue that while the first hypothesis is useful in explaining the opportunities of Turkmenistan’s diversification policies, especially before early 2009, the second hypothesis is helpful in accounting for the risks of these policies after early 2009. In other words, competition among four major powers, Russia, China, the EU, and India, over Turkmenistan’s gas pipeline system before early 2009 strengthened the country’s bargaining power. In contrast, Turkmenistan’s diversification policies in times of fading competition after early 2009 have left it increasingly exposed to the potential risk of replacing its old master, Russia, with a new one, China. - Highlights: • This paper examines Turkmenistan’s policies of diversifying its gas export routes. • Turkmenistan’s diversification policies carry both opportunities and risks. • Turkmenistan has the opportunity to enhance its bargaining power. • Turkmenistan faces the risk of replacing an old master, Russia, with a new one, China. • This opportunity and risk have varying implications for Turkmenistan’s security of demand

  14. The Butterfly House Industry: Conservation Risks and Education Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Boppré

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the mass supply and use of butterflies for live exhibits, discusses the risks to biodiversity which this creates, and the educational opportunities it presents. Over the past 30 years a new type of insect zoo has become popular worldwide: the butterfly house. This has given rise to the global Butterfly House Industry (BHI based on the mass production of butterfly pupae as a cash crop. Production is largely carried out by privately-owned butterfly farms in tropical countries, notably Central America and Southeast Asia. Most pupae are exported to North America and Europe, although the number of butterfly houses in tropical countries is growing. The BHI is described with respect to its stakeholders, their diverse interests, and its extent. It is estimated that the global turnover of the BHI is in the order of USD 100 million. From a conservation perspective, there is a tension between risks and benefits. The risks to biodiversity are primarily unsustainable production, potential bastardisation of local faunas and floras, and genetic mixing within and even between butterfly species. This paper discusses general ways of managing these risks. Ethical concerns range from fair trade issues to animal husbandry and the use of wildlife for entertainment. For the risks to biodiversity and unresolved ethical issues to be tolerable, the BHI needs to make a significant contribution to conservation, primarily through effective education about butterfly biology as a means to raise public awareness of basic ecological processes, and conservation and environmental issues. It should also engage with local conservation initiatives. Currently the BHI′s great potential for public good in these respects is rarely realised. The paper concludes by looking at the special nature of the BHI, and its need for effective self-regulation if it is to continue to escape from public scrutiny and the introduction of restrictive regulations. The BHI needs to

  15. Additive manufacturing in production: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Bhrigu; Karg, Michael; Schmidt, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Additive manufacturing, characterized by its inherent layer by layer fabrication methodology has been coined by many as the latest revolution in the manufacturing industry. Due to its diversification of Materials, processes, system technology and applications, Additive Manufacturing has been synonymized with terminology such as Rapid prototyping, 3D printing, free-form fabrication, Additive Layer Manufacturing, etc. A huge media and public interest in the technology has led to an innovative attempt of exploring the technology for applications beyond the scope of the traditional engineering industry. Nevertheless, it is believed that a critical factor for the long-term success of Additive Manufacturing would be its ability to fulfill the requirements defined by the traditional manufacturing industry. A parallel development in market trends and product requirements has also lead to a wider scope of opportunities for Additive Manufacturing. The presented paper discusses some of the key challenges which are critical to ensure that Additive Manufacturing is truly accepted as a mainstream production technology in the industry. These challenges would highlight on various aspects of production such as product requirements, process management, data management, intellectual property, work flow management, quality assurance, resource planning, etc. In Addition, changing market trends such as product life cycle, mass customization, sustainability, environmental impact and localized production will form the foundation for the follow up discussion on the current limitations and the corresponding research opportunities. A discussion on ongoing research to address these challenges would include topics like process monitoring, design complexity, process standardization, multi-material and hybrid fabrication, new material development, etc.

  16. The Opportunities Map at Cornell University: finding direction in dairy production medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Hilda M; Nydam, Daryl V; Reyher, Kristen; Gilbert, Robert O

    2004-01-01

    Discussion between faculty and interested students revealed the existence of a multitude of opportunities in dairy production medicine at the College of Veterinary Medicine at Cornell University. Many of these were not well known to students, or even to some of the faculty, and the means of accessing specific learning experiences were sometimes obscure. Together, an informal group of faculty, students, and alumni set about cataloging available educational opportunities, resulting in a 31-page publication referred to as the "Opportunities Map." Essentially a student handbook for production medicine students, the Opportunities Map at Cornell helps guide the travel of food animal-interested students through the curriculum without missing the important highlights along the way. The map was originally developed to chronicle the opportunities and resources available to students, but it has also been used to foster face-to-face communications between students and faculty, to welcome incoming students with production animal interests, and to provide a baseline description for further discussion about the curriculum.

  17. Liberalising European electricity markets: opportunities and risks for a sustainable power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringel, M.

    2003-01-01

    The process of liberalising European electricity markets, encompassing a wide range of restructuring activities, has mainly been spurred by the attempt to increase the economic efficiency of the whole sector. This process might be used to trigger a development towards a sustainable power sector by increasing the use of renewable energy sources and enhancing energy efficiency on the supply and demand side. However, by taking a closer look at the current trends of the European electricity markets, it becomes obvious that the liberalisation not only implies opportunities but also risks for the creation of a sustainable power sector. Many of these risks are due to market distortions and imperfections caused by the delay in creating a fully functional single European market. Thus, in the short-term, the market liberalisation tends to constitute more risks than opportunities without government actions to prevent these risks. In the long run, though, the efficiency gains of the sector and the appearance of new market factors are likely to bring forth the opportunities of liberalisation and actively foster a transformation towards a sustainable electricity sector. (author)

  18. Rapport: The Value for Money Discourse: Risks and Opportunities ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    optimisation des ressources exerce également une influence croissante sur ce qui revêt de l'importance pour les bailleurs de fonds. Le rapport The Value for Money Discourse: Risks and Opportunities for R4D a pour but de ...

  19. Current Situation and Development Opportunities of Apple Production inThe Province Konya

    OpenAIRE

    BAYRAMOĞLU, Zeki; ÇELİK, Yusuf; OĞUZ, Cennet

    2009-01-01

    In this study sectoral analysis of apple production activity in Konya was made. Within this scope at first apple production amount in Turkey and in the world and developments in cultivation areas were examined, development opportunities of apple production in the province were discussed. The data about this issue was collected from secondary sources (Food and Agriculture Organization, Turkish Statistical Institute etc.) In line with this data strong, weak sides of this sector, opportunities a...

  20. Proposal of a classification system for opportunities to innovate in skin care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, I D da S; Almeida, T L; Takahashi, V P

    2015-10-01

    What are the opportunities to innovate in a skin care product? There are certainly many opportunities and many technologies involved. In this work, we assumed the role of identifying and categorizing these opportunities to develop a comprehensive and intelligible classification system, which could be used as a tool to support decision-making in different professional contexts. Initially, we employed the Delphi method to identify, discuss and standardize the opportunities to innovate in a skin care product. Finally, we used the classification system obtained in the previous phase to label patent applications, therefore, testing the suitability and utility of the system. At the end of the process, we achieved a 10-category classification system for opportunities to innovate in skin care products, and we also illustrated how this system could be used. The resultant classification system offers a normalized terminology for cosmetic scientists interested in dealing with the particularities of incremental and radical innovations in skin care products. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  1. Analysis of benefits, opportunities, costs, and risks (BOCR) with the AHP+ANP : A critical validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnmalen, D.J.D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper shows that the usual multiplicative synthesis of alternative priorities for benefits, opportunities, costs and risks, obtained from separate Analytic Hierarchy or Network models, can be ambiguous. The ratio of benefit and opportunity priorities to cost and risk priorities can be

  2. Failures of knowledge production in nuclear power risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanne, Johan M.

    2008-09-01

    Risks are ascribed in processes of knowledge production, where risk objects are defined and measures taken. This knowledge is also the basis for regulatory action. Thus, uncertainties in knowledge production, based upon choices of assumptions, methods, calculations and evidence criteria for reliable data create vulnerabilities for risk management and risk regulation. A recent incident in Swedish nuclear power plant provides an opportunity to develop theories of knowledge production in complex organizations. Knowledge modes within nuclear power can be characterized as either calculated logics where evidence claims need numbers, real time logics based upon subtle signals and tacit knowledge or as policy logics, navigating between internal and external demands for safety, trustworthiness and profit. The plant had neither foreseen the triggering event nor designed the plant to withstand it. I analyze how the plant and the regulator have interpreted the event, its significance and the measures taken to prevent similar events. I also discuss alternative interpretations, lack of knowledge and the generic deficiencies in knowledge production that the event indicates. First, the plant was not as robustly designed as expected. Deficiencies in diversification may have been caused by overconfidence in the reliability of its design. Second, inadequate design was ascribed to various deficient knowledge production processes: original design of the plant, reconstruction or caused by inadequate learning from previous events. The failures in knowledge production were probably caused by insufficient integration of different knowledge processes and limitations in engineering analysis. Knowledge about risks from nuclear power operations is mainly based upon calculations and simulations, not upon real events. But knowledge and design could be improved also without accidents. Control room operators and maintenance staff can provide invaluable knowledge and methods; to improve causal

  3. Failures of knowledge production in nuclear power risk management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanne, Johan M.

    2008-09-15

    Risks are ascribed in processes of knowledge production, where risk objects are defined and measures taken. This knowledge is also the basis for regulatory action. Thus, uncertainties in knowledge production, based upon choices of assumptions, methods, calculations and evidence criteria for reliable data create vulnerabilities for risk management and risk regulation. A recent incident in Swedish nuclear power plant provides an opportunity to develop theories of knowledge production in complex organizations. Knowledge modes within nuclear power can be characterized as either calculated logics where evidence claims need numbers, real time logics based upon subtle signals and tacit knowledge or as policy logics, navigating between internal and external demands for safety, trustworthiness and profit. The plant had neither foreseen the triggering event nor designed the plant to withstand it. I analyze how the plant and the regulator have interpreted the event, its significance and the measures taken to prevent similar events. I also discuss alternative interpretations, lack of knowledge and the generic deficiencies in knowledge production that the event indicates. First, the plant was not as robustly designed as expected. Deficiencies in diversification may have been caused by overconfidence in the reliability of its design. Second, inadequate design was ascribed to various deficient knowledge production processes: original design of the plant, reconstruction or caused by inadequate learning from previous events. The failures in knowledge production were probably caused by insufficient integration of different knowledge processes and limitations in engineering analysis. Knowledge about risks from nuclear power operations is mainly based upon calculations and simulations, not upon real events. But knowledge and design could be improved also without accidents. Control room operators and maintenance staff can provide invaluable knowledge and methods; to improve causal

  4. Consumer behaviour and opportunities for new product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G

    and Q-PORKCHAINS and a Danish project, all dealing with new product development in the meat sector, it is shown how the use of consumer insight techniques can a) support the identification of market opportunities, b) make sure that technologies applied are acceptable to consumers, c) aid the selection...

  5. Risks and opportunities management on laser Megajoule project: the development of a new knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delafosse-Le Ber, H.; Deysson, St.; Briault, S.

    2004-01-01

    The interest of these six years spent to build the management through the Risks and the Opportunities (R and O) approach on the project Megajoule Laser as well did not hold with the practical application of a method as to the installation of a formal culture and to its evolution in time. This culture, it had to be progressively founded within a mainly technical project team. More qualitative with most quantitative aspects, the putting into practice of the R and O approach on project LMJ knew all the degrees of evolution and precision. The starting of the project saw being born the first analysis of its 'Project Risk' with a series of interviews, carried out by the Quality Manager at the time. This analysis took the shape of a technical item lists, which are identified in an empirical way. Then, some brainstorming meeting were led under the responsibility of the Technical Coordinator (which is the Project Manager assistant) in order to identify and to evaluate the 'Project Risk' on a qualitative way, but always keeping a strong technical connotation. The methodological reference of the 'Project Risk' was outlined taking into account the DGA AQ 923 without directly interaction with the other project processes (for example, the cost, the deadlines and the performance management). Initially, the project developed an Access database, which allows the storing of the risk files. Unfortunately, this database is isolated from the other project management data processing tools. In the second time, the project decided to obtain a dedicated organisation, hierarchically independent from the technical managers but however integrated into the project and attached to the assistant of the Control Project Manager. This organisation being called 'Risks and Opportunities Team', when the management of the opportunities supplemented the R and O approach. This team combines today the individual interviews and the Working Groups in order to identify and to evaluate the effects of the R

  6. Navigating the new deregulated landscape: Opportunities and risks for wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fossum, D.J.; Hill, D.R. [Wiley, Rein & Fielding, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Major changes in the law governing the electric industry are underway, fundamentally altering how the generation and sale of electric power is regulated and how electric power is marketed in the United States. Legislative and regulatory initiatives promoting competition will create a variety of opportunities, and commensurate risks, for power generators, marketers, brokers, sellers, and purchasers. To succeed in the new marketplace, suppliers of renewable energy must understand the changes occurring on the state and federal levels, and position themselves to take advantage of the opportunities available. In this environment, monitoring and participating in state and federal legislative and regulatory efforts will be crucial for maximizing opportunities for wind energy.

  7. A Study on Correlation of Risk-Taking and the Oral Production of English Majors in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Lin, Yuewu

    2015-01-01

    Risk-taking refers to the tendency to engage in behaviors that have the potential to be harmful or dangerous, yet at the same time provides the opportunity for some kinds of outcome that can be perceived as positive. Ely (1986) and Bang (1999) have mentioned the relationship between risk-taking and oral production in the process of English…

  8. Accountability in an information age : opportunities and risks for records management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, A.J.

    2001-01-01

    Electronic records of government organizations are becoming increasingly important for accountability. Managing electronic records, however, proves to be difficult since information and communication technologies confront organizations with various opportunities and risks. In this paper the findings

  9. HCl co-production from CFC alternatives: Threat or opportunity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikulka, C.J.

    1990-01-01

    CFC production facilities have typically been located near CFC consumers and not necessarily near their feedstock sources. The co-production of HCl from these facilities has in the past been small and manageable by the CFC producers. Production of the CFC replacements, however, will result in larger quantities of HCl co-production at a scrutiny. Since new facilities are likely to be required for the replacements, there may be the opportunity to site facilities next to chlorocarbon suppliers who may be in a better position to take back the HCl co-product for reuse in their production facilities. This paper provides an overview of these issues as well as considers the implications of returning the HCl to the chlorocarbon supplier as well as viability of converting HCl back to chlorine

  10. Online communication among adolescents: an integrated model of its attraction, opportunities, and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkenburg, Patti M; Peter, Jochen

    2011-02-01

    Adolescents far outnumber adults in their use of e-communication technologies, such as instant messaging and social network sites. In this article, we present an integrative model that helps us to understand both the appeal of these technologies and their risks and opportunities for the psychosocial development of adolescents. We first outline how the three features (anonymity, asynchronicity, and accessibility) of online communication stimulate controllability of online self-presentation and self-disclosure among adolescents. We then review research on the risks and opportunities of online self-presentation and self-disclosure for the three components of adolescents' psychosocial development, including identity (self-unity, self-esteem), intimacy (relationship formation, friendship quality, cyberbullying), and sexuality (sexual self-exploration, unwanted sexual solicitation). Existing research suggests several opportunities of online communication, such as enhanced self-esteem, relationship formation, friendship quality, and sexual self-exploration. It also yields evidence of several risks, including cyberbullying and unwanted sexual solicitation. We discuss the shortcomings of existing research, the possibilities for future research, and the implications for educators and health care professionals. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Managerial Opportunism: Monitoring Financial Risk of Malaysian Shariah-compliant Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziatul Waznah Ghazali

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Managerial opportunism, such as earnings management, is a rampant, but often discreet, among certain managers. Agency theory and the notion of conflict of interest are used as bases to assume that managers would resolve to engage with inappropriate activities for their personal benefits. Distortion of earnings would erode investor confidence and is detrimental to the capital market. The Islamic capital market with Shariah-compliant firms is expected not to engage in activities that go against the religion code of conduct. The main purpose of this study is to investigate managerial opportunism among Shariah-compliant companies, specifically the relationship between real earnings management and the risk of financial distress, leverage, and free cash flow. This study employs 4,115 data from 694 sample companies for five years (2009–2013. Findings conclude that the risk of financial distress, leverage, and free cash flow have a significant relationship with earnings management among Shariah-compliant companies. This study provides evidence that further improvements on corporate governance are necessary to ensure that Shariah-compliant companies adhere with the Shariah requirement.

  12. Hot business - cool opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, M.

    1997-01-01

    A new role for the deregulated electric utilities in the energy services market or performance contracting markets was discussed. It was argued that in view of the long tradition of close customer contact, distribution utilities are in a good position to leverage their relationship with their customers to expand the range of products and services that the ''utility'' provides to them. Real time pricing, energy services, HVAC maintenance and operation are just some of the areas where the distribution utility''s linkage to customers could be used to good advantage. Some case histories, and a list of potential product and service opportunities in the commercial/industrial and residential sectors were provided. Some of the potential pitfalls were also identified for utilities that wish to pursue these opportunities. These pitfalls included legal, marketing, risk management and funding issues

  13. Decentralised bioenergy systems: A review of opportunities and threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangoyana, Robert B.; Smith, Timothy F.

    2011-01-01

    Decentralised bioenergy systems are receiving increasing attention due to the potential ability to support local development, create local employment, and contribute to climate change mitigation. These issues, along with other bioenergy sustainability issues, are reviewed through eighteen international case studies with the objective of identifying opportunities and threats to decentralised bioenergy systems. The case studies were selected based on feedstock type, bioenergy type, production capacity, synergistic alliances, ownership structure and physical locations. This variation was used to provide a basis for evaluating opportunities and threats from different contexts. Commercial viability remains the primary concern for the sustainability of decentralised bioenergy systems. There are, however, opportunities for compounding benefits through integrating small scale decentralised bioenergy systems with other production systems. Integrated production, including closed loop models, allow waste materials from one process to be used as inputs in other production processes, and thereby increasing economic, social and environmental outcomes. Synergistic opportunities along the bioenergy production chain, which include feedstock production, bioenergy marketing and distribution could also be exploited by communities and other investors to minimise decentralised production risk. - Research Highlights: → Small scale decentralised bioenergy production is a potentially sustainable energy system. →Economic viability limits small scale decentralised bioenergy production. → Synergistic alliances along the bioenergy production chain could enhance viability.

  14. Energy conservation opportunities: audit vis-a-vis mine productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, G.H.

    2009-07-01

    Mining operation, whether opencast or underground, with modern equipment is highly energy intensive, needing energy conservation and management to ensure efficiency, cost effectiveness, and overall productivity. Exhaustible primary energy resources such as coal, lignite, oil, and nuclear fuels are being mined out to meet our energy needs. An attempt has been made in this paper to highlight the energy conservation opportunities, energy audit, the relevant Energy Conservation Act 2001 and certain energy saving measures leading to higher productivity followed by a few case study examples. 3 refs.

  15. Opportunities application of cleaner production practices in paint industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, Y. S. Y.

    2010-08-01

    There are releases of volatile organic compounds VOC from paint manufacturing process steps and from cleaning operations in El Mohandas Paint Factory. These emission can cause health, safety and productivity problems in the work area. Hence cleaner production application is necessary in this case. Some of the manufacturing processes and equipment used to accomplish these manufacturing are analyzed and generate cleaner production opportunities, implement some of cleaner production solutions of VOC emission control by some of the methods used by paint facilities in reducing emissions. It was found that there is no control available for emissions factors in paints manufacturing process, so that VOC emission based on raw material consumption rather than calculation emission from processes or equipment by alternative method. (Author)

  16. OPPORTUNITIES AND RISKS IN A CONTROL SYSTEM OF INNOVATIVE PROJECTS OF ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Grebenkin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The definition of the organizational development innovative project and the technique of its estimation is in this article offered. The distinctive special feature of this method is comparison of opportunities and risks by means of essentially new system of the parameters. These parameters allow to receive a complex estimation of a condition of organizational development innovative projects. Approbation of the offered estimated technique has been lead on set of organizational development innovative projects which were realized at the enterprises of a various branch accessory. The hypothesis about necessity of definition of a condition of the project by means of an estimation of opportunities and their comparisons to risks is confirmed.

  17. Use of new scientific developments in regulatory risk assessments: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarazona, Jose V

    2013-07-01

    Since the 1990s, science based ecological risk assessments constitute an essential tool for supporting decision making in the regulatory context. Using the European REACH Regulation as example, this article presents the challenges and opportunities for new scientific developments within the area of chemical control and environmental protection. These challenges can be sorted out in 3 main related topics (sets). In the short term, the challenges are directly associated with the regulatory requirements, required for facilitating a scientifically sound implementation of the different obligations for industry and authorities. It is important to mention that although the actual tools are different due to the regulatory requirements, the basic needs are still the same as those addressed in the early 1990s: understanding the ecological relevance of the predicted effects, including the uncertainty, and facilitating the link with the socio-economic assessment. The second set of challenges covers the opportunities for getting an added value from the regulatory efforts. The information compiled through REACH registration and notification processes is analyzed as source for new integrative developments for assessing the combined chemical risk at the regional level. Finally, the article discusses the challenge of inverting the process and developing risk assessment methods focusing on the receptor, the individual or ecosystem, instead of on the stressor or source. These approaches were limited in the past due to the lack of information, but the identification and dissemination of standard information, including uses, manufacturing sites, physical-chemical, environmental, ecotoxicological, and toxicological properties as well as operational conditions and risk management measures for thousands of chemicals, combined by the knowledge gathered through large scale monitoring programs and spatial information systems is generating new opportunities. The challenge is liking

  18. Wildfire Risk Management: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, M.; Calkin, D. E.; Hand, M. S.; Kreitler, J.

    2014-12-01

    In this presentation we address federal wildfire risk management largely through the lens of economics, targeting questions related to costs, effectiveness, efficiency, and tradeoffs. Beyond risks to resources and assets such as wildlife habitat, watersheds, and homes, wildfires present financial risk and budgetary instability for federal wildfire management agencies due to highly variable annual suppression costs. Despite its variability, the costs of wildfire management have continued to escalate and account for an ever-growing share of overall agency budgets, compromising abilities to attain other objectives related to forest health, recreation, timber management, etc. Trends associated with a changing climate and human expansion into fire-prone areas could lead to additional suppression costs in the future, only further highlighting the need for an ability to evaluate economic tradeoffs in investments across the wildfire management spectrum. Critically, these economic analyses need to accurately capture the complex spatial and stochastic aspects of wildfire, the inherent uncertainty associated with monetizing environmental impacts of wildfire, the costs and effectiveness of alternative management policies, and linkages between pre-fire investments and active incident management. Investing in hazardous fuels reduction and forest restoration in particular is a major policy lever for pre-fire risk mitigation, and will be a primary focus of our presentation. Evaluating alternative fuel management and suppression policies could provide opportunities for significant efficiency improvements in the development of risk-informed management fire management strategies. Better understanding tradeoffs of fire impacts and costs can help inform policy questions such as how much of the landscape to treat and how to balance investments in treating new areas versus maintaining previous investments. We will summarize current data needs, knowledge gaps, and other factors

  19. RISK ANALYSIS APPLIED IN OIL EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    aDepartment of Civil Engineering, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria. ... The analysis in this work is ... risk analysis, oil field, risk management, projects, investment opportunity. 1. .... own merit but since the company has limited.

  20. Risks of Leveraged Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Di Cesare (Antonio)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractLeveraged investments have become a fundamental feature of modern economies. The new financial products allow people to take greater-than-usual exposures to risk factors. This thesis analyzes several different aspects of the risks involved by some frequently used leveraged products:

  1. PROVIDING AGRICULTURAL RISKS IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA: TRENDS, PROBLEMS AND OPPORTUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia CAPRIAN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author presents results of scientific researches on the problems which farmers of the Republic of Moldova are facing in the field of risk management and insurance. In conclusion, the author formulates recommendations on farm managers’ opportunities to benefit from subsidized insurance, but also some recommendations resulting from the research of the experience of other countries from the European Union aimed to ensure the entrepreneurial risks in agricultural entities.

  2. Bio-based fuels: an analysis of potential, conditions, market, instruments and risks. Opportunities and risks - the BIODRIV project. Final Report; Biobaserade drivmedel: analys av potential, foerutsaettningar, marknad, styrmedel och risker. Moejligheter och risker - projektet BIODRIV. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydberg, Tomas (IVL Svenska Miljoeinstitutet, Stockholm (Sweden)); Gaardfeldt, Katarina; Ahlbaeck, Anders (Goeteborgs Miljoevetenskapliga Centrum, Chalmers Tekniska Hoegskola och Goeteborgs Universitet (Sweden)) (and others)

    2010-12-15

    The BIODRIV project is a study of the conditions, opportunities, constraints and risks in the short and long term for the Swedish production of biofuels, with specific focus on the production opportunities offered by the Swedish refineries. The study was conducted at Chalmers Univ. of Technology and IVL Swedish Environmental Research Inst. with support from Preem Environment Foundation and the Foundation of IVL. Researchers in the disciplines of environmental economics, chemical engineering and environmental system analysis have been working collectively to illustrate various technology tracks for bio-based fuel production. A total of six technology tracks for biofuel production have been identified in the long run, in whole or in part, which can replace today's fossil-based fuels in the transport sector. The six technology tracks are: methane from gas networks, decentralized pyrolysis/gasification, different resource bases to fat, hydrogen, methanol, electricity

  3. Studies of necessity and opportunity in the field of industrial risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, I.; Cristescu, I.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a study of necessity and opportunity of risk analyses in industrial installations with potential dangerous activity. The input data for this study were provided from a large number of industrial units all over the country. The obtained results point to the importance of such studies especially in case of nuclear facilities

  4. OPPORTUNITIES AND RISKS IN THE PRODUCTION AND MARKETING OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS NUTRITIONAL USES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nica-Badea Delia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents data and arguments on GMO nutritional purposes, assessingrisks, development and production and marketing stage towards the achievement of foodsafety requirements. Dynamic surface is fast transgenic crops from 1.7 million hectares in1996 to 160 million hectares in 2011. Current culture focuses on tolerance of transgenicplants to herbicides, 75% of the total (glyphosate tolerance, eliminating insect pests of plant.Situation licenses PMG: corn (65, cotton (39, rape (15, potatoes and soybeans (14 each.In our country, soybeans and corn were the only GMP grown commercially cultivated area in2011 was ≤ 50.0000 Ha. In food, genetic engineering techniques are directed at changing theproportion of macro and micro nutrients, elimination or reduction of the compounds withadverse effect on health, introducing or increasing concentrations of substances havingproper behavior. Adoption in 2004, the new EU legislation on GMOs seeks to protect therights of producers, traders and consumers to choose and benefit from tools such astraceability, labeling and post-market monitoring. Modern biotechnology is primarily a veryimportant source of income. GMPs global market was estimated for 2008 at $ 7.5 billion.Analyzing the stakes and implications of trade in GMO products can conclude that: there isno conventional cargo "zero GMO" products "free of GMO" are rare - higher prices by 30-50%. Regardless of why GMOs have been created and marketed not be ignored that presentsa potential risk factor.

  5. Panel data nonparametric estimation of production risk and risk preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czekaj, Tomasz Gerard; Henningsen, Arne

    approaches for obtaining firm-specific measures of risk attitudes. We found that Polish dairy farmers are risk averse regarding production risk and price uncertainty. According to our results, Polish dairy farmers perceive the production risk as being more significant than the risk related to output price......We apply nonparametric panel data kernel regression to investigate production risk, out-put price uncertainty, and risk attitudes of Polish dairy farms based on a firm-level unbalanced panel data set that covers the period 2004–2010. We compare different model specifications and different...

  6. Plant molecular farming: Opportunities and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valkova Rumyana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern human life is impossible without products derived from the classical, contemporary biotechnology. However, large scale production of biotechnology wares opens a discussion about the economic impact, waste management, biosafety, and bioethical issues. Plant molecular farming offers a relatively inexpensive option for yielding of many valuable products and demonstrates number of advantages over the classical technologies, but also brings the question of further development perspectives, hazard identification and risk assessment. This review is focused on those two questions: opportunities offered and challenges faced by modern plant molecular farming systems.

  7. The path to Agenda 2020: Progress, products, and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, V.; McQueen, S.; Dove, L.

    1999-01-01

    To compete in global markets, the forest products industry must reduce its energy use and capital costs, while increasing its productivity and product quality. The industry must also meet strict environmental regulations governing its processing operations. The Industries of the Future initiative offers US industries like the forest products industry an opportunity to develop and implement innovative technical solutions to meet these various challenges. This paper discusses the basic features of the initiative and describes progress in developing three promising technologies: (1) On-Site, On-Demand Chlorine Dioxide Generation, (2) the Methane DeNOsx Reburner and (3) Multiport Cylinder Dryers. The technologies are expected to have near term positive impacts on the forest products industry's energy efficiency and environmental performance. Moreover, the new technologies may be transferable to other manufacturing sectors where they will have similar advantages. The Industries of the Future initiative, facilitated by the US Department of Energy's Office of Industrial Technologies, encourages energy efficiency and environmental protection nationwide

  8. Biorefinery of microalgae - opportunities and constraints for different production scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariskos, Ioanna; Posten, Clemens

    2014-06-01

    In order to design economically feasible production processes it is necessary, as part of the biorefinery concept, to valorize all constituents of the microalgal biomass. Such an approach requires appropriate biorefinery side-process strategies to be adapted to production of the primary product. These strategies are particularly valid for microalgae, since the composition and amount of residual biomass can vary significantly depending on cell stoichiometry and cultivation techniques. This review investigates opportunities and constraints for biorefinery concepts in production scenarios for four different products from microalgae with different market volumes, including high- and medium-value products, whole cells and biodiesel. Approaches to close material and energy balances, as well as to adapt the biorefinery according to biological potential, process routes, and market needs are presented, which will further contribute to making the biorefinery concept a success. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Opportunities in the Fusion Energy Sciences Program. Appendix C: Topical Areas Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-06-30

    Recent years have brought dramatic advances in the scientific understanding of fusion plasmas and in the generation of fusion power in the laboratory. Today, there is little doubt that fusion energy production is feasible. The challenge is to make fusion energy practical. As a result of the advances of the last few years, there are now exciting opportunities to optimize fusion systems so that an attractive new energy source will be available when it may be needed in the middle of the next century. The risk of conflicts arising from energy shortages and supply cutoffs, as well as the risk of severe environmental impacts from existing methods of energy production, are among the reasons to pursue these opportunities.

  10. Radionuclides in the environment: Risks and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elzerman, A.W.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental chemistry plays a critical role in the open-quotes nuclear ageclose quotes. It makes a vital contribution to understanding of the sources, fate and effects of radionuclides in the environment, both man-made and natural. Risk assessment of radionuclides in the environment relies heavily on the tools of environmental chemistry. On the other hand, radionuclides provide unique opportunities to exploit in environmental chemistry investigations due to their well-defined sources, traceability in environmental processes, analytical sensitivities, and open-quotes built-inclose quotes radioactive decay open-quotes clocksclose quotes. In some cases naturally present radionuclides are utilized, while in others tracers are deliberately added or have already been added by the nuclear fuel cycle or nuclear testing. Several examples in each of these categories are discussed to spotlight the current status of environmental chemistry and radionuclides in the environment as an example application

  11. Strategic Management Accounting and Feed-forward Management: with Reference to the Unified Management of Profit Opportunity and Risk

    OpenAIRE

    西村, 明

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims toreexamine strategic management accouning in relation to profit opportunity and risk from the viewpoint of feed-forward management , as few studies to date have discuued the relations between management accounting and the unified management of profit opportunity and risk.Many studies have been conducted that emphasize non-fine information and feedback organizational management in an attept to make traditional management accounting relevant to practical strategic needs. As lon...

  12. Future opportunities in production of disposable optics and electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Raimo

    2001-05-01

    The several production methods of paper processing chain can be used, by analogy, to generate novel ideas for production of optics and electronics. Paper processing is a very fast reel-to-reel process: In the beginning of the paper web production the process is running at the speed of over thousand meters per minute and the web width can be 10 meters, and still at the later stages the speed is several hundreds of meters per minute with the web width of a couple of meters. There are several potential reel-to-reel production methods like embossing, printing, laminating and different kinds of vacuum coating, for example evaporation and sputtering. End products are complex multi-layer composite structures. The benefits from this analogy for optics and electronics would be ideas for ultra fast production, paper-like disposable and recyclable products and the integration of optics and electronics into ordinary things like books, wallpapers, tissue papers and packages. Two experiments are presented to demonstrate the possibilities. In the first experiment optical patterns are embossed directly on paper. In the second one conductive polymers are printed on paper and plastic webs. In future, a wide network of cooperation will be needed to realize all the opportunities.

  13. BARRIERS AND OPPORTUNITIES IN DEVELOPING 'DO-IT-YOURSELF' (DIY PRODUCTS FOR LOW-INCOME HOUSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Lepre

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Direct involvement of the user in the assembling process of his/her own products or even entire house is a reality among low-income populations in developing countries. Nevertheless, there are a limited number of products that have actually been designed from a do-it-yourself (DIY perspective, which results in several problems, such as poor user safety while the product is being assembled or inadequate results from an improvised assembling. Hence, the main goal of this paper is to analyse barriers to and opportunities for developing DIY products for low-income housing in developing countries. The research method utilises a case study of a DIY product consisting of a hybrid solution that acted as both a partition wall and a wardrobe. The identified opportunities included more systematic use of existing craft competencies among low-income families and the possibility of cost reduction through DIY concepts. Major barriers included the perception of the DIY product as inferior and the difficulty of communicating the DIY assembly process to users who quite often are illiterate.

  14. Risk management in product innovation projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halman, J.I.M.; Keizer, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    In product innovation projects risk management has become increasingly important. Technological and commercial developments ask for effective and efficient product innovation. Systematic diagnosing and management of risks can help to make product innovation projects successful. In this paper a

  15. Opportunities in the Fusion Energy Sciences Program [Includes Appendix C: Topical Areas Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-06-01

    Recent years have brought dramatic advances in the scientific understanding of fusion plasmas and in the generation of fusion power in the laboratory. Today, there is little doubt that fusion energy production is feasible. The challenge is to make fusion energy practical. As a result of the advances of the last few years, there are now exciting opportunities to optimize fusion systems so that an attractive new energy source will be available when it may be needed in the middle of the next century. The risk of conflicts arising from energy shortages and supply cutoffs, as well as the risk of severe environmental impacts from existing methods of energy production, are among the reasons to pursue these opportunities.

  16. Opportunities and Risks in Semiconductor Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, Peter

    2005-09-01

    New metrology opportunities are constantly emerging as the semiconductor industry attempts to meet scaling requirements. The paper summarizes some of the key FEOL and BEOL needs. These must be weighed against a number of considerations to ensure that they are good opportunities for the metrology equipment supplier. The paper discusses some of these considerations.

  17. Fuel cells and electricity companies - new risk management opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whale, M.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Deregulation, distributed generation, combined heat and power, renewables, fuel cells, hydrogen. Power companies are facing a rapidly evolving environment that is testing their ability to effectively deploy capital and earn profits. While recent deregulation trends have shifted the structure of power markets into separating generators from distributors, the improving economic value proposition offered by smaller scale distributed generation technologies - such as fuel cells - would seem to be a conflicting development. In this complex and changing environment, decisions based on the economic reality of the capital markets are likely to prevail. By examining the opportunity to enhance risk management offered by stationary fuel cells, particularly in CHP applications, we provide a context for the issues being discussed in today's sessions focusing on power companies and electric utilities. Our risk management perspective suggests a pathway for implementing fuel cells in combined heat and power applications that large power generators can introduce in increasingly smaller sizes. With capital costs of fuel cells high and risk tolerance of power companies low, the challenge for smaller technology developers will be to reduce the apparently long time horizon that persists for substantial deployment. (author)

  18. Online communication among adolescents: An integrated model on its attraction, opportunities, and risks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents far outnumber adults in their use of e-communication technologies, such as instant messaging and social network sites. In this article, we present an integrative model that helps us to understand both the appeal of these technologies and their risks and opportunities for the psychosocial

  19. How to manage project opportunity and risk why uncertainty management can be a much better approach than risk management

    CERN Document Server

    Ward, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Since I wrote the Foreword for the second edition of this book, risk management processes have become much more widely used, but controversy about what should be done and how best to do it has grown. Managing risk is a risky business. Chapman and Ward provide an in-depth explanation of why it is important to understand and manage underlying uncertainty in all its forms, in order to realise opportunities more fully and enhance corporate performance. They show what best practice should look like. The implications go well beyond the conventional wisdom of project risk management, providing an enl

  20. How to succeed in the digital age? Monitor the organizational context, identify risks and opportunities, and manage change effectively

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonseca Luis Miguel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the dynamic and inter-connected internal and external environments of the present digital age, organizations are faced with increased challenges to achieve enduring success. After reviewing the major management theories with an organizational focus, and the changes brought with the new ISO 9001:2015 Quality Management Systems International Standard Edition, the hypotheses that to succeed in the digital age organizations must monitor the organizational context, identify risks and opportunities, and manage change effectively, are presented. A worldwide survey was carried out among IRCA registered auditors concerning ISO 9001:2015 certified organizations, and by using a quantitative methodology (sample normality was confirmed through Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and the hypothesis were tested by using Pearson correlation coefficient. The results of this research highlight the need to properly monitor the organizational (internal and external context and identify the key issues that affect the organizations ability to deliver quality products and satisfy their customers and key stakeholders, and to plan, design, implement and control change in an effective and timely manner. These results support the notion that organizations should adopt appropriate organizational models for the present digital age, with emphasis on knowledge management and horizontal customer perspectives, willing to scan the environment, identify risk and opportunities and take timely and suitable actions.

  1. The opportunity cost of family labor in the economy of the dairy production in Michoacan, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy Alexis Jiménez Jiménez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to analyze associated factors with the variation of the profit margin and the influence of the opportunity cost of family labor in the economic profit of the family dairy in the municipality of Maravatio, Michoacan. Productive economic information was obtained through the use of questionnaires, semi-structured interviews and direct observation, using the methodology of Participatory Action Research. The opportunity cost of workforce was established on the basis of the work options for the family members involved in the activity; the options were classified into three types: local, regional, and foreign, according to the location of the job opportunities. In order to determine the influence of family labor in earning, it was used a multiple regression model with inclusion of step-by-step variables. The livestock feed represented the highest index of determination of the profit margin variation with the 68 %. Family labor is one of the variables that have an adverse impact on the profitability of the production units, it represented 26% of the variation of economic gain, with a negative linear relation of -1.05 (P ≤0.001. The best labor alternatives for producers, when emigrating, show that family labor is not the productive factor allowing them to have earnings; however, the dairy activity provides productive and economic sustenance for people with a local and regional opportunity cost.

  2. Companies and Climate Risk: Opportunities to Engage the Business Community in Promoting Climate-conscious Policies (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, G. T.; Rogerson, P.

    2013-12-01

    Regardless of their policy orientation, the business community has an interest in how climate change impacts will affect their operations and ultimately change their bottom line. The reality that climate change presents material and financial risks to many companies in diverse sectors of the economy presents an opportunity to engage companies on climate-related issues. Company investors are exposed to such financial risks and can pressure public companies to change behavior through shareholder resolutions, voting, and election of new board members. The US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) obligates all publicly traded companies to discuss risks that might materially affect their business in their annual Form 10-K filings. In 2010, the guidance for the Form 10-K specifically suggested that companies consider and discuss any significant risks to their business from climate change--both from its physical effects and from impacts of climate regulations. Form 10-Ks for 28 US companies were analyzed for the years 2009 and 2010. Results indicate that some companies comprehensively considered climate-related risks. However, in spite of the SEC guidance, some fail to mention climate change at all. Additionally, many companies discuss only the impacts that regulation would have on their business--not the physical effects of climate change itself. The lack of consideration of climate-related risks in companies' risk assessments demonstrates a need for a more uniform understanding of SEC requirements and additionally, this state of affairs presents an opportunity to push companies to more deeply consider climate change impacts. Several avenues are available for engaging with companies themselves, their shareholders, the SEC, and the public. We will explore what strategies have been effective for engaging such actors and what further opportunities exist for working with the business community to promote more climate-conscious policies and practices.

  3. Risk management in facility transition and management decision making: Needs and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stillwell, W.; Seaver, D.; Keller, J.; Smith, D.; Weaver, D.; Sanders, T.; Thullen, P.

    1993-02-01

    An overall approach to risk management is described in this paper. Many of these concepts have been developed and applied as part of Hanford Mission Planning (HMP) (Hanford Mission Plan, 1992). At Hanford, HMP provides a mechanism for integrating planning across all the missions and programs of the site. This paper discusses the decision context within which EM must make and defend decisions, the types of decisions that are being and will need to be made in order to progress with the cleanup of the DOE complex, and the resulting need for risk management. Risk management, in turn, requires quality health and ecological risk information to make these decisions. Other types of information are also needed, but the risk information is typically the most important and the most difficult to obtain. The paper then describes a general technical approach to risk management, including particular methods for developing the high quality of human health and ecological risk information that will be needed to support risk management. We next turn to several special issues that make risk management more complex than many other decisions. We discuss these issues and offer some practical suggestions with respect to addressing them in the risk management framework. Finally, we conclude with some discussion of other opportunities for applying risk management

  4. Social Media in Surgical Training: Opportunities and Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovaere, Sander; Zimmerman, David D E; Brady, Richard R

    2018-05-02

    Surgeon engagement with social media is growing rapidly. Innovative applications in diverse fields of health care are increasingly available. The aim of this review is to explore the current and future applications of social media in surgical training. In addition, risks and barriers of social media engagement are analyzed, and recommendations for professional social media use amongst trainers and trainees are suggested. The published, peer-reviewed literature on social media in medicine, surgery and surgical training was reviewed. MESH terms including "social media", "education", "surgical training" and "web applications" were used. Different social media surgical applications are already widely available but limited in use in the trainee's curriculum. E-learning modalities, podcasts, live surgery platforms and microblogs are used for teaching purposes. Social media enables global research collaboratives and can play a role in patient recruitment for clinical trials. The growing importance of networking is emphasized by the increased use of LinkedIn, Facebook, Sermo and other networking platforms. Risks of social media use, such as lack of peer review and the lack of source confirmation, must be considered. Governing surgeon's and trainee's associations should consider adopting and sharing their guidelines for standards of social media use. Surgical training is changing rapidly and as such, social media presents tremendous opportunities for teaching, training, research and networking. Awareness must be raised on the risks of social media use. Copyright © 2018 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. All rights reserved.

  5. Exploiting Nutritional Value of Staple Foods in the World’s Semi-Arid Areas: Risks, Benefits, Challenges and Opportunities of Sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Proietti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench is a drought-resistant crop and an important food resource in terms of nutritional as well as social-economic values, especially in semi-arid environments. Cultivar selection and processing methods have been observed to impact on composition and functional and nutritional value of sorghum. Amino acid imbalance, cyanogenic glycosides, endogenous anti-nutrients, mycotoxins and toxic elements are among factors impairing its nutritional value. This paper reviews possible approaches (varieties selection, production practices, cooking processes to improve the benefits-to-risks balance of sorghum meal, to mitigate the risk of deficiencies and/or imbalances and to improve effects on human nutrition. Opportunity for avoiding dietary diversification in high sorghum consumers is also discussed, e.g., tryptophan and niacin deficits potentially related to pellagra, or unavailability of proteins and divalent cations (e.g., Fe, Zn due to the antinutrient activity of phytic acid and tannins. As potential candidate for production investments, the role of sorghum in preserving biological diversity is also considered.

  6. [Health risks from pest control products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, C; Holthenrich, D; Schneider, H

    2014-05-01

    According to European biocide legislation, pest control products require assessment and authorization by the responsible national or European authorities. Biocidal products can only be authorized if they have no unacceptable effects on human health. The health risk assessment performed for authorization comprises (a) the derivation of reference values for the active substances and substances of concern contained in the biocidal product and (b) an exposure assessment. These parameters are required for risk characterization. No unacceptable health risks are expected if the determined exposure is less than the relevant reference value. In addition, the toxicological information is used for classification of the biocidal product. The assessment may, where necessary, result in specific conditions for use or other restrictions aimed at minimizing risk. The risk to human health from pest control products is mainly based on the toxicological properties of their active substances. Commonly, the coformulants used in pest control products are of less concern than the active substances (e.g., food ingredients and animal feed products). For example, most rodenticides belong to the group of anticoagulants, which are also effective in humans. Regarding intoxications through insecticides, the group of pyrethroids is of particular importance. Fumigants containing metal phosphides, hydrogen cyanide, or sulfuryl difluoride are particularly toxic. This toxicity is linked to the high acute inhalation toxicity of the gaseous active substances themselves or, in the case of phosphides, of the released gas phosphane. The aim of health risk assessment for the authorization of biocidal products is to ensure their safe application for users and all other persons involved, assuming an adequate and label-compliant use.

  7. Prehospital Blood Product Administration Opportunities in Ground Transport ALS EMS - A Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mix, Felicia M; Zielinski, Martin D; Myers, Lucas A; Berns, Kathy S; Luke, Anurahda; Stubbs, James R; Zietlow, Scott P; Jenkins, Donald H; Sztajnkrycer, Matthew D

    2018-06-01

    IntroductionHemorrhage remains the major cause of preventable death after trauma. Recent data suggest that earlier blood product administration may improve outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether opportunities exist for blood product transfusion by ground Emergency Medical Services (EMS). This was a single EMS agency retrospective study of ground and helicopter responses from January 1, 2011 through December 31, 2015 for adult trauma patients transported from the scene of injury who met predetermined hemodynamic (HD) parameters for potential transfusion (heart rate [HR]≥120 and/or systolic blood pressure [SBP]≤90). A total of 7,900 scene trauma ground transports occurred during the study period. Of 420 patients meeting HD criteria for transfusion, 53 (12.6%) had a significant mechanism of injury (MOI). Outcome data were available for 51 patients; 17 received blood products during their emergency department (ED) resuscitation. The percentage of patients receiving blood products based upon HD criteria ranged from 1.0% (HR) to 5.9% (SBP) to 38.1% (HR+SBP). In all, 74 Helicopter EMS (HEMS) transports met HD criteria for blood transfusion, of which, 28 patients received prehospital blood transfusion. Statistically significant total patient care time differences were noted for both the HR and the SBP cohorts, with HEMS having longer time intervals; no statistically significant difference in mean total patient care time was noted in the HR+SBP cohort. In this study population, HD parameters alone did not predict need for ED blood product administration. Despite longer transport times, only one-third of HEMS patients meeting HD criteria for blood administration received prehospital transfusion. While one-third of ground Advanced Life Support (ALS) transport patients manifesting HD compromise received blood products in the ED, this represented 0.2% of total trauma transports over the study period. Given complex logistical issues involved in

  8. Bookending the Opportunity to Lower Wind’s LCOE by Reducing the Uncertainty Surrounding Annual Energy Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.

    2017-06-01

    Reducing the performance risk surrounding a wind project can potentially lead to a lower weighted-average cost of capital (WACC), and hence a lower levelized cost of energy (LCOE), through an advantageous shift in capital structure, and possibly also a reduction in the cost of capital. Specifically, a reduction in performance risk will move the 1-year P99 annual energy production (AEP) estimate closer to the P50 AEP estimate, which in turn reduces the minimum debt service coverage ratio (DSCR) required by lenders, thereby allowing the project to be financed with a greater proportion of low-cost debt. In addition, a reduction in performance risk might also reduce the cost of one or more of the three sources of capital that are commonly used to finance wind projects: sponsor or cash equity, tax equity, and/or debt. Preliminary internal LBNL analysis of the maximum possible LCOE reduction attainable from reducing the performance risk of a wind project found a potentially significant opportunity for LCOE reduction of ~$10/MWh, by reducing the P50 DSCR to its theoretical minimum value of 1.0 (Bolinger 2015b, 2014) and by reducing the cost of sponsor equity and debt by one-third to one-half each (Bolinger 2015a, 2015b). However, with FY17 funding from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmosphere to Electrons (A2e) Performance Risk, Uncertainty, and Finance (PRUF) initiative, LBNL has been revisiting this “bookending” exercise in more depth, and now believes that its earlier preliminary assessment of the LCOE reduction opportunity was overstated. This reassessment is based on two new-found understandings: (1) Due to ever-present and largely irreducible inter-annual variability (IAV) in the wind resource, the minimum required DSCR cannot possibly fall to 1.0 (on a P50 basis), and (2) A reduction in AEP uncertainty will not necessarily lead to a reduction in the cost of capital, meaning that a shift in capital structure is perhaps the best that can be expected (perhaps

  9. Exploring barriers and opportunities in adopting crowdsourcing based new product development in manufacturing SMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shengfeng; Van der Velde, David; Chatzakis, Emmanouil; McStea, Terry; Smith, Neil

    2016-10-01

    Crowdsourcing is an innovative business practice of obtaining needed services, ideas, or content or even funds by soliciting contributions from a large group of people (the `Crowd'). The potential benefits of utilizing crowdsourcing in product design are well-documented, but little research exists on what are the barriers and opportunities in adopting crowdsourcing in new product development (NPD) of manufacturing SMEs. In order to answer the above questions, a Proof of Market study is carried out on crowdsourcing-based product design under an Innovate UK funded Smart project, which aims at identifying the needs, challenges and future development opportunities associated with adopting crowdsourcing strategies for NPD. The research findings from this study are reported here and can be used to guide future development of crowdsourcing-based collaborative design methods and tools and provide some practical references for industry to adopt this new and emerging collaborative design method in their business.

  10. Opportunities, perspectives and limits in lactic acid production from waste and industrial by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Dragana D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In line with the goals of sustainable development and environmental protection today great attention is directed towards new technologies for waste and industrial by-products utilization. Waste products represent potentially good raw material for production other valuable products, such as bioethanol, biogas, biodiesel, organic acids, enzymes, microbial biomass, etc. Since the first industrial production to the present, lactic acid has found wide application in food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. In recent years, the demand for lactic acid has been increasing considerably owing to its potential use as a monomer for the production of poly-lactic acid (PLA polymers which are biodegradable and biocompatible with wide applications. Waste and industrial by-products such are whey, molasses, stillage, waste starch and lignocellulosic materials are a good source of fermentable sugars and many other substances of great importance for the growth of microorganisms, such as proteins, minerals and vitamins. Utilization of waste products for production of lactic acid could help to reduce the total cost of lactic acid production and except the economic viability of the process offers a solution of their disposal. Fermentation process depends on chemical and physical nature of feedstocks and the lactic acid producer. This review describes the characteristics, abilities and limits of microorganisms involved in lactic acid production, as well as the characteristics and types of waste products for lactic acid production. The fermentation methods that have been recently reported to improve lactic acid production are summarized and compared. In order to improve processes and productivity, fed-batch fermentation, fermentation with immobilized cell systems and mixed cultures and opportunities of open (non-sterilized fermentation have been investigated.

  11. 76 FR 41178 - Pesticides; Policies Concerning Products Containing Nanoscale Materials; Opportunity for Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... Pesticides; Policies Concerning Products Containing Nanoscale Materials; Opportunity for Public Comment; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed policy statement; extension of comment period. SUMMARY: EPA issued a proposed policy statement in the Federal Register of June...

  12. Chinese M&A,Opportunities & Risks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Jintao

    2009-01-01

    @@ Recently, the cases of Chinese enterprises' merger and acquisition are emerging in multitude. It is believed that M&A will provide opportunities for China enterprises to go global and act in the global economic environment.

  13. Diagnosing risks in product-innovation projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halman, Johannes I.M.; Keizer, J.A.

    A new method of diagnosing risks in product-innovation projects is introduced in the paper. The method is an improvement on existing risk methods used on product-innovation projects, such as potential problem analysis and failure mode and effects analysis. Technological, organizational and

  14. Diagnosing risks in product-innovation projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halman, J.I.M.; Keizer, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    A new method of diagnosing risks in product-innovation projects is introduced in the paper. The method is an improvement on existing risk methods used on product-innovation projects, such as potential problem analysis and failure mode and effects analysis. Technological, organizational and

  15. Peri-urban dairy production systems in developing countries: Characteristics, potential and opportunities for improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devendra, C.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Peri-urban dairy production systems in developing countries are discussed with reference to type of systems, their characteristics, potential, and opportunities for improvement. Three types of dairy systems are identified and described: smallholder systems, smallholder co-perative dairy production systems, and intensive dairy production systems. The first two systems are by far the most important, and are associated with increasing intensification. Buffaloes are especially important in South Asia, but elsewhere dairy production mainly involves Holstein-Friesian cross-bred cattle. Dairy goats are important in some countries, but are generally neglected in development programmes. The expansion and intensification of peri-urban dairy production is fuelled by increased demand for milk with associated problems of milk handling and distribution, hygiene and environmental pollution. The major constraints to production are inter alia, choice of species, breeds and availability of animals; feed resources and improved feeding systems; improved breeding, reproduction, and animal health care; management of animal manure, and organised marketing, and market outlets. These constraints provide major opportunities and challenges for research and development to increase dairy production, efficient management of natural resources, and improved livelihoods of poor farmers. Specific areas for research are identified, as also the need of a holistic focus involving interdisciplinary research and integrated natural resource management, in a shared partnership between farmers and scientists that can demonstrate increased productivity and sustainable production systems. Suggestions for performance indicators for such systems are indicated. (author)

  16. Proliferation Risks of Fusion Energy: Clandestine Production, Covert Production, and Breakout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldston, R.J.; Glaser, A.; Ross, A.F.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear proliferation risks from fusion associated with access to weapon-usable material can be divided into three main categories: (1) clandestine production of fissile material in an undeclared facility, (2) covert production of such material in a declared and safeguarded facility, and (3) use of a declared facility in a breakout scenario, in which a state begins production of fissile material without concealing the effort. In this paper we address each of these categories of risk from fusion. For each case, we find that the proliferation risk from fusion systems can be much lower than the equivalent risk from fission systems, if commercial fusion systems are designed to accommodate appropriate safeguards

  17. Sustainable Product Service Systems in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs: Opportunities in the Leather Manufacturing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo J. Hernández Pardo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach to identify opportunities to develop sustainable Product Service Systems (PSS involving Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs. The purpose of the research is to build understanding of how the integration of product and service design and the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT can contribute to identify opportunities to develop sustainable PSS involving SMEs. In order to develop the approach, research with 16 Colombian Manufacturing SMEs was carried out. A reference model and four generic types of PSS according to the relationships between product and service design and ICT are used to analyse the data. Finally, the possibility of extending the approach into a general framework to work with other industries is discussed.

  18. International oil opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hares, T.N.D.; Mann, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    Some of the key issues to be addressed when selecting international opportunities, were discussed. The ideal opportunity should have the following characteristics: (1) large, low risk (2) high percentage of rent available to the investor, (3) low cost and low technical requirements, (4) low country risk, (5) low competition, (6) easy to access, and (7) favorable environment in which to work. Entering an international opportunity can be achieved by competitive bidding, direct negotiation, partnership, corporate and/or asset acquisition, and long-term relationships. Key success factors were identified as (1) applying technical financial and commercial skills in the international environment, (2) speedy response, (3) excellent relationships in the foreign country, (4) understanding the local culture, and (5) keeping a good track record. 6 figs

  19. Opportunistic maintenance considering non-homogenous opportunity arrivals and stochastic opportunity durations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truong Ba, H.; Cholette, M.E.; Borghesani, P.; Zhou, Y.; Ma, L.

    2017-01-01

    Many systems and manufacturing processes undergo intermittent operation due to external factors (e.g. weather, low market prices), offering opportunities to conduct maintenance with reduced production losses. Making use of appropriate opportunities can thus lead to significant reduction in the total cost of maintenance and improvement in productivity. In this paper, an opportunistic maintenance (OM) model is developed considering two critical properties of real world opportunities: (i) non-homogeneous opportunity arrivals and (ii) stochastic opportunity duration. The model enables exploiting downtime cost savings from “partial” opportunities (stops shorter than the required maintenance time) thus extending the potential benefit of OM. The criteria for accepting maintenance opportunities are found by minimizing the single-cycle total cost. A closed form expression of the single-cycle total cost is derived for a given PM/OM policy and then a Genetic Algorithm is used to solve the optimization problem. Numerical results are presented to assess the benefit of opportunistic maintenance and the marginal benefit of considering partial opportunities. Results indicate that significant savings can be achieved by considering OM. Moreover, it is shown that the novel consideration of partial opportunities significantly increase the benefit of OM. - Highlights: • Opportunistic and time-based preventive maintenance jointly optimized. • Non-homogeneous opportunity arrivals and stochastic durations considered. • “Partial” opportunities considered for the first time. • Opportunity duration thresholds used as a decision criterion. • Numerical study conducted to evaluate benefit of optimized policy.

  20. Stakeholder dialogues. Opportunities and risks of climate change; Stakeholder-Dialoge. Chancen und Risiken des Klimawandels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Esther; Gebauer, Jana; Dunkelberg, Elisa; Hirschfeld, Jesko; Hirschl, Bernd; Rotter, Maja; Stegnitz, Antje; Wurbs, Sven [Institut fuer oekologische Wirtschaftsforschung (IOeW), Berlin (Germany); Lotz, Wiebke; Welp, Martin [Hochschule fuer nachhaltige Entwicklung Eberswalde (F.H.) (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    Climate change as a global problem has specific local effects, which in addition to natural areas also affect social and technical systems. The consequences of climate change will differ concerning the different sectors and regions and can be associated with both risks and opportunities to be. To effectively protect against risks, but to also use opportunities, appropriate adaptation measures are needed. In this context, the Competence Centre on Climate Impacts and Adaptation in the Federal Environmental Agency (KomPass) introduced in 2009 and 2010 a series of stakeholder dialogues that culminated in a cross-thematic and cross-sectoral national conference ''Already adapted?''. The events were part of the research project ''Stakeholder Dialogues: Opportunities and Risks of Climate Change'', conducted by the Institute for Ecological Economy Research (IOeW) in cooperation with the University of Applied Sciences Eberswalde. Some dialogues were held in cooperation with partners from respective associations or authorities. The National Dialogue took place in cooperation with the agency compass orange. The aim of the dialogues was one hand to capture the need for action resulting from climate change, and analyze and develop approaches to adaptation strategies.The different sectors and industries were represented by associations and companies, ministries and authorities and by civil society and academia. On the other hand adaptation needs, demands on the political framework, and research and cooperation needs should be be assessed and analyzed in an interdisciplinary process. From this, KomPass will derive recommendations for the design of the national Action Plan Adaptation and feed into the ongoing process. (orig.)

  1. Options for electricity production, the actual opportunities and regulatory framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raphals, P.

    2006-01-01

    Thermal power and nuclear power represent the traditional methods of generating electricity. This paper presented opportunities for alternative centralized power production methods that include wind energy, biomass and solar energy. It also discussed decentralized alternatives for power generation, such as geothermal energy and cogeneration, including microturbines. The primary focus was on aspects of competitive market design for residential and small commercial applications as well as commercial and industrial applications. Law 116 of Quebec's Energy Board was reviewed in terms of energy policy and utility regulation. In particular, the framework agreement between Hydro-Quebec Production (HQP) and Hydro-Quebec Distribution (HQD) was discussed with reference to balancing electricity produced from renewable energy sources and energy security. The presentation also addressed issues regarding the role of competition, regulation and environmental implications of electricity trade. refs., tabs., figs

  2. Molecular genetics and livestock selection. Approaches, opportunities and risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Following domestication, livestock were selected both naturally through adaptation to their environments and by man so that they would fulfil a particular use. As selection methods have become more sophisticated, rapid progress has been made in improving those traits that are easily measured. However, selection has also resulted in decreased diversity. In some cases, improved breeds have replaced local breeds, risking the loss of important survival traits. The advent of molecular genetics provides the opportunity to identify the genes that control particular traits by a gene mapping approach. However, as with selection, the early mapping studies focused on traits that are easy to measure. Where molecular genetics can play a valuable role in livestock production is by providing the means to select effectively for traits that are difficult to measure. Identifying the genes underpinning particular traits requires a population in which these traits are segregating. Fortunately, several experimental populations have been created that have allowed a wide range of traits to be studied. Gene mapping work in these populations has shown that the role of particular genes in controlling variation in a given trait can depend on the genetic background. A second finding is that the most favourable alleles for a trait may in fact. be present in animals that perform poorly for the trait. In the long term, knowledge of -the genes controlling particular traits, and the way they interact with the genetic background, will allow introgression between breeds and the assembly of genotypes that are best suited to particular environments, producing animals with the desired characteristics. If used wisely, this approach will maintain genetic diversity while improving performance over a wide range of desired traits. (author)

  3. Proceedings of the Canadian Institute's 4. annual oil sands supply and infrastructure conference : maximizing opportunity and mitigating risks in a rapidly growing market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This conference addressed the challenges facing oil sands development, with particular reference to supply and infrastructure issues. Updates on oil sands markets and opportunities were presented along with strategies for mitigating risks in a rapidly growing market. The best practices for supplying a demanding market through supply shortages and high prices were identified along with policies that should be implemented to help overcome labour shortages. Some presentations expressed how commodities pricing and trends can impact business. Others showed how markets in China and the United States are prepared for oilsands products. The views of other international companies on oil sands was also discussed along with proposed plans to eliminate the infrastructure congestion and risks caused by expanding oil sands development. The challenges and benefits of investing in Alberta's oil sands were reviewed along with strategies to enhance upgrading and refining capacity in the province. Economic drivers and the creation of new markets were examined, and various export opportunities were reviewed along with industry management challenges concerning human resources, labour supply, training and education. The conference featured 10 presentations, of which 3 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  4. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Risk of Substance Use Disorder: Developmental Considerations, Potential Pathways, and Opportunities for Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Brooke S.G.; Pelham, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Many opportunities to explain ADHD-related risk of substance use/disorder (SUD) remain available for study. We detail these opportunities by considering characteristics of children with ADHD and factors affecting their outcomes side-by-side with overlapping variables in the developmental literature on SUD etiology. Although serious conduct problems are a known contributor to ADHD-related risk of SUD, few studies have considered their emergence developmentally and in relation to other candidate mediators and moderators that could also explain risk and be intervention targets. Common ADHD-related impairments, such as school difficulties, are in need of research. Heterogeneous social impairments have the potential for predisposing, and buffering, influences. Research on neurocognitive domains should move beyond standard executive function batteries to measure deficits in the interface between cognitive control, reward, and motivation. Ultimately, maximizing prediction will depend, as it has in the SUD literature, on simultaneous consideration of multiple risk factors. PMID:24437435

  5. Risk Of Loss Of Productivity In Workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafi Assiri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In every organization there exist some unavoidable cost when running any business. However these costs can be minimized by managing the factors that contribute to increased business cost and finding ways to prevent risks before they occur. This paper examines one of these factors which is loss of productivity in the workplace. The paper examines the risks of loss of productivity what causes these risks and in what ways will the business be affected by them. This paper also present the various ways a business can manage the risks by providing ways on how the business can prepare for any incidents with regards to the risks. And because its impossible to manage anything that you cant measure ways in which productivity can be measured have been addressed. Finally the paper addresses ways in which the business can improve its workplace productivity to achieve the business goals and ensure continuity of the business.

  6. Managing Risk and Opportunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul; Garvey, Maxine; Roggi, Oliviero

    outcomes. This topic is timely and of interest both to the academic community as well as to practicing managers, executives, and directors. The volume focuses on contemporary risk leadership issues based on recent research insights but avoids excessive technical language and mathematical formulas. The book...... is framed around the challenges imposed on executives and directors in dealing with an increasingly complex and unpredictable world. This requires a new risk leadership focus that not only avoids the downside risks but also considers ways to exploit the upside potential offered by a dynamic environment....... The underlying logic is built on the principles of financial economics where benefits derive from reducing bankruptcy costs and increasing future cash inflows. This provides a stringent framework for analyzing the effect of different risk management actions and behaviors in effective risk-taking organizations...

  7. Stakeholder dialogues. Opportunities and risks of climate change; Stakeholder-Dialoge. Chancen und Risiken des Klimawandels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Esther; Gebauer, Jana; Dunkelberg, Elisa; Hirschfeld, Jesko; Hirschl, Bernd; Rotter, Maja; Stegnitz, Antje; Wurbs, Sven [Institut fuer oekologische Wirtschaftsforschung (IOeW), Berlin (Germany); Lotz, Wiebke; Welp, Martin [Hochschule fuer nachhaltige Entwicklung Eberswalde (F.H.) (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    Climate change as a global problem has specific local effects, which in addition to natural areas also affect social and technical systems. The consequences of climate change will differ concerning the different sectors and regions and can be associated with both risks and opportunities to be. To effectively protect against risks, but to also use opportunities, appropriate adaptation measures are needed. In this context, the Competence Centre on Climate Impacts and Adaptation in the Federal Environmental Agency (KomPass) introduced in 2009 and 2010 a series of stakeholder dialogues that culminated in a cross-thematic and cross-sectoral national conference ''Already adapted?''. The events were part of the research project ''Stakeholder Dialogues: Opportunities and Risks of Climate Change'', conducted by the Institute for Ecological Economy Research (IOeW) in cooperation with the University of Applied Sciences Eberswalde. Some dialogues were held in cooperation with partners from respective associations or authorities. The National Dialogue took place in cooperation with the agency compass orange. The aim of the dialogues was one hand to capture the need for action resulting from climate change, and analyze and develop approaches to adaptation strategies.The different sectors and industries were represented by associations and companies, ministries and authorities and by civil society and academia. On the other hand adaptation needs, demands on the political framework, and research and cooperation needs should be be assessed and analyzed in an interdisciplinary process. From this, KomPass will derive recommendations for the design of the national Action Plan Adaptation and feed into the ongoing process. (orig.)

  8. Characterising agrometeorological climate risks and uncertainties: Crop production in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mubiru, Drake N.; Komutunga, Everline; Agona, Ambrose

    2012-01-01

    , the number of rainy days during this critical period of crop growth is decreasing, which possibly means that crops grown in this season are prone to climatic risks and therefore in need of appropriate adaptation measures. A time-series analysis of the maximum daily temperature clearly revealed an increase......Uganda is vulnerable to climate change as most of its agriculture is rain-fed; agriculture is also the backbone of the economy, and the livelihoods of many people depend upon it. Variability in rainfall may be reflected in the productivity of agricultural systems and pronounced variability may...... in temperature, with the lower limits of the ranges of daily maximums increasing faster than the upper limits. Finally, this study has generated information on seasonal rainfall characteristics that will be vital in exploiting the possibilities offered by climatic variability and also offers opportunities...

  9. Analysis of near-term production and market opportunities for hydrogen and related activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauro, R.; Leach, S. [National Hydrogen Association, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This paper summarizes current and planned activities in the areas of hydrogen production and use, near-term venture opportunities, and codes and standards. The rationale for these efforts is to assess industry interest and engage in activities that move hydrogen technologies down the path to commercialization. Some of the work presented in this document is a condensed, preliminary version of reports being prepared under the DOE/NREL contract. In addition, the NHA work funded by Westinghouse Savannah River Corporation (WSRC) to explore the opportunities and industry interest in a Hydrogen Research Center is briefly described. Finally, the planned support of and industry input to the Hydrogen Technical Advisory Panel (HTAP) on hydrogen demonstration projects is discussed.

  10. Minimum Risk Pesticide: Definition and Product Confirmation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minimum risk pesticides pose little to no risk to human health or the environment and therefore are not subject to regulation under FIFRA. EPA does not do any pre-market review for such products or labels, but violative products are subject to enforcement.

  11. Engaged scholarship for designing product service system innovation opportunities in an industrial design course

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Y.; Baha, S.E.; Hsieh, P.H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores a design case study in an industrial design classroom in which actors with diverse expertise were involved for the creation of Product Service System (PSS) innovation opportunities in societal contexts. By engaging diverse experts from different fields, the classroom was turned

  12. Microbiological risk assessment for personal care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, S E; Parker, M D; Amézquita, A; Pitt, T L

    2016-12-01

    Regulatory decisions regarding microbiological safety of cosmetics and personal care products are primarily hazard-based, where the presence of a potential pathogen determines decision-making. This contrasts with the Food industry where it is a commonplace to use a risk-based approach for ensuring microbiological safety. A risk-based approach allows consideration of the degree of exposure to assess unacceptable health risks. As there can be a number of advantages in using a risk-based approach to safety, this study explores the Codex Alimentarius (Codex) four-step Microbiological Risk Assessment (MRA) framework frequently used in the Food industry and examines how it can be applied to the safety assessment of personal care products. The hazard identification and hazard characterization steps (one and two) of the Codex MRA framework consider the main microorganisms of concern. These are addressed by reviewing the current industry guidelines for objectionable organisms and analysing reports of contaminated products notified by government agencies over a recent 5-year period, together with examples of reported outbreaks. Data related to estimation of exposure (step three) are discussed, and examples of possible calculations and references are included. The fourth step, performed by the risk assessor (risk characterization), is specific to each assessment and brings together the information from the first three steps to assess the risk. Although there are very few documented uses of the MRA approach for personal care products, this study illustrates that it is a practicable and sound approach for producing products that are safe by design. It can be helpful in the context of designing products and processes going to market and with setting of microbiological specifications. Additionally, it can be applied reactively to facilitate decision-making when contaminated products are released on to the marketplace. Currently, the knowledge available may only allow a

  13. Study of Agricultural Product Options Pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    HONG, Qiu

    2017-09-01

    China is a large agricultural country, and the healthy development of agriculture is related to the stability of the whole society. The agricultural production and management of agricultural products are confronted with many risks, especially the market risks. Option contract is the object of option market transaction, so it is very important to study the option contract of agricultural products. Option trading separates the risk and profit, so that the trader can avoid the risk while retaining the opportunity to obtain income. The option has the characteristics of low transaction cost, simple and efficient, so it is suitable for small and medium investors.

  14. Investments in product innovation using information technology : lessons from the financial services sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deitz, R.M.H.

    1993-01-01

    Product innovation using information technology (IT) represents a very interesting object of study from an economic point of view. The existing company-information infrastructure offers numerous opportunities but also risks for product-innovation. Opportunities occur when existing or future systems

  15. Opportunities and challenges of nanotechnology in the green economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iavicoli, Ivo; Leso, Veruscka; Ricciardi, Walter; Hodson, Laura L; Hoover, Mark D

    2014-10-07

    In a world of finite resources and ecosystem capacity, the prevailing model of economic growth, founded on ever-increasing consumption of resources and emission pollutants, cannot be sustained any longer. In this context, the "green economy" concept has offered the opportunity to change the way that society manages the interaction of the environmental and economic domains. To enable society to build and sustain a green economy, the associated concept of "green nanotechnology" aims to exploit nano-innovations in materials science and engineering to generate products and processes that are energy efficient as well as economically and environmentally sustainable. These applications are expected to impact a large range of economic sectors, such as energy production and storage, clean up-technologies, as well as construction and related infrastructure industries. These solutions may offer the opportunities to reduce pressure on raw materials trading on renewable energy, to improve power delivery systems to be more reliable, efficient and safe as well as to use unconventional water sources or nano-enabled construction products therefore providing better ecosystem and livelihood conditions.However, the benefits of incorporating nanomaterials in green products and processes may bring challenges with them for environmental, health and safety risks, ethical and social issues, as well as uncertainty concerning market and consumer acceptance. Therefore, our aim is to examine the relationships among guiding principles for a green economy and opportunities for introducing nano-applications in this field as well as to critically analyze their practical challenges, especially related to the impact that they may have on the health and safety of workers involved in this innovative sector. These are principally due to the not fully known nanomaterial hazardous properties, as well as to the difficulties in characterizing exposure and defining emerging risks for the workforce

  16. Risks and opportunities of virtual learning: the experience of UOC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Ros Híjar

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I have tried to give answers to the question of what the risks and opportunities of virtual learning are. In this sense, the UOC's experience has been of great value to analyse several key issues such as the new ways of accessing quality education, the new ways of participation, the new values of educational processes as well as some of the structural factors on which e-learning is based, but which place its very model in jeopardy. Direct observation of some key processes as well as contact with the main actors (e.g. students, teachers and technicians have provided valuable information about some factors to consider when analysing the social implications of virtual learning.

  17. Managing Risk and Opportunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul; Garvey, Maxine; Roggi, Oliviero

    outcomes. This topic is timely and of interest both to the academic community as well as to practicing managers, executives, and directors. The volume focuses on contemporary risk leadership issues based on recent research insights but avoids excessive technical language and mathematical formulas. The book...... is framed around the challenges imposed on executives and directors in dealing with an increasingly complex and unpredictable world. This requires a new risk leadership focus that not only avoids the downside risks but also considers ways to exploit the upside potential offered by a dynamic environment...

  18. 'Happy Onlife' - A video game to support mediation on internet risks and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    CHAUDRON STEPHANE; DI GIOIA Rosanna; GEMO Monica; LAGAE KAAT

    2015-01-01

    Children and young people are very active users of digital technology from an early age. Recent research shows that children learn quickly from mirroring the behaviour of parents, of older siblings and peers. On one hand, children have acquired independency and skills within the digital world; on the other, they lack reflective and critical thinking as well as awareness about opportunities and risks such as cyber-bullying or digital identity theft. Active adult’s mediation would allow for the...

  19. Chances and risks in the future E and P of Eastern-Central Europe (ECE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrova, H.; Kolly, E. [IHS Energy, Geneva (Switzerland); Schmitz, U. [LO and G Consultants, Essen (Germany)

    2006-03-15

    Eastern-Central Europe is a mature region in terms of hydrocarbon exploration and production. Its oil and gas reserves and production are in decline. Reserves replacement requires the identification of new opportunities. Several opportunities are being reviewed for their volume potential and economic viability and, in particular, for their chances and risks. Adequate opportunities in this respect are exploration for hydrocarbons in the region's thrust belts, the drilling of offshore plays of the Black Sea, and the delivery of smaller gas reserves to spot markets and/or independent power plants. The latter opportunities require the implementation of new approaches. As to the exploration-driven opportunities, risk lowering will obviously be achieved by the application of 3D seismic. Several of the identified opportunities will require substantial financial exposure. (orig.)

  20. Value of Uncertainty: The Lost Opportunities in Large Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnar Johansen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The uncertainty management theory has become well established over the last 20–30 years. However, the authors suggest that it does not fully address why opportunities often remain unexploited. Empirical studies show a stronger focus on mitigating risks than exploiting opportunities. This paper therefore addresses why so few opportunities are explored in large projects. The theory claims that risks and opportunities should be equally managed in the same process. In two surveys, conducted in six (private and public companies over a four-year period, project managers stated that uncertainty management is about managing risk and opportunities. However, two case studies from 12 projects from the same companies revealed that all of them had their main focus on risks, and most of the opportunities were left unexploited. We have developed a theoretical explanation model to shed light on this phenomena. The concept is a reflection based on findings from our empirical data up against current project management, uncertainty, risk and stakeholder literature. Our model shows that the threshold for pursuing a potential opportunity is high. If a potential opportunity should be considered, it must be extremely interesting, since it may require contract changes, and the project must abandon an earlier-accepted best solution.

  1. Private Animal Welfare Standards-Opportunities and Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundmark, Frida; Berg, Charlotte; Röcklinsberg, Helena

    2018-01-02

    The current shift moves the governance of animal welfare away from the government towards the private market and the consumers. We have studied the intentions, content, and on-farm inspection results from different sets of animal welfare legislation and private standards with an aim to highlight the most important opportunities and risks identified in relation to the trend of increasingly relying on private standards for safeguarding or improving farm animal welfare. Our results show that different focuses, intentions, animal welfare requirements, inspection methods (i.e., methods for measuring and evaluating the compliance with a regulation), and inspection results, together with the use of vague wordings and a drive towards more flexible regulations does certainly not facilitate the interpretation and implementation of animal welfare regulations, especially not in relation to each other. Since farmers today often have to comply with several animal welfare regulations, including private standards, it is important to stress that a given regulation should never be seen as a single, stand-alone phenomenon, and the policymakers must hence consider the bigger picture, and apply the standards in relation to other existing regulations. This is especially relevant in relation to the legislation, a level that a private standard can never ignore.

  2. The association of health risks with on-the-job productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Wayne N; Chen, Chin-Yu; Conti, Daniel J; Schultz, Alyssa B; Pransky, Glenn; Edington, Dee W

    2005-08-01

    Decreased on-the-job productivity represents a large yet poorly characterized indirect cost to employers. We studied the impact of employee health risk factors on self-reported worker productivity (presenteeism). Using a brief version of the Work Limitation Questionnaire incorporated into a Health Risk Appraisal, 28,375 employees of a national company responded to the survey. The association between health risks and work limitation and each of the four domains was examined. Percentage of lost productivity also was estimated. Ten of 12 health risk factors studied were significantly associated with self-reported work limitations. The strength of the associations varied between risks and the four domains of work limitation. Perception-related risk factors such as life dissatisfaction, job dissatisfaction, poor health, and stress showed the greatest association with presenteeism. As the number of self-reported health risk factors increased, so did the percentage of employees reporting work limitations. Each additional risk factor was associated with 2.4% excess productivity reduction. Medium and high-risk individuals were 6.2% and 12.2% less productive than low-risk individuals, respectively. The annual cost of lost productivity in this corporation was estimated at between 99Mdollars and 185Mdollars or between 1392dollars and 2592dollars per employee. Health risk factors represent additional causes of lost productivity.

  3. The possibility of drought risk reduction in corn production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajić Nemanja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Weather derivatives are contemporary instruments for insurance risk of drought in agricultural production. Corn production is particularly sensitive to this risk, and the amount of the yield of this crop is in significant correlation with the July-August rainfall amount. Oscillations of production output, caused by the risk of drought, are reflected directly on the fluctuations of the financial result. The application of weather derivatives may decrease the variability of the mentioned economic parameter in corn production. In the investigated example of corn production, simulating the application of the weather option the coefficient of variation of realized financial results decreased by 9.64% compared to the version without the insured risk. At the same time, using the analysed insurance instrument, the risk of achieving a negative financial result is eliminated.

  4. Private Animal Welfare Standards—Opportunities and Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röcklinsberg, Helena

    2018-01-01

    Simple Summary In all European countries, farmers keeping animals must comply with European and national animal welfare legislation. Each government has a responsibility to make sure that the legislation is complied with by the farmers. However, during the last decades it has become increasingly common that private organisations, such as the industry, farmers’ organisations, or animal welfare organisations, develop additional animal welfare regulations (‘private standards’) that the farmers also need to comply with. These private standards have the opportunity to improve animal welfare above the legislative level, however, in our study we have shown that this is not always the case and that all of these different private standards, in addition to the legislation, makes it difficult to get an overview of the animal welfare regulation and control arena. For the sake of the farmers, the animal welfare inspectors, the consumers, and the animals we conclude that it is important that policymakers consider this arena as a whole and not their own regulation as a single phenomenon. Abstract The current shift moves the governance of animal welfare away from the government towards the private market and the consumers. We have studied the intentions, content, and on-farm inspection results from different sets of animal welfare legislation and private standards with an aim to highlight the most important opportunities and risks identified in relation to the trend of increasingly relying on private standards for safeguarding or improving farm animal welfare. Our results show that different focuses, intentions, animal welfare requirements, inspection methods (i.e., methods for measuring and evaluating the compliance with a regulation), and inspection results, together with the use of vague wordings and a drive towards more flexible regulations does certainly not facilitate the interpretation and implementation of animal welfare regulations, especially not in relation to

  5. Risk of energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inhaber, Herbert.

    1978-03-01

    Every human activity involves risk of accident or disease. Generation of energy is no exception. Although such risk has been considered for conventional systems (coal, oil and nuclear), a similar analysis for the so-called alternative or non-conventional systems (solar, wind, ocean thermal and methanol) has been lacking. This paper presents an evaluation of the risk, both occupational and to the public, of non-conventional energy systems. They are considered both in absolute terms and in relation to conventional systems. The risk of most non-conventional systems, per unit of energy output, is comparable to, and in some cases much higher than, the risk from coal and oil. This conclusion holds whether we consider deaths or injuries. Nuclear power and natural gas had the lowest overall risk of the ten technologies considered. Ocean thermal energy ranked third. The surprising result is that the other seven technologies considered were found to be up to 100 times less safe. The total risk is calculated by considering six components: material acquisition and construction, emissions caused by material production, operation and maintenance, energy back-up, energy storage, and transportation. In this way the risk of widely different systems can be fairly assessed. This methodology of 'risk accounting' will not tell us which energy technology to use. However, it can be employed to inform society of the risk inherent in competing energy systems. (author)

  6. Exploring opportunities for enhancing innovation in agriculture: The case of oil palm production in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adjei-Nsiah, S.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2012-01-01

    We carried out a study using key informant interviews, focus group discussions and individual interviews to explore opportunities to enhance innovation in the oil palm sector in Ghana. Current technical innovations at the farm level are insufficient to promote sustainable oil palm production and to

  7. Cultural Differences in Opportunity Cost Consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Ji, Li-Jun; Li, Ye

    2017-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate cultural differences in opportunity cost consideration between Chinese and Euro-Canadians. Opportunity cost is defined as the cost of a benefit that must be forgone in order to pursue a better alternative (Becker et al., 1974). In both studies, participants read about hypothetical purchase scenarios, and then decided whether they would buy a certain product. Opportunity cost consideration was measured in two ways: (1) participants' thoughts pertaining to other (nonfocal) products while making decisions; (2) participants' decisions not to buy a focal product (Study 1) or a more expensive product (Study 2). Across both indexes, we found that after controlling for individual difference variables and amount of pocket money, Chinese participants in China considered financial opportunity cost more than Euro-Canadians in Study 1. Similar results were observed in Study 2 when comparing Chinese in Canada with Euro-Canadians However, the cultural effect on opportunity cost consideration was confounded by family income in Study 2. Implications for resource management, limitations of the current research and directions for future research are discussed.

  8. Key performance indicators: Global product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Thomas Paul; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2014-01-01

    The decision to globalise parts of product development is a consequence of an increasingly competitive world market. The variety of risks and opportunities as a result of the decision make it difficult for management to evaluate if global product development has been successful. This paper invest...

  9. Agent of opportunity risk mitigation: people, engineering, and security efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Margaret E; Tunik, Michael G; Farmer, Brenna M; Bendzans, Carly; McCrillis, Aileen M; Nelson, Lewis S; Portelli, Ian; Smith, Silas; Goldberg, Judith D; Zhang, Meng; Rosenberg, Sheldon D; Goldfrank, Lewis R

    2010-12-01

    Agents of opportunity (AO) are potentially harmful biological, chemical, radiological, and pharmaceutical substances commonly used for health care delivery and research. AOs are present in all academic medical centers (AMC), creating vulnerability in the health care sector; AO attributes and dissemination methods likely predict risk; and AMCs are inadequately secured against a purposeful AO dissemination, with limited budgets and competing priorities. We explored health care workers' perceptions of AMC security and the impact of those perceptions on AO risk. Qualitative methods (survey, interviews, and workshops) were used to collect opinions from staff working in a medical school and 4 AMC-affiliated hospitals concerning AOs and the risk to hospital infrastructure associated with their uncontrolled presence. Secondary to this goal, staff perception concerning security, or opinions about security behaviors of others, were extracted, analyzed, and grouped into themes. We provide a framework for depicting the interaction of staff behavior and access control engineering, including the tendency of staff to "defeat" inconvenient access controls. In addition, 8 security themes emerged: staff security behavior is a significant source of AO risk; the wide range of opinions about "open" front-door policies among AMC staff illustrates a disparity of perceptions about the need for security; interviewees expressed profound skepticism concerning the effectiveness of front-door access controls; an AO risk assessment requires reconsideration of the security levels historically assigned to areas such as the loading dock and central distribution sites, where many AOs are delivered and may remain unattended for substantial periods of time; researchers' view of AMC security is influenced by the ongoing debate within the scientific community about the wisdom of engaging in bioterrorism research; there was no agreement about which areas of the AMC should be subject to stronger access

  10. Equal Opportunities Questionnaire

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The initiative to promote Equal Opportunities at CERN started in 1993. The first Equal Opportunities Officer was appointed in 1996, which was followed by the creation of the Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel in 1998. Initially the concern was mainly the fair treatment of women in the work-place. Today the emphasis has evolved to ensuring that diversity is used to increase creativity and productivity in the work-place. In order to ensure that all aspects of Equal Opportunities and Diversity are covered, CERN’s Equal Opportunities team has prepared a survey to obtain your input. Your answers are confidential and will only be used for generating statistics. The questionnaire is on-line and can be accessed via: https://espace.cern.ch/EOQ. We hope that you will take a few minutes of your time to give your input and would be grateful if you could reply before 15/10/07. For further information about Equal Opportunities at CERN see: http://cern.ch/equal-opportunities The Equa...

  11. Equal Opportunities Questionnaire

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The initiative to promote Equal Opportunities at CERN started in 1993. The first Equal Opportunities Officer was appointed in 1996 followed by the creation of the Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel in 1998. Initially the concern was mainly the fair treatment of women in the work-place. Today the emphasis has evolved to ensuring that diversity is used to increase creativity and productivity in the work-place. In order to ensure that all aspects of Equal Opportunities and Diversity are covered, CERN’s Equal Opportunities team has prepared a survey to obtain your input. Your answers are confidential and will only be used for generating statistics. The questionnaire is on-line and can be accessed via: https://espace.cern.ch/EOQ. We hope that you will take a few minutes of your time to give your input and would be grateful if you could reply before 15/10/07. For further information about Equal Opportunities at CERN see: http://cern.ch/equal-opportunities The Equal Opportuni...

  12. Managing multiple facets of risk in new product alliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, R.P.; Johnson, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    The trend of forming alliances to develop new products continues; however, many of these new product alliances fail. As such we explore how key risk types intrinsic in new product alliances, performance, relational, and knowledge appropriation risks, influence alliance success. Further, we theorize

  13. Guidelines for Risk-Based Changeover of Biopharma Multi-Product Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Rob; Barabani, David; Bellorado, Kathy; Canisius, Peter; Heathcote, Doug; Johnson, Alan; Wyman, Ned; Parry, Derek Willison

    2018-01-01

    In multi-product biopharma facilities, the protection from product contamination due to the manufacture of multiple products simultaneously is paramount to assure product quality. To that end, the use of traditional changeover methods (elastomer change-out, full sampling, etc.) have been widely used within the industry and have been accepted by regulatory agencies. However, with the endorsement of Quality Risk Management (1), the use of risk-based approaches may be applied to assess and continuously improve established changeover processes. All processes, including changeover, can be improved with investment (money/resources), parallel activities, equipment design improvements, and standardization. However, processes can also be improved by eliminating waste. For product changeover, waste is any activity not needed for the new process or that does not provide added assurance of the quality of the subsequent product. The application of a risk-based approach to changeover aligns with the principles of Quality Risk Management. Through the use of risk assessments, the appropriate changeover controls can be identified and controlled to assure product quality is maintained. Likewise, the use of risk assessments and risk-based approaches may be used to improve operational efficiency, reduce waste, and permit concurrent manufacturing of products. © PDA, Inc. 2018.

  14. Internships, employment opportunities, and research grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2015-01-01

    As an unbiased, multidisciplinary science organization, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is dedicated to the timely, relevant, and impartial study of the health of our ecosystems and environment, our natural resources, the impacts of climate and land-use change, and the natural hazards that threaten us. Opportunities for undergraduate and graduate students and faculty to participate in USGS science are available in the selected programs described below. Please note: U.S. citizenship is required for all government positions.This publication has been superseded by USGS General Information Product 165 Grant Opportunities for Academic Research and Training and USGS General Information Product 166 Student and Recent Graduate Employment Opportunities.This publication is proceeded by USGS General Information Product 80 Internships, Employment Opportunities, and Research Grants published in 2008.

  15. Cross-Strait Economic Relations: Opportunities Outweigh Risks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roy, Denny

    2004-01-01

    ...." Taiwan finds the economic opportunities on the mainland irresistible. Yet Taiwan recognizes that trading with China supports the strategy of the country representing Taiwan's chief security threat...

  16. Traditional alcohol production and use in three provinces in Vietnam: an ethnographic exploration of health benefits and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Bich Ngoc; Nguyen, Thi Thieng; Newman, Ian M

    2014-07-18

    Gaps exist in knowledge about the production and use of traditional alcohols, particularly in Asia. This study adds new information about the nature, production and sale of traditional distilled spirit alcohol in Vietnam. This was an ethnographic study of traditional distilled spirit alcohol production in rural areas of three provinces in Vietnam. Researchers interviewed more than 300 individuals and recorded responses to general open-ended questions about local alcohol production. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and studied to discern what information about traditional alcohol was important to the speakers. Methods of production followed long-held traditions. Participants listed both personal and community benefits (economic, health, and social) from traditional alcohol making. Older people favoured traditional alcohol, while younger people favoured brand-name beer. Typically people consumed 2-4 drinks daily, mainly at meal times. People consumed more alcohol at special events and festivals. Distribution patterns ranged from low-risk distribution to family and neighbours to high-risk distribution by an agent who might combine alcohol from several producers, which increases the opportunity for dilution and adulteration. The most commonly listed health risks associated with locally-made alcohol were local air pollution and water pollution; participants also mentioned traffic crashes and bad public behaviour. Depending on the location, community leaders reported that production may be relatively stable or it may be declining. Traditional alcohol manufacture, sale, and use in Vietnam is a long-standing practice and low- to moderate-risk to health. There do not appear to be instances of accidental or intentional contamination. Urbanization seems to be affecting the market share of traditional alcohol as urbanized youth turn to branded products, mainly beer, making traditional alcohol making and consumption an activity mainly linked to older people in rural areas

  17. Industrial-strength ecology: trade-offs and opportunities in algal biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurin, Jonathan B; Abbott, Rachel L; Deal, Michael S; Kwan, Garfield T; Litchman, Elena; McBride, Robert C; Mandal, Shovon; Smith, Val H

    2013-11-01

    Microalgae represent one of the most promising groups of candidate organisms for replacing fossil fuels with contemporary primary production as a renewable source of energy. Algae can produce many times more biomass per unit area than terrestrial crop plants, easing the competing demands for land with food crops and native ecosystems. However, several aspects of algal biology present unique challenges to the industrial-scale aquaculture of photosynthetic microorganisms. These include high susceptibility to invading aquatic consumers and weeds, as well as prodigious requirements for nutrients that may compete with the fertiliser demands of other crops. Most research on algal biofuel technologies approaches these problems from a cellular or genetic perspective, attempting either to engineer or select algal strains with particular traits. However, inherent functional trade-offs may limit the capacity of genetic selection or synthetic biology to simultaneously optimise multiple functional traits for biofuel productivity and resilience. We argue that a community engineering approach that manages microalgal diversity, species composition and environmental conditions may lead to more robust and productive biofuel ecosystems. We review evidence for trade-offs, challenges and opportunities in algal biofuel cultivation with a goal of guiding research towards intensifying bioenergy production using established principles of community and ecosystem ecology. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  18. Realize a world of opportunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christie, J.

    2000-01-01

    The Export Development Corporation (EDC) is a federal government-owned financial institution established to support Canadian firms of all sizes in the pursuit of international trade and investment opportunities. EDC is doing business in over 200 countries, worth over $40 billion. Over 5,000 Canadian companies were using EDC products and services in 1999. EDC offers accounts receivable insurance, contract insurance, political risk insurance and various financial products such as direct buyer loans, lines of credit, guarantees for bonds, access to surety services, and limited recourse structured finance. In evaluating a prospective transaction, EDC looks for assurances of the Canadian exporter's capability to deliver as promised, a credit-worthy counter-party, the viability of the project including, when deemed necessary, an environmental review, and benefits to Canada. CDM projects and environmental projects in general are within the mandate of EDC, provided they meet EDC's normal due diligence and analysis requirements

  19. OPPORTUNITIES AND RISKS OF GLOBALIZATION IN RURAL AREAS. CASE STUDY: BOTOSANI COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Simona Cuciureanu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The global economy plays an important role in the development of a region or a county/district as it promotes the exploitation of resources and space in a logical and rational manner. The trend of global economic uniformity allows opportunities and risks to Botoșani County since globalization involves economic development and rising living standards, but loss of cultural values, traditions and customs. The area of study currently confronts with socio-economic and demographic changes that may be addressed by globalization, but at the same time spatial development according to global standards will cause the loss of Botoșani County’s authenticity.

  20. effectiveness of technological options for minimising production risks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    preferred technologies in reducing production risk related to climate variability in Eastern Uganda. Data for this study were ..... Set of technological options employed by farmers to reduce climate-induced production risk. Dummy = 1 if farmer. 0.71. 0.46 ..... cation exchange capacity for holding nutrients against leaching loss.

  1. Use of sanitizing products: safety practices and risk situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Aurélia Rocha da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the handling and risk factors for poisoning and/or digestive tract injuries associated with the use of sanitizing products at home. METHODS: interviews were conducted in 419 households from different regions, collecting epidemiological data from residents and risk habits related to the use and storage of cleaning products. RESULTS: sanitizing products considered to be a health risk were found in 98% of the households where the research was conducted, and in 54% of cases, they were stored in places easily accessible to children. Lye was found in 19%, followed by illicit products in 39% of homes. In 13% of households, people produced soap, and in 12% they stored products in non-original containers. The use of illicit products and the manufacture of handmade soap were associated with lower educational level of the household owners and with the regions and socioeconomic classes with lower purchasing power. CONCLUSIONS: risk practices such as inadequate storage, manufacturing, and use of sanitizing products by the population evidence the need for public health policies, including educational measures, as a means of preventing accidents.

  2. A risk microbiological profile of the Australian red meat industry: risk ratings of hazard-product pairings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, John; Ross, Tom; Jenson, Ian; Pointon, Andrew

    2005-11-25

    A risk profile of microbial hazards across the supply continuum for the beef, sheep and goat meat industries was developed using both a qualitative tool and a semi-quantitative, spreadsheet tool, Risk Ranger. The latter is useful for highlighting factors contributing to food safety risk and for ranking the risk of various product/pathogen combinations. In the present profile the qualitative tool was used as a preliminary screen for a wide range of hazard-product pairings while Risk Ranger was used to rank in order of population health risk pairings for which quantitative data were available and for assessing the effect of hypothetical scenarios. 'High' risk hazard-product pairings identified were meals contaminated with Clostridium perfringens provided by caterers which have not implemented HACCP; kebabs cross-contaminated by Salmonella present in drip trays or served undercooked; meals served in the home cross-contaminated with Salmonella. 'Medium' risk hazard-product pairings identified were ready-to-eat meats contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes and which have extended shelf life; Uncooked Comminuted Fermented Meat (UCFM)/Salami contaminated with Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) and Salmonella; undercooked hamburgers contaminated with EHEC; kebabs contaminated by Salmonella under normal production or following final "flash" heating. Identified 'low' risk hazard-product pairings included cooked, ready-to-eat sausages contaminated with Salmonella; UCFM/Salami contaminated with L. monocytogenes; well-cooked hamburgers contaminated with EHEC. The risk profile provides information of value to Australia's risk managers in the regulatory, processing and R&D sectors of the meat and meat processing industry for the purposes of identifying food safety risks in the industry and for prioritising risk management actions.

  3. Use of product databases for risk assessment purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinemeyer, Gerhard; Hahn, Axel

    2005-01-01

    Product information databases are important prerequisites for providing data to poison centers (PC) to give adequate advice in cases of poisonings and for preparation of statistics as annual reports. For risk assessment measures, they can help for exposure assessments and for priority setting. A product database is a set of information of product and substance names, compositions, and uses of products. Data are provided due to national regulations as well as to national and international agreements between industry, international associations, e.g. the European Association of Poison Centres and Clinical Toxicologists (EAPCCT), and clinical toxicology institutions. They have different contents, i.e. complete formulations, frame formulations, and material safety data sheets. For definite identification of products, the product name should be readily taken from the labels and must be similar to the names provided by electronic media as databases. Products should be classified according to their use. The first system that has been prepared for that purpose is the ATC classification for pharmaceuticals. For chemicals, several systems e.g. the WHO-IPCS classification code, exist; the EU technical guidance document for risk assessment of chemicals is mentioning use categories, and they are used on national levels as well. For risk assessment purposes, statistics of poisonings and other health hazards are important as well as information about exposure. Linking cases of poisonings with product data enables risk assessors to perform statistical evaluations about health effects due to product use categories which can be compared to product compositions. If products are categorized by their use, information about use characteristics, such as frequencies and durations, can be derived. Hence, product categories can be taken to characterize scenarios and thus help for model estimations of exposure and respective doses

  4. Analysis of the proposed EU regulation concerning biocide products and its opportunities for alternative approaches and a toxicology for the 21st century (t4 report).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, Daniele; Rabbit, Richard R

    2012-01-01

    On June 12, 2009, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a Regulation concerning the placement on the market and use of biocidal products, which, when it enters into force on January 1, 2013, will repeal and replace Directive 98/8/EC. The main reason for the revision of the current Directive was to promote best practices for environmental and human health protection, along with implementation of current developments in safety testing in order to create safer biocides. Moreover, the proposed Regulation aims to take into consideration the newest legislation on chemicals. This article evaluates the proposed Regulation in comparison to Directive 98/8/EC. Although the new proposal requires the sharing of vertebrate animal test data, both for product authorization and for newly developed active substances, it misses - in contrast to REACH - the opportunity to recognize the accelerating development of alternative approaches to animal testing, most recently with new momentum provided by "Toxicity Testing for the 21st Century", and to support the evolution of toxicology towards a new approach to testing. The new methods promise not only to decrease animal pain and suffering, but also to provide faster results and better prediction for human risk assessment compared to traditional methods. Unfortunately, methods mandated for human risk assessment in the proposal are still mainly based on traditional animal study extrapolation. We put forward and discuss possible alternative strategies, such as in vitro testing, integrated testing strategies, toxicokinetics, "omics", systems biology, bioinformatics, and computational modeling, all of which could be more encouraged by the proposal. Current opportunities to improve our tools for biocide risk assessment are discussed, delineating advantages, limitations, and development needs. It is suggested to open the proposed Regulation to alternative approaches that are based on human biology more than on extrapolation from animals

  5. Guide to resource conservation and cost savings opportunities in the soap, detergents and related products sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The soaps, detergents and related products sector is an important component of the chemical industry within Ontario, as these products are used for cleaning purposes in industrial, institutional and domestic consumer applications. This guide was prepared to assist the sector with cost savings and resource conservation. The guide highlights opportunities for resource conservation through energy and water efficiency improvements, more efficient utilisation of raw materials, and reduction of environmental releases at source. 54 figs.

  6. Prenatal Stress as a Risk-and an Opportunity-Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Sarah; Freeman, Sara M; Bales, Karen L; Belsky, Jay

    2018-04-01

    Two separate lines of research indicate (a) that prenatal stress is associated with heightened behavioral and physiological reactivity and (b) that these postnatal phenotypes are associated with increased susceptibility to both positive and negative developmental experiences. Therefore, prenatal stress may increase sensitivity to the rearing environment. We tested this hypothesis by manipulating prenatal stress and rearing-environment quality, using a cross-fostering paradigm, in prairie voles. Results showed that prenatally stressed voles, as adults, displayed the highest behavioral and physiological reactivity when cross-fostered to low-contact (i.e., low-quality) rearing but the lowest behavioral and physiological reactivity when cross-fostered to high-contact (i.e., high-quality) rearing; non-prenatally stressed voles showed no effect of rearing condition. Additionally, while neither prenatal stress nor rearing condition affected oxytocin receptor binding, prenatally stressed voles cross-fostered to high-contact rearing showed the highest vasopressin-1a receptor binding in the amygdala. Results indicate that prenatal stress induces greater environmental sensitivity, making it both a risk and an opportunity factor.

  7. Perceived risks in product innovation projects : development of a risk skeleton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halman, J.I.M.; Keizer, J.A.; Song, X.M.

    1999-01-01

    The essence of undertaking a product innovation project is to create or establish something new. Risk taking is an intrinsic part of that process. In today's markets, with heavy competition, advanced technology and tough economic conditions, successful product innovation has become critically

  8. "Omics" of maize stress response for sustainable food production: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Fangping; Yang, Le; Tai, Fuju; Hu, Xiuli; Wang, Wei

    2014-12-01

    Maize originated in the highlands of Mexico approximately 8700 years ago and is one of the most commonly grown cereal crops worldwide, followed by wheat and rice. Abiotic stresses (primarily drought, salinity, and high and low temperatures), together with biotic stresses (primarily fungi, viruses, and pests), negatively affect maize growth, development, and eventually production. To understand the response of maize to abiotic and biotic stresses and its mechanism of stress tolerance, high-throughput omics approaches have been used in maize stress studies. Integrated omics approaches are crucial for dissecting the temporal and spatial system-level changes that occur in maize under various stresses. In this comprehensive analysis, we review the primary types of stresses that threaten sustainable maize production; underscore the recent advances in maize stress omics, especially proteomics; and discuss the opportunities, challenges, and future directions of maize stress omics, with a view to sustainable food production. The knowledge gained from studying maize stress omics is instrumental for improving maize to cope with various stresses and to meet the food demands of the exponentially growing global population. Omics systems science offers actionable potential solutions for sustainable food production, and we present maize as a notable case study.

  9. Domestic market opportunities for Alaska lumber-species preferences by secondary wood products manufacturers in the continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Roos; David L. Nicholls

    2006-01-01

    New equipment, technology, and marketing efforts have allowed Alaska’s wood products producers to consider opportunities previously unavailable to them. Until recently, the primary product produced by Alaska firms was rough, unseasoned lumber sold primarily within local markets. Given the purchase and installation of new drying and planing equipment, Alaska producers...

  10. Scorched earth: will environmental risks in China overwhelm its opportunities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economy, Elizabeth; Lieberthal, Kenneth

    2007-06-01

    Of all the risks of doing business in China, the greatest is the threat posed by environmental degradation. And yet it's barely discussed in corporate boardrooms. This is a serious mistake. Multinationals may be more concerned with intellectual property rights violations, corruption, and potential political instability, but the Chinese government, NGOs, and the Chinese press have been focused squarely on the country's energy shortages, soil erosion, lack of water, and pollution problems, which are so severe they might constrain GDP growth. What's more, the Chinese expect the international community to take the lead in environmental protection. If that doesn't happen, multinationals face clear risks to their operations, their workers' health, and their reputations. In factoring environmental issues into their China strategies, foreign firms need to be both defensive, taking steps to reduce harm, and proactive, investing in environmental protection efforts. Coca-Cola, for example, installed state-of-the-art bottling plants in China that operate with no net loss of water resources. Mattel increased the safety of its Barbie-manufacturing process to protect workers' health. With its efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, GE is shrinking its environmental footprint in China; more proactively, GE is working closely with the Chinese government and scientists to develop clean coal, water purification, and water reuse technologies. In considering the value of such efforts, companies can not only factor in reduced risk but also increased opportunity, as they use innovations designed for the Chinese market in the rest of the world. The bottom line: How well multinationals address environmental issues in China will affect their fortunes in one of the most important economies in the world.

  11. Atomic risk insurance. Risk policy, safety production and expertise in Germany and the USA 1945 - 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehner, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    The book covers the following chapters: (I) Between threat and promise: Political change and the corporate perception, the burden of the atomic bomb, promise of nuclear energy risk criticism in the pre-ecological phase, nuclear risk as investment restraint; (II) Risk policy at the insurability limit: hazard knowledge, safety production and insurance expertise in the German nuclear policy (1955-1962); (III) Risk policy beyond the catastrophe, insurability interpretation, concepts and conflicts (1957-1968); (IV) Scandalization of risk policy: safety production, confidence and expertise in the nuclear controversial debate (1969 - 1979); (V) Nuclear risk policy and the challenge of the ''risk society'' (1975-1986); (VI) From safety production to hazard probe: atomic energy And the change of insurance.

  12. Therapeutic product disposition in at-risk populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, B. C.

    2009-01-01

    In an emergency situation, such as a chemical, biological, radionuclide, nuclear or explosion (CBRNE) event, all patient populations are at increased risk of serious adverse events. Therapeutic product (TP) safety and efficacy depend on the disposition of the product through absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion. The ability of a patient to benefit from or merely tolerate a TP can be modified by many factors, including but not limited to culture, diet, disease, environmental contaminants, genetic predisposition, stress and socioeconomic status and recent life experiences. Metabolism is considered to have the greatest effect on safety and efficacy, as chemicals not metabolised can accumulate to toxic levels. Inter-individual variances in most drug metabolism enzymes may range up to greater than 1000-fold. The fetus, neonates, infants, individuals with hormonal change, infection or prior exposure to licit or illicit products and the elderly are more susceptible to increased risk of serious adverse health effects. The critically ill are the most at risk. The at-risk populations for a serious adverse event are dependent then on the CBRNE event, their physical and cognitive states and the inter-individual intrinsic and extrinsic factors that affect TP disposition. (authors)

  13. Understanding Local Energy Initiatives and Preconditions for Business Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonska, B. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Oostra, M. [TNO, Delft (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15

    More and more local bottom-up energy initiatives are emerging. Those involved encounter many barriers during the realization of their ideas. As the generation of renewable energy is mostly included, these local initiatives contribute to the targets set at regional, national and EU level. At the same time, they are an indication that end-users themselves want to be part of the energy transition. What are the reasons for citizens to organize themselves and start and initiative? What kind of barriers do they encounter? What does this mean for roles and responsibilities of professionals? And to what kind of opportunities does this lead for products and services? Answers to these questions provide a solid starting point to develop methods and instruments to stimulate, facilitate and upscale local energy initiatives. This paper bundles the outcomes of three workshops and three additional interviews in the Netherlands as part of the European E-hub project. Conclusions can be drawn on needs and drivers, barriers, risks and solutions (lessons learned), possible roles for professionals and opportunities for new products and services.

  14. Respiratory risks in broiler production workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M do CB de Alencar

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available There are many situations that involve health risks to the Brazilian rural worker, and animal production is just one of them. Inhalation of organic dust, which has many microorganisms, leads in general to respiratory allergic reactions in some individuals, "asthma-like syndrome", and mucous membrane inflammation syndrome, that is a complex of nasal, eye, and throat complaints. Furthermore, workers might have farmer's hypersensitivity pneumonia, that is a respiratory health risk along the years. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential pulmonary health risks in poultry production workers in the region of Curitiba, PR, Brazil. Interviews using a pre-elaborated questionnaire with 40 questions were made with 37 broiler production workers, which were submitted to a pulmonary function test. Results of restrictive function with lower FEV1 (the maximum respiratory potential, the forced expiratory volume in the first second of exhalation and FVC (forced vital capacity represented 24.32% of the total of workers, and severe obstruction represented 2.70%. Other symptoms were found in 67.57% of the workers as well. The results showed that those who work more than 4 years and within more than one poultry house, exceeding 5 hours per day of work, presented higher pulmonary health risks. It is concluded that the activities within broiler houses may induce allergic respiratory reaction in workers. The use of IPE (individual protection equipment besides special attention to the air quality inside the housing may be advised in a preventive way.

  15. Mainstreaming climate change in the financial sector and its governance. Part II: Identifying Opportunity Windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, Romain; Cochran, Ian; Zou, Sani; Spencer, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    Addressing and responding to climate change is a step towards strengthening global financial stability, a mandate shared by institutions governing and regulating financial markets after the financial crisis. On the one hand, risk-adjusted returns on investment are affected by the climate-related losses aggravated by global climate change - as well as the climate and energy policies put into place to usher in a 2 deg. C-coherent society. On the other hand, a paradigm shift consistent with limiting temperature warming to 2 degrees by the end of this century presents new opportunities of productive investments. These risks and opportunities are detailed in the companion paper (Morel et al. 2015). This paper reviews current practices addressing the risks and opportunities that arise from climate change among international financial governance and regulatory institutions (IFGRIs) and national entities. It also identifies potential entry points for consideration that reinforce these institutions' mandates and draw on their existing tool-kits and processes. Finally, this paper offers a framework to structure the discussion of policy options and guidelines, focusing on the demand, supply and intermediary stages of low-carbon, climate-resilient investment. In each of these three categories, opportunities for financial governance and regulatory institutions to address climate-related issues and increase investment flows are discussed. Options include guidelines, surveillance and the provision of expertise on issues, as well as carbon pricing and fossil fuel subsidies, securitization, green bonds, accounting standards and risk assessment. (authors)

  16. Analysis of pastoralists' perception on challenges and opportunities for sheep and goat production in Northern Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdilatif, Mohamed Haji; Onono, Joshua Orungo; Mutua, Florence Kanini

    2018-05-16

    Small ruminants' production contributes to livelihood of pastoral communities, but this faces myriad constraints. This study aimed at identifying challenges facing producers of small ruminants, prioritizing diseases and their control measures and documenting opportunities for improvement. Sixteen focus group discussions with livestock owners and 13 key informant interviews were done in selected areas in Mandera County, Northern Kenya, and both quantitative and qualitative data collected using a questionnaire guide. Occurrences of diseases (27.4%) and drought (25%) were consistently ranked high in all groups. Other production challenges included increased predation of livestock, inadequate delivery of veterinary services, and increased livestock mortalities. Peste des Petit ruminants was ranked high with a median rank of 21.5%, while contagious caprine pleuropneumonia and sheep and goat pox were ranked second and third, respectively. Other diseases included tick-borne diseases, helminthosis, and pneumonia. Vaccination was ranked as the most effective control strategy for infectious diseases. Other control measures included recitation of Quran and cauterization. However, several opportunities exist for support of small ruminants' production: increased budgetary allocation for disease control by government, initiation of projects that enhance livestock production in the region by government and its development partners. These findings are useful for policy makers for disease control and organizations that are working on projects that focuses on enhancement of pastoralists' resilience, while future research could also identify appropriate technologies that reduces these impacts.

  17. Operational validation - current status and opportunities for improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davey, E.

    2002-01-01

    The design of nuclear plant systems and operational practices is based on the application of multiple defenses to minimize the risk of occurrence of safety and production challenges and upsets. With such an approach, the effectiveness of individual or combinations of design and operational features in preventing upset challenges should be known. A longstanding industry concern is the adverse impact errors in human performance can have on plant safety and production. To minimize the risk of error occurrence, designers and operations staff routinely employ multiple design and operational defenses. However, the effectiveness of individual or combinations of defensive features in minimizing error occurrence are generally only known in a qualitative sense. More importantly, the margins to error or upset occurrence provided by combinations of design or operational features are generally not characterized during design or operational validation. This paper provides some observations and comments on current validation practice as it relates to operational human performance concerns. The paper also discusses opportunities for future improvement in validation practice in terms of the resilience of validation results to operating changes and characterization of margins to safety or production challenge. (author)

  18. Grain production trends in Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan: New opportunities in an increasingly unstable world?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioubimtseva, Elena; Henebry, Geoffrey M.

    2012-06-01

    Grain production in the countries of the former USSR sharply declined during the past two decades and has only recently started to recover. In the context of the current economic and food-price crisis, Russia, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan might be presented with a window of opportunity to reemerge on the global agricultural market, if they succeed in increasing their productivity. The future of their agriculture, however, is highly sensitive to a combination of internal and external factors, such as institutional changes, land-use changes, climate variability and change, and global economic trends. The future of this region's grain production is likely to have a significant impact on the global and regional food security over the next decades.

  19. Assessing the transfer of risk due to transportation of agricultural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei-Chiun; Shih, Hsiu-Ching; Ma, Hwong-Wen

    2015-02-01

    Health risk assessment (HRA) is the process used to estimate adverse health effects on humans. The importance and sensitivity of food chains to HRA have been observed, but the impact of the transportation of food has generally been ignored. This study developed an exposure assessment to demonstrate the significance of the transportation of agricultural products in HRA. The associated case study estimated the health risks derived from various sources of arsenic emissions in Taiwan. Two assessment scenarios, self-sufficiency and transportation of agricultural products, were compared to calculate risk transfer ratios that show the impact of agriculture transportation. The risk transfer ratios found by the study range from 0.22 to 42.10, indicating that the quantity of transportation of agricultural products is the critical factor. High air deposition and high agricultural production are the two main contributors to the effect of the transportation of agricultural products on HRA. Risk reduction measures could be applied to high-pollution areas as well as to areas with high agricultural productivity to reduce ingestion risks to residents. Certain areas that are sensitive to the transportation of agricultural products may incur more risks if emissions increase in agriculturally productive counties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES OF CITRIC ACID PRODUCTION BY FERMENTATION FROM SUGAR SUBSTRATES IN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Pérez Navarro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A proposal for opportunities of citric acid production in Cuba, using sources of sugar substrates such as refined sugar, molasses and whey, by submerged fermentation with Aspergillus niger, where a technology is established from the selected substrate which is provided and the microorganism used. This is a demanding process in terms of investment costs and operation where the best combinations of productivity and cost are achieved with molasses followed by refined sugar and whey. For the selected substrate, the mass and energy balance in each of the steps in the process of obtaining citric acid for different productive capacities of citric acid was made and the minimum economic size of 2.5 t / day was determined. A production capacity of 8 t / day of granulated acid (2 640 t / a, with estimated total investment of $ 9,068,713, NPV = $ 1,401,561, IRR = 27% and DPP = 3 years was selected. The project is resistant to the rising price of raw materials and the cost of electricity and is favored when the process is integrated into a sugar mill cogeneration, while it is sensitive to a reduction in the selling price of the product.

  1. A risk analysis for production processes with disposable bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merseburger, Tobias; Pahl, Ina; Müller, Daniel; Tanner, Markus

    2014-01-01

    : Quality management systems are, as a rule, tightly defined systems that conserve existing processes and therefore guarantee compliance with quality standards. But maintaining quality also includes introducing new enhanced production methods and making use of the latest findings of bioscience. The advances in biotechnology and single-use manufacturing methods for producing new drugs especially impose new challenges on quality management, as quality standards have not yet been set. New methods to ensure patient safety have to be established, as it is insufficient to rely only on current rules. A concept of qualification, validation, and manufacturing procedures based on risk management needs to be established and realized in pharmaceutical production. The chapter starts with an introduction to the regulatory background of the manufacture of medicinal products. It then continues with key methods of risk management. Hazards associated with the production of medicinal products with single-use equipment are described with a focus on bioreactors, storage containers, and connecting devices. The hazards are subsequently evaluated and criteria for risk evaluation are presented. This chapter concludes with aspects of industrial application of quality risk management.

  2. Knowledge Production and Distribution by Institutions of Higher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa: Opportunities and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondari-Okemwa, E.

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on available opportunities and challenges which institutions of higher education in sub-Saharan Africa face in producing and distributing knowledge. Institutions of higher education are also expected to produce knowledge workers for the knowledge economy. Knowledge production falls into Mode 1, in which problems are set and…

  3. Out of Unemployment? A Comparative Analysis of the Risks and Opportunities Longer-Term Unemployed Immigrant Youth Face when Entering the Labour Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmberg-Heimonen, Ira; Julkunen, Ilse

    2006-01-01

    Because of high unemployment rates among youth in Europe, comparative research has focused on identification of those risks and opportunities associated with the integration process from unemployment to work. The integration process of immigrant youth, however, received much less attention, despite their initially higher risk of unemployment than…

  4. Prepayment risk, impact on credit products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Costin NIŢESCU

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Credit pricing is always an important aspect of operations of banks, as loans are generally two thirds of bank assets. Therefore, the study of factors influencing a bank customer behavior and their impact on early repayment of loans may have a significant influence in reducing the risk assumed by such unexpected operations.Objective analysis of prepayment risk is to estimate the probability of repayment to better manage its manifestation. The existence of potential customers that use this option exposes the bank to a number of risks, such as interest rate risk, the maturity mismatch risk and liquidity risk.Proper evaluation and forecasting the evolution of this risk can bring great benefits for a credit institution in the management of loan products and customer relationship: lower risk of over-ensure against fixed rate mortgage, a better management of short-term and long term liquidity needs (thus reducing the risk of over-financing can offer customers more competitive pricing (achieved by reducing funding costs due to better assessment and management of risks involved early repayment.

  5. Traditional alcohol production and use in three provinces in Vietnam: an ethnographic exploration of health benefits and risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Gaps exist in knowledge about the production and use of traditional alcohols, particularly in Asia. This study adds new information about the nature, production and sale of traditional distilled spirit alcohol in Vietnam. Method This was an ethnographic study of traditional distilled spirit alcohol production in rural areas of three provinces in Vietnam. Researchers interviewed more than 300 individuals and recorded responses to general open-ended questions about local alcohol production. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and studied to discern what information about traditional alcohol was important to the speakers. Results Methods of production followed long-held traditions. Participants listed both personal and community benefits (economic, health, and social) from traditional alcohol making. Older people favoured traditional alcohol, while younger people favoured brand-name beer. Typically people consumed 2-4 drinks daily, mainly at meal times. People consumed more alcohol at special events and festivals. Distribution patterns ranged from low-risk distribution to family and neighbours to high-risk distribution by an agent who might combine alcohol from several producers, which increases the opportunity for dilution and adulteration. The most commonly listed health risks associated with locally-made alcohol were local air pollution and water pollution; participants also mentioned traffic crashes and bad public behaviour. Depending on the location, community leaders reported that production may be relatively stable or it may be declining. Conclusions Traditional alcohol manufacture, sale, and use in Vietnam is a long-standing practice and low- to moderate-risk to health. There do not appear to be instances of accidental or intentional contamination. Urbanization seems to be affecting the market share of traditional alcohol as urbanized youth turn to branded products, mainly beer, making traditional alcohol making and consumption an activity mainly

  6. An opportunity to combat obesity lies in the at-risk college population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Wendi Mortimer

    2016-04-01

    Approximately 70% of United States [or U.S.] adults are either overweight or obese. Obesity increases the risk of chronic disease and strains healthcare access, quality, and cost. Weight gain occurs in college students threatening optimal weight maintenance. Physical activity is fundamental to preventing disease. College students incur multiple challenges in weight management. The purpose of the article is to describe the opportunity for Advanced Practice Registered Nurses (APRNs) to intentionally become wellness promoters. The literature was reviewed and interventions developed. Guided by Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory, focus was concentrated on environmental influences through a proposed Staying Active Campaign (SAC). College students are a vulnerable population at risk for unhealthful practices. Young adulthood is a critical period of weight gain that carries risk for later adulthood. College students desire and require assistance for successful weight management. Interventions can be directed by APRNs to achieve healthful weight management and create a campus-wide culture that reinforces healthful practices. Obesity in the college population is a twofold circumstance. Action by APRNs is needed to address obesity and advocate for the prevention of future obesity. The SAC decreases the confounding college environment and supports the students' ability to be physically active while establishing personal lifelong behaviors to emulate and share with others. ©2016 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  7. MANAGING RISK BY COORDINATING INVESTMENT, MARKETING, AND PRODUCTION STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Donald A.; Boehlje, Michael

    1983-01-01

    This study of the farm firm integrates long run investment and financial decisions, and short-run production and marketing decisions into a single decision framework that includes both time and risk. The results suggest that the use of various strategies for managing market risks allow the entrepreneur to accept mores risk in investing and producing; and that an integrated analysis of production, marketing and investment-financing alternatives is essential to make accurate recommendations abo...

  8. Marine Sponge Derived Natural Products between 2001 and 2010: Trends and Opportunities for Discovery of Bioactives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehbub, Mohammad Ferdous; Lei, Jie; Franco, Christopher; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Marine sponges belonging to the phylum Porifera (Metazoa), evolutionarily the oldest animals are the single best source of marine natural products. The present review presents a comprehensive overview of the source, taxonomy, country of origin or geographical position, chemical class, and biological activity of sponge-derived new natural products discovered between 2001 and 2010. The data has been analyzed with a view to gaining an outlook on the future trends and opportunities in the search for new compounds and their sources from marine sponges. PMID:25196730

  9. Identification of risk products for fragrance contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Andersen, T F; Kjøller, M

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fragrances are the first or second most common cause of contact allergy in dermatitis patients. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify risk products for fragrance contact allergy. METHODS: The design was a case-control study with a case group of 78 fragrance-mix-positive ecz......BACKGROUND: Fragrances are the first or second most common cause of contact allergy in dermatitis patients. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify risk products for fragrance contact allergy. METHODS: The design was a case-control study with a case group of 78 fragrance......-mix-positive eczema patients and two control groups, one consisting of 1,279 subjects selected as a random sample of the general population and the other consisting of 806 fragrance-mix-negative eczema patients. The identification of risk products was based on the patients' histories of rash to scented products....... Analysis of the associations between first-time rash caused by different specified product categories and fragrance mix sensitivity was performed using logistic regression. RESULTS: It was found that first-time rash caused by deodorant sprays and/or perfumes were related to fragrance contact allergy...

  10. A practical discussion of risk management for manufacturing of pharmaceutical products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollah, A Hamid; Baseman, Harold S; Long, Mike; Rathore, Anurag S

    2014-01-01

    Quality risk management (QRM) is now a regulatory expectation, and it makes good business sense. The goal of the risk assessment is to increase process understanding and deliver safe and effective product to the patients. Risk analysis and management is an acceptable and effective way to minimize patient risk and determine the appropriate level of controls in manufacturing. While understanding the elements of QRM is important, knowing how to apply them in the manufacturing environment is essential for effective process performance and control. This article will preview application of QRM in pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical manufacturing to illustrate how QRM can help the reader achieve that objective. There are several areas of risk that a drug company may encounter in pharmaceutical manufacturing, specifically addressing oral solid and liquid formulations. QRM tools can be used effectively to identify the risks and develop strategy to minimize or control them. Risks are associated throughout the biopharmaceutical manufacturing process-from raw material supply through manufacturing and filling operations to final distribution via a controlled cold chain process. Assessing relevant attributes and risks for biotechnology-derived products is more complicated and challenging for complex pharmaceuticals. This paper discusses key risk factors in biopharmaceutical manufacturing. Successful development and commercialization of pharmaceutical products is all about managing risks. If a company was to take zero risk, most likely the path to commercialization would not be commercially viable. On the other hand, if the risk taken was too much, the product is likely to have a suboptimal safety and efficacy profile and thus is unlikely to be a successful product. This article addresses the topic of quality risk management with the key objective of minimizing patient risk while creating an optimal process and product. Various tools are presented to aid implementation of these

  11. Market potential and opportunities for commercialization of traditional meat products in North East Hill Region of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadirvel, G; Banerjee, Bandita B; Meitei, Surajit; Doley, S; Sen, Arnab; Muthukumar, M

    2018-02-01

    The North Eastern (NE) India is renowned for its preference for animal-based food. This region is known for its traditional meat products. However, the popularity of these products remains confined to the specific community/location. The knowledge on the traditional preparation methods is generally passed across generations through practice and word of mouth. The traditional style of preparation and the specific ingredients added to each product makes them unique. In this review, an attempt has been made to identify the initiatives, opportunities, and market potential for commercialization of the traditional meat products. These unique features and properties of the traditional meat products have been highlighted. The commercialization of these products will enhance entrepreneurship development and ensure quality ethnic products to the consumer in the NE hill region of India.

  12. Market potential and opportunities for commercialization of traditional meat products in North East Hill Region of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadirvel, G.; Banerjee, Bandita B.; Meitei, Surajit; Doley, S.; Sen, Arnab; Muthukumar, M.

    2018-01-01

    The North Eastern (NE) India is renowned for its preference for animal-based food. This region is known for its traditional meat products. However, the popularity of these products remains confined to the specific community/location. The knowledge on the traditional preparation methods is generally passed across generations through practice and word of mouth. The traditional style of preparation and the specific ingredients added to each product makes them unique. In this review, an attempt has been made to identify the initiatives, opportunities, and market potential for commercialization of the traditional meat products. These unique features and properties of the traditional meat products have been highlighted. The commercialization of these products will enhance entrepreneurship development and ensure quality ethnic products to the consumer in the NE hill region of India. PMID:29657390

  13. Opportunities for implementation of concepts and tools lean production aiming to improve competitiveness of enterprises of shoe APL Jaú / SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célio Favoni

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Lean production has been applied by organizations around the world as part of strategy to reduce waste in their value stream intending to improve performance. Despite the use of lean production concepts and tools have continually been introduced in different companies, the literature shows the most of application is identified in large companies than in Small-and  Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs. The reason can be the lack of financial and human resources available to the lean initiatives in these enterprises. However, a wide range of concepts and techniques of lean production can be applied without considerable financial investments. This paper aims to study the opportunities and difficulties of lean production applicability in SMEs. Case research was developed in three SMEs of industrial cluster of Jaú/SP and the results suggest that these companies face similar difficulties. Nevertheless, the study confirms that there are several opportunities to implement lean production concepts and techniques which can lead to improve performance in these companies.

  14. On risk assessment of energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunii, Katsuhiko

    2005-07-01

    Today we cannot ignore the risk of health and/or environment by energy production such as power generation since the risk has been made large enough. In this report an information survey has been done in order to know the outline and points of risk assessment. Based on the information of reports and literature about risk assessment, have been surveyed mainly the external cost assessment of power generation (in which quantification of health and/or environment risk has been done), in addition, risks of disasters, accidents, investments, finance etc. and impacts of those risks on social activities. The remarks obtained by the survey are as follows: 1) Some of external cost assessment of power generation show different results even if the assessment conditions of technology, site, etc. are mostly the same. It is necessary to remark on the information such as basic data, model, background, application limit of assessment considering the reliability. 2) Especially it is considered that the reliability of risk assessment is not enough at present because of the lack of basic data. (author)

  15. Short-term versus long-term market opportunities and financial constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, Angelo

    1999-01-01

    This presentation discusses gas developments in Europe, the European Gas Directive, short term vs. long term, and Snam's new challenges. The European gas market is characterized by (1) The role of gas in meeting the demand for energy, which varies greatly from one country to another, (2) A growing market, (3) Decreasing role of domestic production, and (4) Increasing imports. Within the European Union, the Gas Directive aims to transform single national markets into one integrated European market by introducing third party access to the network for eligible clients as a means of increasing the competition between operators. The Gas Directive would appear to modify the form of the market rather than its size, and in particular the sharing of responsibility and risk among operators. The market in the future will offer operators the possibility to exploit opportunities deriving mainly from demands for increased flexibility. Opportunities linked to entrepreneurial initiatives require long-term investments characteristic of the gas business. Risks and opportunities must be balanced evenly between different operators. If everyone takes on their own risks and responsibilities, this means a wider distribution of the risks of long-term vs. short-term, currently borne by the gas companies that are integrated, into a market that tends to favour the short-term. A gradual liberalization process should allow incumbent operators to gradually diversify their activities in new gas market areas or enter new business activities. They could move beyond their local and European boundaries in pursuit of an international dimension. The market will have to make the transition from the national to the European dimension: as an example, Snam covers 90% of the Italian market, but its share of an integrated European market will be about 15%

  16. The role of cocoa as a cigarette additive: opportunities for product regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol, Natasha A; Kennedy, Ryan David; Connolly, Gregory N

    2014-07-01

    The 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act prohibited the use of characterizing flavors in cigarettes; however, some of these flavors are still used in cigarettes at varying levels. We reviewed tobacco industry internal documents to investigate the role of one of these flavors, cocoa, with the objective of understanding its relationship to sensory and risk perception, promotion of dependence, and enhancement of attractiveness and acceptability. We used the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library to identify documents relevant to our research questions. Initial search terms were generated following an examination of published literature on cocoa, other cigarette additives, and sensory and risk perception. Further research questions and search terms were generated based on review of documents generated from the initial search terms. Cocoa is widely applied to cigarettes and has been used by the tobacco industry as an additive since the early 20th century. Cocoa can alter the sensory properties of cigarette smoke, including by providing a more appealing taste and decreasing its harshness. The tobacco industry has experimented with manipulating cocoa levels as a means of achieving sensory properties that appeal to women and youth. Although cocoa is identified as a flavor on tobacco industry Web sites, it may serve other sensory purposes in cigarettes as well. Eliminating cocoa as an additive from tobacco products may affect tobacco product abuse liability by altering smokers' perceptions of product risk, and decreasing product appeal, especially among vulnerable populations. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Potential exposures and risks from beryllium-containing products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Henry H; Florig, H Keith

    2002-10-01

    Beryllium is the strongest of the lightweight metals. Used primarily in military applications prior to the end of the Cold War, beryllium is finding new applications in many commercial products, including computers, telecommunication equipment, and consumer and automotive electronics. The use of beryllium in nondefense consumer applications is of concern because beryllium is toxic. Inhalation of beryllium dust or vapor causes a chronic lung disease in some individuals at concentrations as low as 0.01 microg/m3 in air. As beryllium enters wider commerce, it is prudent to ask what risks this might present to the general public and to workers downstream of the beryllium materials industry. We address this question by evaluating the potential for beryllium exposure from the manufacturing, use, recycle, and disposal of beryllium-containing products. Combining a market study with a qualitative exposure analysis, we determine which beryllium applications and life cycle phases have the largest exposure potential. Our analysis suggests that use and maintenance of the most common types of beryllium-containing products do not result in any obvious exposures of concern, and that maintenance activities result in greater exposures than product use. Product disposal has potential to present significant individual risks, but uncertainties concerning current and future routes of product disposal make it difficult to be definitive. Overall, additional exposure and dose-response data are needed to evaluate both the health significance of many exposure scenarios, and the adequacy of existing regulations to protect workers and the public. Although public exposures to beryllium and public awareness and concern regarding beryllium risks are currently low, beryllium risks have psychometric qualities that may lead to rapidly heightened public concern.

  18. Intent, Capability and Opportunity: A Holistic Approach to Addressing Proliferation as a Risk Management Issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rynes, Amanda; Bjornard, Trond

    2011-01-01

    Currently, proliferation risk assessment models are designed to evaluate only a portion of the overall risk, focusing exclusively on either technological or social factors to determine the extent of a threat. Many of these models are intended to act as a means of predicting proliferation potential rather than assessing the system as a whole, ignoring the ability to enhance mitigating factors and manage, rather just establish the presence of, the threat. While the information garnered through these forms of analysis is necessary, it remains incomplete. By incorporating political, social, economic and technical capabilities as well as human factors such as intent into a single, multi-faceted risk management model, proliferation risk can be evaluated more effectively. Framing this information around how to improve and expand the Regime already in place and establishing where there are gaps in the system allows for a more complete approach to risk management, mitigation and resource allocation. The research conducted here seeks to combine all three elements (intent, capability and opportunity) in a comprehensive evaluation which incorporates an assessment of state-level variables, possible proliferation pathways and technical capability. Each portion of the analysis is carried out independently then combined to illustrate the full scope of a State's nuclear infrastructure while showing areas of weakness in the institutional framework.

  19. Industrial opportunities - offshore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerrits, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    Industrial opportunities available in the Canadian offshore petroleum industry are discussed. Oil has been produced offshore from Nova Scotia since 1992, and offshore from Newfoundland since 1997. Special needs that must be addressed in offshore operations in eastern Canada such as the cold North Atlantic environment, isolation, logistics, safety, and quality assurance, are examined. The most obvious opportunities lie with the designing, building and installing the facilities needed to extract oil and gas from beneath the sea floor and transport it to market. However, there are also opportunities in designing and fabricating clothing, customized food containers and other equipment for offshore needs. Short term opportunities also exist in the decommissioning of depleted production fields and their facilities. One of the greatest obstacles facing new entrants into the offshore oil and gas industry is the lack of a track record. To meet this challenge, the ability to seek out partners to pursue local and international opportunities through joint ventures, strategic alliances and technology sharing partnering arrangements is of great importance. It may be the difference between success and failure. 6 figs

  20. Risk and Uncertainty in Production Economics | Otaha | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the most celebrated and feared concepts in the World today are risk which is the product of uncertainty. Risk and uncertainty are often used interchangeably by many economists as if they are the same thing, but it is not true. While risk can be measured and estimated, and even ensured, uncertainty can not.

  1. Organic livestock production: an emerging opportunity with new challenges for producers in tropical countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chander, M; Subrahmanyeswari, B; Mukherjee, R; Kumar, S

    2011-12-01

    Agrochemicals, veterinary drugs, antibiotics and improved feeds can increase the food supply while minimising production costs in various livestock production systems around the world. However, these days, quality-conscious consumers are increasingly seeking environmentally safe, chemical-residue-free healthy foods, along with product traceability and a high standard of animal welfare, which organic production methods are said to ensure. Organic production is not only a challenge for producers in developing countries, it offers new export opportunities as well. Organic agriculture is practised by 1.8 million producers in 160 countries, and production of organically grown food continues to increase steadily by 15% per year. Most tropical countries are now exporting organic agricultural products but, apart from organic beef from Brazil and Argentina, organic livestock products are yetto take off. Most trade in organic livestock products is restricted to the European Union and other developed nations. Nevertheless, tropical countries cannot afford to neglect this emerging system of animal production. Organic production is knowledge- and management-intensive. Producers must be well versed in organic production standards, principles and practices, which require a high degree of knowledge and skill. In organic production, it is not simply the final product but the whole production process that must be inspected and approved by the accredited certification bodies. Organic livestock farming is still evolving, and further research is needed to make it sustainable. In this paper, the authors review the prospects of organic animal husbandry and its possible constraints in developing and tropical countries.

  2. Opportunities for multivariate analysis of open spatial datasets to characterize urban flooding risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitan, S.; ten Veldhuis, J. A. E.

    2015-06-01

    Cities worldwide are challenged by increasing urban flood risks. Precise and realistic measures are required to reduce flooding impacts. However, currently implemented sewer and topographic models do not provide realistic predictions of local flooding occurrence during heavy rain events. Assessing other factors such as spatially distributed rainfall, socioeconomic characteristics, and social sensing, may help to explain probability and impacts of urban flooding. Several spatial datasets have been recently made available in the Netherlands, including rainfall-related incident reports made by citizens, spatially distributed rain depths, semidistributed socioeconomic information, and buildings age. Inspecting the potential of this data to explain the occurrence of rainfall related incidents has not been done yet. Multivariate analysis tools for describing communities and environmental patterns have been previously developed and used in the field of study of ecology. The objective of this paper is to outline opportunities for these tools to explore urban flooding risks patterns in the mentioned datasets. To that end, a cluster analysis is performed. Results indicate that incidence of rainfall-related impacts is higher in areas characterized by older infrastructure and higher population density.

  3. Opportunities and constraints in the subsistence production and marketing of indigenous vegetables in East and Central Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Schippers, Rudy; Fereday, Nicholas

    1998-01-01

    This report summarises the results of market and production surveys carried out in both the dry and wet seasons in Cameroon and Uganda during 1997/98 as part of the DFID fimded project "Opportunities and constraints in the subsistence production and marketing of indigenous vegetables in East and Central Africa (A0699)". The main objective of the study was to establish the socio-economic significance of indigenous vegetables compared to exotic ones. This project is a follow up to the strategy ...

  4. Modeling and identification of new complementary development opportunities in a Campos Basin offshore giant field; Modelagem e identificacao de novas oportunidades de desenvolvimento complementar de um campo gigante na Bacia de Campos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Jose Adilson T.; Steagall, Daniel E.; Lorenzatto, Rudimar Andreis [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the methodology that has been used for the complementary development of the giant Marlin oil field in the Campos Basin, with the study of the opportunities of new wells and application of new technologies for the enhancement of production, recovery factor and the gain of reserves. This methodology is applied integrating geophysics, geology, engineering, planning and operation, containing: identification of the non drained areas, positioning of new locations, risk analysis, reduction risk analysis actions, production estimation, attractive location selection; conceptual well project with location of the well head, submarine layout, drilling program, multiphase flow curves; drilling schedule, completion, and production commencement; production forecasting with flux simulation using operational reality of the oil, gas, and water treatment production capacity; wells substitution and deviation criteria; project critical resources and preliminary economical evaluation including project risk. The obtained results were the optimization of the project portfolio of new wells considering the identification of new opportunities, schedule and entrance order of wells, helping also in the acquisitions of new data for reservoir risk reduction before project implementation. (author)

  5. Do youth mentoring programs change the perspectives and improve the life opportunities of at-risk youth?

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Planas, Núria

    2014-01-01

    Mentoring programs such as Big Brothers Big Sisters of America have been providing positive role models and building social skills for more than a century. However, most formal mentoring programs are relatively novel and researchers have only recently begun to rigorously evaluate their impact on changing at-risk youth’s perspectives and providing opportunities for them to achieve better life outcomes. While a variety of mentoring and counseling programs have emerged around the world in recent...

  6. Algorithm of actions to identify and reduce risks in the production of milk and plant products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Glagoleva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Foods with a new generation of functional and improved consumer properties, corresponds to the modern concepts of nutrition science and consumer needs. functional food production is a major global trend in food science and the subject of innovation. One of the important trends is the use of plant complexes and plant food systems. Using the plant complexes (PC and plant food systems (PFS provides a number of benefits: improved consumer properties of the product, do not need to change the process, it is possible to control directional rheological properties and consistency of the finished products, reduced the number of risk points in the production cycle. This paper describes the development of an algorithm of action to identify and mitigate risks in the production of milk and plant products. Also conducted a risk analysis, identified and assessed the risks in the process of production, installed capacity of available resources to reduce the level of risk. Established and submitted to the critical control points in production processes, as well as the critical limits for each critical control points, and the procedure for corrective action in case of violations of the past. During the study, measured changes in the quantitative and qualitative composition of microflora of semi-finished and Quantity of Mesophilic Aerobic and Facultative Anaerobic Microorganisms (QMAFAnM. To determine QMAFAnM samples were taken: 1 – cheesecakes (control, 2 – cheesecakes with RPS. Microbiological studies analyzed frozen-conjugated semi-finished products was determined within 90 days. It is clear from the data that the cottage cheese with semi-finished products have a lower RPM 11.7%. Analyzing the data, it is possible to conclude that the physico-chemical, organoleptic and microbiological indicators of products was developed to set standards on cheese semi-finished products. multilevel structure that characterizes the quality indicators has been developed and is

  7. Applying lean thinking to risk management in product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, Pelle Lundquist; Oehmen, Josef; Rossi, Monica

    2017-01-01

    This paper re-conceptualizes risk management (RM) in product development (PD) through a lean thinking perspective. Arguably, risk management in PD projects became a victim of its own success. It is often implemented as a highly formalized, compliance driven activity, ending up disconnected from...... delay or cost overrun. This paper explores the relationship between product development and risk management and proposes to make RM an integrated value adding part of PD. Through a literature review we identify the potential of re-conceptualizing RM through lean thinking. We then conceptualize...

  8. Opportunities in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartland, Kevan M A; Gartland, Jill S

    2018-06-08

    Strategies for biotechnology must take account of opportunities for research, innovation and business growth. At a regional level, public-private collaborations provide potential for such growth and the creation of centres of excellence. By considering recent progress in areas such as genomics, healthcare diagnostics, synthetic biology, gene editing and bio-digital technologies, opportunities for smart, strategic and specialised investment are discussed. These opportunities often involve convergent or disruptive technologies, combining for example elements of pharma-science, molecular biology, bioinformatics and novel device development to enhance biotechnology and the life sciences. Analytical applications use novel devices in mobile health, predictive diagnostics and stratified medicine. Synthetic biology provides opportunities for new product development and increased efficiency for existing processes. Successful centres of excellence should promote public-private business partnerships, clustering and global collaborations based on excellence, smart strategies and innovation if they are to remain sustainable in the longer term. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Missed opportunities-adolescents with a chronic condition (insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus) describe their cigarette-smoking trajectories and consider health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regber, Susann; Kelly, Kristina Berg

    2007-12-01

    To enhance our knowledge on why adolescents with a chronic condition (insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, IDDM) choose to smoke despite possible awareness of health risks. Twelve patients aged 15-20 with IDDM who smoked cigarettes volunteered to participate in qualitative interviews. The results were analyzed with content analysis according to Miles and Huberman 1994. One set confirmed what is earlier known on cigarette smoking among adolescents, such as plain exploring, needs to conform with group norms, identity needs and denial of risks. Other themes gave new insights. One was the emotional attitudes-or lack of emotions-expressed by important others, which exerted strong influences on the smoking trajectories. These emotions affected both initiation and motivation for quitting cigarette smoking and seemed crucial as means of meaningful communications concerning smoking. One theme was a flow path of cigarette smoking, which demonstrated opportunities for secondary prevention. Finally, developmental reasons for smoking and motivation for quitting could be described. There are several windows of opportunities to lower the risk of adolescents with IDDM and other chronic conditions from becoming and remaining smokers, as reported by young people themselves.

  10. One-step production of biocommodities from lignocellulosic biomass by recombinant cellulolytic bacillus subtilis: opportunities and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiao-Zhou [Department of Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Zhang, Yi-Heng P. [Department of Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States); BioEnergy Science Center of Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2010-10-15

    One-step consolidated bioprocessing that integrates cellulase production, cellulose hydrolysis, and product fermentation into a single step for decreasing costly cellulase use, increasing volumetric productivity, and reducing capital investment is widely accepted for low-cost production of biofuels or other value-added biochemicals. Considering the narrow margins between biomass and low-value biocommodities, good physiological performance of industrial microbes is crucial for economically viable production. Bacillus subtilis, the best-characterized Gram-positive microorganism, is a major industrial microorganism with numerous valuable features such as hexose and pentose utilization, low-nutrient needs, fast growth rate, high protein secretion capacity, industrial safety, etc. As compared with other potential consolidated bioprocessing microorganisms such as Clostridium spp., Escherichia coli, and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, recombinant cellulolytic B. subtilis strains would be a potential platform for biocommodity production from nonfood biomass. Here, we review the advances in recombinant cellulolytic B. subtilis development and metabolic engineering for biocommodity production, and discuss the opportunities and challenges of cellulolytic B. subtilis for biocommodity production. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Dairy product consumption and risk of colorectal cancer in an older mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrubés, Laura; Babio, Nancy; Mena-Sánchez, Guillermo; Toledo, Estefania; Ramírez-Sabio, Judith B; Estruch, Ramón; Ros, Emilio; Fitó, Montserrat; Arós, Fernando; Fiol, Miquel; Santos-Lozano, José Manuel; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Pintó, Xavier; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Sorlí, José Vicente; Basora, Josep; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2018-04-16

    Prospective studies have reported an inverse association between the consumption of total dairy products and milk and the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Nonetheless, there is little and inconsistent evidence regarding subtypes of dairy product and CRC risk. We assessed the associations between the consumption of total dairy products, their different subtypes and CRC risk in older Mediterranean individuals at high cardiovascular risk. We analyzed data from 7,216 men and women (55-80 years) without CRC at baseline from the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea study. Individuals were recruited between 2003 and 2009 and followed up until December 2012. At baseline and yearly thereafter, consumption of total and specific dairy products was assessed using a validated 137-item food-frequency questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards ratios (HRs) of CRC incidence were estimated for tertiles of mean consumption of dairy products during the follow-up. During a median [interquartile range] follow-up of 6.0 [4.4-7.3] years, we documented 101 incident CRC cases. In the multivariable-adjusted models, HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of CRC for the comparison of extreme tertiles of total dairy product and low-fat milk consumption were 0.55 (95% CI: 0.31-0.99; p-trend = 0.037) and 0.54 (95% CI: 0.32-0.92; p-trend = 0.022), respectively. No significant associations with other dairy products (whole-fat and low-fat dairy products; total, low-fat and whole-fat yogurt; cheese; total, low-fat and whole-fat milk; concentrated full-fat dairy products, sugar-enriched dairy products and fermented dairy products) were found. A high consumption of total dairy products and low-fat milk was significantly associated with a reduced CRC risk. © 2018 UICC.

  12. Intent, Capability and Opportunity: A Holistic Approach to Addressing Proliferation as a Risk Management Issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amanda Rynes; Trond Bjornard

    2011-07-01

    Currently, proliferation risk assessment models are designed to evaluate only a portion of the overall risk, focusing exclusively on either technological or social factors to determine the extent of a threat. Many of these models are intended to act as a means of predicting proliferation potential rather than assessing the system as a whole, ignoring the ability to enhance mitigating factors and manage, rather just establish the presence of, the threat. While the information garnered through these forms of analysis is necessary, it remains incomplete. By incorporating political, social, economic and technical capabilities as well as human factors such as intent into a single, multi-faceted risk management model, proliferation risk can be evaluated more effectively. Framing this information around how to improve and expand the Regime already in place and establishing where there are gaps in the system allows for a more complete approach to risk management, mitigation and resource allocation. The research conducted here seeks to combine all three elements (intent, capability and opportunity) in a comprehensive evaluation which incorporates an assessment of state-level variables, possible proliferation pathways and technical capability. Each portion of the analysis is carried out independently then combined to illustrate the full scope of a State's nuclear infrastructure while showing areas of weakness in the institutional framework.

  13. Opportunities for Local for Local Food Production: A Case in the Dutch Fruit and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurriaan Visser

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the opportunities for farmers to produce for local consumers, based on a case study in the Dutch horticulture sector. Main requirements for the set-up of a local chain of supply chain actors are investigated. Producer requirements are added value, availability of time, infrastructure and training. Retailer requirements are quality of food, purchasing volumes, food safety, communication to consumers and traceability of products. For consumers taste/freshness, sustainability, health benefits and authenticity are important attributes of local foods. Based on literature review and interviews with stakeholders four possible strategies for local food chains are defined. The ‘keep it local’ strategy means that the local food supply chains will not make use of the current infrastructure of the marketing coop that acts as chain coordinator. Deliveries are directly between farmer and retail outlet. The local products - conventional supply chain strategy implies that current (non-local supply chains are used to distribute local products. The supply chain planning will be more complex since products need to be separated per grower and distributed to several local supermarkets. In the ‘enabling producers’ strategy the marketing coop/chain coordinator is going to enable its member producers to sell their products locally. The marketing coop can support producers in for instance, billing and payments, marketing, logistics. The fourth strategy aims at strengthening current consumer communication strategies. It is argued that connecting producers and consumers, regardless of where they live is advantageous.Conclusion is that strategy 3; ‘Enabling producers’, in combination with strategy 4; ‘Strengthening current consumer communication strategies’ are the most promising options in setting up local food supply chains. Strategies 1 and 2, where the marketing coop/chain coordinator itself takes on the challenge of setting up

  14. Risk analysis of sterile production plants: a new and simple, workable approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gapp, Guenther; Holzknecht, Peter

    2011-01-01

    A sterile active ingredient plant and a sterile finished dosage filling plant both comprise very complex production processes and systems. The sterility of the final product cannot be assured solely by sterility testing, in-process controls, environmental monitoring of cleanrooms, and media fill validations. Based on more than 15 years experience, 4 years ago the authors created a new but very simple approach to the risk analysis of sterile plants. This approach is not a failure mode and effects analysis and therefore differs from the PDA Technical Report 44 Quality Risk Management for Aseptic Processes of 2008. The principle involves specific questions, which have been defined in the risk analysis questionnaire in advance, to be answered by an expert team. If the questionnaire item is dealt with appropriately, the answer is assigned a low-risk number (1) and if very weak or deficient it gets a high-risk number (5). In addition to the numbers, colors from green (not problematic) through orange to red (very problematic) are attributed to make the results more striking. Because the individual units of each production plant have a defined and different impact on the overall sterility of the final product, different risk emphasis factors have to be taken into account (impact factor 1, 3, or 5). In a well run cleanroom, the cleanroom operators have a lower impact than other units with regard to the contamination risk. The resulting number of the analyzed production plant and the diagram of the assessment subsequently offers very important and valuable information about a) the risk for microbiological contamination (sterility/endotoxins) of the product, and b) the compliance status of the production plant and the risk of failing lots, as well as probable observations of upcoming regulatory agency audits. Both items above are highly important for the safety of the patient. It is also an ideal tool to identify deficient or weak systems requiring improvement and upgrade

  15. Examining relationships between multiple health risk behaviors, well-being, and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Kerry E; Castle, Patricia H; Prochaska, James O; Prochaska, Janice M

    2014-06-01

    Traditionally, the concept of health promotion has emphasized the reduction of health risk behaviors to reduce disease and impairment. Well-being research expands this focus to include positive constructs such as thriving, productivity, life-evaluation, and emotional and physical health. The objective of the present study was to examine the relationships between health risk behaviors and specific measures of individual well-being. Participants (N = 790) from 49 states completed a one-time online assessment that included the Life-Evaluation Index, Emotional and Physical Health Ladders, the Health Risk Intervention Assessment, and the Work Productivity and Activity Improvement Questionnaire for General Health. Life Evaluation and physical and emotional health were all inversely related to the number of health risk behaviors, with higher well-being scores associated with lower number of risk behaviors. Across the three Life Evaluation categories (Suffering, Struggling, and Thriving) the number of health risk behaviors decreased, productivity loss decreased, and emotional and physical health increased. The results add to previous research on how reducing multiple health risk behaviors can be combined with well-being, i.e., an emphasis on increasing life-evaluation, emotional and physical health, better functioning, and productivity.

  16. Quantitative Estimation of Risks for Production Unit Based on OSHMS and Process Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyambayar, D.; Koshijima, I.; Eguchi, H.

    2017-06-01

    Three principal elements in the production field of chemical/petrochemical industry are (i) Production Units, (ii) Production Plant Personnel and (iii) Production Support System (computer system introduced for improving productivity). Each principal element has production process resilience, i.e. a capability to restrain disruptive signals occurred in and out of the production field. In each principal element, risk assessment is indispensable for the production field. In a production facility, the occupational safety and health management system (Hereafter, referred to as OSHMS) has been introduced to reduce a risk of accidents and troubles that may occur during production. In OSHMS, a risk assessment is specified to reduce a potential risk in the production facility such as a factory, and PDCA activities are required for a continual improvement of safety production environments. However, there is no clear statement to adopt the OSHMS standard into the production field. This study introduces a metric to estimate the resilience of the production field by using the resilience generated by the production plant personnel and the result of the risk assessment in the production field. A method for evaluating how OSHMS functions are systematically installed in the production field is also discussed based on the resilience of the three principal elements.

  17. Partner Market Opportunities and Relationship Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingmar Rapp

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although partner market opportunities are generally considered to be important for relationship stability, they have never been measured accurately. In order to be able to test the anticipated effects of partner market opportunities, this study conceptualises them as individual opportunities for contact and interaction in concrete social contexts, like the neighbourhood, the workplace, leisure activities, etc. Using data from the German Marriage Market Survey, we first examine the impact of individual partner market opportunities on the risk of separation. Second, we examine to what extend the most frequently studied determinants of divorce and separation depend on partner market opportunities. Our results show that the number of opposite sex contacts increases the probability of separation. Sharing the same contacts with one’s partner decreases the risk of separation. Our results indicate further that reducing opposite sex contacts in the course of the relationship is partly responsible for the higher stability of longer-lasting relationships. Having a migration background is associated with fewer opposite sex contacts. This means that having a migration background would be more destabilising if these individuals did not have less opposite sex contacts than individuals without a migration background. In contrast, joint home ownership, church attendance, higher education and residing in western Germany would generally be more stabilising if these factors were not connected with more opposite sex contacts.

  18. Farm Technologies and Production Risk in the Face of Climate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In countries where insurance and credit markets are thin or missing, production and consumption risks play a critical role in the choice and use of production inputs and adoption of new farm technologies. This paper investigated the effect of selected farm technologies and their risk implications in different rainfall patterns of ...

  19. Development of hydrate risk quantification in oil and gas production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Piyush N.

    Subsea flowlines that transport hydrocarbons from wellhead to the processing facility face issues from solid deposits such as hydrates, waxes, asphaltenes, etc. The solid deposits not only affect the production but also pose a safety concern; thus, flow assurance is significantly important in designing and operating subsea oil and gas production. In most subsea oil and gas operations, gas hydrates form at high pressure and low temperature conditions, causing the risk of plugging flowlines, with a undesirable impact on production. Over the years, the oil and gas industry has shifted their perspective from hydrate avoidance to hydrate management given several parameters such as production facility, production chemistry, economic and environmental concerns. Thus, understanding the level of hydrate risk associated with subsea flowlines is an important in developing efficient hydrate management techniques. In the past, hydrate formation models were developed for various flow-systems (e.g., oil dominated, water dominated, and gas dominated) present in the oil and gas production. The objective of this research is to extend the application of the present hydrate prediction models for assessing the hydrate risk associated with subsea flowlines that are prone to hydrate formation. It involves a novel approach for developing quantitative hydrate risk models based on the conceptual models built from the qualitative knowledge obtained from experimental studies. A comprehensive hydrate risk model, that ranks the hydrate risk associated with the subsea production system as a function of time, hydrates, and several other parameters, which account for inertial, viscous, interfacial forces acting on the flow-system, is developed for oil dominated and condensate systems. The hydrate plugging risk for water dominated systems is successfully modeled using The Colorado School of Mines Hydrate Flow Assurance Tool (CSMHyFAST). It is found that CSMHyFAST can be used as a screening tool in

  20. Ultra high risk of psychosis on committal to a young offender prison: an unrecognised opportunity for early intervention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flynn, Darran

    2012-08-01

    The ultra high risk state for psychosis has not been studied in young offender populations. Prison populations have higher rates of psychiatric morbidity and substance use disorders. Due to the age profile of young offenders one would expect to find a high prevalence of individuals with pre-psychotic or ultra-high risk mental states for psychosis (UHR). Accordingly young offender institutions offer an opportunity for early interventions which could result in improved long term mental health, social and legal outcomes. In the course of establishing a mental health in-reach service into Ireland\\'s only young offender prison, we sought to estimate unmet mental health needs.

  1. Opportunities for multivariate analysis of open spatial datasets to characterize urban flooding risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gaitan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cities worldwide are challenged by increasing urban flood risks. Precise and realistic measures are required to reduce flooding impacts. However, currently implemented sewer and topographic models do not provide realistic predictions of local flooding occurrence during heavy rain events. Assessing other factors such as spatially distributed rainfall, socioeconomic characteristics, and social sensing, may help to explain probability and impacts of urban flooding. Several spatial datasets have been recently made available in the Netherlands, including rainfall-related incident reports made by citizens, spatially distributed rain depths, semidistributed socioeconomic information, and buildings age. Inspecting the potential of this data to explain the occurrence of rainfall related incidents has not been done yet. Multivariate analysis tools for describing communities and environmental patterns have been previously developed and used in the field of study of ecology. The objective of this paper is to outline opportunities for these tools to explore urban flooding risks patterns in the mentioned datasets. To that end, a cluster analysis is performed. Results indicate that incidence of rainfall-related impacts is higher in areas characterized by older infrastructure and higher population density.

  2. Risk identification and evaluation of customer collaboration in product development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefeng Zhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify risk factors that caused by customer collaboration in new product development systematically, and propose an approach to judge which risk factors are critical and catch substantial attention. Design/methodology/approach: This study identifies risk factors according to the results of case studies of enterprises in china. On this basis, an improved rough number approach is put forward to evaluate the importance of risk factors. Findings: Firstly, classify risk factors into three aspects. Then, present a risk factor set, which include thirty-seven risk factors. At last, determine which risk factors are critical by using an improved rough number approach. Originality/value: Considering there are few researches studying comprehensive risk factors of customer collaboration and assessing them, this paper explores a risk factor set of customer collaboration in product development stage, and proposes a novel approach, which can help to solve the problem of subjective, vague and lack of prior information of evaluation, to evaluate risk factors.

  3. RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH INVESTMENTS IN STRUCTURED INVESTMENT PRODUCTS, SELECTION CRITERIA OF SIP`S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatyuk Aleksandr Sergeevich

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To identify and classify the major risks affecting on the structured investment products, to submit proposals to limit their impact. Methodology The work is based on a studying of the practice of investments in structured investment products, detection and investigation of sources of market risk of structured investment products. Results Structured investment products, as any other investment product, has a significant set of risks that could affect to a large extent on its evaluation and determine the behavior of the investor. Financial engineers have the ability to control most of these risks, as well as to limit their impact. Thus, the structured investment product, unlike most classic investment instruments can provide investors with highly transparent mechanism to determining the ratio of investment risk and potential income. Practical implications The results can be used in a scientific investigation of the phenomenon of structured investment products, as well as practical work on the formation of the structured products by investment banks and brokerage firms.

  4. Modular manufacturing processes : Status, challenges, and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldea, Michael; Edgar, Thomas F.; Stanley, Bill L.; Kiss, Anton A.

    2017-01-01

    Chemical companies are constantly seeking new, high-margin growth opportunities, the majority of which lie in high-grade, specialty chemicals, rather than in the bulk sector. To realize these opportunities, manufacturers are increasingly considering decentralized, flexible production facilities:

  5. Profit and Risk Measures in Oil Production Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capolei, Andrea; Foss, Bjarne; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2015-01-01

    In oil production optimization, we usually aim to maximize a deterministic scalar performance index such as the profit over the expected reservoir lifespan. However, when uncertainty in the parameters is considered, the profit results in a random variable that can assume a range of values dependi...... pro and cons for each of them. Finally, among the presented risk measures, we identify two of them as appropriate risk measures when minimizing the risk....

  6. Health Risk Assessment on Hazardous Ingredients in Household Deodorizing Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjin Lee

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The inhalation of a water aerosol from a humidifier containing disinfectants has led to serious lung injuries in Korea. To promote the safe use of products, the Korean government enacted regulations on the chemicals in various consumer products that could have adverse health effects. Given the concern over the potential health risks associated with the hazardous ingredients in deodorizing consumer products, 17 ingredients were analyzed and assessed according to their health risk on 3 groups by the application type in 47 deodorizing products. The risk assessment study followed a stepwise procedure (e.g., collecting toxicological information, hazard identification/exposure assessment, and screening and detailed assessment for inhalation and dermal routes. The worst-case scenario and maximum concentration determined by the product purpose and application type were used as the screening assessment. In a detailed assessment, the 75th exposure factor values were used to estimate the assumed reasonable exposure to ingredients. The exposed concentrations of seven ingredients were calculated. Due to limitation of toxicity information, butylated hydroxyl toluene for a consumer’s exposure via the dermal route only was conducted for a detailed assessment. This study showed that the assessed ingredients have no health risks at their maximum concentrations in deodorizing products. This approach can be used to establish guidelines for ingredients that may pose inhalation and dermal hazards.

  7. Health Risk Assessment on Hazardous Ingredients in Household Deodorizing Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minjin; Kim, Joo-Hyon; Lee, Daeyeop; Kim, Jaewoo; Lim, Hyunwoo; Seo, Jungkwan; Park, Young-Kwon

    2018-01-01

    The inhalation of a water aerosol from a humidifier containing disinfectants has led to serious lung injuries in Korea. To promote the safe use of products, the Korean government enacted regulations on the chemicals in various consumer products that could have adverse health effects. Given the concern over the potential health risks associated with the hazardous ingredients in deodorizing consumer products, 17 ingredients were analyzed and assessed according to their health risk on 3 groups by the application type in 47 deodorizing products. The risk assessment study followed a stepwise procedure (e.g., collecting toxicological information, hazard identification/exposure assessment, and screening and detailed assessment for inhalation and dermal routes). The worst-case scenario and maximum concentration determined by the product purpose and application type were used as the screening assessment. In a detailed assessment, the 75th exposure factor values were used to estimate the assumed reasonable exposure to ingredients. The exposed concentrations of seven ingredients were calculated. Due to limitation of toxicity information, butylated hydroxyl toluene for a consumer’s exposure via the dermal route only was conducted for a detailed assessment. This study showed that the assessed ingredients have no health risks at their maximum concentrations in deodorizing products. This approach can be used to establish guidelines for ingredients that may pose inhalation and dermal hazards. PMID:29652814

  8. ANALYSIS OF RISK FACTORS AT THE STAGE OF THE PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Skopenko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines and summarizes the risks of enterprises at different stages of product life cycle. A diagnose and assess of risks according to the main stages of the product development are offered. Groups of factors that shape the economic risks at different stages of the product life cycle, by the possible negative consequences of their impact are formulated. To reduce the probable losses of the company and a reasonable assortment portfolio formation generalized classification of risks that are typical for any company is proposed.

  9. Accounting for forest carbon pool dynamics in product carbon footprints: Challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newell, Joshua P.; Vos, Robert O.

    2012-01-01

    Modification and loss of forests due to natural and anthropogenic disturbance contribute an estimated 20% of annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions worldwide. Although forest carbon pool modeling rarely suggests a ‘carbon neutral’ flux profile, the life cycle assessment community and associated product carbon footprint protocols have struggled to account for the GHG emissions associated with forestry, specifically, and land use generally. Principally, this is due to underdeveloped linkages between life cycle inventory (LCI) modeling for wood and forest carbon modeling for a full range of forest types and harvest practices, as well as a lack of transparency in globalized forest supply chains. In this paper, through a comparative study of U.S. and Chinese coated freesheet paper, we develop the initial foundations for a methodology that rescales IPCC methods from the national to the product level, with reference to the approaches in three international product carbon footprint protocols. Due to differences in geographic origin of the wood fiber, the results for two scenarios are highly divergent. This suggests that both wood LCI models and the protocols need further development to capture the range of spatial and temporal dimensions for supply chains (and the associated land use change and modification) for specific product systems. The paper concludes by outlining opportunities to measure and reduce uncertainty in accounting for net emissions of biogenic carbon from forestland, where timber is harvested for consumer products. - Highlights: ► Typical life cycle assessment practice for consumer products often excludes significant land use change emissions when estimating carbon footprints. ► The article provides a methodology to rescale IPCC guidelines for product-level carbon footprints. ► Life cycle inventories and product carbon footprint protocols need more comprehensive land use-related accounting. ► Interdisciplinary collaboration linking the LCA and

  10. Nanopesticides and nanofertilizers: emerging contaminants or opportunities for risk mitigation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie eKah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Research into nanotechnology applications for use in agriculture has become increasingly popular over the past decade, with a particular interest in developing novel nanoagrochemicals in the form of so-called nanopesticides and nanofertilizers. In view of the extensive body of scientific literature available on the topic, many authors have foreseen a revolution in current agricultural practices.This perspective integrates scientific, regulatory, public and commercial viewpoints, and aims at critically evaluating progress made over the last decade. A number of key (and sometimes controversial questions are addressed with the aim of identifying the products that will soon emerge on the market and analyzing how they can fit into current regulatory and commercial frameworks. Issues related to the differences in definitions and perceptions within different sectors are discussed, as well as our current ability to assess new risks and benefits relative to conventional products. Many nanoagrochemicals resemble products used currently, which raises the question whether the effect of formulation has been sufficiently taken into account when evaluating agrochemicals. This analysis identifies directions for future research and regulatory needs in order to encourage intelligent design and promote the development of more sustainable agrochemicals.

  11. [Solar protection products: efficacy and risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beani, J-C

    2012-04-01

    Solar protection products (SPP) containing chemical filters and/or mineral filters are extensively used today in photoprotection; however, concerns continue to be voiced about their efficacy and about their possible dangers. A rapid review of photoprotection strategies shows that SPP owe their photoprotective effect to the absence of other photoprotection methods having clearly established efficacy in healthy subjects; in addition, they exhibit real protective efficacy against the majority of harmful effects of solar radiation, provided they have been devised in keeping with the specifications clearly set out in the recommendations of the French Medicines Agency (Afssaps). Such efficacy is dependent on their correct usage, recently reiterated by Afssaps in its recommendations to end-users concerning the good use of solar products: application of adequate quantities of such products, selection of the appropriate photoprotection class based on phototype and conditions of exposure, and regular renewal of applications in the event of prolonged exposure and after bathing or profuse sweating. Solar filters have long been known to cause contact allergic dermatitis, irritative dermatitis and photosensitisation, and a particular risk has appeared with the use of octocrylene. However, debate has centred primarily on the risk of endocrine disturbance potentially induced by chemical filters, certain of which exhibit established transcutaneous penetration. The risk of mimicry of an effect of oestradiol has been raised on the basis of a series of studies, almost all of which were carried out by the same team, and which mainly concerned 4-methylbenzylidene-camphor (4-MBC) following oral absorption in the rat. The risk of this type of effect with SPPs under normal conditions of use seems fairly remote according to the current state of knowledge; in any event, within the context of the "National Fertility Action Plan", Afssaps has been formally requested to analyse the risk

  12. Opportunities for Research in the UK for decommissioning and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smart, N.

    2008-01-01

    The NDA remit as set out within the Energy Act includes - 'promote, and where necessary fund, research relevant to nuclear clean up'. The NDA need to underpin delivery and / or accelerate programmes to fulfil the overall mission and technical underpinning of these activities is critical. In this paper we will present consideration of the investment required in nuclear waste Research and Development. Firstly, NDA set the requirement for nuclear sites to write down within the Life Time Plans (LTP), at a high level, the proposed technical baseline underpinning the LTP activities; furthermore we required technology gaps / opportunities in the technical baselines to be outlined in a R and D requirements section to the LTP. Criteria were established to categorise the R and D in three areas: - 'needs' - those development activities needed to underpin the proposed technical solutions - 'risks' - those activities required to reduce / eliminate key risks to the proposed technical solutions - 'opportunities' - innovations / changes to the technical baselines The purpose of production of the technical baselines and underpinning R and D requirements is to establish an auditable trail through the LTP from programme components into how the programme will be delivered. NDA believes the production of the technical baselines and R and D requirements will be of benefit to the Site License Companies (SLC) in terms of ensuring a focus on overall programme delivery and not just short term activities. Furthermore, we can ensure that investment in technology is targeted at priority areas, with common issues and requirements identified and solutions on a broader scale will be achievable. (authors)

  13. Climate Change, Risk and Grain Production in China

    OpenAIRE

    Holst, Rainer; Yu, Xiaohua; Grun, Carola

    2010-01-01

    This paper employs the production function-based method proposed by Just and Pope (1978, 1979) to explicitly analyze production risk in the context of Chinese grain farming and climate change, and test for potential endogeneity of climate factors in Chinese grain production. Our results indicate that grain production in south China might, at least in the short run, could be a net beneficiary of global warming. In particular, we find that a 1 °C increase in annual average temperature in South ...

  14. 76 FR 34639 - Funding Opportunity Title: Risk Management Education and Outreach Partnerships Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... Succession Planning; Marketing: Marketing Strategies; Farm Products Branding; Farmers Markets; Financial: Financial Tools and Planning; Farm Management Strategies; Human: Farm Labor; Farm Safety; Food Safety, Risk... plans and strategies; and 4. Assist producers, farmers and ranchers in deciding on and implementing a...

  15. Entrepreneurs turn problems into opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetler, D

    1985-10-01

    The need for products and services to accommodate changes in medical record practice and the increasing number of women going into business for themselves are combining to create new opportunities for the medical record professional who wants to start a business. JAMRA interviewed several entrepreneurs in the medical record field to find out about their experiences, where they see today's opportunities, and what advice they have for would-be entrepreneurs.

  16. Livestock, the World, and the Dutch : a quick scan of opportunities in livestock production in nine countries : final draft for discussion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, van der J.; Hooft, van 't K.; Cornelissen, J.M.R.; Wouters, A.P.

    2013-01-01

    This report explores opportunities and associated challenges for companies and organizations engaged in livestock production and marketing by looking at nine countries, representing BRIC countries, the so-called Next 11, and developing countries.

  17. Concurrent sourcing and external supplier opportunism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter

    costs of opportunism are determined as a product of four factors. The four factors are: likelihood of discovering supplier opportunism, buyer’s internalized quantity as reaction to supplier opportunism, asset specificity of external supplier’s investments, and multiplicator effects. Each......When a firm simultaneously makes and buys the same components then the firm uses concurrent sourcing. This paper presents an agency model for explaining how and when concurrent sourcing reduces the likelihood of external supplier opportunism. In the proposed model, the external supplier’s expected...... of these factors are explained and discussed in the paper. The paper ends by offering a number of theoretical and managerial implications....

  18. Production and processing of fuel by the forest industry - opportunities and conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, L.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to illustrate the opportunities for the forest industry to establish a system of handling and processing biofuels in conjunction with their existing activities, and which would supply a future market for biofuels in, for example, electricity generation. The sawmills report that it is difficult today to find a market for fuel products, especially for sawmills at greater distances from larger biofuel-consuming plants. The sawmills show great interest in cogeneration in their own plants, but report difficulties in achieving profitability. The main problem is reported to be that the price of the surplus electricity delivered to the grid is too low, but also that the electricity prices today are so low that it is difficult to justify even generating electricity for the mill's own use. There is an interest in the paper and pulp industry for integrated methods and production of biofuels since the part-tree methods used, at least in some parts of Sweden, are considered to contribute also to an increase in the availability of pulp wood to the industry. A fundamental viewpoint is, however, that the plants are built for the primary purpose of producing pulp or paper. It is unlikely that the industry would give priority to investments for production of a new secondary product in the form of fuel products, particularly when the conditions today imply that there are few possibilities to achieve any particular profitability. The most probable solution is that the fuel is processed outside the industry by other parties, e.g., the forest divisions. In the long term, increased efficiency in the processes may lead to a primary heat surplus which could be used to produce processed fuels

  19. Risk Mapping of Bogie S2HD-9C Production Process that Take Effect on Production Fulfillment at PT. Barata Indonesia (Persero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faza Yoshio Susanto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available PT Barata Indonesia (Persero is one of leading metal works company in Indonesia. It has 3 main business line which are engineering procurement and construction (EPC, industrial tools manufacturing, and foundry. As the company’s strategic objective in delivering quality product and service to the customer, PT Barata Indonesia should maintain their production process properly. One of the featured product of PT Barata Indonesia is bogie. The production process of bogie shows a fluctuative delivery fulfillment. It can be proved by the contract amendment information. Risk management can be used as the method to manage risk inside the production process of bogie. Therefore, this research is aimed to identify risks that may occur from each activities of bogie S2HD-9C’s production process. The risk identification is done by using fault tree analysis method in order to determine the root cause of each activity performed. The risk evaluation is done by using FMEA method which can classify the effects of failure based on the severity and occurrence of failure. Then continue to the risk mapping and risk mitigation determination for bogie S2HD-9C’s production process. Loss that caused by the emergence of risk also determined using value at risk method. Moreover, risk profile dashboard will be provided as the tools in managing risk.

  20. Conversion economics of forest biomaterials: risk and financial analysis of CNC manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilla Abbati de Assis; Carl Houtman; Richard Phillips; E.M. Ted Bilek; Orlando J. Rojas; Lokendra Pal; Maria Soledad Peresin; Hasan Jameel; Ronalds Gonzalez

    2017-01-01

    Commercialization of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) presents opportunities for a wide range of new products. Techno-economic assessments can provide insightful information for the effi cient design of conversion processes, drive cost-saving efforts, and reduce fi nancial risks. In this study, we conducted techno-economic assessments for CNC production using information...

  1. Excipient Usage Technical Risk Assessment for Generic Solid Dose Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Babu Pazhayattil

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an assessment methodology for solid dose generic small molecule drug products. It addresses the ‘usage of the excipient’ portion of the trinomial by utilizing the systematic approach of Risk Identification, Risk Analysis and Risk Evaluation as per ICH Q9 Quality Risk Management outlined for developing risk control strategies. The assessment and maintenance of excipient risk profile is essential to minimize any potential risk associated to excipients impacting patients.

  2. Identification and Risk Treatment in Launching a New Product in the Aerospace Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Eugenia da Matta

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The launch of new products resulted from investments in research and development and the need for them markets makes risk management is an important practice within companies in order to reduce the negative risks generated in the release process. The purpose of this article is to carry out studies to identify the risks involved in launching new products and forms of treatment used by the organization to deal with these risks. For this we conducted a case study in a Brazilian company that operates in the aerospace market. Information was collected through semi-structured interviews with three managers of the company. The risks identified and strategies for treating these risks have been organized into tables where risks identified for staff involved are presented. The results of the study showed that the risk management, in fact, contributes to the reduction of the negative risks that may adversely affect the process of launching new products in the market. The study identified some findings, such as the aerospace market shares for the sale of its products occur mainly in the phase prior to the production and delivery of these. The identified risks are generated by the interaction between the company and those involved in the supply chain, one of the ways of treating risk used by the company is to maintain the same relationship network, in addition to establishing rules of conduct for the supply chain. The release of new products does not occur through mass media face, since there is a specific, small market segment that has the means to buy the products. Study limitations stem from the inability to generalize the results depending on the method used and the interviews only to company officials.

  3. Tail production and removal. Risk, challenges and possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magelssen, Hans Chr.

    1997-01-01

    Elf is one of the companies with the longest experience as an oil operator in Norway. This presentation discusses experiences made by Elf on tail production and removal. It starts with a description of risk, economic analyses and individual cash flow discounting and then deals with the challenges and possibilities of extended use of existing installations. Elf does not use individual cash flow discounting, which has several disadvantages, but rather traditional indicators like NPV (Net Present Value), IRR (Internal Rate of Return), payback time and balance price calculated by means of cash flow, as well as a type of ROI (Return On Investment). In normal present value calculation, the decision-maker estimates the total risk for the project and compare this with a relevant present value. Another method is proposed if it is desirable to include risk directly in calculating the present value. In this method the present value is shown as a probability distribution. A probability curve is associated with the most important variables. Some of Elf's experience with tail production and removal policy is described. The tail production from a gas field is a great challenge for the operator of the field, but the other actors should also be concerned with this part of a field's lifetime. So far there is no absolute requirement that large platforms must be removed. The presentations end with some discussion about economy and production policies for the final years of a field. 3 figs

  4. Evaluation of opportunities for heat integration of biomass-based Fischer–Tropsch crude production at Scandinavian kraft pulp and paper mill sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljungstedt, Hanna; Pettersson, Karin; Harvey, Simon

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates heat integrated production of FT (Fischer–Tropsch) crude, where excess heat from the FT crude plant is delivered to a typical Scandinavian pulp and paper mill that produces fine paper. The sizes of FT crude plants are quantified, when the amount of excess heat from the FT plant exactly matches the heating demand otherwise satisfied by the bark boiler at the mill, considering a number of development pathways at the mill, including various degrees of steam savings and biorefinery options, such as lignin extraction. Performance of integrated production is compared with that of an FT stand-alone plant on the basis of wood fuel-to-FT crude efficiency, GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions balances and FT crude production cost. The results show that there exists a heat integration opportunity for an FT crude plant ranging from 0 up to 350 MW (LHV) of wood fuel depending on the development pathway for the mill. The results indicate higher overall efficiency and a generally lower production cost for the heat integrated, co-located production. Heat integrated production has a larger potential to contribute to GHG emission mitigation, assuming a future generation of grid electricity emitting equal to or less than an NGCC (natural gas combined cycle) power plant. - Highlights: • We investigate opportunities for heat integrated FT crude production at a mill. • Typical kraft pulp and paper mills have a potential for heat integrated production. • We compare the heat integrated production with stand-alone FT crude production. • Higher efficiency and lower production cost for heat integrated production. • Reduction of GHG emissions is strongly dependent on grid electricity emissions

  5. Nanotechnology in agriculture: Opportunities, toxicological implications, and occupational risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iavicoli, Ivo; Leso, Veruscka; Beezhold, Donald H; Shvedova, Anna A

    2017-08-15

    Nanotechnology has the potential to make a beneficial impact on several agricultural, forestry, and environmental challenges, such as urbanization, energy constraints, and sustainable use of resources. However, new environmental and human health hazards may emerge from nano-enhanced applications. This raises concerns for agricultural workers who may become primarily exposed to such xenobiotics during their job tasks. The aim of this review is to discuss promising solutions that nanotechnology may provide in agricultural activities, with a specific focus on critical aspects, challenging issues, and research needs for occupational risk assessment and management in this emerging field. Eco-toxicological aspects were not the focus of the review. Nano-fertilizers, (nano-sized nutrients, nano-coated fertilizers, or engineered metal-oxide or carbon-based nanomaterials per se), and nano-pesticides, (nano-formulations of traditional active ingredients or inorganic nanomaterials), may provide a targeted/controlled release of agrochemicals, aimed to obtain their fullest biological efficacy without over-dosage. Nano-sensors and nano-remediation methods may detect and remove environmental contaminants. However, limited knowledge concerning nanomaterial biosafety, adverse effects, fate, and acquired biological reactivity once dispersed into the environment, requires further scientific efforts to assess possible nano-agricultural risks. In this perspective, toxicological research should be aimed to define nanomaterial hazards and levels of exposure along the life-cycle of nano-enabled products, and to assess those physico-chemical features affecting nanomaterial toxicity, possible interactions with agro-system co-formulants, and stressors. Overall, this review highlights the importance to define adequate risk management strategies for workers, occupational safety practices and policies, as well as to develop a responsible regulatory consensus on nanotechnology in agriculture

  6. Harnessing the market: The opportunities and challenges of privatization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The decision to privatize comes from a policy determination that the Government no longer needs particular assets or no longer needs to be in control of all the means by which products or services are obtained or delivered. Most broadly defined, privatization substitutes, in whole or in part, private market mechanisms for the traditional Government role as employer, financier, owner, operator, and/or regulator of a product or service. This definition admits a wide variety of actions, from innovative contractual arrangements to outright divestiture of activities or assets. But all of these actions share common objectives: to remove the agency from those activities that are not inherently governmental functions or core business lines; to improve the management of remaining activities; to reduce the costs of doing business; and to shift greater performance and financial risk to the private sector. This report by the Privatization Working Group provides an indepth analysis of the major issues that surround privatization within the Department of Energy (DOE). The report divides privatization initiatives at the DOE into three major types: divestiture of functions, contracting out, and asset transfers. It includes the results of a survey of the entire DOE system that identifies more than 200 potential privatization opportunities. The report also includes 13 case studies that explore actual DOE privatization efforts over the past 2 years. Additionally, it summarizes the key legal authorities that govern each of the three types of privatization opportunities in the DOE. The report makes a series of recommendations and outlines accompanying actions that will help the DOE seize the opportunities presented by privatization and confront its challenges.

  7. Global Production Planning Process considering the Supply Risk of Overseas Manufacturing Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosang Jung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although global manufacturers can produce most of their final products in local plants, they need to source components or parts from desirable overseas manufacturing partners at low cost in order to fulfill customer orders. In this global manufacturing environment, capacity information for planning is usually imprecise owing to the various risks of overseas plants (e.g., foreign governments’ policies and labor stability. It is therefore not easy for decision-makers to generate a global production plan showing the production amounts at local plants and overseas manufacturing facilities operated by manufacturing partners. In this paper, we present a new global production planning process considering the supply risk of overseas manufacturing sites. First, local experts estimate the supply capacity of an overseas plant using their judgment to determine when the risk could occur and how large the risk impact would be. Next, we run a global production planning model with the estimated supply capacities. The proposed process systematically adopts the qualitative judgments of local experts in the global production planning process and thus can provide companies with a realistic global production plan. We demonstrate the applicability of the proposed process with a real world case.

  8. Chemical and radiological risk factors associated with waste from energy production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, T.; Fuglestvedt, J.; Benestad, C.

    1992-01-01

    We have tried to estimate the toxic potential of waste from nuclear power plants and from power plants burning fossil fuels. The potential risks have been expressed as 'risk potentials' or 'person equivalents'. These are purely theoretical units and represent only an attempt to quantify...... and one has to accept a certain small risk by accepting the concentration limit. This is in line with the establishment of limits for radiation. Waste products from coal combustion have the highest potential risk among the fossil fuel alternatives. The highest risk is caused by metals, and the fly ash...... represents the effluent stream giving the largest contribution to the potential risk. The waste from nuclear power production has a lower potential risk than coal if today's limit values are used. If one adjusts the limits for radiation dose and the concentration limit values so that a similar risk...

  9. Microbiological sampling plan based on risk classification to verify supplier selection and production of served meals in food service operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahou, Evy; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Van Landeghem, Filip; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2014-08-01

    Food service operations are confronted with a diverse range of raw materials and served meals. The implementation of a microbial sampling plan in the framework of verification of suppliers and their own production process (functionality of their prerequisite and HACCP program), demands selection of food products and sampling frequencies. However, these are often selected without a well described scientifically underpinned sampling plan. Therefore, an approach on how to set-up a focused sampling plan, enabled by a microbial risk categorization of food products, for both incoming raw materials and meals served to the consumers is presented. The sampling plan was implemented as a case study during a one-year period in an institutional food service operation to test the feasibility of the chosen approach. This resulted in 123 samples of raw materials and 87 samples of meal servings (focused on high risk categorized food products) which were analyzed for spoilage bacteria, hygiene indicators and food borne pathogens. Although sampling plans are intrinsically limited in assessing the quality and safety of sampled foods, it was shown to be useful to reveal major non-compliances and opportunities to improve the food safety management system in place. Points of attention deduced in the case study were control of Listeria monocytogenes in raw meat spread and raw fish as well as overall microbial quality of served sandwiches and salads. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Technological opportunities and paths of development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plichta, Kirsten

    1993-01-01

    the outcome of different firms development effort may also help shape a path at the industry level. This may be because the criteria by which the market selects between the different product may to some extent be anticipated by the developing firms or because the criteria by which the market select betwee...... technological knowledge, their production, development and other routines as well prior investments in products and production equipment play an important role with regard to the technological opportunities that firms' identify and select for development. 3) Because history matters and because firms are bounded...... in the industry. 6) It is argued that such paths of incremental improvement at the industry level may be an outcome of a) the dynamics that produce the technological opportunities; b) the institutions that govern decisions and expectations and c) the criteria by which the chooses between different firms...

  11. IPRs in biobanking- risks and opportunities for translational research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo; Verlinden, Michiel; Huys, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    The gradual shift from traditional closed innovation systems to more “open” and “transparent” innovation models, rapid technological advances and bio-pharmaceutical innovation gaps have highlighted the importance of an effective governance and use of biobanks. This raises important legal questions...... such as how to deal with intellectual property rights (‘IPRs’) that might arise out of the collection and use of samples and data in research. Only a few projects highlighted the opportunities and potential benefits of user-generated solutions and proper governance of IPRs. This paper aims to provide...... an overview and analysis of the most relevant IPRs in biobanking and to discuss the challenges and opportunities associated with an effective use of biobanks in translational research and innovation. Section 1 specifies challenges in finding a balance between an open and a close collaboration model. Section 2...

  12. The risk of recurrent thromboembolic disorders in patients with unprovoked venous thromboembolism: new scenarios and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prandoni, Paolo; Barbar, Sofia; Milan, Marta; Vedovetto, Valentina; Pesavento, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    The risk of recurrent thromboembolic disorders in the 10-year period following an episode of unprovoked venous thromboembolism (VTE) ranges between 30 and 50%, the rate being higher in patients with primary deep venous thrombosis (DVT) than in those with primary pulmonary embolism (PE). The clinical presentation with primary PE increases by more than three times the risk of a new PE episode over that with isolated DVT. Baseline parameters that increase this risk are the proximal location of DVT, obesity, old age and male sex, whereas the role of thrombophilia is controversial. An increasing role is played by post-baseline parameters such as the ultrasound assessment of residual vein thrombosis and the determination of D-dimer. While the latest international guidelines suggest indefinite anticoagulation for most patients with the first episode of unprovoked VTE, new scenarios are being offered by the identification of risk stratification models and by strategies that have the potential to help identify patients in whom anticoagulation can be safely discontinued, such as those that incorporate the assessment of D-dimer and residual vein thrombosis. New opportunities are being offered by low-dose aspirin, which has recently been reported to decrease by more than 30% the risk of recurrent events without increasing the bleeding risk; and especially by a few emerging anti-Xa and anti-IIa oral compounds, which are likely to induce fewer haemorrhagic complications than vitamin K antagonists while preserving at least the same effectiveness, do not require laboratory monitoring, and can be used immediately after the thrombotic episode. © 2013.

  13. Tobacco and Nicotine Product Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biener, Lois; Leischow, Scott J.; Zeller, Mitch R.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Tobacco product testing is a critical component of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA), which grants the Food and Drug Administration the authority to regulate tobacco products. The availability of methods and measures that can provide accurate data on the relative health risks across types of tobacco products, brands, and subbrands of tobacco products on the validity of any health claims associated with a product, and on how consumers perceive information on products toxicity or risks is crucial for making decisions on the product's potential impact on public health. These tools are also necessary for making assessments of the impact of new indications for medicinal products (other than cessation) but more importantly of tobacco products that may in the future be marketed as cessation tools. Objective: To identify research opportunities to develop empirically based and comprehensive methods and measures for testing tobacco and other nicotine-containing products so that the best science is available when decisions are made about products or policies. Methods: Literature was reviewed to address sections of the FSPTCA relevant to tobacco product evaluation; research questions were generated and then reviewed by a committee of research experts. Results: A research agenda was developed for tobacco product evaluation in the general areas of toxicity and health risks, abuse liability, consumer perception, and population effects. Conclusion: A cohesive, systematic, and comprehensive assessment of tobacco products is important and will require building consensus and addressing some crucial research questions. PMID:21460383

  14. Calculating sales prices for natural gas. Securing success through an assessment of risks and opportunities; Vertriebspreiskalkulation Erdgas. Erfolgssicherung durch Chancen- und Risikobewertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumbel, Steffen; Henze, Michael [energie quader GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Over the past years the gas market, which was once entirely supply-driven, has developed more and more into a buyer's market. Gas supply companies increasingly see themselves confronted with more innovative and varied supply inquiries from their customers. With sales margins increasingly coming under pressure, this often leaves no option but to give close consideration to the appropriate risk premium. This creates an urgent need to review existing risk assessment methods and put a stronger focus on possible opportunities.

  15. THE OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES OF MICROINSURANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bente Corneliu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Microinsurance is a term increasingly used to refer to insurance characterized by low premium and low caps or low coverage limits, sold as part of a typical risk-pooling and marketing arrangements, and designed to service low-income people and businesses not served by typical social or commercial insurance schemes. As a relatively new field, few studies evaluating the impact of microinsurance projects exist. Of these, even fewer have a rigorous methodology leading to reliable results. Our research aimed to: - examine the viability of microinsurance as a mechanism of risk transfer and tool for risk management in developing countries; - provide a state of the art analysis of microinsurance for a better understanding of currently operational microinsurance schemes; - reflect on the opportunities and challenges of microinsurance in developing countries, highlighting both the potential benefits and limitations of microinsurance as an instrument for transferring risk; - consider the interests and perspectives of different stakeholders and the incentives and disincentives for participating and investing in a micro-insurance scheme; - enhance dialogue and collaboration on this topic between and within the commercial insurance sector and the disaster risk reduction communities; - assess the opportunity of introducing microinsurance in Romania. Reflecting on the opportunities and challenges of introducing microinsurance in Romania, there is absolutely necessary to understand both the supply side (current insurance market and the demand side (risks faced by low-income persons and the coping strategies used to manage these risks. The majority of the primary research was conducted on-site in Romania, in Oradea and its environs, during the month of December 2010. Qualitative research techniques were utilized, including focus group discussions (FGD and guided individual interviews with members of both the public and private sector, as well as with

  16. Biotechnological opportunities to biopolymers production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballesteros, M.; Ballesteros, I.; Oliva, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    The increasing garbage mountain is more and more recognized as an ecological threat, Space for landfills is limited and additional Incineration capacities require high capital investments and pose additional environmental problems. This paper discusses the current development and utilization state of new biodegradable polymers. Special attention is focused on microbiological production of poli-D-Beta-hydroxybutyrate acid (PHB), reviewing the metabolic regulation of PHB and the elements to determine its industrial scale production. (Author) 6 refs

  17. Fair opportunities, social productivity and wellbeing in disability: Towards a theoretical foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Johannes; Fekete, Christine

    2016-06-13

    Theory-based approaches provide explanations of the impact of components of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) classification on outcomes such as health and wellbeing. Here, one such approach is proposed, focusing on social participation and its association with wellbeing. In addition to elaborating a theoretical approach, a narrative review of research on labour market participation of persons with severe disability, spinal cord injury, is conducted to illustrate the utility of the proposed approach. Availability and good quality of productive activities, in particular paid work, are expected to improve wellbeing by strengthening favourable experiences of personal control and social recognition. As these opportunities are restricted among persons with disabilities, conditions that enable full social participation need to be strengthened. Research identified several such conditions at the individual (e.g. coping, social support, educational skills) and the contextual socio-political level (e.g. quality of care, medical and vocational rehabilitation), although their potential of improving wellbeing has not yet been sufficiently explored. In conclusion, supplementing the established ICF classification by theory-based approaches may advance explanations of adverse effects of reduced functioning and wellbeing in disability. This new knowledge can guide the development of interventions to improve participation in general and social productivity in particular.

  18. Challenges and opportunities in establishing scientific and regulatory standards for determining therapeutic equivalence of modified-release products: Workshop summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Ling; Shah, Vinod P; Ganes, Derek; Midha, Kamal K; Caro, James; Nambiar, Prabu; Rocci, Mario L; Thombre, Avinash G; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Conner, Dale; Davit, Barbara; Fackler, Paul; Farrell, Colm; Gupta, Suneel; Katz, Russell; Mehta, Mehul; Preskorn, Sheldon H; Sanderink, Gerard; Stavchansky, Salomon; Temple, Robert; Wang, Yaning; Winkle, Helen; Yu, Lawrence

    2010-09-01

    Modified-release (MR) products are complex dosage forms designed to release drug in a controlled manner to achieve the desired efficacy and safety profiles. Inappropriate control of drug release from such products may result in reduced efficacy or increased toxicity. This paper is a summary report of the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists, International Pharmaceutical Federation, and Product Quality Research Institute workshop titled "Challenges and Opportunities in Establishing Scientific and Regulatory Standards for Assuring Therapeutic Equivalence of Modified Release Products", held October 1-2, 2009, in Baltimore, Maryland. The workshop provided an opportunity for pharmaceutical scientists from academia, industry, and regulatory agencies to discuss current regulatory expectations and industry practices for evaluating the pharmaceutical equivalence and bioequivalence of oral MR products. In the case of conventional monophasic MR formulations, the current regulatory approaches and criteria for bioequivalence evaluation were considered adequate for the assessment of therapeutic equivalence and inter-changeability of drug products. Additional measures may occasionally be needed to determine the bioequivalence of multiphasic MR products. The metric of partial AUC proposed by the US Food and Drug Administration received broad support as an additional measure for evaluating bioequivalence of multiphasic MR products designed to have a rapid onset of drug action followed by sustained response. The cutoff for partial AUCs may be based on the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic or pharmacokinetic/ response characteristics of the products under examination. If the new metric is highly variable, the bioequivalence limits may be set based on the known within-subject variability for the reference product. The current regulatory approaches and criteria for bioequivalence evaluation were considered adequate for the assessment of therapeutic equivalence and

  19. Neurosurgery and Telemedicine in the United States: Assessment of the Risks and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Elyne N; La Marca, Frank; Mazzola, Catherine A

    2016-05-01

    Telemedicine has seen substantial growth in the past 20 years, related to technologic advancements and evolving reimbursement policies. The risks and opportunities of neurosurgical telemedicine are nuanced. We reviewed general and peer-reviewed literature as it relates to telemedicine and neurosurgery, with particular attention to best practices, relevant state and federal policy conditions, economic evaluations, and prospective clinical studies. Despite technologic development, growing interest, and increasing reimbursement opportunities, telemedicine's utilization remains limited because of concerns regarding an apparent lack of need for telemedicine services, lack of widespread reimbursement, lack of interstate licensure reciprocity, lack of universal access to necessary technology, concerns about maintaining patient confidentiality, and concerns and limited precedent regarding liability issues. The Veterans Health Administration, a component of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, represents a setting in which these concerns can be largely obviated and is a model for telemedicine best practices. Results from the VA demonstrate substantial cost savings and patient satisfaction with remote care for chronic neurologic conditions. Overall, the economic and clinical benefits of telemedicine will likely come from 1) diminished travel times and lost work time for patients; 2) remote consultation of subspecialty experts, such as neurosurgeons; and 3) remote consultation to assist with triage and care in time-sensitive scenarios, including acute stroke care and "teletrauma." Telemedicine is effective in many health care scenarios and will become more relevant to neurosurgical patient care. We favor proceeding with legislation to reduce barriers to telemedicine's growth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Career opportunities in clinical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, W A

    1992-01-01

    The varied career opportunities open to clinical engineers are described in this paper. Many of these opportunities are within the medical device industry in research, development, manufacturing design, regulatory activities, production, operations, sales, marketing, service, and management. Additional opportunities are available in hospitals, with the Veterans Administration, or working as an entrepreneur or a consultant. Each of these careers requires specific training and skills, and they all require a fundamental scientific knowledge of physical principles and mathematics. Research and management, however, require different educational preparation. The research emphasis should be on theoretical principles and creativity; the management emphasis should be on financial and labor problems. In all clinical engineering careers, the individual is a problem solver.

  1. Effects of Risk Management Practices on IT Project Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimchangthong Daranee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Successful management of an information technology (IT project is the most desirable for all organisations and stakeholders. Many researchers elaborated that risk management is a key part of project management for any project size. Risk management is so critical because it provides project managers with a forward-looking view of both threats and opportunities to improve the project success. The objectives of this research are to explore organisational factors affecting IT project success and risk management practices influencing IT project success. Risk management practices include risk identification, risk analysis, risk response planning, and risk monitoring and control. The IT project success is measured by process performance and product performance. Data are collected from 200 project managers, IT managers, and IT analysts in IT firms through questionnaires and analysed using Independent Sample t-test, One-way ANOVA, and Multiple Linear Regression at the statistical significance level of 0.05. The results show that the differences in organisational types affect IT project success in all aspects, while the differences on organisational sizes affect IT project success in the aspect of product performance and total aspects. Risk identification and risk response planning influence the process performance and the total aspects of IT project success. Risk identification has the highest positive influence on product performance, followed closely by risk response, while risk analysis negatively influences product performance.

  2. Dealing with uncertainty and pursuing superior technology options in risk management-The inherency risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helland, Aasgeir

    2009-01-01

    Current regulatory systems focus on the state of scientific evidence as the predominant factor for how to handle risks to human health and the environment. However, production and assessment of risk information are costly and time-consuming, and firms have an intrinsic disincentive to produce and distribute information about risks of their products as this could endanger their production opportunities and sales. An emphasis on more or better science may result in insufficient thought and attention going into the exploration of technology alternatives, and that risk management policies miss out on the possible achievement of a more favorable set of consequences. In this article, a method is proposed that combines risk assessment with the search for alternative technological options as a part of the risk management procedure. The method proposed is the inherency risk analysis where the first stage focuses on the original agent subject to investigation, the second stage focuses on identifying technological options whereas the third stage reviews the different alternatives, searching for the most attractive tradeoffs between costs and inherent safety. This is then used as a fundament for deciding which technology option to pursue. This method aims at providing a solution-focused, systematic technology-based approach for addressing and setting priorities for environmental problems. By combining risk assessment with a structured approach to identify superior technology options within a risk management system, the result could very well be a win-win situation for both company and the environment.

  3. Scientific Opportunities to Reduce Risk in Nuclear Process Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bredt, Paul R.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Poloski, Adam P.; Vienna, John D.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Hobbs, David; Wilmarth, B.; Mcilwain, Michael; Subramanian, K.; Krahn, Steve; Machara, N.

    2009-01-01

    overall intent of this paper is to foster a dialogue on how basic scientific research can assist DOE in executing its cleanup and environmental management mission. In this paper, we propose that such scientific investments not be focused solely on what may be viewed as current DOE needs, but also be based upon longer-term investments in specific areas of science that underpin technologies presently in use. In the latter regard, we propose four science theme areas: (1) the structure and dynamics of materials and interfaces, (2) coupled chemical and physical processes, (3) complex solution phase phenomena, and (4) chemical recognition phenomena. The proposed scientific focus for each of these theme areas and the scientific opportunities are identified, along with links to major risks within the initiative areas identified in EM's Engineering and Technology Roadmap.

  4. Managing Risk, Reducing Vulnerability and Enhancing Productivity ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Managing Risk, Reducing Vulnerability and Enhancing Productivity under a Changing Climate. The countries of the Greater Horn of Africa are particularly vulnerable to drought, exacerbated by widespread poverty and dependence on rainfed agriculture. Even with normal rainfall, the region does not produce enough food to ...

  5. Principle considerations for the risk assessment of sprayed consumer products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiling, W; Bascompta, M; Carthew, P; Catalano, G; Corea, N; D'Haese, A; Jackson, P; Kromidas, L; Meurice, P; Rothe, H; Singal, M

    2014-05-16

    In recent years, the official regulation of chemicals and chemical products has been intensified. Explicitly for spray products enhanced requirements to assess the consumers'/professionals' exposure to such product type have been introduced. In this regard the Aerosol-Dispensers-Directive (75/324/EEC) with obligation for marketing aerosol dispensers, and the Cosmetic-Products-Regulation (1223/2009/EC) which obliges the insurance of a safety assessment, have to be mentioned. Both enactments, similar to the REACH regulation (1907/2006/EC), require a robust chemical safety assessment. From such assessment, appropriate risk management measures may be identified to adequately control the risk of these chemicals/products to human health and the environment when used. Currently, the above-mentioned regulations lack the guidance on which data are needed for preparing a proper hazard analysis and safety assessment of spray products. Mandatory in the process of inhalation risk and safety assessment is the determination and quantification of the actual exposure to the spray product and more specifically, its ingredients. In this respect the current article, prepared by the European Aerosol Federation (FEA, Brussels) task force "Inhalation Toxicology", intends to introduce toxicological principles and the state of the art in currently available exposure models adapted for typical application scenarios. This review on current methodologies is intended to guide safety assessors to better estimate inhalation exposure by using the most relevant data. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Decentralized manufacturing of cell and gene therapies: Overcoming challenges and identifying opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Richard P; Ruck, Steven; Medcalf, Nicholas; Rafiq, Qasim A

    2017-10-01

    Decentralized or "redistributed" manufacturing has the potential to revolutionize the manufacturing approach for cell and gene therapies (CGTs), moving away from the "Fordist" paradigm, delivering health care locally, customized to the end user and, by its very nature, overcoming many of the challenges associated with manufacturing and distribution of high volume goods. In departing from the traditional centralized model of manufacturing, decentralized manufacturing divides production across sites or geographic regions. This paradigm shift imposes significant structural and organisational changes on a business presenting both hidden challenges that must be addressed and opportunities to be embraced. By profoundly adapting business practices, significant advantages can be realized through a democratized value chain, creation of professional-level jobs without geographic restriction to the central hub and a flexibility in response to external pressures and demands. To realize these potential opportunities, however, advances in manufacturing technology and support systems are required, as well as significant changes in the way CGTs are regulated to facilitate multi-site manufacturing. Decentralized manufacturing is likely to be the manufacturing platform of choice for advanced health care therapies-in particular, those with a high degree of personalization. The future success of these promising products will be enhanced by adopting sound business strategies early in development. To realize the benefits that decentralized manufacturing of CGTs has to offer, it is important to examine both the risks and the substantial opportunities present. In this research, we examine both the challenges and the opportunities this shift in business strategy represents in an effort to maximize the success of adoption. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Risks arising during manipulation with radiologically specific products of biotechnical production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitrovic, R.; Vukovic, D.; Vicentijevic, M.; Kljajic, R.

    1998-01-01

    Objective of this study was to review the risk of exposure to radiocaesium (134+137Cs), which biologically presents the most toxic radionuclide, of people engaged in the process of supervision, transport and storage of the radiologically specific products, like concentrated protein feedstuff (fish meal, powdered milk), wool, cow hide and chamois. The discussion is based on the results of a radiological-hygienic analysis of these products in the context of veterinary-sanitary control, performed in the authorized referent Laboratory for Radiation Hygiene (LABRAH) at the Scientific Institute for Veterinary Medicine of Serbia in Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

  8. Investigations regarding the lowering of specific intellectual property risks identified in the production process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakocs Ramona

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research is to decrease the emergence of specific intellectual property risks within the production process as well as increasing risk management performance of IP by preventing them. In order to achieve this, previous studies regarding the main specific intellectual property risks from industrial companies were analyzed together with their managerial methods as well as the possibility of reducing their emergence. As a result of the research conducted were identified five types of intellectual property risks that have a high potential of emergence in the production process, namely: the risk of production of goods in violation of IP rights; the know-how, production knowledge and trade secret disclosure risk; the technological risk of unprotected utility models; the technological risk of unprotected integrated circuits topographies and finally the risk of product counterfeit. In order to achieve the main purpose of our investigation, we have proposed new formulas for estimating the specific intellectual property risks identified in the production process. Their purpose was to minimalize the risk’s negative effects on industrial companies and to increase the managerial performance from the intellectual property domain through a new type of management appropriately named: intellectual property management. The research is finalized with a case study regarding the lapse of rights of a patented invention. Based on a case analysis, it was proved that the exploitation of an invention without a contract represents a counterfeit.

  9. Foreign direct investment in South Africa: how big is Southern Africa’s natural product opportunity and what trade issues impede sectoral development?

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, Ben

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify the scale of the trade opportunity for natural product exports from Southern Africa and to recommend actions to address market access issues constraining sectoral growth.\\ud Field research was undertaken in Malawi, Zimbabwe, Namibia, South Africa and the United Kingdom between 9th January and 25th February 2006. The study concentrated on ten countries in Southern Africa1 with potential to export significant quantities of natural products. These products ar...

  10. Analysis of the effect of risk management practices on the performance of new product development programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oehmen, Josef; Olechowski, Alison; Kenley, C. Robert

    2014-01-01

    Risk management is receiving much attention, as it is seen as a method to improve cost, schedule, and technical performance of new product development programs. However, there is a lack of empirical research that investigates the effective integration of specific risk management practices proposed...... skills and resources; (2) Tailor risk management to and integrate it with new product development; (3) Quantify impacts of risks on your main objectives; (4) Support all critical decisions with risk management results; (5) Monitor and review your risks, risk mitigation actions, and risk management...... by various standards with new product development programs and their association with various dimensions of risk management success. Based on a survey of 291 product development programs, this paper investigates the association of risk management practices with five categories of product development program...

  11. Time-explicit methods for joint economical and geological risk mitigation in production optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse Hjuler; Capolei, Andrea; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2016-01-01

    Real-life applications of production optimization face challenges of risks related to unpredictable fluctuations in oil prices and sparse geological data. Consequently, operating companies are reluctant to adopt model-based production optimization into their operations. Conventional production...... of mitigating economical and geological risks. As opposed to conventional strategies that focus on a single long-term objective, TE methods seek to reduce risks and promote returns over the entire reservoir life by optimization of a given ensemble-based geological risk measure over time. By explicit involvement...... of time, economical risks are implicitly addressed by balancing short-term and long-term objectives throughout the reservoir life. Open-loop simulations of a two-phase synthetic reservoir demonstrate that TE methods may significantly improve short-term risk measures such as expected return, standard...

  12. Risk and opportunity management for municipal power suppliers incorporated under German law as a private limited liability company or as a public corporation; Risiko- und Chancenmanagement bei kommunalen Energieversorgungsunternehmen in der privatwirtschaftlichen Form der GmbH und AG in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gliese, Andree

    2012-07-01

    Art. 53 of the Law on the Principles of Budget Law requires municipal power suppliers to establish and validate an early risk detection system: Efforts at liberalisation and deregulation in the European Union over the past years have brought much change to the landscape of risks and opportunities. The purpose of the present study was to depict the state of progress in implementing early risk detection systems and find answers to practical questions facing municipal utilities in developing a modern risk and opportunity management system (ROMS). Most utilities to date have little to show in the way of a ROMS. Given the continued rise in competitive pressure, price changes for energy, increasing regulatory intensity and the requirement to meet climate protection targets in Germany it appears that the risks and opportunities ahead can hardly be discerned and much less coped with without an appropriate system for uniform management of risks and opportunities.

  13. Association of trypanosomosis risk with dairy cattle production in western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.L. Mugunieri

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Dairy cattle reared in western Kenya are exposed to medium to high levels of trypanosomosis risk. The social background, farm characteristics and dairy cattle productivity of 90 and 30 randomly selected farmers from medium- and high-risk trypanosomosis areas, respectively, were compared. All the 120 farmers were visited between July and August 2002. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and analysis of variance. The results showed that increased trypanosomosis risk represented by an increase in disease prevalence in cattle of 1% to 20 % decreased the density of dairy cattle by 53 % and increased the calving interval from 14 to 25 months. The increased risk was also associated with a significant increase in cattle mortalities and in a lactation period of 257 to 300 days. It was concluded that removal of the trypanosomosis constraint on dairy production would lead to expansion of dairying since the domestic demand for dairy products is expected to increase.

  14. Recent advances in understanding the genetic resources of sheep breeds locally-adapted to the UK uplands : opportunities they offer for sustainable productivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianna eBowles

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Locally adapted breeds of livestock are of considerable interest since they represent potential reservoirs of adaptive fitness traits that may contribute to the future of sustainable productivity in a changing climate.Recent research, involving three hill sheep breeds geographically concentrated in the northern uplands of the UK has revealed the extent of their genetic diversity from one another and from other breeds. Results from the use of SNPs, microsatellites and retrovirus insertions are reviewed in the context of related studies on sheep breeds world-wide to highlight opportunities offered by the genetic resources of locally adapted hill breeds. One opportunity concerns reduced susceptibility to Maedi-Visna, a lentivirus with massive impacts on sheep health and productivity globally. In contrast to many mainstream breeds used in farming, each of the hill breeds analysed are likely to be far less susceptible to the disease threat. A different opportunity, relating specifically to the Herdwick breed, is the extent to which the genome of the breed has retained primitive features, no longer present in other mainland breeds of sheep in the UK and offering a new route for discovering unique genetic traits of use to agriculture.

  15. The health risk of the agricultural production in potentially contaminated sites: an environmental-health risk analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Russo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Rural areas are often interested by pollution phenomena generated by agricultural activities with a high use of pesticides and/or by anthropic activities, such as industrial plants or illegal waste disposal sites, which may cause even long-range contamination. The risk for human health from the pollutants present in the environment can be quantitatively evaluated by the environmental health risk analysis set out in the Italian Legislative Decree no. 152/2006 (Italian Regulation, 2006. This analysis is the best technical-normative tool to estimate the health risks linked to the pollutants present in the environment but it does not consider the specificity of agricultural soils or the contamination of agricultural products. This study aims to provide this missing technical-normative data by identifying and applying a suitable methodology to evaluate the health risk caused by the ingestion of agricultural products grown in contaminated soils. The risk analysis was applied to two contaminated areas in southern Italy using an innovative methodology based on widely accepted parameters for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs soil-plant bio-transfer factor in the case of horticultural crops. In addition, some concentration limits of PAHs in agricultural soils are proposed that may be of help to the competent authorities (health agencies, local authorities in delineating the areas requiring strict health surveillance of the food products cultivated.

  16. Probabilistic framework for product design optimization and risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keski-Rahkonen, J. K.

    2018-05-01

    Probabilistic methods have gradually gained ground within engineering practices but currently it is still the industry standard to use deterministic safety margin approaches to dimensioning components and qualitative methods to manage product risks. These methods are suitable for baseline design work but quantitative risk management and product reliability optimization require more advanced predictive approaches. Ample research has been published on how to predict failure probabilities for mechanical components and furthermore to optimize reliability through life cycle cost analysis. This paper reviews the literature for existing methods and tries to harness their best features and simplify the process to be applicable in practical engineering work. Recommended process applies Monte Carlo method on top of load-resistance models to estimate failure probabilities. Furthermore, it adds on existing literature by introducing a practical framework to use probabilistic models in quantitative risk management and product life cycle costs optimization. The main focus is on mechanical failure modes due to the well-developed methods used to predict these types of failures. However, the same framework can be applied on any type of failure mode as long as predictive models can be developed.

  17. Arbitrage opportunities and their implications to derivative hedging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panayides, Stephanos

    2006-02-01

    We explore the role that random arbitrage opportunities play in hedging financial derivatives. We extend the asymptotic pricing theory presented by Fedotov and Panayides [Stochastic arbitrage return and its implication for option pricing, Physica A 345 (2005) 207-217] for the case of hedging a derivative when arbitrage opportunities are present in the market. We restrict ourselves to finding hedging confidence intervals that can be adapted to the amount of arbitrage risk an investor will permit to be exposed to. The resulting hedging bands are independent of the detailed statistical characteristics of the arbitrage opportunities.

  18. Relay cropping as a sustainable approach: problems and opportunities for sustainable crop production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanveer, Mohsin; Anjum, Shakeel Ahmad; Hussain, Saddam; Cerdà, Artemi; Ashraf, Umair

    2017-03-01

    Climate change, soil degradation, and depletion of natural resources are becoming the most prominent challenges for crop productivity and environmental sustainability in modern agriculture. In the scenario of conventional farming system, limited chances are available to cope with these issues. Relay cropping is a method of multiple cropping where one crop is seeded into standing second crop well before harvesting of second crop. Relay cropping may solve a number of conflicts such as inefficient use of available resources, controversies in sowing time, fertilizer application, and soil degradation. Relay cropping is a complex suite of different resource-efficient technologies, which possesses the capability to improve soil quality, to increase net return, to increase land equivalent ratio, and to control the weeds and pest infestation. The current review emphasized relay cropping as a tool for crop diversification and environmental sustainability with special focus on soil. Briefly, benefits, constraints, and opportunities of relay cropping keeping the goals of higher crop productivity and sustainability have also been discussed in this review. The research and knowledge gap in relay cropping was also highlighted in order to guide the further studies in future.

  19. Health claims on food products in Southeast Asia: regulatory frameworks, barriers, and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Karin Y M; van der Beek, Eline M; Chan, M Y; Zhao, Xuejun; Stevenson, Leo

    2015-09-01

    The Association of Southeast Asian Nations aims to act as a single market and allow free movement of goods, services, and manpower. The purpose of this article is to present an overview of the current regulatory framework for health claims in Southeast Asia and to highlight the current barriers and opportunities in the regulatory frameworks in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. To date, 5 countries in Southeast Asia, i.e., Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand, have regulations and guidelines to permit the use of health claims on food products. There are inconsistencies in the regulations and the types of evidence required for health claim applications in these countries. A clear understanding of the regulatory frameworks in these countries may help to increase trade in this fast-growing region and to provide direction for the food industry and the regulatory community to develop and market food products with better nutritional quality tailored to the needs of Southeast Asian consumers. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Understanding safety and production risks in rail engineering planning and protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John R; Ryan, Brendan; Schock, Alex; Ferreira, Pedro; Smith, Stuart; Pitsopoulos, Julia

    2009-07-01

    Much of the published human factors work on risk is to do with safety and within this is concerned with prediction and analysis of human error and with human reliability assessment. Less has been published on human factors contributions to understanding and managing project, business, engineering and other forms of risk and still less jointly assessing risk to do with broad issues of 'safety' and broad issues of 'production' or 'performance'. This paper contains a general commentary on human factors and assessment of risk of various kinds, in the context of the aims of ergonomics and concerns about being too risk averse. The paper then describes a specific project, in rail engineering, where the notion of a human factors case has been employed to analyse engineering functions and related human factors issues. A human factors issues register for potential system disturbances has been developed, prior to a human factors risk assessment, which jointly covers safety and production (engineering delivery) concerns. The paper concludes with a commentary on the potential relevance of a resilience engineering perspective to understanding rail engineering systems risk. Design, planning and management of complex systems will increasingly have to address the issue of making trade-offs between safety and production, and ergonomics should be central to this. The paper addresses the relevant issues and does so in an under-published domain - rail systems engineering work.

  1. Risk-Optimized Design of Production Systems by Use of GRAMOSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lütjen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Today production and logistic systems are getting more complex. This is a problem which the planning and design of such systems have to deal with. One main issue of production system development in series production is the planning of production processes and systems under uncertainty. New and existing production technologies are often not fully adoptable to new products. This is why some of the main characteristics, like, for example, cost, time, or quality, are not definable at the beginning. Only value ranges and probabilities can be estimated. However, the adaptation process is controllable, which means that the adaptation results are depending on the existing development budget and its resources. This paper presents an approach for the optimized allocation of development resources regarding the adaptation risks of production technologies and processes. The modeling concept GRAMOSA is used for integrated modeling and discrete event-based simulation of the aspired production system. To this end a domain-specific modeling language (DSML is applied. The further risk-based analysis of the simulation results and the optimized allocation of the development budget are done by use of mathematical optimization.

  2. Factors to consider in developing individual pharmaceutical product quality risk profiles useful to government procurement agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Boehm, Garth; Zheng, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Governments that procure pharmaceutical products from an Essential Medicine List (EML) bear special responsibility for the quality of these products. In this article we examine the possibility of developing a pharmaceutical product quality risk assessment scheme for use by government procurement officials. We use the Chinese EML as a basis, and US recall data is examined as it is publically available.This is justified as the article is only concerned with inherent product quality risks. After establishing a link between Chinese essential medicines and those available in the US, we examine US recall data to separate product specific recalls. We conclude that, in addition to existing manufacturing based risks, there are two other product specific risks that stand out from all others, degradation and dissolution failure. Methodology for relative product risk for degradation is needed to be developed and further work is required to better understand dissolution failures which largely occur with modified-release solid oral products. We conclude that a product specific quality risk profile would be enhanced by including a risk assessment for degradation for all products, and in the case of solid oral products, dissolution.

  3. Bioassays for risk assessment of coal conversion products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schacht, S.; Sinder, C.; Pfeifer, F.; Klein, J. [DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung mbH, Essen (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Traditional as well as biotechnological processing coal leads to complex mixtures of products. Besides chemical and physical characterization, which provides the information for product application, there is a need for bioassays to monitor properties that are probably toxic, mutagenic or cancerogenic. Investigations carried out focused on the selection, adaptation and validation of bioassays for the sensitive estimation of toxic effects. Organisms like bacteria, Daphnia magna and Scenedesmus subspicatus, representing different complexities in the biosphere, were selected as test systems for ecotoxicological and mutagenicity studies. The results obtained indicate that bioassays are, in principle, suitable tools for characterization and evaluation of coal-derived substances and bioconversion products. Using coal products, coal-relevant model compounds and bioconversion products, data for risk assessment are presented. (orig.)

  4. Weather swap as an instrument for weather risk management in wheat production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Todor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A special type of weather derivatives are weather forwards and they exists mostly in the form of weather swaps. Hedging effectiveness in wheat production with and without weather swap was analyzed in this paper using stochastic dominance. The results show that the effect of risk reduction is significant using weather swap, but geographical- basis risk and production-related basis risk are important factor that reduce the utility of weather derivatives.

  5. Managing the risks of the backfill production line from material acquisition to installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiviranta, Leena; Kumpulainen, Sirpa; Keto, Paula; Autio, Jorma; Siivonen, Markku; Koho, Petri

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The tunnel backfill of Finnish KBS-3V type repository for spent nuclear fuel consists of foundation layer that is installed at site, pre-compacted backfill blocks that fill most of the tunnel and bentonite pellets to fill the gap between blocks and tunnel wall. In order to ensure the quality, availability, and timely delivery of backfill materials and components, and further to ensure the fulfillment of the requirements and specifications set for backfilling of deposition tunnels, the backfill production line was explored step-by-step, and risks related were defined and analyzed. The work described in this paper was initiated by Posiva Oy and is reported in Keto et al. (2012). The first part of the backfill production line is described in Figure 1 for Friedland clay that is designed to be used for the backfill blocks. It consists of excavation, processing and delivery of materials to backfill production facility. Second part of the production line consists of manufacturing of the backfill components, and the third part is the installation. A preliminary risk assessment was done in 2011 for the acquisition of Friedland clay and manufacturing and installation of foundation layer, blocks and pellets. The critical points of the production line were determined using a material flow description where risk is defined as a probability of something unwanted to happen times the severity of the consequences. Risk analysis was performed by going through the whole backfill production line step by step and analyzing all the incidents, which have occurred (or might occur) during the backfilling operations. A risk number from 1 to 25 was given to each step of the chain depending on how long delay the problem causes and how often it occurs. Low risk was the target for each step of the chain, medium risk was considered tolerable, for high risks management actions to decrease the risk number were considered and extremely high risks

  6. Assessing the landscape context and conversion risk of protected areas using satellite data products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svancara, Leona K.; Scott, J.M.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Pidgorna, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Since the establishment of the first national park (Yellowstone National Park in 1872) and the first wildlife refuge (Pelican Island in 1903), dramatic changes have occurred in both ecological and cultural landscapes across the U.S. The ability of these protected areas to maintain current levels of biodiversity depend, at least in part, on the integrity of the surrounding landscape. Our objective was to quantify and compare the extent and pattern of natural land cover, risk of conversion, and relationships with demographic and economic variables in counties near National Park Service units and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service refuges with those counties distant from either type of protected area in the coterminous United States. Our results indicate that landscapes in counties within 10 km of both parks and refuges and those within 10 km of just parks were more natural, more intact, and more protected than those in counties within 10 km of just refuges and counties greater than 10 km from either protected area system. However, they also had greater human population density and change in population, indicating potential conversion risk since the percent of landscape protected averaged  2) in 76% of counties near both parks and refuges, 81% of counties near just parks, 91% of counties near just refuges, and 93% of distant counties. Thirteen percent of counties in the coterminous U.S. had moderate to high amounts of natural land cover (> 60%), low protection ( 20%). Although these areas are not the most critically endangered, they represent the greatest conservation opportunity, need, and urgency. Our approach is based on national level metrics that are simple, general, informative, and can be understood by broad audiences and by policy makers and managers to assess the health of lands surrounding parks and refuges. Regular monitoring of these metrics with satellite data products in counties surrounding protected areas provides a consistent, national level

  7. Risk Adjusted Production Efficiency of Maize Farmers in Ethiopia: Implication for Improved Maize Varieties Adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisay Diriba Lemessa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the technical efficiency and production risk of 862 maize farmers in major maize producing regions of Ethiopia. It employs the stochastic frontier approach (SFA to estimate the level of technical efficiencies of stallholder farmers. The stochastic frontier approach (SFA uses flexible risk properties to account for production risk. Thus, maize production variability is assessed from two perspectives, the production risk and the technical efficiency. The study also attempts to determine the socio-economic and farm characteristics that influence technical efficiency of maize production in the study area. The findings of the study showed the existence of both production risk and technical inefficiency in maize production process. Input variables (amounts per hectare such as fertilizer and labor positively influence maize output. The findings also show that farms in the study area exhibit decreasing returns to scale. Fertilizer and ox plough days reduce output risk while labor and improved seed increase output risk. The mean technical efficiency for maize farms is 48 percent. This study concludes that production risk and technical inefficiency prevents the maize farmers from realizing their frontier output. The best factors that improve the efficiency of the maize farmers in the study area include: frequency of extension contact, access to credit and use of intercropping. It was also realized that altitude and terracing in maize farms had influence on farmer efficiency.

  8. Environmental degradation, global food production, and risk for large-scale migrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doeoes, B.R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper attempts to estimate to what extent global food production is affected by the ongoing environmental degradation through processes, such as soil erosion, salinization, chemical contamination, ultraviolet radiation, and biotic stress. Estimates have also been made of available opportunities to improve food production efficiency by, e.g., increased use of fertilizers, irrigation, and biotechnology, as well as improved management. Expected losses and gains of agricultural land in competition with urbanization, industrial development, and forests have been taken into account. Although estimated gains in food production deliberately have been overestimated and losses underestimated, calculations indicate that during the next 30-35 years the annual net gain in food production will be significantly lower than the rate of world population growth. An attempt has also been made to identify possible scenarios for large-scale migrations, caused mainly by rapid population growth in combination with insufficient local food production and poverty. 18 refs, 7 figs, 6 tabs

  9. ABC Classification of Risk Factors in Production Supply Chains with Uncertain Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Vujović

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of classification of risk factors in an uncertain environment is part of the risk management problem, which has a critical effect on the competitive advantage of production supply chain. The severities of consequences, their relative importance, and the frequency of occurrence of risk factors are defined by risk management team, depending on their experience and the results of good practice. Fuzzy rating of the severities of consequences and the frequency of occurrence of risk factors are described by linguistic expressions, which are modeled by triangular fuzzy numbers. The risk values, obtained by the materialization of the identified risk factors, are given precisely with the usage of fuzzy algebra rules. The classification criterion is defined as the distance between current risk value and extreme risk values. The proposed model enables determination of the priorities of risk factors. It is illustrated by an example with real-life data from a production supply chain in auto industry.

  10. Reassessment of inclusion body-based production as a versatile opportunity for difficult-to-express recombinant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Daniel; Ebrahimi, Mehrdad; Gerlach, Doreen; Salzig, Denise; Czermak, Peter

    2017-11-10

    The production of recombinant proteins in the microbial host Escherichia coli often results in the formation of cytoplasmic protein inclusion bodies (IBs). Proteins forming IBs are often branded as difficult-to-express, neglecting that IBs can be an opportunity for their production. IBs are resistant to proteolytic degradation and contain up to 90% pure recombinant protein, which does not interfere with the host metabolism. This is especially advantageous for host-toxic proteins like antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). IBs can be easily isolated by cell disruption followed by filtration and/or centrifugation, but conventional techniques for the recovery of soluble proteins from IBs are laborious. New approaches therefore simplify protein recovery by optimizing the production process conditions, and often include mild resolubilization methods that either increase the yield after refolding or avoid the necessity of refolding all together. For the AMP production, the IB-based approach is ideal, because these peptides often have simple structures and are easy to refold. The intentional IB production of almost every protein can be achieved by fusing recombinant proteins to pull-down tags. This review discusses the techniques available for IB-based protein production before considering technical approaches for the isolation of IBs from E. coli lysates followed by efficient protein resolubilization which ideally omits further refolding. The techniques are evaluated in terms of their suitability for the process-scale production and downstream processing of recombinant proteins and are discussed for AMP production as an example.

  11. Risk mitigation strategies for viral contamination of biotechnology products: consideration of best practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Amy S; Cherney, Barry; Brorson, Kurt; Clouse, Kathleen; Kozlowski, Steven; Hughes, Patricia; Friedman, Rick

    2011-01-01

    CONFERENCE PROCEEDING Proceedings of the PDA/FDA Adventitious Viruses in Biologics: Detection and Mitigation Strategies Workshop in Bethesda, MD, USA; December 1-3, 2010 Guest Editors: Arifa Khan (Bethesda, MD), Patricia Hughes (Bethesda, MD) and Michael Wiebe (San Francisco, CA) Viral contamination of biotech product facilities is a potentially devastating manufacturing risk and, unfortunately, is more common than is generally reported or previously appreciated. Although viral contaminants of biotech products are thought to originate principally from biological raw materials, all potential process risks merit evaluation. Limitations to existing methods for virus detection are becoming evident as emerging viruses have contaminated facilities and disrupted supplies of critical products. New technologies, such as broad-based polymerase chain reaction screens for multiple virus types, are increasingly becoming available to detect adventitious viral contamination and thus, mitigate risks to biotech products and processes. Further, the industry embrace of quality risk management that promotes improvements in testing stratagems, enhanced viral inactivation methods for raw materials, implementation and standardization of robust viral clearance procedures, and efforts to learn from both epidemiologic screening of raw material sources and from the experience of other manufacturers with regard to this problem will serve to enhance the safety of biotech products available to patients. Based on this evolving landscape, we propose a set of principles for manufacturers of biotech products: Pillars of Risk Mitigation for Viral Contamination of Biotech Products.

  12. Opportunities and challenges for emerging nuclear power states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nkong-Njock, V.; Facer, R.I.; Boussaha, A.

    2009-01-01

    Energy and reliable access to energy sources are essential to economic and social development and improved quality of life. However, limited access to modern energy still remains one of the major constraints to socio-economic development in many parts in the world. On the other hand, energy production, distribution and consumption may have many adverse effects on the local, regional and global environment including climate change. Production and consumption of fossil fuels constitutes the main source of greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs). Cleaner and affordable energy systems are therefore needed to address all of these effects and to contribute to environmental sustainability. Nuclear power is a proven technology with virtually no greenhouse gas emissions or emission of pollutants, and therefore is expected to play an increasing role in meeting this rapidly growing global requirements for clean and economic electricity. But, it is known that challenges and opportunities are polarities, and as opposite poles of the magnet, they do not exist separately. An opportunity for some can be a challenge for others, or a challenge today can become an opportunity tomorrow. The potential growth of nuclear power has increased, in some quarters, concern that nonproliferation should be given sufficient attention. In particular, since introduction of many new power reactors will require increased uranium enrichment services, with the potential proliferation risk of adding enrichment facilities in new countries. This has urged the international community to strongly support the development of safeguarded and well-regulated nuclear power around the world, with the aim to ensure that nuclear power is deployed through a commitment to the highest possible standards of nuclear safety, security, and non-proliferation. The keys issues and trends for nuclear power expansion include therefore problems related to (i) safety, security and reliability, (ii) public perception and acceptance, (iii

  13. Identification of potentially hazardous human gene products in GMO risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmans, Hans; Logie, Colin; Van Maanen, Kees; Hermsen, Harm; Meredyth, Michelle; Van Der Vlugt, Cécile

    2008-01-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs), e.g. viral vectors, could threaten the environment if by their release they spread hazardous gene products. Even in contained use, to prevent adverse consequences, viral vectors carrying genes from mammals or humans should be especially scrutinized as to whether gene products that they synthesize could be hazardous in their new context. Examples of such potentially hazardous gene products (PHGPs) are: protein toxins, products of dominant alleles that have a role in hereditary diseases, gene products and sequences involved in genome rearrangements, gene products involved in immunomodulation or with an endocrine function, gene products involved in apoptosis, activated proto-oncogenes. For contained use of a GMO that carries a construct encoding a PHGP, the precautionary principle dictates that safety measures should be applied on a "worst case" basis, until the risks of the specific case have been assessed. The potential hazard of cloned genes can be estimated before empirical data on the actual GMO become available. Preliminary data may be used to focus hazard identification and risk assessment. Both predictive and empirical data may also help to identify what further information is needed to assess the risk of the GMO. A two-step approach, whereby a PHGP is evaluated for its conceptual dangers, then checked by data bank searches, is delineated here.

  14. Analyzing Integrated Cost-Schedule Risk for Complex Product Systems R&D Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of the research efforts in project risk management tend to assess cost risk and schedule risk independently. However, project cost and time are related in reality and the relationship between them should be analyzed directly. We propose an integrated cost and schedule risk assessment model for complex product systems R&D projects. Graphical evaluation review technique (GERT, Monte Carlo simulation, and probability distribution theory are utilized to establish the model. In addition, statistical analysis and regression analysis techniques are employed to analyze simulation outputs. Finally, a complex product systems R&D project as an example is modeled by the proposed approach and the simulation outputs are analyzed to illustrate the effectiveness of the risk assessment model. It seems that integrating cost and schedule risk assessment can provide more reliable risk estimation results.

  15. Scientific Opportunities to Reduce Risk in Nuclear Process Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bredt, P.R.; Felmy, A.R.; Gauglitz, P.A.; Poloski, A.P.; Vienna, J.D.; Moyer, B.A.; Hobbs, D.; Wilmarth, B.; McIlwain, M.; Subramanian, K.; Krahn, S.; Machara, N.

    2009-01-01

    intent of this paper is to foster a dialogue on how basic scientific research can assist DOE in executing its cleanup and environmental management mission. In this document, we propose that such scientific investments should not be focused solely on what may be viewed as current DOE needs, but also upon longer-term investments in specific areas of science that underpin technologies presently in use. In the latter regard, we propose four science theme areas: 1) the structure and dynamics of materials and interfaces, 2) coupled chemical and physical processes, 3) complex solution phase phenomena, and 4) chemical recognition phenomena. The proposed scientific focus for each of these theme areas and the scientific opportunities are identified, along with links to major risks within the initiative areas identified in EM's Engineering and Technology Road-map. The authors encourage feedback from our colleagues in the nuclear waste and related fields. (authors)

  16. Investment opportunity in China's overseas oil project: An empirical analysis based on real option approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Bao-Jun; Zhou, Hui-Ling; Chen, Hao; Wang, Kai; Cao, Hong

    2017-01-01

    China's overseas oil investments uphold national energy security. Located in the complex international economic and political environment, the benefits of overseas oil projects are affected by various uncertainties. Oil companies call for a set of evaluation method dealing with these uncertainties, especially when encountering low-oil-price conditions. It is much more crucial to answer when to optimally invest rather than whether to invest. This paper analyzes the investment opportunity of an oil project in the development and production phase considering uncertainty, irreversibility and management flexibility. The decision-making process combines Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) method and the trinomial tree model of Real Option Approach (ROA). For practical purposes, tools of hurdle price, cumulative probability and decision tree are adopted. In addition, results of the case project show the economic feasibility at present and optimal start-up timing at the end of 2016. Besides, the lower cost parameters generally make it easier to meet the opportunity. The scenario analysis suggests the higher risk contributes to an earlier start-up. Furthermore, the issues of method applicability, investment signals and decision-lag effects are discussed. - Highlights: • Volatility is combined with fluctuations in oil price, exchange rate and political situation. • Hurdle price is adopted as a critical price to measure investment opportunity. • Scenario analysis suggests the higher risk contribute to earlier investment timing.

  17. Biodiesel biorefinery: opportunities and challenges for microbial production of fuels and chemicals from glycerol waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, João R M; Fávaro, Léia C L; Quirino, Betania F

    2012-07-18

    The considerable increase in biodiesel production worldwide in the last 5 years resulted in a stoichiometric increased coproduction of crude glycerol. As an excess of crude glycerol has been produced, its value on market was reduced and it is becoming a "waste-stream" instead of a valuable "coproduct". The development of biorefineries, i.e. production of chemicals and power integrated with conversion processes of biomass into biofuels, has been singled out as a way to achieve economically viable production chains, valorize residues and coproducts, and reduce industrial waste disposal. In this sense, several alternatives aimed at the use of crude glycerol to produce fuels and chemicals by microbial fermentation have been evaluated. This review summarizes different strategies employed to produce biofuels and chemicals (1,3-propanediol, 2,3-butanediol, ethanol, n-butanol, organic acids, polyols and others) by microbial fermentation of glycerol. Initially, the industrial use of each chemical is briefly presented; then we systematically summarize and discuss the different strategies to produce each chemical, including selection and genetic engineering of producers, and optimization of process conditions to improve yield and productivity. Finally, the impact of the developments obtained until now are placed in perspective and opportunities and challenges for using crude glycerol to the development of biodiesel-based biorefineries are considered. In conclusion, the microbial fermentation of glycerol represents a remarkable alternative to add value to the biodiesel production chain helping the development of biorefineries, which will allow this biofuel to be more competitive.

  18. Compelling Research Opportunities using Isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Isotopes are vital to the science and technology base of the US economy. Isotopes, both stable and radioactive, are essential tools in the growing science, technology, engineering, and health enterprises of the 21st century. The scientific discoveries and associated advances made as a result of the availability of isotopes today span widely from medicine to biology, physics, chemistry, and a broad range of applications in environmental and material sciences. Isotope issues have become crucial aspects of homeland security. Isotopes are utilized in new resource development, in energy from bio-fuels, petrochemical and nuclear fuels, in drug discovery, health care therapies and diagnostics, in nutrition, in agriculture, and in many other areas. The development and production of isotope products unavailable or difficult to get commercially have been most recently the responsibility of the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy program. The President's FY09 Budget request proposed the transfer of the Isotope Production program to the Department of Energy's Office of Science in Nuclear Physics and to rename it the National Isotope Production and Application program (NIPA). The transfer has now taken place with the signing of the 2009 appropriations bill. In preparation for this, the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) was requested to establish a standing subcommittee, the NSAC Isotope Subcommittee (NSACI), to advise the DOE Office of Nuclear Physics. The request came in the form of two charges: one, on setting research priorities in the short term for the most compelling opportunities from the vast array of disciplines that develop and use isotopes and two, on making a long term strategic plan for the NIPA program. This is the final report to address charge 1. NSACI membership is comprised of experts from the diverse research communities, industry, production, and homeland security. NSACI discussed research opportunities divided into three areas: (1) medicine

  19. Compelling Research Opportunities using Isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-04-23

    Isotopes are vital to the science and technology base of the US economy. Isotopes, both stable and radioactive, are essential tools in the growing science, technology, engineering, and health enterprises of the 21st century. The scientific discoveries and associated advances made as a result of the availability of isotopes today span widely from medicine to biology, physics, chemistry, and a broad range of applications in environmental and material sciences. Isotope issues have become crucial aspects of homeland security. Isotopes are utilized in new resource development, in energy from bio-fuels, petrochemical and nuclear fuels, in drug discovery, health care therapies and diagnostics, in nutrition, in agriculture, and in many other areas. The development and production of isotope products unavailable or difficult to get commercially have been most recently the responsibility of the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy program. The President's FY09 Budget request proposed the transfer of the Isotope Production program to the Department of Energy's Office of Science in Nuclear Physics and to rename it the National Isotope Production and Application program (NIPA). The transfer has now taken place with the signing of the 2009 appropriations bill. In preparation for this, the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) was requested to establish a standing subcommittee, the NSAC Isotope Subcommittee (NSACI), to advise the DOE Office of Nuclear Physics. The request came in the form of two charges: one, on setting research priorities in the short term for the most compelling opportunities from the vast array of disciplines that develop and use isotopes and two, on making a long term strategic plan for the NIPA program. This is the final report to address charge 1. NSACI membership is comprised of experts from the diverse research communities, industry, production, and homeland security. NSACI discussed research opportunities divided into three areas: (1

  20. A framework for risk assessment on lean production implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Almeida Marodin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The organizational and technical complexity of implementing the lean principles and practices can become an extensively time consuming journey with few benefits. We argue that risk assessment can aid on the understanding and management of the major difficulties on the Lean production implementation (LPI. Thus, this paper proposes a framework for risk assessment on the LPI process. The literature review permitted to adapt the risk assessment steps to the characteristics of the LPI and develop data collection and analysis procedures for each step. The Sociotechnical systems (STS theory was brought in to improve the understanding of the context’s characteristics on the proposed framework because it has a major influence on the LPI. The framework was has five steps: (a defining the unit of analysis; (b describing the context; (c risk identification; (d risk analysis; and (e risk relationships modeling.

  1. Construction of a risk assessment system for chemical residues in agricultural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Shinai; Hong, Jiyeon; Lee, Dayeon; Paik, Minkyoung

    2014-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of chemical residues in agricultural and food products has been performed by various government bodies in South Korea. These bodies have made attempts to systematically manage this information by creating a monitoring database system as well as a system based on these data with which to assess the health risk of chemical residues in agricultural products. Meanwhile, a database system is being constructed consisting of information about monitoring and, following this, a demand for convenience has led to the need for an evaluation tool to be constructed with the data processing system. Also, in order to create a systematic and effective tool for the risk assessment of chemical residues in foods and agricultural products, various evaluation models are being developed, both domestically and abroad. Overseas, systems such as Dietary Exposure Evaluation Model: Food Commodity Intake Database and Cumulative and Aggregate Risk Evaluation System are being used; these use the US Environmental Protection Agency as a focus, while the EU has developed Pesticide Residue Intake Model for assessments of pesticide exposure through food intake. Following this, the National Academy of Agricultural Science (NAAS) created the Agricultural Products Risk Assessment System (APRAS) which supports the use and storage of monitoring information and risk assessments. APRAS efficiently manages the monitoring data produced by NAAS and creates an extraction feature included in the database system. Also, the database system in APRAS consists of a monitoring database system held by the NAAS and food consumption database system. Food consumption data is based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. This system is aimed at exposure and risk assessments for chemical residues in agricultural products with regards to different exposure scenarios.

  2. An approach to incorporate risks into a product's life-cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirhonen, P.

    1995-01-01

    Life-cycle assessment is usually based on regular discharges that occur at a more or less constant rate. Nevertheless, the more factors that are taken into account in the LCA the better picture it gives on the environmental aspects of a product. In this study an approach to incorporate accidental releases into a products' life-cycle assessment was developed. In this approach accidental releases are divided into two categories. The first category consists of those unplanned releases which occur with a predicted level and frequency. Due to the high frequency and small release size at a time, these accidental releases can be compared to continuous emissions. Their global impacts are studied in this approach. Accidental releases of the second category are sudden, unplanned releases caused by exceptional situations, e.g. technical failure, action error or disturbances in process conditions. These releases have a singular character and local impacts are typical of them. As far as the accidental releases of the second category are concerned, the approach introduced in this study results in a risk value for every stage of a life-cycle, the sum of which is a risk value for the whole life-cycle. Risk value is based on occurrence frequencies of incidents and potential environmental damage caused by releases. Risk value illustrates the level of potential damage caused by accidental releases related to the system under study and is meant to be used for comparison of these levels of two different products. It can also be used to compare the risk levels of different stages of the life-cycle. An approach was illustrated using petrol as an example product. The whole life-cycle of petrol from crude oil production to the consumption of petrol was studied

  3. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Opportunities: Parenting, Programs, and the Reduction of Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Julia; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Shanley, Dianne C; Hawkins, Russell

    2018-02-01

    To date, child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention has relied largely on child-focused education, teaching children how to identify, avoid, and disclose sexual abuse. The purpose of this article is to explore how prevention opportunities can include parents in new and innovative ways. We propose that parents can play a significant role as protectors of their children via two pathways: (i) directly, through the strong external barriers afforded by parent supervision, monitoring, and involvement; and (ii) indirectly, by promoting their children's self-efficacy, competence, well-being, and self-esteem, which the balance of evidence suggests will help them become less likely targets for abuse and more able to respond appropriately and disclose abuse if it occurs. In this article, we first describe why teaching young children about CSA protective behaviors might not be sufficient for prevention. We then narratively review the existing research on parents and prevention and the parenting and family circumstances that may increase a child's risk of experiencing sexual abuse. Finally, we make a number of recommendations for future approaches to prevention that may better inform and involve parents and other adult protectors in preventing CSA.

  4. Corporate governance for trillion dollar opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Grove

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Boards of Directors will have to play a key role in the technological survival and development of companies by asking corporate executives about their plans and strategies for these emerging technological changes and challenges. Key challenges and opportunities discussed in this paper, with corresponding corporate governance implications, included Big Data, Artificial Intelligence (AI with Industry 4.0, AI with the Internet of Things (IoT, Deep Learning, and Neural Networks. Survival should not be the goal, but it may be the necessary first step for today’s companies. Potential winners seizing these trillion dollar opportunities will be company executives and Boards of Directors who can incorporate these technological changes into specific new business models, strategies, and practices. While the awareness on boards regarding risks originating from disruptive innovation, cyber threats and privacy risks has been increasing, Boards of Directors must equally be able to challenge executives and identify opportunities and threats for their companies. This shift for companies is not only about digital technology but also cultural. How can people be managed when digital, virtual ways of working are increasing? What do robotics and Big Data analysis mean for managing people? One way to accelerate the digital learning process has been advocated: the use of digital apprentices for boards. For example, Board Apprentice, a non-profit organization, has already placed digital apprentices on boards for a year-long period (which helps to educate both apprentices and boards in five different countries. Additional plans and strategies are needed in this age of digitalization and lifelong learning. For example, cybersecurity risks are magnified by all these new technology trends, such as Big Data, AI, Industry 4.0, and IoT. Accordingly, the main findings of this paper are analysing the challenges and opportunities for corporate executives, Boards of Directors

  5. Managing the New Product Portfolio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    Product development companies are increasingly confronted with an unforgiving global marketplace, which urges the top management to pursue every product development opportunity that appears on the road. This situation incurs an important question: Which product development opportunities should a ....... The contributions encourage an improved understanding of the portfolio management concept and support industry professionals in their efforts to compose and continuously maintain a commercially strong product development portfolio.......Product development companies are increasingly confronted with an unforgiving global marketplace, which urges the top management to pursue every product development opportunity that appears on the road. This situation incurs an important question: Which product development opportunities should...

  6. The effect of price and production risks on optimal farm plans in Swiss dairy production considering 2 different milk quota systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briner, S; Finger, R

    2013-04-01

    The amount of milk produced on Swiss dairy farms is restricted by contracts between the farmers and their marketing agent. In the past, these contracts have been calculated on a yearly base. Due to a switch in agricultural policy, these yearly contracts are currently more and more replaced by contracts calculated on a monthly base. These new contracts are assumed to restrict the flexibility of farmers to react on changes in milk price as well as on changes in fodder availability. Thus, the contract design is expected to influence farmers' ability to cope with risks and, thus, to influence the farm's gross margin variability. Applying a bioeconomic whole-farm model, the effects of price and weather risk as well as different risk-management strategies on the gross margin and the variability of the gross margin in Swiss dairy production are assessed under the 2 contract designs. We consider both risk-neutral and risk-averse behavior of farmers in our study. Results show that gross margin is slightly higher under the yearly than under the monthly contract. Variability of gross margin is also higher under the yearly than under the monthly contract. If the farmer is assumed to be risk averse, under both contracts he can reduce the coefficient of variation of the gross margin by almost 20% at opportunity costs below 1% of the gross margin. To reduce variability of gross margin under both contracts the size of the feedstock needs to be increased. This increase, however, must be considerably higher under the monthly contract than under the yearly contract. An additional risk-management strategy under a monthly contract is an increase in the area used as intensive pasture to ensure fodder availability in years with unfavorable weather. Under the yearly contract, an increase in the area used as extensive pasture is shown to be more favorable because it increases the amount of direct payments the farmer will receive. Additional restrictions in farm management due to a monthly

  7. User Frustrations as Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Weiss

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available User frustrations are an excellent source of new product ideas. Starting with this observation, this article describes an approach that entrepreneurs can use to discover business opportunities. Opportunity discovery starts with a problem that the user has, but may not be able to articulate. User-centered design techniques can help elicit those latent needs. The entrepreneur should then try to understand how users are solving their problem today, before proposing a solution that draws on the unique skills and technical capabilities available to the entrepreneur. Finally, an in-depth understanding of the user allows the entrepreneur to hone in on the points of difference and resonance that are the foundation of a strong customer value proposition.

  8. Opportunities in independent gas storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, R.

    1999-01-01

    The range of business opportunities currently available for the midstream oil and gas business were discussed with particular focus on storage opportunities. Alberta Energy Co. (AEC) Ltd.'s two midstream business units include AEC Pipelines and Gas Processing, and AEC Storage and Hub Services. These two businesses provide the company with good investment returns, stable cash flow, and some significant strategic synergies with their exploration and production businesses. In 1988, the AECO C Hub in southeastern Alberta was created as an outgrowth of AEC's gas production operations on the Suffield block, where they had depleted gas reservoirs with high rock quality suitable for high deliverability storage. With the AECO C Hub, AEC was able to offer firm storage contracts of from 1 to 20 years, and to introduce short term interruptible parking and lending services, title exchange, a spot price index for greater price discovery, and an electronic nomination system. AEC is currently completing construction of their second commercial storage facility, the Wild Goose project, in northern California. D ebottlenecking' the Western Canada supply basin should provide additional opportunities for further expansion not only for AEC but also for other midstream service providers. Opportunities are especially available in the areas of new storage facilities to serve location-specific needs, replacement of declining storage capacity, replacement of retiring facilities, technological optimization of existing facilities, more flexible, higher deliverability facilities and commercial optimization of existing facilities. A map of the hubs and market centres of North America are included. 5 figs

  9. Opportunities for Biorenewables in Oil Refineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marker, T.L.

    2005-12-19

    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential for using biorenewable feedstocks in oil refineries. Economic analyses were conducted, with support from process modeling and proof of principle experiments, to assess a variety of potential processes and configurations. The study considered two primary alternatives: the production of biodiesel and green diesel from vegetable oils and greases and opportunities for utilization of pyrolysis oil. The study identified a number of promising opportunities for biorenewables in existing or new refining operations.

  10. A SURVEY OF INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL RISK MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SETHI Narayan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rising global competition, increasing deregulation, and introduction of innovative products have pushed financial risk management to the forefront of today's financial landscape. Identification of different types of risks and effective management of these risks in the international financial system would help to alleviate crisis, financial losses and also helpful to the long term success of all the financial institutions. The present study aims to analyze different types of risk management strategies and throws some light on challenges and opportunities regarding implementation of Basel-II in international financial system. The present paper also attempts to discuss the different methods and techniques used to measure financial risk management. There are three types of risk faced by all financial institutions: market risk, credit risk and operational risk. In commercial banking, credit risk is the biggest risk; in investment banking, its market risk; and in asset management, it’s operational risk.

  11. Hazard assessment and risk management of offshore production chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schobben, H.P.M.; Scholten, M.C.T.; Vik, E.A.; Bakke, S.

    1994-01-01

    There is a clear need for harmonization of the regulations with regard to the use and discharge of drilling and production chemicals in the North Sea. Therefore the CHARM (Chemical Hazard Assessment and Risk Management) model was developed. Both government (of several countries) and industry (E and P and chemical suppliers) participated in the project. The CHARM model is discussed and accepted by OSPARCON. The CHARM model consists of several modules. The model starts with a prescreening on the basis of hazardous properties like persistency, accumulation potential and the appearance on black lists. The core of the model.consists of modules for hazard assessment and risk analysis. Hazard assessment covers a general environmental evaluation of a chemical on the basis of intrinsic properties of that chemical. Risk analysis covers a more specific evaluation of the environmental impact from the use of a production chemical, or a combination of chemicals, under actual conditions. In the risk management module the user is guided to reduce the total risk of all chemicals used on a platform by the definition of measures in the most cost-effective way. The model calculates the environmental impact for the marine environment. Thereto three parts are distinguished: pelagic, benthic and food chain. Both hazard assessment and risk analysis are based on a proportional comparison of an estimated PEC with an estimated NEC. The PEC is estimated from the use, release, dilution and fate of the chemical and the NEC is estimated from the available toxicity data of the chemicals

  12. Labour Market Flexibility between Risk and Opportunity for Gender Equality Analyses of Self-employment, Part-time Work, and Job Autonomy

    OpenAIRE

    König, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    The dissertation “Labour Market Flexibility between Risk and Opportunity for Gender Equality – Analyses of Self-employment, Part-time Work, and Job Autonomy” addresses the main research question: Is flexibility the key to a less gendered labour market, or does it rather foster more traditional roles and gender inequality? In four empirical studies, different aspects in life were investigated in order to gain a holistic understanding of gender inequalities related to flexibility at work: the d...

  13. Longevity Risk and Natural Hedge Potential in Portfolios Of Life Insurance Products : The Effect of Investment Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, R.S.P.; De Waegenaere, A.M.B.; Melenberg, B.

    2011-01-01

    Payments of life insurance products depend on the uncertain future evolution of survival probabilities. This uncertainty is referred to as longevity risk. Existing literature shows that the effect of longevity risk on single life annuities can be substantial, and that there exists a (natural) hedge

  14. Partnership in Opportunities for Employment through Technologies ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Partnership in Opportunities for Employment through Technologies in the ... POETA will work with designated local partners to provide training for youth at risk. ... of the program; a Web-based civic education module for use in POETA centres; ...

  15. Risk communication related to animal products derived from biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrea, D

    2005-04-01

    Previous chapters of this review have dealt with the key considerations related to the application of biotechnology in veterinary science and animal production. This article explores the theory and practice of risk communication and sets out the basic principles for good risk communication when dealing with new technologies, uncertainty, and cautious and sceptical consumers. After failure to communicate with consumers and stakeholders about the risk to human health from bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in the 1990s, Government Agencies in the United Kingdom have made significant improvements in risk communication. The official inquiry that followed the BSE crisis concluded that a policy of openness was the correct approach, and this article emphasises the importance of consultation, consistency and transparency. There are, however, many different factors that affect public perception of risk (religious, political, social, cultural, etc.) and developing effective risk communication strategies must take all of these complex issues into consideration.

  16. Moderating effect of perceived risk on the relationship between product safety and intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarina Ismail

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Herbal Products industry has experienced significant growth in product demand. Therefore, this study aims to identify the factors effecting the actual buying of Herbal Product. This study also examines the moderation effect of perceived risk on the relationship between product safety and intention. Mall intercept survey was used to collect data from six various states in Malaysia. The data is analyzed using Partial Least Squares (PLS path modeling. The path coefficient results supported the direct influence of intention on actual buying. Similarly, the findings reveal that perceived risk moderate the relationship between product safety and buying intention.

  17. Evaluation of AECB-1119, risk of energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The Inhaber report, 'Risk of Energy Production', is evaluated based on how the conclusions of the report match its objectives, the methodology used to reach the report's conclusions, and the presentation of the report. The authors recommend that a second volume containing the pertinent data used in the report should be published; and that total risks should be calculated ignoring material acquisition, construction and transportation risks, using the actual energy output of the various systems without imposing a backup energy supply, and comparing systems in such a way that death, injury and disease risks may be considered separately. They propose that the Atomic Energy Control Board should show how the report results relate to nuclear safety, and that the AECB should clarify the criteria for evaluating the small probability of a catastrophic nuclear accident. The response of the author of AECB--1119 is given in a separate section

  18. The Role of Trees on Farms: Challenges and Opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyamai, D.O

    2007-01-01

    The challenges facing Kenyan forestry are deforestation and degradation due to increased demand for wood and additional agricultural land, inadequate resources to strengthen capacities in specific research areas including resource accounting, modelling the beneficial effects of carbon sequestration, policy analysis and products development for market dominance, great variations in institutional development and capacity for trees on farm and agroforestry research and development and inadequate research resources to mention but a few. The opportunities for improved forestry research include, economic growth, social welfare, promoting technologies and innovations for value-added processing agroforestry products for local and external effects, emerging private sector and existing regional market such as Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa and the East African Community for opportunities for trade in agroforestry products and formulation of policies in favour of privatisation of services and management particularly the privatisation of industrial forest plantations that would offer opportunities for the development of smallholder tree crop enterprise

  19. Multilateral Research Opportunities in Ground Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Barbara J.

    2015-01-01

    The global economy forces many nations to consider their national investments and make difficult decisions regarding their investment in future exploration. International collaboration provides an opportunity to leverage other nations' investments to meet common goals. The Humans In Space Community shares a common goal to enable safe, reliable, and productive human space exploration within and beyond Low Earth Orbit. Meeting this goal requires efficient use of limited resources and International capabilities. The International Space Station (ISS) is our primary platform to conduct microgravity research targeted at reducing human health and performance risks for exploration missions. Access to ISS resources, however, is becoming more and more constrained and will only be available through 2020 or 2024. NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is actively pursuing methods to effectively utilize the ISS and appropriate ground analogs to understand and mitigate human health and performance risks prior to embarking on human exploration of deep space destinations. HRP developed a plan to use ground analogs of increasing fidelity to address questions related to exploration missions and is inviting International participation in these planned campaigns. Using established working groups and multilateral panels, the HRP is working with multiple Space Agencies to invite International participation in a series of 30- day missions that HRP will conduct in the US owned and operated Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) during 2016. In addition, the HRP is negotiating access to Antarctic stations (both US and non-US), the German :envihab and Russian NEK facilities. These facilities provide unique capabilities to address critical research questions requiring longer duration simulation or isolation. We are negotiating release of international research opportunities to ensure a multilateral approach to future analog research campaigns, hoping to begin multilateral campaigns in the

  20. Radiation effects and risks: overview and a new risk perception index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehani, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainty provides opportunities for differences in perception, and radiation risks at low level of exposures involved in few computed tomography scans fall in this category. While there is good agreement among national and international organisations on risk probability of cancer, risk perception has barely been dealt with by these organisations. Risk perception is commonly defined as the subjective judgment that people make about the characteristics and severity of a risk. Severity and latency are important factors in perception. There is a need to connect all these. Leaving risk perception purely as a subjective judgement provides opportunities for people to amplifying risk. The author postulates a risk perception index as severity divided by latency that becomes determining factor for risk perception. It is hoped that this index will bring rationality in risk perception. (authors)

  1. Biofuels in Italy: obstacles and development opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pignatelli, Vito; Clementi, Chiara

    2006-01-01

    Today biofuels are the sole realistically practical way to reduce CO 2 emissions in the transportation sector. In many countries, including Italy, biofuel production and use are already a reality corresponding to a large agro-industrial production system that uses essentially mature technologies. To significantly lower production costs and optimise land use, Italy needs to develop new, second-generation biofuel production operations that can offer significant opportunities to the nation's agro-industrial sector [it

  2. Insurance World in Transition: Changes in Global Risk Taking and Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Gero; Tiampo, Kristy

    2015-04-01

    Catastrophe insurance risk assessment, risk taking, and regulation has evolved over the last 20 years and is gearing up for significant further change in the years ahead. Changes in regulation and influx of capital have put profit margins for catastrophe risk products under pressure despite the fact that changes in climate as well as increasing insurance penetration is expected to heighten demand. As a result, reinsurance strategies are moving away from catastrophe risk. In addition, lower margins require cheaper and more efficient risk assessment methods and processes which are contrary to evolving analytical tools and methods that had increased expenses in line with growing margins over the last decade. New capital providers are less familiar with and less willing to accept complex supply chains for risk management, relationship-driven business and tedious data exchange and management processes. Risk takers claim new measures and ask for more flexibility in the use of tools. The current concepts of catastrophe insurance risk assessment are hence under thorough scrutiny. This presentation deals with the changing landscape in catastrophe insurance risk assessment and risk hedging and discusses changes in catastrophe risk assessment products and demand. How likely is it that private, small and nimble hazard and risk consulting groups - increasingly emanating from larger science organizations - will replace large established firms in their role to assess risk? What role do public-private academic partnerships play in assuming risk for catastrophe insurance and what role could they play in the future? What are the opportunities and downsides of the current changes in risk taking and hedging? What is needed from the scientific community in order to fill the gaps in risk management and who is likely to take advantage of the current changes?

  3. Biodiesel biorefinery: opportunities and challenges for microbial production of fuels and chemicals from glycerol waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida João R M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The considerable increase in biodiesel production worldwide in the last 5 years resulted in a stoichiometric increased coproduction of crude glycerol. As an excess of crude glycerol has been produced, its value on market was reduced and it is becoming a “waste-stream” instead of a valuable “coproduct”. The development of biorefineries, i.e. production of chemicals and power integrated with conversion processes of biomass into biofuels, has been singled out as a way to achieve economically viable production chains, valorize residues and coproducts, and reduce industrial waste disposal. In this sense, several alternatives aimed at the use of crude glycerol to produce fuels and chemicals by microbial fermentation have been evaluated. This review summarizes different strategies employed to produce biofuels and chemicals (1,3-propanediol, 2,3-butanediol, ethanol, n-butanol, organic acids, polyols and others by microbial fermentation of glycerol. Initially, the industrial use of each chemical is briefly presented; then we systematically summarize and discuss the different strategies to produce each chemical, including selection and genetic engineering of producers, and optimization of process conditions to improve yield and productivity. Finally, the impact of the developments obtained until now are placed in perspective and opportunities and challenges for using crude glycerol to the development of biodiesel-based biorefineries are considered. In conclusion, the microbial fermentation of glycerol represents a remarkable alternative to add value to the biodiesel production chain helping the development of biorefineries, which will allow this biofuel to be more competitive.

  4. Dairy Product Consumption and Risk of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Li, Xutong; Zhang, Dongfeng

    2016-02-27

    Many epidemiologic studies have explored the association between dairy product consumption and the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), but the results remain controversial. A literature search was performed in PubMed, Web of Science and Embase for relevant articles published up to October 2015. Pooled relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with a random-effects model. The dose-response relationship was assessed by restricted cubic spline. A total of 16 articles were eligible for this meta-analysis. The pooled RRs (95% CIs) of NHL for the highest vs. lowest category of the consumption of total dairy product, milk, butter, cheese, ice cream and yogurt were 1.20 (1.02, 1.42), 1.41 (1.08, 1.84), 1.31 (1.04, 1.65), 1.14 (0.96, 1.34), 1.57 (1.11, 2.20) and 0.78 (0.54, 1.12), respectively. In subgroup analyses, the positive association between total dairy product consumption and the risk of NHL was found among case-control studies (RR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.17-1.70) but not among cohort studies (RR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.88-1.17). The pooled RRs (95% CIs) of NHL were 1.21 (1.01, 1.46) for milk consumption in studies conducted in North America, and 1.24 (1.09, 1.40) for cheese consumption in studies that adopted validated food frequency questionnaires. In further analysis of NHL subtypes, we found statistically significant associations between the consumption of total dairy product (RR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.22-2.45) and milk (RR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.08-2.06) and the risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The dose-response analysis suggested that the risk of NHL increased by 5% (1.05 (1.00-1.10)) and 6% (1.06 (0.99-1.13)) for each 200 g/day increment of total dairy product and milk consumption, respectively. This meta-analysis suggested that dairy product consumption, but not yogurt, may increase the risk of NHL. More prospective cohort studies that investigate specific types of dairy product consumption are needed to confirm this conclusion.

  5. Pan-European management of electricity portfolios: Risks and opportunities of contract bundling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gampert, Markus; Madlener, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    Due to the liberalization of energy markets in the European Union, today's European utilities not only focus on electricity supply, but also offer exchange-traded 'structured products' or portfolio management for unbundling financial and physical risk positions. Many utilities are only able to provide these services in their domestic markets. In a globalized economy, the need for a centrally organized pan-European portfolio management has arisen, as it allows a simplified commodity sourcing in combination with an optimized risk management. In this paper, we examine the challenges to be overcome for establishing a European-wide bundling of electricity contracts. For this purpose, a case study based on the business perspective of RWE Supply and Trading in Central and Eastern Europe is carried out. In a first step, we analyze general requirements for a pan-European bundling of electricity contracts. Then, RWE's situation in Europe is examined, based on which we finally propose a concept to meet customer demands in Central and Eastern Europe. - Research highlights: → Analysis of electricity market liberalization in Central and Eastern Europe. → Identification of requirements and problems for pan-European bundling of contracts. → Case study based on RWE Supply and Trading perspective in Central and Eastern Europe. → Model development for pan-European unbundling of financial/physical risk positions.

  6. Allocative efficiency, employment and rice production risk: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Smallholder farmers have developed coping mechanisms in order to minimize the negative impact of rice production risks. A programme to accelerate the provision of education and credit is needed. The education programme should include both formal and non-formal elements. This is important for the improvement of ...

  7. Risk assessment and management in IOR projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodyear, S.G.; Gregory, A.T.

    1994-01-01

    The application of IOR techniques is one of the investment opportunities open to Exploration and Production companies. A project will only go forward if the perceived balance between the rewards and the risks is acceptable. IOR projects may be ruled out because they are considered to involve significantly higher risks than conventional developments. Therefore, some means of evaluating the actual level of risk may be required if the full economic benefits from IOR techniques are to be realized. Risk assessment is a key element in safety cases, where a well-established methodology for quantifying risk exists. This paper discusses the extension of these methods to IOR project risk assessment. Combining reservoir and IOR technique uncertainties with their impact on project performance allows project risk to be better quantified. The results of the risk assessment are presented in terms of a risk-reward diagram that plots the probability surface for possible project outcomes as a function of NPV (reward) and exposure (risk)

  8. Arbitrage Opportunities and their Implications to Derivative Hedging

    OpenAIRE

    Panayides, Stephanos

    2005-01-01

    We explore the role that random arbitrage opportunities play in hedging financial derivatives. We extend the asymptotic pricing theory presented by Fedotov and Panayides [Stochastic arbitrage return and its implication for option pricing, Physica A 345 (2005), 207-217] for the case of hedging a derivative when arbitrage opportunities are present in the market. We restrict ourselves to finding hedging confidence intervals that can be adapted to the amount of arbitrage risk an investor will per...

  9. RISK CONNECTED WITH AIRCRAFT PRODUCTION IN ACCORDANCE WITH MINIMUM EQUIPMENT LIST (MEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Enikeev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the problem of understanding of risk assessment necessity connected with aircraft production in accordance with Minimum Equipment List (MEL. The article presents calculation of fail-safe performance probability of Airbus A320 Family fuel system in the event of defect which rectification is postponed in accordance with MEL. The article also presents the results of risk assessment connected with aircraft production in accordance with MEL.

  10. Effort-Based Career Opportunities and Working Time

    OpenAIRE

    Bratti, M.; Staffolani, S.

    2005-01-01

    The authors evaluate the economic effects of the hypothesis of effort-based career opportunities, described as a situation in which a firm creates incentives for employees to work longer hours than bargained (or desired), by making career prospects depend on relative working hours. Firms' personnel management policies may tend to increase working time (or workers' effort) in order to maximize profits. Effort-based career opportunities raise working time, production and output per worker, and ...

  11. Opportunities for mitigating pathogen contamination during on-farm food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Michael P; Erickson, Marilyn C

    2012-01-16

    Fruits, vegetables, and meat are susceptible to contamination by foodborne pathogens at many points from production through preparation in the home. This review will largely highlight approaches and progress made in the last five years to address strategies to reduce pathogen contamination in animal production but will also touch on the emerging field of preharvest produce food safety. Mitigation strategies can be divided into those that address pathogen reduction in the environment and those that target reduction/elimination of pathogen contamination in animals or plants. The former strategy has been encompassed in studies evaluating sanitation treatments of facilities as well as in numerous epidemiologic risk assessment studies (both on-farm assessments and computer simulation models) that identify management practices that impact pathogen prevalence in animals. Interventions to significantly reduce pathogen exposure via feed or water are dependent on their role as a significant contributor to pathogen contamination in the animal production system. In addition, inconsistent results obtained with interventions of dietary additives or formulation modifications (grain versus forage; inclusion of distiller's grains) on pathogen prevalence in animals have been attributed to a range of factors including target organism, grain type, level of inclusion, the animal's health or stress level, and ability to survive the gastric acidic conditions. Recent attempts to microencapsulate organic acids or bacteriophage within feed have met with only marginal improvements in reducing pathogen carriage in animals but this approach may have greater potential with other antimicrobial additives (i.e., essential oils). Bacteriophage therapy, in general, can significantly reduce pathogen carriage in animals but based on its transient nature and the potential for development of phage-resistant subpopulations, this approach should be administered to animals just prior to slaughter and

  12. Automated systems to identify relevant documents in product risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Product risk management involves critical assessment of the risks and benefits of health products circulating in the market. One of the important sources of safety information is the primary literature, especially for newer products which regulatory authorities have relatively little experience with. Although the primary literature provides vast and diverse information, only a small proportion of which is useful for product risk assessment work. Hence, the aim of this study is to explore the possibility of using text mining to automate the identification of useful articles, which will reduce the time taken for literature search and hence improving work efficiency. In this study, term-frequency inverse document-frequency values were computed for predictors extracted from the titles and abstracts of articles related to three tumour necrosis factors-alpha blockers. A general automated system was developed using only general predictors and was tested for its generalizability using articles related to four other drug classes. Several specific automated systems were developed using both general and specific predictors and training sets of different sizes in order to determine the minimum number of articles required for developing such systems. Results The general automated system had an area under the curve value of 0.731 and was able to rank 34.6% and 46.2% of the total number of 'useful' articles among the first 10% and 20% of the articles presented to the evaluators when tested on the generalizability set. However, its use may be limited by the subjective definition of useful articles. For the specific automated system, it was found that only 20 articles were required to develop a specific automated system with a prediction performance (AUC 0.748) that was better than that of general automated system. Conclusions Specific automated systems can be developed rapidly and avoid problems caused by subjective definition of useful articles. Thus the efficiency of

  13. The impacts of product design changes on supply chain risk: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yong; Zhou, Li

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of this paper is to address the impact of product design changes on supply chain risk, and to identify the supply chain risk dimensions in the Chinese special-purpose vehicle (SPV) industry in the context of product design change.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach: Case study methodology is adopted to describe the current situation of supply chain risk management in the Chinese SPV industry. Data are mainly collected from in-depth semi-structured interviews, and a c...

  14. Risk and profitability of animal and crop production in Slovak farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián Tóth

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on profitability and risk of crop and animal production based on an analysis of farms operating in Slovak Republic. The individual farm data used for the analysis are from the database of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of the Slovak Republic. For our analysis, data were selected according to the farm production orientation to the subset of crop farms and animal farms. The selecting criterion for production orientation was the percentage share of revenues from crop production, or revenues from animal production from the overall revenues from own products and services. We analyse profitability of farms divided into groups based on the type of production into crop and animal farms (according to the share in sales from crop or animal production. Using descriptive statistics and portfolio theory we simulate the total farm profitability and volatility of animal and crop production in Slovakia. The modified Markowitz portfolio theory approach was used to estimate the total risk of portfolios of crop and animal farms. Based on the results we conclude that in the long run crop farms are profitable and profit from crop production is used to cover the losses from animal production in mixed farms. Farms focused on animal production only are efficient and profitable, but the profitability is lower in comparison with crop farms. Animal farms results are less volatile than crop farms. Large farms tend to production with lower value added and can generate enough profit for the owner.

  15. 75 FR 391 - Medical Device Quality System Regulation Educational Forum on Risk Management Through the Product...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ...] Medical Device Quality System Regulation Educational Forum on Risk Management Through the Product Life... on Risk Management through the Product Life Cycle.'' This public workshop is intended to provide... discussed at the workshop: (1) Standards and guidance, (2) risk management in design, (3) risk management in...

  16. A Retrospective Study of the Incidence of Missed Opportunities in Identifying, Managing and Referring At-Risk of Overweight and Overweight Children and Adolescents in an Outpatient Primary Care Setting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quirke, Amy

    2004-01-01

    A descriptive study of the incidence of missed opportunities in identifying, managing and referring children and adolescents at-risk of overweight and overweight were conducted using a retrospective...

  17. Nanotherapeutics--product development along the "nanomaterial" discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, Matthias G

    2014-03-01

    Nanomaterials have become part of formulation development in the pharmaceutical industry and offer exciting opportunities in the area of targeted drug delivery. But they may also exert unexpected toxicities and potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. Since the Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks recommended a definition of "nanomaterials" for implementation into the existing and upcoming regulatory framework in the European Union, a discussion about safety requirements of new nanoscale products has emerged. At the same time, the Food and Drug Administration of the United States still observes recent developments in this area. Although the impact on the pharmaceutical product chain is still uncertain, guidelines on risk assessment in food products and cosmetics are available and offer a preview of future developments in the regimens of pharmaceuticals. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  18. Inherent health and environmental risk assessment of nanostructured metal oxide production processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabifard, Mina; Arjmandi, Reza; Rashidi, Alimorad; Nouri, Jafar; Mohammadfam, Iraj

    2018-01-10

    The health and environmental effects of chemical processes can be assessed during the initial stage of their production. In this paper, the Chemical Screening Tool for Exposure and Environmental Release (ChemSTEER) software was used to compare the health and environmental risks of spray pyrolysis and wet chemical techniques for the fabrication of nanostructured metal oxide on a semi-industrial scale with a capacity of 300 kg/day in Iran. The pollution sources identified in each production process were pairwise compared in Expert Choice software using indicators including respiratory damage, skin damage, and environmental damages including air, water, and soil pollution. The synthesis of nanostructured zinc oxide using the wet chemical technique (with 0.523 wt%) leads to lower health and environmental risks compared to when spray pyrolysis is used (with 0.477 wt%). The health and environmental risk assessment of nanomaterial production processes can help select safer processes, modify the operation conditions, and select or modify raw materials that can help eliminate the risks.

  19. Dietary risk ranking for residual antibiotics in cultured aquatic products around Tai Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chao; Li, Le; Zhang, Cong; Qiu, Liping; Fan, Limin; Wu, Wei; Meng, Shunlong; Hu, Gengdong; Chen, Jiazhang; Liu, Ying; Mao, Aimin

    2017-10-01

    Antibiotics are widely used in aquaculture and therefore may be present as a dietary risk in cultured aquatic products. Using the Tai Lake Basin as a study area, we assessed the presence of 15 antibiotics in 5 widely cultured aquatic species using a newly developed dietary risk ranking approach. By assigning scores to each factor involved in the ranking matrices, the scores of dietary risks per antibiotic and per aquatic species were calculated. The results indicated that fluoroquinolone antibiotics posed the highest dietary risk in all aquatic species. Then, the total scores per aquatic species were summed by all 15 antibiotic scores of antibiotics, it was found that Crab (Eriocheir sinensis) had the highest dietary risks. Finally, the most concerned antibiotic category and aquatic species were selected. This study highlighted the importance of dietary risk ranking in the production and consumption of cultured aquatic products around Tai Lake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Graphene toxicity as a double-edged sword of risks and exploitable opportunities: a critical analysis of the most recent trends and developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Yuri; McIntyre, Jennifer; Prina-Mello, Adriele

    2017-06-01

    Increased production volumes and a broadening application spectrum of graphene have raised concerns about its potential adverse effects on human health. Numerous reports demonstrate that graphene irrespective of its particular form exerts its effects on a widest range of living organisms, including prokaryotic bacteria and viruses, plants, micro- and macro-invertebrates, mammalian and human cells and whole animals in vivo. However, the available experimental data is frequently a matter of significant divergence and even controversy. Therefore, we provide here a critical analysis of the most recent (2015-2016) reports accumulated in the graphene-related materials biocompatibility and toxicology field in order to elucidate the cutting edge achievements, emerging trends and future opportunities in the area. Experimental findings from the diverse in vitro and in vivo model systems are analysed in the context of the most likely graphene exposure scenarios, such as respiratory inhalation, ingestion route, parenteral administration and topical exposure through the skin. Key factors influencing the toxicity of graphene and its complex derivatives as well as potential risk mitigation approaches exploiting graphene physicochemical properties, surface modifications and possible degradation pathways are also discussed along with its emerging applications for healthcare, diagnostics and innovative therapeutic approaches.

  1. Quality management system in CCHEN and their product/service certification under ISO 9001:2000; pertinence and opportunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Gundelach, Carmen

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the pertinence and opportunity for having some strategic products and services of CCHEN in a Quality Management System under ISO 9001:2000. The advantages for the personnel, clients and for the continual improvement are showned in this document. In order to increase our products and services and to enhance their competitive level, it is necessary to have a very good planned process. In a competitive and global world is the quality an attribute that has to be recognized by our clients; today it is not sufficient to know that we are working good, it is necessary to show we are doing thinks well and our clients have to recognize this: customer satisfaction. The implementation of the ISO 9000 family has the significance of a rational quality management system far from inefficient burocracy that increases the credibility of our products and services and that developes and increases the autodiscipline inside the organization and enhances the continual improvement. The starting of this process was a strategic decission that necessarily is going to move our organization to the Changes (author)

  2. 17 CFR 248.124 - Reasonable opportunity to opt out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...” to indicate their opt out preference or that requires the consumer to check one of two blank check... affiliate to make marketing solicitations to a consumer about your products or services unless the consumer... a reasonable opportunity to opt out. The consumer is given a reasonable opportunity to opt out if...

  3. Evidence for Opportunity Cost Neglect in the Poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantinga, Arnoud; Krijnen, Job M T; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Breugelmans, Seger M

    2018-01-01

    People often neglect opportunity costs: They do not fully take into account forgone alternatives outside of a particular choice set. Several scholars have suggested that poor people should be more likely to spontaneously consider opportunity costs, because budget constraints should lead to an increased focus on trade-offs. We did not find support for this hypothesis in five high-powered experiments (total N = 2325). The experiments used different products (both material and experiential) with both high and low prices (from $8.50 to $249.99) and different methods of reminding participants of opportunity costs. High-income and low-income participants showed an equally strong decrease in willingness to buy when reminded of opportunity costs, implying that both the rich and the poor neglect opportunity costs. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Behavioral Decision Making Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Do Antibiotics Reduce Production Risk for U.S. Pork Producers?

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xuanli; Miller, Gay Y.; McNamara, Paul E.

    2005-01-01

    Production risk from live weight variation of market pigs has become a more important concern in U.S. swine production. Packers are concerned about the variation in carcass size because of the demand for standardized cuts and the use of automation in the slaughter process. Swine producers care about standardized pigs because of revenue implications and possible links to animal health and productivity. Pig size variation can be due to various condition and inputs including antibiotics. However...

  5. LDHI opportunities for offshore European production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, L. W.; Anderson, J.; Frostman, L.; Poynton, N.

    2006-03-15

    Low Dosage Hydrate Inhibitors (LDHIs) are gaining worldwide acceptance as a viable alternative to the more conventional methods of hydrate flow assurance control. Use of this LDHI technology in the European area is becoming more common as operators are beginning to implement and gain from the advantages of LDHIs. This paper will review the basic applicability of the various LDHIs and will review LDHI case histories worldwide in order to show how this technology could be implemented to a greater extent into European production systems. Case histories will illustrate the use and advantages of multifunctional products indicating how operating companies can reduce operating costs and capital expenditure through their implementation. Differing production scenarios will be covered indicating how different LDHIs can be used to cover a range of applications in the field, such as those found in the European region. These will cover both the use of Anti-Agglomerants (AA) and Kinetic Hydrate Inhibitors (KHI). (Author)

  6. Study of medicine 2.0 due to Web 2.0?! - Risks and opportunities for the curriculum in Leipzig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempel, Gunther; Neef, Martin; Rotzoll, Daisy; Heinke, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Web 2.0 is changing the study of medicine by opening up totally new ways of learning and teaching in an ongoing process. Global social networking services like Facebook, YouTube, Flickr, Google Drive and Xing already play an important part in communication both among students and between students and teaching staff. Moreover, local portals (such as the platform [http://www.leipzig-medizin.de] established in 2003) have also caught on and in some cases eclipsed the use of the well-known location-independent social media. The many possibilities and rapid changes brought about by social networks need to be publicized within medical faculties. Therefore, an E-learning and New Media Working Group was set up at the Faculty of Medicine of Universität Leipzig in order to harness the opportunities of Web 2.0, analyse the resulting processes of change in the study of medicine, and curb the risks of the Internet. With Web 2.0 and the social web already influencing the study of medicine, the opportunities of the Internet now need to be utilized to improve the teaching of medicine. PMID:23467440

  7. Study of medicine 2.0 due to Web 2.0?! -- risks and opportunities for the curriculum in Leipzig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempel, Gunther; Neef, Martin; Rotzoll, Daisy; Heinke, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Web 2.0 is changing the study of medicine by opening up totally new ways of learning and teaching in an ongoing process. Global social networking services like Facebook, YouTube, Flickr, Google Drive and Xing already play an important part in communication both among students and between students and teaching staff. Moreover, local portals (such as the platform [http://www.leipzig-medizin.de] established in 2003) have also caught on and in some cases eclipsed the use of the well-known location-independent social media. The many possibilities and rapid changes brought about by social networks need to be publicized within medical faculties. Therefore, an E-learning and New Media Working Group was set up at the Faculty of Medicine of Universität Leipzig in order to harness the opportunities of Web 2.0, analyse the resulting processes of change in the study of medicine, and curb the risks of the Internet. With Web 2.0 and the social web already influencing the study of medicine, the opportunities of the Internet now need to be utilized to improve the teaching of medicine.

  8. Leverage Aversion and Risk Parity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asness, Clifford; Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2012-01-01

    The authors show that leverage aversion changes the predictions of modern portfolio theory: Safer assets must offer higher risk-adjusted returns than riskier assets. Consuming the high risk-adjusted returns of safer assets requires leverage, creating an opportunity for investors with the ability...... to apply leverage. Risk parity portfolios exploit this opportunity by equalizing the risk allocation across asset classes, thus overweighting safer assets relative to their weight in the market portfolio....

  9. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 45, December 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-12-01

    Once again the year is at end and a new exciting year lies ahead of us. The past year has been a busy time for all staff in the subprogramme. Apart from our regular Coordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to national and regional Technical Cooperation (TC) projects, we were involved in the technical evaluation of applications for new TC projects by Member States for the 2007/2008 biennial project cycle. We have also prepared the IAEA's 2008/2009 Work and Budget Programme. It is hoped that our inputs will serve the best interests of our Member States. As with previous newsletters, I want to introduce a topic to hopefully stimulate discussion and debate and encourage interactions between all. It has been well discussed in previous newsletters that the trend towards intensification of livestock production in developing countries presents both opportunities and risks. The potential opportunities are the flow-on benefits to the local economy and producers and the potential risks are the flow-on costs to the environment, livestock health and welfare and human health, through increased chemical and nutrient pollution, disease transmission and centralization of feed resources. Understanding nutrition is one of the keys to taking advantage of the opportunities and minimizing the risks

  10. Main health risks associated with Moroccan fishery products exported to European Union countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dahani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The export of fishery products constitutes a very significant axis of the exchanges with certain countries, especially the countries of the European Union (EU. In Morocco, the exported fish products are controlled by the veterinarians of the National Office of the Health Security of Food products (NOHSF according to a procedure which is based on documentary control, identity and physical control and possibly analytical control. This control is complemented by monitoring plans. Currently, the product control has become a more demanding task due to the significant volume of fish production, the lack of means and human resources, hence the need for a novel approach to the control of fishery products based on risk analysis, which involves the establishment of appropriate controls aiming at guaranteeing that the products are safe. The objective of this work is the hierarchization of the main health risks associated to the fishery products exported to EU countries by Morocco. This approach is based on an overall analysis and statistical analysis using principal components analysis (PCA of the health profile of the notifications of the Rapid Alert System for the foodstuffs and feeding stuffs (RASFF from 1981 to 2015. This work allowed the development of a criticality matrix which specifies the health profile of species of products exported to EU countries via Morocco according to species, of danger and type of product. The control of fishery products based on risk analysis is a very important approach for the Moroccan competent authority.

  11. Childhood Obesity: Current Situation and Future Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koletzko, Berthold

    2016-07-01

    The early origins of overweight and obesity and the opportunities for early prevention are explored. Overweight and obesity prevalence globally has increased at an alarming rate. No single intervention can halt the rise of the obesity epidemic. Particular attention is given to exploring causative factors and preventive measures in early life, when biological determinants of risk trajectories, feeding behaviour and dietary preferences are shaped. Some lifestyle and nutrition modifications in pregnancy and infancy can reduce subsequent obesity risk. Also postnatal infant gut colonisation may modify later obesity risk, but currently available evidence does not allow firm conclusions. Surprisingly, about 3.2 times more systematic reviews (SR) than randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were published on "probiotics" and health, and even 7.9 times more SR than RCTs on "probiotics" and obesity, which is not helpful. Multiple research opportunities exist for exploring the early origins of obesity to contribute towards halting the rise in obesity prevalence. Exploring the early development of the microbiome in its complexity, its dependence on dietary and other exogenous factors, and its metabolic and regulatory functions is promising. Meaningful progress for obesity prevention can most likely be achieved by combining several strategies.

  12. Opportunity Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Louise Møller; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Tollestrup, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Creating and growing new businesses is basically about turning an entrepreneurial opportunity into future business. In literature the emergence of opportunities is often described as opportunity recognition or opportunity discovery, which points to the understanding that opportunities are out the...

  13. Risk management of Norwegian oil production; Risikostyring av norsk oljeproduksjon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloegetvedt, Bjoern

    1998-07-01

    The items discussed in this presentation are: (1) Oil price chronology, (2) Market structure - Forward prices, (3) Volatility in oil prices, (4) Sales strategies and price fixing, (5) Development of ''Risk Management'' in the oil trading, (6) Oil products and markets, (7) Management of risk exposure, (8) Strong points and weak points of the norm price system, (9) Comparison with UK.

  14. Host cell proteins in biotechnology-derived products: A risk assessment framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zafra, Christina L Zuch; Quarmby, Valerie; Francissen, Kathleen; Vanderlaan, Martin; Zhu-Shimoni, Judith

    2015-11-01

    To manufacture biotechnology products, mammalian or bacterial cells are engineered for the production of recombinant therapeutic human proteins including monoclonal antibodies. Host cells synthesize an entire repertoire of proteins which are essential for their own function and survival. Biotechnology manufacturing processes are designed to produce recombinant therapeutics with a very high degree of purity. While there is typically a low residual level of host cell protein in the final drug product, under some circumstances a host cell protein(s) may copurify with the therapeutic protein and, if it is not detected and removed, it may become an unintended component of the final product. The purpose of this article is to enumerate and discuss factors to be considered in an assessment of risk of residual host cell protein(s) detected and identified in the drug product. The consideration of these factors and their relative ranking will lead to an overall risk assessment that informs decision-making around how to control the levels of host cell proteins. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Telemedicine: opportunities and risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogl, R.

    2002-01-01

    Problem. Due to the rapid progress in the fields of information technology and data networks, telemedicine applications are growing in number. Besides curative telemedicine, the electronic exchange of medical data and the integration of health information systems between health care providers is gaining importance. Through the improved accessibility of electronic patient record information, considerable risks arise.Methods. A project for the interconnection of medical picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) between several hospitals is presented and the possibilities for further developing such networking systems utilizing new software technologies for transparent data access between different locations (GRID) and for decision support (software agents) are considered.Results. The availability of the electronic patient record via the data network and the perspective of semi intelligent software systems automatically preparing the data bears great potential for a boost in treatment quality and efficiency. Systems for unique electronic patient identification and for secure digital signature are a prerequisite, but per se not enough to ensure the protection of data against illegitimate access.Conclusion. Despite quality and efficiency benefits, challenges in the protection of sensible data and in the change of the physicians role result. (orig.) [de

  16. Causation and Effectuation Processes: Opportunity Discovery and Exploitation Logics of Habitual Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates how habitual entrepreneurs (i.e. serial and portfolio entrepreneurs) discover and exploit opportunities, deal with risk and uncertainty, predict or control the future, and plan their businesses based on a causation and effectuation perspective. This study thereby uncovered...... the causation and effectuation logics applied by habitual entrepreneurs with regard to four dimensions of the venture creation: View of the future (VF), Opportunity Discovery (OD), Opportunity Exploitation (OE), and Dealing with Risk (DR). Six habitual entrepreneurs, who had to meet three strictly defined...... criteria, where sampled and case studies performed. The findings clearly indicate that habitual entrepreneurs mainly apply an effectual logic with regards to the four dimensions examined. Some of the more inexperienced habitual entrepreneurs tend to apply both logics, but almost exclusively become...

  17. Nanomedicine in cancer therapy: challenges, opportunities, and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicki, Andreas; Witzigmann, Dominik; Balasubramanian, Vimalkumar; Huwyler, Jörg

    2015-02-28

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Currently available therapies are inadequate and spur demand for improved technologies. Rapid growth in nanotechnology towards the development of nanomedicine products holds great promise to improve therapeutic strategies against cancer. Nanomedicine products represent an opportunity to achieve sophisticated targeting strategies and multi-functionality. They can improve the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of conventional therapeutics and may thus optimize the efficacy of existing anti-cancer compounds. In this review, we discuss state-of-the-art nanoparticles and targeted systems that have been investigated in clinical studies. We emphasize the challenges faced in using nanomedicine products and translating them from a preclinical level to the clinical setting. Additionally, we cover aspects of nanocarrier engineering that may open up new opportunities for nanomedicine products in the clinic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Biological risks associated with consumption of reptile products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnino, Simone; Colin, Pierre; Dei-Cas, Eduardo; Madsen, Mogens; McLauchlin, Jim; Nöckler, Karsten; Maradona, Miguel Prieto; Tsigarida, Eirini; Vanopdenbosch, Emmanuel; Van Peteghem, Carlos

    2009-09-15

    The consumption of a wide variety of species of reptiles caught from the wild has been an important source of protein for humans world-wide for millennia. Terrapins, snakes, lizards, crocodiles and iguanas are now farmed and the consumption and trade of their meat and other edible products have recently increased in some areas of the world. Biological risks associated with the consumption of products from both farmed and wild reptile meat and eggs include infections caused by bacteria (Salmonella spp., Vibrio spp.), parasites (Spirometra, Trichinella, Gnathostoma, pentastomids), as well as intoxications by biotoxins. For crocodiles, Salmonella spp. constitute a significant public health risk due to the high intestinal carrier rate which is reflected in an equally high contamination rate in their fresh and frozen meat. There is a lack of information about the presence of Salmonella spp. in meat from other edible reptilians, though captive reptiles used as pets (lizards or turtles) are frequently carriers of these bacteria in Europe. Parasitic protozoa in reptiles represent a negligible risk for public health compared to parasitic metazoans, of which trichinellosis, pentastomiasis, gnathostomiasis and sparganosis can be acquired through consumption of contaminated crocodile, monitor lizard, turtle and snake meat, respectively. Other reptiles, although found to harbour the above parasites, have not been implicated with their transmission to humans. Freezing treatment inactivates Spirometra and Trichinella in crocodile meat, while the effectiveness of freezing of other reptilian meat is unknown. Biotoxins that accumulate in the flesh of sea turtles may cause chelonitoxism, a type of food poisoning with a high mortality rate in humans. Infections by fungi, including yeasts, and viruses widely occur in reptiles but have not been linked to a human health risk through the contamination of their meat. Currently there are no indications that natural transmissible spongiform

  19. Combined Heat and Power Market Potential for Opportunity Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, David [Resource Dynamics Corporation, McLean, VA (United States); Lemar, Paul [Resource Dynamics Corporation, McLean, VA (United States

    2015-12-01

    This report estimates the potential for opportunity fuel combined heat and power (CHP) applications in the United States, and provides estimates for the technical and economic market potential compared to those included in an earlier report. An opportunity fuel is any type of fuel that is not widely used when compared to traditional fossil fuels. Opportunity fuels primarily consist of biomass fuels, industrial waste products and fossil fuel derivatives. These fuels have the potential to be an economically viable source of power generation in various CHP applications.

  20. How Does Risk Management Influence Production Decisions? Evidence from a Field Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, Shawn; Giné, Xavier; Vickery, James

    2013-01-01

    Weather is a key source of income risk for many firms and households, particularly in emerging market economies. This paper uses a randomized controlled trial approach to study how an innovative risk management instrument for hedging rainfall risk affects production decisions among a sample of Indian agricultural firms. The analysis finds that the provision of insurance induces farmers to ...

  1. An Empirical Research on Marketing Strategies of Different Risk Preference Merchant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Holiday merchandise has unique demand characteristics, unofficial start data, and a limited life cycle. In an intensely competitive market, individual merchants are able to get more sales opportunities if they display their products earlier. In this study, a time-variant variance and time-variant expected market demand model are introduced to investigate the order strategies that are used by risk-averse holiday merchants. Our results show that risk preference, market uncertainty, and market power have a significant effect on the merchant’s market strategies. Risk-averse merchants prefer to enhance forecast accuracy rather than using an early-display advantage. They can even give up their early-display advantage if they are faced with increased market uncertainty and small market power. Compared with the fixed purchase cost, the time-sensitive purchase cost can stimulate the merchant to purchase in advance, but this can decrease the merchant’s profit. Consequently, risk-averse merchants always display their merchandise later, decrease the order quantity, and, finally, miss the market opportunity.

  2. Buying Behavior Of Organic Vegetables Product The Effects Of Perceptions Of Quality And Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doni Purnama Alamsyah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Consumer behaviors are more important in the study of Green Marketing. This studied aims to examined buying behavior of consumers on organic products which is formed by perception of quality and perception of risk. The research model with three hypotheses to explained the relationship and influenced between the constructs that perception of quality perception of risk and purchase decision. In these empirical studied treated 366 respondents from customer of retail supermarkets in West Java - Indonesia. Results of research founded a significant negative relationship between perception of quality and perception of risk. As well as the behavior of perception of quality and the perception of risk has a significant influenced on purchase decision. Retail self-service needs to improve the perception of quality and reduces the risk perception of the consumers if purchasing behavior of consumers want increase on organic products. This studied was useful in raising awareness of self-service retail and consumers for environmentally friendly products.

  3. Risk in the Ryukyu Islands: Joint Planning for Okinawa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    II-8. 8 The Marine Corps’ maneuver warfare philosophy is most descriptive in explaining the relationship between risk and opportunity in military...opportunity by explaining: Risk is a military virtue. He who dares not risk cannot win and victory belongs to the bold capture the spirit of moral ...opportunity in a timely manner. Risk calculation and acceptance is a complex problem that confronts commanders in both the intellectual and moral dimensions

  4. Environmental risk assessment for veterinary medicinal products. Part 1. Other than GMO-containing and immunological products. First update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montforts MHMM; CSR

    1999-01-01

    The EC has issued directives (1981, 1992) requesting for registration of veterinary medicinal product information to enable an assessment of the product's safety for the environment. As a whole, the risk assessment is structured around the hazard quotient approach used in USES (1994). Predicted

  5. Essential Drugs Production in Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS: Opportunities and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoheir Ezziane

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to elucidate various essential drugs in the Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS countries. It discusses the opportunities and challenges of the existing biotech infrastructure and the production of drugs and vaccines in member states of the BRICS. This research is based on a systematic literature review between the years 2000 and 2014 of documents retrieved from the databases Embase, PubMed/Medline, Global Health, and Google Scholar, and the websites of relevant international organizations, research institutions and philanthropic organizations. Findings vary from one member state to another. These include useful comparison between the BRICS countries in terms of pharmaceuticals expenditure versus total health expenditure, local manufacturing of drugs/vaccines using technology and know-how transferred from developed countries, and biotech entrepreneurial collaborations under the umbrella of the BRICS region. This study concludes by providing recommendations to support more of inter collaborations among the BRICS countries as well as between BRICS and many developing countries to shrink drug production costs. In addition, this collaboration would also culminate in reaching out to poor countries that are not able to provide their communities and patients with cost-effective essential medicines.

  6. Essential drugs production in Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS): opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezziane, Zoheir

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this work is to elucidate various essential drugs in the Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) countries. It discusses the opportunities and challenges of the existing biotech infrastructure and the production of drugs and vaccines in member states of the BRICS. This research is based on a systematic literature review between the years 2000 and 2014 of documents retrieved from the databases Embase, PubMed/Medline, Global Health, and Google Scholar, and the websites of relevant international organizations, research institutions and philanthropic organizations. Findings vary from one member state to another. These include useful comparison between the BRICS countries in terms of pharmaceuticals expenditure versus total health expenditure, local manufacturing of drugs/vaccines using technology and know-how transferred from developed countries, and biotech entrepreneurial collaborations under the umbrella of the BRICS region. This study concludes by providing recommendations to support more of inter collaborations among the BRICS countries as well as between BRICS and many developing countries to shrink drug production costs. In addition, this collaboration would also culminate in reaching out to poor countries that are not able to provide their communities and patients with cost-effective essential medicines.

  7. Upcoming Purchasing and Subcontracting Opportunities | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management Services & Support Fall 2018 Construction@nrel.gov Banking Agreement Fall 2018 Jeffrey.Soltesz . Recurring Products and/or Services (all opportunities pending funding) Solicitation Time Frame Point of Contact Scientific and Business IT Services and Support Winter 2018 Kimberley.Lopez@nrel.gov A&E

  8. Rare earths production and marketing opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falconnet, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    The rare earths (RE) market is relatively small. The total production during 1968 was only 10000 tons (REO) which rose to 27000 tons (REO) during 1985. The three major areas of application, which are volume market for ceric rare earths are catalysts, glass ceramics and metallurgy. Among the other uses of rare earths, the permanent magnets, lamp phosphors and fine ceramics have registered significant growth in RE consumption. Monazite and bastnasite are the main natural source for rare earths and processing of these for one of the rare earths in high demand leads to over production of some others not in demand, thus creating a balance problem. The growth in RE market has always been influenced by the technology shifts and product substitution. For example, the RE consumption during 1974/76 for desulfurization of steel had substantially decreased due to the usage of calcium. Similarly, 1985 had witnessed a drastic cut in the use of REs in fluid cracking due to the introduction of stabilized zeolites which contain less REO. Thus, the overall compound growth rate of demand was only 3.9 % per year during the period 1970-1985. At present, 37 % of the rare earths production goes to the glass/ceramics industry, 33 % for catalyst and 25 % to metallurgy. The price of REs constantly shows a downward trend. This trend coupled with the rapid changes taking place in the various technological fields, demands greater flexibility and high marketing skills from the RE producers. The key factor for future expansion of RE market will be the development of 'high volume' application of ceric rare earths. (author) 2 figs., 8 tabs

  9. Quantifying risk: the role of absolute and relative measures in interpreting risk of adverse reactions from product labels of antipsychotic medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrome, Leslie

    2009-09-01

    Pharmaceutical product labeling as approved by regulatory agencies include statements of adverse event risk. Product labels include descriptive statements such as whether events are uncommon or rare, as well as percentage occurrence for more common events. In addition tables are provided with the frequencies of the latter events for both product and placebo as observed in clinical trials. Competing products are not mentioned in a specific drug's product labeling but indirect comparisons can be made using the corresponding label information for the alternate product. Two types of tools are easily used for this purpose: absolute measures such as number needed to harm (NNH), and relative measures such as relative risk increase (RRI). The calculations for both of these types of quantitative measures are presented using as examples the oral first-line second-generation antipsychotic medications. Among three sample outcomes selected a priori, akathisia, weight gain, and discontinuation from a clinical trial because of an adverse reaction, there appears to be differences among the different antipsychotics versus placebo. Aripiprazole was associated with the highest risk for akathisia, particularly when used as adjunctive treatment of major depressive disorder (NNH 5, 95% CI 4-7; RRI 525%, 95% CI 267%-964%). Although insufficient information was available in product labeling to calculate the CI, olanzapine was associated with the highest risk for weight gain of at least 7% from baseline (NNH 6, RRI 640% for adults; NNH 4, RRI 314% for adolescents), and quetiapine for the indication of bipolar depression was associated with the highest risk of discontinuation from a clinical trial because of an adverse reaction (NNH 8, RRI 265% for 600 mg/d; NNH 15, RRI 137% for 300 mg/d). In conclusion, with certain limitations, it is possible for the clinician to extract information from medication product labeling regarding the frequency with which certain adverse reactions can be

  10. Challenges and Opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, J.B.

    1999-01-01

    A series of overhead viewgraphs accompanied this presentation. The viewgraphs presented 1998 year-end predictions of oil and gas prices. Comparisons of projected versus actual values for 1998 for natural gas consumption, production, imports and wellhead prices for the United States were also presented. A comparison of projected versus actual consumption values for 1998 in the residential, commercial, industrial and electric generation sectors was included. In many cases actual versus projected values were quite different. The importance of storage to balancing the market was illustrated. Graphs depicting gas production, workover rigs, reserve life comparisons, and GOM natural gas rig count and production for the U.S. were described. Drilling activity in the Gulf of Mexico was summarized. The total wells drilled in 1997 was 1223 compared to 1019 in 1998. The factors affecting deliverability additions on the Gulf of Mexico shelf include smaller new discoveries, diminishing completion opportunities in older fields, few productive zones in new discoveries and a rapid decline rate resulting from smaller reservoirs. 6 tabs., 13 figs

  11. Strengthening the knowledge-policy interface through co-production of a climate adaptation plan: leveraging opportunities in Bergriver Municipality, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ziervogel, G

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available plan was presented to the Bergrivier Council to secure buy-in from both the administrative and political spheres. Western Cape government officials, two Climate Systems Analysis Group climate scientists, councillors and officials attended... and innovation. c) d. Capacity opportunity: champions of co-production Deleted: The importance of leaders and champions has been widely cited as critical in driving urban adaptation responses. (61) Maiello et al., (62) for example, observe that public...

  12. Clean Energy Finance: Challenges and Opportunities of Early-Stage Energy Investing (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heap, D.; Pless, J.; Aieta, N.

    2013-12-01

    Characterized by a changing landscape and new opportunities, today's increasingly complex energy decision space will need innovative financing and investment models to appropriately assess risk and profitability. This report provides an overview of the current state of clean energy finance across the entire spectrum but with a focus on early stage investing, and it includes insights from investors across all investment classes. Further, this report aims to provide a roadmap with the mechanisms, limitations, and considerations involved in making successful investments by identifying risks, challenges, and opportunities in the clean energy sector.

  13. The evaluation of effective criteria on site selection for energy production units from cellulosic biomass in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Azizi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Both Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP and benefits, opportunities, costs and risks (BOCR techniques were used successfully to evaluate the effective criteria on site selection for energy production unit development from cellulosic biomass in Iran. The results showed that the benefits criteria was at the first level while the initial cellulosic raw materials and opportunities with the aim of the local economy had the second position as the most important indices on site selection. In addition, third criterion has been introduced for the costs criteria (transportation cost and social barriers by the experts. However, risks criteria which referred to instability of providing cellulosic raw materials is one of the less important effective indices on site selection to make energy production unit. The results illustrated that the economy and politics as two environmental effective factors affected on the site selection process generally.

  14. Opportunities to enhance and interpret nutrient fluxes and imbalances in animal production systems by use of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, S.C.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The flows and transfers of nutrients within agricultural systems are complex and the presence of livestock increases the complexity. Few, if any, systems are in equilibrium with respect to nutrients inputs and outputs and all are 'leaky' to some extent or other: the presence of animals inevitably increases the opportunity for inefficiency. Whilst there is still much need to enhance nutrient use in many parts of the world in order to promote crop/food production particularly in resource-poor environments, there has been considerable recent research which re- examine nutrient behaviour because of pollution effects. Understanding nutrients fluxes and budgets/balances of inputs and outputs within a system and its component parts, provides the means to assess (i) current status, (ii) extent of losses and (iii) potential options for change to reduce losses, increase nutrient use efficiency and sustain or enhance production at minimum cost. Increasingly, nutrient accounting is being used at field, farm and national scales to aid decision making and planning. To do this effectively, requires that the sources and transfers of nutrients to, from and within the system be known. The paper discusses the way in which systems and farm gate balances can be used to promote efficiency of nutrient use in relation to required production levels and to optimise (i) investment in purchased nutrients, (ii) opportunities to capitalise on internal recycling and (iii) other farming activities which influence nutrient balance, surplus and loss. A major challenge for the future will be to balance the on- and off-farm needs of supplying and utilising nutrients in order to maintain long-term sustainability of farming systems, food production and rural resources. The paper concentrates on aspects of N in livestock systems as this provides one of the main opportunities to increase effectiveness of nutrient use in agriculture throughout the world with the aim of demonstrating some of the

  15. ANALYSIS OF POTENTIAL AND DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITY OF COCOA IN WEST SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsuddin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuation area and produced in West Sulawesi is every year happened, because various factor for example displacing farm function, attack of pest and disease of PBK and VSD, crop old in age and lack of conservancy. Result of SWOT analysis indicated that potency and opportunity of product increase Cocoa in West Sulawesi still very big. Potency of product increased can be conducted by passing effort intensification that is repair of practical system, and also passing extensivication that is extension areal plant. Intensification opportunity still very open to increase productivity and produce crop of because technological innovation of practical mounted by a farmer still be very low. Opportunity of extension areal also still very open, because farm which have potency for practical of its Cocoa exploiting newly reach 37,61 percent of available, that is about 467.627 ha. Technological innovation applying of good practical and also potential exploiting areal for extension of plant area Cocoa, hence for certain that productivity and produce Cocoa in West Sulawesi can mount sharply. Production increased of Cocoa will affect to make-up of earnings and farmer prosperity, others will affect also to area economics.

  16. Risk assessment on the use of herbal medicinal products containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgaier, Clemens; Franz, Stephanie

    2015-11-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA) are common plantal toxins directed against insect herbivores. Unsaturated PAs are known to be hepatotoxic. Many of the PAs are in addition mutagenic and some may possibly be carcinogenic for humans. The risk of an exposure to PAs associated with their occurrence in herbal medicinal products and in foodstuff is under current discussion. The present risk assessment for herbal medicinal products containing PAs is based on a margin of safety derivation for foodstuff indicating that a life-long exposure to maximally 0.007 μg/kg bw/day is not expected to be associated with safety concerns. This approach offers a possibility to estimate the potential risk of PA-containing herbal medicinal products irrespective of the route of administration. It assumes PA levels in the final herbal medicinal product below 0.01 ppm and considers for dermal administration a 100% skin penetration of the PAs reflecting a worst-case scenario. As a result, the calculated margins of safety show a potential exposure using herbal medicinal products 70-, 45.5-, and 19.3-fold lower on a one-day base and 608-, 396-, and 168- fold lower on a one-year base for adults, children aged 12 years, and children aged 4 years, respectively, than the thresholds considered acceptable for foodstuff. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Consumption of dairy products in youth, does it protect from cardio-metabolic risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santaliestra-Pasías, Alba M; Bel-Serrat, Silvia; Moreno, Luis A; Bueno, Gloria

    2016-07-12

    Introduction: The high prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents is considered as a major global health concern and involves the onset of other comorbidities such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, chronic infl ammation and hyperinsulinemia, which are also considered as cardiovascular diseases risk factors. Several studies have observed that consumption of dairy products has a protective role on the development of cardiovascular diseases; however, the scientific evidence on this topic is very limited among children and adolescents. Objectives: To investigate the association between dairy products consumption and cardiovascular risk factors in young populations. Material and methods: The most up-to-date literature was reviewed, including some data from the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study. A sample of adolescents (12.5-17.5 years) from 8 European cities was considered for the analysis. Results: US data showed a decrease in both number of servings and portion sizes of milk consumption. Within the HELENA study, dairy products emerged as the food group that better distinguished those adolescents at lower cardiovascular diseases risk. Among the HELENA adolescents, higher consumption of milk, yogurt and milk- and yogurt-based beverages was associated with lower body fat, lower risk for cardiovascular diseases, and higher cardiorespiratory fitness. Conclusions: More studies are needed to provide more evidence and to better understand the intrinsic mechanisms of the association between dairy products consumption, especially yogurt consumption, and obesity, diabetes, and other cardiovascular diseases risk factors.

  18. Research Opportunities for Fischer-Tropsch Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Nancy B.

    1999-01-01

    Fischer-Tropsch synthesis was discovered in Germany in the 1920's and has been studied by every generation since that time. As technology and chemistry, in general, improved through the decades, new insights, catalysts, and technologies were added to the Fischer-Tropsch process, improving it and making it more economical with each advancement. Opportunities for improving the Fischer-Tropsch process and making it more economical still exist. This paper gives an overview of the present Fischer-Tropsch processes and offers suggestions for areas where a research investment could improve those processes. Gas-to-liquid technology, which utilizes the Fischer Tropsch process, consists of three principal steps: Production of synthesis gas (hydrogen and carbon monoxide) from natural gas, the production of liquid fuels from syngas using a Fischer-Tropsch process, and upgrading of Fischer-Tropsch fuels. Each step will be studied for opportunities for improvement and areas that are not likely to reap significant benefits without significant investment

  19. Papers of a Canadian Institute conference : Managing energy price risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    During this conference, participants were offered an opportunity to broaden their knowledge on fundamentals and technical risk management. In particular, the presentations addressed topics such as: the assessment and evaluation of risk tolerance and risk management options within an organization; the tightening of risk management procedures and policies; the measurement and monitoring of risk portfolio and value at risk; the efficient trading of structured energy products; and the use of call and put options, collars and straddles, swaps and other energy related derivatives. The participants also benefited from the use of case studies, panels and tutorials conducted by energy buyers, sellers and risk management experts. The conference represented a forum where participants discussed strategies and tactics for pricing, hedging and trading energy risk in deregulated markets. Of the thirteen presentations included in this document, four were included in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  20. Development and application of modern agricultural biotechnology in Botswana: the potentials, opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batlang, Utlwang; Tsurupe, Gorata; Segwagwe, Amogelang; Obopile, Motshwari

    2014-07-03

    In Botswana, approximately 40% of the population live in rural areas and derive most of their livelihood from agriculture by keeping livestock and practising arable farming. Due to the nature of their farming practises livestock and crops are exposed to diseases and environmental stresses. These challenges offer opportunities for application of biotechnology to develop adaptable materials to the country's environment. On the other hand, the perceived risk of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has dimmed the promise of the technology for its application in agriculture. This calls for a holistic approach to the application of biotechnology to address issues of biosafety of GMOs. We have therefore assessed the potentials, challenges and opportunities to apply biotechnology with specific emphasis on agriculture, taking cognisance of requirement for its research, development and application in research and teaching institutions. In order to achieve this, resource availability, infrastructure, human and laboratory requirements were analyzed. The analysis revealed that the country has the capacity to carry out research in biotechnology in the development and production of genetically modified crops for food and fodder crops. These will include gene discovery, genetic transformation and development of systems to comply with the world regulatory framework on biosafety. In view of the challenges facing the country in agriculture, first generation biotech crops could be released for production. Novel GM products for development may include disease diagnosis kits, animal disease vaccines, and nutrient use efficiency, drought, and pest and disease resistant food and fodder crops.

  1. Bacillus cereus in personal care products: risk to consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, T L; McClure, J; Parker, M D; Amézquita, A; McClure, P J

    2015-04-01

    Bacillus cereus is ubiquitous in nature and thus occurs naturally in a wide range of raw materials and foodstuffs. B. cereus spores are resistant to desiccation and heat and able to survive dry storage and cooking. Vegetative cells produce several toxins which on ingestion in sufficient numbers can cause vomiting and/or diarrhoea depending on the toxins produced. Gastrointestinal disease is commonly associated with reheated or inadequately cooked foods. In addition to being a rare cause of several acute infections (e.g. pneumonia and septicaemia), B. cereus can also cause localized infection of post-surgical or trauma wounds and is a rare but significant pathogen of the eye where it may result in severe endophthalmitis often leading to loss of vision. Key risk factors in such cases are trauma to the eye and retained contaminated intraocular foreign bodies. In addition, rare cases of B. cereus-associated keratitis (inflammation of the cornea) have been linked to contact lens use. Bacillus cereus is therefore a microbial contaminant that could adversely affect product safety of cosmetic and facial toiletries and pose a threat to the user if other key risk factors are also present. The infective dose in the human eye is unknown, but as few as 100 cfu has been reported to initiate infection in a susceptible animal model. However, we are not aware of any reports in the literature of B. cereus infections in any body site linked with use of personal care products. Low levels of B. cereus spores may on occasion be present in near-eye cosmetics, and these products have been used by consumers for many years. In addition, exposure to B. cereus is more likely to occur through other routes (e.g. dustborne contamination) due to its ubiquity and resistance properties of spores. The organism has been recovered from the eyes of healthy individuals. Therefore, although there may be a perceived hazard, the risk of severe eye infections as a consequence of exposure through

  2. Toxicology of Marine Mammals: New Developments and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijs, Liesbeth; Zaccaroni, Annalisa

    2016-01-01

    It is widely recognized that marine mammals are exposed to a wide variety of pollutants, with a weight of evidence indicating impacts on their health. Since hundreds of new chemicals enter the global market every year,the methods, approaches and technologies used to characterize pollution levels or impacts are also in a constant state of flux. However, legal and ethical constraints often limit the type and extent of toxicological research being carried out in marine mammals. Nevertheless, new and emerging in vivo, in vitro as well as in silico research opportunities abound in the field of marine mammal toxicology. In the application of findings to population-, species-, or habitat-related risk assessments, the identification of causal relationships which inform source apportionment is important. This, in turn, is informed by a comprehensive understanding of contaminant classes, profiles and fate overspace and time. Such considerations figure prominently in the design and interpretation of marine mammal (eco)-toxicology research. This mini-review attempts to follow the evolution behind marine mammal toxicology until now,highlight some of the research that has been done and suggest opportunities for future research. This Special Issue will showcase new developments in marine mammal toxicology, approaches for exposure-effect research in risk assessment as well as future opportunities.

  3. Commercial Opportunities and Market Demand for Nanotechnologies in Agribusiness Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Sabourin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Agribusiness is projected to be a $ 2.9 trillion USD industry in global investment by 2030 (World Bank 2013. Nanotechnology is poised to impact dramatically on all sectors of agribusiness industry in the next 10 years. Nanotechnology could be used to enhance the possibilities of developing conventional and stranded agribusiness resources. Nanotechnology can make the industry considerably greener and competitive, with its current growth rate of 25% (US$ 1.08billion annually. The opportunity for application of nanotechnology in agricul¬ture is prodigious. Nanotechnology, focusing on special properties of materials emerging from nanometric size has the potential to revolutionize the agricultural and food sectors, biomedicine, environmental engineering, safety and security, water resources, energy conversion, and numerous other areas. It is well recognized that adoption of new technology is crucial in accu-mulation of global wealth and market value which now stand at US$ 1.09 trillion in estimated value. Nanotechnology has emerged as a technological advancement that could develop and transform the entire agri-food sector, with the potential to increase agricultural productivity, food security and economic growth for industries by atleast 30% (Aver. US$0.9 trillion. This review set out to address the implications of nanotechnology for the agri-food industry by examining the potential benefits, risks and opportunities.

  4. Crowdsourcing for children : exploring threats and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, J.M.S.; Manojlovic, S.; Gavrilo, K.; Khan, J.V.; Hansson, K.; Aitamurto, T.; Ludwig, T.; Gupta, N.; Muller, M.

    2016-01-01

    Children are increasingly being engaged in product development, but they have yet to be introduced to the concept of crowdsourcing. Several opportunities and threats when designing a crowdsourcing platform specifically for children are proposed as topics for further discussion.

  5. Inter-organizational Collaboration: Product, Knowledge and Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Jastroch

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Inter-organizational collaboration is no longer entirely a free choice, but is close to a necessity imposed by economic, technical, and knowledge-related concerns. A deep understanding of collaboration will assist in making intelligent decisions on entering, operating, and evaluating collaborative ventures. The nature of the partners—industrial corporations, consultants, academic institutions and others—and the collaborative structure are important, but so too is the nature of the product. We consider its effects in the collaborative domain on knowledge, intellectual property, and catastrophic risk.

  6. Multiple energy supply risks, optimal reserves, and optimal domestic production capacities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweifel, P.; Ferrari, M.

    1992-01-01

    This study starts from the observation that today's Western trading nations are exposed to multiple risks of energy supplies, e.g. simultaneous shortage of oil and electricity supplies. To cope with these risks, oil can be stockpiled as well as domestic capacity for power production built up. Adopting the viewpoint of a policy maker who aims at minimizing the expected cost of security of supply, optimal simultaneous adjustments of oil stocks and electric production capacities to exogenous changes such as economic growth are derived. Against this benchmark, one-dimensional rules such as 'oil reserves for 90 days' turn out to be not only suboptimal but also to foster adjustments that exacerbate suboptimality. 9 refs., 1 tabs

  7. Pollution prevention opportunity assessments at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betsch, M.D., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-26

    The Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) is a pro- active way to look at a waste generating activity and identify opportunities to minimize wastes through a cost benefit analysis. Hanford`s PPOA process is based upon the graded approach developed by the Kansas City Plant. Hanford further streamlined the process while building in more flexibility for the individual users. One of the most challenging aspects for implementing the PPOA process at Hanford is one overall mission which is environmental restoration, Now that the facilities are no longer in production, each has a different non- routine activity making it difficult to quantify the inputs and outputs of the activity under consideration.

  8. Identifying PHM market and network opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, Mark E; Krishnaswamy, Anand; Poziemski, John; York, Robert W

    2015-11-01

    Two key processes for healthcare organizations seeking to assume a financially sustainable role in population health management (PHM), after laying the groundwork for the effort, are to identify potential PHM market opportunities and determine the scope of the PHM network. Key variables organizations should consider with respect to market opportunities include the patient population, the overall insurance/employer market, and available types of insurance products. Regarding the network's scope, organizations should consider both traditional strategic criteria for a viable network and at least five additional criteria: network essentiality and PHM care continuum, network adequacy, service distribution right-sizing, network growth strategy, and organizational agility.

  9. Biological risks associated with consumption of reptile products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnino, S.; Colin, P.; Dei-Cas, E.

    2009-01-01

    recently increased in some areas of the world. Biological risks associated with the consumption of products from both farmed and wild reptile meat and eggs include infections caused by bacteria (Salmonella spp., Vibrio spp.). parasites (Spirometra, Trichinella, Gnathostoma, pentastomids), as well...... to increase the occurrence of biological hazards in reptile meat. Application of GHP, GMP and HACCP procedures, respectively at farm and slaughterhouse level, is crucial for controlling the hazards.......The consumption of a wide variety of species of reptiles caught from the wild has been an important source of protein for humans world-wide for millennia. Terrapins. snakes, lizards, crocodiles and iguanas are now farmed and the consumption and trade of their meat and other edible products have...

  10. Challenges and Opportunities While Developing a Group A Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine Within a Product Development Partnership: A Manufacturer's Perspective From the Serum Institute of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Prasad S.; Socquet, Muriel; Jadhav, Suresh S.; Kapre, Subhash V.; LaForce, F. Marc; Poonawalla, Cyrus S.

    2015-01-01

    Background. In 2002, the Meningitis Vaccine Project (MVP) chose the Serum Institute of India, Ltd (SIIL), as its manufacturing partner to establish a product development partnership (PDP) with the Meningitis Vaccine Project (MVP). MVP was a collaboration between PATH and the World Health Organization (WHO) to develop meningococcal conjugate vaccines for sub-Saharan Africa. Method. From the outset, SIIL recognized that a partnership with MVP carried some risk but also offered important opportunities for accessing new conjugate vaccine technology and know-how. Over 3 years, SIIL successfully accepted technology transfer for the group A meningococcal polysaccharide from SynCo Bio Partners and a conjugation method from the US Food and Drug Administration. Results. SIIL successfully scaled up production of a group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine that used SIIL tetanus toxoid as the carrier protein. Phase 1 studies began in India in 2005, followed by phase 2/3 studies in Africa and India. A regulatory dossier was submitted to the Indian authorities in April 2009 and WHO in September 2009. Export license was granted in December 2009, and WHO prequalification was obtained in June 2010. Vaccine was introduced at public scale in Burkina Faso that December. The group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine was named MenAfriVac, and is the first internationally qualified vaccine developed outside of big pharma. Conclusions. The project proved to be a sound investment for SIIL and is a concrete example of the potential for PDPs to provide needed products for resource-poor countries. PMID:26553678

  11. Investment opportunities with YPFB capitalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar, F.

    1996-01-01

    Investment opportunities with Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos (LPFB) in La Paz, Bolivia, were discussed, especially as they may be affected by the new Hydrocarbon Law No. 1689, whose main objective is to encourage investments in Bolivia and to increase production capacity through investors' incorporation. Some of the areas of potential importance examined included reserve development, transportation, upstream consulting, and hydrocarbon development

  12. Risk factors for secondary substance use disorders in people with childhood and adolescent-onset bipolar disorder: opportunities for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneson, Aileen; Funderburk, Jennifer S; Maisto, Stephen A

    2013-07-01

    Compared to other mental illnesses, bipolar disorder is associated with a disproportionately high rate of substance use disorders (SUDs), and the co-occurrence is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis of primary bipolar disorder may provide opportunities for SUD prevention, but little is known about the risk factors for secondary SUD among individuals with bipolar disorder. The purposes of this study were to describe the population of people with childhood and adolescent-onset primary bipolar disorder, and to identify risk factors for secondary SUD in this population. Using data collected from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication study, we identified 158 individuals with childhood-onset (adolescent-onset (13-18 years) primary bipolar disorder (I, II or subthreshold). Survival analysis was used to identify risk factors for SUD. Compared to adolescent-onset, people with childhood-onset bipolar disorder had increased likelihoods of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (adjusted odds ratio=2.81) and suicide attempt (aOR=3.61). Males were more likely than females to develop SUD, and did so at a faster rate. Hazard ratios of risk factors for SUD were: lifetime oppositional defiant disorder (2.048), any lifetime anxiety disorder (3.077), adolescent-onset bipolar disorder (1.653), and suicide attempt (15.424). SUD was not predicted by bipolar disorder type, family history of bipolar disorder, hospitalization for a mood episode, ADHD or conduct disorder. As clinicians struggle to help individuals with bipolar disorder, this study provides information that might be useful in identifying individuals at higher risk for SUD. Future research can examine whether targeting these risk factors may help prevent secondary SUD. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES TH E INSURANCE INDU STRY FACING WITH IN RELATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fekete Mária FARKASNÉ

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Apart from the financial risk the insurance industry are facing with in association with climate change, there are also opportun ities to the sector to develop new markets and provide coverage against weather related risks. This study presents a possible method to examine the potential for introducing a new insurance product, namely an agricultural flood insurance scheme in the United Kingdom. The investigation included the calculation of agricultural flood damage costs, the possible changes in flood risk, the description of farmers’ risk attitude and interests in insurance. In a small scale survey, farmers were asked their experiences related to flooding, farm management practices and thei r willingness to pay for flood insurance using a contingent valuation method. Using statistical analysis it was found the insurance demand is positively correlated with the damage cost predicted and association is likely between farm types and WTP for insurance. Linear regression model suggests that the demand for flood insurance is low amongst farmers in the present risk level. The findi ngs of this research highlight that there is little evidence for the viability of a farmer financed agricultural flood insurance scheme at the moment in the United Kingdom.

  14. The risk analysis during production process of an innovative baby carriage with a bike function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowiński Emil

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the risk assesment of damages occurance in production stage of a babycarriage with a bike function. The analysis of risk is done by using the FMEA – Failure Made and Effect Analysis that is used in aviation and automotive industry. This way of innovative product assessment allows to evaluate the risk of defects and indicate the priorities of quality for key parts as well as the device.

  15. Job Stress Risk Factors Among Power Generation and Machine Production Employees: A Case Study-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Naghavi; M.R. Hajgholami; Y. Shokoohi; F. Zayeri

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective: Job stress has been adverse effects on performance, quality of work, absents, unsafe behaviors and occupational accidents and also health problems. Risk factors of job stress can be different in various workplaces. Risk factors determination is the first step of job stress management. Identifying these risk factors among workers of Power production & Machine production industries was the aim of this study. Methods: First parts of Osipow questionnaire was used for ...

  16. The Politics of Co-Production: Risks, Limits and Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinders, Matthew; Wood, Matthew; Cunningham, Malaika

    2016-01-01

    Co-production is a risky method of social inquiry. It is time-consuming, ethically complex, emotionally demanding, inherently unstable, vulnerable to external shocks, subject to competing demands and it challenges many disciplinary norms. This is what makes it so fresh and innovative. And yet these research-related risks are rarely discussed and,…

  17. UPDATING UNDER RISK CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VĂDUVA CECILIA ELENA

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The foundation for future firm development is investment. Agents have a risk aversion requiring higher returns as the risks associated with the project will be greater. The investment decision determines the market firm's affirmation, increasing the market share, dominating the market. Making an investment at a certain point will determine certain cash flows throughout the life of the project, and a residual value can be obtained when it is taken out of service. The flows and payments for the investment project can be more easily tracked if we are proposing a constant update rate. We will be able to analyze, based on various factors, three techniques for determining the discount rate for investment projects: the opportunity cost, the risk-free rate, and a series of risk premiums, the weighted average cost of capital. People without financial training make value judgments for investment projects based on other market opportunities, comparing the returns that any investment offers to other pay options. An investor has a sum of money he wants to make - if he does not invest in a project, he will invest in another, that will bring him a certain amount of money, choosing the most advantageous project by comparison. All projects are characterized by identical risks, and the agents are considered indifferent to the risks. The answer given by financial theory and practice to the disadvantage of rates in the opportunity cost category is the discount rate calculated as a sum of the risk-free rate and a risk premium, defining the risk as a factor whose action may cause a possible decrease in cash of the available flows. Higher objectivity is presented by the opportunity cost update rates of update because it refers to known variables but cannot be perfectly matched to the performance of the investment process.

  18. Korean Ministry of Environment's web-based visual consumer product exposure and risk assessment system (COPER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hunjoo; Lee, Kiyoung; Park, Ji Young; Min, Sung-Gi

    2017-05-01

    With support from the Korean Ministry of the Environment (ME), our interdisciplinary research staff developed the COnsumer Product Exposure and Risk assessment system (COPER). This system includes various databases and features that enable the calculation of exposure and determination of risk caused by consumer products use. COPER is divided into three tiers: the integrated database layer (IDL), the domain specific service layer (DSSL), and the exposure and risk assessment layer (ERAL). IDL is organized by the form of the raw data (mostly non-aggregated data) and includes four sub-databases: a toxicity profile, an inventory of Korean consumer products, the weight fractions of chemical substances in the consumer products determined by chemical analysis and national representative exposure factors. DSSL provides web-based information services corresponding to each database within IDL. Finally, ERAL enables risk assessors to perform various exposure and risk assessments, including exposure scenario design via either inhalation or dermal contact by using or organizing each database in an intuitive manner. This paper outlines the overall architecture of the system and highlights some of the unique features of COPER based on visual and dynamic rendering engine for exposure assessment model on web.

  19. China in Mexico: More Opportunity than Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    factory.55 Mexico’s percent of Ford’s U.S. car production went from 11.8 in 2006 to 16 percent in 2008.56 Nissan , Mazda, Volkswagen, Audi, Toyota ... compared to the time lag (and increased cost) of over a week required to transport products from China to the United States. Even in the well...and Honda also produce cars in Mexico, all increasing investment and manufacturing facilities.57 China, in selecting Mexico as a major FDI

  20. Nanotechnology in the Chemical Industry - Opportunities and Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Qiuzhao; Boxman, Arthur; Chowdhry, Uma

    2003-01-01

    The traditional chemical industry has become a largely mature industry with many commodity products based on established technologies. Therefore, new product and market opportunities will more likely come from speciality chemicals, and from new functionalities obtained from new processing technologies as well as new microstructure control methodologies. It is a well-known fact that in addition to its molecular structure, the microstructure of a material is key to determining its properties. Controlling structures at the micro- and nano-levels is therefore essential to new discoveries. For this article, we define nanotechnology as the controlled manipulation of nanomaterials with at least one dimension less than 100nm.Nanotechnology is emerging as one of the principal areas of investigation that is integrating chemistry and materials science, and in some cases integrating these with biology to create new and yet undiscovered properties that can be exploited to gain new market opportunities. In this article market opportunities for nanotechnology will be presented from an industrial perspective covering electronic, biomedical, performance materials, and consumer products. Manufacturing technology challenges will be identified, including operations ranging from particle formation, coating, dispersion, to characterization, modeling, and simulation. Finally, a nanotechnology innovation roadmap is proposed wherein the interplay between the development of nanoscale building blocks, product design, process design, and value chain integration is identified. A suggestion is made for an R and D model combining market pull and technology push as a way to quickly exploit the advantages in nanotechnology and translate these into customer benefits

  1. Status, challenges and marketing opportunities for canning navy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Status, challenges and marketing opportunities for canning navy bean in Kenya. ... improve incomes of smallholder farmers in Kenya; its production and marketing has, however, stagnated. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  2. Break-even price for upstream activities in Brazil: Evaluation of the opportunity cost of oil production delay in a non-mature sedimentary production region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szklo, Alexandre Salem; Machado, Giovani; Carneiro, Jason Thomas Guerreiro

    2008-01-01

    Some Latin American policy-makers and analysts state that it would be better to hold oil reserves in place than to produce and cash it now, given the recent oil prices spikes and the fear related to future oil supply disruptions. This article evaluates the strategy of delaying the start-up of oil production in a discovered field with proved reserves. A Reference Discounted Cash Flow (FCD-R) for a typical 350 million barrel Brazilian oil field was simulated. The study estimated which future oil price may render the project insensitive to a delay of 5, 10, 15 or 20 years in its production beginning. Additionally, the value of the in situ oil stock was calculated, providing the opportunity cost for delaying oil production in a frontier area, such as Brazil. It is an application of the Hotelling Principle. Findings indicate that progressive delays of 5 years in the start-up of operation of a typical oil field reduce its revenues by a factor of 2. A delay of 10 years would be justifiable at international oil prices higher than US $15/bbl. Delays higher than 10 years lead this break-even price to values between US $200 and 350/bbl. (author)

  3. The association between modifiable well-being risks and productivity: a longitudinal study in pooled employer sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuyan; Sears, Lindsay E; Coberley, Carter R; Pope, James E

    2013-04-01

    To examine the longitudinal relationship between modifiable well-being risks and productivity. A total of 19,121 employees from five employers participated in baseline and follow-up well-being assessment surveys. Multivariate regressions assessed whether changes in absenteeism, presenteeism, and job performance were associated with changes in 19 modifiable well-being risks. Over time, a 5% reduction in total count of well-being risks was significantly associated with 0.74% decrease in absenteeism, 2.38% decrease in presenteeism, and 0.24% increase in performance. High blood pressure, recurring pain, unhealthy diet, inadequate exercise, poor emotional health, poor supervisor relationship, not utilizing strengths doing job, and organization unsupportive of well-being had greater independent contributions in explaining productivity impairment. The often-ignored well-being risks such as work-related and financial health risks provided incremental explanation of longitudinal productivity variations beyond traditional measures of health-related risks.

  4. Association Between Employee Dental Claims, Health Risks, Workplace Productivity, and Preventive Services Compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Wayne N; Chen, Chin-Yu; Li, Xingquan; Schultz, Alyssa B

    2017-08-01

    This study examined differences in health risks and workplace outcomes among employees who utilized preventive dental services compared with other employees. A retrospective observational study of employees of a large financial services corporation, with data from health risk appraisal questionnaires, medical claims, pharmacy claims, and dental claims. Employees with no dental claims were significantly more likely to have a variety of health risk factors (such as obesity and tobacco use), health conditions (such as diabetes), absenteeism, and lost on-the-job productivity, and were significantly less likely to be compliant with clinical preventive services compared with those with preventive dental claims. Employees with preventive dental claims had fewer health risks and medical conditions and better health and productivity measures. Study employees underutilized free dental care; employers should incorporate preventive dental care awareness into their worksite wellness programs.

  5. Risk assessment for stonecutting enterprises Accidental risks in the course of petroleum production and stone extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova, A. J.; Timofeeva, S. S.

    2018-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the assessment of accidental risks occurring at the works engaged in stone extracting and petroleum production. Two basic kinds of accidents common for stone extracting and petroleum production have been chosen to be discussed in the part under consideration. The most dangerous accidental situation characteristic for a stone milling line is an unsanctioned explosion, UE, of blasting agents used for the development of stone deposits. The analysis of a risk occurrence in certain accidental situations is to be carried out. With reference to petroleum extraction, a combustibles and lubricants (C & L) explosion is the most dangerous of characteristic accidental situations. To reveal the most probable causes of accidental situations to be realized, a graph of cause and effect relations has been constructed for each of the accidental situations most probable causes to real situation of an accident. Disasters of a natural origin are the most probable causes of unsanctioned explosions at the deposits of stone raw materials. Technology related natural disasters are the most probable causes of unsanctioned explosions to be realized at multiple well platforms engaged in petroleum production.

  6. Financial disclosure and toxic products: encouraging wall street to anticipate product risk and exercise precaution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Sanford; Byrne, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Amidst discussion by policymakers about how regulators' failure to ensure disclosure of risks contributed to the current financial crisis, we assess how emerging product toxicity risks are addressed in companies' financial reports. Will corporations blindside investors with "the next asbestos?" Existing disclosures are found lacking in the specificity needed to forewarn of liabilities and reputational damage from the use of potentially harmful materials-from nanotechnologies, to asthmagens, to perfluorinated compounds. Improved standards could protect investors while also enhancing corporate incentives to use safer materials. Reforms by the Securities and Exchange Commission and the Financial Accounting Standards Board are recommended.

  7. Investigation of productivity in a south Indian Malabari goat herd shows opportunities for planned animal health management to improve food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargison, N D; Ivil, S A J; Abraham, J; Abubaker, S P S; Hopker, A M; Mazeri, S; Otter, I A; Otter, N

    2017-03-18

    Here the authors report the objective veterinary clinical measurement of productivity in a representative south Indian Malabari goat herd. The authors show failure to meet pragmatic production targets that are commensurate with the animals' genetic potential or adequate to meet the demands of global food security. The authors suggest that this situation may have arisen as a consequence of animal husbandry constraints and protein undernutrition and imply the involvement of nematode parasitism. Benzimidazole resistance was detected in Haemonchus species, showing the need for better understanding of the principles of sustainable helminth parasite control within the southern Indian context. This study highlights the need to understand the true costs of goat production in seasonally resource-poor environments, while also considering its impact on the overall ecosystem in which the animals are placed. They conclude that pragmatic opportunities for improvements in goat production efficiency lie in the development of problem-focused planned animal health and nutrition management. British Veterinary Association.

  8. Petroleum exploration and development opportunities in Manitoba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.N.; Martiniuk, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    The productive areas of Manitoba are located along the northeastern flank of the Williston basin. Rocks of Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic age form a basin-ward thickening wedge of sedimentary strata that reach a total thickness of 2,300 m in the southwest corner of the province. A brief description is presented of the geology and reservoir characteristics of petroleum producing horizons in Manitoba. Manitoba's Crown land tenure system of leases and exploitation reservations is described and an overview of Manitoba's petroleum royalty and tax structure and incentive programs is presented. Exploration and development opportunities in Manitoba are outlined. There are numerous development drilling opportunities along the poorly defined edges of existing pools. Exploration opportunities exist in the Mississippian in the sparsely explored areas outside existing field boundaries. Deeper Devonian and Ordovician horizons, productive elsewhere in the Williston basin, remain relatively untested in Manitoba. An attractive, stable investment climate is created by: availability of land at comparatively low cost; a stable and competitive fiscal regime; incentive programs designed to enhance pay-out; low drilling density; relatively untested deep potential below the Mississippian; low drilling and completion costs; easy access to market; and competitive oil prices. 12 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs

  9. Petroleum exploration and development opportunities in Manitoba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.N.; Martiniuk, C.D.

    1991-01-01

    The productive areas of Manitoba are located along the northeastern flank of the Williston basin. Rocks of paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic age form a basin-ward thickening wedge of sedimentary strata that reach a total thickness of 2,300 m in the southwest corner of the province. A brief description is presented of the geology and reservoir characteristics of petroleum producing horizons in Manitoba. Manitoba's Crown land tenure system of leases and exploitation reservations is described and an overview of Manitoba's petroleum royalty and tax structure and incentive programs is presented. Exploration and development opportunities in Manitoba are outlined. There are numerous development drilling opportunities along the poorly defined edges of existing pools. Exploration opportunities exist in the Mississippian in the sparsely explored areas outside existing field boundaries. Deeper Devonian and Ordovician horizons, productive elsewhere in the Williston basin, remain relatively untested in Manitoba. An attractive, stable investment climate is created by: availability of land at comparatively low cost; a stable and competitive fiscal regime; incentive programs designed to enhance pay-out; low drilling density; relatively untested deep potential below the Mississippian; low drilling and completion costs; easy access to market; and competitive oil prices. 12 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs

  10. Responsibilities, opportunities and challenges in geophysical exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rytle, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    Geophysical exploration for engineering purposes is conducted to decrease the risk in encountering site uncertainties in construction of underground facilities. Current responsibilities, opportunities and challenges for those with geophysical expertise are defined. These include: replacing the squiggly line format, developing verification sites for method evaluations, applying knowledge engineering and assuming responsibility for crucial national problems involving rock mechanics expertise

  11. Food safety in raw milk production: risk factors associated to bacterial DNA contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerva, Cristine; Bremm, Carolina; Reis, Emily Marques dos; Bezerra, André Vinícius Andrade; Loiko, Márcia Regina; Cruz, Cláudio Estêvão Farias da; Cenci, Alexander; Mayer, Fabiana Quoos

    2014-06-01

    While human illness from milkborne pathogens may be linked to contamination of the product after pasteurization or improper pasteurization, such diseases are usually associated with consumption of raw milk or its by-products. Molecular biology tools were applied to investigate contamination by Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., some pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli, and Campylobacter jejuni in 548 raw milk samples from 125 dairy farms established in two regions from southern Brazil. Moreover, 15 variables were evaluated for their association with raw milk contamination levels, and the risk factors were determined by multiple regression analysis. Salmonella spp. were more frequently detected, followed by pathogenic E. coli. There was difference in contamination index between the regions, in which risk factors such as temporary cattle confinement, low milk production, low milking machine cleaning frequency, and milk storage area without tile walls were identified. The risk factors were specific to each region studied. Nevertheless, the data can be used to improve milk quality of dairy farms/herds with similar management practices.

  12. Phage Therapy Approaches to Reducing Pathogen Persistence and Transmission in Animal Production Environments: Opportunities and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colavecchio, Anna; Goodridge, Lawrence D

    2017-06-01

    The era of genomics has allowed for characterization of phages for use as antimicrobials to treat animal infections with a level of precision never before realized. As more research in phage therapy has been conducted, several advantages of phage therapy have been realized, including the ubiquitous nature, specificity, prevalence in the biosphere, and low inherent toxicity of phages, which makes them a safe and sustainable technology for control of animal diseases. These unique qualities of phages have led to several opportunities with respect to emerging trends in infectious disease treatment. However, the opportunities are tempered by several challenges to the successful implementation of phage therapy, such as the fact that an individual phage can only infect one or a few bacterial strains, meaning that large numbers of different phages will likely be needed to treat infections caused by multiple species of bacteria. In addition, phages are only effective if enough of them can reach the site of bacterial colonization, but clearance by the immune system upon introduction to the animal is a reality that must be overcome. Finally, bacterial resistance to the phages may develop, resulting in treatment failure. Even a successful phage infection and lysis of its host has consequences, because large amounts of endotoxin are released upon lysis of Gram-negative bacteria, which can lead to local and systemic complications. Overcoming these challenges will require careful design and development of phage cocktails, including comprehensive characterization of phage host range and assessment of immunological risks associated with phage treatment.

  13. The Value-for-Money Discourse: Risks and Opportunities for R4D

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    shanks@idrc.ca

    challenge and an opportunity for research- focused organizations ... that stifle social, economic and political ... actual results, using both qualitative and quantitative measures to ... approach to interpreting the VfM discourse by ... methodology.

  14. Dairy products consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengfeng Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The consumption of dairy products may influence the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, but inconsistent findings have been reported. Moreover, large variation in the types of dairy intake has not yet been fully explored. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify the dose-response association of dairy products intake and T2DM risk. We searched PubMed, EMBASE and Scopus for studies of dairy products intake and T2DM risk published up to the end of October 2012. Random-effects models were used to estimate summary relative risk (RR statistics. Dose-response relations were evaluated using data from different dairy products in each study. We included 14 articles of cohort studies that reported RR estimates and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs of T2DM with dairy products intake. We found an inverse linear association of consumption of total dairy products (13 studies, low-fat dairy products (8 studies, cheese (7 studies and yogurt (7 studies and risk of T2DM. The pooled RRs were 0.94 (95% CI 0.91-0.97 and 0.88 (0.84-0.93 for 200 g/day total and low-fat dairy consumption, respectively. The pooled RRs were 0.80 (0.69-0.93 and 0.91 (0.82-1.00 for 30 g/d cheese and 50 g/d yogurt consumption, respectively. We also found a nonlinear association of total and low-fat dairy intake and T2DM risk, and the inverse association appeared to be strongest within 200 g/d intake. CONCLUSION: A modest increase in daily intake of dairy products such as low fat dairy, cheese and yogurt may contribute to the prevention of T2DM, which needs confirmation in randomized controlled trials.

  15. Portfolio balancing and risk adjusted values under constrained budget conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKay, J.A.; Lerche, I.

    1996-01-01

    For a given hydrocarbon exploration opportunity, the influences of value, cost, success probability and corporate risk tolerance provide an optimal working interest that should be taken in the opportunity in order to maximize the risk adjusted value. When several opportunities are available, but when the total budget is insufficient to take optimal working interest in each, an analytic procedure is given for optimizing the risk adjusted value of the total portfolio; the relevant working interests are also derived based on a cost exposure constraint. Several numerical illustrations are provided to exhibit the use of the method under different budget conditions, and with different numbers of available opportunities. When value, cost, success probability, and risk tolerance are uncertain for each and every opportunity, the procedure is generalized to allow determination of probable optimal risk adjusted value for the total portfolio and, at the same time, the range of probable working interest that should be taken in each opportunity is also provided. The result is that the computations of portfolio balancing can be done quickly in either deterministic or probabilistic manners on a small calculator, thereby providing rapid assessments of opportunities and their worth to a corporation. (Author)

  16. A Holistic Approach for Risk Management During Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkat, Leila

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, an approach for the identification, assessment, mitigation and continuous management of risks during the process of designing a space mission is presented. This approach has been developed by observing the risk patterns that occur at the Project Design Center of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (TeamX) which develops conceptual, concurrent design of Space Missions. TeamX develops an end-to-end conceptual design of a Space Mission in a matter of one or two weeks. As the risk chair in TeamX, the author has had the opportunity to observe the risk patterns that occur during design over the course of many design sessions. This paper introduces an abstraction and generalization of those patterns. Risk is defined as anything that can go wrong, along with its approximate likelihood and consequence. The indicators, and causes, and effects of these risks are cross cutting across the multiple levels of people and processes involved in the design, and the actual design product itself.

  17. Risk Management for New Product Development Projects in Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porananond, D.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Project risk management provides a guideline for decision making in new product development (NPD projects, reducing uncertainty and increasing success rate. However, the acceptance of formal risk management applications in industry, especially for NPD projects is still in question. A study of a food conglomerate in Thailand found that only 9% of NPD projects used a systematic approach for managing risk. 61% of the projects realised the importance of risk management, while the remaining 30% did not involve risk management at all. This study aims to develop a risk management model for NPD projects in the food industry. The first section of this paper reviews the literature on risk management theory, including international standards for risk and project management (ISO31000 and ISO21500, publications for the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK, by a professional organisation the Project Management Institute (PMI, and also academic research. 182 academic papers, published between January 2002 and August 2012 were selected. The second part interviews conducted with eight NPD experts from five of the major food manufacturers in Thailand to examine their risk management practices and problems. Conclusions are made on five topics : classification of research method, project type and industrial segment, distribution of articles by region, tools & techniques for risk management and risk factors in projects. Specific requirements of risk management for NPD projects in the food industry are identified. A risk management model and the concept of risk management applications for the food industry are proposed.

  18. Risk analysis of Listeria spp. contamination in two types of ready-to-eat chicken meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeratipibul, Suwimon; Lekroengsin, Sumalin

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the risk of Listeria contamination in frozen ready-to-eat roasted and steamed chicken meat in a chicken plant in Thailand. Environmental surfaces were divided into three zones. Zone 1 included surfaces in direct contact with products. Zones 2 and 3 included indirect contact surfaces; zone 2 was next to zone 1, and zone 3 was located next to zone 2 and relatively far from the product. A mathematical model for the probability of product contamination after contact with contaminated zone 1 surfaces was established. This model was augmented by an already established model for the probability of Listeria contamination on zone 1 surfaces. Sensitivity analysis revealed that the prevalence of Listeria on zone 1 surfaces before cleaning and sanitizing, production time, and concentration and contact time of sanitizer were correlated with contamination of both products. Alternative risk management measures for reducing the risk of Listeria contamination were developed using sanitizer concentrations of 0.25 to 1.25% (vol/vol), sanitizer contact times of 5 to 20 min, and production times of 5 to 20 h. The plant's risk manager chose a 0.25% (vol/vol) sanitizer concentration, a contact time of 20 min, and a production time of 20 h. After implementation of the selected risk management option, the prevalence of Listeria on roasted and steamed products was reduced by 2.19 and 2.01%, respectively. The prevalence of Listeria in zones 1, 2, and 3 was also reduced by 3.13, 11.24, and 25.66%, respectively.

  19. Integrated methodology for production related risk management of vehicle electronics (IMPROVE)

    OpenAIRE

    Geis, Stefan Rafael

    2006-01-01

    This scientific work is designated to provide an innovative and integrated conceptional approach to improve the assembly quality of automotive electronics. This is achieved by the reduction and elimination of production related risks of automotive electronics and the implementation of a sustainable solution process. The focus is the development and implementation of an integrated technical risk management approach for automotive electronics throughout the vehicle life cycle and the vehicle pr...

  20. Concordance of mother-daughter diurnal cortisol production: Understanding the intergenerational transmission of risk for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMoult, Joelle; Chen, Michael C; Foland-Ross, Lara C; Burley, Hannah W; Gotlib, Ian H

    2015-05-01

    A growing body of research is demonstrating concordance between mother and child diurnal cortisol production. In the context of maternal history of depression, intergenerational concordance of cortisol production could contribute to hypercortisolemia in children of depressed mothers, which has been shown to increase risk for MDD. The current study is the first to examine concordance in diurnal cortisol production between mothers with a history of depression and their never-depressed, but high-risk, children. We collected salivary cortisol across 2 days from mothers with (remitted; RMD) and without (CTL) a history of recurrent episodes of depression and their never-depressed daughters. As expected, RMD mothers and their daughters both exhibited higher cortisol production than did their CTL counterparts. Moreover, both across and within groups, mothers' and daughters' cortisol production were directly coupled. These findings suggest that there is an intergenerational concordance in cortisol dysregulation that may contribute to hypercortisolemia in girls at familial risk for depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Business risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosby, C.

    2015-01-01

    Bruce Power's definition: an emerging and demonstrable event or change in business plan assumptions that could impact Bruce Power's achievement of its business plan objectives and results. Risks can be either negative (threats) or positive (opportunities). Risks against the 5 year business plan Net Risk = impact * probability.

  2. Planning Risk-Based SQC Schedules for Bracketed Operation of Continuous Production Analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgard, James O; Bayat, Hassan; Westgard, Sten A

    2018-02-01

    To minimize patient risk, "bracketed" statistical quality control (SQC) is recommended in the new CLSI guidelines for SQC (C24-Ed4). Bracketed SQC requires that a QC event both precedes and follows (brackets) a group of patient samples. In optimizing a QC schedule, the frequency of QC or run size becomes an important planning consideration to maintain quality and also facilitate responsive reporting of results from continuous operation of high production analytic systems. Different plans for optimizing a bracketed SQC schedule were investigated on the basis of Parvin's model for patient risk and CLSI C24-Ed4's recommendations for establishing QC schedules. A Sigma-metric run size nomogram was used to evaluate different QC schedules for processes of different sigma performance. For high Sigma performance, an effective SQC approach is to employ a multistage QC procedure utilizing a "startup" design at the beginning of production and a "monitor" design periodically throughout production. Example QC schedules are illustrated for applications with measurement procedures having 6-σ, 5-σ, and 4-σ performance. Continuous production analyzers that demonstrate high σ performance can be effectively controlled with multistage SQC designs that employ a startup QC event followed by periodic monitoring or bracketing QC events. Such designs can be optimized to minimize the risk of harm to patients. © 2017 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  3. Work, Health, And Worker Well-Being: Roles And Opportunities For Employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Robert K

    2017-02-01

    Work holds the promise of supporting and promoting health. It also carries the risk of injury, illness, and death. In addition to harms posed by traditional occupational health hazards, such as physically dangerous workplaces, work contributes to health problems with multifactorial origins such as unhealthy lifestyles, psychological distress, and chronic disease. Not only does work affect health, but the obverse is true: Unhealthy workers are more frequently disabled, absent, and less productive, and they use more health care resources, compared to their healthy colleagues. The costs of poor workforce health are collectively borne by workers, employers, and society. For business as well as altruistic reasons, employers may strive to cost-effectively achieve the safest, healthiest, and most productive workforce possible. Narrowly focused health goals are giving way to a broader concept of employee well-being. This article explores the relationship between health and work, outlines opportunities for employers to make this relationship health promoting, and identifies areas needing further exploration. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  4. Product Diversification in the European Banking Industry: Risk and Loan Pricing Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Lepetit , Laetitia; Nys , Emmanuelle; Rous , Philippe; Tarazi , Amine

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between bank risk and product diversification in the changing structure of the European banking industry. Based on a broad set of European banks for the period 1996-2002, our study shows that banks expanding into non-interest income activities present higher risk than banks which mainly supply loans. Whereas previous studies (mainly on U.S. banks) focused on portfolio diversification effects we explore risk implications of cross-sel...

  5. Women's gambling behaviour, product preferences, and perceptions of product harm: differences by age and gambling risk status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Simone; Thomas, Samantha L; Randle, Melanie; Bestman, Amy; Pitt, Hannah; Cowlishaw, Sean; Daube, Mike

    2018-04-24

    Women's participation in, and harm from gambling, is steadily increasing. There has been very limited research to investigate how gambling behaviour, product preferences, and perceptions of gambling harm may vary across subgroups of women. This study surveyed a convenience sample of 509 women from Victoria and New South Wales, Australia. Women were asked a range of questions about their socio-demographic characteristics and gambling behaviour. Focusing on four gambling products in Australia-casino gambling, electronic gambling machines (EGMs), horse betting, and sports betting-women were asked about their frequency of participation, their product preferences, and perceptions of product harms. The sample was segmented a priori according to age and gambling risk status, and differences between groups were identified using Chi-square tests and ANOVAs. Thematic analysis was used to interpret qualitative data. Almost two thirds (n = 324, 63.7%) of women had engaged with one of the four products in the previous 12 months. Compared to other age groups, younger women aged 16-34 years exhibited a higher proportion of problem gambling, gambled more frequently, and across more products. While EGMs were the product gambled on most frequently by women overall, younger women were significantly more likely to bet on sports and gamble at casinos relative to older women. Qualitative data indicated that younger women engaged with gambling products as part of a "night out", "with friends", due to their "ease of access" and perceived "chance of winning big". There were significant differences in the perceptions of the harms associated with horse and sports betting according to age and gambling risk status, with younger women and gamblers perceiving these products as less harmful. This study highlights that there are clear differences in the gambling behaviour, product preferences, and perceptions of product harms between subgroups of women. A gendered approach will enable public

  6. Minimizing Risks of Invasive Alien Plant Species in Tropical Production Forest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Padmanaba

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Timber production is the most pervasive human impact on tropical forests, but studies of logging impacts have largely focused on timber species and vertebrates. This review focuses on the risk from invasive alien plant species, which has been frequently neglected in production forest management in the tropics. Our literature search resulted in 114 publications with relevant information, including books, book chapters, reports and papers. Examples of both invasions by aliens into tropical production forests and plantation forests as sources of invasions are presented. We discuss species traits and processes affecting spread and invasion, and silvicultural practices that favor invasions. We also highlight potential impacts of invasive plant species and discuss options for managing them in production forests. We suggest that future forestry practices need to reduce the risks of plant invasions by conducting surveillance for invasive species; minimizing canopy opening during harvesting; encouraging rapid canopy closure in plantations; minimizing the width of access roads; and ensuring that vehicles and other equipment are not transporting seeds of invasive species. Potential invasive species should not be planted within dispersal range of production forests. In invasive species management, forewarned is forearmed.

  7. Dairy product consumption and risk of hip fracture: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Shanshan; Hu, Jingmin; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Yunguo; Yu, Miaohui; Ma, Jie

    2018-01-22

    Dairy product consumption may affect the risk of hip fracture, but previous studies have reported inconsistent findings. The primary aim of our meta-analysis was to examine and quantify the potential association of dairy product consumption with risk of hip fracture. We searched the databases of PubMed and EMBASE for relevant articles from their inception through April 17, 2017. The final analysis included 10 cohort studies and 8 case-control studies. Random-effects models were used to estimate the pooled risk. Subgroup and dose-response analyses were conducted to explore the relationships between the consumption of milk and the risk of hip fracture. After pooling the data from the included studies, the summary relative risk (RR) for hip fracture for highest versus lowest consumption were 0.91 (95% CI: 0.74-1.12), 0.75 (95% CI: 0.66-0.86), 0.68 (95% CI: 0.61-0. 77), 1.02 (95% CI: 0.93-1.12) for milk, yogurt, cheese, and total dairy products in cohort studies, respectively. Higher milk consumption [Odds ratio (OR), 0.71, 95% CI: 0.55-0. 91] was associated with lower risk of hip fracture for highest versus lowest consumption in case-control studies. After quantifying the specific dose of milk, the summary RR/OR for an increased milk consumption of 200 g/day was 1.00 (95% CI: 0.94-1.07), and 0.89 (95%CI: 0.64-1.24) with significant heterogeneity for cohort and case-control studies, respectively; There was a nonlinear association between milk consumption and hip fracture risk in cohort, and case-control studies. Our findings indicate that consumption of yogurt and cheese was associated with lower risk of hip fracture in cohort studies. However, the consumption of total dairy products and cream was not significantly associated with the risk of hip fracture. There was insufficient evidence to deduce the association between milk consumption and risk of hip fracture. A lower threshold of 200 g/day milk intake may have beneficial effects, whereas the effects of a higher

  8. Guide to resource conservation and cost savings opportunities in the dairy processing sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This guide identifies and promotes opportunities for conserving energy and water, as well as reducing waste, in the dairy processing sector. The guide begins with an introduction and a profile of Ontario`s dairy processing sector, outlining the context for resource conservation and cost savings opportunities. It then outlines the rationale and the generic processes selected for careful examination of resource conservation and cost savings opportunities. Subsequent chapters describe the energy, water, and material resources commonly used in relation to the generic processes; the air, water, and solid waste residuals commonly derived from those processes; and new technologies with potential application in dairy processing. The generic processes covered in the guide are for fluid milk, cheese, ice cream and frozen products, cultured products such as yogurt, butter, and dried or evaporated products. The report ends with additional useful information for dairy processors.

  9. Flood risk management in Italy: challenges and opportunities for the implementation of the EU Floods Directive (2007/60/EC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysiak, J.; Testella, F.; Bonaiuto, M.; Carrus, G.; De Dominicis, S.; Ganucci Cancellieri, U.; Firus, K.; Grifoni, P.

    2013-11-01

    Italy's recent history is punctuated with devastating flood disasters claiming high death toll and causing vast but underestimated economic, social and environmental damage. The responses to major flood and landslide disasters such as the Polesine (1951), Vajont (1963), Firenze (1966), Valtelina (1987), Piedmont (1994), Crotone (1996), Sarno (1998), Soverato (2000), and Piedmont (2000) events have contributed to shaping the country's flood risk governance. Insufficient resources and capacity, slow implementation of the (at that time) novel risk prevention and protection framework, embodied in the law 183/89 of 18 May 1989, increased the reliance on the response and recovery operations of the civil protection. As a result, the importance of the Civil Protection Mechanism and the relative body of norms and regulation developed rapidly in the 1990s. In the aftermath of the Sarno (1998) and Soverato (2000) disasters, the Department for Civil Protection (DCP) installed a network of advanced early warning and alerting centres, the cornerstones of Italy's preparedness for natural hazards and a best practice worth following. However, deep convective clouds, not uncommon in Italy, producing intense rainfall and rapidly developing localised floods still lead to considerable damage and loss of life that can only be reduced by stepping up the risk prevention efforts. The implementation of the EU Floods Directive (2007/60/EC) provides an opportunity to revise the model of flood risk governance and confront the shortcomings encountered during more than 20 yr of organised flood risk management. This brief communication offers joint recommendations towards this end from three projects funded by the 2nd CRUE ERA-NET (http://www.crue-eranet.net/) Funding Initiative: FREEMAN, IMRA and URFlood.

  10. Occupational musculoskeletal and mental health: Significance of rationalization and opportunities to create sustainable production systems - A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgaard, R H; Winkel, J

    2011-01-01

    This literature review aims to identify occupational musculoskeletal and mental health effects of production system rationalization as well as organizational-level measures that may improve health outcome ("modifiers" in this review). A short review of the effect of ergonomic interventions is included as background and rationalization is discussed as a theoretical concept. Indicator variables for occupational musculoskeletal and mental health and related risk factors are presented. Variables with a generalized format were allowed in the literature searches (e.g., job satisfaction and absenteeism were accepted as risk factor and health indicator, respectively), suitable for the research fields of work sociology, organization science, human resource management (HRM) and economics research. One hundred and sixty-two studies of rationalization effects on health and risk factors and 72 organization-level modifier results were accepted into the final database. Entries were sorted by rationalization strategy and work life sector, and trends in outcome (positive, mixed, no effect, or negative effect on health and risk factors) were determined. Rationalizations have a dominant negative effect on health and risk factors (57% negative, 19% positive); the most negative effects were found for downsizing and restructuring rationalizations in general (71 studies negative, 13 positive) and for the health care sector in particular (36 studies negative, 2 positive). The rationalization strategy High Performance Work System (HPWS) was associated with the highest fraction positive outcome studies (6 of 10 studies). Other rationalization strategies (lean practices, parallel vs. serial production and mechanization level) reported intermediate results, in part dependent on work life sector, but also on the year when studies were carried out. Worker participation, resonant management style, information, support, group autonomy and procedural justice were modifiers with favourable

  11. Robust Production Planning in Fashion Apparel Industry under Demand Uncertainty via Conditional Value at Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderrahim Ait-Alla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a mathematical model for robust production planning. The model helps fashion apparel suppliers in making decisions concerning allocation of production orders to different production plants characterized by different lead times and production costs, and in proper time scheduling and sequencing of these production orders. The model aims at optimizing these decisions concerning objectives of minimal production costs and minimal tardiness. It considers several factors such as the stochastic nature of customer demand, differences in production and transport costs and transport times between production plants in different regions. Finally, the model is applied to a case study. The results of numerical computations are presented. The implications of the model results on different fashion related product types and delivery strategies, as well as the model’s limitations and potentials for expansion, are discussed. Results indicate that the production planning model using conditional value at risk (CVaR as the risk measure performs robustly and provides flexibility in decision analysis between different scenarios.

  12. Countering the biggest risk of all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slywotzky, Adrian J; Drzik, John

    2005-04-01

    Corporate treasurers and chief financial officers have become adept at quantifying and managing a wide variety of risks: financial (for example, currency fluctuations), hazard (chemical spills), and operational (computer system failures). To defend themselves, they use tried-and-true tools such as hedging, insurance, and backup systems. Some companies have even adopted the concept of enterprise risk management, integrating available risk management techniques in a comprehensive, organization-wide approach. But most managers have not addressed in a systematic way the greatest threat of all--strategic risks, the array of external events and trends that can devastate a company's growth trajectory and shareholder value. Strategic risks go beyond such familiar challenges as the possible failure of an acquisition or a product launch. A new technology may overtake your product. Gradual shifts in the market may slowly erode one of your brands beyond the point of viability. Or rapidly shifting customer priorities may suddenly change your industry. The key to surviving these strategic risks, the authors say, is knowing how to assess and respond to them. In this article, they lay out a method for identifying and responding to strategic threats. They categorize the risks into seven major classes (industry, technology, brand, competitor, customer, project, and stagnation) and describe a particularly dangerous example within each category. The authors also offer countermeasures to take against these risks and describe how individual companies (American Express, Coach, and Air Liquide, among them) have deployed them to neutralize a threat and, in many cases, capitalize on it. Besides limiting the downside of risk, strategic-risk management forces executives to think more systematically about the future, thus helping them identify opportunities for growth.

  13. Constraints and opportunities for sustainable crop production in rainfed areas of pothwar plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafoor, A.; Shafiq, M.; Aslam, M.

    2006-01-01

    The rainfed areas, commonly known as barani tract, accounts for about 25% of the total cropped area in the Punjab. The Pothwar plateau comprising 1.82 million hectare, is the largest contiguous block of rainfed areas in Punjab. Low and erratic rainfall, water-erosion hazard, inadequate depth of soil and poor soil-fertility are the main limitations affecting the production-potential of these areas. To ensure that farmers readily adopt the agricultural technologies developed by the research-system, these should be based on real-life problems, appropriate to the natural and socio-economic environments in which farmers make decisions. The present study was undertaken in tehsils Fatehjang and Gujar Khan of Pothwar plateau, to broadly understand farmers perceptions and approaches for rainwater-harvesting and soil-fertility management. It was observed that farm size was relatively bigger in Fatehjang than Gujar Khan. About 86% and 63% of respondents in Gujar Khan and Fatehjang cultivated their own lands. Nearly 40% of respondents in both the tehsils had their lands in 3 to 6 parcels, which hindered the farm-operation and soil and water conservation activities. The uses of fertilizers are sub-optimal and imbalanced. The soil-fertility is going down. The rainwater-conservation practices are not being adopted, due to high cost of machinery and disinterest of farmers in agriculture. The farming is going to be come un- economical. The analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) was carried out and the results are discussed. Some recommendations have been proposed to control soil-erosion, moisture-stress and fertility-degradation and to sustain agricultural production in these areas. (author)

  14. Risk assessment of allergen metals in cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipahi, Hande; Charehsaz, Mohammad; Güngör, Zerrin; Erdem, Onur; Soykut, Buğra; Akay, Cemal; Aydin, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Cosmetics are one of the most common reasons for hospital referrals with allergic contact dermatitis. Because of the increased use of cosmetics within the population and an increase in allergy cases, monitoring of heavy metals, especially allergen metals, is crucial. The aim of this study was to investigate the concentration of allergen metals, nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), and chromium (Cr), in the most commonly used cosmetic products including mascara, eyeliner, eye shadow, lipstick, and nail polish. In addition, for safety assessment of cosmetic products, margin of safety of the metals was evaluated. Forty-eight makeup products were purchased randomly from local markets and large cosmetic stores in Istanbul, Turkey, and an atomic absorption spectrometer was used for metal content determination. Risk assessment of the investigated cosmetic products was performed by calculating the systemic exposure dosage (SED) using Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety guideline. According to the results of this investigation in all the samples tested, at least two of the allergen metals, Ni and/or Co and/or Cr were detected. Moreover, 97% of the Ni-detected products, 96% of Cr- and 54% of Co-detected products, contained over 1 μg/g of this metals, which is the suggested ultimate target value for sensitive population and thereby can be considered as the possible allergen. On the basis of the results of this study, SED of the metals was negligible; however, contact dermatitis caused by cosmetics is most probably due to the allergen metal content of the products. In conclusion, to assess the safety of the finished products, postmarketing vigilance and routine monitoring of allergen metals are very important to protect public health.

  15. Risk management in medical product development process using traditional FMEA and fuzzy linguistic approach: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkire, Milind Shrikant; Rane, Santosh B.; Jadhav, Jagdish Rajaram

    2015-12-01

    Medical product development (MPD) process is highly multidisciplinary in nature, which increases the complexity and the associated risks. Managing the risks during MPD process is very crucial. The objective of this research is to explore risks during MPD in a dental product manufacturing company and propose a model for risk mitigation during MPD process to minimize failure events. A case study approach is employed. The existing MPD process is mapped with five phases of the customized phase gate process. The activities during each phase of development and risks associated with each activity are identified and categorized based on the source of occurrence. The risks are analyzed using traditional Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) and fuzzy FMEA. The results of two methods when compared show that fuzzy approach avoids the duplication of RPNs and helps more to convert cognition of experts into information to get values of risk factors. The critical, moderate, low level and negligible risks are identified based on criticality; risk treatments and mitigation model are proposed. During initial phases of MPD, the risks are less severe, but as the process progresses the severity of risks goes on increasing. The MPD process should be critically designed and simulated to minimize the number of risk events and their severity. To successfully develop the products/devices within the manufacturing companies, the process risk management is very essential. A systematic approach to manage risks during MPD process will lead to the development of medical products with expected quality and reliability. This is the first research of its kind having focus on MPD process risks and its management. The methodology adopted in this paper will help the developers, managers and researchers to have a competitive edge over the other companies by managing the risks during the development process.

  16. Mexican immigration to the US and alcohol and drug use opportunities: does it make a difference in alcohol and/or drug use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Guilherme; Rafful, Claudia; Benjet, Corina; Tancredi, Daniel J; Saito, Naomi; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Breslau, Joshua

    2012-09-01

    Mexican immigrants in the US do not have increased risk for alcohol use or alcohol use disorders when compared to Mexicans living in Mexico, but they are at higher risk for drug use and drug use disorders. It has been suggested that both availability and social norms are associated with these findings. We aimed to study whether the opportunity for alcohol and drug use, an indirect measure of substance availability, determines differences in first substance use among people of Mexican origin in both the US and Mexico, accounting for gender and age of immigration. Data come from nationally representative surveys in the United States (2001-2003) and Mexico (2001-2002) (combined n=3432). We used discrete time proportional hazards event history models to account for time-varying and time-invariant characteristics. The reference group was Mexicans living in Mexico without migration experience. Female immigrants were at lower risk of having opportunities to use alcohol if they immigrated after the age of 13, but at higher risk if they immigrated prior to this age. Male immigrants showed no differences in opportunity to use alcohol or alcohol use after having the opportunity. Immigration was associated with having drugs opportunities for both sexes, with larger risk among females. Migration was also associated with greater risk of using drugs after having the opportunity, but only significantly for males. The impacts of immigration on substance use opportunities are more important for drugs than alcohol. Public health messages and educational efforts should heed this distinction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Addressing the gender differentiated investment risks to climate-smart agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Glemarec

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that closing the gender gap in land and other productive resources can provide a “triple dividend” of gender equality, food security and climate management, thereby offering a cost-effective approach to the pursuit of the Sustainable Development Goals. However, climate change compounds the structural barriers to gender equality that women farmers face, rapidly shrinking the window of opportunity to realize this triple dividend. Yet climate policies largely overlook the gender gap in agriculture.The growing literature on the gender gap aims to better quantify its implications for agricultural productivity but does not provide a framework to prioritize policy responses. To complement these econometric efforts, this paper proposes a three-step methodology to assist policy-makers in developing countries in disentangling the opportunities and trade-offs of different policies and interventions to close the gender gap that impedes climate-smart agriculture (CSA for women.Barrier and risk analyses are increasingly used to identify public instruments that can catalyze climate smart investments. Building on this proven methodology, the paper first develops a table that clusters barriers to CSA into nine independent risk categories. Second, it overlays a gender analysis upon this gender-neutral barrier and risk table to identify gender-differentiated risks and barriers to CSA. Third, it maps identified gender-neutral and differentiated investment risks against possible remedial public policy instruments.The analysis suggests that about half of identified CSA investment risks have a higher probability of occurrence for women farmers than for men farmers. Furthermore, women farmers might face additional gender-specific barriers, mostly linked to their disproportionate responsibility for unpaid domestic and care work, the risk of violence and unequal power relations with men in the household and community. Targeted interventions will be

  18. Business risk management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosby, C., E-mail: Christine.cosby@brucepower.com [Bruce Power, Tiverton, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    Bruce Power's definition: an emerging and demonstrable event or change in business plan assumptions that could impact Bruce Power's achievement of its business plan objectives and results. Risks can be either negative (threats) or positive (opportunities). Risks against the 5 year business plan Net Risk = impact * probability.

  19. Social opportunity cost of capital: empirical estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Townsend, S.

    1978-02-01

    This report develops estimates of the social-opportunity cost of public capital. The private and social costs of capital are found to diverge primarily because of the effects of corporate and personal income taxes. Following Harberger, the social-opportunity cost of capital is approximated by a weighted average of the returns to different classes of savers and investors where the weights are the flows of savings or investments in each class multiplied by the relevant elasticity. Estimates of these parameters are obtained and the social-opportunity cost of capital is determined to be in the range of 6.2 to 10.8%, depending upon the parameter values used. Uncertainty is found to affect the social-opportunity cost of capital in two ways. First, some allowance must be made for the chance of failure or at least of not realizing claims of a project's proponents. Second, a particular government project will change the expected variability of the returns to the government's entire portfolio of projects. In the absence of specific information about each project, the use of the economy-wide average default and risk adjustments is suggested. These are included in the empirical estimates reported. International capital markets make available private capital, the price of which is not distorted by the U.S. tax system. The inclusion of foreign sources slightly reduces the social-opportunity cost of capital. 21 references.

  20. Technological Advances and Opportunities for the Development of Sustainable Biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussatto, Solange I.

    to generate new jobs and new opportunities for entrepreneurship, with further benefits to the global economy and the society. Biomass can be used to replace fossil feedstocks for the production of different products, among of which, chemicals are particularly very attractive due to their high market value...

  1. Provider-based Medicare risk contracting and subcontracting: opportunities and risks for provider sponsored organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, H A; Zenner, P A; Kipp, R A; Whitney, E L

    1997-01-01

    Provider sponsored organizations (PSOs) are increasingly acquiring the risk for the management of Medicare Risk patients by accepting capitation directly from the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) or through contracts with HMOs or other organizations contracting with HCFA. The Medicare population and the requirements that the federal administration has put into place with respect to risk contracting are unique and demand specific responses on the part of the PSO for a contract to be successful. The PSO is cautioned to understand the actuarial risk, the clinical uniqueness of the Medicare beneficiary, Medicare reimbursement regulatory requirements, utilization management needs, and necessary reporting before entering into a contractual arrangement. This article attempts to describe some of the more common issues a provider organization must consider.

  2. Integration of microalgae cultivation with industrial waste remediation for biofuel and bioenergy production: opportunities and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Patrick J; Dickinson, Kathryn E; Bhatti, Shabana; Frigon, Jean-Claude; Guiot, Serge R; O'Leary, Stephen J B

    2011-09-01

    There is currently a renewed interest in developing microalgae as a source of renewable energy and fuel. Microalgae hold great potential as a source of biomass for the production of energy and fungible liquid transportation fuels. However, the technologies required for large-scale cultivation, processing, and conversion of microalgal biomass to energy products are underdeveloped. Microalgae offer several advantages over traditional 'first-generation' biofuels crops like corn: these include superior biomass productivity, the ability to grow on poor-quality land unsuitable for agriculture, and the potential for sustainable growth by extracting macro- and micronutrients from wastewater and industrial flue-stack emissions. Integrating microalgal cultivation with municipal wastewater treatment and industrial CO(2) emissions from coal-fired power plants is a potential strategy to produce large quantities of biomass, and represents an opportunity to develop, test, and optimize the necessary technologies to make microalgal biofuels more cost-effective and efficient. However, many constraints on the eventual deployment of this technology must be taken into consideration and mitigating strategies developed before large scale microalgal cultivation can become a reality. As a strategy for CO(2) biomitigation from industrial point source emitters, microalgal cultivation can be limited by the availability of land, light, and other nutrients like N and P. Effective removal of N and P from municipal wastewater is limited by the processing capacity of available microalgal cultivation systems. Strategies to mitigate against the constraints are discussed.

  3. Television advertisement format and the provision of risk information about prescription drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinert, Lewis H; Schommer, Jon C

    2005-06-01

    Considerable attention has been afforded to analyzing the content of and assessing consumers' reaction to print direct-to-consumer drug ads, but not so for televised ads. To determine whether advertisements with different risk severity and risk presentation would significantly affect viewers' (1) recall of information contained in the advertisement, (2) evaluation of the advertisement, and (3) perceptions of the advertised product's risks. Data were collected from a sample of 135 first-year pharmacy students at a Midwestern college of pharmacy. After viewing 1 of the 6 advertisements designed for this study, participants were asked to complete a self-administered survey. Chi-square and analysis of variance were used to analyze the data. A 2x3 between subjects design was used to test the effects of 2 levels of risk severity (high- vs low-risk severity) and 3 levels of risk presentation (original ad containing integrated risk message, deintegrated risk message/dual modality using male voice-over, deintegrated risk message/dual modality using female voice-over). Results of analysis of variance procedures revealed that deintegrating risk information by placing it at the end of the advertisement and the use of captions in addition to oral messages (dual modality) (1) improved the recall of general and specific side effect information, (2) led to a perception that the advertisement had greater informational content, (3) resulted in lower Advertisement Distraction, and (4) lessened cognitive and affective aspects of information overload for the advertisement containing the high-risk severity medication. However, this pattern of findings was not found for the low-risk severity medication. Alternative methods for presenting risk information in direct-to-consumer ads affected some aspects of information recall and advertisement evaluation, but were not shown to affect risk perceptions regarding the advertised products.

  4. Dietary Advanced Glycation End Products and Cardiometabolic Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luévano-Contreras, Claudia; Gómez-Ojeda, Armando; Macías-Cervantes, Maciste Habacuc; Garay-Sevilla, Ma Eugenia

    2017-08-01

    This report analyzes emerging evidence about the role of dietary advanced glycation end products (AGEs) as a cardiometabolic risk factor. Two important aspects are discussed: First, the modulation of AGE load by dietary AGEs; second, if the evidence of clinical and observational studies is enough to make dietary recommendations towards lowering AGE intake. Clinical studies in subjects with diabetes mellitus have shown that high intake of dietary AGEs increases inflammation markers, oxidative stress, and could impair endothelial function. In subjects at risk for cardiometabolic diseases (with overweight, obesity, or prediabetes), dietary AGE restriction decreases some inflammatory molecules and improves insulin sensitivity. However, studies in healthy subjects are limited, and not all of the studies have shown a decrease in circulating AGEs. Therefore, it is still unclear if dietary AGEs represent a health concern for people potentially at risk for cardiometabolic diseases. The evidence shows that dietary AGEs are bioavailable and absorbed, and the rate of excretion depends on dietary intake. The metabolic fate of most dietary AGEs remains unknown. Regardless, most studies have shown that by diminishing AGE intake, circulating levels will also decrease. Thus, dietary AGEs can modulate the AGE load at least in patients with DM, overweight, or obesity. Studies with specific clinical outcomes and large-scale observational studies are needed for a better risk assessment of dietary AGEs and to establish dietary recommendations accordingly.

  5. Dairy product consumption and risk of hip fracture: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bian, Shanshan; Hu, Jingmin; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Yunguo; Yu, Miaohui; Ma, Jie

    2018-01-01

    Background Dairy product consumption may affect the risk of hip fracture, but previous studies have reported inconsistent findings. The primary aim of our meta-analysis was to examine and quantify the potential association of dairy product consumption with risk of hip fracture. Methods We searched the databases of PubMed and EMBASE for relevant articles from their inception through April 17, 2017. The final analysis included 10 cohort studies and 8 case-control studies. Random-effects models ...

  6. [East coast activity : updates and opportunities in the service sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, B.

    1998-01-01

    The experience of the Shaw Group Ltd. in becoming an active supplier and participant in the Sable Offshore Energy Project was described. The Nova Scotia company began in 1861 as a small manufacturer of clay brick and tile. In order to ensure the company's long-term growth, the company began to diversify in the 1960s into fields such as concrete pipe and industrial aggregate production, transportation and community development. In 1975, they began looking into the potential of getting into the pipe coating business for the offshore petroleum industry. The process began with a search for a partner. Today, the company is responsible for the the epoxy and heavy-weight coating on subsea gathering lines and the main line from Sable Island to the mainland. In addition, the Shaw group of companies provide the full spectrum of management expertise, including purchasing, financial control, health and safety planning, labour procurement and the promotion of Nova Scotian and Canadian content throughout the project. The success of the Shaw Group in penetrating the oil and gas industry developments in eastern Canada should be an object lesson to all local companies that although initially some opportunities may appear to be beyond the scope and capabilities of local companies, imagination and willingness to take the risk to convert a problem into an opportunity can render even relatively small enterprises able to participate in major developments

  7. Summaries of important areas for mineral investment and production opportunities of nonfuel minerals in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Stephen G.; King, Trude V.V.; Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations (TFBSO) entered into an agreement with the Afghanistan Geological Survey to study and assess the fuel and nonfuel mineral resources of Afghanistan from October 2009 to September 2011 so that these resources could be economically extracted to expand the economy of Afghanistan. This report summarizes the results of joint studies on 24 important areas of interest (AOIs) of nonfuel mineral resources that were identified for mineral investment and production opportunities in Afghanistan. This report is supported by digital data and archival and non-USGS reports on each AOI, and these data are available from the Afghanistan Geological Survey Data Center in Kabul (http://mom.gov.af/en/ and http://www.bgs.ac.uk/afghanminerals/) and for viewing and download on the USGS public Web site and in a separate viewer at http://mapdss2.er.usgs.gov/.

  8. Estimated risk from exposure to radon decay products in US homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nero, A.V. Jr.

    1986-05-01

    Recent analyses now permit direct estimation of the risks of lung cancer from radon decay products in US homes. Analysis of data from indoor monitoring in single-family homes yields a tentative frequency distribution of annual-average 222 Rn concentrations averaging 55 Bq m -3 and having 2% of homes exceeding 300 Bq m -3 . Application of the results of occupational epidemiological studies, either directly or using recent advances in lung dosimetry, to indoor exposures suggests that the average indoor concentration entails a lifetime risk of lung cancer of 0.3% or about 10% of the total risk of lung cancer. The risk to individuals occupying the homes with 300 Bq m -3 or more for their lifetimes is estimated to exceed 2%, with risks from the homes with thousands of Bq m -3 correspondingly higher, even exceeding the total risk of premature death due to cigarette smoking. The potential for such average and high-level risks in ordinary homes forces development of a new perspective on environmental exposures

  9. Challenges and opportunities for improving food quality and nutrition through plant biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, David; Finer, John J; Grotewold, Erich

    2017-04-01

    Plant biotechnology has been around since the advent of humankind, resulting in tremendous improvements in plant cultivation through crop domestication, breeding and selection. The emergence of transgenic approaches involving the introduction of defined DNA sequences into plants by humans has rapidly changed the surface of our planet by further expanding the gene pool used by plant breeders for plant improvement. Transgenic approaches in food plants have raised concerns on the merits, social implications, ecological risks and true benefits of plant biotechnology. The recently acquired ability to precisely edit plant genomes by modifying native genes without introducing new genetic material offers new opportunities to rapidly exploit natural variation, create new variation and incorporate changes with the goal to generate more productive and nutritious plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Measuring Clinical Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Mark E; Lebovitz, Evan E

    2018-06-01

    Productivity measurements have been used to evaluate and compare physicians and physician practices. Anesthesiology is unique in that factors outside anesthesiologist control impact opportunity for revenue generation and make comparisons between providers and facilities challenging. This article uses data from the multicenter University of Pittsburgh Physicians Department of Anesthesiology to demonstrate factors influencing productivity opportunity by surgical facility, between department divisions and subspecialties within multispecialty divisions, and by individuals within divisions. The complexities of benchmarking anesthesiology productivity are demonstrated, and the potential value of creating a productivity profile for facilities and groups is illustrated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Incorporating Risks in Economic Values for Pigs in Smallholder Production Systems in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbuthias, Jackson; Rewe, Thomas; Okeno, Tobias

    production systems in Kenya. In addition to traditional bio-economic profit model, a risk-rated model was used to derive risk-rated economic values. This model accounted for imperfect knowledge concerning risk attitude of farmers and variance of input and output prices. Positive economic values obtained...... for traits DP, LWg, LWs, PoSR, PrSR, SoSR and TNB indicate that targeting them in improvement would positively impact profitability in pig breeding programmes. Accounting for risks in the EVs did not yield errors greater than ±50%. Therefore both traditional and risk-rated models can be satisfactorily used...

  12. [Combine fats products: methodic opportunities of it identification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viktorova, E V; Kulakova, S N; Mikhaĭlov, N A

    2006-01-01

    At present time very topical problem is falsification of milk fat. The number of methods was considered to detection of milk fat authention and possibilities his difference from combined fat products. The analysis of modern approaches to valuation of milk fat authention has showed that the main method for detection of fat nature is gas chromatography analysis. The computer method of express identification of fat products is proposed for quick getting of information about accessory of examine fat to nature milk or combined fat product.

  13. New opportunities from nuclear R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    The author presents a new initiative within Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL), the intention to look for spin-off business opportunities from main-line research and development. In 1982 AECL began encouraging ideas for spin-off applications. Some problems were encountered: the reluctance of staff to divert attention from the CANDU program; resource allocation; difficulties in getting market input; and difficulties in deciding what to license and what to retain as an in-house business opportunity. Successes have come in the areas of using CANDU technology in LWRs, SLOWPOKE reactors, industrial accelerators, stable isotope production, intelligent sensing systems, and deuterated lucite for fibre optics. (L.L.)

  14. Biomass opportunities in the United States to mitigate the effects of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampson, R.N.

    1991-01-01

    The increased interest in the global warming threat has caused a great deal of attention to be paid to the value of forests as a mitigating strategy. This paper is a preliminary report on efforts by a number of investigators to document the opportunities for improving the forests of the United States, and the effect that those improvements might have on global warming. In the process, major interest is on the amount of biomass that can be produced - particularly opportunities to increase the amount of biomass that can be produced annually in relatively stable forms - woody plant structures, woody roots, soil carbon, and long-lived wood products - or burned as a substitute for fossil fuels. While it is readily recognized that growing additional forest products is not a way out of avoiding other issues such as energy conservation and reduction of industrial emissions, forestry opportunities provide an excellent bridging strategy that may buy a few decades of time on the problem of carbon dioxide buildup in the atmosphere, while at the same time providing a host of other economic and environmental benefits. In other words, at reasonable levels, implementing forestry opportunities is a global warming strategy that does not cost, it pays. The current state of the study leads us to believe that those opportunities can offset somewhere in the neighborhood of half of the current net fossil fuel carbon emissions produced by the United States, with changes that are economically sound for other reasons - mainly in terms of forest products produced, or energy expenditures avoided. In the process, there are substantial collateral environmental benefits that will be realized. It seems clear, however, that we can increase forest acreage, and forest productivity, more than current markets for forest products can absorb. Thus, new markets will need to be established. 36 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs

  15. Acceptable risks: occupational health in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.S.

    1980-01-01

    This thesis examines the risk of working in the nuclear power industry. It reviews the history of the industry, government regulatory activities, and current scientific evidence of the health effects of radiation exposure. A discussion of current controversies over reduction in exposure limits is presented along with an analysis of the issues and problems associated with determinations of acceptable workplace risks. The thesis analyzes the controversy in terms of the acceptability of risk. The question of acceptability does not lend itself to technical evaluations of risks, costs, and benefits but is a social judgment of the necessity of a particular occupation or industry in society. At issue is the level of profits foregone by reductions in risk. This document concludes that the legitimacy of decisions about acceptable risks rests on the informed participation of all interested parties, including workers, in a process of defining socially necessary production. There must be opportunities to refuse higher risk jobs without losing a livelihood and adequate compensation for workers who accept hazardous jobs for the benefit of society

  16. Model of the Product Development Lifecycle.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Sunny L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roe, Natalie H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wood, Evan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nachtigal, Noel M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Helms, Jovana [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    While the increased use of Commercial Off-The-Shelf information technology equipment has presented opportunities for improved cost effectiveness and flexibility, the corresponding loss of control over the product's development creates unique vulnerabilities and security concerns. Of particular interest is the possibility of a supply chain attack. A comprehensive model for the lifecycle of hardware and software products is proposed based on a survey of existing literature from academic, government, and industry sources. Seven major lifecycle stages are identified and defined: (1) Requirements, (2) Design, (3) Manufacturing for hardware and Development for software, (4) Testing, (5) Distribution, (6) Use and Maintenance, and (7) Disposal. The model is then applied to examine the risk of attacks at various stages of the lifecycle.

  17. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in waters: occurrence, toxicity, and risk

    OpenAIRE

    Cizmas, Leslie; Sharma, Virender K.; Gray, Cole M.; McDonald, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCP) are compounds with special physical and chemical properties that address the care of animal and human health. PPCP have been detected in surface water and wastewater in the ng/L to ��g/L concentration range worldwide. PPCP ecotoxicity has been studied in a variety of organisms, and multiple methods have been used to assess the risk of PPCP in the environment to ecological health. Here we review the occurrence, effects, and risk assessment of P...

  18. Multi-hazard national-level risk assessment in Africa using global approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Stuart; Jongman, Brenden; Simpson, Alanna; Murnane, Richard

    2016-04-01

    In recent years Sub-Saharan Africa has been characterized by unprecedented opportunity for transformation and sustained growth. However, natural disasters such as droughts, floods, cyclones, earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions and extreme temperatures cause significant economic and human losses, and major development challenges. Quantitative disaster risk assessments are an important basis for governments to understand disaster risk in their country, and to develop effective risk management and risk financing solutions. However, the data-scarce nature of many Sub-Saharan African countries as well as a lack of financing for risk assessments has long prevented detailed analytics. Recent advances in globally applicable disaster risk modelling practices and data availability offer new opportunities. In December 2013 the European Union approved a € 60 million contribution to support the development of an analytical basis for risk financing and to accelerate the effective implementation of a comprehensive disaster risk reduction. The World Bank's Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR) was selected as the implementing partner of the Program for Result Area 5: the "Africa Disaster Risk Assessment and Financing Program." As part of this effort, the GFDRR is overseeing the production of national-level multi-hazard risk profiles for a range of countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, using a combination of national and global datasets and state-of-the-art hazard and risk assessment methodologies. In this presentation, we will highlight the analytical approach behind these assessments, and show results for the first five countries for which the assessment has been completed (Kenya, Uganda, Senegal, Niger and Ethiopia). The presentation will also demonstrate the visualization of the risk assessments into understandable and visually attractive risk profile documents.

  19. Industrial production and professional application of manufactured nanomaterials-enabled end products in Dutch industries: potential for exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, Cindy; Brouwer, Derk H; Tielemans, Erik; Pronk, Anjoeka

    2013-04-01

    In order to make full use of the opportunities while responsibly managing the risks of working with manufactured nanomaterials (MNM), we need to gain insight into the potential level of exposure to MNM in the industry. Therefore, the goal of this study was to obtain an overview of the potential MNM exposure scenarios within relevant industrial sectors, applied exposure controls, and number of workers potentially exposed to MNM in Dutch industrial sectors producing and applying MNM-enabled end products in the Netherlands. A survey was conducted in three phases: (i) identification of MNM-enabled end products; (ii) identification of relevant industrial sectors; and (iii) a tiered telephone survey to estimate actual use of the products among 40 sector organizations/knowledge centres (Tier 1), 350 randomly selected companies (Tier 2), and 110 actively searched companies (Tier 3). The most dominant industrial sectors producing or applying MNM-enabled end products (market penetration >5%) are shoe repair shops, automotive, construction, paint, metal, and textile cleaning industry. In the majority of the companies (76%), potential risks related to working with MNM are not a specific point of interest. The total number of workers potentially exposed to MNM during the production or application of MNM-enabled end products was estimated at approximately 3000 workers in the Netherlands. The results of this study will serve as a basis for in-depth exposure and health surveys that are currently planned in the Netherlands. In addition, the results can be used to identify the most relevant sectors for policy makers and future studies focussing on evaluating the risks of occupational exposure to MNM.

  20. Processing Challenges and Opportunities of Camel Dairy Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berhe, Tesfemariam; Seifu, Eyassu; Ipsen, Richard

    2017-01-01

    to bovine milk. Nonetheless, the relative composition, distribution, and the molecular structure of the milk components are reported to be different. Consequently, manufacturing of camel dairy products such as cheese, yoghurt, or butter using the same technology as for dairy products from bovine milk can...

  1. Opportunities in the international health services arena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, R A

    1997-08-01

    Fundamental changes in domestic healthcare delivery in the '90s have prompted many U.S. healthcare organizations to consider entering international markets. Opportunities available to U.S. organizations include investing in foreign organizations, controlling foreign facilities, and obtaining referrals from extraterritorial or cooperating foreign providers. Before entering into these arrangements, however, organizations must consider the benefits, risks, and constraints they may face, specifically with regard to reimbursement and cash flow, currency risk, regulation, and political risk. To succeed in international service delivery ventures, organizations also may need to make adjustments in the training of healthcare financial managers who will face the international marketplace. Being sensitive to the culture of the countries with which they will be dealing is just as important as knowing the currency and financial regulations.

  2. Development and Justification of a Risk Evaluation Matrix To Guide Chemical Testing Necessary To Select and Qualify Plastic Components Used in Production Systems for Pharmaceutical Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenke, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    An accelerating trend in the pharmaceutical industry is the use of plastic components in systems used to produce an active pharmaceutical ingredient or a finished drug product. If the active pharmaceutical ingredient, the finished drug product, or any solution used to generate them (for example, a process stream such as media, buffers, eluents, and the like) is contacted by a plastic component at any time during the production process, substances leached from the component may accumulate in the active pharmaceutical ingredient or finished drug product, affecting its safety and/or efficacy. In this article the author develops and justifies a semi-quantitative risk evaluation matrix that is used to determine the amount and rigor of component testing necessary and appropriate to establish that the component is chemically suitable for its intended use. By considering key properties of the component, the contact medium, the contact conditions, and the active pharmaceutical ingredient's or finished drug product's clinical conditions of use, use of the risk evaluation matrix produces a risk score whose magnitude reflects the accumulated risk that the component will interact with the contact solution to such an extent that component-related extractables will accumulate in the active pharmaceutical ingredient or finished drug product as leachables at levels sufficiently high to adversely affect user safety. The magnitude of the risk score establishes the amount and rigor of the testing that is required to select and qualify the component, and such testing is broadly grouped into three categories: baseline assessment, general testing, and full testing (extractables profiling). Production suites used to generate pharmaceuticals can include plastic components. It is possible that substances in the components could leach into manufacturing solutions and accumulate in the pharmaceutical product. In this article the author develops and justifies a semi-quantitative risk

  3. Building opportunities in the U.S. for PV (PV:BONUS): A progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    Five contract teams are developing photovoltaic (PV) products that will have a significant impact on building-integrated PV systems. The product lines that these teams are pursuing include roofing materials, building facade materials, PV integrated into modular homes, ac-PV modules, and utility-dispatchable PV systems. The objective of these efforts is to develop product and market opportunities that can provide for the introduction of PV into the buildings market sector at higher allowable installed systems costs than conventional ground- or roof-mounted systems. Each of the teams has a unique approach, and synergistic opportunities among teams are beginning to emerge. This paper reviews the product and market development efforts of these teams and describes the links between the product efforts and parallel analytical work to develop PV as a demand-side management option

  4. Application and opportunities of pulses in food system: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Muhammad; Rooney, Lloyd W; Ali, Rashida; Riaz, Mian N

    2013-01-01

    Pulses are highly nutritious seeds of pod-bearing leguminous plants, specifically dry peas, lentils, and chickpeas. US farmers harvest about 2.6 million pounds of pulses every year but 75% of this is being exported internationally because of its increased consumption in the developing countries. In the current scenario, increasing costs of production, bad economy, and fluctuating food commodity prices have made a strong case for US producers to seek opportunities to increase domestic consumption of pulses through value-added products. Pulses are the richest sources of plant proteins and provide approximately 10% of the total dietary requirements of the proteins world over. Pulses are also high in dietary fibers and complex carbohydrates leading to low GI (glycemic index) foods. Pulses help to lower cholesterol and triglycerides as leguminous fibers are hypoglycosuria because of consisting more amylose than amylopectin. Pulses provide tremendous opportunities to be utilized in the processed foods such as bakery products, bread, pasta, snack foods, soups, cereal bar filing, tortillas, meat, etc. These show excellent opportunities in frozen dough foods either as added flour or as fillings. Pulses in view of their nutrient profile, seem to be ideal for inclusion in designing snack foods, baby, and sports foods.

  5. Estimating Risk and Return Combinations for New Derivatives Funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Bona

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Active funds are typically managed by placing bets against a well defined passive bench-mark. In this context, when examining the launching of a new actively managed fund with a target expected excess rate of return relative to the benchmark equal to µ, asset managers face the problem of estimating the risk σ of excess rates of return. This estimate is critical to examine whether the product is commercially feasible and to define risk limits for the manager, if the product is launched. This paper proceeds to examine the solution to this problem assuming an especial form of the binomial model, in the context of the market timing structure advanced by Merton (1981. The paper shows that two variables are relevant for the solution of the proposed problem. The first, and the most relevant, is the skill level of the manager. A ore skilled manager is able to operate a less risky product with the same target excess rate of return µ. The second relevant variable is the trade-off between risk and return determined by existing investment opportunities in the market. The smaller the increases in risk exposure required to obtain an increase in excess returns, the less risky the product will be After solving the problem under specific assumptions, the paper proceeds to test empirically their validity using a representative sample of hedge funds in the Brazilian market. The empirical results strongly support the validity of the required assumptions.

  6. Adolescent Boys' Grooming Product Use and Perceived Health Risks: An Exploration of Parental Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jeong-Ju; Jacob, John; Baier, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate parental influence on adolescent boys' use and risk-perceptions of using appearance-related products. Design: Using appearance-enhancing products can present a health threat to adolescents, as these products are not only applied to the body, but can also be ingested. Adolescents may look to their parents for information…

  7. Analysing Production Technology and Risk in Organic and Conventional Dutch Arable Farming using Panel Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardebroek, C.; Chavez Clemente, M.D.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This paper compares the production technology and production risk of organic and conventional arable farms in the Netherlands. Just–Pope production functions that explicitly account for output variability are estimated using panel data of Dutch organic and conventional farms. Prior

  8. Comparative evaluation by lifecycle and risk assessment of agrobiological and technological routes of production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moll, H.C.; Schoot Uiterkamp, A.J.M.

    The application of lifecycle and risk assessment methodologies for environmental assessment of agricultural products is growing and produces interesting results. This allows comparisons between agricultural and technological routes of production. An evaluation of such assessments provides increased

  9. The integration methods of fuzzy fault mode and effect analysis and fault tree analysis for risk analysis of yogurt production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprilia, Ayu Rizky; Santoso, Imam; Ekasari, Dhita Murita

    2017-05-01

    Yogurt is a product based on milk, which has beneficial effects for health. The process for the production of yogurt is very susceptible to failure because it involves bacteria and fermentation. For an industry, the risks may cause harm and have a negative impact. In order for a product to be successful and profitable, it requires the analysis of risks that may occur during the production process. Risk analysis can identify the risks in detail and prevent as well as determine its handling, so that the risks can be minimized. Therefore, this study will analyze the risks of the production process with a case study in CV.XYZ. The method used in this research is the Fuzzy Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (fuzzy FMEA) and Fault Tree Analysis (FTA). The results showed that there are 6 risks from equipment variables, raw material variables, and process variables. Those risks include the critical risk, which is the risk of a lack of an aseptic process, more specifically if starter yogurt is damaged due to contamination by fungus or other bacteria and a lack of sanitation equipment. The results of quantitative analysis of FTA showed that the highest probability is the probability of the lack of an aseptic process, with a risk of 3.902%. The recommendations for improvement include establishing SOPs (Standard Operating Procedures), which include the process, workers, and environment, controlling the starter of yogurt and improving the production planning and sanitation equipment using hot water immersion.

  10. Missed Opportunities for Chronic Diseases Prevention in a Primary Health Care Center in Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Topuzoglu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate missed opportunities about chronic diseases and related risk factors in a primary health care center in Istanbul. Method: This cross sectional study was held in a Primary Health Care Center in Istanbul with the study population consisted of 500 people which were applicated in one month period. Participants were asked; if they were questioned by their physician about major risk factors (smoking, obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coroner heart disease in family, glysemic level, cholesterol level and regular exercise practice according to Primary Care 2006 Guidelines. The data was evaluated by descriptive statatistics, chi square test. Results: The median age of the participants were 40 (25.p; 32-75.p;52 and 76.4% of them were female. 50.4% of participants were overweight, 20.8% of them were obese. 36.2% of them were smoking, 22.0% were hypertensive, 10.4% were hiperglysemic. There were around 90.0% missing opportunities screening and management of obesity and blood cholesterol level, 70.0% about hypertension and 85.0% about diabetes. Conclusion: Opportunities about chronic diseases and their risk factors are being missed and asking about risk factors are neglected in primary health care center. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(6.000: 665-674

  11. Ultra high risk of psychosis on committal to a young offender prison: an unrecognised opportunity for early intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flynn Darran

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ultra high risk state for psychosis has not been studied in young offender populations. Prison populations have higher rates of psychiatric morbidity and substance use disorders. Due to the age profile of young offenders one would expect to find a high prevalence of individuals with pre-psychotic or ultra-high risk mental states for psychosis (UHR. Accordingly young offender institutions offer an opportunity for early interventions which could result in improved long term mental health, social and legal outcomes. In the course of establishing a mental health in-reach service into Ireland’s only young offender prison, we sought to estimate unmet mental health needs. Methods Every third new committal to a young offenders prison was interviewed using the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States (CAARMS to identify the Ultra High Risk (UHR state and a structured interview for assessing drug and alcohol misuse according to DSM-IV-TR criteria, the Developmental Understanding of Drug Misuse and Dependence - Short Form (DUNDRUM-S. Results Over a twelve month period 171 young male offenders aged 16 to 20 were assessed. Of these 39 (23%, 95% confidence interval 18% to 30% met UHR criteria. UHR states peaked at 18 years, were associated with lower SOFAS scores for social and occupational function and were also associated with multiple substance misuse. The relationship with lower SOFAS scores persisted even when co-varying for multiple substance misuse. Conclusions Although psychotic symptoms are common in community samples of children and adolescents, the prevalence of the UHR state in young offenders was higher than reported for community samples. The association with impaired function also suggests that this may be part of a developing disorder. Much more attention should be paid to the relationship of UHR states to substance misuse and to the health needs of young offenders.

  12. ALLERGY PREVENTION IN CHILDREN DURING THE INTRODUCTION OF COMPLEMENTARY FEEDING PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. V. Turti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article covers modern approaches to the prevention of allergic diseases in children. We discuss the most common food allergens in the early childhood, main mechanisms of food tolerance formation and opportunities of dietary preventive measures in a risk group of the allergy development. One of the important issues, in practical terms, is the question of time and peculiarities of the complementary feeding introduction in this category of children. The own experience of use of hypoallergenic complementary feeding products in children from the risk group and with mild manifestations of atopy is presented.

  13. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-07-27

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3-4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  14. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3–4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  15. Tuberculosis and mass gatherings-opportunities for defining burden, transmission risk, and the optimal surveillance, prevention, and control measures at the annual Hajj pilgrimage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumla, Alimuddin; Saeed, Abdulaziz Bin; Alotaibi, Badriah; Yezli, Saber; Dar, Osman; Bieh, Kingsley; Bates, Matthew; Tayeb, Tamara; Mwaba, Peter; Shafi, Shuja; McCloskey, Brian; Petersen, Eskild; Azhar, Esam I

    2016-06-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is now the most common infectious cause of death worldwide. In 2014, an estimated 9.6 million people developed active TB. There were an estimated three million people with active TB including 360000 with multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) who were not diagnosed, and such people continue to fuel TB transmission in the community. Accurate data on the actual burden of TB and the transmission risk associated with mass gatherings are scarce and unreliable due to the small numbers studied and methodological issues. Every year, an estimated 10 million pilgrims from 184 countries travel to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) to perform the Hajj and Umrah pilgrimages. A large majority of pilgrims come from high TB burden and MDR-TB endemic areas and thus many may have undiagnosed active TB, sub-clinical TB, and latent TB infection. The Hajj pilgrimage provides unique opportunities for the KSA and the 184 countries from which pilgrims originate, to conduct high quality priority research studies on TB under the remit of the Global Centre for Mass Gatherings Medicine. Research opportunities are discussed, including those related to the definition of the TB burden, transmission risk, and the optimal surveillance, prevention, and control measures at the annual Hajj pilgrimage. The associated data are required to develop international recommendations and guidelines for TB management and control at mass gathering events. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. FAO/IAEA international symposium on sustainable improvement of animal production and health. Synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The on-going 'Livestock Revolution', a demand-driven increase in livestock production, especially in developing countries, presents both opportunities and risks. The shift in the human diet from plant-based protein sources to animal-based protein sources, consumer demand for safe and quality animal products, and expanding markets for livestock products have raised several challenges such as; cost-effective production of safe and quality animal products, control of emerging and zoonotic diseases, and efficient management of impact of livestock on the environment. However, these changes have also provided many opportunities to benefit the local economy and producers, and reduce poverty. New challenges and opportunities demand innovative ideas and approaches, and mechanisms to take this knowledge to potential users. Many of the approaches will be multidisciplinary in nature and require collaboration with specialists in areas other than animal scientists. Livestock production in developing countries is constrained by low genetic potential of animals, poor nutrition, poor husbandry and infectious diseases. Nuclear techniques, when applied in conjunction with conventional methods, can identify critical points in these areas that can be targeted for cost-effective improvements and interventions. Thus the challenge is to use such technologies to enhance food security and alleviate poverty by supporting sustainable livestock production systems in developing countries through strategic and applied research, technology transfer and capacity building. Topics addressed at the symposium: - Interactions among nutrition, reproduction and genotype; - Livestock-environment interaction / productivity/ climate (water/ land/ plants/heat/ altitude); - Detection and control of transboundary animal diseases, including zoonoses; - Animal product safety and food quality. Each of the papers published in this book of synopses has been indexed separately

  17. Policy and health implications of using the U.S. Food and Drug Administration product design approach in reducing tobacco product risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givel, Michael

    2008-06-01

    Purported risk or harm reduction through product design change of cigarettes has occurred in three phases in the U.S. The first phase from the 1940s to the early 1960s included a gradual rise in filtered cigarettes. The second phase, which began in the early 1960s in response to the landmark 1964 U.S. Surgeon General's report that linked smoking with lung cancer and other diseases, included the introduction of purportedly low tar and nicotine cigarettes. Subsequent research found that both filters and low tar and nicotine cigarettes were ineffective approaches to reducing health risks associated with smoking. Despite this, these product design changes were used in tobacco industry marketing campaigns to allay consumer health concerns and stabilize tobacco markets and sales. Since 2004, a new risk or harm reduction phase has occurred with the backing by Philip Morris as well as major U.S. health groups of U.S. Food and Drug Administration legislation that would require disclosure of tobacco ingredients, ban misleading health claims, prohibit or reduce harmful ingredients, and require prior approval of tobacco design, performance changes, and modified risk tobacco products. However, current scientific literature indicates that there is no scientific consensus and little evidence on what tobacco ingredients are linked to particular morbidities and mortalities and at what levels. This will allow the tobacco industry to implicitly or explicitly claim their products are "safer." Instead, health advocates should advocate for scientifically proven policy measures such as smoke free public places or higher tobacco taxes that control and reduce tobacco markets and consumption.

  18. Risks from principal components and their daughter products in alpha-contaminated waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, V.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents an overview on risk assessment, particularly as it applies to limits for alpha-contaminated waste. The general conclusions are: (1) no special characteristics of transuranic (TRU) waste justify its being a special category; (2) model calculations are largely subjective and can be influenced by the bias of the modeler; (3) ingrowth and concentration of TRU daughter products could be an important consideration in risk assessment. 13 figures

  19. The Roots of Inequality: Estimating Inequality of Opportunity from Regression Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunori, Paolo; Hufe, Paul; Mahler, Daniel Gerszon

    2017-01-01

    the risk of arbitrary and ad-hoc model selection. Second, they provide a standardized way of trading off upward and downward biases in inequality of opportunity estimations. Finally, regression trees can be graphically represented; their structure is immediate to read and easy to understand. This will make...... the measurement of inequality of opportunity more easily comprehensible to a large audience. These advantages are illustrated by an empirical application based on the 2011 wave of the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions....

  20. The opportunities for oil and gas development in the NWT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, D.

    2000-01-01

    The oil and gas prospects for the Northwest Territories (NWT) were discussed with particular emphasis on issues regarding the development of natural gas in the Western Arctic. The future for northern gas resources looks promising as gas demand rises and supply falters. The author emphasized that if all current plans materialize, gas from the Mackenzie Delta should be flowing to southern markets by 2006-2007. This paper also described the three main risk types associated with natural gas development and the manner with which they will be dealt. The risks include geological risk, market risk and economic risk. The NWT natural gas resource base is considered to hold about 14.5 trillion cf, mostly in the Mackenzie Delta with the remaining in the Fort Liard and Colville Lake areas. Geologists are working on providing a better understanding of the common petroleum potential for the area immediately north and south of 60 degrees to determine the feasibility for a pipeline project. There is currently a market in North America for approximately 25 Tcf of natural gas per year, 22 of which is in the United States and the balance in Canada. This number is expected to grow to between 30 and 35 Tcf over the next 10 to 15 years. It was suggested that the best way to handle market risk is to avoid putting too much product into the market to avoid a price collapse, and to have a project with the highest possible producer netback to ride the market changes caused by others. A brief discussion about pipeline tolls, average and marginal costs was also included. One way to reduce the monetary risk in transportation is to use a link for revenue producing opportunities completely unrelated to fossil fuel transportation, such as fibre optic conduits which could be installed as the pipe goes into the ground. Issues regarding political and regulatory risks range from access to land to the uncertainty of the regulatory regime, to political involvement in routing

  1. Challenges and opportunities in synthetic biology for chemical engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yunzi; Lee, Jung-Kul; Zhao, Huimin

    2013-11-15

    Synthetic biology provides numerous great opportunities for chemical engineers in the development of new processes for large-scale production of biofuels, value-added chemicals, and protein therapeutics. However, challenges across all scales abound. In particular, the modularization and standardization of the components in a biological system, so-called biological parts, remain the biggest obstacle in synthetic biology. In this perspective, we will discuss the main challenges and opportunities in the rapidly growing synthetic biology field and the important roles that chemical engineers can play in its advancement.

  2. Background Document on Starting Points for Sustainable Biomass. Part 1. Risks and chances with regard to the import of biomass in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richert, W.; Sielhorst, S.

    2006-03-01

    Social organizations point out the sustainability risks involved in biomass production. Upon urgent request of Dutch environmental organizations a set of sustainability criteria must be developed for imported biomass. Part 1 of this background document intends to sketch the background of the risks that are observed by the environmental organizations. Part 2, which is yet to be published, will look at the risks in the light of opportunities of energy crops for producing countries. [nl

  3. Turning palm leaves into wood: Opportunities for Egypt's rural ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-27

    Apr 27, 2016 ... Bedouin women weave handmade baskets, hats, and lamps using dried palm leaves. ... palm tree leaves into hardwood and high-quality wooden products, ... of wood and open doors to job opportunities for rural communities.

  4. Characterizing risk factors for pediatric lamp oil product exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, S; Chang, A; Kieszak, S; Law, R; Bennett, H K W; Ernst, E; Bond, G R; Spiller, H A; Schurz-Rogers, H; Chu, A; Bronstein, A C; Schier, J G

    2013-11-01

    Poisonings from lamp oil ingestion continue to occur worldwide among the pediatric population despite preventive measures such as restricted sale of colored and scented lamp oils. This suggests that optimal prevention practices for unintentional pediatric exposures to lamp oil have yet to be identified and/or properly implemented. To characterize demographic, health data, and potential risk factors associated with reported exposures to lamp oil by callers to poison centers (PCs) in the US and discuss their public health implications. This was a two part study in which the first part included characterizing all exposures to a lamp oil product reported to the National Poison Data System (NPDS) with regard to demographics, exposure, health, and outcome data from 1/1/2000 to 12/31/2010. Regional penetrance was calculated using NPDS data by grouping states into four regions and dividing the number of exposure calls by pediatric population per region (from the 2000 US census). Temporal analyses were performed on NPDS data by comparing number of exposures by season and around the July 4th holiday. Poisson regression was used to model the count of exposures for these analyses. In the second part of this project, in order to identify risk factors we conducted a telephone-based survey to the parents of children from five PCs in five different states. The 10 most recent lamp oil product exposure calls for each poison center were systematically selected for inclusion. Calls in which a parent or guardian witnessed a pediatric lamp oil product ingestion were eligible for inclusion. Data on demographics, exposure information, behavioral traits, and health were collected. A descriptive analysis was performed and Fisher's exact test was used to evaluate associations between variables. All analyses were conducted using SAS v9.3. Among NPDS data, 2 years was the most common patient age reported and states in the Midwestern region had the highest numbers of exposure calls compared to

  5. Climate Investment Opportunities in South Asia

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation

    2017-01-01

    South Asia is home to three of the top five countries in terms of vulnerability to climate change globally.It thus urgently needs climate investment to enhance resilience and unlock opportunities for low carbon growth. The region is one of the fastest growing regions in the world; however, estimates suggest that climate impacts could reduce its annual gross domestic product by an average o...

  6. Human Subjects Protection and Technology in Prevention Science: Selected Opportunities and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Pisani, Anthony R.; Wyman, Peter A.; Mohr, David C.; Perrino, Tatiana; Gallo, Carlos; Villamar, Juan; Kendziora, Kimberly; Howe, George W.; Sloboda, Zili; Brown, C. Hendricks

    2016-01-01

    Internet-connected devices are changing the way people live, work, and relate to one another. For prevention scientists, technological advances create opportunities to promote the welfare of human subjects and society. The challenge is to obtain the benefits while minimizing risks. In this article, we use the guiding principles for ethical human subjects research and proposed changes to the Common Rule regulations, as a basis for discussing selected opportunities and challenges that new techn...

  7. The Use of Analytic Network Process for Risk Assessment in Production of Renewable Energy from Agriculture Biomass in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandija Rivza

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Risk assessment is an important factor for successful and sustainable entrepreneurship of bioenergy production that has become one of the priorities in energy sector of Latvia. Promotion of the use of renewable energy is included as one of the strategic goals for European Union (EU and Latvia. As this field of energy production in Latvia is rather new and scantily explored there are many risk factors arising in different stages of production, starting with planning and building of a bioreactor and ending with production and further use and distribution of energy. The present research focuses on risk assessment in renewable energy production form biomass as this kind of energy is seen as a perspective source for renewable energy under the conditions of Latvia. A risk assessment module for renewable energy production made by using the Analytic Network Process (ANP software is described in the paper.

  8. Active animal health surveillance in European Union Member States: gaps and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisdorff, B; Schauer, B; Taylor, N; Rodríguez-Prieto, V; Comin, A; Brouwer, A; Dórea, F; Drewe, J; Hoinville, L; Lindberg, A; Martinez Avilés, M; Martínez-López, B; Peyre, M; Pinto Ferreira, J; Rushton, J; VAN Schaik, G; Stärk, K D C; Staubach, C; Vicente-Rubiano, M; Witteveen, G; Pfeiffer, D; Häsler, B

    2017-03-01

    Animal health surveillance enables the detection and control of animal diseases including zoonoses. Under the EU-FP7 project RISKSUR, a survey was conducted in 11 EU Member States and Switzerland to describe active surveillance components in 2011 managed by the public or private sector and identify gaps and opportunities. Information was collected about hazard, target population, geographical focus, legal obligation, management, surveillance design, risk-based sampling, and multi-hazard surveillance. Two countries were excluded due to incompleteness of data. Most of the 664 components targeted cattle (26·7%), pigs (17·5%) or poultry (16·0%). The most common surveillance objectives were demonstrating freedom from disease (43·8%) and case detection (26·8%). Over half of components applied risk-based sampling (57·1%), but mainly focused on a single population stratum (targeted risk-based) rather than differentiating between risk levels of different strata (stratified risk-based). About a third of components were multi-hazard (37·3%). Both risk-based sampling and multi-hazard surveillance were used more frequently in privately funded components. The study identified several gaps (e.g. lack of systematic documentation, inconsistent application of terminology) and opportunities (e.g. stratified risk-based sampling). The greater flexibility provided by the new EU Animal Health Law means that systematic evaluation of surveillance alternatives will be required to optimize cost-effectiveness.

  9. The mitigation of volcanic risk as opportunity for an ecological and resilient city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Zuccaro

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines some of the results of SPeeD project, funded by EU, Campania Region and National Department of Civil Protection. The research is aimed at the definition of impact scenarios resulting from the eruption of Vesuvius and Campi Flegrei and the development of strategies to reduce the damage on the built environment. The issues related to the identification of technical solutions for mitigating the impact on buildings and infrastructure, to the socio-economic benefits arising from widespread interventions on the territory, as well as to the drafting of preparatory guidelines for the implementation of regional regulations and local building codes for volcanic risk-prone areas, have been developed at PLINIVS Study Centre of University of Naples Federico II. The methodological approach for the definition of appropriate technologies aimed at reducing the impact in relation to eruptive phenomena and construction types in the area is based on PLINIVS Volcanic Impact Simulation Model, a unique tool to define impact scenarios consequent to a volcanic eruption in the region, able to evaluate the cumulative effects given by the action of volcanic phenomena, such as earthquake, ash fall, pyroclastic flows and landslides. The study aims to demonstrate how the application of appropriate technologies for retrofit interventions or new constructions, aimed at reducing the vulnerability of building components, represents at the same time an opportunity to encourage a diffuse redevelopment of the territory driven by energy and environmental efficiency issues.

  10. Science-based decision making in a high-risk energy production environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, D. A.

    2016-12-01

    Energy production practices that may induce earthquakes require decisions about acceptable risk before projects begin. How much ground shaking, structural damage, infrastructure damage, or delay of geothermal power and other operations is tolerable? I review a few mitigation strategies as well as existing protocol in several U.S. states. Timely and accurate scientific information can assist in determining the costs and benefits of altering production parameters. These issues can also be addressed with probability estimates of adverse effects ("costs"), frequency of earthquakes of different sizes, and associated impacts of different magnitude earthquakes. When risk management decisions based on robust science are well-communicated to stakeholders, mitigation efforts benefit. Effective communications elements include a) the risks and benefits of different actions (e.g. using a traffic light protocol); b) the factors to consider when determining acceptable risk; and c) the probability of different magnitude events. I present a case example for The Geysers geothermal field in California, to discuss locally "acceptable" and "unacceptable" earthquakes and share nearby communities' responses to smaller and larger magnitude earthquakes. I use the USGS's "Did You Feel It?" data archive to sample how often felt events occur, and how many of those are above acceptable magnitudes (to both local residents and operators). Using this information, I develop a science-based decision-making framework, in the case of potentially risky earthquakes, for lessening seismic risk and other negative consequences. This includes assessing future earthquake probabilities based on past earthquake records. One of my goals is to help characterize uncertainties in a way that they can be managed; to this end, I present simple and accessible approaches that can be used in the decision making process.

  11. Market Opportunities for Cellulose Products From Combined Renewable Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zihare, Lauma; Blumberga, Dagnija

    2017-05-01

    This study investigates available resources that has not been used or is used with low added value, such as woody crops, forest residues and invasive species possibilities in case of cellulosic products. Main aspect is this study is market outlook, to see if the products can have positive market sales if produced. Resource have been selected by availability and current usage and properties they contain. Products have been chosen the most basic, to see is there possibility to enter an existing cellulose product markets. GE/McKinsey matrix have been used for clear visual decision making. The results show that only two out of seven products has a potential in international market.

  12. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMDs) risk assessment at core assembly production of electronic components manufacturing company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, N. M.; Zahid, M. N. O.

    2018-03-01

    This study conducted to assess the work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMDs) among the workers at core assembly production in an electronic components manufacturing company located in Pekan, Pahang, Malaysia. The study is to identify the WMDs risk factor and risk level. A set of questionnaires survey based on modified Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorder Questionnaires have been distributed to respective workers to acquire the WMDs risk factor identification. Then, postural analysis was conducted in order to measure the respective WMDs risk level. The analysis were based on two ergonomics assessment tools; Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) and Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA). The study found that 30 respondents out of 36 respondents suffered from WMDs especially at shoulder, wrists and lower back. The WMDs risk have been identified from unloading process, pressing process and winding process. In term of the WMDs risk level, REBA and RULA assessment tools have indicated high risk level to unloading and pressing process. Thus, this study had established the WMDs risk factor and risk level of core assembly production in an electronic components manufacturing company at Malaysia environment.

  13. Managing Risks and Stakeholders in the Design of a new Financial Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Quinto Lanz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses risk’ and stakeholders’ management in the project to establish a product created by BNDES to provide partial credit guarantees for micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs, the Investment Guarantee Fund (FGI. The project went through several adjustments during its development to adapt it to changes in the credit market, the demands of financial agents and credit access’ public policy. For this analysis were used risk management models, stakeholder management in projects and guarantee systems. The methodology used was the single case study with the fund manager, with document analysis and semi-structured interviews. The results of the analysis indicate that the corrections in the direction and the adequacy of the fund project development pace, together with stakeholder management techniques use and project risk management, led to increased security in the Fund  implementation, minimizing the need for rework and schedule delays. This context prevented several risks associated with the operation and the adequacy of the final product, contributing to a gradual but steady adoption of the Fund's guarantee by financial agents.

  14. Determinants and opportunities for commercial marketing of beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to examine the factors influencing smallholder producers' potential to sell cattle and identify marketing opportunities for sustainable beef production in South Africa. A total of 95 structured questionnaires was administered to the Ncorha and Gxwalibomvu communities in the Eastern Cape ...

  15. Chemical Product Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    2004-01-01

    This paper highlights for a class of chemical products, the design process, their design with respect to the important issues, the need for appropriate tools and finally, lists some of the challenges and opportunities for the process systems engineering (PSE)/computer-aided process engineering...... (CAPE) community. The chemical products considered belong to the following types: chemical/biochemical/agrochemical products, coatings and solvents, food (nutraceuticals), HIM (household, industrial and institutional), personal care, pharmaceuticals and drugs. The challenges and opportunities...... are highlighted in terms of the needs for multi-level modeling with emphasis on property models that are suitable for computer-aided applications, flexible solution strategies that are able to solve a large range of chemical product design problems and finally, a systems chemical product design framework...

  16. Exploiting deterministic maintenance opportunity windows created by conservative engineering design rules that result in free time locked into large high-speed coupled production lines with finite buffers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durandt, Casper

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Conservative engineering design rules for large serial coupled production processes result in machines having locked-in free time (also called ‘critical downtime’ or ‘maintenance opportunity windows’, which cause idle time if not used. Operators are not able to assess a large production process holistically, and so may not be aware that they form the current bottleneck – or that they have free time available due to interruptions elsewhere. A real-time method is developed to accurately calculate and display free time in location and magnitude, and efficiency improvements are demonstrated in large-scale production runs.

  17. Challenges and opportunities in synthetic biology for chemical engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yunzi; Lee, Jung-Kul; Zhao, Huimin

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic biology provides numerous great opportunities for chemical engineers in the development of new processes for large-scale production of biofuels, value-added chemicals, and protein therapeutics. However, challenges across all scales abound. In particular, the modularization and standardization of the components in a biological system, so-called biological parts, remain the biggest obstacle in synthetic biology. In this perspective, we will discuss the main challenges and opportunities in the rapidly growing synthetic biology field and the important roles that chemical engineers can play in its advancement. PMID:24222925

  18. Assessment of the risks associated with Iodine-125 handling production sources for brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Daiane C.B.; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.; Vicente, Roberto; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Tiezzi, Rodrigo; Costa, Osvaldo L.; Souza, Carla D.; Peleias Junior, Fernando S.; Rodrigues, Bruna T.; Souza, Anderson S.; Batista, Talita Q.; Melo, Emerson R.; Camargo, Anderson R., E-mail: dcsouza@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Karam Junior, Dib, E-mail: dib.karam@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    In Brazil, prostate cancer is the second most frequent disease, with an estimated 68,800 new cases in 2013. This type of cancer can be treated with brachytherapy, which uses sealed sources of Iodine-125 implanted permanently in the prostate. These sources are currently imported at a high cost, making public treatment in large scale impractical. To reduce costs and to meet domestic demand, the laboratory for production of brachytherapy sources at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN) is currently nationalizing the production of this radioisotope. Iodine is quite volatile making the handling of its radioactive isotopes potentially dangerous. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the risks to which workers are exposed during the production and handling of the sources. The research method consisted initially of a literature review on the toxicity of iodine, intake limits, related physical risks, handling of accidents, generation of radioactive wastes, etc. The results allowed for establishing safety and radioprotection policies in order to ensure efficient and safe production in all stages and the implementation of good laboratory practices. (author)

  19. Assessment of the risks associated with Iodine-125 handling production sources for brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Daiane C.B.; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.; Vicente, Roberto; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Tiezzi, Rodrigo; Costa, Osvaldo L.; Souza, Carla D.; Peleias Junior, Fernando S.; Rodrigues, Bruna T.; Souza, Anderson S.; Batista, Talita Q.; Melo, Emerson R.; Camargo, Anderson R.; Karam Junior, Dib

    2015-01-01

    In Brazil, prostate cancer is the second most frequent disease, with an estimated 68,800 new cases in 2013. This type of cancer can be treated with brachytherapy, which uses sealed sources of Iodine-125 implanted permanently in the prostate. These sources are currently imported at a high cost, making public treatment in large scale impractical. To reduce costs and to meet domestic demand, the laboratory for production of brachytherapy sources at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN) is currently nationalizing the production of this radioisotope. Iodine is quite volatile making the handling of its radioactive isotopes potentially dangerous. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the risks to which workers are exposed during the production and handling of the sources. The research method consisted initially of a literature review on the toxicity of iodine, intake limits, related physical risks, handling of accidents, generation of radioactive wastes, etc. The results allowed for establishing safety and radioprotection policies in order to ensure efficient and safe production in all stages and the implementation of good laboratory practices. (author)

  20. Opportunities and Challenges of Academic Staff in Higher Education in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushemeza, Elijah Dickens

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses the opportunities and challenges of academic staff in higher education in Africa. The paper argues that recruitment, appointment and promotion of academic staff should depend highly on their productivity (positive production per individual human resource). The staff profile and qualifications should be posted on the University…

  1. Theories of opportunity creation and effective entrepreneurial actions in opportunity creation context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz Jamali

    2018-09-01

    Full Text Available Created opportunities are refered as the opportunities in which none of the supply and demand parties exists clearly and obviously one or both of them must be created. Therefore, several economic inventions should take place in marketing, franchising, etc. so that opportunity can be created. This perception of opportunity deals with the creation of new markets. In the meantime, identifying some entrepreneurial actions influencing on the creation of entrepreneurial opportunities can provide backgrounds for the formation and empowering the opportunity creation. In this paper, some basic ideas about the creation of entrepreneurial opportunities and the evolution of opportunity creation theories are examined. Then effective actions on the opportunity creation are identified. Finally, the structure of the investigated actions is examined using the DEMATLE Method. The results which were according to the opinions of 15 experts of entrepreneurship showed that leadership, decision making, and strategy actions influence other entrepreneurial actions.

  2. Arctic resources : a mechatronics opportunity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKean, M.; Baiden, G. [Penguin Automated Systems Inc., Naughton, ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This paper discussed the telerobotic mechatronics opportunities that exist to access mineral resources in the Arctic. The Mining Automation Project (MAP) determined that telerobotics could contribute to productivity gains while providing increased worker safety. The socio-economic benefits of advanced mechatronics for Arctic resource development are particularly attractive due to reduced infrastructure needs; operating costs; and environmental impacts. A preliminary analysis of mining transportation options by the authors revealed that there is a case for in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) for oil and gas processing to address resource development. The ISRU options build on concepts developed to support space exploration and were proposed to reduce or modify transportation loads to allow more sustainable and efficient Arctic resource development. Many benefits in terms of efficiency could be achieved by combining demonstrated mechatronics with ISRU because of the constrained transportation infrastructure in the Arctic. In the context of harsh environment operations, mechatronics may provide an opportunity for undersea resource facilities. 15 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Procurement and participation opportunities onshore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norcia, J.

    1998-01-01

    Maritimes and Northeast Pipelines Company is constructing a 1048 km underground gas transmission pipeline that will transport Sable natural gas to markets in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and New England. The Sable Offshore Energy Project brings opportunities for new industries to Atlantic Canada, including the potential for future Sable gas exploration, development and production which will provide thousands of jobs and benefits for local businesses during the construction phase. Maritimes and Northeast Pipelines plan to maximize local content for the construction of the 565 km Canadian portion of the pipeline. The construction phase alone should create about 1,500 jobs during peak times. Seventy per cent of the labour will be sourced locally. Clean-up, landscaping, fencing and tile repair, monitoring services and pipeline inspection are some of the other opportunities that will be contracted to local businesses. Major long-term benefits of the project are expected to be in the construction of lateral or feeder pipelines and in the construction of gas distribution utilities

  4. Quantitative microbiological risk assessment as a tool to obtain useful information for risk managers - specific application to Listeria monocytogenes and ready-to-eat meat products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mataragas, M.; Zwietering, M.H.; Skandamis, P.N.; Drosinos, E.H.

    2010-01-01

    The presence of Listeria monocytogenes in a sliced cooked, cured ham-like meat product was quantitatively assessed. Sliced cooked, cured meat products are considered as high risk products. These ready-to-eat, RTE, products (no special preparation, e.g. thermal treatment, before eating is required),

  5. Opportunity parameters in the development of Product/Service-Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzen, Detlef; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2006-01-01

    In the light of the current focus on innovative business development throughout industry and society, the concept of product/service-systems (PSS) is a promising approach to product development, which may yield product offers that benefit the company, customer and society alike. Only recently...... while maintaining a high level of need satisfaction [Mont 2004]. The enhancement of goods with the provision of services has been practised in some industrial sectors for decades, mainly based on maintenance deliveries to capital investments in B2B settings. Researchers working with these business....../service-oriented strategy we believe companies can deliver superior value solutions and ensure more optimal utilisation of resources by aligning operations with their customers compared to traditional product-oriented offers. The corresponding integration is not reflected in existing models and processes of product...

  6. Preventing Sexual Violence Through Bystander Intervention: Attitudes, Behaviors, Missed Opportunities, and Barriers to Intervention Among Australian University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, Rachel; Cale, Jesse

    2018-03-01

    The concept of bystander intervention is gaining popularity in universities as a mechanism to prevent sexual violence. Prior research has focused on correlates of bystanders' intentions to intervene and intervention behaviors in situations where there is a risk of sexual violence. The current study builds on this literature by exploring the nature of missed opportunities, including perceived barriers to intervention. In all, 380 Australian undergraduate university students completed an online survey. Measures included a rape myth acceptance scale, bystander intentions to intervene, actual intervention behaviors, missed opportunities for intervention, and perceived barriers for missed opportunities. Promisingly, students reported high levels of intentions to intervene in situations where there was a risk of sexual violence and reported relatively few missed opportunities to do so when these situations did occur. Intervention behaviors varied by important demographic characteristics such as gender, age, attitudes toward sexual violence, and the nature of the situation. Younger female students, with lower levels of rape myth acceptance, who had previously engaged in bystander intervention behaviors were more likely to report intentions to intervene in future risky situations, and female international students reported fewer missed opportunities for intervention. The most common barrier to intervention for identified missed opportunities was a failure to recognize situations as having a potential risk for sexual violence, and students were most likely to intervene in situations when the opportunity to help a friend in distress arose. This study provides some preliminary empirical evidence about bystander intervention against sexual violence among Australian university students, and identifies unique contexts for intervention and what current barriers to intervention may be.

  7. Perception of Product Risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, A.R.H.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter provides several explanations for consumer risk perception. For frequently repeated behavior that is seemingly under their own control, consumers tend to be overly optimistic. This occurs in spite of the general tendency of consumers to be risk averse. Specific dimensions of different

  8. Biofuels in Oregon and Washington: A Business Case Analysis of Opportunities and Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stiles, Dennis L.; Jones, Susan A.; Orth, Rick J.; Saffell, Bernard F.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2008-02-28

    The purpose of this report is to assemble the information needed to estimate the significance of the opportunity for producing biofuels in the region as well as the associated challenges. The report reviews the current state of the industry, the biomass resources that are available within current production practices, and the biofuels production technology that is available within the marketplace. The report also identifys the areas in which alternative approaches or strategies, or technologoical advances, might offer an opportunity to expand the Nortwest biofuels industry beyond its current state.

  9. Review of Residential Comfort Control Products and Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, Cheryn E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Goyal, Siddharth [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Baechler, Michael C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-12-15

    This paper begins by discussing the interaction of each major component in advanced sensor and control applications related to HVAC equipment. The paper also looks at the applications of these components to commissioning, maintenance and operations of the HVAC equipment in residential buildings. A summary of state-of-the-art product features is also provided. These products are categorized through their primary application type (commissioning/maintenance or operation) and the features are categorized by component type (sensors, data storage, human-in-the-loop, communication, and controls). A common theme that emerges from this study is the importance of the ability for various product categories to be connected to each other. There are many manufacturers of sensors and many manufacturers of controls, but the power to automate any commissioning, maintenance or operation application, requires connectivity.

  10. Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities forpetroleum refineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2005-02-15

    The petroleum refining industry in the United States is the largest in the world, providing inputs to virtually any economic sector,including the transport sector and the chemical industry. The industry operates 146 refineries (as of January 2004) around the country,employing over 65,000 employees. The refining industry produces a mix of products with a total value exceeding $151 billion. Refineries spend typically 50 percent of cash operating costs (i.e., excluding capital costs and depreciation) on energy, making energy a major cost factor and also an important opportunity for cost reduction. Energy use is also a major source of emissions in the refinery industry making energy efficiency improvement an attractive opportunity to reduce emissions and operating costs. Voluntary government programs aim to assist industry to improve competitiveness through increased energy efficiency and reduced environmental impact. ENERGY STAR (R), a voluntary program managed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, stresses the need for strong and strategic corporate energy management programs. ENERGY STAR provides energy management tools and strategies for successful corporate energy management programs. This Energy Guide describes research conducted to support ENERGY STAR and its work with the petroleum refining industry.This research provides information on potential energy efficiency opportunities for petroleum refineries. This Energy Guide introduces energy efficiency opportunities available for petroleum refineries. It begins with descriptions of the trends, structure, and production of the refining industry and the energy used in the refining and conversion processes. Specific energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies of plants and references to technical literature are provided. If available, typical payback periods are also listed. The Energy Guide draws upon the experiences with energy efficiency measures of petroleum refineries worldwide

  11. Social problems as sources of opportunity – antecedents of social entrepreneurship opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Żur

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Based on extensive literature review, this paper aims to establish if, why and how, in given environmental and market contexts, social entrepreneurship (SE opportunities are discovered and exploited. It positions social problems as sources of entrepreneurial opportunity. The article presents an integrated process-based view of SE opportunity antecedents and concludes with a dynamic model of SE opportunity. Research Design & Methods: To fulfil its goal, the paper establishes opportunity as unit of research and explores the dynamics of opportunity recognition. To identify the components of SE opportunity through a process-based view, the study follows the steps of critical literature review method. The literature review follows with logical reasoning and inference, which results in the formulation of a model proposition of social entrepreneurship opportunity. Findings: The paper presents a holistic perspective on opportunity antecedents in SE context and introduces social problems, information, social awareness and entrepreneurial mindset  as fundamental components of social entrepreneurship opportunity equation. Implications & Recommendations: It is necessary to remember for policy makers, investors and partners involved within the social sector, that social problems can be the source of entrepreneurial opportunity. Training, assisting and engaging socially aware entrepreneurs is a promising line of development for all communities. Contribution & Value Added: The major contribution of this study lies in extending the existing body of social entrepreneurship research by providing a new perspective, placing social problem as opportunity in the centre of the discussion.

  12. Qualitative Assessment for Toxoplasma gondii Exposure Risk Associated with Meat Products in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Miao; Buchanan, Robert L; Dubey, Jitender P; Hill, Dolores E; Lambertini, Elisabetta; Ying, Yuqing; Gamble, H Ray; Jones, Jeffrey L; Pradhan, Abani K

    2015-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a global protozoan parasite capable of infecting most warm-blooded animals. Although healthy adult humans generally have no symptoms, severe illness does occur in certain groups, including congenitally infected fetuses and newborns, immunocompromised individuals including transplant patients. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that consumption of raw or undercooked meat products is one of the major sources of infection with T. gondii. The goal of this study was to develop a framework to qualitatively estimate the exposure risk to T. gondii from various meat products consumed in the United States. Risk estimates of various meats were analyzed by a farm-to-retail qualitative assessment that included evaluation of farm, abattoir, storage and transportation, meat processing, packaging, and retail modules. It was found that exposure risks associated with meats from free-range chickens, nonconfinement-raised pigs, goats, and lamb are higher than those from confinement-raised pigs, cattle, and caged chickens. For fresh meat products, risk at the retail level was similar to that at the farm level unless meats had been frozen or moisture enhanced. Our results showed that meat processing, such as salting, freezing, commercial hot air drying, long fermentation times, hot smoking, and cooking, are able to reduce T. gondii levels in meat products. whereas nitrite and/or nitrate, spice, low pH, and cold storage have no effect on the viability of T. gondii tissue cysts. Raw-fermented sausage, cured raw meat, meat that is not hot-air dried, and fresh processed meat were associated with higher exposure risks compared with cooked meat and frozen meat. This study provides a reference for meat management control programs to determine critical control points and serves as the foundation for future quantitative risk assessments.

  13. CLIMATE CHANGES AS THE RISK FACTOR IN MILK PRODUCTION IN WIELKOPOLSKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Chaberski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The pilot researches were conducted in Wielkopolska. They aimed initial identifi cation of cows reaction on changing of THI, which are likened to temperature and humidity conditions of air. The subjected cows characterize with high productivity, exceeding 40kg of milk per day, independently from lactation stages. The results display that the day s production of raw milk, as well as fat and protein content, do not only depend on lactation stage but also on the value of THI factors. Higher THI is accompanied by loss in the weight of milk and drop in its technological utility. The climate warming may escalate the risk of production loss during the heats.

  14. Oil reactivation, second opportunity for Tibu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    1998-01-01

    A new development opportunity began for people that inhabit the Catatumbo Region, especially for those that are part of the operation area of the first incremental production contract that ECOPETROL started for the maintenance of producing fields in decline. It is a project that it allows ECOPETROL to continue the operation of Tibu and the Yucca field, located in the Municipality of Tibu, (Norte de Santander, Colombia), by means of the private contribution of investments in exploration and application of new technologies of raw recovery, with that activity, the production of petroleum will increase in considerable form. The project has as purpose to recover the productive and economic balance of fields exploded for more than fifty years whose close was almost imminent for the low profitability of the operation

  15. Understanding social media governance: seizing opportunities, staying out of trouble

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, A.C.; Verhoeven, J.W.M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose – The rise of social media such as Facebook and Twitter has provided employees with means to share work-related information. Increasingly, social media governance policies are implemented to negotiate the risks and opportunities of such behaviors. The purpose of this paper is to unveil the

  16. Risk intelligence: How lessons from folktales/fables contribute to the implementation of risk management in banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivave Mashingaidze

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to outline credit risk in banks and how fables/folktales can provide with life lessons to implement risk management systems that should act as a stop-gate measure. Banking institutions need to show how proactively managing risk becomes a cornerstone to explore opportunities, rather than simply avoiding dynamites. Risk Intelligence gives companies the confidence to harness risk to explore new opportunities. Lessons were provided from folktales/fables from the animal kingdom. The article adopted a literature review methodology and the results were that, for a business to be successful the medicine does not lie in the policies but the therapy lies in the spirit of oneness in the banks from top management down to the shop floor employee in the branch. By working together the banks can afford to curb credit risks.

  17. Invited review: Enteric methane in dairy cattle production: quantifying the opportunities and impact of reducing emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, J R; Laur, G L; Vadas, P A; Weiss, W P; Tricarico, J M

    2014-01-01

    Many opportunities exist to reduce enteric methane (CH4) and other greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit of product from ruminant livestock. Research over the past century in genetics, animal health, microbiology, nutrition, and physiology has led to improvements in dairy production where intensively managed farms have GHG emissions as low as 1 kg of CO2 equivalents (CO2e)/kg of energy-corrected milk (ECM), compared with >7 kg of CO2 e/kg of ECM in extensive systems. The objectives of this review are to evaluate options that have been demonstrated to mitigate enteric CH4 emissions per unit of ECM (CH4/ECM) from dairy cattle on a quantitative basis and in a sustained manner and to integrate approaches in genetics, feeding and nutrition, physiology, and health to emphasize why herd productivity, not individual animal productivity, is important to environmental sustainability. A nutrition model based on carbohydrate digestion was used to evaluate the effect of feeding and nutrition strategies on CH4/ECM, and a meta-analysis was conducted to quantify the effects of lipid supplementation on CH4/ECM. A second model combining herd structure dynamics and production level was used to estimate the effect of genetic and management strategies that increase milk yield and reduce culling on CH4/ECM. Some of these approaches discussed require further research, but many could be implemented now. Past efforts in CH4 mitigation have largely focused on identifying and evaluating CH4 mitigation approaches based on nutrition, feeding, and modifications of rumen function. Nutrition and feeding approaches may be able to reduce CH4/ECM by 2.5 to 15%, whereas rumen modifiers have had very little success in terms of sustained CH4 reductions without compromising milk production. More significant reductions of 15 to 30