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Sample records for product age carboxymethyllysine

  1. A novel monoclonal antibody targeting carboxymethyllysine, an advanced glycation end product in atherosclerosis and pancreatic cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrika Wendel

    Full Text Available Advanced glycation end products are formed by non-enzymatic reactions between proteins and carbohydrates, causing irreversible lysine and arginine alterations that severely affect protein structure and function. The resulting modifications induce inflammation by binding to scavenger receptors. An increase in advanced glycation end products is observed in a number of diseases e.g. atherosclerosis and cancer. Since advanced glycation end products also are present in healthy individuals, their detection and quantification are of great importance for usage as potential biomarkers. Current methods for advanced glycation end product detection are though limited and solely measure total glycation. This study describes a new epitope-mapped single chain variable fragment, D1-B2, against carboxymethyllysine, produced from a phage library that was constructed from mouse immunizations. The phage library was selected against advanced glycation end product targets using a phage display platform. Characterization of its binding pattern was performed using large synthetic glycated peptide and protein libraries displayed on microarray slides. D1-B2 showed a preference for an aspartic acid, three positions N-terminally from a carboxymethyllysine residue and also bound to a broad collection of glycated proteins. Positive immunohistochemical staining of mouse atherosclerotic plaques and of a tissue microarray of human pancreatic tumors confirmed the usability of the new scFv for advanced glycation end product detection in tissues. This study demonstrates a promising methodology for high-throughput generation of epitope-mapped monoclonal antibodies against AGE.

  2. Biodistribution of the 18F-labelled advanced glycation end products Nε-carboxymethyllysine (CML) and Nε-carboxyethyllysine (CEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, R.; Helling, R.; Henle, T.; Heichert, C.; Scheunemann, M.; Maeding, P.; Wittrisch, H.; Johannsen, B.

    2002-01-01

    After synthesis of fluorine-18 labelled analogues [ 18 F]fluorobenzoylation at the α-amino group, biodistribution and elimination of individual advanced glycation end products, namely N ε -carboxymethyllysine and N ε -carboxyethyllysine, was studied in comparison to lysine in rats after intravenous injection using positron emission tomography. (orig.)

  3. Okara promoted acrylamide and carboxymethyl-lysine formation in bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Mariantonella; Fiore, Alberto; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2012-10-10

    Soybeans are widely used in bakery products because of their technological advantages and, recently, soybean-containing products have been marketed as functional foods thanks to several health benefits. Okara is a soybean-based ingredient obtained after elimination of the water-soluble component from ground soybeans. In this paper the effect of okara addition to bakery products on the formation of some potentially harmful Maillard reaction products was evaluated. Cookies obtained by replacing 15% of wheat flour with okara showed a visible browning increase and a more intense Maillard reaction development as shown by higher concentrations of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (HMF) (+100%), acrylamide (+60%), and carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) (+400%) with respect to the control. This phenomenon could be related to the presence in okara of about 50% of insoluble dietary fiber: the fiber reduces water activity during cooking, thus promoting Maillard reaction. To confirm this hypothesis, cookies obtained by replacing 7% of wheat flour with three different types of dietary fiber (cellulose, chitosan, and pea fiber) were prepared: these experimental cookies showed higher Maillard reaction product concentration with respect to the control and, in particular, HMF and CML values were directly related to the fiber water-holding capacity (WHC). To extend the observation to the food market, a sampling of soybean-containing commercial bakery products was analyzed by comparing the concentrations of Maillard reaction products with those of similar bakery products without soy. Soybean-containing samples showed higher concentrations of acrylamide and CML than corresponding controls.

  4. Advanced glycation end product Nε-carboxymethyllysine induces endothelial cell injury: the involvement of SHP-1-regulated VEGFR-2 dephosphorylation.

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    Liu, Shing Hwa; Sheu, Wayne Huey Herng; Lee, Maw Rong; Lee, Wen Jane; Yi, Yu Chiao; Yang, Tzung Jie; Jen, Jen Fon; Pan, Hung Chuan; Shen, Chin Chang; Chen, Wen Bao; Tien, Hsing Ru; Sheu, Meei Ling

    2013-06-01

    N(ε)-carboxymethyllysine (CML), a major advanced glycation end product, plays a crucial role in diabetes-induced vascular injury. The roles of protein tyrosine phosphatases and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors in CML-related endothelial cell injury are still unclear. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) are a commonly used human EC type. Here, we tested the hypothesis that NADPH oxidase/reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated SH2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase-1 (SHP-1) activation by CML inhibits the VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2, KDR/Flk-1) activation, resulting in HUVEC injury. CML significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis and reduced VEGFR-2 activation in parallel with the increased SHP-1 protein expression and activity in HUVECs. Adding recombinant VEGF increased forward biological effects, which were attenuated by CML. The effects of CML on HUVECs were abolished by SHP-1 siRNA transfection. Exposure of HUVECs to CML also remarkably escalated the integration of SHP-1 with VEGFR-2. Consistently, SHP-1 siRNA transfection and pharmacological inhibitors could block this interaction and elevating [(3)H]thymidine incorporation. CML also markedly activated the NADPH oxidase and ROS production. The CML-increased SHP-1 activity in HUVECs was effectively attenuated by antioxidants. Moreover, the immunohistochemical staining of SHP-1 and CML was increased, but phospho-VEGFR-2 staining was decreased in the aortic endothelium of streptozotocin-induced and high-fat diet-induced diabetic mice. We conclude that a pathway of tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1-regulated VEGFR-2 dephosphorylation through NADPH oxidase-derived ROS is involved in the CML-triggered endothelial cell dysfunction/injury. These findings suggest new insights into the development of therapeutic approaches to reduce diabetic vascular complications. Copyright © 2013 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Irbesartan treatment does not influence plasma levels of the advanced glycation end products N(epsilon)(1-carboxymethyl)lysine and N(epsilon)(1-carboxyethyl)lysine in patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria. A randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelen, Lian; Persson, Frederik; Ferreira, Isabel

    2011-01-01

    to confirm such beneficial effects of ARBs on AGEs are lacking. Therefore, we investigated the effects of irbesartan treatment on plasma levels of the AGEs N(e)(1-carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) and N(e)(1-carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL) in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria. METHODS: We...... and -0.10 µmol/mol lysine (-0.76 to 0.56) for CEL. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term irbesartan treatment does not influence plasma levels of the AGE CML and CEL in patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria.......BACKGROUND: In vitro and animal experiments have shown inhibiting effects of angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) on the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which are known to be involved in the development of cardiovascular complications in diabetes. However, sufficient human data...

  6. The advanced glycation end-product Nϵ -carboxymethyllysine promotes progression of pancreatic cancer: implications for diabetes-associated risk and its prevention.

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    Menini, Stefano; Iacobini, Carla; de Latouliere, Luisa; Manni, Isabella; Ionta, Vittoria; Blasetti Fantauzzi, Claudia; Pesce, Carlo; Cappello, Paola; Novelli, Francesco; Piaggio, Giulia; Pugliese, Giuseppe

    2018-03-13

    Diabetes is an established risk factor for pancreatic cancer (PaC), together with obesity, a Western diet, and tobacco smoking. The common mechanistic link might be the accumulation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), which characterizes all of the above disease conditions and unhealthy habits. Surprisingly, however, the role of AGEs in PaC has not been examined yet, despite the evidence of a tumour-promoting role of receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE), the receptor for AGEs. Here, we tested the hypothesis that AGEs promote PaC through RAGE activation. To this end, we investigated the effects of the AGE N ϵ -carboxymethyllysine (CML) in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) cell lines and in a mouse model of Kras-driven PaC interbred with a bioluminescent model of proliferation. Tumour growth was monitored in vivo by bioluminescence imaging and confirmed by histology. CML promoted PDA cell growth and RAGE expression, in a concentration-dependent and time-dependent manner, and activated downstream tumourigenic signalling pathways. These effects were counteracted by RAGE antagonist peptide (RAP). Exogenous AGE administration to PaC-prone mice induced RAGE upregulation in pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanINs) and markedly accelerated progression to invasive PaC. At 11 weeks of age (6 weeks of CML treatment), PaC was observed in eight of 11 (72.7%) CML-treated versus one of 11 (9.1%) vehicle-treated [control (Ctr)] mice. RAP delayed PanIN development in Ctr mice but failed to prevent PaC promotion in CML-treated mice, probably because of competition with soluble RAGE for binding to AGEs and/or compensatory upregulation of the RAGE homologue CD166/ activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule, which also favoured tumour spread. These findings indicate that AGEs modulate the development and progression of PaC through receptor-mediated mechanisms, and might be responsible for the additional risk conferred by diabetes and other

  7. Formation and Inhibition of Nε-(Carboxymethyllysine in Saccharide-Lysine Model Systems during Microwave Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Li

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available  Nε-(carboxymethyl lysine (CML is the most abundant advanced glycation end product (AGE, and frequently selected as an AGEs marker in laboratory studies. In this paper, the formation and inhibition of Nε-(carboxymethyllysine in saccharide-lysine model systems during microwave heating have been studied. The microwave heating treatment significantly promoted the formation of CML during Maillard reactions, which was related to the reaction temperature, time and type of saccharide. The order of CML formation for different saccharides was lactose > glucose > sucrose. Then, the inhibition effect on CML by five inhibitors was further examined. According to the results, ascorbic acid and tocopherol did not affect inhibition of CML, in contrast, thiamin, rutin and quercetin inhibited CML formation, and the inhibitory effects were concentration dependent.

  8. [Experiments with sausage meat on the formation of N epsilon-carboxymethyllysine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartkopf, J; Erbersdobler, H F

    1995-07-01

    In model experiments the influence of ingredients normally used for sausage production to a meat homogenate on the formation of N epsilon-carboxymethyllysine (CML) was investigated. The formation of CML is obviously more promoted from the reaction of ascorbate with lysine than from that of glucose with lysine. The addition of ascorbate in a practical concentration yielded 35 mg, the addition of glucose only 23 mg compared to 17 mg CML/kg protein in the control sample. The addition of diphosphate in a practical concentration besides glucose significantly increased the CML values from 23 mg to 30 mg CML/kg protein. On the other hand, nitrite did not enhance the formation of CML (21 mg/kg protein) in the sausage when used in concentrations usually applied in meat processing. Generally the values found in the meat products are quite low compared to data in other foods like milk products.

  9. Age, Wage and Productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.; Stoeldraijer, L.

    2010-01-01

    Previous empirical studies on the effect of age on productivity and wages find contradicting results. Some studies find that if workers grow older there is an increasing gap between productivity and wages, i.e. wages increase with age while productivity does not or does not increase at the same

  10. Contribution of dietary advanced glycation end products (AGE) to circulating AGE: role of dietary fat.

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    Davis, Kathleen E; Prasad, Chandan; Vijayagopal, Parakat; Juma, Shanil; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Imrhan, Victorine

    2015-12-14

    The purpose of this pilot study was to determine whether macronutrient content (low-fat v. high-fat diet) influences an indicator of advanced glycation end products (AGE), N(ε) carboxymethyl-lysine (CML), in the context of a 1-d, high-AGE diet. The effect of the diets on inflammatory markers was also assessed. A total of nineteen overweight and obese adults (nine men and ten women) without known disease were recruited to participate in a crossover challenge of a high-fat, high-AGE (HFHA) and low-fat, high-AGE (LFHA) diet. In each phase patients had fasting blood drawn, followed by consumption of a high-fat or low-fat breakfast test meal, then three postprandial blood draws at 1, 2 and 3 h after consuming the test meal. After consuming high-AGE meals for the remainder of the day, participants returned the next day for a follow-up analysis. A different pattern in the 3-h post-meal CML and soluble receptor for AGE response to the two diets was observed (P=0·01 and 0·05, respectively). No change in serum CML was observed following consumption of a LFHA breakfast (535 (25th-75th percentile 451-790) to 495 (25th-75th percentile 391-682) ng/ml; P=0·36), whereas a rise in CML occurred after the HFHA breakfast (463 (25th-75th percentile 428-664) to 578 (25th-75th percentile 474-865) ng/ml; P=0·05). High sensitivity C-reactive protein and high molecular weight adiponectin were not affected by either diet. These findings suggest that dietary CML may not be as important in influencing serum CML as other dietary factors. In addition, acute exposure to dietary CML may not influence inflammation in adults without diabetes or kidney disease. This is contrary to previous findings.

  11. Advanced glycation End-products (AGEs): an emerging concern for processed food industries.

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    Sharma, Chetan; Kaur, Amarjeet; Thind, S S; Singh, Baljit; Raina, Shiveta

    2015-12-01

    The global food industry is expected to increase more than US $ 7 trillion by 2014. This rise in processed food sector shows that more and more people are diverging towards modern processed foods. As modern diets are largely heat processed, they are more prone to contain high levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs are a group of complex and heterogeneous compounds which are known as brown and fluorescent cross-linking substances such as pentosidine, non-fluorescent cross-linking products such as methylglyoxal-lysine dimers (MOLD), or non-fluorescent, non-cross linking adducts such as carboxymethyllysine (CML) and pyrraline (a pyrrole aldehyde). The chemistry of the AGEs formation, absorption and bioavailability and their patho-biochemistry particularly in relation to different complications like diabetes and ageing discussed. The concept of AGEs receptor - RAGE is mentioned. AGEs contribute to a variety of microvascular and macrovascular complications through the formation of cross-links between molecules in the basement membrane of the extracellular matrix and by engaging the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). Different methods of detection and quantification along with types of agents used for the treatment of AGEs are reviewed. Generally, ELISA or LC-MS methods are used for analysis of foods and body fluids, however lack of universally established method highlighted. The inhibitory effect of bioactive components on AGEs by trapping variety of chemical moieties discussed. The emerging evidence about the adverse effects of AGEs makes it necessary to investigate the different therapies to inhibit AGEs.

  12. N(epsilon)-carboxymethyllysine-modified proteins are unable to bind to RAGE and activate an inflammatory response.

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    Buetler, Timo M; Leclerc, Estelle; Baumeyer, Alexandra; Latado, Helia; Newell, John; Adolfsson, Oskar; Parisod, Véronique; Richoz, Janique; Maurer, Sarah; Foata, Francis; Piguet, Dominique; Junod, Sylviane; Heizmann, Claus W; Delatour, Thierry

    2008-03-01

    Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) containing carboxymethyllysine (CML) modifications are generally thought to be ligands of the receptor for AGEs, RAGEs. It has been argued that this results in the activation of pro-inflammatory pathways and diseases. However, it has not been shown conclusively that a CML-modified protein can interact directly with RAGE. Here, we have analyzed whether beta-lactoglobulin (bLG) or human serum albumin (HSA) modified chemically to contain only CML (10-40% lysine modification) can (i) interact with RAGE in vitro and (ii) interact with and activate RAGE in lung epithelial cells. Our results show that CML-modified bLG or HSA are unable to bind to RAGE in a cell-free assay system (Biacore). Furthermore, they are unable to activate pro-inflammatory signaling in the cellular system. Thus, CML probably does not form the necessary structure(s) to interact with RAGE and activate an inflammatory signaling cascade in RAGE-expressing cells.

  13. Aging changes in hormone production

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004000.htm Aging changes in hormone production To use the sharing ... that produce hormones are controlled by other hormones. Aging also changes this process. For example, an endocrine ...

  14. Dose-dependent utilisation of casein-linked lysinoalanine, N(epsilon)-fructoselysine and N(epsilon)-carboxymethyllysine in rats.

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    Somoza, Veronika; Wenzel, Elisabeth; Weiss, Carola; Clawin-Rädecker, Ingrid; Grübel, Nadine; Erbersdobler, Helmut F

    2006-09-01

    During the heat treatment of protein-containing foods, the amino acid lysine is most prone to undergo chemical reactions in the course of amino acid cross-linking or Maillard reactions. Among the reaction products formed, lysinoalanine (LAL), N(epsilon)-fructoselysine (FL) and N(epsilon)-carboxymethyllysine (CML) are those which serve as sensitive markers for the heat treatment applied. From a nutritional perspective, these compounds are ingested with the diet in considerable amounts but information about their metabolic transit and putative in vivo effects is scarce. In the present study, casein-linked LAL, FL and CML were administered to rats in two different doses for 10 days. Quantitation of LAL, FL and CML in plasma, tissue and faeces samples revealed that the kidneys are the predominant sites of accumulation and excretion. The maximum percent of dietary LAL, FL and CML excreted in the urine was 5.6, 5.2 and 29%, whereas the respective recoveries in the kidneys were 0.02, 26 and 1.4%. The plasma and tissue analyses revealed that the endogenous load of either compound is increased by its dietary intake. But the dose-dependent utilisation of dietary protein-linked LAL, FL and CML in rats has been demonstrated for the first time to vary substantially from each other.

  15. Plasma advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and NF-κB activity are independent determinants of diastolic and pulse pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sourris, Karly C; Lyons, Jasmine G; Dougherty, Sonia L

    2013-01-01

    was to characterize the relationship between serum AGEs, CLAIS and other risk factors for CV disease in normotensive non-diabetic individuals. Methods: We measured body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), blood pressure, lipid and glucose profile in 44 non-diabetic volunteers (17 female, 27 males......). Carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) was measured by ELISA as a marker for circulating AGEs and NF-κB p65 activity as an inflammatory marker by DNA-binding in peripheral blood mononuclear cells lysates (PBMC). Results: Plasma CML concentrations were related to diastolic blood pressure (r=-0.51, p...

  16. Age, wage and productivity in Dutch manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.; Stoeldraijer, L.

    2011-01-01

    Previous empirical studies on the effect of age on productivity and wages find contradicting results. Some studies find that if workers grow older there is an increasing gap between productivity and wages, i.e. wages increase with age while productivity does not or does not increase at the same

  17. Expression of advanced glycation end-products on sun-exposed and non-exposed cutaneous sites during the ageing process in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Crisan

    Full Text Available The glycation process is involved in both the intrinsic (individual, genetic and extrinsic (ultraviolet light, polution and lifestyle aging processes, and can be quantified at the epidermal or dermal level by histological, immunohistochemical (IHC, or imagistic methods. Our study is focused on a histological and immunohistological comparison of sun-protected regions versus sun-exposed regions from different age groups of skin phototype III subjects, related to the aging process. Skin samples collected from non-protected and UV protected regions of four experimental groups with different ages, were studied using histology and IHC methods for AGE-CML [N(epsilon-(carboxymethyllysine]. A semi-quantitative assessment of the CML expression in the microvascular endothelium and dermal fibroblasts was performed. The Pearson one-way ANOVA was used to compare data between the groups. In the dermis of sun-exposed skin, the number and the intensity of CML positive cells in both fibroblasts and endothelial cells (p<0.05 was higher compared to sun-protected skin, and was significantly increased in older patients. The sun-exposed areas had a more than 10% higher AGE-CML score than the protected areas. No statistically significant correlation was observed between the histological score and the IHC expression of CML. We concluded that in healthy integument, the accumulation of final glycation products increases with age and is amplified by ultraviolet exposure. The study provides new knowledge on differences of AGE-CML between age groups and protected and unprotected areas and emphasizes that endothelium and perivascular area are most affected, justifying combined topical and systemic therapies.

  18. Changes in productivity of grassland with ageing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerkamp, M.

    1984-01-01

    The productivity of grassland may change greatly with ageing. Frequently, a productive ley period, occurring in the first time after (re)seeding, is followed by a period in which productivity decreases. Under conditions favourable to grassland this may be temporary. A production level

  19. Artistic creativity, artistic production, and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzucchi, Anna; Sinforiani, Elena; Boller, François

    2013-01-01

    This chapter reviews the changes produced by age on various aspects of artistic painting, particularly creativity and actual production. Aging in trained painters is often accompanied by a decline in creativity, which in turn is due to the cognitive decline related to aging. It has been argued, however, that aging does not cause a decline, but only changes in style and content. The two views are not mutually exclusive, and we present examples illustrating both aspects. We also show that, in addition to cognitive changes, impairment of sensory organs, especially vision, and of the bones and joints, may also produce marked changes in an artist's production and style. We conclude by showing that finding ways to induce creativity in persons who do not consider themselves artists can be a way of stimulating creativity and contribute to successful aging. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Dietary Advanced Glycation End Products and Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Chapman-Novakofski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Advanced glycation end products (AGEs are a heterogeneous, complex group of compounds that are formed when reducing sugar reacts in a non-enzymatic way with amino acids in proteins and other macromolecules. This occurs both exogenously (in food and endogenously (in humans with greater concentrations found in older adults. While higher AGEs occur in both healthy older adults and those with chronic diseases, research is progressing to both quantify AGEs in food and in people, and to identify mechanisms that would explain why some human tissues are damaged, and others are not. In the last twenty years, there has been increased evidence that AGEs could be implicated in the development of chronic degenerative diseases of aging, such as cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer’s disease and with complications of diabetes mellitus. Results of several studies in animal models and humans show that the restriction of dietary AGEs has positive effects on wound healing, insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, the effect of restriction in AGEs intake has been reported to increase the lifespan in animal models. This paper will summarize the work that has been published for both food AGEs and in vivo AGEs and their relation with aging, as well as provide suggestions for future research.

  1. Association of peripheral neuropathy with circulating advanced glycation end products, soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products and other risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, C E; Michel, P-L; Gillery, P; Jaisson, S; Fonfrede, M; Morel, F; Hartemann, A; Bourron, O

    2014-11-01

    The pathogenesis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy remains uncertain and nonenzymatic glycoxidation is one of the contributing mechanisms. The aim of this study was to assess the respective relationship of diabetic peripheral neuropathy with glycoxidation, compared with other identified risk factors, in patients with type 2 diabetes. We included 198 patients with type 2 diabetes and high risk for vascular complications. Circulating concentrations of three advanced glycation end products (carboxymethyllysine, methyl-glyoxal-hydroimidazolone-1, pentosidine) and of their soluble receptor (sRAGE) were measured. Peripheral neuropathy was assessed by the neuropathy disability score and by the monofilament test and defined as either an abnormal monofilament test and/or a neuropathy disability score ≥6. Multivariate regression analyses were performed adjusting for potential confounding factors for neuropathy: age, gender, diabetes duration, current smoking, systolic blood pressure, waist circumference, height, peripheral arterial occlusive disease, glycated haemoglobin, estimated glomerular filtration rate and lipid profile. Prevalence of peripheral neuropathy was 20.7%. sRAGE and carboxymethyllysine were independently and positively associated with the presence of peripheral neuropathy. No significant association was found between peripheral neuropathy and methyl-glyoxal-hydroimidazolone-1 or pentosidine. Waist circumference, height and peripheral arterial occlusive disease were independently associated with peripheral neuropathy. Carboxymethyllysine and sRAGE were independently associated with peripheral neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes. Although the conclusions are limited by the absence of a healthy control population, this study confirms the relationship between advanced glycoxidation and diabetic peripheral neuropathy, independently of other risk factors. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. 3-Deoxyglucosone: a potential glycating agent accountable for structural alteration in H3 histone protein through generation of different AGEs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalaluddin M Ashraf

    Full Text Available Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs are heterogeneous group of compounds, known to be implicated in diabetic complications. One of the consequences of the Maillard reaction is attributed to the production of reactive intermediate products such as α-oxoaldehydes. 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG, an α-oxoaldehyde has been found to be involved in accelerating vascular damage during diabetes. In the present study, calf thymus histone H3 was treated with 3-deoxyglucosone to investigate the generation of AGEs (Nε-carboxymethyllysine, pentosidine, by examining the degree of side chain modifications and formation of different intermediates and employing various physicochemical techniques. The results clearly indicate the formation of AGEs and structural changes upon glycation of H3 by 3-deoxyglucosone, which may hamper the normal functioning of H3 histone, that may compromise the veracity of chromatin structures and function in secondary complications of diabetes.

  3. N -(carboxymethyl)lysine: A Review on Analytical Methods, Formation, and Occurrence in Processed Food, and Health Impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Ha T.; Fels, van der H.J.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2014-01-01

    Foods are often heat processed and may contain advanced glycation end products (AGE). One of the most widely studied AGE is Ne-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML); nevertheless, knowledge on dietary CML is fragmentary. This study aimed to review current scientific knowledge on analytical methods to

  4. Determination of advanced glycation endproducts in cooked meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gengjun; Smith, J Scott

    2015-02-01

    Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), a pathogenic factor implicated in diabetes and other chronic diseases, are produced in cooked meat products. The objective of this study was to determine the AGE content, as measured by Nε-carboxymethyllysine (CML) levels, in cooked chicken, pork, beef and fish (salmon and tilapia) prepared by three common cooking methods used by U.S. consumers: frying, baking, and broiling. The CML was detected in all the cooked samples, but the levels were dependent on types of meat, cooking conditions, and the final internal temperature. Broiling and frying at higher cooking temperature produced higher levels of CML, and broiled beef contained the highest CML content (21.8μg/g). Baked salmon (8.6μg/g) and baked tilapia (9.7μg/g) contained less CML as compared to the other muscle food samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Spare Parts Management of Aging Capital Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Hekimoğlu (Mustafa)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractSpare parts are critical for operations of capital products such as aircraft, refineries, trucks, etc/, which require maintenance regularly. Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) bear the responsibility of undisrupted maintenance service and spare parts flow for their capital products.

  6. New Research on Bronze Age Textile Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Eva Birgitta; Mårtensson, Linda; Nosch, Marie-Louise Bech

    2008-01-01

    presentation of the results from the systematic tests with Bronze Age textile tools. results concerning mesurements of lenght and time consumed.......presentation of the results from the systematic tests with Bronze Age textile tools. results concerning mesurements of lenght and time consumed....

  7. Quantitation of Maillard reaction products in commercially available pet foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, van C.; Bosch, G.; Poel, van der A.F.B.; Wierenga, P.A.; Alexander, L.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    During processing of pet food, the Maillard reaction occurs, which reduces the bioavailability of essential amino acids such as lysine and results in the formation of advanced Maillard reaction products (MRPs). The aim of this study was to quantitate MRPs (fructoselysine (FL), carboxymethyllysine

  8. Age-Related Differences in Idiom Production in Adulthood

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    Conner, Peggy S.; Hyun, Jungmoon; O'Connor Wells, Barbara; Anema, Inge; Goral, Mira; Monereau-Merry, Marie-Michelle; Rubino, Daniel; Kuckuk, Raija; Obler, Loraine K.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate whether idiom production was vulnerable to age-related difficulties, we asked 40 younger (ages 18-30) and 40 older healthy adults (ages 60-85) to produce idiomatic expressions in a story-completion task. Younger adults produced significantly more correct idiom responses (73%) than did older adults (60%). When older adults generated…

  9. Healthy Aging After Age 65: A Life-Span Health Production Function Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdows, Nasim B; Jensen, Gail A; Tarraf, Wassim

    2018-06-01

    This article examines the determinants of healthy aging using Grossman's framework of a health production function. Healthy aging, sometimes described as successful aging, is produced using a variety of inputs, determined in early life, young adulthood, midlife, and later life. A healthy aging production function is estimated using nationally representative data from the 2010 and 2012 Health and Retirement Study on 7,355 noninstitutionalized seniors. Using a simultaneous equation mediation model, we quantify how childhood factors contribute to healthy aging, both directly and indirectly through their effects on mediating adult outcomes. We find that favorable childhood conditions significantly improve healthy aging scores, both directly and indirectly, mediated through education, income, and wealth. We also find that good health habits have positive effects on healthy aging that are larger in magnitude than the effects of childhood factors. Our findings suggest that exercising, maintaining proper weight, and not smoking are likely to translate into healthier aging.

  10. Motivational effects and age differences of gamification in product advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bittner, Jenny; Schipper, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to study motivational effects and age differences of gamification in product advertising. Game-elements can easily be embedded within product advertisements, but little is known about the success factors of this technology. We investigated which motivational

  11. The age grading and the Chen-Ruan cup product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Hepworth, Richard

    2010-01-01

    We prove that the obstruction bundle used to define the cup-product in Chen-Ruan cohomology is determined by the so-called `age grading' or `degree-shifting numbers'. Indeed, the obstruction bundle can be directly computed using the age grading. We obtain a Kunneth Theorem for Chen-Ruan cohomology...... as a direct consequence of an elementary property of the age grading, and explain how several other results - including associativity of the cup-product - can be proved in a similar way....

  12. Product analysis for polyethylene degradation by radiation and thermal ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Masaki; Shimada, Akihiko; Kudoh, Hisaaki; Tamura, Kiyotoshi; Seguchi, Tadao

    2013-01-01

    The oxidation products in crosslinked polyethylene for cable insulation formed during thermal and radiation ageing were analyzed by FTIR-ATR. The products were composed of carboxylic acid, carboxylic ester, and carboxylic anhydride for all ageing conditions. The relative yields of carboxylic ester and carboxylic anhydride increased with an increase of temperature for radiation and thermal ageing. The carboxylic acid was the primary oxidation product and the ester and anhydride were secondary products formed by the thermally induced reactions of the carboxylic acids. The carboxylic acid could be produced by chain scission at any temperature followed by the oxidation of the free radicals formed in the polyethylene. The results of the analysis led to formulation of a new oxidation mechanism which was different from the chain reactions via peroxy radicals and peroxides. - Highlights: ► Products analysis of polyethylene degradation by radiation and thermal ageing. ► Components of carbonyl compounds produced in polyethylene by thermal and radiation oxidation were determined by FTIR. ► Carbonyl compounds comprised carboxylic acid, carboxylic ester, and carboxylic anhydride. ► Carboxylic acid was the primary oxidation product of chain scission at any oxidation temperature. ► Carboxylic ester and carboxylic anhydride are secondary products formed from carboxylic acid at higher temperature.

  13. Promoting Active Aging in Russia : Working Longer and More Productively

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    A shrinking working-age population will be the Russian Federations biggest demographic challenge in coming decades. With workers increasingly scarce, sustainable future economic development depends on Russias ability to bring into the labor force currently under-utilized groups, such as young mothers and older people, and to maximize the productivity of every worker. This study assesses th...

  14. Elastin aging and lipid oxidation products in human aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamelija Zarkovic

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vascular aging is associated with structural and functional modifications of the arteries, and by an increase in arterial wall thickening in the intima and the media, mainly resulting from structural modifications of the extracellular matrix (ECM components. Among the factors known to accumulate with aging, advanced lipid peroxidation end products (ALEs are a hallmark of oxidative stress-associated diseases such as atherosclerosis. Aldehydes generated from the peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, (4-hydroxynonenal, malondialdehyde, acrolein, form adducts on cellular proteins, leading to a progressive protein dysfunction with consequences in the pathophysiology of vascular aging. The contribution of these aldehydes to ECM modification is not known. This study was carried out to investigate whether aldehyde-adducts are detected in the intima and media in human aorta, whether their level is increased in vascular aging, and whether elastin fibers are a target of aldehyde-adduct formation. Immunohistological and confocal immunofluorescence studies indicate that 4-HNE-histidine-adducts accumulate in an age-related manner in the intima, media and adventitia layers of human aortas, and are mainly expressed in smooth muscle cells. In contrast, even if the structure of elastin fiber is strongly altered in the aged vessels, our results show that elastin is not or very poorly modified by 4-HNE. These data indicate a complex role for lipid peroxidation and in particular for 4-HNE in elastin homeostasis, in the vascular wall remodeling during aging and atherosclerosis development.

  15. Forest Soil Productivity on the Southern Long-Term Soil Productivity Sites at Age 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Andrew Scott; Allan E. Tiarks; Felipe G. Sanchez; Michael Elliott-Smith; Rick Stagg

    2004-01-01

    Forest management operations have the potential to reduce soil productivity through organic matter and nutrient removal and soil compaction. We measured pine volume, bulk density, and soil and foliar nitrogen and phosphorus at age 5 on the 13 southern Long-Term Soil Productivity study sites. The treatments were organic matter removal [bole only (BO), whole tree (WT),...

  16. Elastin aging and lipid oxidation products in human aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarkovic, Kamelija; Larroque-Cardoso, Pauline; Pucelle, Mélanie; Salvayre, Robert; Waeg, Georg; Nègre-Salvayre, Anne; Zarkovic, Neven

    2015-01-01

    Vascular aging is associated with structural and functional modifications of the arteries, and by an increase in arterial wall thickening in the intima and the media, mainly resulting from structural modifications of the extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Among the factors known to accumulate with aging, advanced lipid peroxidation end products (ALEs) are a hallmark of oxidative stress-associated diseases such as atherosclerosis. Aldehydes generated from the peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), (4-hydroxynonenal, malondialdehyde, acrolein), form adducts on cellular proteins, leading to a progressive protein dysfunction with consequences in the pathophysiology of vascular aging. The contribution of these aldehydes to ECM modification is not known. This study was carried out to investigate whether aldehyde-adducts are detected in the intima and media in human aorta, whether their level is increased in vascular aging, and whether elastin fibers are a target of aldehyde-adduct formation. Immunohistological and confocal immunofluorescence studies indicate that 4-HNE-histidine-adducts accumulate in an age-related manner in the intima, media and adventitia layers of human aortas, and are mainly expressed in smooth muscle cells. In contrast, even if the structure of elastin fiber is strongly altered in the aged vessels, our results show that elastin is not or very poorly modified by 4-HNE. These data indicate a complex role for lipid peroxidation and in particular for 4-HNE in elastin homeostasis, in the vascular wall remodeling during aging and atherosclerosis development. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Serum Levels of Toxic AGEs (TAGE May Be a Promising Novel Biomarker for the Onset/Progression of Lifestyle-Related Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayoshi Takeuchi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs generated with aging or in the presence of diabetes mellitus, particularly AGEs derived from the glucose/fructose metabolism intermediate glyceraldehyde (Glycer-AGEs; termed toxic AGEs (TAGE, were recently shown to be closely involved in the onset/progression of diabetic vascular complications via the receptor for AGEs (RAGE. TAGE also contribute to various diseases, such as cardiovascular disease; nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; cancer; Alzheimer’s disease, and; infertility. This suggests the necessity of minimizing the influence of the TAGE-RAGE axis in order to prevent the onset/progression of lifestyle-related diseases (LSRD and establish therapeutic strategies. Changes in serum TAGE levels are closely associated with LSRD related to overeating, a lack of exercise, or excessive ingestion of sugars/dietary AGEs. We also showed that serum TAGE levels, but not those of hemoglobin A1c, glucose-derived AGEs, or Nε-(carboxymethyllysine, have potential as a biomarker for predicting the progression of atherosclerosis and future cardiovascular events. We herein introduce the usefulness of serum TAGE levels as a biomarker for the prevention/early diagnosis of LSRD and the evaluation of the efficacy of treatments; we discuss whether dietary AGE/sugar intake restrictions reduce the generation/accumulation of TAGE, thereby preventing the onset/progression of LSRD.

  18. Improvement of the quality of diabetes control and decrease in the concentrations of AGE-products in patients with type 1 and insulin-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus: results from a 10 year-prospective, population-based survey on the quality of diabetes care in Germany (JEVIN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiel, Ralf; Franke, S; Appel, T; Voigt, U; Ross, I S; Kientsch-Engel, R; Müller, U A; Stein, G

    2004-08-31

    Advanced glycation end (AGE)-products are a complex group of compounds that have been implicated in diabetes related long-term complications. Up to the present only few data exist about serum levels of the AGE-proteins N-epsilon-Carboxymethyllysine (CML) and pentosidine in patients with diabetes mellitus. In the present 10-year, population-based trial of a selection-free cohort of patients with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus, serum CML and pentosidine levels were examined in correlation to the patients' quality of diabetes control and the prevalence of diabetes related long-term complications. Following the reunification of Germany in 1989 the health care system was decentralised. Up to 1994/95 the relative HbA1c (HbA1c/mean normal) of patients with type 1 diabetes increased (1.65 +/- 0.35 versus 1.52 +/- 0.31, p = 0.002). For patients with type 2 diabetes it remained constant (1.75 +/- 0.4 versus 1.78 +/- 0.31, p = 0.669). During the following period (from 1994/95 to 1999/2000) specialised diabetes care, structured treatment and teaching programmes (TTP), intensified insulin therapy and blood glucose self-monitoring for all patients were broadly implemented. This was accompanied by a substantial improvement in the relative HbA1c of both, patients with type 1 (1.48 +/- 0.3, pproduct CML in the sera of patients with type 1 and insulin-treated type 2 diabetes decreased (type 1: 1994/95: 1158.1 +/- 410.0 ng/ml versus 1999/2000: 938.5 +/- 422.4 ng/ml, pimprovement in patients' quality of diabetes control but also a decrease in the concentration of AGE-products. In patients with diabetes mellitus the AGE-products seem to be mainly influenced by the quality of diabetes control. The decline in renal function leads to increased serum pentosidine levels in patients with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus. Thus it seems that in patients with reduced renal function, higher levels may either play a causal role in the development and progression of nephropathy or they are an

  19. Advanced glycation end products induce differential structural modifications and fibrillation of albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Saurabh; Sankaranarayanan, Kamatchi; Saraswathi, N. T.

    2016-06-01

    Glycation induced amyloid fibrillation is fundamental to the development of many neurodegenerative and cardiovascular complications. Excessive non-enzymatic glycation in conditions such as hyperglycaemia results in the increased accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs are highly reactive pro-oxidants, which can lead to the activation of inflammatory pathways and development of oxidative stress. Recently, the effect of non-enzymatic glycation on protein structure has been the major research area, but the role of specific AGEs in such structural alteration and induction of fibrillation remains undefined. In this study, we determined the specific AGEs mediated structural modifications in albumin mainly considering carboxymethyllysine (CML), carboxyethyllysine (CEL), and argpyrimidine (Arg-P) which are the major AGEs formed in the body. We studied the secondary structural changes based on circular dichroism (CD) and spectroscopic analysis. The AGEs induced fibrillation was determined by Congo red binding and examination of scanning and transmission electron micrographs. The amyloidogenic regions in the sequence of BSA were determined using FoldAmyloid. It was observed that CEL modification of BSA leads to the development of fibrillar structures, which was evident from both secondary structure changes and TEM analysis.

  20. Efficacy of benfotiamine versus thiamine on function and glycation products of peripheral nerves in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stracke, H; Hammes, H P; Werkmann, D; Mavrakis, K; Bitsch, I; Netzel, M; Geyer, J; Köpcke, W; Sauerland, C; Bretzel, R G; Federlin, K F

    2001-01-01

    In rats with streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes the effect of (watersoluble) thiamine nitrate and of (lipidsoluble) benfotiamine on peripheral nerve function (motor nerve conduction velocity) as well as on the formation of advanced glycation end-products in peripheral nerve tissue was studied. In one group of animals drug administration was started immediately after diabetes induction (prevention study) and in another group two months after diabetes induction (treatment study). Motor nerve conduction velocity (NCV) dropped by 10.5% in diabetic animals, carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) rose to a 3.5fold concentration, deoxyglucosone (3DG)-type AGE formation was increased 5.1fold compared with controls. After three months preventive administration of both vitamin B(1) preparations NCV had increased substantially compared with results in diabetic controls. It was nearly normal after six months with benfotiamine, while the administration of thiamine nitrate resulted in no further amelioration. NCV was nearly normalized after six months of benfotiamine application but not with thiamine. Furthermore, benfotiamine induced a major inhibition of neural imidazole-type AGE formation and completely prevented diabetes induced glycoxidation products (CML). Treatment with thiamine did not significantly affect AGE or cmL levels. Unlike treatment with water-soluble thiamine nitrate timely administration of liposoluble prodrug benfotiamine was effective in the prevention of functional damage and of AGE and cmL formation in nerves of diabetic rats.

  1. N-Acetyl Cysteine Attenuated the Deleterious Effects of Advanced Glycation End-Products on the Kidney of Non-Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Thieme

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the renal effects of chronic exposure to advanced glycation end-products (AGEs in the absence of diabetes and the potential impact of concomitant treatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC. Methods: Wistar rats received intraperitoneally 20 mg/kg/day of albumin modified (AlbAGE or not (AlbC by advanced glycation for 12 weeks and oral NAC (600mg/L; AlbAGE+NAC and AlbC+NAC, respectively. Biochemical, urinary and renal morphological analyses; carboxymethyl-lysine (CML, an AGE, CD68 (macrophage infiltration, and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE, marker of oxidative stress immunostaining; intrarenal mRNA expression of genes belonging to pathways related to AGEs (Ager, Ddost, Nfkb1, renin-angiotensin system (Agt, Ren, Ace, fibrosis (Tgfb1, Col4a1, oxidative stress (Nox4, Txnip, and apoptosis (Bax, Bcl2; and reactive oxidative species (ROS content were performed. Results: AlbAGE significantly increased urine protein-to-creatinine ratio; glomerular area; renal CML content and macrophage infiltration; expression of Ager, Nfkb1, Agt, Ren, Tgfb1, Col4a1, Txnip, Bax/Bcl2 ratio; and 4-HNE and ROS contents. Some of these effects were attenuated by NAC concomitant treatment. Conclusion: Because AGEs are highly consumed in modern diets and implicated in the progression of different kidney diseases, NAC could be a therapeutic intervention to decrease renal damage, considering that long-term restriction of dietary AGEs is difficult to achieve in practice.

  2. Cardiomyocyte mitochondrial respiration is reduced by receptor for advanced glycation end-product signaling in a ceramide-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael B; Swensen, Adam C; Winden, Duane R; Bodine, Jared S; Bikman, Benjamin T; Reynolds, Paul R

    2015-07-01

    Cigarette smoke exposure is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular complications. The role of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is already well established in numerous comorbidities, including cardiomyopathy. Given the role of AGEs and their receptor, RAGE, in activating inflammatory pathways, we sought to determine whether ceramides could be a mediator of RAGE-induced altered heart mitochondrial function. Using an in vitro model, we treated H9C2 cardiomyocytes with the AGE carboxy-methyllysine before mitochondrial respiration assessment. We discovered that mitochondrial respiration was significantly impaired in AGE-treated cells, but not when cotreated with myriocin, an inhibitor of de novo ceramide biosynthesis. Moreover, we exposed wild-type and RAGE knockout mice to secondhand cigarette smoke and found reduced mitochondrial respiration in the left ventricular myocardium from wild-type mice, but RAGE knockout mice were protected from this effect. Finally, conditional overexpression of RAGE in the lungs of transgenic mice elicited a robust increase in left ventricular ceramides in the absence of smoke exposure. Taken together, these findings suggest a RAGE-ceramide axis as an important contributor to AGE-mediated disrupted cardiomyocyte mitochondrial function. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. High Serum Advanced Glycation End Products Are Associated with Decreased Insulin Secretion in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Brief Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Okura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs are important in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. They directly cause insulin secretory defects in animal and cell culture models and may promote insulin resistance in nondiabetic subjects. We have developed a highly sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for measuring AGEs in human serum. Here, we use this method to investigate the relationship between AGEs and insulin secretion and resistance in patients with T2DM. Methods. Our study involved 15 participants with T2DM not on medication and 20 nondiabetic healthy participants. We measured the AGE carboxyethyllysine (CEL, carboxymethyllysine (CML, and methyl-glyoxal-hydro-imidazolone (MG-H1. Plasma glucose and insulin were measured in these participants during a meal tolerance test, and the glucose disposal rate was measured during a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Results. CML and CEL levels were significantly higher in T2DM than non-DM participants. CML showed a significant negative correlation with insulin secretion, HOMA-%B, and a significant positive correlation with the insulin sensitivity index in T2DM participants. There was no correlation between any of the AGEs measured and glucose disposal rate. Conclusions. These results suggest that AGE might play a role in the development or prediction of insulin secretory defects in type 2 diabetes.

  4. In Vitro Inhibitory Activity of Acca sellowiana Fruit Extract on End Products of Advanced Glycation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñiz, Alethia; Garcia, Abraham H; Pérez, Rosa M; García, Efren V; González, Daphne E

    2018-02-01

    Hyperglycemia plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications, as it increases protein glycation, as well as the progressive accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which are complex structures that produce fluorescence. The glycation reaction raises the levels of protein carbonyl, N ε -(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), and fructosamine and decreases the level of thiol groups. In the present study, the antiglycation activity was determined by fluorescence intensity using the bovine serum albumin (BSA)/glucose, CML method, and the level of fructosamine. The oxidation of proteins was determined by the carbonyl protein content and thiol groups. The results show that the hexane extract of Acca sellowiana (FOH) at different concentrations (0.30-5 mg/ml) significantly inhibited the formation of AGEs in the BSA/glucose model during the 4 weeks of the study. FOH reduced the levels of fructosamine and CML. Our results showed a significant effect of FOH in the prevention of oxidative damage of proteins, as well as an effect on the oxidation of thiol groups and carbonyl proteins. The present study indicates that FOH is effective in inhibiting the glycation of proteins in vitro, so it can prevent or ameliorate the chronic conditions of diabetes associated with the formation of AGEs.

  5. Pricing of Marine Products and Services in the Modular Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Liping; Al-Ajlouni, Omar

    WHAT IS THE ISSUE? Pricing can be a particular challenging issue for marine suppliers with multiple products and services especially when suppliers want to address specific customer needs and at the same time achieves the efficiency in pricing. WHY IS IT IMPORTANT? Appropriate pricing of products-and-services...... in the market. Lastly, customer satisfaction and loyalty will be increased accordingly. WHAT CAN BE DONE? The pricing challenge for multiple products and services can be overcome by applying the modular concept on pricing, where each product or service is offered as a module, so suppliers can either set...

  6. Increased levels of advanced glycation end products positively correlate with iron overload and oxidative stress markers in patients with β-thalassemia major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirlohi, Maryam Sadat; Yaghooti, Hamid; Shirali, Saeed; Aminasnafi, Ali; Olapour, Samaneh

    2018-04-01

    The impaired biosynthesis of the β-globin chain in β-thalassemia leads to the accumulation of unpaired alpha globin chains, failure in hemoglobin formation, and iron overload due to frequent blood transfusion. Iron excess causes oxidative stress and massive tissue injuries. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are harmful agents, and their production accelerates in oxidative conditions. This study was conducted on 45 patients with major β-thalassemia who received frequent blood transfusions and chelation therapy and were compared to 40 healthy subjects. Metabolic parameters including glycemic and iron indices, hepatic and renal functions tests, oxidative stress markers, and AGEs (carboxymethyl-lysine and pentosidine) levels were measured. All parameters were significantly increased in β-thalassemia compared to the control except for glutathione levels. Blood glucose, iron, serum ferritin, non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI), MDA, soluble form of low-density lipoprotein receptor, glutathione peroxidase, total reactive oxygen species (ROS), and AGE levels were significantly higher in the β-thalassemia patients. Iron and ferritin showed a significant positive correlation with pentosidine (P overload in β-thalassemia major patients and highlight the enhanced formation of AGEs, which may play an important role in the pathogenesis of β-thalassemia major.

  7. Simultaneous Quantitation of Advanced Glycation End Products in Soy Sauce and Beer by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry without Ion-Pair Reagents and Derivatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomi, Yuri; Annaka, Hironori; Sato, Shinji; Ueta, Etsuko; Ohkura, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Homma, Seiichi; Suzuki, Emiko; Otsuka, Yuzuru

    2016-11-09

    The aim of this study was to develop a simple and sensitive method to analyze several advanced glycation end products (AGEs) simultaneously using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and to apply this method to the quantitation of AGEs in brown-colored foods. The developed method enabled to separate and quantitate simultaneously seven AGEs, and was applied to the determination of free AGEs contained in various kinds of soy sauce and beer. The major AGEs in soy sauce and beer were N ε -carboxymethyllysine (CML), N ε -carboxyethyllysine (CEL), and N δ -(5-hydro-5-methyl-4-imidazolon-2-yl)ornithine (MG-H1). Using the developed LC-MS/MS method, recovery test on soy sauce and beer samples showed the recovery values of 85.3-103.9% for CML, 95.9-107.4% for CEL, and 69.5-123.2% for MG-H1. In particular, it is the first report that free CML, CEL, and MG-H1 were present in beer. Furthermore, long-term storage and heating process of soy sauce increased CML and MG-H1.

  8. Effects of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) on skin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kappa B (NF-κB) localization and cell viability were measured in vivo. Keratinocytes from normal skin were cultured in AGE-enriched conditional media, and the cell viability, apoptosis, adhesion and migration were detected in order to find the ...

  9. Formation of early and advanced Maillard reaction products correlates to the ripening of cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanneberg, Robert; Salzwedel, Grit; Glomb, Marcus A

    2012-01-18

    The present study deals with the characterization of the ripening of cheese. A traditional German acid curd cheese was ripened under defined conditions at elevated temperature, and protein and amino acid modifications were investigated. Degree of proteolysis and analysis of early [Amadori compound furosine (6)] and advanced [N(ε)-carboxymethyllysine (4), N(ε)-carboxyethyllysine (5)] Maillard reaction products confirmed the maturation to proceed from the rind to the core of the cheese. Whereas 6 was decreased, 4 and 5 increased over time. Deeper insight into the Maillard reaction during the ripening of cheese was achieved by the determination of selected α-dicarbonyl compounds. Especially methylglyoxal (2) showed a characteristic behavior during storage of the acid curd cheese. Decrease of this reactive structure was directly correlated to the formation of 5. To extend the results of experimental ripening to commercial cheeses, different aged Gouda types were investigated. Maturation times of the samples ranged from 6 to 8 weeks (young) to more than 1 year (aged). Again, increase of 5 and decrease of 2 were able to describe the ripening of this rennet coagulated cheese. Therefore, both chemical parameters are potent markers to characterize the degree of maturation, independent of coagulation.

  10. The Effects of Aging on Faculty Productivity. ASHE 1985 Annual Meeting Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, Ruth E.; Ging, Terry J.

    The relationship between productivity and aging in the context of the college faculty roles of teaching, research, and service is considered, based on a literature review on worker and faculty productivity and on theories of aging (i.e., biological, physiological, psychological, and sociological perspectives). It is concluded that faculty…

  11. The relative labour productivity contribution of different age-skill categories for a developing economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhardus van Zyl

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The article dealt with the estimation, computation and interpretation of the relative productivity contributions of different age-skill categories. Research purpose: The aim of the article was to estimate and compute, (1 relative productivity contributions and (2 relative productivity contribution–employee remuneration cost levels for different age-skill categories. Motivation for the study: The research was deemed necessary given the current debate on relative productivity levels and possible changes to the retirement age in the South African labour market. No real research in this regard has been published regarding the South African labour market situation. Research design, approach and method: A less restrictive production function was used, allowing for the simultaneous estimation and final computation of relative labour contribution levels of different age-skill categories. Main findings: The lower-skilled segment produced significantly smaller productivity contributions and the relative productivity contribution–employee remuneration cost ratios of the 55 years and older age group were superior in the higher-skilled segment but, at the same time, the lowest in the lower-skilled segment. Practical/managerial implications: It is recommended that human resource practitioners (given the perceived rigidity of labour legislation implement and maintain structures that promote higher productivity levels for all age-skill categories in the workplace. Contribution/value-add: An estimation procedure, which can be applied to the measurement of the relative productivity contribution of different age-skill categories, has been established.

  12. The relative labour productivity contribution of different age-skill categories for a developing economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhardus van Zyl

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The article dealt with the estimation, computation and interpretation of the relative productivity contributions of different age-skill categories.Research purpose: The aim of the article was to estimate and compute, (1 relative productivity contributions and (2 relative productivity contribution–employee remuneration cost levels for different age-skill categories.Motivation for the study: The research was deemed necessary given the current debate on relative productivity levels and possible changes to the retirement age in the South African labour market. No real research in this regard has been published regarding the South African labour market situation.Research design, approach and method: A less restrictive production function was used, allowing for the simultaneous estimation and final computation of relative labour contribution levels of different age-skill categories.Main findings: The lower-skilled segment produced significantly smaller productivity contributions and the relative productivity contribution–employee remuneration cost ratios of the 55 years and older age group were superior in the higher-skilled segment but, at the same time, the lowest in the lower-skilled segment.Practical/managerial implications: It is recommended that human resource practitioners (given the perceived rigidity of labour legislation implement and maintain structures that promote higher productivity levels for all age-skill categories in the workplace.Contribution/value-add: An estimation procedure, which can be applied to the measurement of the relative productivity contribution of different age-skill categories, has been established.

  13. Glyoxalase I reduces glycative and oxidative stress and prevents age-related endothelial dysfunction through modulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo-Watanabe, Airi; Ohse, Takamoto; Nishimatsu, Hiroaki; Takahashi, Masao; Ikeda, Yoichiro; Wada, Takehiko; Shirakawa, Jun-ichi; Nagai, Ryoji; Miyata, Toshio; Nagano, Tetsuo; Hirata, Yasunobu; Inagi, Reiko; Nangaku, Masaomi

    2014-06-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is a major contributor to cardiovascular disease (CVD), particularly in elderly people. Studies have demonstrated the role of glycation in endothelial dysfunction in nonphysiological models, but the physiological role of glycation in age-related endothelial dysfunction has been poorly addressed. Here, to investigate how vascular glycation affects age-related endothelial function, we employed rats systemically overexpressing glyoxalase I (GLO1), which detoxifies methylglyoxal (MG), a representative precursor of glycation. Four groups of rats were examined, namely young (13 weeks old), mid-age (53 weeks old) wild-type, and GLO1 transgenic (WT/GLO1 Tg) rats. Age-related acceleration in glycation was attenuated in GLO1 Tg rats, together with lower aortic carboxymethyllysine (CML) and urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels. Age-related impairment of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation was attenuated in GLO1 Tg rats, whereas endothelium-independent vasorelaxation was not different between WT and GLO1 Tg rats. Nitric oxide (NO) production was decreased in mid-age WT rats, but not in mid-age GLO1 Tg rats. Age-related inactivation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) due to phosphorylation of eNOS on Thr495 and dephosphorylation on Ser1177 was ameliorated in GLO1 Tg rats. In vitro, MG increased phosphorylation of eNOS (Thr495) in primary human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs), and overexpression of GLO1 decreased glycative stress and phosphorylation of eNOS (Thr495). Together, GLO1 reduced age-related endothelial glycative and oxidative stress, altered phohphorylation of eNOS, and attenuated endothelial dysfunction. As a molecular mechanism, GLO1 lessened inhibitory phosphorylation of eNOS (Thr495) by reducing glycative stress. Our study demonstrates that blunting glycative stress prevents the long-term impact of endothelial dysfunction on vascular aging. © 2014 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons

  14. Age-related accumulation of Maillard reaction products in human articular cartilage collagen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verzijl, N.; Degroot, J.; Oldehinkel, E.; Bank, R. A.; Thorpe, S. R.; Baynes, J. W.; Bayliss, M. T.; Bijlsma, J. W.; Lafeber, F. P.; TeKoppele, J. M.

    2000-01-01

    Non-enzymic modification of tissue proteins by reducing sugars, the so-called Maillard reaction, is a prominent feature of aging. In articular cartilage, relatively high levels of the advanced glycation end product (AGE) pentosidine accumulate with age. Higher pentosidine levels have been associated

  15. Advanced glycation end-products (AGES) and heart failure : Pathophysiology and clinical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, Jasper W. L.; Voors, Adriaan A.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Smit, Andries J.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.

    2007-01-01

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are molecules formed during a non-enzymatic reaction between proteins and sugar residues, called the Maillard reaction. AGEs accumulate in the human body with age, and accumulation is accelerated in the presence of diabetes mellitus. In patients with diabetes,

  16. Multi-Product Crops for Agricultural and Energy Production : an AGE Analysis for Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ignaciuk, A.; Dellink, R.B.

    2005-01-01

    By-products from agriculture and forestry can contribute to production of clean and cheap (bio)electricity. To assess the role of such multi-product crops in the response to climate policies, we present an applied general equilibrium model with special attention to biomass and multi-product crops

  17. Fuel age impacts on gaseous fission product capture during separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, Robert T.; Soelberg, Nicolas R.; Strachan, Denis M.; Ilas, G.

    2012-09-21

    relatively short half-lives, 12.3 y and 10.7 y, respectively, the dose decreases with the time from when the fuel is removed from the reactor to the time it is processed (herein “fuel age”). One possible strategy for limiting the discharges of these short halflife radionuclides is to allow the fuel to age to take advantage of radioactive decay. Therefore, the doses and required DFs are calculated as a function of fuel age. Here we calculate, given the above constraints and assumptions, the minimum ages for each fuel type that would not require additional effluent controls for the shorter half-life volatile radionuclides based on dose considerations. With respect to 129I doses, we find that the highest dose is calculated with iodine as a fine particulate. The dose scales as the fraction of the total 129I that is particulate. Therefore, we assume for all of our calculations that 100% of the 129I is particulate and allow the user of the results given here to scale our calculated doses to their needs. To summarize the data given in the body and appendices of this report, we find that the principal isotopes of concern are 3H and 129I, the latter requiring the highest DFs. The maximum DF value for 129I is 8000 for the illustrated cases. The required DF for 3H could be as high as 720, depending on the age of the fuel processed. The DF for 85Kr could be up to ~60, depending on fuel age. The DF for 14C is in many cases 1 (no treatment required) but could be as high as 30. The DFs required are within the range of DFs that are reported for the capture technologies that are available for the volatile radionuclides. Achieving the required 129I and 3H DFs is more challenging. Variations in stack design and other design factors may also significantly impact the DF requirements.

  18. Aged PROP1 deficient dwarf mice maintain ACTH production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor O Nasonkin

    Full Text Available Humans with PROP1 mutations have multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies (MPHD that typically advance from growth insufficiency diagnosed in infancy to include more severe growth hormone (GH deficiency and progressive reduction in other anterior pituitary hormones, eventually including adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH deficiency and hypocortisolism. Congenital deficiencies of GH, prolactin, and thyroid stimulating hormone have been reported in the Prop1(null (Prop1(-/- and the Ames dwarf (Prop1(df/df mouse models, but corticotroph and pituitary adrenal axis function have not been thoroughly investigated. Here we report that the C57BL6 background sensitizes mutants to a wasting phenotype that causes approximately one third to die precipitously between weaning and adulthood, while remaining homozygotes live with no signs of illness. The wasting phenotype is associated with severe hypoglycemia. Circulating ACTH and corticosterone levels are elevated in juvenile and aged Prop1 mutants, indicating activation of the pituitary-adrenal axis. Despite this, young adult Prop1 deficient mice are capable of responding to restraint stress with further elevation of ACTH and corticosterone. Low blood glucose, an expected side effect of GH deficiency, is likely responsible for the elevated corticosterone level. These studies suggest that the mouse model differs from the human patients who display progressive hormone loss and hypocortisolism.

  19. Association between Advanced Glycation End Products and Impaired Fasting Glucose: Results from the SALIA Study.

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    Tom Teichert

    Full Text Available Advanced glycation end products (AGEs may contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes and related complications, whereas their role in the early deterioration of glycaemia is unknown. While previous studies used antibody-based methods to quantify AGEs, data from tandem mass spectrometry coupled liquid chromatography (LC-MS/MS-based measurements are limited to patients with known diabetes. Here, we used the LC-MS/MS method to test the hypothesis that plasma AGE levels are higher in individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG than in those with normal fasting glucose (NFG. Secondary aims were to assess correlations of plasma AGEs with quantitative markers of glucose metabolism and biomarkers of subclinical inflammation. This study included on 60 women with NFG or IFG (n = 30 each, mean age 74 years from the German SALIA cohort. Plasma levels of free metabolites (3-deoxyfructose, 3-deoxypentosone, 3-deoxypentulose, two hydroimidazolones, oxidised adducts (carboxymethyllysine, carboxyethyllysine, methionine sulfoxide and Nε-fructosyllysine were measured using LC-MS/MS. Plasma concentrations of all tested AGEs did not differ between the NFG and IFG groups (all p>0.05. Associations between plasma levels of AGEs and fasting glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR as a measure of insulin resistance were weak (r between -0.2 and 0.2, all p>0.05. The association between 3-deoxyglucosone-derived hydroimidazolone with several proinflammatory biomarkers disappeared upon adjustment for multiple testing. In conclusion, plasma AGEs assessed by LC-MS/MS were neither increased in IFG nor associated with parameters of glucose metabolism and subclinical inflammation in our study. Thus, these data argue against strong effects of AGEs in the early stages of deterioration of glucose metabolism.

  20. Economic productivity by age and sex: 2007 estimates for the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Scott D; Krueger, Kurt V; Mvundura, Mercy

    2009-07-01

    Human capital estimates of labor productivity are often used to estimate the economic impact of diseases and injuries that cause incapacitation or death. Estimates of average hourly, annual, and lifetime economic productivity, both market and household, were calculated in 2007 US dollars for 5-year age groups for men, women, and both sexes in the United States. Data from the American Time Use Survey were used to estimate hours of paid work and household services and hourly and annual earnings and household productivity. Present values of discounted lifetime earnings were calculated for each age group using the 2004 US life tables and a discount rate of 3% per year and assuming future productivity growth of 1% per year. The estimates of hours and productivity were calculated using the time diaries of 72,922 persons included in the American Time Use Survey for the years 2003 to 2007. The present value of lifetime productivity is approximately $1.2 million in 2007 dollars for children under 5 years of age. For adults in their 20s and 30s, it is approximately $1.6 million and then it declines with increasing age. Productivity estimates are higher for males than for females, more for market productivity than for total productivity. Changes in hours of paid employment and household services can affect economic productivity by age and sex. This is the first publication to include estimates of household services based on contemporary time use data for the US population.

  1. Role of Age-Related Shifts in Rumen Bacteria and Methanogens in Methane Production in Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Rumen microbiota are essential for maintaining digestive and metabolic functions, producing methane as a byproduct. Dairy heifers produce large amounts of methane based on fermentation of digested organic matter, with adverse consequences for feed efficiency and the environment. It is therefore important to understand the influence of host age on the relationship between microbiota and methane production. This study explored the age effect on the relationship between microbial communities and enteric methane production in dairy cows and heifers using high-throughput sequencing. Methane production and volatile fatty acid concentrations were age-related. Heifers (9–10 months had lower methane production but higher methane production per dry matter intake (DMI. The acetate:propionate ratio decreased significantly with increasing age. Age-related microbiota changes in the rumen were reflected by a significant shift in bacterial taxa, but relatively stable archaeal taxa. Prevotella, Ruminococcus, Flavonifractor, Succinivibrio, and Methanobrevibacter were affected by age. This study revealed different associations between predominant bacterial phylotypes and Methanobrevibacter with increasing age. Prevotella was strongly correlated with Methanobrevibacter in heifers; howerver, in older cows (96–120 months this association was replaced by a correlation between Succinivibrio and Methanobrevibacter. This shift may account for the age-related difference in rumen fermentation and methane production per DMI.

  2. Advanced glycation end products and RAGE: a common thread in aging, diabetes, neurodegeneration, and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Ravichandran; Vannucci, Susan J; Yan, Shirley Shi Du; Herold, Kevan; Yan, Shi Fang; Schmidt, Ann Marie

    2005-07-01

    The products of nonenzymatic glycation and oxidation of proteins and lipids, the advanced glycation end products (AGEs), accumulate in a wide variety of environments. AGEs may be generated rapidly or over long times stimulated by a range of distinct triggering mechanisms, thereby accounting for their roles in multiple settings and disease states. A critical property of AGEs is their ability to activate receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), a signal transduction receptor of the immunoglobulin superfamily. It is our hypothesis that due to such interaction, AGEs impart a potent impact in tissues, stimulating processes linked to inflammation and its consequences. We hypothesize that AGEs cause perturbation in a diverse group of diseases, such as diabetes, inflammation, neurodegeneration, and aging. Thus, we propose that targeting this pathway may represent a logical step in the prevention/treatment of the sequelae of these disorders.

  3. The specific localization of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in rat pancreatic islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morioka, Yuta; Teshigawara, Kiyoshi; Tomono, Yasuko; Wang, Dengli; Izushi, Yasuhisa; Wake, Hidenori; Liu, Keyue; Takahashi, Hideo Kohka; Mori, Shuji; Nishibori, Masahiro

    2017-08-01

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are produced by non-enzymatic glycation between protein and reducing sugar such as glucose. Although glyceraldehyde-derived AGEs (Glycer-AGEs), one of the AGEs subspecies, have been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of various age-relating diseases such as diabetes mellitus or arteriosclerosis, little is known about the pathological and physiological mechanism of AGEs in vivo. In present study, we produced 4 kinds of polyclonal antibodies against AGEs subspecies and investigated the localization of AGEs-modified proteins in rat peripheral tissues, making use of these antibodies. We found that Glycer-AGEs and methylglyoxal-derived AGEs (MGO-AGEs) were present in pancreatic islets of healthy rats, distinguished clearly into the pancreatic α and β cells, respectively. Although streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats suffered from remarkable impairment of pancreatic islets, the localization and deposit levels of the Glycer- and MGO-AGEs were not altered in the remaining α and β cells. Remarkably, the MGO-AGEs in pancreatic β cells were localized into the insulin-secretory granules. These results suggest that the cell-specific localization of AGEs-modified proteins are presence generally in healthy peripheral tissues, involved in physiological intracellular roles, such as a post-translational modulator contributing to the secretory and/or maturational functions of insulin. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and its receptors in the pathogenesis of hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspar-Bell, Gudrun; Dhar, Indu; Prasad, Kailash

    2016-03-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of hyperthyroidism and its complications. Interaction of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) with receptor RAGE (receptor for AGEs) generates reactive oxygen species. Soluble receptor for AGEs (sRAGE) competes with RAGE for binding with AGEs and attenuates the generation of ROS. Low levels sRAGE and high levels AGEs would generate more ROS leading to hyperthyroidism and its complications. The objectives are to determine if levels of serum sRAGE are low and the levels of AGEs and AGEs/sRAGE are high in patients with hyperthyroidism. The study subjects comprised of 33 patients with hyperthyroidism and 20 controls. Levels of serum sRAGE were lower, while that of AGEs and AGEs/sRAGE were higher in patients compared to controls, being significant only for sRAGE and AGEs/sRAGE. When the levels of sRAGE, AGEs, and AGEs/sRAGE were assessed for hyperthyroidism associated with different diseases, the levels of sRAGE were lower in Hashimoto disease, and levels of AGEs were higher in patients with Graves' disease compared to control. The levels of AGEs/sRAGE were elevated in an all except patients with Hashimoto disease. The levels of AGEs, sRAGE, or AGEs/RAGE were not correlated with age, weight, and blood pressures except systolic pressure which was inversely correlated with sRAGE. The levels of sRAGE were negatively correlated with AGEs and AGEs/sRAGE. The levels of AGEs/sRAGE were positively correlated with AGEs. In conclusion, low levels of sRAGE, and high levels of AGEs and AGEs/sRAGE are risk biomarkers in the pathogenesis hyperthyroidism and its complications.

  5. Age- and gender-related alteration in plasma advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) concentrations in physiological ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komosinska-Vassev, Katarzyna; Olczyk, Pawel; Winsz-Szczotka, Katarzyna; Kuznik-Trocha, Kornelia; Klimek, Katarzyna; Olczyk, Krystyna

    2012-02-13

    The authors studied the role of increased oxidative stress in the development of oxidative protein damage and extracellular matrix (ECM) components in ageing. The age- and gender-associated disturbances in connective tissue metabolism were evaluated by the plasma chondroitin sulphated glycosaminoglycans (CS-GAG) and non-sulphated GAG-hyaluronan (HA) measurements. Plasma concentration of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) was analysed in order to assess oxidative protein damage and evaluate the possible deleterious role of oxidative phenomenon on tissue proteoglycans' metabolism during the physiological ageing process. Sulphated and non-sulphated GAGs as well as AOPP were quantified in plasma samples from 177 healthy volunteers. A linear age-related decline of plasma CS-GAG level was found in this study (r=-0.46; page (r=0.44; page-dependent relationship has been shown in regard to AOPP. AOPP levels significantly increased with age (r=0.63; pphysiological ageing. A significant correlation was found between the concentrations of AOPP and both CS-GAG (r=-0.31; page changes in the ECM are reflected by CS-GAG and HA plasma levels. Strong correlations between AOPP and ECM components indicate that oxidative stress targets protein and non-protein components of the connective tissue matrix during human ageing.

  6. Investment age and dynamic productivity growth in the Spanish food processing industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapelko, Magda; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Stefanou, S.E.

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes the relation between investment age, measured as the number of years since investment spike, and dynamic productivity growth and its components, which include dynamic technical change, dynamic inefficiency change, and dynamic scale inefficiency change. The empirical application

  7. Work-related productivity losses in an era of ageing populations: the case of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanly, Paul; Walsh, Paul M; O Céilleachair, Alan; Skally, Mairead; Staines, Anthony; Kapur, Kanika; Fitzpatrick, Patricia; Sharp, Linda

    2013-02-01

    We investigated patterns and costs of lost productivity due to colorectal cancer in Ireland and examined how rising pension ages affect these costs. Data from a postal survey of colorectal cancer survivors (6 to 30 months after diagnosis; n = 159), taken from March 2010 to January 2011, were combined with population-level survival estimates and national wage data to calculate temporary and permanent disability, and premature mortality, costs using the human capital approach. Almost 40% of respondents left the workforce permanently after diagnosis and 90% took temporary time off work. Total costs of lost productivity per person were 205,847 in 2008 assuming retirement at the age of 65. When the retirement age was raised to 70, productivity costs increased by almost a half. Our study demonstrated the considerable productivity costs associated with colorectal cancer and highlighted the effect of rising retirement ages on costs.

  8. Gender, aging, and work: aging workers' strategies to confront the demands of production in maquiladora plants in nogales, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adarga, Mireya Scarone; Becerril, Leonor Cedillo; Champion, Catalina Denman

    2010-01-01

    This work is part of a qualitative socio-cultural investigation with a group of men and women 40 years and older in the maquila export industry in Nogales, Sonora, Mexico. In 1994, as a result of the North American Free Trade Agreement, maquila plants combined traditional intensive work methods with new "just in time" production norms that impacted work and health conditions, particularly in older, or aging, workers. The workers that were interviewed for this study show a reduction in their functional ability to work starting at 40 years of age. Work organization demands, general health conditions, and a decrease in physical abilities brings these 40-year-old workers to prematurely construct an image of themselves as aging workers and to develop coping strategies that vary by gender.

  9. Defective TFH Cell Function and Increased TFR Cells Contribute to Defective Antibody Production in Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Peter T; Tan, Catherine L; Freeman, Gordon J; Haigis, Marcia; Sharpe, Arlene H

    2015-07-14

    Defective antibody production in aging is broadly attributed to immunosenescence. However, the precise immunological mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate an increase in the ratio of inhibitory T follicular regulatory (TFR) cells to stimulatory T follicular helper (TFH) cells in aged mice. Aged TFH and TFR cells are phenotypically distinct from those in young mice, exhibiting increased programmed cell death protein-1 expression but decreased ICOS expression. Aged TFH cells exhibit defective antigen-specific responses, and programmed cell death protein-ligand 1 blockade can partially rescue TFH cell function. In contrast, young and aged TFR cells have similar suppressive capacity on a per-cell basis in vitro and in vivo. Together, these studies reveal mechanisms contributing to defective humoral immunity in aging: an increase in suppressive TFR cells combined with impaired function of aged TFH cells results in reduced T-cell-dependent antibody responses in aged mice. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Interleukin-6 Contributes to Age-Related Alteration of Cytokine Production by Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Christian R.; Karavitis, John; Palmer, Jessica L.; Faunce, Douglas E.; Ramirez, Luis; Nomellini, Vanessa; Kovacs, Elizabeth J.

    2010-01-01

    Here, we studied in vitro cytokine production by splenic macrophages obtained from young and aged BALB/c wild type (WT) and IL-6 knockout (IL-6 KO) mice. Relative to macrophages obtained from young WT mice given lipopolysaccharide (LPS), those from aged WT mice had decreased production of proinflammatory cytokines. In contrast, when compared to macrophages from young IL-6 KO mice, LPS stimulation yielded higher levels of these cytokines by cells from aged IL-6 KO mice. Aging or IL-6 deficiency did not affected the percentage of F4/80+ macrophages, or the surface expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and components of the IL-6 receptor. Overall, our results indicate that IL-6 plays a role in regulating the age-related defects in macrophages through alteration of proinflammatory cytokines, adding to the complexity of IL-6-mediated impairment of immune cell function with increasing age. PMID:20671912

  11. Being Involved in the Country: Productive Ageing in Different Types of Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sandra; Crothers, Natalie; Grant, Jeanette; Young, Sari; Smith, Karly

    2012-01-01

    Productive ageing recognises the contribution of older people to economic, social and cultural growth and helps build a sustainable community. Being involved in community life is good for individuals and good for society. However, we know very little about the participation of and contribution by people aged 50 and over in rural communities. This…

  12. Relationships between net primary productivity and forest stand age in U.S. forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liming He; Jing M. Chen; Yude Pan; Richard Birdsey; Jens. Kattge

    2012-01-01

    Net primary productivity (NPP) is a key flux in the terrestrial ecosystem carbon balance, as it summarizes the autotrophic input into the system. Forest NPP varies predictably with stand age, and quantitative information on the NPP-age relationship for different regions and forest types is therefore fundamentally important for forest carbon cycle modeling. We used four...

  13. Is Vitamin D Deficiency Related to Accumulation of Advanced Glycation End Products, Markers of Inflammation, and Oxidative Stress in Diabetic Subjects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Šebeková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. In diabetes accumulated advanced glycation end products (AGEs are involved in the striking cardiovascular morbidity/mortality. We asked whether a hypovitaminosis D associates with an increased formation and toxicity of AGEs in diabetes. Methods. In 276 diabetics (160 M/116 F, age: 65.0±13.4; 43 type 1,T1DM, and 233 type 2 patients, T2DM and 121 nondiabetic controls (60 M/61 F; age: 58.6±15.5 years routine biochemistry, levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-(OHD, skin autofluorescence (SAF, plasma AGE-associated fluorescence (AGE-FL, Nε-(carboxymethyllysine (CML, soluble receptor for AGEs (sRAGE, soluble vascular adhesion protein-1 (sVAP-1, high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, and renal function (eGFR were determined. Results. In the diabetics SAF and AGE-Fl were higher than those of the controls and correlated with age, duration of diabetes, and degree of renal impairment. In T2DM patients but not in T1DM the age-dependent rise of SAF directly correlated with hs-CRP and sVAP-1. 25-(OHD levels in diabetics and nondiabetics were lowered to a similar degree averaging 22.5 ng/mL. No relationship between 25-(OHD and studied markers except for sVAP-1 was observed in the diabetics. Conclusion. In diabetics hypovitaminosis D does not augment accumulation of AGEs and studied markers of microinflammation and oxidative stress except for sVAP-1.

  14. Productivity and Nutrient Quality of Some Sorghum Mutant Lines at Different Cutting Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Puteri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to explore the appropriate cutting age to produce optimal biomass and good nutrient quality from sorghum mutant lines BMR i.e., PATIR 3.5 M7, PATIR 3.6 M7, and PATIR 3.7 M7, also SAMURAI I (M17. A completely randomized in Split Plot design with 2 factors and 3 replicates was used. The first factor was the type of sorghum (SAMURAI I M17, PATIR 3.5, PATIR 3.6, PATIR 3.7 as the main plot and the second factor was the cutting age (85, 95, 105 as a subplot. Parameters observed were the production of stems, leaves, grains, total biomass production, ash, crude fat, crude fiber, crude protein, NFE, TDN, percentage of DMD, OMD and N-NH3. Data were analyzed by using ANOVA followed by DMRT (Duncan Multiple Range Test. The results showed that there were highly significant interactions (P<0.01 between cutting age and type of sorghum in production of stems, leaves, grains, total biomass production, value of TDN, DMD, OMD, and N-NH3. Increasing cutting age significantly increased the percentage of ash content, crude protein and crude fat. The sorghum type significantly affected crude fat content nonBMR sorghum variety of SAMURAI I (M17 and achieved optimal biomass production and nutrient content at cutting age of 85 d similar to BMR sorghum mutant lines PATIR 3.6 and PATIR 3.5, whereas BMR sorghum mutant lines of PATIR 3.7 achieved optimum production at the age of 95 d of cutting. All types of sorghum varieties was not recommended to be harvested at 105 d. Biomass production increased with the increasing of cutting age, but the nutrient content decreased.

  15. Women's gambling behaviour, product preferences, and perceptions of product harm: differences by age and gambling risk status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Simone; Thomas, Samantha L; Randle, Melanie; Bestman, Amy; Pitt, Hannah; Cowlishaw, Sean; Daube, Mike

    2018-04-24

    Women's participation in, and harm from gambling, is steadily increasing. There has been very limited research to investigate how gambling behaviour, product preferences, and perceptions of gambling harm may vary across subgroups of women. This study surveyed a convenience sample of 509 women from Victoria and New South Wales, Australia. Women were asked a range of questions about their socio-demographic characteristics and gambling behaviour. Focusing on four gambling products in Australia-casino gambling, electronic gambling machines (EGMs), horse betting, and sports betting-women were asked about their frequency of participation, their product preferences, and perceptions of product harms. The sample was segmented a priori according to age and gambling risk status, and differences between groups were identified using Chi-square tests and ANOVAs. Thematic analysis was used to interpret qualitative data. Almost two thirds (n = 324, 63.7%) of women had engaged with one of the four products in the previous 12 months. Compared to other age groups, younger women aged 16-34 years exhibited a higher proportion of problem gambling, gambled more frequently, and across more products. While EGMs were the product gambled on most frequently by women overall, younger women were significantly more likely to bet on sports and gamble at casinos relative to older women. Qualitative data indicated that younger women engaged with gambling products as part of a "night out", "with friends", due to their "ease of access" and perceived "chance of winning big". There were significant differences in the perceptions of the harms associated with horse and sports betting according to age and gambling risk status, with younger women and gamblers perceiving these products as less harmful. This study highlights that there are clear differences in the gambling behaviour, product preferences, and perceptions of product harms between subgroups of women. A gendered approach will enable public

  16. Hyperglycemia-related advanced glycation end-products is associated with the altered phosphatidylcholine metabolism in osteoarthritis patients with diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Zhang

    Full Text Available To test whether type 2 diabetic patients have an elevated level of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs and responsible for altered phosphatidylcholine metabolism, which we recently found to be associated with osteoarthritis (OA and diabetes mellitus (DM, synovial fluid (SF and plasma samples were collected from OA patients with and without DM. Hyperglycemia-related AGEs including methylglyoxal (MG, free methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone (MG-H1, and protein bound N-(Carboxymethyllysine (CML and N-(Carboxyethyllysine (CEL levels were measured in both SF and plasma samples using liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry methodology. The correlation between these AGEs and phosphatidylcholine acyl-alkyl C34:3 (PC ae C34:3 and C36:3 (PC ae C36:3 were examined. Eighty four patients with knee OA, including 46 with DM and 38 without DM, were included in the study. There was no significant difference in plasma levels of MG, MG-H1, CML, and CEL between OA patients with and without DM. However, the levels of MG and MG-H1, but not CML and CEL in SF were significantly higher in OA patients with DM than in those without (all p ≤0.04. This association strengthened after adjustment for age, body mass index (BMI, sex and hexose level (p<0.02. Moreover, the levels of MG-H1 in SF was negatively and significantly correlated with PC ae C34:3 (ρ = -0.34; p = 0.02 and PC ae C36:3 (ρ = -0.39; P = 0.03 after the adjustment of age, BMI, sex and hexose level. Our data indicated that the production of non-protein bound AGEs was increased within the OA-affected joint of DM patients. This is associated with changes in phosphatidylcholine metabolism and might be responsible for the observed epidemiological association between OA and DM.

  17. Future user-product arrangements: combining product impact and scenarios in design for multi age success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorrestijn, Steven; van der Voort, Mascha C.; Verbeek, Peter P.C.C.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of four generations in business and organisations and the prevalence of ever-evolving technology, pose questions for technology design; a much wider range of user-product arrangements needs to be forecast and designed for. To provide a theoretical framework that accommodates the need to

  18. Age-related changes in the functional neuroanatomy of overt speech production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sörös, Peter; Bose, Arpita; Sokoloff, Lisa Guttman; Graham, Simon J; Stuss, Donald T

    2011-08-01

    Alterations of existing neural networks during healthy aging, resulting in behavioral deficits and changes in brain activity, have been described for cognitive, motor, and sensory functions. To investigate age-related changes in the neural circuitry underlying overt non-lexical speech production, functional MRI was performed in 14 healthy younger (21-32 years) and 14 healthy older individuals (62-84 years). The experimental task involved the acoustically cued overt production of the vowel /a/ and the polysyllabic utterance /pataka/. In younger and older individuals, overt speech production was associated with the activation of a widespread articulo-phonological network, including the primary motor cortex, the supplementary motor area, the cingulate motor areas, and the posterior superior temporal cortex, similar in the /a/ and /pataka/ condition. An analysis of variance with the factors age and condition revealed a significant main effect of age. Irrespective of the experimental condition, significantly greater activation was found in the bilateral posterior superior temporal cortex, the posterior temporal plane, and the transverse temporal gyri in younger compared to older individuals. Significantly greater activation was found in the bilateral middle temporal gyri, medial frontal gyri, middle frontal gyri, and inferior frontal gyri in older vs. younger individuals. The analysis of variance did not reveal a significant main effect of condition and no significant interaction of age and condition. These results suggest a complex reorganization of neural networks dedicated to the production of speech during healthy aging. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Correlation analysis of electronic products with myopia in preschool and school aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Li Sun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To explore the influence of electronic products on myopia in preschool and school aged children, and the development regularities of myopia, to formulate reasonable guidelines for using eyes healthily, and lay a solid foundation for the prevention and control work. METHODS: This retrospective analysis enrolled 900 3~12 years old children from outpatients department, and all of them were established individualized archives, recording: uncorrected visual acuity, optometry, slit lamp, ophthalmoscopy, strabismus inspection results; recording eye usage condition on TVs, computers, mobile phones, iPad, homework, extra-curricular books. Statistical analyze the refractive status of each age group, the use of electronic products of different age groups and their correlation with refractive status. RESULTS: The number of preschool children with normal uncorrected visual acuity was more than that of early school-age children, and the difference was statistically significant(PP>0.05; the number of children aged 7~12(early school aged childrenwith myopia was more than that of children aged 3~6(preschool childrenand the difference was statistically significant(PCONCLUSION: For preschool children, it is necessary to conduct early screening, health guidance, the establishment of personalized medical records and one-to-one personalized guidance; it is also needed to avoid the arduous learning task with the stacking usage of eyes, to fight for myopia and to control the development of myopia. Therefore, to reduce the use of electronic products has become a topic worthy of further study.

  20. Age verification cards fail to fully prevent minors from accessing tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Hideyuki; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Ohida, Takashi; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Munezawa, Takeshi

    2011-03-01

    Proper age verification can prevent minors from accessing tobacco products. For this reason, electronic locking devices based on a proof-of age system utilising cards were installed in almost every tobacco vending machine across Japan and Germany to restrict sales to minors. We aimed to clarify the associations between amount smoked by high school students and the usage of age verification cards by conducting a nationwide cross-sectional survey of students in Japan. This survey was conducted in 2008. We asked high school students, aged 13-18 years, in Japan about their smoking behaviour, where they purchase cigarettes, if or if not they have used age verification cards, and if yes, how they obtained this card. As the amount smoked increased, the prevalence of purchasing cigarettes from vending machines also rose for both males and females. The percentage of those with experience of using an age verification card was also higher among those who smoked more. Somebody outside of family was the top source of obtaining cards. Surprisingly, around 5% of males and females belonging to the group with highest smoking levels applied for cards themselves. Age verification cards cannot fully prevent minors from accessing tobacco products. These findings suggest that a total ban of tobacco vending machines, not an age verification system, is needed to prevent sales to minors.

  1. Investigation of Ageing Effects on Organic Binders used for Mineral Wool Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zafar, Ashar

    mainly due to hydrolyzation of urea containing groups. On the other hand, XPS and ToF-SIMS characterization of alkanol amine-acid anhydride binder coated mineral fibres consistently showed that the surface chemical composition of the organic components of these samples did not change appreciably during......Phenol-Urea-Formaldehyde (PUF) binder based mineral wool products’ mechanical properties have been observed to degrade during ageing at elevated temperatures and humidity, while mineral wool products based on a newly developed alkanol amine-acid anhydride binder exhibited better ageing properties...... for the same duration of ageing. The main purpose of the present work is to examine the chemical changes occurring in the phenol-urea-formaldehyde binder based mineral fibres due to ageing, which cause deterioration of the mechanical properties of mineral wool products. This has been done using surface...

  2. Metabolic transit of N(ε)-carboxymethyl-lysine after consumption of AGEs from bread crust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncero-Ramos, Irene; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina; Tessier, Frédéric J; Niquet-Léridon, Céline; Strauch, Christopher; Monnier, Vincent M; Navarro, María Pilar

    2013-07-01

    Our aim was to investigate carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) intake and excretion after feeding rats with diets containing advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) from bread crust (BC) or its soluble or insoluble fractions, and to identify the factors responsible for the effects observed. CML in serum and different tissues was measured to detect possible accumulations. For 88 days, weanling rats were fed with either a control diet or one containing BC, or its soluble low molecular weight (LMW), soluble high molecular weight (HMW) or insoluble fractions. In the last week of the assay, faeces and urine were collected daily and stored as a 1 week pool. After sacrifice, blood was drawn to obtain serum and some organs were removed. CML analysis was performed by HPLC/MS/MS in diets, faeces, urines, serum and tissues. Faecal excretion of CML was strongly influenced by dietary CML levels and represents the major route of excretion (i.e. 33.2%). However, the urinary elimination of CML was probably limited or saturated, especially when more complex compounds were present in the diet. BC consumption increased CML in the cardiac tissue (170 ± 18 vs. 97 ± 3 μmol per mol lysine for BC and control groups), which correlated with the CML intake. The levels of this AGE in bone were unaffected by the dietary treatment, but in tail tendons CML was greatly increased in the animals that consumed the BC diet (102 ± 13 vs. 51 ± 8 μmol per mol lysine for BC and control groups, P = 0.006), which was associated with the intake of soluble LMW compounds present in BC. Despite the CML accumulation detected in different tissues, serum levels of protein-bound CML were unchanged, indicating the importance of measuring the free CML in this fluid as a real index of dietary CML.

  3. Assessment of the concentrations of various advanced glycation end-products in beverages and foods that are commonly consumed in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayoshi Takeuchi

    Full Text Available Dietary consumption has recently been identified as a major environmental source of pro-inflammatory advanced glycation end-products (AGEs in humans. It is disputed whether dietary AGEs represent a risk to human health. Nε-(carboxymethyllysine (CML, a representative AGE compound found in food, has been suggested to make a significant contribution to circulating CML levels. However, recent studies have found that the dietary intake of AGEs is not associated with plasma CML concentrations. We have shown that the serum levels of glyceraldehyde-derived AGEs (Glycer-AGEs, but not hemoglobin A1c, glucose-derived AGEs (Glu-AGEs, or CML, could be used as biomarkers for predicting the progression of atherosclerosis and future cardiovascular events. We also detected the production/accumulation of Glycer-AGEs in normal rats administered Glu-AGE-rich beverages. Therefore, we assessed the concentrations of various AGEs in a total of 1,650 beverages and foods that are commonly consumed in Japan. The concentrations of four kinds of AGEs (Glu-AGEs, fructose-derived AGEs (Fru-AGEs, CML, and Glycer-AGEs were measured with competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays involving immunoaffinity-purified specific antibodies. The results of the latter assays indicated that Glu-AGEs and Fru-AGEs (especially Glu-AGEs, but not CML or Glycer-AGEs, are present at appreciable levels in beverages and foods that are commonly consumed by Japanese. Glu-AGEs, Fru-AGEs, CML, and Glycer-AGEs exhibited concentrations of ≥85%, 2-12%, <3%, and trace amounts in the examined beverages and ≥82%, 5-15%, <3%, and trace amounts in the tested foods, respectively. The results of the present study indicate that some lactic acid bacteria beverages, carbonated drinks, sugar-sweetened fruit drinks, sports drinks, mixed fruit juices, confectionery (snacks, dried fruits, cakes, cereals, and prepared foods contain markedly higher Glu-AGE levels than other classes of beverages and foods. We

  4. Advanced glycation end product (AGE) modified proteins in tears of diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenjun; Liu, Jingfang; Shi, Bingyin; He, Shuixiang; Yao, Xiaoli; Willcox, Mark D P

    2010-08-11

    High glucose level in diabetic patients may lead to advanced glycation end product (AGE) modified proteins. This study investigated AGE modified proteins in tears and compared their levels in diabetic patients (DM) with non-diabetic controls (CTL). Basal tears were collected from DM with (DR) or without (DNR) retinopathy and CTL. Total AGE modified proteins were detected quantitatively by a dot immunobinding assay. The AGE modified proteins were separated in 1D- and 2D-SDS gels and detected by western-blotting. The individual AGE modified proteins were also compared between groups using densitometry. Compared with the CTL group, tear concentrations of AGE modified proteins were significantly elevated in DR and DNR groups. The concentration of AGE modified proteins in diabetic tears were positively correlated with AGE modified hemoglobin (HbA1c) and postprandial blood glucose level (PBG). Western blotting of AGE modified proteins from 1D-SDS gels showed several bands, the major one at around 60 kDa. The intensities of AGE modified protein bands were higher in DM tears than in CTL tears. Western blotting from 2D-SDS gels showed a strongly stained horizontal strip, which corresponded to the major band in 1D-SDS gels. Most of the other AGE modified protein species were within molecular weight of 30-60 kDa, PI 5.2-7.0. Densitometry analysis demonstrated several AGE modified proteins were elevated in DR or DNR tears. Total and some individual AGE modified proteins were elevated in DM tears. AGE modified proteins in tears may be used as biomarkers to diagnose diabetes and/or diabetic retinopathy.

  5. Organic matter production in an age series of Eucalyptus globulus plantations in Tamil Nadu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negi, J D.S.; Bora, N K.S.; Tandon, V N; Thapliyal, H D

    1984-08-01

    The distribution of organic matter in an age series of Eucalyptus globulus plantations in Tamil Nadu is discussed. The total biomass ranges from 38 tonnes (5 years) to 220 tonnes (16 years) per ha with 85 to 88 percent being contributed by the aboveground parts and 15 to 12 percent by the roots and the average annual production of non-photosynthetic components is at its peak (19 tonnes/ha) at the age of 7 years. 17 references, 4 tables.

  6. Multi-generation chemical aging of α-pinene ozonolysis products by reactions with OH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation from volatile organic compounds (VOCs in the atmosphere can be thought of as a succession of oxidation steps. The production of later-generation SOA via continued oxidation of the first-generation products is defined as chemical aging. This study investigates aging in the α-pinene ozonolysis system with hydroxyl radicals (OH through smog chamber experiments. The first-generation α-pinene ozonolysis products were allowed to react further with OH formed via HONO photolysis. After an equivalent of 2–4 days of typical atmospheric oxidation conditions, homogeneous OH oxidation of the α-pinene ozonolysis products resulted in a 20–40 % net increase in the SOA for the experimental conditions used in this work. A more oxygenated product distribution was observed after aging based on the increase in aerosol atomic oxygen-to-carbon ratio (O : C by up to 0.04. Experiments performed at intermediate relative humidity (RH of 50 % showed no significant difference in additional SOA formation during aging compared to those performed at a low RH of less than 20 %.

  7. Proteomic characterization of intermediate and advanced glycation end-products in commercial milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzone, Giovanni; Arena, Simona; Scaloni, Andrea

    2015-03-18

    The Maillard reaction consists of a number of chemical processes affecting the structure of the proteins present in foods. We previously accomplished the proteomic characterization of the lactosylation targets in commercial milk samples. Although characterizing the early modification derivatives, this analysis did not describe the corresponding advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), which may be formed from the further oxidation of former ones or by reaction of oxidized sugars with proteins, when high temperatures are exploited. To fill this gap, we have used combined proteomic procedures for the systematic characterization of the lactosylated and AGE-containing proteins from the soluble and milk fat globule membrane fraction of various milk products. Besides to confirm all lactulosyl-lysines described previously, 40 novel lactosylation sites were identified. More importantly, 308 additional intermediate and advanced glyco-oxidation derivatives (including cross-linking adducts) were characterized in 31 proteins, providing the widest qualitative inventory of modified species ascertained in commercial milk samples so far. Amadori adducts with glucose/galactose, their dehydration products, carboxymethyllysine and glyoxal-, 3-deoxyglucosone/3-deoxygalactosone- and 3-deoxylactosone-derived dihydroxyimidazolines and/or hemiaminals were the most frequent derivatives observed. Depending on thermal treatment, a variable number of modification sites was identified within each protein; their number increased with harder food processing conditions. Among the modified proteins, species involved in assisting the delivery of nutrients, defense response against pathogens and cellular proliferation/differentiation were highly affected by AGE formation. This may lead to a progressive decrease of the milk nutritional value, as it reduces the protein functional properties, abates the bioavailability of the essential amino acids and eventually affects food digestibility. These aspects

  8. Effect of production system (barn and free range) and slaughter age on some production traits of guinea fowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamak, U S; Sarica, M; Boz, M A; Ucar, A

    2018-01-01

    A total of 200 guinea fowl was reared in either barn or free-range systems and slaughtered at 14, 16, or 18 wk of age in order to determine the effects of production system on live weight, feed consumption, and some carcass and slaughter traits. Production system had a significant effect on live weight until 14 wk of age. Live weights were similar between free-range and indoor production systems at 16 (1,150 g vs. 1,152 g) and 18 (1,196 g vs. 1,203 g) wk of age. Guinea fowl reared in a free-range system consumed more feed (7,693 g vs. 6,983 g), and guinea fowl reared in a barn had better feed conversion ratio (5.80 vs. 6.43) (P free-range system had significantly less abdominal fat (P < 0.05). © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. Children Facial Expression Production: Influence of Age, Gender, Emotion Subtype, Elicitation Condition and Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charline Grossard

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The production of facial expressions (FEs is an important skill that allows children to share and adapt emotions with their relatives and peers during social interactions. These skills are impaired in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. However, the way in which typical children develop and master their production of FEs has still not been clearly assessed. This study aimed to explore factors that could influence the production of FEs in childhood such as age, gender, emotion subtype (sadness, anger, joy, and neutral, elicitation task (on request, imitation, area of recruitment (French Riviera and Parisian and emotion multimodality. A total of one hundred fifty-seven children aged 6–11 years were enrolled in Nice and Paris, France. We asked them to produce FEs in two different tasks: imitation with an avatar model and production on request without a model. Results from a multivariate analysis revealed that: (1 children performed better with age. (2 Positive emotions were easier to produce than negative emotions. (3 Children produced better FE on request (as opposed to imitation; and (4 Riviera children performed better than Parisian children suggesting regional influences on emotion production. We conclude that facial emotion production is a complex developmental process influenced by several factors that needs to be acknowledged in future research.

  10. Advanced glycation end products overload might explain intracellular cobalamin deficiency in renal dysfunction, diabetes and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Rima; Shannan, Batool; Herrmann, Wolfgang

    2011-11-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) contribute to aging. Cobalamin (Cbl) is required for cell growth and functions, and its deficiency causes serious complications. Diabetics and renal patients show high concentrations of Cbl, but metabolic evidence of Cbl deficiency that is reversible after Cbl treatment. Cbl might be sequestered in blood and cannot be delivered to the cell. Megalin mediates the uptake of transcobalamin-Cbl complex into the proximal tubule cells. Megalin is involved in the uptake and degradation of AGEs. In aging, diabetes or renal dysfunction, AGEs might overload megalin thus lowering Cbl uptake. Transcobalamin-Cbl might retain in blood. Shedding of megalin and transcobalamin receptor under glycation conditions is also a possible mechanism of this phenomenon. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) induce apoptosis of periodontal ligament fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D.X.; Deng, T.Z.; Lv, J.; Ke, J.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetics have an increased prevalence of periodontitis, and diabetes is one of the causative factors of severe periodontitis. Apoptosis is thought to be involved in this pathogenic relationship. The aim of this study was to investigate apoptosis in human periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts induced by advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE). We examined the roles of apoptosis, AGEs, and RAGE during periodontitis in diabetes mellitus using cultured PDL fibroblasts that were treated by AGE-modified bovine serum albumin (AGE-BSA), bovine serum albumin (BSA) alone, or given no treatment (control). Microscopy and real-time quantitative PCR indicated that PDL fibroblasts treated with AGE-BSA were deformed and expressed higher levels of RAGE and caspase 3. Cell viability assays and flow cytometry indicated that AGE-BSA reduced cell viability (69.80±5.50%, P<0.01) and increased apoptosis (11.31±1.73%, P<0.05). Hoechst 33258 staining and terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick-end labeling revealed that AGE-BSA significantly increased apoptosis of PDL fibroblasts. The results showed that the changes in PDL fibroblasts induced by AGE-BSA may explain how AGE-RAGE participates in and exacerbates periodontium destruction

  12. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) induce apoptosis of periodontal ligament fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, D.X.; Deng, T.Z.; Lv, J.; Ke, J. [Department of Stomatology, Air Force General Hospital PLA, Haidian District, Beijing (China)

    2014-09-19

    Diabetics have an increased prevalence of periodontitis, and diabetes is one of the causative factors of severe periodontitis. Apoptosis is thought to be involved in this pathogenic relationship. The aim of this study was to investigate apoptosis in human periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts induced by advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE). We examined the roles of apoptosis, AGEs, and RAGE during periodontitis in diabetes mellitus using cultured PDL fibroblasts that were treated by AGE-modified bovine serum albumin (AGE-BSA), bovine serum albumin (BSA) alone, or given no treatment (control). Microscopy and real-time quantitative PCR indicated that PDL fibroblasts treated with AGE-BSA were deformed and expressed higher levels of RAGE and caspase 3. Cell viability assays and flow cytometry indicated that AGE-BSA reduced cell viability (69.80±5.50%, P<0.01) and increased apoptosis (11.31±1.73%, P<0.05). Hoechst 33258 staining and terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick-end labeling revealed that AGE-BSA significantly increased apoptosis of PDL fibroblasts. The results showed that the changes in PDL fibroblasts induced by AGE-BSA may explain how AGE-RAGE participates in and exacerbates periodontium destruction.

  13. Effects of age and content of augmented feedback on learning an isometric force-production task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Henk; Mulder, Theo; Hermens, Hermie J.

    2007-01-01

    This study addressed the interaction between age and the informational content of feedback on learning an isometric force-production task. Healthy men and women (30 young adults: 20 to 35 years; 30 older adults: 55 to 70 years) were randomly assigned to a certain type of feedback: knowledge of

  14. Genetic characterization of egg weight, egg production and age at first egg in quails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marubayashi Hidalgo, A.; Martins, E.N.; Santos, A.L.; Quadros, T.C.O.; Ton, A.P.S.; Teixeira, R.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to estimate genetic parameters for the traits egg weight, egg production in 189 days and age at first egg in three laying quails and one meat line of quails. Data was analyzed by Bayesian procedures using Gibbs sampling. The heritability estimates for egg weight,

  15. Age and size effects on seed productivity of northern black spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. N. Viglas; C. D. Brown; J. F. Johnstone

    2013-01-01

    Slow-growing conifers of the northern boreal forest may require several decades to reach reproductive maturity, making them vulnerable to increases in disturbance frequency. Here, we examine the relationship between stand age and seed productivity of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.) in Yukon Territory and Alaska....

  16. Serum Antioxidative Enzymes Levels and Oxidative Stress Products in Age-Related Cataract Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the activity of antioxidative enzymes and the products of oxidative stress in patients with age-related cataracts and compare the findings with those in healthy control subjects. Method. Sixty patients with age-related cataract and sixty healthy controls of matched age and gender were included in this study. Serum samples were obtained to detect the antioxidative enzymes of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, and oxidation degradation products of malondialdehyde (MDA, 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE, conjugated diene (CD, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP, protein carbonyl (PC, and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG. Results. Serum SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT activities in cataract group were significantly decreased as compared to the control subjects (P<0.05. The levels of MDA, 4-HNE, and CD in cataract patients were significantly higher than those in the control subjects (P<0.05, P<0.01. Cataract patients had higher levels of 8-OHdG, AOPP, and PC with respect to the comparative group of normal subjects (P<0.01. And there was no statistical significance in concentration of antioxidative enzymes and oxidative stress products in patients with different subtype cataract. Conclusions. Oxidative stress is an important risk factor in the development of age-related cataract, and augmentation of the antioxidant defence systems may be of benefit to prevent or delay cataractogenesis.

  17. First-calving age and first-lactation milk production on Dutch dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohd Nor, N.; Steeneveld, W.; Werven, van T.; Mourits, M.C.M.; Hogeveen, H.

    2013-01-01

    Farmers attempting to reduce first-calving age (FCA) need to understand which rearing management factors influence FCA and first-lactation milk production (FLP). Reduced FCA might be associated with lower FLP. This study describes the association between herd FCA, FLP, and several herd-level health

  18. Pesticide and transformation product detections and age-dating relations from till and sand deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, K.L.; Morrow, W.S.

    2007-01-01

    Pesticide and transformation product concentrations and frequencies in ground water from areas of similar crop and pesticide applications may vary substantially with differing lithologies. Pesticide analysis data for atrazine, metolachlor, alachlor, acetochlor, and cyanazine and their pesticide transformation products were collected at 69 monitoring wells in Illinois and northern Indiana to document occurrence of pesticides and their transformation products in two agricultural areas of differing lithologies, till, and sand. The till is primarily tile drained and has preferential fractured flow, whereas the sand primarily has surface water drainage and primary porosity flow. Transformation products represent most of the agricultural pesticides in ground water regardless of aquifer material - till or sand. Transformation products were detected more frequently than parent pesticides in both the till and sand, with metolachlor ethane sulfonic acid being most frequently detected. Estimated ground-water recharge dates for the sand were based on chlorofluorocarbon analyses. These age-dating data indicate that ground water recharged prior to 1990 is more likely to have a detection of a pesticide or pesticide transformation product. Detections were twice as frequent in ground water recharged prior to 1990 (82%) than in ground water recharged on or after 1990 (33%). The highest concentrations of atrazine, alachlor, metolachlor, and their transformation products, also were detected in samples from ground water recharged prior to 1990. These age/pesticide detection relations are opposite of what would normally be expected, and may be the result of preferential flow and/or ground-water mixing between aquifers and aquitards as evident by the detection of acetochlor transformation products in samples with estimated ground-water ages predating initial pesticide application. ?? 2007 American Water Resources Association.

  19. Productivity Costs Associated With Breast Cancer Among Survivors Aged 18-44 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekwueme, Donatus U; Trogdon, Justin G; Khavjou, Olga A; Guy, Gery P

    2016-02-01

    No study has quantified productivity losses associated with breast cancer in younger women aged 18-44 years. This study estimated productivity costs, including work and home productivity losses, among younger women who reported ever receiving a breast cancer diagnosis. A two-part regression model and 2000-2010 National Health Interview Survey data were used to estimate the number of work and home productivity days missed because of breast cancer, adjusted for socioeconomic characteristics and comorbidities. Estimates for younger women were compared with those for women aged 45-64 years. Data were analyzed in 2013-2014. Per capita, younger women with breast cancer had annual losses of $2,293 (95% CI=$1,069, $3,518) from missed work and $442 (95% CI=$161, $723) from missed home productivity. Total annual breast cancer-associated productivity costs for younger women were $344 million (95% CI=$154 million, $535 million). Older women with breast cancer had lower per capita work loss productivity costs of $1,407 (95% CI=$899, $1,915) but higher total work loss productivity costs estimated at $1,072 million (95% CI=$685 million, $1,460 million) than younger women. Younger women with a history of breast cancer face a disproportionate share of work and home productivity losses. Although older women have lower per capita costs, total productivity costs were higher for older women because the number of older women with breast cancer is higher. The results underscore the importance of continued efforts by the public health community to promote and support the unique needs of younger breast cancer survivors. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Hormesis-based anti-aging products: a case study of a novel cosmetic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rattan, Suresh; Kryzch, Valerie; Schnebert, Sylvianne

    2013-01-01

    in reducing the age-related accumulation of molecular damage. For example, repeated heat stress-induced synthesis of heat shock proteins has been shown to have a variety of anti-aging effects on growth and other cellular and biochemical characteristics of normal human skin fibroblasts, keratinocytes...... and cosmeceuticals. Here we present the example of a skin care cosmetic as one of the first successful product developments incorporating the ideas of hormesis. This was based on the studies to analyse the molecular effects of active ingredients extracted from the roots of the Chinese herb Sanchi (Panax notoginseng...... and removal of abnormal proteins. Acceptance of such a hormesis-based product by the wider public could be instrumental in the social recognition of the concept of hormesis as the beneficial effects of mild stress of choice, and will encourage the development of novel health care products with physical...

  1. Pharmacologic Approaches Against Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) in Diabetic Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenna, Antonio; Nappi, Francesco; Avtaar Singh, Sanjeet Singh; Sutherland, Fraser W; Di Domenico, Fabio; Chello, Massimo; Spadaccio, Cristiano

    2015-05-01

    Advanced Glycation End-Products (AGEs) are signaling proteins associated to several vascular and neurological complications in diabetic and non-diabetic patients. AGEs proved to be a marker of negative outcome in both diabetes management and surgical procedures in these patients. The reported role of AGEs prompted the development of pharmacological inhibitors of their effects, giving rise to a number of both preclinical and clinical studies. Clinical trials with anti-AGEs drugs have been gradually developed and this review aimed to summarize most relevant reports. Evidence acquisition process was performed using PubMed and ClinicalTrials.gov with manually checked articles. Pharmacological approaches in humans include aminoguanidine, pyridoxamine, benfotiamine, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, statin, ALT-711 (alagebrium) and thiazolidinediones. The most recent promising anti-AGEs agents are statins, alagebrium and thiazolidinediones. The role of AGEs in disease and new compounds interfering with their effects are currently under investigation in preclinical settings and these newer anti-AGEs drugs would undergo clinical evaluation in the next years. Compounds with anti-AGEs activity but still not available for clinical scenarios are ALT-946, OPB-9195, tenilsetam, LR-90, TM2002, sRAGE and PEDF. Despite most studies confirm the efficacy of these pharmacological approaches, other reports produced conflicting evidences; in almost any case, these drugs were well tolerated. At present, AGEs measurement has still not taken a precise role in clinical practice, but its relevance as a marker of disease has been widely shown; therefore, it is important for clinicians to understand the value of new cardiovascular risk factors. Findings from the current and future clinical trials may help in determining the role of AGEs and the benefits of anti-AGEs treatment in cardiovascular disease.

  2. Effect of production system and flock age on eggshell and egg internal quality measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiullah, Sami; Omar, Amal Saleh; Roberts, Juliet; Chousalkar, Kapil

    2017-01-01

    Egg quality was measured in eggs from different flocks that were reared together and then allocated to different production systems. Eggs were processed for measurements of eggshell and egg internal quality variables, scoring of ultrastructural mammillary layer features, completeness of cuticle cover, and protoporphyrin IX (PP IX) quantification. There was a significant main effect (P egg weight, and egg internal quality and significant effects of flock age on most measurements. The mammillary layer ultrastructural variables showed no clear relationship with production system and flock age. However, there was a significant interaction between production system and flock age for mammillary cap, early and late fusions. Cuticle cover ([Formula: see text]), was significantly higher in barn eggs (19.20), followed by free range (17.57), and cage eggs (15.99). Completeness of cuticle cover was significantly higher in eggs from the 44 week old flock than for 64 week and 73 week old flocks. For eggshells with cuticle intact, there was a significant main effect of both production system and flock age, and significant interaction between the two, for shell reflectivity, L*a*b* values and amount of PP IX. For PP IX, when this difference was calculated for the cuticle alone, there were no statistically significant differences. In 1 g of shell with and without cuticle, there was more PP IX in cage eggs (9.49 × 10 -8 , 7.90 × 10 -8  mM) followed by free range (8.24 × 10 -8 , 6.90 × 10 -8  mM), and barn eggs (8.64 × 10 -8 , 7.28 × 10 -8  mM). Similar trends were recorded for the amount of PP IX in 1 g of cuticle, but the difference was not statistically significant. The amount of PP IX decreased significantly with increasing flock age. Comparing the cage and barn production systems at 68 week of flock age, there was no difference for the amount of PP IX in shell with or without cuticle, or in the cuticle alone. Eggs from the cage production system were darker in color

  3. Structural brain aging and speech production: a surface-based brain morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Pascale; Deschamps, Isabelle

    2016-07-01

    While there has been a growing number of studies examining the neurofunctional correlates of speech production over the past decade, the neurostructural correlates of this immensely important human behaviour remain less well understood, despite the fact that previous studies have established links between brain structure and behaviour, including speech and language. In the present study, we thus examined, for the first time, the relationship between surface-based cortical thickness (CT) and three different behavioural indexes of sublexical speech production: response duration, reaction times and articulatory accuracy, in healthy young and older adults during the production of simple and complex meaningless sequences of syllables (e.g., /pa-pa-pa/ vs. /pa-ta-ka/). The results show that each behavioural speech measure was sensitive to the complexity of the sequences, as indicated by slower reaction times, longer response durations and decreased articulatory accuracy in both groups for the complex sequences. Older adults produced longer speech responses, particularly during the production of complex sequence. Unique age-independent and age-dependent relationships between brain structure and each of these behavioural measures were found in several cortical and subcortical regions known for their involvement in speech production, including the bilateral anterior insula, the left primary motor area, the rostral supramarginal gyrus, the right inferior frontal sulcus, the bilateral putamen and caudate, and in some region less typically associated with speech production, such as the posterior cingulate cortex.

  4. The impact of major transformations of a production process on age-related accident risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blank, V L; Laflamme, L; Diderichsen, Finn

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a study of whether accident risks were equally distributed across age categories among a population of mining workers whose work activities were suspected to be age-impaired. The impairment factors in focus are the transformation of production technology during the 80s...... and consequent changes in job content. It was hypothesized that the combined effect of these factors might lead accident risks, both non-specific (aggregated) and specific (by kind), to increase with age. Accident risk ratios (ARRs), however, proved to be higher for younger workers than older ones, in both...... the non-specific and the specific cases. However, two accident patterns (specific risks) also show relatively high ARRs among workers in their 40s (and even 30s), results that might be explained by particular exposures and/or age-related performance problems. The findings suggest that technological...

  5. Age-related slowing of response selection and production in a visual choice reaction time task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Woods

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with delayed processing in choice reaction time (CRT tasks, but the processing stages most impacted by aging have not been clearly identified. Here, we analyzed CRT latencies in a computerized serial visual feature-conjunction task. Participants responded to a target letter (probability 40% by pressing one mouse button, and responded to distractor letters differing either in color, shape, or both features from the target (probabilities 20% each, by pressing the other mouse button. Stimuli were presented randomly to the left and right visual fields and stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs were adaptively reduced following correct responses using a staircase procedure. In Experiment 1, we tested 1466 participants who ranged in age from 18 to 65 years. CRT latencies increased significantly with age (r = 0.47, 2.80 ms/year. Central processing time (CPT, isolated by subtracting simple reaction times (obtained in a companion experiment performed on the same day from CRT latencies, accounted for more than 80% of age-related CRT slowing, with most of the remaining increase in latency due to slowed motor responses. Participants were faster and more accurate when the stimulus location was spatially compatible with the mouse button used for responding, and this effect increased slightly with age. Participants took longer to respond to distractors with target color or shape than to distractors with no target features. However, the additional time needed to discriminate the more target-like distractors did not increase with age. In Experiment 2, we replicated the findings of Experiment 1 in a second population of 178 participants (ages 18-82 years. CRT latencies did not differ significantly in the two experiments, and similar effects of age, distractor similarity, and stimulus-response spatial compatibility were found. The results suggest that the age-related slowing in visual CRT latencies is largely due to delays in response selection and

  6. Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adults? How can you reduce anesthesia risks in older patients? Age Age may bring wisdom but it also brings ... Ask your physician to conduct a pre-surgery cognitive test — an assessment of your mental function. The physician can use the results as a ...

  7. EFFECT OF AGING TIME TOWARD CRYSTALLINITY OF PRODUCTS IN SYNTHESIS OF MESOPOROUS SILICATES MCM-41

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyanta Suyanta

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Researches about the effects of aging time toward crystallinity of products in the synthesis of mesoporous silicates MCM-41 have been done. MCM-41 was synthesized by hydrothermal treatment to the mixture of sodium silicate, sodium hydroxide, cetyltrimetylammoniumbromide (CTMAB and aquadest in the molar ratio of 8Na2SiO3 : CTMAB : NaOH : 400H2O. Hydrothermal treatment was carried out at 110 °C in a teflon-lined stainless steel autoclave heated in the oven, with variation of aging time, i.e.: 4, 8, 12, 16, 24, 36, 48, and 72 h respectively. The solid phase were filtered, then washed with deionised water, and dried in the oven at 100 °C for 2 h. The surfactant CTMAB was removed by calcinations at 550 °C for 10 h with heating rate 2 °C/min. The as-synthesized and calcined powders were characterized by using FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction method. The relative crystallinity of products was evaluated based on the intensity of d100 peaks. The best product was characterized by using N2 physisorption method in order to determine the specific surface area, mean pore diameter, lattice parameter, and pore walls thickness. It was concluded that the relative crystallinity of the products was sensitively influenced by the aging time. The highest relative crystallinity was achieved when used 36 h of aging time in hydrothermal treatment. In this optimum condition the product has 946.607 m2g-1 of specific surface area, 3.357 nm of mean pore diameter, 4.533 nm of lattice parameter, and 1.176 nm of pore walls thickness.

  8. Quantitative analysis of production traits in saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus): II. age at slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isberg, S R; Thomson, P C; Nicholas, F W; Barker, S G; Moran, C

    2005-12-01

    Crocodile morphometric (head, snout-vent and total length) measurements were recorded at three stages during the production chain: hatching, inventory [average age (+/-SE) is 265.1 +/- 0.4 days] and slaughter (average age is 1037.8 +/- 0.4 days). Crocodile skins are used for the manufacture of exclusive leather products, with the most common-sized skin sold having 35-45 cm in belly width. One of the breeding objectives for inclusion into a multitrait genetic improvement programme for saltwater crocodiles is the time taken for a juvenile to reach this size or age at slaughter. A multivariate restricted maximum likelihood analysis provided (co)variance components for estimating the first published genetic parameter estimates for these traits. Heritability (+/-SE) estimates for the traits hatchling snout-vent length, inventory head length and age at slaughter were 0.60 (0.15), 0.59 (0.12) and 0.40 (0.10) respectively. There were strong negative genetic (-0.81 +/- 0.08) and phenotypic (-0.82 +/- 0.02) correlations between age at slaughter and inventory head length.

  9. Determination of the chromium concentration of phase decomposition products in an aged duplex stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwano, Hisashi; Imamasu, Hisanao

    2006-01-01

    A commercial duplex stainless steel has been aged at 673 K for up to 55,000 h. The aging results in the phase decomposition of the ferrite in duplex stainless steel. The end products of the phase decomposition are a Fe-rich and a Cr-rich phase. The chromium concentration of these phases is determined by measuring the hyperfine magnetic field and the isomer shift using Moessbauer effect. The experimental results are compared with a phase diagram calculated for Fe-Cr-Ni ternary system at 673 K.

  10. New commercial dairy products in the feeding of children aged 1 to 3 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Abramova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition is of particular importance in young children who are characterized by exceptionally high growth rates in conjunction with scare resources of nutrients in their body. The physiological features of infants suggest that this active life period in the child requires adequate attitude towards his nutrition that largely differs from that during the first year of life. The paper considers the issues of organizing the nutrition of children aged 1 to 3 years, by using commercial infant dairy products — new combined products — sterilized milk- and fruit-milk-based desserts and milk cocktails for infant feeding. 

  11. Aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Hideo; Kodama, Kazunori; Yamada, Michiko

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis that exposure to ionizing radiation accelerates the aging process has been actively investigated at ABCC-RERF since 1958, when longitudinal cohort studies of the Adult Health Study (AHS) and the Life Span Study (LSS) were initiated. In their 1975 overall review of aging studies related to the atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors, Finch and Beebe concluded that while most studies had shown no correlation between aging and radiation exposure, they had not involved the large numbers of subjects required to provide strong evidence for or against the hypothesis. Extending LSS mortality data up to 1978 did not alter the earlier conclusion that any observed life-shortening was associated primarily with cancer induction rather than with any nonspecific cause. The results of aging studies conducted during the intervening 15 years using data from the same populations are reviewed in the present paper. Using clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory techniques, a broad spectrum of aging parameters have been studied, such as postmortem morphological changes, tests of functional capacity, physical tests and measurements, laboratory tests, tissue changes, and morbidity. With respect to the aging process, the overall results have not been consistent and are generally thought to show no relation to radiation exposure. Although some preliminary results suggest a possible radiation-induced increase in atherosclerotic diseases and acceleration of aging in the T-cell-related immune system, further study is necessary to confirm these findings. In the future, applying the latest gerontological study techniques to data collected from subjects exposed 45 years ago to A-bomb radiation at relatively young ages will present a new body of data relevant to the study of late radiation effects. (author) 103 refs

  12. Aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, S.C.; Beebe, G.W.

    1975-01-01

    The hypothesis that ionizing radiation accelerates natural aging has been under investigation at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission since 1959. Postmortem observations of morphologic and chemical changes, tests of functional capacity, physical tests and measurements, clinical laboratory tests, tissue changes, morbidity, and mortality have all been examined by ABCC investigators interested in this hypothesis. These studies have been beset with conceptual difficulties centered on the definition and measurement of aging. An empirical approach early led to the calculation of an index of physiologic age as a linear combination of age-related tests of various organ systems. Most studies have been negative but have not involved the large numbers that might be required to provide strong evidence for or against the hypothesis. Mortality, however, has been examined on the basis of a large sample and over the period 1950-1972 had provided no support for the hypothesis of radiation-accelerated aging. Ionizing radiation dose, of course shorten human life, but its life-shortening effect appears to be the result of specific radiation-induced disease, especially neoplasms. The hypothesis is now much less attractive than it was 10-20 years ago but still has some value in stimulating research on aging. The experience of the A-bomb survivors provides an unusual opportunity for a definitive test of the hypothesis. (auth.)

  13. Comparison of Persian Simple Vowels Production in Cochlear Implanted Children Based on Implantation Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiman Zamani

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Age at implantation is one of the most important factors in improving speech and language skills in children with cochlear implants. Moreover, good vowel articulation is very important in the speech. So, the purpose of this research was to determine whether age at cochlear implantation influences the production of Persian simple vowels when cochlear implantation is undertaken below the age of 2 years as compared with cochlear implantation later in life. Materials & Methods: This research was a comparative and cross-sectional study. Based on inclusive and exclusive criteria (i.e., have physical and mental health, monolingual or bilingual, have 9±1 months post-surgery rehabilitation, no hearing handicapped parents and no medical problems history, 140 children who cochlear implanted in Amir-Alam and Hazrate Rasool hospital of Tehran city were selected by convenient sampling and assigned to two groups, children implanted under the age of 2 years and those implanted above the age of 2 years Also 238 normally hearing children were selected for control group by randomized sampling. The first and second formant frequency (F1 & F2 of the Persian simple vowels /i, e, æ, a, o, u/ were evaluated by the version of 1.2 of SFSwin software. Data were analyzed by Independent T test. Results: The findings indicated that there were significant differences between two groups in the mean of F2/i/ (P=0.046, F1/e/ (P=0.011, F2/e/ (P=0.005, F2/æ/ (P=0.039, F2/a/ (P=0.012, F2/o/ (P=0.012 and F2/u/ (P=0.006, but there was no significant difference between then in the mean of F1/i/, F1/æ/, F2/a/, F1/o/, F1/u/ (P>0.05. According to these results, no significant difference was seen between normal group and children who received their cochlear implants under the age of 2 years in the mean of variables (P>0.05. Conclusion: Observing significant differences in the quality of the production of Persian simple vowels between children implanted under the age of 2

  14. Accumulation of advanced glycation end (AGEs products in intensive care patients: an observational, prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rommes Johannes H

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress plays an important role in the course and eventual outcome in a majority of patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU. Markers to estimate oxidative stress are not readily available in a clinical setting. AGEs accumulation has been merely described in chronic conditions, but can also occur acutely due to oxidative stress. Since AGEs have emerged to be stable end products, these can be a marker of oxidative stress. Skin autofluorescence (AF is a validated marker of tissue content of AGEs. We hypothesized that AGEs accumulate acutely in ICU patients. Methods We performed an observational prospective study in a medical surgical ICU in a university affiliated teaching hospital. All consecutively admitted ICU patients in a 2 month period were included. Skin AF was measured using an AGE reader in 35 consecutive ICU patients > 18 yrs. As a comparison, historical data of a control group (n = 231 were used. These were also used to calculate age-adjusted AF-levels (AFadj. Values are expressed as median and interquartile range [P25-P75]. Differences between groups were tested by non parametric tests. P Results AFadj values were higher in ICU patients (0.33 [0.00 - 0.68] than in controls (-0.07 [-0.29 - 0.24]; P adj were observed between acute or planned admissions, or presence of sepsis, nor was skin AFadj related to severity of disease as estimated by APACHE-II score, length of ICU, hospital stay or mortality. Conclusion Acute AGE accumulation in ICU patients was shown in this study, although group size was small. This can possibly reflect oxidative stress in ICU patients. Further studies should reveal whether AGE-accumulation will be a useful parameter in ICU patients and whether skin AF has a predictive value for outcome, which was not shown in this small study.

  15. Influence of Kernel Age on Fumonisin B1 Production in Maize by Fusarium moniliforme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfield, Colleen Y.; Gilchrist, David G.

    1999-01-01

    Production of fumonisins by Fusarium moniliforme on naturally infected maize ears is an important food safety concern due to the toxic nature of this class of mycotoxins. Assessing the potential risk of fumonisin production in developing maize ears prior to harvest requires an understanding of the regulation of toxin biosynthesis during kernel maturation. We investigated the developmental-stage-dependent relationship between maize kernels and fumonisin B1 production by using kernels collected at the blister (R2), milk (R3), dough (R4), and dent (R5) stages following inoculation in culture at their respective field moisture contents with F. moniliforme. Highly significant differences (P ≤ 0.001) in fumonisin B1 production were found among kernels at the different developmental stages. The highest levels of fumonisin B1 were produced on the dent stage kernels, and the lowest levels were produced on the blister stage kernels. The differences in fumonisin B1 production among kernels at the different developmental stages remained significant (P ≤ 0.001) when the moisture contents of the kernels were adjusted to the same level prior to inoculation. We concluded that toxin production is affected by substrate composition as well as by moisture content. Our study also demonstrated that fumonisin B1 biosynthesis on maize kernels is influenced by factors which vary with the developmental age of the tissue. The risk of fumonisin contamination may begin early in maize ear development and increases as the kernels reach physiological maturity. PMID:10388675

  16. Ergonomics strategies and actions for achieving productive use of an ageing work-force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumashiro, M

    2000-07-01

    In this report, a basic ERGOMA (Ergonomics in Industrial Management) strategy is proposed as a policy for corporate production and employment in countries where ageing populations and reduced birth rates are imminent, and a strategy related to this is proposed. Specifically, as a strategy at the company level, the results of survey studies aimed at the development of methods for determining job capacity, to enable effective use of the labour of ageing workers, were summarized. A number of the insights gained here are steps in the development of a foundational methodology for practical use, and in actual practice a number of these insights must be subjected to measurements. However, the theory and newly developed methodology described here are thought to represent significant changes from the approaches to job capacity diagnosis and assessment published in the past and from the stance towards utilization of an ageing work-force. The author is confident that this represents new progress in one of the ergonomics approach to dealing with the working environment of ageing workers and an ageing work-force in general.

  17. Ageing-Associated Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Are Alleviated by Products from Grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Petersen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced age is associated with increased incidence of a variety of chronic disease states which share oxidative stress and inflammation as causative role players. Furthermore, data point to a role for both cumulative oxidative stress and low grade inflammation in the normal ageing process, independently of disease. Therefore, arguably the best route with which to address premature ageing, as well as age-associated diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and dementia, is preventative medicine aimed at modulation of these two responses, which are intricately interlinked. In this review, we provide a detailed account of the literature on the communication of these systems in the context of ageing, but with inclusion of relevant data obtained in other models. In doing so, we attempted to more clearly elucidate or identify the most probable cellular or molecular targets for preventative intervention. In addition, given the absence of a clear pharmaceutical solution in this context, together with the ever-increasing consumer bias for natural medicine, we provide an overview of the literature on grape (Vitis vinifera derived products, for which beneficial effects are consistently reported in the context of both oxidative stress and inflammation.

  18. Happiness and age in European adults: The moderating role of gross domestic product per capita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jessica; Robinson, Oliver; Thompson, Trevor

    2015-09-01

    Studies of happiness levels across the life span have found support for two rival hypotheses. The positivity effect states that as people get older, they increasingly attend to positive information, which implies that happiness remains stable or increases with age, whereas the U-shaped hypothesis posits a curvilinear shape resulting from a dip during midlife. Both have been presented as potentially universal hypotheses that relate to cognitive and/or biological causes. The current study examined the happiness-age relationship across 29 European nations (N = 46,301) to explore whether it is moderated by national wealth, as indexed by Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita. It was found that eudaimonic and hedonic happiness remained relatively stable across the life span only in the most affluent nations; in poorer nations, there was either a fluctuating or steady age-associated decline. These findings challenge the cultural universality of the happiness-age relationship and suggest that models of how age relates to happiness should include the socioeconomic level of analysis. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. PSEUDOAFFINITY CHROMATOGRAPHY ENRICHMENT OF GLYCATED PEPTIDES FOR MONITORING ADVANCED GLYCATION END PRODUCTS (AGES IN METABOLIC DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasekar R. Prasanna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Advanced Glycation End (AGE products are produced due to diabetic progression and they are responsible for many complications in the diabetic disorder. The diabetic progression is measured, particularly following glycated hemoglobin using specific antibodies. However, the most abundant protein in blood, human serum albumin, is also found to be glycated which has a much shorter half life and gives information on short term glycemic control. In addition, glycated albumins are considered as markers of diabetic complications such as nephropathy, peripheral vascular calcification and also in Alzheimer’s disease. The glycation proceeds from the interaction between aldehyde group of sugar and the free amino group of the protein, resulting in the formation of Schiff’s base, which undergoes a series of modifications leading to generation of imidazoyl derivatives of amino acids known as Amadori rearrangement products. The imidazoyl derivatives from arginine and lysine are the most prominent modifications observed in proteins in the presence of reducing sugar and these imidazoyl derivatives have an affinity towards certain transition metal ions. Based on our earlier exhaustive work on trapping the histidine peptides using transition metal ion, Cu(II linked to imino-diacetate complex, we explored Cu(II immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC as a potential tool for specific detection of glycated peptides of human serum albumin. Our results clearly demonstrate that Cu(II IMAC is able to detect glycated peptides very efficiently while the non-glycated forms were not retained on the Cu (II column as confirmed by LC-MS/MS analysis. We further discuss the utility of IMAC technology to enrich the detection of AGE products in plasma. We anticipate that these studies may provide valuable information on understanding disease pathologies and the potential of AGE products as biomarkers of various diseases including neurodegenerative, renal and

  20. Meat quality of "Galician Mountain" foals breed. Effect of sex, slaughter age and livestock production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Daniel; Rodríguez, Eva; Purriños, Laura; Crecente, Santiago; Bermúdez, Roberto; Lorenzo, José M

    2011-06-01

    The effects of sex, slaughter age (9 vs. 12 months) and livestock production system (freedom extensive system (FES) vs. semi extensive system (SES)) of "Galician Mountain" foals breed on meat quality from the Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle were investigated. Forty-two foals had been used for this study, 19 (11 females and 8 males) were reared in a semi extensive system and weaned three months prior to slaughtering (8 and 11 were slaughtered at 9 and 12 months, respectively) while the other 23 (11 females and 12 males) were reared together with its mothers in a system in freedom and were slaughtered at the age of 9 months. The obtained results showed that there were no significant differences between the sexes and the slaughter age whereas the livestock production system was a significant variation source on intramuscular fat content and meat tenderness because SES foals showed 51.6% more of IMF and the improved meat tenderness achieved a shear force of lean meat (20.5%) and heme-iron (1.62 mg/100g meat) comparable to veal meat. Furthermore, the meat samples showed a higher luminosity (L*>40), a very good water holding capacity, measured by cooking losses (<18.3%), and a tenderness less than 4 kg. Thus, it can be classified as "very tender" meat. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Unraveling the impact of workforce age diversity on labor productivity : The moderating role of firm size and job security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Meulenaere, Kim; Boone, Christophe; Buyl, T.P.L.

    Previous literature has suggested both positive and negative effects of age diversity on labor productivity: positive because of the potential knowledge complementarities between employees of different ages and negative because of the age-related value differences that might reduce cohesion and

  2. Role of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and oxidative stress in diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Sho-ichi; Ueda, Seiji; Matsui, Takanori; Nakamura, Kazuo; Okuda, Seiya

    2008-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a common and potentially devastating microvascular complication in diabetes and is a leading cause of acquired blindness among the people of occupational age. However, current therapeutic options for the treatment of sight-threatening proliferative diabetic retinopathy such as photocoagulation and vitrectomy are limited by considerable side effects and far from satisfactory. Therefore, to develop novel therapeutic strategies that specifically target diabetic retinopathy is actually desired for most of the patients with diabetes. Chronic hyperglycemia is a major initiator of diabetic retinopathy. However, recent clinical study has substantiated the concept of 'hyperglycemic memory' in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. Indeed, the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial-Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT-EDIC) Research, has revealed that the reduction in the risk of progressive retinopathy resulting from intensive therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes persisted for at least several years after the DCCT trial, despite increasing hyperglycemia. These findings suggest a long-term beneficial influence of early metabolic control on clinical outcomes in type 1 diabetic patients. Among various biochemical pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy, the process of formation and accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their mode of action are most compatible with the theory 'hyperglycemic memory'. Further, there is a growing body of evidence that AGEs-RAGE (receptor for AGEs) interaction-mediated oxidative stress generation plays an important role in diabetic retinopathy. This article summarizes the role of AGEs and oxidative stress in the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy and the therapeutic interventions that could prevent this devastating disorder. We also discuss here the pathological crosstalk between the AGEs-RAGE and the renin-angiotensin system in

  3. Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs acutely impair Ca2+ signalling in bovine aortic endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadim eNaser

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Post-translational modification of proteins in diabetes, including formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs are believed to contribute to vascular dysfunction and disease. Impaired function of the endothelium is an early indicator of vascular dysfunction in diabetes and as many endothelial cell processes are dependent upon intracellular [Ca2+] and Ca2+ signalling, the aim of this study was to examine the acute effects of AGEs on Ca2+ signalling in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC. Ca2+ signalling was studied using the fluorescent indicator dye Fura2-AM. AGEs were generated by incubating bovine serum albumin with 0 - 250 mM glucose or glucose-6-phosphate for 0 to 120 days at 37ºC. Under all conditions, the main AGE species generated was carboxymethyl lysine (CML as assayed using both GC-MS and HPLC. In Ca2+-replete solution, exposure of BAEC to AGEs for 5 min caused an elevation in basal [Ca2+] and attenuated the increase in intracellular [Ca2+] caused by ATP (100 µM. In the absence of extracellular Ca2+, exposure of BAEC to AGEs for 5 min caused an elevation in basal [Ca2+] and attenuated subsequent intracellular Ca2+ release caused by ATP, thapsigargin (0.1 µM and ionomycin (3 µM, but AGEs did not affect extracellular Ca2+ entry induced by the re-addition of Ca2+ to the bathing solution in the presence of any of these agents. The anti-oxidant α-lipoic acid (2 µM and NAD(PH oxidase inhibitors apocynin (500 µM and diphenyleneiodonium (DPI, 1 µM abolished these effects of AGEs on BAECs, as did the IP3 receptor antagonist xestospongin C (1 µM. In summary, AGEs caused an acute depletion of Ca2+ from the intracellular store in BAECs, such that the Ca2+ signal stimulated by the subsequent application other agents acting upon this store is reduced. The mechanism may involve generation of ROS from NAD(PH oxidase and possible activation of the IP3 receptor.

  4. Silver Entrepreneurship Agenda in Malaysia: A Proposed Model for Productive Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aizzat Mohd Nasurdin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at proposing a framework for productive aging among those aged 45-plus or retiree via entrepreneurial initiatives, known as ‘silver entrepreneurs’. Evidence has shown that the number of Malaysians aged population is estimated to be more than 1.4 million and is projected to increase to 3.3 million in the year 2020 (Mafauzy, 2000. It is acknowledged that a group of these will comprise of professionals who are aged 45-plus and retirees with relevant industry experience as well as knowledge and well-established networks built up over their working careers which will enable them to effectively identify entrepreneurial opportunities and secure resources efficiently to exploit them. However, there is little research on and understanding of what drives these ‘silver entrepreneurs’, with most of the research, focussed on entrepreneurial ventures started by 18-35 year-olds.  This means that policy-makers are ill-equipped to develop specific measures that will assist retirees into a second or sunset career in entrepreneurship.  This research aims to bridge the gap by assessing the profile and motivations of silver entrepreneurs in Malaysia with a specific focus on understanding the internal and external factors that affect their intentions to start new ventures as well as factors that affect the success and growth of these ventures. 

  5. THE EFFECT OF RESTRICTED FEEDING AND DIFFERENT OF SLAUGHTERING AGE ON PRODUCTION OF REX RABBIT PELT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Yurniati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to study the interaction between slaughter age and restricted feed, aswell as the influence of each factor on the production of rex rabbits pelt. Randomized Block Designwith Factorial was used in this experiment with the first factor was 3 levels of restricted feedingtreatment where the amount of feed as follow: P1= 100 % from the total feed requirement, P2 = 80%from total feed requirement and P3 = 60% from the total feed requirement. Feed was given in the amountof rabbits requirement, in which 100% of the total requirement was calculated based on body weight(6.7% of body weight in dry matter basis, and second factor was 3 levels of slaughter age (U1= 120 d,U2= 150 d, U3= 180 d and each treatment was repeated 6 times. The data were analyzed by Anova,and analyzing between the treatments used Contrast Orthogonal. The variable measured were peltproduction (weight pelt, width pelt, thickness dermis and epidermis of Rex rabbit. There was aninteraction betwen slaughtered age and the amount of feed given to Rex rabbits. Feeding 80% from thetotal feed requirement and the slaughtered age at 150 d were the most efficient in producing pelt of Rexrabbits, with weight 261.0 ± 30.33 g, width 928.0 ± 75.5 cm2, and epidermal thickness 32.50 ± 1.1μ,and dermis 2685.50 ± 15.0 μ.

  6. Productive characteristics of age-3 brood brown trout (Salmo trutta reared in the conditions industrial aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Haloyan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Study and analysis of productive and reproductive parameters of brood brown trout reared in the conditions of industrial aquaculture with the use of feeding with specialized artificial feeds. Methodology. Fish rearing was performed using a technology traditional for rainbow trout. Biological evaluation of fish was performed on live material according to the scheme developed by I.F. Pravdin (1966 for salmonids. Fish were anesthetized with “Propiscin”. Metric parameters were measured with the aid of a ruler and caliper. Fish weight was determined on electronic balances. Eggs were preserved in a 4% formalin solution, weight of individual eggs was determined with the aid of torsion balances, egg diameter with a caliper. The duration of spermatozoid motility in males was determined under a microscope under 10X40 magnification with the aid of a stopwatch, sperm concentration was determined in a Goriaev chamber. Multiple regression analysis was performed in JMP IN 4 (SAS Institute. The factor was considered significant if р <0.05. Findings. Brood brown trout reared on specialized artificial feeds had following productive parameters: mean body weight of age-3 fish was 458 g in males and 453 g in females. Mean working fecundity of age-3 fish as 1847 eggs, mean relative working fecundity was 3971 eggs, the mean qualitative parameters of which were: weight of 61.5 g, diameter of 74.7 mm. The reproductive characteristics of age-3 males was high – mean fecundity was 1391 million sperm cells, their motility was 35 sec. Originality. For the first time we reared a stock of brood brown trout in industrial conditions with the use of feeding with specialized artificial feeds. Practical value. The obtained results are a component of the development of a complex technology of salmonid fish rearing with an objective to broad the assortment of valuable gourmet products and to justify the measures on artificial reproduction of brown trout in rivers of

  7. Production of didactic toys to children aged 3–6 years

    OpenAIRE

    Fajdiga, Ani

    2013-01-01

    The motivation for writing my diploma thesis titled Production of didactic toys to children aged 3–6 years came during arts and crafts course at the faculty when I made some didactic toys and took them to the kindergarten. There I observed how children eagerly examined the toys and asked me lots of questions about them with curiosity. Since there are not many good toys with which the children can play in the kindergarten, a thought sprang to mind that the children could acquire new knowledge ...

  8. The low-AGE content of low-fat vegan diets could benefit diabetics - though concurrent taurine supplementation may be needed to minimize endogenous AGE production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Mark F

    2005-01-01

    Increased endogenous generation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) contributes importantly to the vascular complications of diabetes, in part owing to activation of the pro-inflammatory RAGE receptor. However, AGE-altered oligopeptides with RAGE-activating potential can also be absorbed from the diet, and indeed make a significant contribution to the plasma and tissue pool of AGEs; this contribution is especially prominent when compromised renal function impairs renal clearance of AGEs. Perhaps surprisingly, foods rich in both protein and fat, and cooked at high heat, tend to be the richest dietary sources of AGEs, whereas low-fat carbohydrate-rich foods tend to be relatively low in AGEs. Conceivably, this reflects the fact that the so-called "AGEs" in the diet are generated primarily, not by glycation reactions, but by interactions between oxidized lipids and protein; such reactions are known to give rise to certain prominent AGEs, such as epsilonN-carboxymethyl-lysine and methylglyoxal. Although roasted nuts and fried or broiled tofu are relatively high in AGEs, low-fat plant-derived foods, including boiled or baked beans, typically are low in AGEs. Thus, a low-AGE content may contribute to the many benefits conferred to diabetics by a genuinely low-fat vegan diet. Nonetheless, the plasma AGE content of healthy vegetarians has been reported to be higher than that of omnivores - suggesting that something about vegetarian diets may promote endogenous AGE production. Some researchers have proposed that the relatively high-fructose content of vegetarian diets may explain this phenomenon, but there so far is no clinical evidence that normal intakes of fructose have an important impact on AGE production. An alternative or additional possibility is that the relatively poor taurine status of vegetarians up-regulates the physiological role of myeloperoxidase-derived oxidants in the generation of AGEs - in which case, taurine supplementation might be expected to

  9. Comprehending product warning information: age-related effects and the roles of memory, inferencing, and knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Holly E; Fisk, Arthur D; Rogers, Wendy A

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine if age affects comprehension for explicit and implied warning information and, if so, to reveal the nature of such effects. Experiment 1 measured younger (18-23 years) and older (65-75 years) adults' comprehension for real-world warnings via a verification test presented immediately after reading the warnings or after a delay. In Experiment 2, younger (18-22 years) and older (64-76 years) participants also read fabricated warnings that were inconsistent with real-world knowledge. In both experiments, older adults frequently failed to infer the correct hazard and safety information. The older adults also had trouble understanding warning information even when it was explicitly stated (when no inferences were required), especially when memory demands were high and product-specific knowledge could not be used. That many of the older adults did not understand commonly used product warnings indicates that the wording on many household products is not conducive to being understood by everyone who uses them. Actual or potential applications of this research include the recommendation that designers of product labels, warnings, and instructions should consider minimizing memory load and maximizing opportunities for knowledge application when designing consumer warnings.

  10. Prosody Perception and Production in Children with Hearing Loss and Age- and Gender-Matched Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalathottukaren, Rose Thomas; Purdy, Suzanne C; Ballard, Elaine

    2017-04-01

    Auditory development in children with hearing loss, including the perception of prosody, depends on having adequate input from cochlear implants and/or hearing aids. Lack of adequate auditory stimulation can lead to delayed speech and language development. Nevertheless, prosody perception and production in people with hearing loss have received less attention than other aspects of language. The perception of auditory information conveyed through prosody using variations in the pitch, amplitude, and duration of speech is not usually evaluated clinically. This study (1) compared prosody perception and production abilities in children with hearing loss and children with normal hearing; and (2) investigated the effect of age, hearing level, and musicality on prosody perception. Participants were 16 children with hearing loss and 16 typically developing controls matched for age and gender. Fifteen of the children with hearing loss were tested while using amplification (n = 9 hearing aids, n = 6 cochlear implants). Six receptive subtests of the Profiling Elements of Prosody in Speech-Communication (PEPS-C), the Child Paralanguage subtest of Diagnostic Analysis of Nonverbal Accuracy 2 (DANVA 2), and Contour and Interval subtests of the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA) were used. Audio recordings of the children's reading samples were rated using a perceptual prosody rating scale by nine experienced listeners who were blinded to the children's hearing status. Thirty two children, 16 with hearing loss (mean age = 8.71 yr) and 16 age- and gender-matched typically developing children with normal hearing (mean age = 8.87 yr). Assessments were completed in one session lasting 1-2 hours in a quiet room. Test items were presented using a laptop computer through loudspeaker at a comfortable listening level. For children with hearing loss using hearing instruments, all tests were completed with hearing devices set at their everyday listening setting. All PEPS

  11. Electron-pair production in Pb - Au collisions at 40 AGeV

    CERN Document Server

    Damjanovic, Sanja

    2002-01-01

    This thesis contains the first experimental results on electron-pair production from the CERES/NA45 experiment at the CERN SPS after the upgrade with a Time Projection Chamber (TPC). The data were taken in late 1999 with a Pb-beam on a Au-target at a beam energy of 40 AGeV. Out of about 8 Million events with a 30$$ centrality selection, 249$pm$28 $e^{+}e^{-}$ pairs for masses $le$0.2 GeV/c$^{2}$ with a S/B ratio of 1/1, and 185$pm$48 $e^{+}e^{-}$ pairs for masses $>$0.2 GeV/c$^{2}$ with a S/B ratio of 1/6 were reconstructed. The low-mass sample agrees with the expectation from hadronic decays. The high-mass sample shows an excess of a factor of 5.1$pm$1.3(stat)$pm$1.0(syst) above that expectation, considerably more than the values around 2.5-3.5 observed before at the higher beam energy of 160 AGeV. The excess yield is dominantly associated with pair transverse momenta $<$0.5 GeV/c, consistent with the findings at 160 AGeV. The theoretical relevance of the results is discussed in some detail. The dilepton ...

  12. An advanced glycation endproduct (AGE)-rich diet promotes accumulation of AGEs in Achilles tendon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Dorthe; Svensson, Rene B; Scheijen, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs) accumulate in long-lived tissue proteins like collagen in bone and tendon causing modification of the biomechanical properties. This has been hypothesized to raise the risk of orthopedic injury such as bone fractures and tendon ruptures. We evaluated the rela......Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs) accumulate in long-lived tissue proteins like collagen in bone and tendon causing modification of the biomechanical properties. This has been hypothesized to raise the risk of orthopedic injury such as bone fractures and tendon ruptures. We evaluated...... the relationship between AGE content in the diet and accumulation of AGEs in weight-bearing animal Achilles tendon. Two groups of mice (C57BL/6Ntac) were fed with either high-fat diet low in AGEs high-fat diet (HFD) (n = 14) or normal diet high in AGEs (ND) (n = 11). AGE content in ND was six to 50-fold higher...... than HFD The mice were sacrificed at week 40 and Achilles and tail tendons were carefully excised to compare weight and nonweight-bearing tendons. The amount of the AGEs carboxymethyllysine (CML), methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone (MG-H1) and carboxyethyllysine (CEL) in Achilles and tail tendon...

  13. Sensitivity analysis in a life cycle assessment of an aged red wine production from Catalonia, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneses, M., E-mail: montse.meneses@uab.cat [Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Systems Engineering and Telecomunication Department, ESE, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Torres, C.M.; Castells, F. [Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Departament d' Enginyeria Química, Environmental Analysis and Management Group, AGA, Av. Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain)

    2016-08-15

    Sustainability in agriculture and food processing is an issue with a clear growing interest; especially in products were consumers have particular awareness regarding its environmental profile. This is the case of wine industry depending on grape production, winemaking and bottling. Also viticulture and generally agricultural production is significantly affected by climate variations. The aim of this article is to determine the environmental load of an aged red wine from a winery in Catalonia, Spain, over its entire life cycle, including sensitivity analysis of the main parameters related to the cultivation, vinification and bottling. The life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology is used for the environmental analysis. In a first step, life cycle inventory (LCI) data were collected by questionnaires and interviews with the winemaker, all data are actual operating data and all the stages involved in the production have been taken into account (viticulture, vinification, bottling and the disposal subsystem). Data were then used to determine the environmental profile by a life cycle impact assessment using the ReCiPe method. Annual variability in environmental performance, stresses the importance of including timeline analysis in the wine sector. Because of that this study is accompanied with a sensitivity analysis carried out by a Monte Carlo simulation that takes into account the uncertainty and variability of the parameters used. In this manner, the results are presented with confidence intervals to provide a wider view of the environmental issues derived from the activities of the studied wine estate regardless of the eventualities of a specific harvesting year. Since the beverage packaging has an important influence in this case, a dataset for the production of green glass was adapted to reflect the actual recycling situation in Spain. Furthermore, a hypothetical variation of the glass-recycling rate in the glass production completes this article, as a key variable

  14. Sensitivity analysis in a life cycle assessment of an aged red wine production from Catalonia, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneses, M.; Torres, C.M.; Castells, F.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainability in agriculture and food processing is an issue with a clear growing interest; especially in products were consumers have particular awareness regarding its environmental profile. This is the case of wine industry depending on grape production, winemaking and bottling. Also viticulture and generally agricultural production is significantly affected by climate variations. The aim of this article is to determine the environmental load of an aged red wine from a winery in Catalonia, Spain, over its entire life cycle, including sensitivity analysis of the main parameters related to the cultivation, vinification and bottling. The life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology is used for the environmental analysis. In a first step, life cycle inventory (LCI) data were collected by questionnaires and interviews with the winemaker, all data are actual operating data and all the stages involved in the production have been taken into account (viticulture, vinification, bottling and the disposal subsystem). Data were then used to determine the environmental profile by a life cycle impact assessment using the ReCiPe method. Annual variability in environmental performance, stresses the importance of including timeline analysis in the wine sector. Because of that this study is accompanied with a sensitivity analysis carried out by a Monte Carlo simulation that takes into account the uncertainty and variability of the parameters used. In this manner, the results are presented with confidence intervals to provide a wider view of the environmental issues derived from the activities of the studied wine estate regardless of the eventualities of a specific harvesting year. Since the beverage packaging has an important influence in this case, a dataset for the production of green glass was adapted to reflect the actual recycling situation in Spain. Furthermore, a hypothetical variation of the glass-recycling rate in the glass production completes this article, as a key variable

  15. A comparison of average wages with age-specific wages for assessing indirect productivity losses: analytic simplicity versus analytic precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Mark P; Tashjian, Cole; Kotsopoulos, Nikolaos; Bhatt, Aomesh; Postma, Maarten J

    2017-07-01

    Numerous approaches are used to estimate indirect productivity losses using various wage estimates applied to poor health in working aged adults. Considering the different wage estimation approaches observed in the published literature, we sought to assess variation in productivity loss estimates when using average wages compared with age-specific wages. Published estimates for average and age-specific wages for combined male/female wages were obtained from the UK Office of National Statistics. A polynomial interpolation was used to convert 5-year age-banded wage data into annual age-specific wages estimates. To compare indirect cost estimates, average wages and age-specific wages were used to project productivity losses at various stages of life based on the human capital approach. Discount rates of 0, 3, and 6 % were applied to projected age-specific and average wage losses. Using average wages was found to overestimate lifetime wages in conditions afflicting those aged 1-27 and 57-67, while underestimating lifetime wages in those aged 27-57. The difference was most significant for children where average wage overestimated wages by 15 % and for 40-year-olds where it underestimated wages by 14 %. Large differences in projecting productivity losses exist when using the average wage applied over a lifetime. Specifically, use of average wages overestimates productivity losses between 8 and 15 % for childhood illnesses. Furthermore, during prime working years, use of average wages will underestimate productivity losses by 14 %. We suggest that to achieve more precise estimates of productivity losses, age-specific wages should become the standard analytic approach.

  16. Age, overtime, and employee health, safety and productivity outcomes: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Harris; Woock, Christopher; Barrington, Linda; Bunn, William

    2008-08-01

    To expand a study of the impact of overtime on employee health, safety, and productivity outcomes, previously reported in this journal, with tests comparing older versus younger workers on these relationships. Secondary analyses of a longitudinal panel (n = 2746) representing workers at US sites for a heavy manufacturer during 2001 to 2002. Structural equation techniques were used to assess two hypotheses in the context of multiple group models positing the prediction of a broad set of employee outcomes using a three-step causal sequence. One set of models compared overtime impact for three age groups (increases were largely confined to hourly employees working extended overtime (averaging 60+ hours per week) and occurred on only four of the nine study outcomes. With respect to moderate overtime (48.01 to 59.99 hours) and to variables reflecting the possible impact of past overtime (eg, prior disability episodes), increases in age among hourly employees did not lead to stronger associations between overtime and adverse outcomes on most tests and in fact in many cases were linked to decrements in these associations (hypothesis #2). Salaried employees recorded no greater linkages between overtime and adverse outcomes with advancing age across all tests involving hypothesized overtime effects or "possibly a function of overtime" effects. The results support the proposition that, when employees work overtime, adverse outcomes--and indirect costs--do not increase with advancing age in any kind of wholesale fashion. Where rates of adverse outcomes do increase, they are confined to certain subgroups of employees doing certain types of work and occur on certain dimensions at certain levels of longer work hours. It is argued that carefully calibrated approaches vis-à-vis older workers are needed to maximize employer capacity to address the unique challenges posed by this increasingly important portion of the workforce.

  17. The production of direct object clitics in pre-school- and primary school-aged children with specific language impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guasti, Maria Teresa; Palma, Silvia; Genovese, Elisabetta; Stagi, Paolo; Saladini, Gabriella; Arosio, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Third-person direct object (DO) clitic pronoun production is examined through an elicited production method in pre-school- and primary school-aged groups of Italian children with specific language impairment (SLI) to establish whether there is an improvement from age 5 years to age 7 years and whether there are qualitative differences in the two groups' responses. It was found that 5- and 7-year-old Italian children with SLI produce fewer third-person DO clitics than same-age peers. The kind of responses they provide changes: at 5 years, children with SLI tend to omit clitics, while at 7 years, they use a full noun. Production of third-person DO clitics is a persistent challenge for children with SLI and is confirmed to be a good clinical marker both at 5 and 7 years of age.

  18. Renewable products, towards a new golden age of plants?; Produits renouvelables, vers un nouvel age d'or du vegetal?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Our industrial civilization was built on the use of fossil materials. It has only 3 centuries of existence, but the use of these non-renewable resources will necessary come to an end in a near future. However alternate ways already exist through the use of biomass-derived products. These proceedings summarize the main discussions that took place during the different round tables of this colloquium. The first round table makes a status of the shortage of fossil energy reserves and of the new challenges and solutions offered by plants and bio-energies. The second round table presents the reality of the market, products and consumption of todays renewable vegetal resources (environmental advantages, economic aspect and competitiveness of markets). The last round table deals with the role of governments in the political sustain of renewable vegetal products development (genetic research, financial aspects, incentives, competition with food agriculture). (J.S.)

  19. Early age shrinkage pattern of concrete on replacement of fine aggregate with industrial by-product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Mishra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This is an experimental work carried out to investigate early age shrinkage pattern of concrete, prepared, on 50% replacement of industrial by-product (like pond ash and granulated blast furnace slag as fine aggregate using OPC, PPC and PSC as a binder. This is to observe the effect of pond ash and slag as they are having some cementitious properties and effect of cement type is also discussed. All the mixes were prepared keeping in view of pumpable concrete without any super plasticizers. Higher shrinkage value indicates the presence of more bleed water or internal moisture. It is concluded that slag is the best option for fine aggregate replacement for concrete making and durable structure.

  20. Accumulation of Advanced Glycation End Products as a Molecular Mechanism for Aging as a Risk Factor in Osteoarthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J. de; Verzijl, N.; Wenting-Wijk, M.J.G. van; Jacobs, K.M.G.; El, B. van; Roermund, P.M. van; Bank, R.A.; Bijlsma, J.W.J.; TeKoppele, J.M.; Lafeber, F.P.J.G.

    2004-01-01

    Objective. Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most prevalent and disabling chronic conditions affecting the elderly. Its etiology is largely unknown, but age is the most prominent risk factor. The current study was designed to test whether accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which

  1. Chemical Characterization of Beer Aging Products Derived from Hard Resin Components in Hops (Humulus lupulus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Yoshimasa; Yamada, Makiko; Taniguchi, Harumi; Matsukura, Yasuko; Shindo, Kazutoshi

    2015-11-25

    The bitter taste of beer originates from resins in hops (Humulus lupulus L.), which are classified into two subtypes (soft and hard). Whereas the nature and reactivity of soft-resin-derived compounds, such as α-, β-, and iso-α-acids, are well studied, there is only a little information on the compounds in hard resin. For this work, hard resin was prepared from stored hops and investigated for its compositional changes in an experimental model of beer aging. The hard resin contained a series of α-acid oxides. Among them, 4'-hydroxyallohumulinones were unstable under beer storage conditions, and their transformation induced primary compositional changes of the hard resin during beer aging. The chemical structures of the products, including novel polycyclic compounds scorpiohumulinols A and B and dicyclohumulinols A and B, were determined by HRMS and NMR analyses. These compounds were proposed to be produced via proton-catalyzed cyclization reactions of 4'-hydroxyallohumulinones. Furthermore, they were more stable than their precursor 4'-hydroxyallohumulinones during prolonged storage periods.

  2. Neutron activation analysis of Lerna ceramics (Greece) at Early Bronze Age: local production and trade exchanges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attas, M.

    1980-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis is a powerful tool for determining the provenance of ancient ceramics. A sophisticated analytical system for gamma-ray spectrometry, designed specifically for the chemical analysis of ceramics by thermal neutron activation, was used to determine the concentrations of twenty elements in samples of ancient pottery. The measurements were made relative to the standard pottery of Perlman and Asaro. The purpose of the work was to study the production of fine pottery at the settlement of Lerna, in the Argolid of Greece, during the Early Bronze Age (third millennium BC). About half of the 50 samples analysed formed the major compositional group, which was attributed to Lerna. It included, besides the majority of the samples from the second phase of the Early Bronze Age (Lerna III), several samples from the third phase (Lerna IV); that is, from levels immediately succeeding the great destruction which marks the end of the Lerna III settlement. A small number of objects forms a second group of local origin and includes 4 of the 5 clay sealings sampled. Among the archaeologically unusual objects, several could be attributed to Lerna, while others were characterized as imports [fr

  3. Forest stand structure, productivity, and age mediate climatic effects on aspen decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David M.; Bradford, John B.; Lauenroth, William K.

    2014-01-01

    Because forest stand structure, age, and productivity can mediate the impacts of climate on quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) mortality, ignoring stand-scale factors limits inference on the drivers of recent sudden aspen decline. Using the proportion of aspen trees that were dead as an index of recent mortality at 841 forest inventory plots, we examined the relationship of this mortality index to forest structure and climate in the Rocky Mountains and Intermountain Western United States. We found that forest structure explained most of the patterns in mortality indices, but that variation in growing-season vapor pressure deficit and winter precipitation over the last 20 years was important. Mortality index sensitivity to precipitation was highest in forests where aspen exhibited high densities, relative basal areas, quadratic mean diameters, and productivities, whereas sensitivity to vapor pressure deficit was highest in young forest stands. These results indicate that the effects of drought on mortality may be mediated by forest stand development, competition with encroaching conifers, and physiological vulnerabilities of large trees to drought. By examining mortality index responses to both forest structure and climate, we show that forest succession cannot be ignored in studies attempting to understand the causes and consequences of sudden aspen decline.

  4. Cloud condensation nucleation activities of calcium carbonate and its atmospheric ageing products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, M J; Whitehead, J; Davidson, N M; Pope, F D; Alfarra, M R; McFiggans, G; Kalberer, M

    2015-12-28

    Aerosol particles can serve as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) to form cloud droplets, and its composition is a main factor governing whether an aerosol particle is an effective CCN. Pure mineral dust particles are poor CCN; however, changes in chemical composition of mineral dust aerosol particles, due to heterogeneous reactions with reactive trace gases in the troposphere, can modify their CCN properties. In this study we investigated the CCN activities of CaCO3 (as a surrogate for mineral dust) and its six atmospheric ageing products: Ca(NO3)2, CaCl2, CaSO4, Ca(CH3SO3)2, Ca(HCOO)2, and Ca(CH3COO)2. CaCO3 has a very low CCN activity with a hygroscopicity parameter (κ) of 0.001-0.003. The CCN activities of its potential atmospheric ageing products are significantly higher. For example, we determined that Ca(NO3)2, CaCl2 and Ca(HCOO)2 have κ values of ∼0.50, similar to that of (NH4)2SO4. Ca(CH3COO)2 has slightly lower CCN activity with a κ value of ∼0.40, and the κ value of CaSO4 is around 0.02. We further show that exposure of CaCO3 particles to N2O5 at 0% relative humidity (RH) significantly enhances their CCN activity, with κ values increasing to around 0.02-0.04. Within the experimental uncertainties, it appears that the variation in exposure to N2O5 from ∼550 to 15,000 ppbv s does not change the CCN activities of aged CaCO3 particles. This observation indicates that the CaCO3 surface may be already saturated at the shortest exposure. We also discussed the atmospheric implications of our study, and suggested that the rate of change in CCN activities of mineral dust particles in the troposphere is important to determine their roles in cloud formation.

  5. A comparison of average wages with age-specific wages for assessing indirect productivity losses : Analytic simplicity versus analytic precision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Connolly, Mark P; Tashjian, Cole; Kotsopoulos, Nikolaos; Bhatt, Aomesh; Postma, Maarten J

    Objectives: Numerous approaches are used to estimate indirect productivity losses using various wage estimates applied to poor health in working aged adults. Considering the different wage estimation approaches observed in the published literature, we sought to assess variation in productivity loss

  6. Production and Composition of Dissolved Black Carbon from Various Biochars and Environmentally-aged Charcoals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostick, K. W.; Zimmerman, A. R.; Hatcher, P.; Mitra, S.; Wozniak, A. S.

    2016-12-01

    Pyrogenic organic matter, or black carbon (BC), is the solid carbonaceous product of biomass pyrolysis. While solid BC represents a long-lived portion of the C cycle, it releases pyrogenic dissolved organic matter (py-DOM) which may be more susceptible to mineralization and transformation. This py-DOM may impact environmental and public health and likely controls exchange between terrestrial and aquatic BC pools. Benzene polycarboxylic acids (BPCAs), produced by acid digestion of samples, are used as molecular markers for pyrogenic organic matter. Yet, we currently have a poor understanding of the controls on the production of py-DOM and its yield of BPCA compounds. In response, aqueous leaching time series experiments were carried out using a series of laboratory-made biochars and environmentally-aged charcoals. While non-charred oak biomass released 31.8 mg C/g (45% C loss), oak biochars prepared at low temperatures (250 and 400ºC), produced 9.9 and 2.6 mg C/g (11 and 2.3% C loss), respectively. Oak chars prepared at a higher temperatures (650ºC) leached only 1.85 mg C/g (1.5% C loss). In contrast, an environmentally-aged charcoal (30 y old cypress charcoal) leached 10.9% of its C. On average, 59% (ranging 38-80%) of oak pyrogenic DOC was converted into BPCAs, suggesting that oak py-DOM has a variably condensed aromatic proportion. However, much less BPCAs were generated by BC parent solids. In addition, trace amounts of BPCA were generated from non-pyrolyzed grass, oak wood, and compost leachates; these lend concern to the use of BPCAs as exclusive pyrogenic molecular markers. As expected, BPCA molecular distribution showed that condensation increased with pyrolysis temperature of solid biochars and their corresponding leachates. The comparison of these findings to 13C and 1H NMR spectra of charcoal parent solids and their leachates will further elucidate the chemistry and production mechanisms of py-DOM.

  7. Age-related macular degeneration and modification of systemic complement factor H production through liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandhadia, Samir; Hakobyan, Svetlana; Heng, Ling Z; Gibson, Jane; Adams, David H; Alexander, Graeme J; Gibson, Jonathan M; Martin, Keith R; Menon, Geeta; Nash, Kathryn; Sivaprasad, Sobha; Ennis, Sarah; Cree, Angela J; Morgan, B Paul; Lotery, Andrew J

    2013-08-01

    To investigate whether modification of liver complement factor H (CFH) production, by alteration of liver CFH Y402H genotype through liver transplantation (LT), influences the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Multicenter, cross-sectional study. We recruited 223 Western European patients ≥ 55 years old who had undergone LT ≥ 5 years previously. We determined AMD status using a standard grading system. Recipient CFH Y402H genotype was obtained from DNA extracted from recipient blood samples. Donor CFH Y402H genotype was inferred from recipient plasma CFH Y402H protein allotype, measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. This approach was verified by genotyping donor tissue from a subgroup of patients. Systemic complement activity was ascertained by measuring levels of plasma complement proteins using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, including substrates (C3, C4), activation products (C3a, C4a, and terminal complement complex), and regulators (total CFH, C1 inhibitor). We evaluated AMD status and recipient and donor CFH Y402H genotype. In LT patients, AMD was associated with recipient CFH Y402H genotype (P = 0.036; odds ratio [OR], 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-2.4) but not with donor CFH Y402H genotype (P = 0.626), after controlling for age, sex, smoking status, and body mass index. Recipient plasma CFH Y402H protein allotype predicted donor CFH Y402H genotype with 100% accuracy (n = 49). Plasma complement protein or activation product levels were similar in LT patients with and without AMD. Compared with previously reported prevalence figures (Rotterdam Study), LT patients demonstrated a high prevalence of both AMD (64.6% vs 37.1%; OR, 3.09; Pproduction. In addition, AMD is not associated with systemic complement activity in LT patients. These findings suggest that local intraocular complement activity is of greater importance in AMD pathogenesis. The high AMD prevalence observed in LT patients may be associated with

  8. Sensitivity analysis in a life cycle assessment of an aged red wine production from Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, M; Torres, C M; Castells, F

    2016-08-15

    Sustainability in agriculture and food processing is an issue with a clear growing interest; especially in products were consumers have particular awareness regarding its environmental profile. This is the case of wine industry depending on grape production, winemaking and bottling. Also viticulture and generally agricultural production is significantly affected by climate variations. The aim of this article is to determine the environmental load of an aged red wine from a winery in Catalonia, Spain, over its entire life cycle, including sensitivity analysis of the main parameters related to the cultivation, vinification and bottling. The life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology is used for the environmental analysis. In a first step, life cycle inventory (LCI) data were collected by questionnaires and interviews with the winemaker, all data are actual operating data and all the stages involved in the production have been taken into account (viticulture, vinification, bottling and the disposal subsystem). Data were then used to determine the environmental profile by a life cycle impact assessment using the ReCiPe method. Annual variability in environmental performance, stresses the importance of including timeline analysis in the wine sector. Because of that this study is accompanied with a sensitivity analysis carried out by a Monte Carlo simulation that takes into account the uncertainty and variability of the parameters used. In this manner, the results are presented with confidence intervals to provide a wider view of the environmental issues derived from the activities of the studied wine estate regardless of the eventualities of a specific harvesting year. Since the beverage packaging has an important influence in this case, a dataset for the production of green glass was adapted to reflect the actual recycling situation in Spain. Furthermore, a hypothetical variation of the glass-recycling rate in the glass production completes this article, as a key variable

  9. Productivity losses attributable to untreated chlamydial infection and associated pelvic inflammatory disease in reproductive-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandford, John M; Gift, Thomas L

    2006-10-01

    The productivity losses attributable to disease-related morbidity and mortality impose a burden on society in general and on employers in particular. A reliable assessment of the productivity losses associated with untreated infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) would complement earlier work on direct medical costs and contribute to an estimate of the full cost of chlamydial disease. The goal of this study was to estimate the discounted lifetime productivity losses attributable to untreated chlamydial infection in reproductive-aged women. We developed a cost model using Monte Carlo methods to estimate the lifetime discounted productivity losses attributable to untreated lower genital tract Ct infection among reproductive-aged women. The model considered the impact of disability resulting from acute pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) associated with untreated Ct infection and from the sequelae of acute PID, including chronic pelvic pain, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility. To accommodate disparate Ct infection rates and labor market characteristics across age groups, we matched age-based risk factors for Ct infection with labor market patterns. Data sources included the 2001 National Chlamydia Surveillance Data, the 2001 Current Population Survey, and published literature. Estimates indicate that the mean weighted productivity losses per untreated Ct infection were approximately US dollars 130 (in year 2001 dollars). Mean weighted productivity losses per case of acute PID were estimated at US dollars 649. Estimated productivity losses were highly correlated with age, reflecting age-dependent differences in labor market characteristics. The productivity losses attributable to untreated infection with Ct and to sequelae of this infection form a substantial portion of the total economic burden of disease. Effective programs to prevent chlamydial infection and effective screening, diagnosis, and treatment of Ct-infected women may reduce productivity losses and

  10. Assessing variation in skeletal production from surface death assemblages on the basis of age-frequency distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasovych, Adam; Kidwell, Susan M.; Foygel Barber, Rina

    2015-04-01

    Age-frequency distributions of dead skeletal material that capture information on the elapsed time since death of individuals on the landscape or seabed provide decadal- to millennial-scale windows into the history of production and on the processes that lead to skeletal disintegration and burial. However, models quantifying the dynamics of skeletal loss assumed that skeletal production has been constant during accumulation of death assemblages. Here, we assess the joint effects of temporally-variable production and skeletal loss on the shape of postmortem age-frequency distributions. We show that the modes of such distributions will tend to be shifted to younger age cohorts relative to the true timing of past production pulses. This shift in the timing of a past production will be higher where loss rates are high and/or the rate of decline in production is slow. We apply the models combining the dynamic of loss and production to death assemblages with the deposit-feeding bivalve Nuculana taphria from the Southern California continental shelf, finding that (1) an onshore-offshore gradient in time averaging is dominated by a gradient in the timing of production, corresponding to the tracking of shallow-water habitats under a sea-level rise, and (2) model estimates of the timing of past production are in good agreement with an independent sea-level curve.

  11. Regional models of metal production in Western Asia in the Chalcolithic, Early and Middle Bronze Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avilova, Liudmila

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is the reconstruction and comparative analysis of regional models of metal production in the Chalcolithic, Early and Middle Bronze Ages. The work is based on the statistical analysis of unique computer database on archaeological metal finds from four regions of the Near East: Anatolia, Mesopotamia, the Levant, and Iran. The materials are analysed by four indicators: distribution by the chronological periods, artefacts’ function, proportion of used metals and copper- based alloys. The author presents a series of conclusions concerning the preconditions for the beginnings of metal production in Western Asia and the pioneering role of Iran in its emergence, the important role the piedmont territories played in the development of metal production, the leap-like pattern of production dynamics shown by the periods, and its relation to the spread of a producing economy, long-distance exchange, and the emergence of the early civilizations.

    El objetivo de este trabajo es la reconstrucción y análisis comparativo de modelos regionales de producción metalúrgica del Calcolítico y la Edad del Bronce Inicial y Media. Se basa en el análisis estadístico de una base de datos única sobre hallazgos metálicos de cuatro regiones del Próximo Oriente: Anatolia, Mesopotamia, el Levante e Irán. Los materiales se analizan atendiendo a cuatro variables: períodos cronológicos, función de los artefactos, proporción de los metales usados y las distintas aleaciones del cobre. La autora aporta una serie de conclusiones respecto a las precondiciones para los inicios de la producción metalúrgica en el Oeste Asiático; sobre el papel pionero de Irán en su aparición; la importancia de los piedemontes en su desarrollo; el patrón no continuo que se observa en las dinámicas de producción por periodos; y su relación con la expansión de la economía de producción, el intercambio a larga distancia y la aparición de las

  12. Studies for Improving Productive Efficiency and Immune System Response of Aged Female Japanese Quail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabek, E.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was performed in animal house Nuclear Research Center-Atomic Energy Authority at Inshas. The objective of this study was to overcome decrease productive efficiency and immune system response as a result of advanced of female Japanese quail (Coturnix Coturnix japonica) and multiple the production period of females studying the effect of three methods of force rest and their effect on physiological and endocrinological changes associated with each of procedure used. Three hundred birds were used, 240 female and 120 males (50 weeks of age). Females were at 44% hen day (HD) egg production. The birds randomly divided into four groups, 60 females and 30 males in each treatment which divided into three replicate of 20 females and 10 males in each. The first group was fed a layer diet, plus 2% zinc oxide (20,000 ppm) for 14 days. The second group was fed a commercial layer diet containing 8 mg / birds / day tamoxifen for 14 days. The third group was force molted by the California method (fed withdrawal by removing the diet 10 days then feed for 7 days corn). The fourth group fed the layer diet and served as the control. The results obtained showed significant increase in body weight, egg production, egg weight, shell weight, hatchability percent, fertility percent, embryonic mortality percent, hatching weight percent mortality percent, carcass relative weight, kidney relative weight, intestine relative weight, intestine length, proventriculus relative weight, ovary relative weight, oviduct relative weight, oviduct length, femur breaking strength, tibia breaking strength, packed cell volume, globulin, phosphorus concentration, triglyceride, estrogen hormone, aldosterone hormone and significant decrease in heart relative weight, albumin to globulin ratio, GOT, testosterone hormone, T 3 , T 4 , Heamaglutination inhibition test in treated groups than control group. While gizzard relative weight, femur relative weight, tibia relative weight, femur ash, tibia

  13. Redefining face contour with a novel anti-aging cosmetic product: an open-label, prospective clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garre, Aurora; Martinez-Masana, Gemma; Piquero-Casals, Jaime; Granger, Corinne

    2017-01-01

    Skin aging is accelerated by multiple extrinsic factors: ultraviolet radiation, smoking and pollution increase oxidative activity, damaging cellular and extracellular components such as DNA, proteins, and lipids. With age, collagen and hyaluronic acid levels decline, resulting in loss of elasticity and moisture of the skin. Over time this damage leads to characteristic signs that make the skin look older: altered facial contour, sagging skin, wrinkles, and an uneven complexion. This study evaluated the anti-aging effects of a new facial cream formulated with carnosine, Alteromonas ferment extract, crosspolymer hyaluronic acid, and a tripeptide. An open-label intra-individual study to assess the anti-aging efficacy of the investigational product in 33 women aged 45 to 65 years. The product was applied twice daily for 56 days. Facial contour and skin deformation, elasticity, hydration, and complexion were measured with specialized equipment at baseline and days 28 and 56. Additionally, subjects completed questionnaires at days 28 and 56 on the perceived efficacy and cosmetic characteristics of the product. After 56 days of use of the investigational product, a redefining effect was observed, with a significant decrease in sagging jawline (7%). Skin was significantly more hydrated (12%), firmer (29%), and more elastic (20%) ( P <0.001 for all). On complexion assessment, skin texture (a measure of skin smoothness) and spots (brown and red skin lesions) also improved significantly (12% and 6% decrease, respectively). In the subjective self-evaluation, the majority of subjects reported that the skin was visibly tightened and more elastic, flexible, and moisturized (91%, 88%, 91%, and 90%, respectively). The product was well tolerated with no adverse events reported during the study. This new cosmetic product demonstrated anti-aging effects after 56 days of use, most notably a redefined facial contour and improved complexion. It is a safe and effective anti-aging product.

  14. Interactive effects of biochar ageing in soils related to feedstock, pyrolysis temperature, and historic charcoal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitkötter, Julian; Marschner, Bernd

    2015-04-01

    Biochar is suggested for soil amelioration and carbon sequestration, based on its assumed role as the key factor for the long-term fertility of Terra preta soils. Several studies have shown that certain biochar properties can undergo changes through ageing processes, especially regarding charge characteristics. However, only a few studies determined the changes of different biochars under the same incubation conditions and in different soils. The objective of this study was to characterize the changes of pine chip (PC)- and corn digestate (CD)-derived biochars pyrolyzed at 400 or 600 °C during 100 days of laboratory incubation in a historical kiln soil and an adjacent control soil. Separation between soil and biochar was ensured by using mesh bags. Especially, changes in charge characteristics depended on initial biochar properties affected by feedstock and pyrolysis temperature and on soil properties affected by historic charcoal production. While the cation exchange capacity (CEC) markedly increased for both CD biochars during incubation, PC biochars showed no or only slight increases in CEC. Corresponding to the changes in CEC, ageing of biochars also increased the amount of acid functional groups with increases being in average about 2-fold higher in CD biochars than in PC biochars. Further and in contrast to other studies, the surface areas of biochars increased during ageing, likely due to ash leaching and degradation of tar residues. Changes in CEC and surface acidity of CD biochars were more pronounced after incubation in the control soil, while surface area increase was higher in the kiln soil. Since the two acidic forest soils used in this this study did not greatly differ in physical or chemical properties, the main process for inducing these differences in the buried biochar most likely is related to the differences in dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Although the kiln soil contained about 50% more soil organic carbon due to the presence of charcoal

  15. Effect of Age and Bulls on Fresh Semen Quality and Frozen Semen Production of Holstein Bulls in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argiris, A.; Ondho, Y. S.; Santoso, S. I.; Kurnianto, E.

    2018-02-01

    Artificial Insemination is a compatible method of reproduction in an effort to increase dairy productivity. Artificial Insemination Center as a producer of frozen semen was required to maximize bulls in producing high quality frozen semen optimally. The purpose of this research was to determine effect of age and bulls on fresh semen quality and frozen semen production of Holstein bulls in Indonesia. The research was conducted at Lembang and Singosari AI Centers. The material used were 24.634 data of qualified fresh semen and frozen semen production from 81 Holstein Bulls aged 1-9 years that used as frozen semen producer in period of 2008 to 2016. The variables observed in this research were data of age of bulls, fresh semen volume (mL); sperm motility (%); mass movement; concentrations (million/mL) and frozen semen doses at each production at age of bulls. Nested design was applied to obtain and analyze data. Results showed that Age and bulls have significant effect (PAI Centre might adapt management of AI bulls to improve semen production.

  16. Advertisement and knowledge of tobacco products among Ellisras rural children aged 11 to 18 years: Ellisras Longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monyeki, Kotsedi D; Kemper, Han C G; Amusa, Lateef O; Motshwane, Marcus

    2013-08-02

    Tobacco products use is the leading cause of chronic diseases morbidity and mortality. This study explores an exposure to tobacco advertisements factors and knowledge, an association with snuff/pipe usage and cigarette smoking among Ellisras rural children aged between 11 to 18 years. A total of 1654 subjects (854 boys and 800 girls) who were part of the Ellisras Longitudinal Study completed the questionnaire. A significant (p advertising tobacco products among the Ellisras rural boys (17% boys and 12.8% for girls, p advertisements of tobacco products on the TV screens, videos or movies. Exposure to tobacco products advertisements was high among Ellisras rural children. Though tobacco products legislation exists in South Africa, efforts should be taken by the health professionals to emphasize the danger of using tobacco products even among the illiterate. Teachers and parents should refrain from advertising tobacco products at schools and at homes.

  17. The Influence of Phosphor and Binder Chemistry on the Aging Characteristics of Remote Phosphor Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Lynn; Yaga, Robert; Lamvik, Michael; Mills, Karmann; Fletcher, B.

    2017-06-30

    The influence of phosphor and binder layer chemistries on the lumen maintenance and color stability of remote phosphor disks were examined using wet high-temperature operational lifetime testing (WHTOL). As part of the experimental matrix, two different correlated color temperature (CCT) values, 2700 K and 5000 K, were studied and each had a different binder chemistry. The 2700 K samples used a urethane binder whereas the 5000 K samples used an acrylate binder. Experimental conditions were chosen to enable study of the binder and phosphor chemistries and to minimize photo-oxidation of the polycarbonate substrate. Under the more severe WHTOL conditions of 85°C and 85% relative humidity (RH), absorption in the binder layer significantly reduced luminous flux and produced a blue color shift. The milder WHTOL conditions of 75°C and 75% RH, resulted in chemical changes in the binder layer that may alter its index of refraction. As a result, lumen maintenance remained high, but a slight yellow shift was found. The aging of remote phosphor products provides insights into the impact of materials on the performance of phosphors in an LED lighting system.

  18. Production of slow particle in 1.7 AGeV 84Kr induced emulsion interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huiling; Zhang Donghai; Li Xueqin; Jia Huiming

    2008-01-01

    The production of slow particle in 1.7 AGeV 84 Kr induced emulsion interaction was studied. The experimental results show that the average multiplicity of black, grey and heavily ionized track particle increases with the increase of impact centrality and target size. The average multiplicity of grey track particle and heavily ionized track particle increases with the increase of the number of black track particle. The average multiplicity of heavily ionized track particle increases with the increase of the number of grey track particle, but average multiplicity of black track particle increases with the increase of the number of grey track particle and then saturated. The average multiplicity of grey track particle increases with the increase of the number of heavily ionized track particle, but average multiplicity of black track particle increases with the increase of the number of heavily ionized track particle and then saturated. Those experimental results can be well explained by using the nuclear impact geometry model. (authors)

  19. Prokaryotic diversity and biochemical properties in aging artificial pit mud used for the production of Chinese strong flavor liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhongke; Chen, Can; Hou, Xiaoge; Zhang, Jie; Tian, Fengshou; Li, Chengwei

    2017-10-01

    At present, artificial pit mud (APM) is widely used in Chinese liquor-making industry and plays a particular role in the production of Chinese strong flavor liquor (CSFL). However, APM frequently ages during fermentation, thus becoming unsuitable for sustainable use due to its low-quality. The reasons behind, and results of, APM aging during the production of CSFL are not yet understood. Sequencing the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene shows that prokaryotic diversity is significantly decreased (Shannon's diversity index, P  aging APM. On the phylum level, the increase of Firmicutes and decrease of Proteobacteria are the main consequences of APM aging during the production of CSFL. The counting of cultivatable bacteria confirmed that there was a large increase in Lactobacilli and aerobic spore-forming bacteria in aging low-quality APM (more than twofold). Unexpectedly, the total number of caproic acid-producing bacteria, mainly Clostridia , did not change significantly between the two kinds of APM. Furthermore, biochemical analysis indicates that the pH and the levels of NH 4 + and K + are decreased in aging low-quality APM ( P  aging can be controlled potentially by adjustment of environmental factors and/or supplementation of diminished or missed microorganisms.

  20. Elevated levels of interferon-γ production by memory T cells do not promote transplant tolerance resistance in aged recipients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James I Kim

    Full Text Available Immunosenescence predisposes the elderly to infectious and autoimmune diseases and impairs the response to vaccination. We recently demonstrated that ageing also impedes development of transplantation tolerance. Unlike their young counterparts (8-12 weeks of age aged male recipients (greater than 12 months of age transplanted with a full MHC-mismatched heart are resistant to tolerance mediated by anti-CD45RB antibody. Surprisingly, either chemical or surgical castration restored tolerance induction to levels observed using young recipients. Based on the strong impact of endocrine modulation on transplant tolerance, we explored the impact of ageing and castration on the immune system. Here we report a significant increase in the percentage of T cells that produce interferon-γ (IFN-γ in aged male versus young male animals and that the overall increase in IFN-γ production was due to an expansion of IFN-γ-producing memory T cells in aged animals. In contrast to IFN-γ production, we did not observe differences in IL-10 expression in young versus old male mice. We hypothesized that endocrine modulation would diminish the elevated levels of IFN-γ production in aged recipients, however, we observed no significant reduction in the percentage of IFN-γ+ T cells upon castration. Furthermore, we neutralized interferon-γ by antibody and did not observe an effect on graft survival. We conclude that while elevated levels of interferon-γ serves as a marker of tolerance resistance in aged mice, other as yet to be identified factors are responsible for its cause. Defining these factors may be relevant to design of tolerogenic strategies for aged recipients.

  1. Implication of advanced glycation end products (Ages) and their receptor (Rage) on myocardial contractile and mitochondrial functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neviere, Remi; Yu, Yichi; Wang, Lei; Tessier, Frederic; Boulanger, Eric

    2016-08-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) play an important role for the development and/or progression of cardiovascular diseases, mainly through induction of oxidative stress and inflammation. AGEs are a heterogeneous group of molecules formed by non-enzymatic reaction of reducing sugars with amino acids of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. AGEs are mainly formed endogenously, while recent studies suggest that diet constitutes an important exogenous source of AGEs. The presence and accumulation of AGEs in various cardiac cell types affect extracellular and intracellular structure and function. AGEs contribute to a variety of microvascular and macrovascular complications through the formation of cross-links between molecules in the basement membrane of the extracellular matrix and by engaging the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). Activation of RAGE by AGEs causes up regulation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB and its target genes. of the RAGE engagement stimulates oxidative stress, evokes inflammatory and fibrotic reactions, which all contribute to the development and progression of devastating cardiovascular disorders. This review discusses potential targets of glycation in cardiac cells, and underlying mechanisms that lead to heart failure with special interest on AGE-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in the myocardium.

  2. Productivity Commission Submission to the Review of Pricing Arrangements in Residential Aged Care

    OpenAIRE

    Productivity Commission

    2003-01-01

    The Commission’s submission to the Review of Pricing Arrangements for Residential Aged Care draws on earlier work, including its inquiry into Nursing Home Subsidies and a major conference on Policy Implications of the Ageing of Australia’s Population. The submission provides an assessment of the current funding and service delivery arrangements for aged care services; an analysis of the implications of ageing, trends in disability rates and other key influences on the future demand for and co...

  3. AGE-RELATED DIFFERENCES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF WRITTEN PRODUCTION. AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF EFL SCHOOL LEARNERS'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luz Celaya

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the development of the written production of two groups of EFL leamers (N = 63 in a school context. The two groups started instruction at different ages (8 and 11, respectively. Their written production was measured afier 200 and 416 hours of instruction. and analysed longitudinally. Both intragroup and intergroup analyses were carried out a to analyse the development of the participants' written production as measured by three indicators of writing proficiency (fluency, complexity and accuracy; and b to ascertain whether the differences observed (both in terms of attainment and rate of development could be attributed to the age at which the groups of participants initiated their contact with the L2. Results show that not all the areas of writing proficiency (fluency, complexity and accuracy develop in parallel and that an earlier start does not seem to show clear advantages in the development of EFL written production.

  4. Role of Production Area, Seasonality and Age of Fermented Camel (Camelus Dromedarius Milk Gariss on Mineral Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Ismail Ahmed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the differences between some minerals content of gariss samples collected from two different production areas in two different production systems (i.e. traditional system Kordofan area and semi-intensive system- which, the camels are kept in an open barn and graze around the farm. The lactating female camels are supplemented with concentrates in addition to good quality ration containing groundnut cake and Sorghum biocolor and water supply upon required in Kordofan and Khartoum provinces in Sudan at the different seasons (summer, autumn and winter and their gariss samples were collected. Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus of gariss samples collected in autumn season (Kordofan area, summer season (Khartoum area, and winter season (Khartoum and Kordofan areas were determined, after that the age of gariss was noted from farmers directly when the samples were collected. Four different ages of gariss which registered were (5-8 hrs, 12 hrs, 48 hrs and more than 48 hrs. Each fermentation time (age of gariss was used for analyzing mineral contents. The results showed that gariss prepared from different production locations and in different seasons in Kordofan and Khartoum production areas were statistically different in most of the mineral contents determined. To conclude, different feeding sources or different physiological status may affect camels’ milk and consequently their gariss product, also different age of gariss had affects the mineral content of milk.

  5. Armorican arrowhead biographies: Production and function of an Early Bronze Age prestige good from Brittany (France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément Nicolas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Brittany can pride itself on the Armorican arrowheads found in Early Bronze Age graves (2150-1700 BC. In the present state of knowledge, these are the only specialized craft products in knapped flint produced in this region at the western edge of continental Europe. Admired since the 19th century, these flint arrowheads have never really been studied. Due to the wealth of graves and grave-goods, a relatively precise study can be undertaken of the development of these craft products, despite the low number of reliable radiocarbon dates.These arrowheads are characterized by a well-defined type (pointed tang and oblique barbs most often combined with ogival form. Raw materials show the selection of a high quality yellow translucent flint, of which the origin has to be sought at more than 400 kilometers (Lower Turonian flint from Cher Valley. From a technical point of view, Armorican arrowheads reveal a great mastery of retouch by pressure-flaking. This skill is written in stone by the perfection of forms, the extreme thinness (until 2,5 mm thick and very long barbs (until 25 mm long. Such work could not have been done without the use of copper, even bronze, awls. Moreover, some marks may testify to the implication of these tools. On 549 arrowheads that have reached to us, none of them presents diagnostical impact features. However, use-wear analysis indicates that most of them were hafted (adhesive traces, bright spots, blunt edges. These facts suggest that they are less functional arrowheads than objects for the show. In the graves, Armorican arrowheads are frequently set down carefully in wooden boxes taking the shaft off.The Armorican arrowheads with their exotic raw materials, their high-degree of technicality, and their absence of use, have all features of a prestige good. They have been discovered by dozens in few graves under barrows with very rich funeral items (bronze daggers decorated with golden pins, precious bracers, silver beakers

  6. Evaluation of corneal thickness alterations during menstrual cycle in productive age women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Amiri Ghahfarokhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the change in corneal thickness through different phases of menstrual cycle in women who are in their productive age. Materials and Methods: Fifty healthy women with normal past medical history were enrolled in this prospective study. Central corneal thickness was measured with ultrasound pachymeter three times during a menstrual cycle: Beginning of the cycle (days 1-3, ovulation time, and at the end of cycle (days 27-32. We confirmed ovulation time with determining a peak in luteinizing hormone in urine. To avoid the diurnal variation of the corneal thickness which is well recognized, we checked all our subjects at 10 in the morning. Results: In days 1 to 3 of menstruation, mean corneal thickness was 541.40±11.36 and 540.82±11.70 microns for left and right eyes respectively. At ovulation time the mean thickness changed to 556.50±7.11 and 555.98±7.26 microns for left and right eyes respectively, and at the end of the cycle, the corneal thickness turned in to 536.38±12.83 and 535.48±13.08 microns for left and right eyes respectively. The difference of corneal thickness was statistically significant relating to the different stages of menstrual cycle. Conclusion: The thickest cornea during the menstruation cycle is achieved at the ovulation time and the thinnest at the end of the cycle and this should be taken in to account whilst plan to do a corneal refractive surgery.

  7. Production of neutral pions Pb+Au collisions at 158 AGeV/c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soualah, Rachik

    2009-06-24

    The direct photons are a particularly useful probe to search for an evidence of the Quark-Gluon Plasma formation in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Direct photons can be extracted experimentally by measuring the large background from {pi}{sup 0} and {eta} meson decays. This thesis work represents the production of the neutral pion mesons measured with the CERES/NA45 experiment at the top SPS energy in 158 AGeV/c Pb-Au collisions. The {pi}{sup 0} {yields} {gamma}{gamma} (98.8%) is the decay channel used in the reconstruction scheme. The {pi}{sup 0} measurement is based on the data taken in the year 2000. The CERES experiment can measure the photons that convert shortly before the TPC by measuring the e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs in the TPC. The RICH2 mirror is the main converter used for this analysis. The presented analysis method describes in more details the selection of the e{sup +} and e{sup -} tracks using only the TPC information to reconstruct the converted photon. A Secondary vertex technique was developed and used to select the photons converted in the RICH2 mirror area. The extraction of the {pi}{sup 0} needs a careful study of the combinatorial background determined using the mixed event technique. The obtained invariant mass distribution of the two photons defined well the {pi}{sup 0} peak. The neutral pion transverse spectra compared to phenomenological models and other experiments validate our analysis method. (orig.)

  8. Overexpression of catalase in mice reduces age-related oxidative stress and maintains sperm production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaratnam, Johanna; Robaire, Bernard

    2016-11-01

    Advanced paternal age is associated with increased complications in pregnancy and genetic diseases in offspring. Oxidative stress is a major contributor to the damage accumulated in sperm during aging. Complex networks of antioxidants regulate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the testis. While mounting evident shows that redox dysfunction compromises the quality of developing male germ cells, the mechanisms by which aging causes this remain unclear. Furthermore, therapies to successfully alleviate aging-associated loss in germ cell quality are limited. The antioxidant catalase (CAT) has been used in aging-associated pathologies to alleviate oxidative stress. We used mice overexpressing CAT (MCAT) to determine whether CAT overexpression alleviates the redox dysfunction observed with aging. We found that MCAT mice did not exhibit the age-dependent loss of spermatozoa, nor did they show aging associated loss in testicular germ and Sertoli cells seen in wild type (WT). Low overall ROS and reduced peroxynitrite levels were detected in spermatocytes from aged MCAT mice, following exposure to the pro-oxidant tert-butyl hydroperoxide. Germ cells from young MCATs showed elevated levels of DNA-damage repair markers, γ-H2AX and 53BP1, but this response was lost with aging. Finally, we found oxidative stress induced 8-oxodG lesions to increase in sperm with aging; these lesions were significantly reduced in aged MCAT and these mice showed no decrease in the age-dependent number of pups per litter. Thus we conclude that aged MCAT mice generate sperm at the same rate as young mice; these sperm are protected from oxidative stress associated damage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs accumulation in skin: relations with chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Almeida França

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates, main causes related with cardiovascular disease (CVD and bone mineral disorder (CKD-BMD. Uremic toxins, as advanced glycation end products (AGEs, are non-traditional cardiovascular risk factor and play a role on development of CKD-BMD in CKD. The measurement of skin autofluorescence (sAF is a noninvasive method to assess the level of AGEs in tissue, validated in CKD patients. Objective: The aim of this study is analyze AGEs measured by sAF levels (AGEs-sAF and its relations with CVD and BMD parameters in HD patients. Methods: Twenty prevalent HD patients (HD group and healthy subjects (Control group, n = 24, performed biochemical tests and measurements of anthropometric parameters and AGEs-sAF. In addition, HD group performed measurement of intact parathormone (iPTH, transthoracic echocardiogram and radiographies of pelvis and hands for vascular calcification score. Results: AGEs-sAF levels are elevated both in HD and control subjects ranged according to the age, although higher at HD than control group. Single high-flux HD session does not affect AGEs-sAF levels. AGEs-sAF levels were not related to ventricular mass, interventricular septum or vascular calcification in HD group. AGEs-sAF levels were negatively associated with serum iPTH levels. Conclusion: Our study detected a negative correlation of AGEs-sAF with serum iPTH, suggesting a role of AGEs on the pathophysiology of bone disease in HD prevalent patients. The nature of this relation and the clinical application of this non-invasive methodology for evaluation AGEs deposition must be confirmed and clarified in future studies.

  10. Effect of advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs) on proliferation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi-Qun; Lu, Yan; Li, Hui-Juan; Cheng, Xing-Bo

    2012-10-01

    This study aims to explore the effect of advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs) on proliferation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in vitro and the underlying mechanism. Bone marrow cell proliferation was determined by WST-8 assay using Cell Counting Kit-8 under the intervention of AGEs. In addition, the content of maldondialdehyde (MDA) and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were also measured. The proliferation activity of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) was significantly inhibited when AGEs were added to culture medium, and this effect was dose-dependent and time-dependent. As the concentration of AGEs-bovine serum albumin increased, the content of intracellular MDA was significantly increased, but the activity of SOD in cell homogenates was significantly suppressed, which also showed a dose-dependent manner. AGEs could significantly inhibit the proliferation of MSCs in vitro by improving the oxidative stress in MSCs and breaking the homeostasis of intracellular environment.

  11. Redefining face contour with a novel anti-aging cosmetic product: an open-label, prospective clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garre A

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aurora Garre,1 Gemma Martinez-Masana,1 Jaime Piquero-Casals,2 Corinne Granger1 1Innovation and Development, ISDIN S.A., Barcelona, Spain; 2Dermik Clinic, Barcelona, Spain Background: Skin aging is accelerated by multiple extrinsic factors: ultraviolet radiation, smoking and pollution increase oxidative activity, damaging cellular and extracellular components such as DNA, proteins, and lipids. With age, collagen and hyaluronic acid levels decline, resulting in loss of elasticity and moisture of the skin. Over time this damage leads to characteristic signs that make the skin look older: altered facial contour, sagging skin, wrinkles, and an uneven complexion. This study evaluated the anti-aging effects of a new facial cream formulated with carnosine, Alteromonas ferment extract, crosspolymer hyaluronic acid, and a tripeptide. Methods: An open-label intra-individual study to assess the anti-aging efficacy of the investigational product in 33 women aged 45 to 65 years. The product was applied twice daily for 56 days. Facial contour and skin deformation, elasticity, hydration, and complexion were measured with specialized equipment at baseline and days 28 and 56. Additionally, subjects completed questionnaires at days 28 and 56 on the perceived efficacy and cosmetic characteristics of the product. Results: After 56 days of use of the investigational product, a redefining effect was observed, with a significant decrease in sagging jawline (7%. Skin was significantly more hydrated (12%, firmer (29%, and more elastic (20% (P<0.001 for all. On complexion assessment, skin texture (a measure of skin smoothness and spots (brown and red skin lesions also improved significantly (12% and 6% decrease, respectively. In the subjective self-evaluation, the majority of subjects reported that the skin was visibly tightened and more elastic, flexible, and moisturized (91%, 88%, 91%, and 90%, respectively. The product was well tolerated with no adverse events reported

  12. REIMEP-22 inter-laboratory comparison: "U Age Dating - Determination of the production date of a uranium certified test sample"

    OpenAIRE

    VENCHIARUTTI CELIA; VARGA ZSOLT; RICHTER Stephan; JAKOPIC Rozle; MAYER Klaus; AREGBE Yetunde

    2015-01-01

    The REIMEP-22 inter-laboratory comparison aimed at determining the production date of a uranium certified test sample (i.e. the last chemical separation date of the material). Participants in REIMEP-22 on "U Age Dating - Determination of the production date of a uranium certified test sample" received one low-enriched 20 mg uranium sample for mass spectrometry measurements and/or one 50 mg uranium sample for D-spectrometry measurements, with an undisclosed value for the production date. They ...

  13. Comparison of Different Height–Diameter Modelling Techniques for Prediction of Site Productivity in Natural Uneven-Aged Pure Stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangshuang Duan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable estimates of forest site productivity are a central element of forest management. The model of height-diameter relationship of dominant trees using algebraic difference approach (ADA is a commonly used method to measure site productivity of natural uneven-aged stands. However, the existing models of this method do not recognize site type or sample plot specific variability in height curves; thus, it cannot be effectively used to estimate site type or sample plot-related site productivity for natural uneven-aged stands. Two primary subject-specific approaches, ADA with dummy variable (DV (ADA + DV and ADA with combination of dummy variable and nonlinear mixed-effects modelling (CM (ADA + CM, were proposed for height–diameter modelling. Height–diameter models developed with ADA, ADA + DV and ADA + CM were compared using data from 4161 observations on 349 permanent sample plots of four major natural uneven-aged pure stands (Spruce, Korean Larch, Mongolian Oak, and White Birch in northeastern China. It was found that models developed with ADA + CM provided the best performance, followed by the models with ADA + DV, and the models developed with ADA performed the worst. Random effects at the plot level were substantial, and their inclusion greatly improved the model’s accuracy. More importantly, the models developed with ADA + CM provide an effective method for quantifying site type- and sample plot-specific forest site productivity for uneven-aged pure stands.

  14. Advertisement and knowledge of tobacco products among Ellisras rural children aged 11 to 18 years: Ellisras Longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monyeki, K.D.; Kemper, H.C.G.; Amusa, L.O.; Motshwane, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Tobacco products use is the leading cause of chronic diseases morbidity and mortality. This study explores an exposure to tobacco advertisements factors and knowledge, an association with snuff/pipe usage and cigarette smoking among Ellisras rural children aged between 11 to 18

  15. Androgen and glucocorticoid production in the male killer whale (Orcinus orca): influence of age, maturity, and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, J K; Steinman, K J; Fetter, G A; Robeck, T R

    2017-01-01

    Circulating concentrations of testosterone and its precursor androstenedione, as well as dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and the adrenal hormones cortisol and corticosterone were measured at monthly intervals in 14 male killer whales (Orcinus orca) aged 0.8-38 years. Analyses were performed for examination of the relationships of age, sexual maturation status (STATUS), season, and environmental temperature (monthly air ambient temperature, A-TEMP) with hormone production using a mixed effects linear regression model with animal ID as the random variable. Hormone profiles, derived from enzyme immunoassay procedures validated herein, established that simultaneous up-regulation of androstenedione and testosterone production occurs at puberty, when males are aged 8-12 years. Androgen (testosterone and androstenedione) production in pubertal and adult males was influenced by season, with highest (p effect of STATUS and season on DHEA production was also documented, with higher (p reproductive and adrenocortical function in healthy male killer whales and provide baseline profiles of hormone production for use in the species' health assessment and conservation. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  16. Net ecosystem production in a Little Ice Age moraine: the role of plant functional traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varolo, E.; Zanotelli, D.; Tagliavini, M.; Zerbe, S.; Montagnani, L.

    2015-07-01

    Current glacier retreat allows vast mountain ranges available for vegetation establishment and growth. Little is known about the effective carbon (C) budget of these new ecosystems and how the presence of different vegetation communities, characterized by their specific physiology and life forms influences C fluxes. In this study, using a comparative analysis of the C fluxes of two contrasting vegetation types, we intend to evaluate if the different physiologies of the main species have an effect on Ecosystem Respiration (Reco), Gross Primary Production (GPP), annual cumulated Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE), and long-term carbon accumulation in soil. The NEE of two plant communities present on a Little Ice Age moraine in the Matsch glacier forefield (Alps, Italy) was measured over two growing seasons. They are a typical C3 grassland, dominated by Festuca halleri All. and a community dominated by CAM rosettes Sempervivum montanum L. on rocky soils. Using transparent and opaque chambers, we extrapolated the ecophysiological responses to the main environmental drivers and performed the partition of NEE into Reco and GPP. Soil samples were collected from the same site to measure long-term C accumulation in the ecosystem. The two communities showed contrasting GPP but similar Reco patterns and as a result significantly different in NEE. The grassland acted mainly as a carbon sink with a total cumulated value of -46.4 ± 35.5 g C m-2 NEE while the plots dominated by the CAM rosettes acted as a source with 31.9 ± 22.4 g C m-2. In spite of the NEE being different in the two plant communities, soil analysis did not reveal significant differences in carbon accumulation. Grasslands showed 1.76 ± 0.12 kg C m-2, while CAM rosettes showed 2.06 ± 0.23 kg C m-2. This study demonstrates that carbon dynamics of two vegetation communities can be distinct even though the growing environment is similar. The physiological traits of the dominant species determine large differences in

  17. The association between chronic conditions and non-agricultural work productivity loss among the middle-aged Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Sun, Huiying; Li, Xin

    2018-05-03

    To measure the association between different chronic conditions and non-agricultural work productivity loss among the middle-aged Chinese population. We used 2011, 2013 and 2015 data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study. The study focused on middle-aged respondents who had the potential to work in the non-agricultural sector. Work productivity loss was measured by non-agricultural work participation and number of absent workdays among those conducting non-agricultural work. Seven different chronic conditions were considered. Heart diseases had the strongest association with lower work participation for men and women. Stomach/digestive disease and arthritis/rheumatism were conditions with the largest incremental absent workdays for men and women, respectively. The associations with non-agricultural work productivity loss varied by chronic conditions, outcomes, and sex. The findings will help motivate chronic condition prevention/management programs and set priorities.

  18. The effect of choice-feeding from 7 weeks of age on the production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Day-old Amberlink pullets were fed chicken starter mash for the first seven weeks of age. Group A was choice-fed with pelleted protein concentrate, whole yellow maize and limestone powder from seven to 16 weeks of age. Group B received the same diet as group A, but the protein concentrate was fed in mash form. Group ...

  19. Eucalyptus urophylla stands wood utilization at two different ages for production of particleboard panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourival Marin Mendes

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to assess the quality of wood particle panels manufactured with wood from Eucalyptus urophylla stands at age 7 and at age 12 years. To that end, particleboard, oriented strand board (OSB and cement-bonded panels were produced in a laboratory and then analyzed for the following physical and mechanical properties: water absorption and thickness swell 2 and 24 hours after immersion, internal bond, compression parallel, as well as MOE and MOR from static bending. The obtained results demonstrate that tree age had little influence on the physical and mechanical properties of particleboard, OSB and cement-bonded panels. After evaluating the physical and mechanical properties of these three panel types, all manufactured with wood from Eucalyptus urophylla stands at age 7 and at age 12, we can argue that our results are satisfactory in comparison to existing literature results.

  20. Age of acquisition effects in word recognition and production in first and second languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W. Ellis

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Four experiments explored the age of acquisition effects in the first and second languages of dominant Spanish-English bilinguals. In Experiment 1 (picture naming task and Experiment 2 (lexical decision task, an age of acquisition effect was observed in a second language acquired after childhood as well as in the first language. The results suggest that age of acquisition effects reflect the order of word acquisition, which may in turn reflect the state of the lexical network when new words are learnt. The results do not support the idea that age of acquisition effects reflect differences between words learned during some critical period in childhood and words learned later in life. In Experiments 3 and 4, the age/order of second language acquisition affected lexical decision latencies regardless of the age at which translation equivalents were acquired in the first language, suggesting that the age of acquisition effect is linked to the acquisition of word forms rather than meanings.

  1. Characterizing harmful advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and ribosylated aggregates of yellow mustard seed phytocystatin: Effects of different monosaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Azaj; Shamsi, Anas; Bano, Bilqees

    2017-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are at the core of variety of diseases ranging from diabetes to renal failure and hence gaining wide consideration. This study was aimed at characterizing the AGEs of phytocystatin isolated from mustard seeds (YMP) when incubated with different monosaccharides (glucose, ribose and mannose) using fluorescence, ultraviolet, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and microscopy. Ribose was found to be the most potent glycating agent as evident by AGEs specific fluorescence and absorbance. YMP exists as a molten globule like structure on day 24 as depicted by high ANS fluorescence and altered intrinsic fluorescence. Glycated YMP as AGEs and ribose induced aggregates were observed at day 28 and 32 respectively. In our study we have also examined the anti-aggregative potential of polyphenol, resveratrol. Our results suggested the anti-aggregative behavior of resveratrol as it prevented the in vitro aggregation of YMP, although further studies are required to decode the mechanism by which resveratrol prevents the aggregation.

  2. Unraveling the age-productivity nexus : Confronting perceptions of employers and employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, H.P.; Henkens, C.J.I.M.; Schippers, J.

    2009-01-01

    What determines the perceived productivity of young and older workers? In this study we present evidence for (Dutch) employers and employees. By confronting the perceptions of employers and employees some remarkable similarities and differences are revealed. It turns out that productivity

  3. Unraveling the age-productivity nexus: confronting perceptions of employers and employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, H.P.; Henkens, C.J.I.M.; Schippers, J.

    2009-01-01

    What determines the perceived productivity of young and older workers? In this study we present evidence for (Dutch) employers and employees. By confronting the perceptions of employers and employees some remarkable similarities and differences are revealed. It turns out that productivity

  4. The Influence of Older Age Groups to Sustainable Product Design Research of Urban Public Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen-juan, Zhang; Hou-peng, Song

    2017-01-01

    Through summarize the status quo of public facilities design to older age groups in China and a variety of factors what influence on them, the essay, from different perspective, is designed to put forward basic principle to sustainable design of public facilities for the aged in the city, and thus further promote and popularize the necessity of sustainable design applications in the future design of public facilities for elderly people.

  5. Age influences the skin reaction pattern to mechanical stress and its repair level through skin care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouboulis, Christos C; Elewa, Rana; Ottaviani, Monica; Fluhr, Joachim; Picardo, Mauro; Bernois, Armand; Heusèle, Catherine; Camera, Emanuela

    2018-03-01

    Skin aging is associated with alterations of surface texture, sebum composition and immune response. Mechanical stress induces repair mechanisms, which may be dependent on the age and quality of the skin. The response to mechanical stress in young and aged individuals, their subjective opinion and the objective effectiveness of skin care products were evaluated by biophysical skin quality parameters (stratum corneum hydration, transepidermal water loss, skin pH, pigmentation and erythema) at baseline, 1, 6, 24h and 7days at the forearms of 2 groups of healthy volunteers, younger than 35 years (n=11) and older than 60 years (n=13). In addition, casual surface lipid composition was studied under the same conditions at the baseline and day 7 after mechanical stress induction. Evaluations were also performed in stressed skin areas treated daily with skin care products and the subjective opinion of the volunteers was additionally documented. The tested groups exhibited age-associated baseline skin functions as well as casual surface lipid composition and different reaction patterns to mechanical stress. Skin care was more effective in normalizing skin reaction to stress in the young than in the aged group. The subjective volunteer opinion correlated with the objective measurements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Acoustic emissions of digital data video projectors- Investigating noise sources and their change during product aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Michael Shane

    2005-09-01

    Acoustic emission testing continues to be a growing part of IT and telecommunication product design, as product noise is increasingly becoming a differentiator in the marketplace. This is especially true for digital/video display companies, such as InFocus Corporation, considering the market shift of these products to the home entertainment consumer as retail prices drop and performance factors increase. Projectors and displays using Digital Light Processing(tm) [DLP(tm)] technology incorporate a device known as a ColorWheel(tm) to generate the colors displayed at each pixel in the image. These ColorWheel(tm) devices spin at very high speeds and can generate high-frequency tones not typically heard in liquid crystal displays and other display technologies. Also, acoustic emission testing typically occurs at the beginning of product life and is a measure of acoustic energy emitted at this point in the lifecycle. Since the product is designed to be used over a long period of time, there is concern as to whether the acoustic emissions change over the lifecycle of the product, whether these changes will result in a level of nuisance to the average customer, and does this nuisance begin to develop prior to the intended lifetime of the product.

  7. Using a micro-level model to generate a macro-level model of productive successful aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jessica K M; Sarkisian, Natalia; Williamson, John B

    2015-02-01

    Aging successfully entails good physical and cognitive health, as well as ongoing participation in social and productive activity. This study hones in on participation in productive activity, a factor that makes an important contribution to successful aging. One conceptual model of productive activity in later life specifies the antecedents and consequences of productivity. This study draws on that micro-level model to develop a corresponding macro-level model and assesses its utility for examining the predictors of and explaining the relationships between one form of productivity (labor force participation rates) and one aspect of well-being (average life expectancy) among males and females. Random effects regression models and path analysis were used to analyze cross-national longitudinal data for 24 high-income Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries at seven time points (1980-2010; 168 observations total). OECD countries with higher labor force participation rates among older workers have higher life expectancies. Labor force participation mediates the effects of gross domestic product per capita on male and female life expectancy, and it mediates the effect of self-employment rate for men, but it acts as a suppressor with regard to the effect of public spending on male and female life expectancy. A well-known micro-level model of productive activity can be fruitfully adapted to account for macro-level cross-national variation in productivity and well-being. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. The Effect of Age at First Calving and Calving Interval on Productive Life and Lifetime Profit in Korean Holsteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhee Do

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to estimate the effect of age at first calving and first two calving intervals on productive life and life time profit in Korean Holsteins. Reproduction data of Korean Holsteins born from 1998 to 2004 and lactation data from 276,573 cows with birth and last dry date that calved between 2000 and 2010 were used for the analysis. Lifetime profit increased with the days of life span. Regression of Life Span on Lifetime profit indicated that there was an increase of 3,800 Won (approximately $3.45 of lifetime profit per day increase in life span. This is evidence that care of each cow is necessary to improve net return and important for farms maintaining profitable cows. The estimates of heritability of age at first calving, first two calving intervals, days in milk for lifetime, lifespan, milk income and lifetime profit were 0.111, 0.088, 0.142, 0.140, 0.143, 0.123, and 0.102, respectively. The low heritabilities indicated that the productive life and economical traits include reproductive and productive characteristics. Age at first calving and interval between first and second calving had negative genetic correlation with lifetime profit (−0.080 and −0.265, respectively. Reducing age at first calving and first calving interval had a positive effect on lifetime profit. Lifetime profit increased to approximately 2,600,000 (2,363.6 from 800,000 Won ($727.3 when age at first calving decreased to (22.3 month from (32.8 month. Results suggested that reproductive traits such as age at first calving and calving interval might affect various economical traits and consequently influenced productive life and profitability of cows. In conclusion, regard of the age at first calving must be taken with the optimum age at first calving for maximum lifetime profit being 22.5 to 23.5 months. Moreover, considering the negative genetic correlation of first calving interval with lifetime profit, it should be reduced against the present

  9. Relationships between net primary productivity and stand age for several forest types and their influence on China's carbon balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaoqiang; Zhou, Lei; Chen, Jingming; Ju, Weimin; Feng, Xianfeng; Wu, Weixing

    2011-06-01

    Affected by natural and anthropogenic disturbances such as forest fires, insect-induced mortality and harvesting, forest stand age plays an important role in determining the distribution of carbon pools and fluxes in a variety of forest ecosystems. An improved understanding of the relationship between net primary productivity (NPP) and stand age (i.e., age-related increase and decline in forest productivity) is essential for the simulation and prediction of the global carbon cycle at annual, decadal, centurial, or even longer temporal scales. In this paper, we developed functions describing the relationship between national mean NPP and stand age using stand age information derived from forest inventory data and NPP simulated by the BEPS (Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator) model in 2001. Due to differences in ecobiophysical characteristics of different forest types, NPP-age equations were developed for five typical forest ecosystems in China (deciduous needleleaf forest (DNF), evergreen needleleaf forest in tropic and subtropical zones (ENF-S), deciduous broadleaf forest (DBF), evergreen broadleaf forest (EBF), and mixed broadleaf forest (MBF)). For DNF, ENF-S, EBF, and MBF, changes in NPP with age were well fitted with a common non-linear function, with R(2) values equal to 0.90, 0.75, 0.66, and 0.67, respectively. In contrast, a second order polynomial was best suitable for simulating the change of NPP for DBF, with an R(2) value of 0.79. The timing and magnitude of the maximum NPP varied with forest types. DNF, EBF, and MBF reached the peak NPP at the age of 54, 40, and 32 years, respectively, while the NPP of ENF-S maximizes at the age of 13 years. The highest NPP of DBF appeared at 122 years. NPP was generally lower in older stands with the exception of DBF, and this particular finding runs counter to the paradigm of age-related decline in forest growth. Evaluation based on measurements of NPP and stand age at the plot-level demonstrates the reliability

  10. Agricultural production and stability of settlement systems in Upper Mesopotamia during the Early Bronze Age (third millennium BCE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalayci, Tuna

    This study investigates the relationship between rainfall variation and rain-fed agricultural production in Upper Mesopotamia with a specific focus on Early Bronze Age urban settlements. In return, the variation in production is used to explore stability of urban settlement systems. The organization of the flow of agricultural goods is the key to sustaining the total settlement system. The vulnerability of a settlement system increases due to the increased demand for more output from agricultural lands. This demand is the key for the success of urbanization project. However, without estimating how many foodstuffs were available at the end of a production cycle, further discussions on the forces that shaped and sustained urban settlement systems will be lacking. While large scale fluctuations in the flow of agricultural products between settlements are not the only determinants of hierarchical structures, the total available agricultural yield for each urban settlement in a hierarchy must have influenced settlement relations. As for the methodology, first, Early Bronze Age precipitation levels are estimated by using modern day associations between the eastern Mediterranean coastal areas and the inner regions of Upper Mesopotamia. Next, these levels are integrated into a remote-sensing based biological growth model. Also, a CORONA satellite imagery based archaeological survey is conducted in order to map the Early Bronze Age settlement system in its entirety as well as the ancient markers of agricultural intensification. Finally, ancient agricultural production landscapes are modeled in a GIS. The study takes a critical position towards the traditionally held assumption that large urban settlements (cities) in Upper Mesopotamia were in a state of constant demand for food. The results from this study also suggest that when variations in ancient precipitation levels are translated into the variations in production levels, the impact of climatic aridification on ancient

  11. The effect of calving season and age at calving on production traits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    This was done following several trials involving analysis of variance and ... are taken before and after peak yield for a non-persistent cow, the mean yield in ..... Productive performance of Holstein-Friesian cattle in North West Frontier Province.

  12. Does Education Raise Productivity and Wages Equally? The Moderating Roles of Age, Gender and Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Rycx, Francois; Saks, Yves; Tojerow, Ilan

    2015-01-01

    The labour market situation of low-educated people is particularly critical in most advanced economies, especially among youngsters and women. Policies aiming to increase their employability either try to foster their productivity and/or to decrease their wage cost. Yet, the evidence on the misalignment between education-induced productivity gains and corresponding wage cost differentials is surprisingly thin, inconclusive and subject to various econometric biases. We investigate this issue u...

  13. A stochastic step model of replicative senescence explains ROS production rate in ageing cell populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor Lawless

    Full Text Available Increases in cellular Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS concentration with age have been observed repeatedly in mammalian tissues. Concomitant increases in the proportion of replicatively senescent cells in ageing mammalian tissues have also been observed. Populations of mitotic human fibroblasts cultured in vitro, undergoing transition from proliferation competence to replicative senescence are useful models of ageing human tissues. Similar exponential increases in ROS with age have been observed in this model system. Tracking individual cells in dividing populations is difficult, and so the vast majority of observations have been cross-sectional, at the population level, rather than longitudinal observations of individual cells.One possible explanation for these observations is an exponential increase in ROS in individual fibroblasts with time (e.g. resulting from a vicious cycle between cellular ROS and damage. However, we demonstrate an alternative, simple hypothesis, equally consistent with these observations which does not depend on any gradual increase in ROS concentration: the Stochastic Step Model of Replicative Senescence (SSMRS. We also demonstrate that, consistent with the SSMRS, neither proliferation-competent human fibroblasts of any age, nor populations of hTERT overexpressing human fibroblasts passaged beyond the Hayflick limit, display high ROS concentrations. We conclude that longitudinal studies of single cells and their lineages are now required for testing hypotheses about roles and mechanisms of ROS increase during replicative senescence.

  14. A stochastic step model of replicative senescence explains ROS production rate in ageing cell populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, Conor; Jurk, Diana; Gillespie, Colin S; Shanley, Daryl; Saretzki, Gabriele; von Zglinicki, Thomas; Passos, João F

    2012-01-01

    Increases in cellular Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) concentration with age have been observed repeatedly in mammalian tissues. Concomitant increases in the proportion of replicatively senescent cells in ageing mammalian tissues have also been observed. Populations of mitotic human fibroblasts cultured in vitro, undergoing transition from proliferation competence to replicative senescence are useful models of ageing human tissues. Similar exponential increases in ROS with age have been observed in this model system. Tracking individual cells in dividing populations is difficult, and so the vast majority of observations have been cross-sectional, at the population level, rather than longitudinal observations of individual cells.One possible explanation for these observations is an exponential increase in ROS in individual fibroblasts with time (e.g. resulting from a vicious cycle between cellular ROS and damage). However, we demonstrate an alternative, simple hypothesis, equally consistent with these observations which does not depend on any gradual increase in ROS concentration: the Stochastic Step Model of Replicative Senescence (SSMRS). We also demonstrate that, consistent with the SSMRS, neither proliferation-competent human fibroblasts of any age, nor populations of hTERT overexpressing human fibroblasts passaged beyond the Hayflick limit, display high ROS concentrations. We conclude that longitudinal studies of single cells and their lineages are now required for testing hypotheses about roles and mechanisms of ROS increase during replicative senescence.

  15. Dating simple flakes: Early Bronze Age flake production technology on the Middle Euphrates Steppe, Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Nishiaki

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aceramic flint scatters, comprising very crude cores or flakes and no formalised tools, are frequently found on the Middle Euphrates steppe of northern Syria. Previous studies suggest that many of them are residues of short-term activities by the nomads or shepherds of the Early Bronze Age. In order to verify this interpretation, a more precise chronological framework needs to be established for the Early Bronze Age lithic industry. This paper analyses stratified flake assemblages of the Early Bronze Age at Tell Ghanem al-Ali, a securely radiocarbon-dated settlement on the Middle Euphrates, and examines which occupation level yields assemblages most similar to those of the steppe. Results demonstrate that the lithic industry of this period underwent significant diachronic changes in terms of core reduction technology. Based on the chronological framework developed at Tell Ghanem al-Ali, the steppe assemblages in question can be assigned to different phases of the Early Bronze Age. This finding will help identify processes at the beginning of the extensive exploitation of the steppe, which is regarded as one of the most important socioeconomic changes that occurred among Early Bronze Age communities of the Middle Euphrates.

  16. Chronic ingestion of advanced glycation end products induces degenerative spinal changes and hypertrophy in aging pre-diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illien-Jünger, Svenja; Lu, Young; Qureshi, Sheeraz A; Hecht, Andrew C; Cai, Weijing; Vlassara, Helen; Striker, Gary E; Iatridis, James C

    2015-01-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration and pathological spinal changes are major causes of back pain, which is the top cause of global disability. Obese and diabetic individuals are at increased risk for back pain and musculoskeletal complications. Modern diets contain high levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), cyto-toxic components which are known contributors to obesity, diabetes and accelerated aging pathologies. There is little information about potential effects of AGE rich diet on spinal pathology, which may be a contributing cause for back pain which is common in obese and diabetic individuals. This study investigated the role of specific AGE precursors (e.g. methylglyoxal-derivatives (MG)) on IVD and vertebral pathologies in aging C57BL6 mice that were fed isocaloric diets with standard (dMG+) or reduced amounts of MG derivatives (dMG-; containing 60-70% less dMG). dMG+ mice exhibited a pre-diabetic phenotype, as they were insulin resistant but not hyperglycemic. Vertebrae of dMG+ mice displayed increased cortical-thickness and cortical-area, greater MG-AGE accumulation and ectopic calcification in vertebral endplates. IVD morphology of dMG+ mice exhibited ectopic calcification, hypertrophic differentiation and glycosaminoglycan loss relative to dMG- mice. Overall, chronic exposure to dietary AGEs promoted age-accelerated IVD degeneration and vertebral alterations involving ectopic calcification which occurred in parallel with insulin resistance, and which were prevented with dMG- diet. This study described a new mouse model for diet-induced spinal degeneration, and results were in support of the hypothesis that chronic AGE ingestion could be a factor contributing to a pre-diabetic state, ectopic calcifications in spinal tissues, and musculoskeletal complications that are more generally known to occur with chronic diabetic conditions.

  17. Chronic ingestion of advanced glycation end products induces degenerative spinal changes and hypertrophy in aging pre-diabetic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svenja Illien-Jünger

    Full Text Available Intervertebral disc (IVD degeneration and pathological spinal changes are major causes of back pain, which is the top cause of global disability. Obese and diabetic individuals are at increased risk for back pain and musculoskeletal complications. Modern diets contain high levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs, cyto-toxic components which are known contributors to obesity, diabetes and accelerated aging pathologies. There is little information about potential effects of AGE rich diet on spinal pathology, which may be a contributing cause for back pain which is common in obese and diabetic individuals. This study investigated the role of specific AGE precursors (e.g. methylglyoxal-derivatives (MG on IVD and vertebral pathologies in aging C57BL6 mice that were fed isocaloric diets with standard (dMG+ or reduced amounts of MG derivatives (dMG-; containing 60-70% less dMG. dMG+ mice exhibited a pre-diabetic phenotype, as they were insulin resistant but not hyperglycemic. Vertebrae of dMG+ mice displayed increased cortical-thickness and cortical-area, greater MG-AGE accumulation and ectopic calcification in vertebral endplates. IVD morphology of dMG+ mice exhibited ectopic calcification, hypertrophic differentiation and glycosaminoglycan loss relative to dMG- mice. Overall, chronic exposure to dietary AGEs promoted age-accelerated IVD degeneration and vertebral alterations involving ectopic calcification which occurred in parallel with insulin resistance, and which were prevented with dMG- diet. This study described a new mouse model for diet-induced spinal degeneration, and results were in support of the hypothesis that chronic AGE ingestion could be a factor contributing to a pre-diabetic state, ectopic calcifications in spinal tissues, and musculoskeletal complications that are more generally known to occur with chronic diabetic conditions.

  18. Effect of age on variability in the production of text-based global inferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lynne J; Dunlop, Joseph P; Abdi, Hervé

    2012-01-01

    As we age, our differences in cognitive skills become more visible, an effect especially true for memory and problem solving skills (i.e., fluid intelligence). However, by contrast with fluid intelligence, few studies have examined variability in measures that rely on one's world knowledge (i.e., crystallized intelligence). The current study investigated whether age increased the variability in text based global inference generation--a measure of crystallized intelligence. Global inference generation requires the integration of textual information and world knowledge and can be expressed as a gist or lesson. Variability in generating two global inferences for a single text was examined in young-old (62 to 69 years), middle-old (70 to 76 years) and old-old (77 to 94 years) adults. The older two groups showed greater variability, with the middle elderly group being most variable. These findings suggest that variability may be a characteristic of both fluid and crystallized intelligence in aging.

  19. Effect of age on variability in the production of text-based global inferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne J Williams

    Full Text Available As we age, our differences in cognitive skills become more visible, an effect especially true for memory and problem solving skills (i.e., fluid intelligence. However, by contrast with fluid intelligence, few studies have examined variability in measures that rely on one's world knowledge (i.e., crystallized intelligence. The current study investigated whether age increased the variability in text based global inference generation--a measure of crystallized intelligence. Global inference generation requires the integration of textual information and world knowledge and can be expressed as a gist or lesson. Variability in generating two global inferences for a single text was examined in young-old (62 to 69 years, middle-old (70 to 76 years and old-old (77 to 94 years adults. The older two groups showed greater variability, with the middle elderly group being most variable. These findings suggest that variability may be a characteristic of both fluid and crystallized intelligence in aging.

  20. Quality of Life and Health State of Long – Term Unemployed in Older Production Age

    OpenAIRE

    Worach-Kardas, Halina; Kostrzewski, Szymon

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the changes in the subjective quality of life (QoL) and health state of unemployed people at the age of 45 and older in the city environment. The study also aimed at evaluating some social and demographic factors on the quality of life and health of the unemployed. A group of 454 unemployed people aged 45 and older, registered in labour offices in the city of Łódź, Poland were included in the study. Two groups were formed: short-term and long-term unemploy...

  1. Minimum Age of Sale for Tobacco Products and Electronic Cigarettes: Ethical Acceptability of US "Tobacco 21 Laws".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morain, Stephanie Rubino; Malek, Janet

    2017-09-01

    Several US jurisdictions have recently passed laws that raise the minimum age of sale for tobacco products and electronic cigarettes to 21 years (Tobacco 21 laws). Although these laws have been demonstrated to be an effective means to reduce youth smoking initiation, their passage and potential expansion have provoked controversy. Critics have objected to these laws, claiming that they unduly intrude on individual freedom and that they irrationally and paternalistically restrict the freedom of those aged 18 to 20 years, who were previously able to legally purchase tobacco products. We have examined the ethical acceptability of Tobacco 21 laws. First, we have described ethical support for such a restriction grounded in its public health benefit. We have then offered arguments that raise doubts about the soundness of critics' objections to these regulations and described an additional ethical justification arising from concern about preventing harm to others. On the basis of this analysis, we conclude that Tobacco 21 laws are ethically justifiable.

  2. A Mathematical Model for Estimation of Kelp Bed Productivity: Age Dependence and Contributions of Subsurface Kelp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbo, S. K.; Palacios, S. L.; Zimmerman, R. C.; Kudela, R. M.

    2012-12-01

    Macrocystis pyrifera, giant kelp, is a major primary producer of the California coastal ocean that provides habitat for marine species through the formation of massive kelp beds. The estimation of primary productivity of these kelp beds is essential for a complete understanding of their health and of the biogeochemistry of the region. Current methods involve either the application of a proportionality constant to remotely sensed biomass or in situ frond density measurements. The purpose of this research was to improve upon conventional primary productivity estimates by developing a model which takes into account the spectral differences among juvenile, mature, and senescent tissues as well as the photosynthetic contributions of subsurface kelp. A modified version of a seagrass productivity model (Zimmerman 2006) was used to quantify carbon fixation. Inputs included estimates of the underwater light field as computed by solving the radiative transfer equation (with the Hydrolight(TM) software package) and biological parameters obtained from the literature. It was found that mature kelp is the most efficient primary producer, especially in light-limited environments, due to increased light absorptance. It was also found that incoming light attenuates below useful levels for photosynthesis more rapidly than has been previously accounted for in productivity estimates, with productivity dropping below half maximum at approximately 0.75 m. As a case study for comparison with the biomass method, the model was applied to Isla Vista kelp bed in Santa Barbara, using area estimates from the MODIS-ASTER Simulator (MASTER). A graphical user-interface was developed for users to provide inputs to run the kelp productivity model under varying conditions. Accurately quantifying kelp productivity is essential for understanding its interaction with offshore ecosystems as well as its contribution to the coastal carbon cycle.

  3. Comprehensive analyses of how tubule occlusion and advanced glycation end-products diminish strength of aged dentin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinno, Yuko; Ishimoto, Takuya; Saito, Mitsuru; Uemura, Reo; Arino, Masumi; Marumo, Keishi; Nakano, Takayoshi; Hayashi, Mikako

    2016-01-01

    In clinical dentistry, since fracture is a major cause of tooth loss, better understanding of mechanical properties of teeth structures is important. Dentin, the major hard tissue of teeth, has similar composition to bone. In this study, we investigated the mechanical properties of human dentin not only in terms of mineral density but also using structural and quality parameters as recently accepted in evaluating bone strength. Aged crown and root dentin (age ≥ 40) exhibited significantly lower flexural strength and toughness than young dentin (age mineral density; but showed significantly lower flexural strength than young dentin. Dentin with strong alignment of the c-axis in hydroxyapatite exhibited high fracture strength, possibly because the aligned apatite along the collagen fibrils may reinforce the intertubular dentin. Aged dentin, showing a high advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) level in its collagen, recorded low flexural strength. We first comprehensively identified significant factors, which affected the inferior mechanical properties of aged dentin. The low mechanical strength of aged dentin is caused by the high mineral density resulting from occlusion of dentinal tubules and accumulation of AGEs in dentin collagen.

  4. When can insurers offer products that dominate delayed old-age pension benefit claiming?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, L.; De Waegenaere, A.M.B.; Nijman, T.E.

    2013-01-01

    It is common practice for public pension schemes to offer individuals the option to delay benefit claiming until after the normal retirement age, and increase the annual benefit level as a result. Existing literature shows that for non-liquidity constrained individuals, delaying benefit claiming for

  5. Biological and Economic Productivity of Mixed-Aged Loblolly Pine Stands in the South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald Raunikar; Joseph Buongiorno; Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Karen Lee-Abt

    1999-01-01

    The financial performance of the 991 sample plots of uneven-aged loblolly-hardwood stands in the Central South FIA database examined in this report depend crucially on real price trends. Equivalent annual income (EAI) is the measure of economic performance. The regional market stumpage price data are from the Timber Mart-South database. For this set of prices, a...

  6. Determining productivity gains from herbaceous vegetation management with 'age-shift' calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. South; James H. Miller; Mark O. Kimberley; Curtis L. Vanderschaaf

    2006-01-01

    Gains in stand volume that result from competition control and fertilization are sometimes reported as 'percentage gains'. Because percentage gains arithmetically decline over time asstand volume increases, plantation managers have difficultyin using percentage gains to project growth and revenues. The 'age-shift' method quantifies the year...

  7. SEASONAL PATTERNS OF FINE ROOT PRODUCTION AND TURNOVER IN PONDEROSA PINE STANDS OF DIFFERENT AGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root minirhizotron tubes were installed in two ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) stands around three different tree age classes (16, 45, and > 250 yr old) to examine root spatial distribution in relation to canopy size and tree distribution, and to determine if rates of fine...

  8. Influence Of Intensive Exercise On Renal Functions (Rf And Advanced Glycation End-Products (Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Mydlík

    2012-06-01

    In conclusion, RF abnormalities in runners were caused by dehydration, protein catabolism, rhabdomyolysis and others. These RF changes were not present or parameters not significantly differed from initial values 2 days after both runs. Plasma AGEs and AOPPs in runners were in reference ranges, no significant changes during the both runs were observed.

  9. Red-cockaded woodpecker nest-cavity selection: relationships with cavity age and resin production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; D. Craig Rudolph; William G. Ross; David L. Kulhavy

    1998-01-01

    The authors evaluated selection of nest sites by male red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) in Texas relative to the age of the cavity when only cavities excavated by the woodpeckers were available and when both naturally excavated cavities and artificial cavities were available. They also evaluated nest-cavity selection relative to the ability of naturally...

  10. Electronics Come of Age: A Taxonomy for Miscellaneous and LowPower Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordman, Bruce; Sanchez, Marla C.

    2006-08-01

    Most energy end uses such as space conditioning or waterheating are apparently well-defined in what is included, and haveterminology that derives from the professionals who work in the relevantfield. The topic of miscellaneous consumption lacks such clarity forhistorical and practical reasons. As this end use grows in size andinterest for the energy community, the confusion and ambiguity around thetopic is an increasing barrier to progress. This paper providesdefinitions for key terms and concepts with the intent that that futurework can be more correctly and consistently reported and interpreted. Inaddition, it provides a taxonomy of product types and categories, whichcovers both residential and commercial miscellaneous consumption. A keyelement is identification of "electronics" as a distinct energy end use.Finally, products are identified as to whether they commonly have alow-power mode, and product types that have such modes within thetraditional end uses are also listed.

  11. Economic interdependence and complexity: Falaj agriculture and ceramic production in the southeast Arabian iron age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magee, P.

    1997-01-01

    Over the last fifteen years surveys and excavations in the United Arab Emirates and Sultanate of Oman have revealed a widespread and distinctive material culture dating to the late second and first millennium BC. In this paper the results of PIXE-PIGME analysis of ceramics from the Iron II period (1100-600 BC) are presented. In combination with ceramic distribution data, the analysis permits the identification of ceramic production areas. More importantly, however, the analysis, when combined with environmental and subsistence strategy data, provides an insight into the relationship between agricultural intensification and ceramic production and the varying degrees of economic complexity which existed at this time

  12. The Peak of the Oil Age - Analyzing the world oil production Reference Scenario in World Energy Outlook 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleklett, Kjell; Hoeoek, Mikael; Jakobsson, Kristofer; Lardelli, Michael; Snowden, Simon; Soederbergh, Bengt

    2010-01-01

    The assessment of future global oil production presented in the IEA's World Energy Outlook 2008 (WEO 2008) is divided into 6 fractions; four relate to crude oil, one to non-conventional oil, and the final fraction is natural-gas-liquids (NGL). Using the production parameter, depletion-rate-of-recoverable-resources, we have analyzed the four crude oil fractions and found that the 75 Mb/d of crude oil production forecast for year 2030 appears significantly overstated, and is more likely to be in the region of 55 Mb/d. Moreover, analysis of the other fractions strongly suggests lower than expected production levels. In total, our analysis points to a world oil supply in 2030 of 75 Mb/d, some 26 Mb/d lower than the IEA predicts. The connection between economic growth and energy use is fundamental in the IEA's present modelling approach. Since our forecast sees little chance of a significant increase in global oil production, our findings suggest that the 'policy makers, investors and end users' to whom WEO 2008 is addressed should rethink their future plans for economic growth. The fact that global oil production has very probably passed its maximum implies that we have reached the Peak of the Oil Age.

  13. A Basal Area Increment-Based Approach of Site Productivity Evaluation for Multi-Aged and Mixed Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyong Fu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimates of forest site productivity are essential for environmental planning and forest management. In this study, we developed a new productivity index, hereafter termed basal area potential productivity index (BAPP, to estimate site productivity for irregular and complex forests characterized by multi-aged, multi-species, and multi-layer stands. We presented the biological relevance of BAPP with its computational details. We also compared BAPP against basal area realized productivity (BARP in order to verify the practicability and reliability of BAPP. Time-series data of the national forest inventory on 1912 permanent sample plots that were located in two main forest types and consisted of oak-dominated mixed forests and other broadleaf forests in northeast China were used to demonstrate the application of BAPP. The results showed that the value of BAPP for each sample plot was larger than or equal to the corresponding BARP value for each forest type. For appropriately managed stands with relatively better site conditions, the values of both BARP and BAPP were almost identical. The values of the difference between BAPP and BARP could therefore be used to effectively assess forest site productivity. Meanwhile, BAPP also provides much reliable and valuable information that can aid decision-making in forest management.

  14. Forest products industry in a digital age: Factors affecting social media adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn Gazal; Iris Montague; Rajendra Poudel; Jan Wiedenbeck

    2016-01-01

    The use of social media as a marketing tool has increased significantly in recent years. However, limited information is available regarding social media use in the US forest products industry or social media adoption at the organizational level, especially within the business-to-business context. This study presents part two of a two-part series of articles that look...

  15. Exercise is more than medicine: The working age population's well-being and productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Sjøgaard

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: IPET does enhance health if an exercise program with evidenced efficacy is implemented by expert trainees with support of the employer. Accordingly, in every study group outcomes of improved health were documented and the effect sizes were of clinical relevance. Cost effectiveness estimates indicate acceptable cost relative to savings on health expenses and lost productivity.

  16. Broadcasting Education in the Age of New Media: Building Multimedia Products from the Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltimore, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    As our society continues to develop new technologies, the use of streaming technologies in higher education has lagged behind. The traditional academic landscape is dependent upon instructors to use commercial media products to deliver adjunct learning materials to the classroom. Faculty are also beginning to explore in the use of social media in…

  17. Young poker faces: Compliance with the legal age limit on multiple gambling products in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosselt, Jordi Franciscus; Neefs, Astrid K.; van Hoof, Joris Jasper; Wagteveld, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Gambling is an activity that can be performed on-premise (slot machines in casinos, bars and restaurants) or off-premise (scratch cards and lottery tickets). Although the addictive potential may depend on the specific gambling product, early onset increases the likelihood for future pathological

  18. Effect of post-hatch transportation duration and parental age on broiler chicken quality, welfare, and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Leonie; Delezie, Evelyne; Duchateau, Luc; Goethals, Klara; Ampe, Bart; Lambrecht, Evelien; Gellynck, Xavier; Tuyttens, Frank A M

    2016-09-01

    Broiler chicks are transported to production sites within one to 2 d post-hatch. Possible effects of this transportation are poorly understood and could vary among chicks from breeder flocks of different ages. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of transportation duration and parental flock age on chick welfare, productivity, and quality. After hatch in a commercial hatchery, 1,620 mixed-sex chicks from 29-wk old (young) and 1,620 chicks from 60-wk old (old) breeders were subjected to transportation of 1.5 h or 11 h duration. After transportation, 2,800 chicks were divided among 100 pens, with each pen containing 28 chicks from one transportation crate (2 or 3 pens per crate). From the remaining chicks, on average 6 chicks (min 4, max 8) per crate (n = 228) were randomly selected and assessed for chick quality, weighed, and culled for yolk sac weighing (one d). Chicks that had not been assigned to pens or were not used for post-transportation measurements, were removed from the experiment (n = 212). Mortality, ADG, BW, and feed conversion ( FC: ) of the experimental chicks were recorded until 41 d. Meat quality was measured for breast fillets (n = 47). No interaction effect of parental age and transportation duration was found for any variables. BW and yolk sac weight at one d were lower for chicks transported 11 h than 1.5 h and for chicks from young versus old breeders. The effect of parental flock age on BW persisted until slaughter. Additionally, parental age positively affected ADG until slaughter. Chick quality was lower in chicks from old versus young breeders. Chick quality and productivity were not affected by transportation duration. Mortality and meat quality were not affected by either parental age or transportation duration. To conclude, no long-term detrimental effects were found from long post-hatch transportation in chicks from young or old parent flocks. Based on these results, we suggest that 11 h post

  19. Perceived Expectations for Active Aging, Formal Productive Roles, and Psychological Adjustment Among the Young-Old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Maria K; Silbereisen, Rainer K

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how older adults' perceptions of societal expectations for active aging, or activation demands (e.g., to stay fit and to contribute to the public good), relate to their involvement in paid work and formal volunteering and psychological adjustment. We used two waves of survey data on young-old Germans (aged 56-75, N(T1) = 1,508, N(T2) = 602). With the exception of several items on perceived activation demands, paid work and volunteering were not significant longitudinal predictors of such demands. In females, perceived activation demands increased the likelihood to work for pay a year later. Finally, among nonworking individuals, perceived activation demands predicted a better physical self-concept and a higher positive affect, whereas among nonvolunteers, such demands predicted fewer depressive symptoms a year later. We conclude that the policy debate on active aging may benefit some older German adults but is of little consequence for most of them. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. The Day-to-Day Co-Production of Ageing in Place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter, Rob; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Wherton, Joe; Sugarhood, Paul; Rouncefield, Mark; Hinder, Sue

    We report findings from a study that set out to explore the experience of older people living with assisted living technologies and care services. We find that successful 'ageing in place' is socially and collaboratively accomplished - 'co-produced' - day-to-day by the efforts of older people, and their formal and informal networks of carers (e.g. family, friends, neighbours). First, we reveal how 'bricolage' allows care recipients and family members to customise assisted living technologies to individual needs. We argue that making customisation easier through better design must be part of making assisted living technologies 'work'. Second, we draw attention to the importance of formal and informal carers establishing and maintaining mutual awareness of the older person's circumstances day-to-day so they can act in a concerted and coordinated way when problems arise. Unfortunately, neither the design of most current assisted living technologies, nor the ways care services are typically configured, acknowledges these realities of ageing in place. We conclude that rather than more 'advanced' technologies, the success of ageing in place programmes will depend on effortful alignments in the technical, organisational and social configuration of support.

  1. Reconciling Biodiversity Conservation and Timber Production in Mixed Uneven-Aged Mountain Forests: Identification of Ecological Intensification Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafond, Valentine; Cordonnier, Thomas; Courbaud, Benoît

    2015-11-01

    Mixed uneven-aged forests are considered favorable to the provision of multiple ecosystem services and to the conciliation of timber production and biodiversity conservation. However, some forest managers now plan to increase the intensity of thinning and harvesting operations in these forests. Retention measures or gap creation are considered to compensate potential negative impacts on biodiversity. Our objectives were to assess the effect of these management practices on timber production and biodiversity conservation and identify potential compensating effects between these practices, using the concept of ecological intensification as a framework. We performed a simulation study coupling Samsara2, a simulation model designed for spruce-fir uneven-aged mountain forests, an uneven-aged silviculture algorithm, and biodiversity models. We analyzed the effect of parameters related to uneven-aged management practices on timber production, biodiversity, and sustainability indicators. Our study confirmed that the indicators responded differently to management practices, leading to trade-offs situations. Increasing management intensity had negative impacts on several biodiversity indicators, which could be partly compensated by the positive effect of retention measures targeting large trees, non-dominant species, and deadwood. The impact of gap creation was more mitigated, with a positive effect on the diversity of tree sizes and deadwood but a negative impact on the spruce-fir mixing balance and on the diversity of the understory layer. Through the analysis of compensating effects, we finally revealed the existence of possible ecological intensification pathways, i.e., the possibility to increase management intensity while maintaining biodiversity through the promotion of nature-based management principles (gap creation and retention measures).

  2. DIELECTRON PRODUCTION IN Ar+KCl AT 1.756 AGeV WITH HADES

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křížek, Filip

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 24, 2-3 (2009), s. 603-606 ISSN 0217-751X. [Conference MESON 2008. Jagiellonian Univ, Cracow, 06.06.2008-10.06.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100480803; GA MŠk LC07050 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Light vector mesons * pair production * heavy ion collisions Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.941, year: 2009

  3. Aging-dependent decline of IL-10 producing B cells coincides with production of antinuclear antibodies but not rheumatoid factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Geest, Kornelis S M; Lorencetti, Pedro G; Abdulahad, Wayel H; Horst, Gerda; Huitema, Minke; Roozendaal, Caroline; Kroesen, Bart-Jan; Brouwer, Elisabeth; Boots, Annemieke M H

    2016-03-01

    Aging is associated with development of autoimmunity. Loss of B cell tolerance in the elderly is suggested by an increased prevalence of anti-nuclear antibodies (ANAs) and rheumatoid factors (RFs). Accumulating evidence indicates that B cells also impact autoimmunity via secretion of cytokines. So far, few studies have directly assessed the effect of aging on the latter B cell function. Here, we determined if and how human aging influences the production of cytokines by B cells. In a cross-sectional study, we found that absolute numbers of circulating B cells were similar in 31 young (ages 19-39) and 73 old (age ≥ 60) individuals. Numbers of transitional B cells (CD19(+)CD27(-)CD38(High)CD24(High)) were decreased in old individuals, whereas numbers of naive and memory B cell subsets were comparable in young and old individuals. Short-term in vitro stimulation of whole blood samples revealed that numbers of B cells capable of producing TNF-α were similar in young and old individuals. In contrast, B cells capable of IL-10 production were decreased in old subjects. This decline of IL-10(+) B cells was observed in old individuals that were ANA positive, and in those that were negative for both ANAs and RFs. However, IL-10(+) B cells were remarkably well retained in the circulation of old subjects that were RF positive. Thus, pro-inflammatory TNF-α(+) B cells are retained in the elderly, whereas IL-10(+) B cells generally decline. In addition, our findings indicate that IL-10(+) B cells may differentially impact the development of ANAs and RFs in the elderly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Prokaryotic communities in pit mud from different-aged cellars used for the production of Chinese strong-flavored liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yong; Li, Jiabao; Rui, Junpeng; Xu, Zhancheng; Zhou, Yan; Hu, Xiaohong; Wang, Xiang; Liu, Menghua; Li, Daping; Li, Xiangzhen

    2014-04-01

    Chinese strong-flavored liquor (CSFL) accounts for more than 70% of all Chinese liquor production. Microbes in pit mud play key roles in the fermentation cellar for the CSFL production. However, microbial diversity, community structure, and cellar-age-related changes in pit mud are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the prokaryotic community structure and diversity in pit-mud samples with different cellar ages (1, 10, 25, and 50 years) using the pyrosequencing technique. Results indicated that prokaryotic diversity increased with cellar age until the age reached 25 years and that prokaryotic community structure changed significantly between three cellar ages (1, 10, and 25 years). Significant correlations between prokaryotic communities and environmental variables (pH, NH4(+), lactic acid, butyric acid, and caproic acid) were observed. Overall, our study results suggested that the long-term brewing operation shapes unique prokaryotic community structure and diversity as well as pit-mud chemistry. We have proposed a three-phase model to characterize the changes of pit-mud prokaryotic communities. (i) Phase I is an initial domestication period. Pit mud is characterized by abundant Lactobacillus and high lactic acid and low pH levels. (ii) Phase II is a transition period. While Lactobacillus abundance decreases dramatically, that of Bacteroidetes and methanogens increases. (iii) Phase III is a relative mature period. The prokaryotic community shows the highest diversity and capability to produce more caproic acid as a precursor for synthesis of ethyl caproate, the main flavor component in CSFL. This research provides scientific evidence to support the practical experience that old fermentation cellars produce high-quality liquor.

  5. Strangeness production in Ni+Ni collisions at 1.93 AGeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, X.

    2004-12-01

    This work deals with the production of strange particles in Ni + Ni collisions at 1.93 A GeV detected with the Fopi (four pi) detector at the heavy ion synchrotron SIS (GSI - Germany). We have limited our investigation to the study of Λ and Ξ hyperons. The first chapter presents the models used to describe ultra-relativistic heavy ions collisions. In the second chapter we present the main experimental results concerning the production and transport of strange particles in an energy domain ranging from SIS to RHIC (relativistic heavy ion collider) energies. The third chapter is dedicated to the specificities of the Fopi detector. The fourth chapter deals with the production of Λ particles in Ni + Ni collisions. An analysis method based on neuron network has been used in parallel with a more classical method. The production rate and temperature of Λ have been deduced from both methods. The neuron network method gives a statistical gain and allows a better identification of particles with low transverse impulses. The fifth chapter is dedicated to the detection of the doubly strange Ξ - particle. A detailed study about the stability of the signal is presented. In the last chapter all our experimental results are confronted with theoretical predictions. The UrQMD model that uses a hard equation of state, can simulate satisfactorily the production rates of Λ and K + as well as their dependency on collision centrality despite the fact that this model does not use a potential linked to the medium density. The comparison between experimental results and predictions given by the IQMD model (that is based on a soft equation of state) is better when the version of the model that does not take into account the effects of the media is used. We see that the choices for the nuclear matter compressibility, for the particles involved in Kaon and Λ creation process, or for the interaction potential with dense medium, appear to be degrees of freedom that are difficult to adjust

  6. Usability evaluation through gonad shielding production of pediatric patients by gender and age rating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chui, Sung Hyun; Park, Jung Eun; Chun, Woon Kwan; Ju, Yong Jin; Yang, Nam Hee; Dong, Kyung Rae

    2015-01-01

    The gonad shielding is used to minimize the impact of the exposure to gonads when Abdomen, Plevis and Hip X-ray inspections are conducted on radiation impressionable pediatric patients. By the way, the gonad is palpable difficult and impossible to check visually because it's a sensitive area, so tests are conducted with the approximate location of shielding, thereby appearing problems of not shielding gonads accurately. Accordingly, this study produced shields by age and gender of pediatric patients and studied the method of positioning shields with ASIS as a reference point without palpable sensitive areas, and tried to evaluate its usability. The study surveyed 30 pediatric patients by gender and age, who came and got inspected in Department of Radiology, our hospital from February 2012 to January 2014 and obtained the value of tolerance by measuring the average size of the pelvis using the distance measurement function of Infinitt Piview with the images stored in the PACS and producing shields by age and gender of pediatric patients and specifying the areas at random for the comparative analysis of pre- and post-using. It calculated the technology statistics (mean±SD) with the value of tolerance measured the length using SPSS 12.0 statistical program. As for boys, differences in the tolerance range of pre- and post-using shields were 2.69 mm in case of 1 year old, 2.58 mm in 2 years, 2.37 mm in 3 years, 2.815 mm in 4-5 years, 2.043 mm in 7-10 years, and as for girls,1.92 mm in 1-2 years, 1.75 mm in 3-4 years, 2.52 mm in 5-6 years and 1.93 mm in 7-10. After analyzing the pre- and post-using shields for all of boys and girls, there were statistically significant differences (P<0.050). It is considered that we can minimize the exposure to gonads and get a better video for diagnosis in testing high biological impressionable pediatric, if we use shields correctly with ASIS as a reference point considering its shape and size by age and gender in Abdomen, Plevis

  7. Microwave-assisted Maillard reactions for the preparation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visentin, Sonja; Medana, Claudio; Barge, Alessandro; Giancotti, Valeria; Cravotto, Giancarlo

    2010-05-21

    The application of microwaves as an efficient form of volumetric heating to promote organic reactions was recognized in the mid-1980 s. It has a much longer history in the food research and industry where microwave irradiation was studied in depth to optimize food browning and the development of desirable flavours from Maillard reactions. The microwave-promoted Maillard reaction is a challenging synthetic method to generate molecular diversity in a straightforward way. In this paper we present a new rapid and efficient one-pot procedure for the preparation of pentosidine and other AGEs under microwave irradiation.

  8. Usability evaluation through gonad shielding production of pediatric patients by gender and age rating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chui, Sung Hyun; Park, Jung Eun [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Woon Kwan; Ju, Yong Jin; Yang, Nam Hee [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Dong, Kyung Rae [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Gwangju Health University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The gonad shielding is used to minimize the impact of the exposure to gonads when Abdomen, Plevis and Hip X-ray inspections are conducted on radiation impressionable pediatric patients. By the way, the gonad is palpable difficult and impossible to check visually because it's a sensitive area, so tests are conducted with the approximate location of shielding, thereby appearing problems of not shielding gonads accurately. Accordingly, this study produced shields by age and gender of pediatric patients and studied the method of positioning shields with ASIS as a reference point without palpable sensitive areas, and tried to evaluate its usability. The study surveyed 30 pediatric patients by gender and age, who came and got inspected in Department of Radiology, our hospital from February 2012 to January 2014 and obtained the value of tolerance by measuring the average size of the pelvis using the distance measurement function of Infinitt Piview with the images stored in the PACS and producing shields by age and gender of pediatric patients and specifying the areas at random for the comparative analysis of pre- and post-using. It calculated the technology statistics (mean±SD) with the value of tolerance measured the length using SPSS 12.0 statistical program. As for boys, differences in the tolerance range of pre- and post-using shields were 2.69 mm in case of 1 year old, 2.58 mm in 2 years, 2.37 mm in 3 years, 2.815 mm in 4-5 years, 2.043 mm in 7-10 years, and as for girls,1.92 mm in 1-2 years, 1.75 mm in 3-4 years, 2.52 mm in 5-6 years and 1.93 mm in 7-10. After analyzing the pre- and post-using shields for all of boys and girls, there were statistically significant differences (P<0.050). It is considered that we can minimize the exposure to gonads and get a better video for diagnosis in testing high biological impressionable pediatric, if we use shields correctly with ASIS as a reference point considering its shape and size by age and gender in Abdomen, Plevis

  9. Age-related changes in kynurenic acid production in rat brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramsbergen, J B; Schmidt, W; Turski, W A

    1992-01-01

    Two separate in vitro assays were used to examine the biosynthesis of the broad spectrum excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist kynurenic acid (KYNA) during the life span of the adult rat. Assessment of KYNA's anabolic enzyme kynurenine aminotransferase revealed steady increases between 3 and 24...... investigated in tissue slices and was found to be significantly enhanced in the cortex and hippocampus of old animals. The effect of depolarizing agents or sodium replacement was virtually identical in tissues from young and old rats. These data, which are in excellent agreement with reports on an age...

  10. Gross domestic product and health expenditure associated with incidence, 30-day fatality, and age at stroke onset: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sposato, Luciano A; Saposnik, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    Differences in definitions of socioeconomic status and between study designs hinder their comparability across countries. We aimed to analyze the correlation between 3 widely used macrosocioeconomic status indicators and clinical outcomes. We selected population-based studies reporting incident stroke risk and/or 30-day case-fatality according to prespecified criteria. We used 3 macrosocioeconomic status indicators that are consistently defined by international agencies: per capita gross domestic product adjusted for purchasing power parity, total health expenditures per capita at purchasing power parity, and unemployment rate. We examined the correlation of each macrosocioeconomic status indicator with incident risk of stroke, 30-day case-fatality, proportion of hemorrhagic strokes, and age at stroke onset. Twenty-three articles comprising 30 population-based studies fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Age-adjusted incident risk of stroke using the standardized World Health Organization World population was associated to lower per capita gross domestic product adjusted for purchasing power parity (ρ=-0.661, P=0.027, R(2)=0.32) and total health expenditures per capita at purchasing power parity (ρ=-0.623, P=0.040, R(2)=0.26). Thirty-day case-fatality rates and proportion of hemorrhagic strokes were also related to lower per capita gross domestic product adjusted for purchasing power parity and total health expenditures per capita at purchasing power parity. Moreover, stroke occurred at a younger age in populations with low per capita gross domestic product adjusted for purchasing power parity and total health expenditures per capita at purchasing power parity. There was no correlation between unemployment rates and outcome measures. Lower per capita gross domestic product adjusted for purchasing power parity and total health expenditures per capita at purchasing power parity were associated with higher incident risk of stroke, higher case-fatality, a greater

  11. β-cell serotonin production is associated with female sex, old age, and diabetes-free condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeong Gi; Moon, Joon Ho; Kim, Kyuho; Kim, Hyeongseok; Kim, Juok; Jeong, Ji-Seon; Lee, Junguee; Kang, Shinae; Park, Joon Seong; Kim, Hail

    2017-11-25

    Serotonin is known to be present in pancreatic β-cells and to play several physiological roles, including insulin secretion, β-cell proliferation, and paracrine inhibition of α-cells. However, the serotonin production of different cell lines and islets has not been compared based on age, sex, and diabetes related conditions. Here, we directly compared the serotonin concentrations in βTC and MIN6 cell lines, as well as in islets from mice using ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The average serotonin concentration was 5-10 ng/mg protein in the islets of male and non-pregnant female mice. The serotonin level was higher in females than males at 8 weeks, although there was no difference at 1 year. Furthermore, we observed serotonin by immunofluorescence staining in the pancreatic tissues of mice and human. Serotonin was detected by immunofluorescence staining in a portion of β-cells from islets of old female mice, but not of male or young female mice. A similar pattern was observed in human pancreas as well. In humans, serotonin production in β-cells was associated with a diabetes-free condition. Thus, serotonin production in β-cells was associated with old age, female sex, and diabetes-free condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Early Age Carbonation Heat and Products of Tricalcium Silicate Paste Subject to Carbon Dioxide Curing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the carbonation reaction heat and products of tricalcium silicate (C3S paste exposed to carbon dioxide (CO2 for rapid curing. Reaction heat was measured using a retrofitted micro-calorimeter. The highest heat flow of a C3S paste subject to carbonation curing was 200 times higher than that by hydration, and the cumulative heat released by carbonation was three times higher. The compressive strength of a C3S paste carbonated for 2 h and 24 h was 27.5 MPa and 62.9 MPa, respectively. The 24-h carbonation strength had exceeded the hydration strength at 28 days. The CO2 uptake of a C3S paste carbonated for 2 h and 24 h was 17% and 26%, respectively. The X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive spectrometer (TEM-EDS, and 29Si magic angle spinning–nuclear magnetic resonance (29Si MAS-NMR results showed that the products of a carbonated C3S paste were amorphous silica (SiO2 and calcite crystal. There was no trace of calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H or other polymorphs of calcium carbonate (CaCO3 detected.

  13. N-epsilon-(carboxyethyl)lysine, a product of the chemical modification of proteins by methylglyoxal, increases with age in human lens proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, M U; Brinkmann Frye, E; Degenhardt, T P; Thorpe, S R; Baynes, J W

    1997-01-01

    Advanced glycation end-products and glycoxidation products, such as Nepsilon-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) and pentosidine, accumulate in long-lived tissue proteins with age and are implicated in the aging of tissue proteins and in the development of pathology in diabetes, atherosclerosis and other diseases. In this paper we describe a new advanced glycation end-product, Nepsilon-(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL), which is formed during the reaction of methylglyoxal with lysine residues in model compo...

  14. Eicosanoid Production following One Bout of Exercise in Middle-Aged African American Pre- and Stage 1 Hypertensives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheara Williamson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial dysfunction and a sedentary lifestyle may be involved in the development of hypertension which is proliferative among middle-aged African Americans (AA. Signaling molecules derived from the oxidation of 20-carbon fatty acid molecules known as eicosanoids influence vascular tone. The relationship between aerobic fitness and eicosanoid formation following exercise in middle-aged African American hypertensives is unknown. Purpose. To determine the relationship between aerobic capacity and eicosanoid formation after a bout of moderate-intensity exercise in middle-aged AA hypertensives. Methods. Ten sedentary hypertensive AA underwent 50 min of aerobic exercise at 65% VO2max. Urine was collected for 24 hr on two occasions, prior to testing and immediately following the bout of exercise. Urinary metabolites of prostacyclin (6-keto PGF1α and thromboxane (11-dTXB2 were measured during the day and night periods by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Results. 6-keto PGF1α levels significantly increased (=.04 following the bout of exercise compared to the control day. There was a significant relationship (=.49, <.05 between 6-keto PGF1α levels and VO2max during the exercise day. Conclusion. Based on this preliminary study, there appears to be a relationship between aerobic capacity and exercise-induced 6-keto PGF1α production in middle-aged hypertensive AAs. AAs with lower VO2max had lower 6-keto PGF1α formation.

  15. Aggravation of brain infarction through an increase in acrolein production and a decrease in glutathione with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Takeshi; Watanabe, Kenta; Ishibashi, Misaki; Saiki, Ryotaro; Kuni, Kyoshiro; Nishimura, Kazuhiro; Toida, Toshihiko; Kashiwagi, Keiko; Igarashi, Kazuei

    2016-04-29

    We previously reported that tissue damage during brain infarction was mainly caused by inactivation of proteins by acrolein. This time, it was tested why brain infarction increases in parallel with aging. A mouse model of photochemically induced thrombosis (PIT) was studied using 2, 6, and 12 month-old female C57BL/6 mice. The size of brain infarction in the mouse PIT model increased with aging. The volume of brain infarction in 12 month-old mice was approximately 2-fold larger than that in 2 month-old mice. The larger brain infarction in 12 month-old mice was due to an increase in acrolein based on an increase in the activity of spermine oxidase, together with a decrease in glutathione (GSH), a major acrolein-detoxifying compound in cells, based on the decrease in one of the subunits of glutathione biosynthesizing enzymes, γ-glutamylcysteine ligase modifier subunit, with aging. The results indicate that aggravation of brain infarction with aging was mainly due to the increase in acrolein production and the decrease in GSH in brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of housing system and age of laying hens on egg performance in fresh pasta production: pasta cooking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamprese, Cristina; Casiraghi, Ernestina; Rossi, Margherita

    2011-03-30

    Very few studies concern the effects of layer housing systems and age on egg technological properties. Thus the aim of this work was to study the influence of these two factors on egg performance in fresh pasta production, focusing on pasta cooking behaviour. Samples of pasta subjected to analysis were prepared with eggs laid by Hy-Line Brown hens (from 27 to 68 weeks old) housed in cage, barn and organic systems. Higher average values of weight increase and matter loss during pasta cooking were observed for samples prepared with eggs laid by older hens. Such cooking behaviour indicated the development of a weaker pasta protein network, resulting from a decrease in the quantity of albumen protein and an increase in fat content, which is due to the reduction in albumen/yolk ratio during hen aging. The housing system had a significant effect only on matter loss in cooking water, but differences between samples were so small as to be unlikely perceived by consumers. Both hen age and housing system significantly affected pasta cooking behaviour, but the greatest effect was exerted by the hen age. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Treatment effect of iron tablets on women in productive age with iron deficiency anemia and vascular headaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasami, K.; Faraji, F.; Mohammadbeigi, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Migraine is classified into two groups of vascular headaches. Also, iron anemia is the most common type of anemia among women who are in the productive age in the world. This study was done to investigate the relationship between the vascular headaches and the iron deficiency anemia and to see the effect of iron deficiency tablets administration on the treatment of these headaches in women who are in the productive age. Methodology: In this quasi-control clinical trial study, 50 women in the productive age - who had iron deficiency anemia and vascular headaches and were referred to the neurological clinic of Vali-e-Asr hospital, Arak, Iran were included. The patients were treated with ferrous sulfate tablets for three months. For verifying the treatment, the patients' hemoglobin was monitored after one month, and in the case of and significant increase in this value, the patients were excluded from study. The number of headache attacks and the number of analgesic use before, through, and three month after the beginning of the administration of ferrous sulfate were needed for all the patients. Results: The mean number of the headaches attacks one month before the treatment, during the treatment and three months after the treatment were 19.6 +- 28, 14.2 +- 11.2 and 13.3 +- 16.1, respectively (p < 0.0001). In addition, the mean number of used analgesics before the treatment, during the treatment, and three months after the treatment were 30.1 +- 14.1, 14.3 +- 11.2. and 13.1 +- 16.1 respectively (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: It seems that using iron tablets can be useful in treatment of vascular headaches. Moreover, it has a beneficent effect on patients suffering from iron deficiency anemia with headaches. (author)

  18. Hydration products of lime-metakaolin pastes at ambient temperature with ageing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gameiro, A., E-mail: agameiro@lnec.pt [National Laboratory of Civil Engineering, Materials Department, Av. do Brasil, 101, 1700 Lisbon (Portugal); Santos Silva, A., E-mail: ssilva@lnec.pt [National Laboratory of Civil Engineering, Materials Department, Av. do Brasil, 101, 1700 Lisbon (Portugal); Veiga, R., E-mail: rveiga@lnec.pt [National Laboratory of Civil Engineering, Buildings Department, Av. do Brasil, 101, 1700 Lisbon (Portugal); Velosa, A., E-mail: avelosa@ua.pt [Department of Civil Engineering, Geobiotec, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2012-05-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the compounds formed in lime/MK blended pastes and their stability over time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different mixes of lime/MK pastes show different reaction kinetics during curing time, being the pozzolanic compounds formed directly proportional to the lime by MK replacement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Some pozzolanic products are found to be unstable during the hydration reaction employed in our study. - Abstract: Mortars constituted of lime mixtures with pozzolanic additions have been extensively used in the past for the construction of historic and traditional buildings. This paper presents the results of blended pastes of lime and metakaolin (MK), namely compounds formed and their stability over time. This research is part of an extensive study aiming at the formulation of lime based mortars for restoration purposes. It has been shown for several years that MK has been applied in inorganic binders due to its capacity to react vigorously with calcium hydroxide (CH). In the presence of water originating a series of major hydrated phases, namely tetra calcium aluminate hydrate (C{sub 4}AH{sub 13}), calcium silicates hydrates (CSH) and calcium aluminium silicate hydrates (stratlingite - C{sub 2}ASH{sub 8}). Several blended pastes of lime and MK, with different substitution rates of lime by MK (wt%) were prepared and cured at a temperature of 20 Degree-Sign C and relative humidity RH > 95%. The phase composition of the formed hydrated phases was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and simultaneous thermal analysis (TG-DTA). The obtained results showed that lime/MK pastes compositions displayed different reaction kinetics during curing time, being the pozzolanic products content directly proportional to the substitution rate of lime by MK. Also, a relationship between the increase stratlingite content and the MK substitution rate of lime by MK was found.

  19. Impact of age and diagnosis on viability during centrifugation and cryopreservation of peripheral blood stem cell products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civriz Bozdag, S; Bay, M; Ayyıldız, E; Topcuoglu, P; Ilhan, O

    2012-08-01

    The viability of the hematopoietic stem cells infused to the patient is important for transplant outcome. We evaluated 31 peripheral blood stem cell product collected from 15 patients. We aimed to check the viabilities of the cells from patients with different age and diagnosis, in different stages of the cryopreservation procedure. We showed a markedly decreased viability rate after centrifugation and addition of DMSO. Percentages of viabilities were similar between young and old patients in each step. Type of hematological malignancy did not make a significant influence on the viability. High speed centrifugation has a negative impact on the viability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cross sections for the production of 11C in C targets by 3.65 AGeV projectiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozma, P.; Tolstov, K.D.; Yanovskij, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    The absolute cross sections for the production of 11 C in C targets by 3.65 AGeV protons, deuterons, 4 He- and 12 C-ions were measured. Annihialtion radiation from 11 C was counted using a large volume NaI(Tl) and BaF 2 detectors. The flux measurement technique based on registration of charged particles by means of a thin nuclear emulsion layer rotating in a beam as well as fission chamber was used. The results are compared with earlier measurements of the cross sections in carbon targets using high-energy projectiles and Glauber theoretical prediction, as well. 10 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  1. Preferred 11 different job rotation types in automotive company and their effects on productivity, quality and musculoskeletal disorders: comparison between subjective and actual scores by workers' age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, In Sik; Jeong, Byung Yong; Jeong, Ji Hyun

    2016-10-01

    This study investigates workers' favoured rotation types by their age and compares means between subjective and actual scores on productivity, quality and musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). The subjects of research were 422 assembly line units in Hyundai Motor Company. The survey of 422 units focused on the workers' preference for 11 different rotation types and subjective scores for each type's perceived benefits, both by the workers' age. Then, actual scores on production-related indices were traced over a five-year period. The results suggest that different rotation types lead to different results in productivity, product quality and MSDs. Workers tend to perceive job rotation as a helpful method to enhance satisfaction, productivity and product quality more so than the actual production data suggests. Job rotation was especially effective in preventing MSDs for workers aged under 45, while its effects were not clear for the workers aged 45 years or older. Practitioner's Summary: This research presents appropriate rotation type for different age groups. Taking workers' age into account, administrators can use the paper's outcomes to select and implement the suitable rotation type to attain specific goals such as enhancing productivity, improving product quality or reducing MSDs.

  2. An evaluation of the effect of a topical product containing salicin on the visible signs of human skin aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopaul, Remona; Knaggs, Helen E; Lephart, Janet F; Holley, Kara C; Gibson, Erica M

    2010-09-01

    There are many different visible signs of skin aging. These include wrinkles, hyperpigmentation, lack of firmness, poor texture, enlarged pores, and dryness. While there are many topical agents that claim to deliver wide-spectrum anti-aging benefits, few target all of the signs of skin aging to the same extent. Salicin, an extract from white willow bark, has been researched as a potent anti-inflammatory agent when taken orally. Based on unpublished in-house comprehensive consumer clinical studies, it is believed salicin may have anti-aging capabilities when applied topically to human skin. This research evaluated the effect of a topical serum formulation containing salicin at 0.5% on the visible signs of skin aging. This single-center study enrolled 30 female subjects, showing mild to moderate signs of aging, between the ages of 35 and 70 having Fitzpatrick skin types ranging between I and IV. Subjects used the study serum product containing 0.5% salicin on their face twice daily for 12 weeks. Ordinal grading on a nine-point scale (0 = none, 1-3 = mild, 4-6 = moderate, 7-9 = severe) of facial fine lines, molted pigmentation, uneven skin tone, tactile roughness, global firmness appearance, jaw-line contour, radiance, and overall appearance was performed by investigator at baseline, week 1, week 4, week 8, and week 12. Digital photography, ultrasound, cutometry, and corneometry measurements were also performed at each time point. Twenty-nine of 30 subjects successfully completed the study. No tolerability issues were reported. The clinical investigator found statistically significant improvements in wrinkles, tactile roughness, pore size, radiance, and overall appearance at week 1 time point (P ≤ 0.05) against baseline and statistically significant improvements in mottled pigmentation, global firmness, and jaw-line contour at week 4 time point (P ≤ 0.05) against baseline. Cutometry, corneometry, and ultrasound measurements showed significant improvements at week

  3. Effects of Dietary Calcium Levels on Productive Performance, Eggshell Quality and Overall Calcium Status in Aged Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. An

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of diets with varying levels of calcium on egg production, shell quality and overall calcium status in aged laying hens. A total of five hundred 70-wk-old Hy-Line Brown layers were divided five groups and fed one of the five experimental diets with 3.5%, 3.8%, 4.1%, 4.4%, or 4.7% Ca, for 10 weeks. There were no significant differences in feed intake, egg production and egg weight among groups. The cracked eggs were linearly reduced as dietary Ca levels increased to 4.7% (p<0.01. A significant linear improvement for eggshell strength and thickness were determined with increasing dietary Ca levels (p<0.01. The contents of serum Ca and phosphorus were not affected by dietary Ca levels. With increase in dietary Ca levels, the tibial breaking strength slightly increased. There were no significant differences in the tibial contents of ash, Ca and phosphorus among groups. In conclusion, eggshell quality, as measured by appearance, strength and thickness of eggshell, were influenced by dietary Ca content as expected (p<0.05. These results suggested that aged laying hens require relatively higher level of Ca than required levels from current Korean feeding standards for poultry.

  4. Speech production accuracy and variability in young cochlear implant recipients: comparisons with typically developing age-peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertmer, David J; Goffman, Lisa

    2011-02-01

    The speech production accuracy and variability scores of 6 young cochlear implant (CI) recipients with 2 years of device experience were compared with those of typically developing (TD) age-peers. Words from the First Words Speech Test (FWST; Ertmer, 1999) were imitated 3 times to assess the accuracy and variability of initial consonants, vowels, and words. The initial consonants in the 4 sets of the FWST followed a typical order of development. The TD group produced targets with high accuracy and low variability. Their scores across FWST sets reflected the expected order of development. The CI group produced most targets less accurately and with more variability than the TD children. Relatively high accuracy for the consonants of Sets 1 and 2 indicated that these phonemes were acquired early and in a typical developmental order. A trend toward greater accuracy for Set 4 as compared with Set 3 suggested that later-emerging consonants were not acquired in the expected order. Variability was greatest for later-emerging initial consonants and whole words. Although considerable speech production proficiency was evident, age-level performance was not attained after 2 years of CI experience. Factors that might influence the order of consonant acquisition are discussed.

  5. The Impact of Age, Educational Background,Gender, and Monthly Expenditure on the Potential of Green Products Buyers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Abdurachman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of environmental degradation continues rising to lead a global warming. Without immediate prevention measures, this could bring the Earth into total breakdown. Therefore environmental preservation campaign buzzing for every element of the society to participate in the campaign. Number of people understand and care about environmen-tal degradation and global warming is growing. Many people aim is to influence the lifestyle and consumption pattern of the society. The campaign is to attract and motivate the society to purchase environ mentally friendly goods which are also known as green products. The number of potential people to the purchase green products continues rising along with the spread of knowledge concerning the importance of conserving the environment. Such condition recognized by the com-panies. Therefore they start to consist them as the target market. One of the important marketing aspects is market segmentation. There are many ways and statistical methods to classifying consumers into par-ticular segmentations; one of the methods is the Chi-squared Auto- matic Interaction Detector (CHAID. CHAID, it is implemented in this research for green product market segmentation (Segmentation result subsequently used to determination of the following strategic marketing measures. CHAID examines independent variables used in classification and arrangement process based on the level of chi-square statistical significance towards the dependent variable. Dependent variable used in this research is potential customer trend to purchase preference of green products. The result shows that significantly influential variables towards the potential of green products buyers are age, educational background, gender and their monthly amount of expenditure / spending.

  6. The Impact of Age, Educational Background,Gender, and Monthly Expenditure on the Potential of Green Products Buyers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Abdurachman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of environmental degradation continues rising to lead a global warming. Without immediate prevention measures, this could bring the Earth into total breakdown. Therefore environmental preservation campaign buzzing for every element of the society to participate in the campaign. Number of people understand and care about environmental degradation and global warming is growing. Many people aim is to influence the lifestyle and consumption pattern of the society. The campaign is to attract and motivate the society to purchase environ mentally friendly goods which are also known as green products. The number of potential people to the purchase green products continues rising along with the spread of knowledge concerning the importance of conserving the environment. Such condition recognized by the companies. Therefore they start to consist them as the target market. One of the important marketing aspects is market segmentation. There are many ways and statistical methods to classifying consumers into particular segmentations; one of the methods is the Chi-squared Auto-matic Interaction Detector (CHAID. CHAID, it is implemented in this research for green product market segmentation (Segmentation result subsequently used to determination of the following strategic marketing measures. CHAID examines independent variables used in classification and arrangement process based on the level of chi-square statistical significance towards the dependent variable. Dependent variable used in this research is potential customer trend to purchase preference of green products. The result shows that significantly influential variables towards the potential of green products buyers are age, educational background, gender and their monthly amount of expenditure / spending.

  7. The effects of callus age, UV irradiation and incubation time on trans-resveratol production in grapevine callus culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskin, N.; Kunter, B.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the effects of callus age, ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and incubation time were investigated for the induction of trans-resveratrol production in callus cultures of Kalecik karası (Clone 12) Vitis vinifera L. grape cultivar. Part of leaves (~1 cm 2 ) were taken from one year old grapevines grown in greenhouse and then were cultured in Gamborg B-5 media including 2% saccarose, 0.8% agar, 1.0 μM BAP (6-benzylaminopurine) and 0.1 μM 2, 4-D (2, 4-dichlorophenoxy-acetic acid). After the second subculture, 12 and 15 days old callus tissues were exposed to 254 nm UV light at 10 cm distance from the source for 10 and 15 min. Trans-resveratrol was measured at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours of incubation by using High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Trans-resveratrol concentration of control callus ranged from 0.56 to 0.96 μg g fw -1 . The highest trans-resveratrol production was obtained from 12 and 15 days-old callus irradiated for 10 min. at the 48th hours of incubation (2.42 μg g fw -1 ). Considering the highest value of trans-resveratrol concentration in controls and experiments, it was determined that UV irraditation in Kalecik karası elicitated the trans-resveratrol production by 2.5 times. (author) [tr

  8. Influence of high glucose and advanced glycation end-products (ages) levels in human osteoblast-like cells gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Cristina; Giner, Mercè; Montoya, M José; Vázquez, M Angeles; Miranda, M José; Pérez-Cano, Ramón

    2016-08-31

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with an increased risk of osteoporotic fracture. Several factors have been identified as being potentially responsible for this risk, such as alterations in bone remodelling that may have been induced by changes in circulating glucose or/and by the presence of non-oxidative end products of glycosylation (AGEs). The aim of this study is to assess whether such variations generate a change in the gene expression related to the differentiation and osteoblast activity (OPG, RANKL, RUNX2, OSTERIX, and AGE receptor) in primary cultures of human osteoblast-like cells (hOB). We recruited 32 patients; 10 patients had osteoporotic hip fractures (OP group), 12 patients had osteoporotic hip fractures with T2DM (T2DM group), and 10 patients had hip osteoarthritis (OA group) with no osteoporotic fractures and no T2DM. The gene expression was analyzed in hOB cultures treated with physiological glucose concentration (4.5 mM) as control, high glucose (25 mM), and high glucose plus AGEs (2 μg/ml) for 24 h. The hOB cultures from patients with hip fractures presented slower proliferation. Additionally, the hOB cultures from the T2DM group were the most negatively affected with respect to RUNX2 and OSX gene expression when treated solely with high glucose or with high glucose plus AGEs. Moreover, high levels of glucose induced a major decrease in the RANKL/OPG ratio when comparing the OP and the T2DM groups to the OA group. Our data indicates an altered bone remodelling rate in the T2DM group, which may, at least partially, explain the reduced bone strength and increased incidence of non-traumatic fractures in diabetic patients.

  9. The solubilities and solubility products of zirconium hydroxide and oxide after aging at 278, 313, and 333 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Taishi; Uemura, Takuya; Sasaki, Takayuki; Takagi, Ikuji [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Moriyama, Hirotake [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.

    2016-07-01

    The solubilities of zirconium hydroxide and oxide after aging at 278, 313, and 333 K were measured at 278, 298, 313, and 333 K in the pH{sub c} range of 0.3-7 in a 0.5 M ionic strength solution of NaClO{sub 4} and HClO{sub 4}. Size distributions of the colloidal species were investigated by ultrafiltration using membranes with different pore sizes, and the solid phases were examined by X-ray diffraction. The apparent solubility of zirconium amorphous hydroxide (Zr(OH){sub 4}(am)), prepared by the oversaturation method, decreased with increasing aging temperature (T{sub a}), and the size distributions obtained after aging at elevated temperatures indicated the growth of the colloidal species. We, therefore, suggested that agglomeration of the colloidal species and dehydration and crystallization of Zr(OH){sub 4}(am) as the solubility-limiting solid phase occurred over the course of aging at elevated temperatures. For sample solutions of the crystalline oxide (ZrO{sub 2}(cr)), the aging temperature had no significant effect on the solubility, but the solubility data at lower temperatures were found to be slightly higher than those at higher temperatures, implying a small fraction of the amorphous components. In the analysis of different solid phases (Zr(OH){sub 4}(s,T{sub a}), T{sub a} = 278, 313, and 333 K) depending on the aging temperatures, the solubility products (K{sub sp}, T{sub a}) were determined at different measurement temperatures, and the enthalpy change (Δ{sub r}H {sup circle}) for Zr{sup 4+} 4OH{sup -} <=> Zr(OH){sub 4}(s,T{sub a}) was calculated using the van't Hoff equation. The solid-phase-transformation process at elevated temperatures was also analyzed based on the obtained K{sub sp}, T{sub a} and Δ{sub r}H {sup circle} values.

  10. Neural convergence for language comprehension and grammatical class production in highly proficient bilinguals is independent of age of acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consonni, Monica; Cafiero, Riccardo; Marin, Dario; Tettamanti, Marco; Iadanza, Antonella; Fabbro, Franco; Perani, Daniela

    2013-05-01

    In bilinguals, native (L1) and second (L2) languages are processed by the same neural resources that can be modulated by age of second language acquisition (AOA), proficiency level, and daily language exposure and usage. AOA seems to particularly affect grammar processing, where a complete neural convergence has been shown only in bilinguals with parallel language acquisition from birth. Despite the fact that proficiency-related neuroanatomical differences have been well documented in language comprehension (LC) and production, few reports have addressed the influence of language exposure. A still unanswered question pertains to the role of AOA, when proficiency is comparably high across languages, with respect to its modulator effects both on LC and production. Here, we evaluated with fMRI during sentence comprehension and verb and noun production tasks, two groups of highly proficient bilinguals only differing in AOA. One group learned Italian and Friulian in parallel from birth, whereas the second group learned Italian between 3 and 6 years. All participants were highly exposed to both languages, but more to Italian than Friulian. The results indicate a complete overlap of neural activations for the comprehension of both languages, not only in bilinguals from birth, but also in late bilinguals. A slightly extra activation in the left thalamus for the less-exposed language confirms that exposure may affect language processing. Noteworthy, we report for the first time that, when proficiency and exposure are kept high, noun and verb production recruit the same neural networks for L1 and L2, independently of AOA. These results support the neural convergence hypothesis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Age Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Age Spots Treatment Options Learn more about treatment ...

  12. Low-mass dielectron production in Pb - Au collisions at 158 AGeV using the upgraded CERES spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Cherlin, Alexander

    This thesis deals with the measurements and results of inclusive $e^{+}e^{-}$ pair production in ultra-relativistic Pb - Au collisions at 158 AGeV . The measurements were performed in the framework of the CERES experiment at the CERN SPS. The main aim for studying ultra-relativistic collisions of heavy ions is to investigate the behavior of nuclear matter under extreme conditions of density and temperature. Lattice QCD calculations predict that under conditions of suciently high temperature and/or baryon density the quark and gluon degrees of freedom, usually conned within hadrons, are liberated. This state of matter is called the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). Another phenomenon associated with the QGP phase transition is the restoration of the spontaneously broken chiral symmetry. Lepton pairs are unique probes of the initial reball. Since they interact only electromagnetically, they have a long mean free path and can leave the interaction region without any additional interactions carrying direct information on...

  13. Meat quality characteristics of Turkish indigenous Hair goat kids reared under traditional extensive production system: effects of slaughter age and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toplu, Hayriye Deger Oral; Goksoy, Ergun Omer; Nazligul, Ahmet; Kahraman, Tolga

    2013-08-01

    Meat quality characteristics of Turkish indigenous Hair goat kids reared under an extensive production system were investigated in this study. A total of 60 Hair goat kids (30 females and 30 males) were slaughtered at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of ages. Slaughter age significantly affected meat quality characteristics. Cooking loss (P Meat color became darker red with increasing slaughter age (P meat from male kids contained a higher percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acid than that from females (P meat from Hair kids slaughtered between 3 and 9 months of ages had better quality than those slaughtered at the other ages and also meat from male kids had better quality than those female kids slaughtered at the same age under extensive production system.

  14. Identifying advanced glycation end products as a major source of oxidants in aging: implications for the management and/or prevention of reduced renal function in elderly persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlassara, Helen; Uribarri, Jaime; Ferrucci, Luigi; Cai, Weijing; Torreggiani, Massimo; Post, James B; Zheng, Feng; Striker, Gary E

    2009-11-01

    Aging is characterized by increasing inflammation and oxidant stress (OS). Reduced renal function was present in more than 20% of normal-aged individuals sampled in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cross-sectional study of the US population. Longitudinal studies in the United States and Italy showed that renal function does not decline in some individuals, suggesting that a search for causes of the loss of renal function in some persons might be indicated and interventions to reduce this outcome should be sought. Because advanced glycation end products (AGEs) induce both inflammation and OS, accumulate with age, and primarily are excreted by the kidney, one outcome of reduced renal function in aging could be decreased AGE disposal. The build-up of AGEs with reduced renal function could contribute to inflammation, increased oxidant stress, and accumulation of AGEs in aging. In fact, results from a longitudinal study of normal aging adults in Italy showed that the most significant correlation with mortality was the level of renal function. A clear link between inflammation, OS, AGEs, and chronic disease was shown in studies of mice that showed that reduction of AGE levels by drugs or decreased intake of AGEs reduces chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease of aging. The data support a role for AGEs in the development of renal lesions in aging mice and reveal that AGEs in the diet are very important contributors to renal and cardiovascular lesions. AGEs signal through two receptors, one of which is anti-inflammatory (AGER1) and the other is proinflammatory (RAGE). Overexpression of AGER1 protects against OS and acute vascular injury. The reduction of AGEs in the diet is as efficient in preventing aging-related cardiovascular and renal lesions in mice as that seen with calorie restriction. Studies in normal adults of all ages and those with CKD suggest that the findings in mice may be directly applicable to both aging and CKD

  15. Aging-driven decomposition in zolpidem hemitartrate hemihydrate and the single-crystal structure of its decomposition products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Daniel R; Baggio, Ricardo; Roca, Mariana; Tombari, Dora

    2011-04-01

    The "aging-driven" decomposition of zolpidem hemitartrate hemihydrate (form A) has been followed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), and the crystal and molecular structures of the decomposition products studied by single-crystal methods. The process is very similar to the "thermally driven" one, recently described in the literature for form E (Halasz and Dinnebier. 2010. J Pharm Sci 99(2): 871-874), resulting in a two-phase system: the neutral free base (common to both decomposition processes) and, in the present case, a novel zolpidem tartrate monohydrate, unique to the "aging-driven" decomposition. Our room-temperature single-crystal analysis gives for the free base comparable results as the high-temperature XRPD ones already reported by Halasz and Dinnebier: orthorhombic, Pcba, a = 9.6360(10) Å, b = 18.2690(5) Å, c = 18.4980(11) Å, and V = 3256.4(4) Å(3) . The unreported zolpidem tartrate monohydrate instead crystallizes in monoclinic P21 , which, for comparison purposes, we treated in the nonstandard setting P1121 with a = 20.7582(9) Å, b = 15.2331(5) Å, c = 7.2420(2) Å, γ = 90.826(2)°, and V = 2289.73(14) Å(3) . The structure presents two complete moieties in the asymmetric unit (z = 4, z' = 2). The different phases obtained in both decompositions are readily explained, considering the diverse genesis of both processes. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Productive extension of semantic memory in school-aged children: Relations with reading comprehension and deployment of cognitive resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Patricia J; Blue, Shala N; Xu, Aoxiang; Esposito, Alena G

    2016-07-01

    We investigated 7- to 10-year-old children's productive extension of semantic memory through self-generation of new factual knowledge derived through integration of separate yet related facts learned through instruction or through reading. In Experiment 1, an experimenter read the to-be-integrated facts. Children successfully learned and integrated the information and used it to further extend their semantic knowledge, as evidenced by high levels of correct responses in open-ended and forced-choice testing. In Experiment 2, on half of the trials, the to-be-integrated facts were read by an experimenter (as in Experiment 1) and on half of the trials, children read the facts themselves. Self-generation performance was high in both conditions (experimenter- and self-read); in both conditions, self-generation of new semantic knowledge was related to an independent measure of children's reading comprehension. In Experiment 3, the way children deployed cognitive resources during reading was predictive of their subsequent recall of newly learned information derived through integration. These findings indicate self-generation of new semantic knowledge through integration in school-age children as well as relations between this productive means of extension of semantic memory and cognitive processes engaged during reading. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. The product of fasting plasma glucose and triglycerides improves risk prediction of type 2 diabetes in middle-aged Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joung-Won; Lim, Nam-Kyoo; Park, Hyun-Young

    2018-05-30

    Screening for risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an important public health issue. Previous studies report that fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and triglyceride (TG)-related indices, such as lipid accumulation product (LAP) and the product of fasting glucose and triglyceride (TyG index), are associated with incident T2DM. We aimed to evaluate whether FPG or TG-related indices can improve the predictive ability of a diabetes risk model for middle-aged Koreans. 7708 Koreans aged 40-69 years without diabetes at baseline were eligible from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. The overall cumulative incidence of T2DM was 21.1% (766 cases) in men and 19.6% (797 cases) in women. Therefore, the overall cumulative incidence of T2DM was 20.3% (1563 cases). Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to compare the odds ratios (ORs) for incident T2DM for each index. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AROC), continuous net reclassification improvement (cNRI), and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) were calculated when each measure was added to the basic risk model for diabetes. All the TG-related indices and FPG were more strongly associated with incident T2DM than WC in our study population. The adjusted ORs for the highest quartiles of WC, TG, FPG, LAP, and TyG index compared to the lowest, were 1.64 (95% CI, 1.13-2.38), 2.03 (1.59-2.61), 3.85 (2.99-4.97), 2.47 (1.82-3.34), and 2.79 (2.16-3.60) in men, and 1.17 (0.83-1.65), 2.42 (1.90-3.08), 2.15 (1.71-2.71), 2.44 (1.82-3.26), and 2.85 (2.22-3.66) in women, respectively. The addition of TG-related parameters or FPG, but not WC, to the basic risk model for T2DM (including age, body mass index, family history of diabetes, hypertension, current smoking, current drinking, and regular exercise) significantly increased cNRI, IDI, and AROC in both sexes. Adding either TyG index or FPG into the basic risk model for T2DM increases its prediction and reclassification ability

  18. Activation of α7nAChR Promotes Diabetic Wound Healing by Suppressing AGE-Induced TNF-α Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Miao-Wu; Li, Ming; Chen, Jie; Fu, Tong-Tong; Lin, Ke-Zhi; Ye, Guang-Hua; Han, Jun-Ge; Feng, Xiang-Ping; Li, Xing-Biao; Yu, Lin-Sheng; Fan, Yan-Yan

    2016-04-01

    Diabetes frequently presents accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which might induce excessive TNF-α production from macrophages to cause impaired wound healing. Recent studies have shown that activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) on macrophages efficiently suppressed TNF-α synthesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the accumulation of AGEs in the wounds and determine whether PNU282987, an α7nAChR agonist, can improve wound repair by inhibiting AGE-mediated TNF-α production in a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mouse model. Animals were assigned into four groups: wounded control group, wounded diabetic group, wounded diabetic group treated intraperitoneally with PNU282987, or wounded diabetic group treated intraperitoneally with vehicle. Compared with the non-diabetic control mice, the diabetic mice exhibited delayed wound healing that was characterized by elevated accumulation of AGEs, increased TNF-α level and macrophage infiltration, and decreased fibroblast number and collagen deposition at the late stage of repair. Besides, macrophages of diabetic wounds showed expression of α7nAChR. During late repair, PNU282987 treatment of diabetic mice significantly reduced the level of TNF-α, accelerated wound healing, and elevated fibroblast number and collagen deposition. To investigate the cellular mechanism of these observations, RAW 264.7 cells, a macrophage cell line, were incubated with AGEs in the presence or absence of PNU282987. TNF-α production from AGE-stimulated macrophages was significantly decreased by PNU282987 in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, PNU282987 significantly inhibited AGE-induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation and receptor for AGE (RAGE) expression. These results strongly suggest that activating α7nAChR can promote diabetic wound healing by suppressing AGE-induced TNF-α production, which may be closely associated with the blockage of NF-κB activation in macrophages.

  19. Productivity of aboveground coarse wood biomass and stand age related to soil hydrology of Amazonian forests in the Purus-Madeira interfluvial area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintra, B. B. L.; Schietti, J.; Emillio, T.; Martins, D.; Moulatlet, G.; Souza, P.; Levis, C.; Quesada, C. A.; Schöngart, J.

    2013-04-01

    The ongoing demand for information on forest productivity has increased the number of permanent monitoring plots across the Amazon. Those plots, however, do not comprise the whole diversity of forest types in the Amazon. The complex effects of soil, climate and hydrology on the productivity of seasonally waterlogged interfluvial wetland forests are still poorly understood. The presented study is the first field-based estimate for tree ages and wood biomass productivity in the vast interfluvial region between the Purus and Madeira rivers. We estimate stand age and wood biomass productivity by a combination of tree-ring data and allometric equations for biomass stocks of eight plots distributed along 600 km in the Purus-Madeira interfluvial area that is crossed by the BR-319 highway. We relate stand age and wood biomass productivity to hydrological and edaphic conditions. Mean productivity and stand age were 5.6 ± 1.1 Mg ha-1 yr-1 and 102 ± 18 yr, respectively. There is a strong relationship between tree age and diameter, as well as between mean diameter increment and mean wood density within a plot. Regarding the soil hydromorphic properties we find a positive correlation with wood biomass productivity and a negative relationship with stand age. Productivity also shows a positive correlation with the superficial phosphorus concentration. In addition, superficial phosphorus concentration increases with enhanced soil hydromorphic condition. We raise three hypotheses to explain these results: (1) the reduction of iron molecules on the saturated soils with plinthite layers close to the surface releases available phosphorous for the plants; (2) the poor structure of the saturated soils creates an environmental filter selecting tree species of faster growth rates and shorter life spans and (3) plant growth on saturated soil is favored during the dry season, since there should be low restrictions for soil water availability.

  20. Relationship between product demand, tibial polyethylene insert shelf age, and total knee arthroplasty survival: retrospective review of total knees of one design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Joshua A; Collier, Matthew B; Engh, C Anderson; Engh, Gerard A

    2006-04-01

    Shelf aging of gamma-irradiated-in-air polyethylene tibial components has been associated with increased articular surface wear and an elevated risk for revision. Nine hundred fifty cruciate-retaining inserts of one design were implanted between 1987 and 1996 (shelf age, 1.0 +/- 1.2 years). Less frequently used inserts (smallest/largest sizes, thicker thicknesses, supplemental articular constraint) had longer shelf ages (means ranged from 1.2 to 2.6 years). Survival analysis showed that shelf age (P product demand and can be of aid when diagnosing the painful knee.

  1. The Oklo natural nuclear reactors: neutron parameters, age and duration of the reactions, uranium and fission products migrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruffenach, J.-C.

    1979-09-01

    Mass spectrometry and isotopic dilution technique are used in order to carry out, on various samples from the fossil nuclear reactors at Oklo, Gabon, isotopic and chemical analyses of some particular elements involved in the nuclear reactions: uranium, lead, bismuth, thorium, rare gases (krypton, xenon), rare earths (neodymium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, dysprosium), ruthenium and palladium. Interpretations of these analyses lead to the determination of many neutron parameters such as the neutron fluence received by the samples, the spectrum index, the conversion coefficient, and also the percentages of fissions due to uranium-238 and plutonium-239 and the total number of fissions relative to uranium. All these results make it possible to determine the age of the nuclear reactions by measuring the amounts of fission rare earths formed, i.e. 1.97 billion years. This study brings some informations to the general problem of radioactive wastes storage in deep geological formations, the storage of uranium, plutonium and many fission products having been carried out naturally, and for about two billion years [fr

  2. Production of $\\eta$ mesons in 200 AGeV S+S and S+Au reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecht, R.; Awes, T.C.; Barlag, C.; Berger, F.; Bloomer, M.; Blume, C.; Bock, D.; Bock, R.; Bohne, E.M.; Bucher, D.; Claussen, A.; Clewing, G.; Debbe, R.; Dragon, L.; Eklund, A.; Fokin, S.; Garpman, S.; Glasow, R.; Gustafsson, H.A.; Gutbrod, H.H.; Hansen, O.; Holker, G.; Idh, J.; Ippolitov, M.; Jacobs, P.; Kampert, K.H.; Karadev, K.; Kolb, B.W.; Lebedev, A.; Lohner, H.; Lund, I.; Manko, V.; Moskowitz, B.; Nikolaev, S.; Obenshain, F.E.; Oskarsson, A.; Otterlund, I.; Peitzmann, T.; Plasil, F.; Poskanzer, Arthur M.; Purschke, M.; Roters, B.; Santo, R.; Schmidt, H.R.; Soderstrom, K.; Sorensen, S.P.; Stankus, P.; Steffens, K.; Steinhauser, P.; Stenlund, E.; Stuken, D.; Vinogradov, A.; Wegner, H.E.; Young, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    Minimum Bias production cross sections of $\\eta$ mesons have been measured in 200AGeV S+Au and S+S collisions at the CERN SPS by reconstructing the $\\eta\\rightarrow\\gamma\\gamma$ decay. The measurements have been made over the rapidity range $2.1 \\leq y \\leq 2.9$ using the leadglass spectrometer of WA80. Within the statistical and systematical uncertainties the spectral shapes of $\\pi~0$ and $\\eta$ mesons yields are identical when their invariant differential cross section is plotted as a function of the transverse mass. The relative normalization of the $\\eta$ to $\\pi~0$ transverse mass spectra is found to be $0.53 \\pm 0.07$ for S+Au and $0.43 \\pm 0.15$ for S+S reactions. Extrapolation to full phase space leads to an integrated cross section ratio of $\\eta$ to $\\pi~0$ mesons of $0.15 \\pm 0.02 {\\rm (stat.)} \\pm 0.02 {\\rm (syst.)}$, and $0.12 \\pm 0.03 {\\rm (stat.)} \\pm 0.02 {\\rm (syst.)}$ for S+Au and S+S collisions, respectively.

  3. Renewable products, towards a new golden age of plants?; Produits renouvelables, vers un nouvel age d'or du vegetal?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Our industrial civilization was built on the use of fossil materials. It has only 3 centuries of existence, but the use of these non-renewable resources will necessary come to an end in a near future. However alternate ways already exist through the use of biomass-derived products. These proceedings summarize the main discussions that took place during the different round tables of this colloquium. The first round table makes a status of the shortage of fossil energy reserves and of the new challenges and solutions offered by plants and bio-energies. The second round table presents the reality of the market, products and consumption of todays renewable vegetal resources (environmental advantages, economic aspect and competitiveness of markets). The last round table deals with the role of governments in the political sustain of renewable vegetal products development (genetic research, financial aspects, incentives, competition with food agriculture). (J.S.)

  4. Age and gender effects of workforce composition on productivity and profits: Evidence from a new type of data for German enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Pfeifer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This empirical paper documents the relationship between the composition of a firm’s workforce (with a special focus on age and gender and its performance (productivity and profitability for a large representative sample of enterprises from manufacturing industries in Germany using newly available, unique data. We find concave age-productivity profiles and a negative correlation of age on firms’ profitability. Moreover, our micro-econometric analysis reveals for the first time that the ceteris paribus lower level of productivity in firms with a higher share of female employees does not go hand in hand with a lower level of profitability in these firms.

  5. Nifedipine, a calcium channel blocker, inhibits advanced glycation end product (AGE)-elicited mesangial cell damage by suppressing AGE receptor (RAGE) expression via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Takanori; Yamagishi, Sho-ichi; Takeuchi, Masayoshi; Ueda, Seiji; Fukami, Kei; Okuda, Seiya

    2009-01-01

    The interaction between advanced glycation end products (AGE) and their receptor RAGE mediates the progressive alteration in renal architecture and loss of renal function in diabetic nephropathy. Oxidative stress generation and inflammation also play a central role in diabetic nephropathy. This study investigated whether and how nifedipine, a calcium channel blocker (CCB), blocked the AGE-elicited mesangial cell damage in vitro. Nifedipine, but not amlodipine, a control CCB, down-regulated RAGE mRNA levels and subsequently reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in AGE-exposed mesangial cells. AGE increased mRNA levels of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and induced monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) production in mesangial cells, both of which were prevented by the treatment with nifedipine, but not amlodipine. The beneficial effects of nifedipine on AGE-exposed mesangial cells were blocked by the simultaneous treatment of GW9662, an inhibitor of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ). Although nifedipine did not affect expression levels of PPAR-γ, it increased the PPAR-γ transcriptional activity in mesangial cells. Our present study provides a unique beneficial aspect of nifedipine on diabetic nephropathy; it could work as an anti-inflammatory agent against AGE by suppressing RAGE expression in cultured mesangial cells via PPAR-γ activation.

  6. IL-6 Production by TLR-Activated APC Broadly Enhances Aged Cognate CD4 Helper and B Cell Antibody Responses In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmakshatriya, Vinayak; Kuang, Yi; Devarajan, Priyadharshini; Xia, Jingya; Zhang, Wenliang; Vong, Allen Minh; Swain, Susan L

    2017-04-01

    Naive CD4 T cell responses, especially their ability to help B cell responses, become compromised with aging. We find that using APC pretreated ex vivo with TLR agonists, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid and CpG, to prime naive CD4 T cells in vivo, restores their ability to expand and become germinal center T follicular helpers and enhances B cell IgG Ab production. Enhanced helper responses are dependent on IL-6 production by the activated APC. Aged naive CD4 T cells respond suboptimally to IL-6 compared with young cells, such that higher doses are required to induce comparable signaling. Preactivating APC overcomes this deficiency. Responses of young CD4 T cells are also enhanced by preactivating APC with similar effects but with only partial IL-6 dependency. Strikingly, introducing just the activated APC into aged mice significantly enhances otherwise compromised Ab production to inactivated influenza vaccine. These findings reveal a central role for the production of IL-6 by APC during initial cognate interactions in the generation of effective CD4 T cell help, which becomes greater with age. Without APC activation, aging CD4 T cell responses shift toward IL-6-independent Th1 and CD4 cytotoxic Th cell responses. Thus, strategies that specifically activate and provide Ag to APC could potentially enhance Ab-mediated protection in vaccine responses. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  7. Analysis of electron pair production in the collision system Ar+KCl at 1.76 AGeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, Simon Martin

    2008-01-01

    The HADES-spectrometer at GSI is used to measure the production of the light vector mesons ρ, ω and φ at SIS energies. Therefore, the medium sized collision system Ar+KCl was measured at 1.76 AGeV kinetic energy of beam particles. In this system the density of particle tracks is much larger as compared to the formerly used collision system C+C, making it necessary to upgrade the data analysis. The previous method of hard-cuts - used for particle identification - was replaced by a newly developed multi-variate analysis based on an artificial neural network. This algorithm has the benefit, that it is more robust against fluctuations in one or more of the used detector observables. This increases the overall efficiency and purity of the analysis procedure. Furthermore, the reconstruction of particle tracks inside the HADES spectrometer is based on a few position information, only. During analysis of raw data, these information are combined to a artificially large manifold of tracks. This leads to the general problem that one has to select the maximum number of true physical tracks out of this set of tracks per event. A new method of track selection is used to filter the data not only to select single tracks, but also to identify electron pairs created during Dalitz-decay of π 0 mesons, which build the bulk of combinatorial background. The result of the analysis is an efficiency corrected invariant mass spectrum of electron pairs, normalized to the mean number of pions per event. The spectrum consists of more than 16,000 pairs with an invariant mass larger than 150 MeV. In total more than 150000 pairs were found. A first comparison with the spectra calculated by using the old analysis approach shows a 30% enhancement in yield of reconstructed electron pairs. A first comparison with a simple thermal model implemented by the Pluto event generator, opens the possibility to compare the measured pair yield of ω and φ mesons via m T -scaling with the yield of η mesons

  8. HIV infection and aging: enhanced Interferon- and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha production by the CD8+ CD28- T subset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colón-Martinez Sol

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background T cells from HIV+ and aged individuals show parallels in terms of suppressed proliferative activity and interleukin-2 (I1-2 production and an increased number of CD8+ CD28- T cells. In order to compare cytokine production from T cells from these two states, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from HIV+ aged, and normal young donors (controls were monitored for cytokine production by flow cytometry, quantitative PCR and ELISA upon activation by PMA and anti-CD3. In addition, the CD8+ T cell subsets CD28+ and CD28- from the HIV+ and the aged groups were evaluated for cytokine production by flow cytometry, and compared with those from young controls. Results Flow cytometric analysis indicated that CD8+ T cells from both HIV+ and aged donors showed an increase of approximately 2–3 fold over controls in percentage of cells producing inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ and TNF-α. Similar analysis also revealed that the production of interleukins-4,6 and 10, production was very low (1–2% of cells and unchanged in these cells. Quantitative PCR also showed a substantial increase (4–5 fold in IFN-γ and TNF-α mRNA from HIV+ and aged CD8+ T cells, as did ELISA for secreted IFN-γ and TNF-α (2.3–4 fold. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the CD8+ CD28- T cell subset accounts for approximately 80–86% of the IFN-γ and TNF-α production from the CD8+ subset in the aged and HIV+ states. The CD4+ T cell, while not significantly changed in the HIV+ or aged states in terms of IFN-γ production, showed a small but significant increase in TNF-α production in both states. Conclusions Our data appear compatible with physiologic conditions existing in HIV+ and aged individuals, i.e. elevated serum levels and elevated CD8+ T cell production of IFN-γ and TNF-α. Thus, the capacity for increased production of cytokines IFN-γ and TNF-α in the aged individual by the dominant CD8+ CD28- subset may have a profound influence on the clinical state by

  9. Production and nutrition rates of piatã grass and hybrid sorghum at different cutting ages - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i3.18016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano da Silva Cabral

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of cutting age on yield and nutrition rates of piatã grass (Brachiaria brizantha cv. BRS Piatã and hybrid sorghum (Sorghum spp. cv. BRS 801 under an integrated crop-livestock system was evaluated. The trial was carried out at the Embrapa Beef Cattle (20°27¢ S; 54°37¢ W in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, between April and October 2009. Experimental design consisted of randomized blocks with four replicates. Treatments were distributed across a split-plot design, which included three production systems (single piatã grass; single hybrid sorghum; mixed cultivation of sorghum and piatã grass. Half-plots consisted of three forage ages at harvest (with 70, 90 and 110 days after seeding. Variables included agronomical characteristics, productivity and nutrition value. Regardless of the evaluated systems, cutting age affected agronomical characteristics and in vitro digestibility of organic matter (IVDOM. Production was highest (4,048 kg ha-1 within the integrated system. Regardless of cutting age, monoculture sorghum had the highest crude protein level. Results showed that integrated sorghum and piatã grasses were an asset for forage productivity. Forages had higher rates in crude protein and in in vitro digestibility of organic matter on the 70th day after seeding.   

  10. Comparative analysis of compressive strength tests at age of 28 and 90 days and density of products using chemical additives in cementing radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Vanessa Mota; Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de

    2013-01-01

    In this research it has been studied the effects of chemical additives (admixtures) in the cementation process of radioactive wastes, which are used to improve the properties of waste cementation process, both of the paste and of the solidified product. However there are a large variety of these materials that are frequently changed or taken out of the market, then it is essential to know the commercially available materials and their effects. The tests were carried out with a solution simulating the evaporator concentrate waste coming from PWR nuclear reactors. It was cemented using two formulations, A and B, incorporating higher or lower amount of waste, respectively. It was added chemical admixtures from two manufacturers (S and H), which were: accelerators, set retarders and superplasticizers. The experiments were organized by a factorial design 2 3 . The measured parameters were the viscosity, the setting time, the paste and product density and the compressive strength. In this study we performed comparative analyzes of the results of compressive strength at age of 28 and 90 days and between the densities of the samples at the same ages.The compressive strength test at age of 28 days is considered a parameter essential issues related to security handling, transport and storage of cemented waste product. The results showed that the addition of accelerators improved the compressive strength of the cemented product, but presented lower values density products. (author)

  11. Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spring, Martin; Johnes, Geraint; Hald, Kim Sundtoft

    Productivity is increasingly critical for developed economies. It has always been important: as Paul Krugman puts it, “Productivity isn’t everything, but in the long run it is almost everything. A country’s ability to improve its standard of living over time depends almost entirely on its ability...... to raise its output per worker”(Krugman, 1994). Analyses of productivity have, by and large, been the preserve of economists. Operations Management (OM) is rooted in a similar concern for the efficient use of scarce resources; Management Accounting (MA) is concerned with the institutionalised measurement...... and management of productivity. Yet the three perspectives are rarely connected. This paper is a sketch of a literature review seeking to identify, contrast and reconcile these three perspectives. In so doing, it aims to strengthen the connections between policy and managerial analyses of productivity....

  12. Factors predicting meat and meat products consumption among middle-aged and elderly people: evidence from a consumer survey in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Alexandra; Gille, Doreen; Piccinali, Patrizia; Bütikofer, Ueli; Chollet, Magali; Altintzoglou, Themistoklis; Honkanen, Pirjo; Walther, Barbara; Stoffers, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Background : An adequate diet contributes to health and wellbeing in older age. This is nowadays more important than ever since in industrialised countries the elderly population is growing continually. However, information regarding the consumption behaviour of older persons in Switzerland is limited. Objective : The objective of this investigation was to explore how middle-aged and elderly Swiss view animal products in relation to diet and health, and what factors predict consumption frequency. Design : A representative consumer survey among 632 people over the age of 50 years, living in the German-, French- and Italian-speaking regions of Switzerland was conducted. Results : This paper presents the results related to meat and meat products consumption. Most participants consumed meat and meat products regularly. The majority of participants with low meat intake indicated that eating small amounts would be enough. Respondents judged fresh meat (except pork) to be healthier than meat products, and poultry to be the healthiest meat. Overall meat consumption frequency was predicted by language region, gender, household size, and BMI. Furthermore, participants' opinion about healthiness, taste and safety of meat but not their adherence to the Swiss food pyramid was found to be correlated to the consumption frequency of individual types of meat. Conclusion : Several factors have an impact on consumption frequency of meat and meat products in the middle-aged and elderly Swiss population and the importance varies according to the individual types of meat and meat products. The results show that the traditional food pyramid is not one of these factors for which reason new tools must be explored to support elderly people in regard to a healthy dietary behaviour.

  13. Influence of Aging Products on Tensile Deformation Behavior of Al-0.62 mass%Mg-0.32 mass%Si Alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akiyoshi, Ryutaro; Ikeda, Ken-ichi; Hata, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    mechanism, by estimating the Orowan stress and considering crystal structure of beta '' precipitates. In contrast, the aged alloys with Mg-Si clusters showed excellent performance of uniform elongation due to large work hardening compared to those of the alloy with beta '' precipitates. Dislocations......Tensile tests and microstructural observations were carried out to investigate the influence of aging products on tensile deformation behavior of Al-0.62 mass. Mg-0.32 mass-Si alloy. Solution-treated alloys were aged to form needle-like beta ''. precipitates or Mg-Si clusters. The aged alloy...... with beta '' precipitates showed higher yield stress than that with Mg-Si clusters. Transmission electron microscopy observations revealed that the beta '' precipitates pinned dislocations. It was suggested that the strengthening types of the alloy with beta '' precipitates were both Orowan and cutting...

  14. Fibroblast growth factor 21 protects mouse brain against D-galactose induced aging via suppression of oxidative stress response and advanced glycation end products formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yinhang; Bai, Fuliang; Wang, Wenfei; Liu, Yaonan; Yuan, Qingyan; Qu, Susu; Zhang, Tong; Tian, Guiyou; Li, Siming; Li, Deshan; Ren, Guiping

    2015-06-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a hormone secreted predominantly in the liver, pancreas and adipose tissue. Recently, it has been reported that FGF21-Transgenic mice can extend their lifespan compared with wild type counterparts. Thus, we hypothesize that FGF21 may play some roles in aging of organisms. In this study d-galactose (d-gal)-induced aging mice were used to study the mechanism that FGF21 protects mice from aging. The three-month-old Kunming mice were subcutaneously injected with d-gal (180mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)) for 8weeks and administered simultaneously with FGF21 (1, 2 or 5mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)). Our results showed that administration of FGF21 significantly improved behavioral performance of d-gal-treated mice in water maze task and step-down test, reduced brain cell damage in the hippocampus, and attenuated the d-gal-induced production of MDA, ROS and advanced glycation end products (AGEs). At the same time, FGF21 also markedly renewed the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and total anti-oxidation capability (T-AOC), and decreased the enhanced total cholinesterase (TChE) activity in the brain of d-gal-treated mice. The expression of aldose reductase (AR), sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) and member-anchored receptor for AGEs (RAGE) declined significantly after FGF21 treatment. Furthermore, FGF21 suppressed inflamm-aging by inhibiting IκBα degradation and NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation. The expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-6, decreased significantly. In conclusion, these results suggest that FGF21 protects the aging mice brain from d-gal-induced injury by attenuating oxidative stress damage and decreasing AGE formation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Changes in wood product proportions in the Douglas-fir region with respect to size, age, and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.A. Monserud; X. Zhou

    2007-01-01

    We examine both the variation and the changing proportions of different wood products obtained from trees and logs in the Douglas-fir region of the Northwestern United States. Analyses are based on a large product recovery database covering over 40 years of recovery studies; 13 studies are available for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.)...

  16. Developmental Trajectory for Production of Prosody: Lexical Stress Contrastivity in Children Ages 3 to 7 Years and in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Kirrie J.; Djaja, Danica; Arciuli, Joanne; James, Deborah G. H.; van Doorn, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Accurate production of lexical stress within English polysyllabic words is critical for intelligibility and is affected in many speech-language disorders. However, models of speech production remain underspecified with regard to lexical stress. In this study, the authors report a large-scale acoustic investigation of lexical stress…

  17. Use of Different Vegetable Products to Increase Preschool-Aged Children's Preference for and Intake of a Target Vegetable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wild, de Victoire W.T.; Graaf, de Kees; Jager, Gerry

    2017-01-01

    Background: Children's low vegetable consumption requires effective strategies to enhance preference for and intake of vegetables. Objective: The study compared three preparation practices for a target vegetable (spinach) on their effectiveness in increasing preschool-aged children's preference

  18. Eicosanoid Production following One Bout of Exercise in Middle-Aged African American Pre- and Stage 1 Hypertensives

    OpenAIRE

    Williamson, Sheara; Varma, Deepti; Brown, Michael; Jansen, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction and a sedentary lifestyle may be involved in the development of hypertension which is proliferative among middle-aged African Americans (AA). Signaling molecules derived from the oxidation of 20-carbon fatty acid molecules known as eicosanoids influence vascular tone. The relationship between aerobic fitness and eicosanoid formation following exercise in middle-aged African American hypertensives is unknown. Purpose. To determine the relationship between aerobic capaci...

  19. Redefining face contour with a novel anti-aging cosmetic product: an open-label, prospective clinical study

    OpenAIRE

    Garre, Aurora; Martinez-Masana, Gemma; Piquero-Casals, Jaime; Granger, Corinne

    2017-01-01

    Aurora Garre,1 Gemma Martinez-Masana,1 Jaime Piquero-Casals,2 Corinne Granger1 1Innovation and Development, ISDIN S.A., Barcelona, Spain; 2Dermik Clinic, Barcelona, Spain Background: Skin aging is accelerated by multiple extrinsic factors: ultraviolet radiation, smoking and pollution increase oxidative activity, damaging cellular and extracellular components such as DNA, proteins, and lipids. With age, collagen and hyaluronic acid levels decline, resulting in loss of elasticity and moisture ...

  20. The influence of aging and estradiol to progesterone ratio on rat macrophage phenotypic profile and NO and TNF-α production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijević, Mirjana; Stanojević, Stanislava; Kuštrimović, Nataša; Mitić, Katarina; Vujić, Vesna; Aleksić, Iva; Radojević, Katarina; Leposavić, Gordana

    2013-11-01

    The phenotype and function of tissue macrophages substantially depend on the cellular milieu and biological effector molecules, such as steroid hormones, to which they are exposed. Furthermore, in female rats, aging is associated with the altered macrophage functioning and the increased estrogen level is followed by a decrease in that of progesterone. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the influence of estradiol/progesterone balance on rat macrophage function and phenotype throughout whole adult lifespan. We ovariectomized rats at the late prepubertal age or at the very end of reproductive lifespan, and examined the expression of ED2 (CD163, a marker of mature resident macrophages related to secretion of inflammatory mediators) on peritoneal macrophages and their ability to produce TNF-α and NO upon LPS-stimulation at different age points. In addition, to delineate direct and indirect effects of estrogen, we assessed the in vitro influence of different concentrations of 17β-estradiol on LPS-induced macrophage TNF-α and NO production. Results showed that: (a) the low frequency of ED2(high) cells amongst peritoneal macrophages of aged rats was accompanied with the reduced TNF-α, but not NO production; (b) estradiol level gradually increased following ovariectomy; (c) macrophage ED2 expression and TNF-α production were dependent on estradiol/progesterone balance and they changed in the same direction; (d) changes in estradiol/progesterone balance differentially affected macrophages TNF-α and NO production; and (e) estradiol exerted pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects on macrophages in vivo and in vitro, respectively. Overall, our study discloses that estradiol/progesterone balance contributes to the fine-tuning of rat macrophage secretory capacity, and adds to a better understanding of the ovarian steroid hormone role in the regulation of macrophage function, and its significance for the age-associated changes in innate immunity.

  1. Enhanced IL-1beta production in response to the activation of hippocampal glial cells impairs neurogenesis in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzumaki, Naoko; Ikegami, Daigo; Imai, Satoshi; Narita, Michiko; Tamura, Rie; Yajima, Marie; Suzuki, Atsuo; Miyashita, Kazuhiko; Niikura, Keiichi; Takeshima, Hideyuki; Ando, Takayuki; Ushijima, Toshikazu; Suzuki, Tsutomu; Narita, Minoru

    2010-09-01

    A variety of mechanisms that contribute to the accumulation of age-related damage and the resulting brain dysfunction have been identified. Recently, decreased neurogenesis in the hippocampus has been recognized as one of the mechanisms of age-related brain dysfunction. However, the molecular mechanism of decreased neurogenesis with aging is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether aging decreases neurogenesis accompanied by the activation of microglia and astrocytes, which increases the expression of IL-1beta in the hippocampus, and whether in vitro treatment with IL-1beta in neural stem cells directly impairs neurogenesis. Ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1)-positive microglia and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes were increased in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus of 28-month-old mice. Furthermore, the mRNA level of IL-1beta was significantly increased without related histone modifications. Moreover, a significant increase in lysine 9 on histone H3 (H3K9) trimethylation at the promoter of NeuroD (a neural progenitor cell marker) was observed in the hippocampus of aged mice. In vitro treatment with IL-1beta in neural stem cells prepared from whole brain of E14.5 mice significantly increased H3K9 trimethylation at the NeuroD promoter. These findings suggest that aging may decrease hippocampal neurogenesis via epigenetic modifications accompanied by the activation of microglia and astrocytes with the increased expression of IL-1beta in the hippocampus.

  2. Age-related accumulation of advanced glycation end-products-albumin, S100β, and the expressions of advanced glycation end product receptor differ in visceral and subcutaneous fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Kuk Hui; Son, Myeongjoo; Ahn, Hyosang; Oh, Seyeon; Yum, Yoonji; Choi, Chang Hu; Park, Kook Yang; Byun, Kyunghee

    2016-01-01

    Visceral fat induces more inflammation by activating macrophages than subcutaneous fat, and inflammation is an underlying feature of the pathogeneses of various diseases, including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), S100β, and their receptors, the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), lead to macrophage activation. However, little information is available regarding the differential accumulations of AGE-albumin (serum albumin modified by AGEs), S100β, or expressions of RAGE in different adipocyte types in fat tissues. In this study, the authors investigated whether age-related AGE-albumin accumulations S100β level, and RAGE expressions differ in subcutaneous and visceral fat tissues. Subcutaneous and visceral fat were harvested from 3- and 28-week-old rats. Macrophage activation was confirmed by Iba1 staining, and AGE-albumin accumulations and RAGE expressions were assessed by confocal microscopy. S100β were analyzed by immunoblotting. It was found that activated macrophage infiltration, AGE-albumin accumulation, and S100β in visceral fat was significantly greater in 28-week-old rats than in 3-week-old rats, but similar in subcutaneous fat. The expression of RAGE in visceral fat was much greater in 28-week-old rats, but its expression in subcutaneous fat was similar in 3- and 28-week-old rats. Furthermore, inflammatory signal pathways (NFκB, TNF-α) and proliferation pathways (FAK) in visceral fat were more activated in 28-week-old rats. These results imply that age-related AGE-albumin accumulation, S100β, and RAGE expression are more prominent in visceral than in subcutaneous fat, suggesting that visceral fat is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammation-induced diseases in the elderly. - Highlights: • The age-related AGE-albumin accumulation and S100β were more prominent in visceral than subcutaneous fat. • The age-related RAGE expression were more prominent in visceral than subcutaneous fat.

  3. Age-related accumulation of advanced glycation end-products-albumin, S100β, and the expressions of advanced glycation end product receptor differ in visceral and subcutaneous fat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Kuk Hui [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Gachon University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Son, Myeongjoo [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Gachon University Graduate School of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Functional Cellular Networks Laboratory, Lee Gil Ya Cancer and Diabetes Institute, Gachon University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Hyosang; Oh, Seyeon; Yum, Yoonji [Functional Cellular Networks Laboratory, Lee Gil Ya Cancer and Diabetes Institute, Gachon University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Chang Hu [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Gachon University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kook Yang, E-mail: kkyypark@ghil.com [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Gachon University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Kyunghee, E-mail: khbyun1@gachon.ac.kr [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Gachon University Graduate School of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Functional Cellular Networks Laboratory, Lee Gil Ya Cancer and Diabetes Institute, Gachon University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-19

    Visceral fat induces more inflammation by activating macrophages than subcutaneous fat, and inflammation is an underlying feature of the pathogeneses of various diseases, including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), S100β, and their receptors, the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), lead to macrophage activation. However, little information is available regarding the differential accumulations of AGE-albumin (serum albumin modified by AGEs), S100β, or expressions of RAGE in different adipocyte types in fat tissues. In this study, the authors investigated whether age-related AGE-albumin accumulations S100β level, and RAGE expressions differ in subcutaneous and visceral fat tissues. Subcutaneous and visceral fat were harvested from 3- and 28-week-old rats. Macrophage activation was confirmed by Iba1 staining, and AGE-albumin accumulations and RAGE expressions were assessed by confocal microscopy. S100β were analyzed by immunoblotting. It was found that activated macrophage infiltration, AGE-albumin accumulation, and S100β in visceral fat was significantly greater in 28-week-old rats than in 3-week-old rats, but similar in subcutaneous fat. The expression of RAGE in visceral fat was much greater in 28-week-old rats, but its expression in subcutaneous fat was similar in 3- and 28-week-old rats. Furthermore, inflammatory signal pathways (NFκB, TNF-α) and proliferation pathways (FAK) in visceral fat were more activated in 28-week-old rats. These results imply that age-related AGE-albumin accumulation, S100β, and RAGE expression are more prominent in visceral than in subcutaneous fat, suggesting that visceral fat is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammation-induced diseases in the elderly. - Highlights: • The age-related AGE-albumin accumulation and S100β were more prominent in visceral than subcutaneous fat. • The age-related RAGE expression were more prominent in visceral than subcutaneous fat.

  4. Increase in Red Blood Cell-Nitric Oxide Synthase Dependent Nitric Oxide Production during Red Blood Cell Aging in Health and Disease: A Study on Age Dependent Changes of Rheologic and Enzymatic Properties in Red Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizjak, Daniel Alexander; Brinkmann, Christian; Bloch, Wilhelm; Grau, Marijke

    2015-01-01

    Aim To investigate RBC-NOS dependent NO signaling during in vivo RBC aging in health and disease. Method RBC from fifteen healthy volunteers (HC) and four patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) were separated in seven subpopulations by Percoll density gradient centrifugation. Results The proportion of old RBC was significantly higher in DM compared to HC. In both groups, in vivo aging was marked by changes in RBC shape and decreased cell volume. RBC nitrite, as marker for NO, was higher in DM and increased in both HC and DM during aging. RBC deformability was lower in DM and significantly decreased in old compared to young RBC in both HC and DM. RBC-NOS Serine1177 phosphorylation, indicating enzyme activation, increased during aging in both HC and DM. Arginase I activity remained unchanged during aging in HC. In DM, arginase I activity was significantly higher in young RBC compared to HC but decreased during aging. In HC, concentration of L-arginine, the substrate of RBC-NOS and arginase I, significantly dropped from young to old RBC. In DM, L-arginine concentration was significantly higher in young RBC compared to HC and significantly decreased during aging. In blood from healthy subjects, RBC-NOS activation was additionally inhibited by N5-(1-iminoethyl)-L-Ornithine dihydrochloride which decreased RBC nitrite, and impaired RBC deformability of all but the oldest RBC subpopulation. Conclusion This study first-time showed highest RBC-NOS activation and NO production in old RBC, possibly to counteract the negative impact of cell shrinkage on RBC deformability. This was even more pronounced in DM. It is further suggested that highly produced NO only insufficiently affects cell function of old RBC maybe because of isolated RBC-NOS in old RBC thus decreasing NO bioavailability. Thus, increasing NO availability may improve RBC function and may extend cell life span in old RBC. PMID:25902315

  5. Self-reported cannabis products and other illicit drugs consumption in older school-age children in Northern Lithuania: a comparison between 2006 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miniauskienė, Dalia; Jurgaitienė, Dalia; Strukčinskienė, Birutė

    2014-01-01

    Cannabis use is widespread among young people in Europe. The aim of this study was to analyze and to compare the associations between the self-reported consumption of cannabis products and other illicit drugs among older schoolchildren in 2006 and in 2012. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2006 and 2012 in Northern Lithuania. In total 3447 young people aged 17-19 years were investigated (1585 male and 1862 female). For this survey, the ESPAD questionnaire was used. In Northern Lithuania, the schoolchildren aged 17-19 years self-reported that 16.7% in 2006 and 23.9% in 2012 of them tried cannabis products. The consumption of cannabis products in the age group of 17 years increased from 14.9% in 2006 to 21.5% in 2012. The consumption of cannabis together with alcohol increased from 7.6% to 14.3%. Cannabis consumers more often tried amphetamines, heroin, LSD, cocaine, crack, ecstasy, hallucinogenic mushrooms, and injective drugs. In 2012, cannabis consumers girls less than boys used only crack and injective drugs; all other illicit drugs they used the same often as boys. The cannabis products consumption in schoolchildren has increased by 7%. Nearly twofold increase was observed in the consumption of cannabis together with alcohol. Young people who used cannabis products more often tried other illicit drugs. There were no differences by gender in the consumption of illicit drugs among cannabis consumers. Copyright © 2014 Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  6. Inverse associations between obesity indicators and thymic T-cell production levels in aging atomic-bomb survivors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kengo Yoshida

    Full Text Available Reduction of the naive T-cell population represents a deteriorating state in the immune system that occurs with advancing age. In animal model studies, obesity compromises the T-cell immune system as a result of enhanced adipogenesis in primary lymphoid organs and systemic inflammation. In this study, to test the hypothesis that obesity may contribute to the aging of human T-cell immunity, a thousand atomic-bomb survivors were examined for obesity status and ability to produce naive T cells, i.e., T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC numbers in CD4 and CD8 T cells. The number of TRECs showed a strong positive correlation with naive T cell numbers, and lower TREC numbers were associated with higher age. We found that the TREC number was inversely associated with levels of obesity indicators (BMI, hemoglobin A1c and serum CRP levels. Development of type-2 diabetes and fatty liver was also associated with lower TREC numbers. This population study suggests that obesity with enhanced inflammation is involved in aging of the human T-cell immune system. Given the fact that obesity increases the risk of numerous age-related diseases, attenuated immune competence is a possible mechanistic link between obesity and disease development among the elderly.

  7. Inverse associations between obesity indicators and thymic T-cell production levels in aging atomic-bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kengo; Nakashima, Eiji; Kubo, Yoshiko; Yamaoka, Mika; Kajimura, Junko; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Hayashi, Tomonori; Ohishi, Waka; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2014-01-01

    Reduction of the naive T-cell population represents a deteriorating state in the immune system that occurs with advancing age. In animal model studies, obesity compromises the T-cell immune system as a result of enhanced adipogenesis in primary lymphoid organs and systemic inflammation. In this study, to test the hypothesis that obesity may contribute to the aging of human T-cell immunity, a thousand atomic-bomb survivors were examined for obesity status and ability to produce naive T cells, i.e., T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC) numbers in CD4 and CD8 T cells. The number of TRECs showed a strong positive correlation with naive T cell numbers, and lower TREC numbers were associated with higher age. We found that the TREC number was inversely associated with levels of obesity indicators (BMI, hemoglobin A1c) and serum CRP levels. Development of type-2 diabetes and fatty liver was also associated with lower TREC numbers. This population study suggests that obesity with enhanced inflammation is involved in aging of the human T-cell immune system. Given the fact that obesity increases the risk of numerous age-related diseases, attenuated immune competence is a possible mechanistic link between obesity and disease development among the elderly.

  8. REIMEP-22 U age dating - Determination of the production date of a uranium certified test sample Inter-laboratory comparison, Report to participants

    OpenAIRE

    VENCHIARUTTI CELIA; VARGA ZSOLT; RICHTER Stephan; NICHOLL Adrian; KRAJKO JUDIT; JAKOPIC Rozle; MAYER Klaus; AREGBE Yetunde

    2015-01-01

    The REIMEP-22 inter-laboratory comparison (ILC) "U Age Dating - Determination of the production date of a uranium certified test sample" was organised by JRC-IRMM as support to the Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group (ITWG) This ILC was organised prior to the release of the candidate certified reference material IRMM-1000, produced in cooperation with JRC-ITU. The aim of REIMEP-22 was to determine the production date of the uranium certified test sample (i.e. the last chem...

  9. The wood charcoal production in the kingdom of Córdoba at the end of the Middle Ages: an example of exploitation of the Mediterranean mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier López Rider

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to investigate and explain, the practice of wood charcoal production in the kingdom of Córdoba during the Middle Ages Period. In the absence of anthracological studies; the documentary sources reveal the typology of existing charcoals, how this raw material was obtained, which its uses were, how it was transported to the city and in wich ways it was commercialized. Thanks to all this information we come to understand the importance of wood charcoal production for our ancestors, who have left us a carboniferous legacy we still use.

  10. Expression of advanced glycation end-products on sun-exposed and non-exposed cutaneous sites during the ageing process in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisan, Maria; Taulescu, Marian; Crisan, Diana; Cosgarea, Rodica; Parvu, Alina; Cãtoi, Cornel; Drugan, Tudor

    2013-01-01

    The glycation process is involved in both the intrinsic (individual, genetic) and extrinsic (ultraviolet light, polution and lifestyle) aging processes, and can be quantified at the epidermal or dermal level by histological, immunohistochemical (IHC), or imagistic methods. Our study is focused on a histological and immunohistological comparison of sun-protected regions versus sun-exposed regions from different age groups of skin phototype III subjects, related to the aging process. Skin samples collected from non-protected and UV protected regions of four experimental groups with different ages, were studied using histology and IHC methods for AGE-CML [N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine]. A semi-quantitative assessment of the CML expression in the microvascular endothelium and dermal fibroblasts was performed. The Pearson one-way ANOVA was used to compare data between the groups. In the dermis of sun-exposed skin, the number and the intensity of CML positive cells in both fibroblasts and endothelial cells (p<0.05) was higher compared to sun-protected skin, and was significantly increased in older patients. The sun-exposed areas had a more than 10% higher AGE-CML score than the protected areas. No statistically significant correlation was observed between the histological score and the IHC expression of CML. We concluded that in healthy integument, the accumulation of final glycation products increases with age and is amplified by ultraviolet exposure. The study provides new knowledge on differences of AGE-CML between age groups and protected and unprotected areas and emphasizes that endothelium and perivascular area are most affected, justifying combined topical and systemic therapies.

  11. POSSIBILITIES OF USING MEAT PRODUCTS OF INDUSTRIALLY MANUFACTURED BEIKOST FOR ALLERGY PREVENTION IN CHILDREN OF 0–1 YEARS OF AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Turti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Critical periods of atopic status formation in children of 0-1 years of age dictate the need in search and introduction to practice of effective allergy prevention methods. The aim of this study is to substantiate efficacy of using hypoallergenic beikost products on the basis of turkey or rabbit meat for prevention of atopic disease and polyvalent allergy development. The study participants are children over 6 months of age with compromised family allergology anamnesis and mild skin manifestation of allergy. The results have confirmed low sensitizing potential of the studied beikost products, good tolerability and efficacy of use for the prevention of atopic process development. The obtained results allow recommending the studied turkey or rabbit meat purees to the risk group children and children with allergy as primary/secondary allergy preventive means and within therapeutic diets.

  12. The predictive effect of inflammatory markers and lipid accumulation product index on clinical symptoms associated with polycystic ovary syndrome in nonobese adolescents and younger aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tola, Esra Nur; Yalcin, Serenat Eris; Dugan, Nadiye

    2017-07-01

    The aim of our study is to analyse the inflammatory markers and lipid accumulation product (LAP) index in nonobese adolescents and younger aged women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) compared with age and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy controls and to determine whether the investigated parameters are potential markers for the etiopathogenesis of PCOS. We also aim to determine whether these inflammatory markers are predictive for developing some clinical implications, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and insulin resistance (IR), associated with PCOS. A total of 34 adolescents and younger aged females with PCOS, and 33 age and BMI-matched healthy controls were recruited for our study. All participants were nonobese (BMIpredictive effect of investigated inflammatory markers and LAP index on CVD risk among PCOS patients after adjustment for abdominal obesity. We also found a positive predictive effect of WBC and a negative predictive effect of lymphocytes on IR in PCOS patients after adjustment for abdominal obesity. We did not find any predictor effect of NEO on IR, but it was a positive predictive marker for an elevated HOMA-IR index. Elevated NEO, CRP levels and LAP index could have potential roles in the etiopathogenesis of PCOS in nonobese adolescents and younger aged females,NEO could be a predictive marker for elevated HOMA-IR index, and WBC and lymphocytes could be predictive for the development of IR among nonobese adolescents and younger aged females with PCOS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of In Vitro Inhibitory Activity of Rye-Buckwheat Ginger Cakes with Rutin on the Formation of Advanced Glycation End-Products (AGEs)

    OpenAIRE

    Przygodzka Małgorzata; Zieliński Henryk

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between the inhibitory effects of extracts from rye-buckwheat ginger cakes supplemented with low and high rutin dosage baked without or with dough fermentation step on the formation of fluorescent advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), and phenolic compounds, rutin, D-chiro-inositol and antioxidant capacity were addressed. The cakes were based on rye flour substituted by light buckwheat flour or flour from roasted buckwheat groats at 30% level, and were produc...

  14. Aging-dependent decline of IL-10 producing B cells coincides with production of antinuclear antibodies but not rheumatoid factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geest, Kornelis S. M.; Lorencetti, Pedro G.; Abdulahad, Wayel H.; Horst, Gerda; Huitema, Minke; Roozendaal, Caroline; Kroesen, Bart-Jan; Brouwer, Elisabeth; Boots, Annemieke M. H.

    Aging is associated with development of autoimmunity. Loss of B cell tolerance in the elderly is suggested by an increased prevalence of anti-nuclear antibodies (ANAs) and rheumatoid factors (RFs). Accumulating evidence indicates that B cells also impact autoimmunity via secretion of cytokines. So

  15. Optimising product advice based on age when design criteria are based on weight: child restraints in vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R W G; Hutchinson, T P

    2009-03-01

    The motivation for this paper is the high rate of inappropriate child restraint selection in cars that is apparent in published surveys of child restraint use and how the public health messages promoting child restraints might respond. Advice has increasingly been given solely according to the child's weight, while many parents do not know the weight of their children. A common objection to promoting restraint use based on the age of the child is the imprecision of such advice, given the variation in the size of children, but the magnitude of the misclassification such advice would produce has never been estimated. This paper presents a method for estimating the misclassification of children by weight, when advice is posed in terms of age, and applies it to detailed child growth data published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. In Australia, guidelines instructing all parents to promote their children from an infant restraint to a forward-facing child seat at 6 months, and then to a belt-positioning booster at 4 years, would mean that 5% of all children under the age of 6 years would be using a restraint not suited to their weight. Coordination of aged-based advice and the weight ranges chosen for the Australian Standard on child restraints could reduce this level of misclassification to less than 1%. The general method developed may also be applied to other aspects of restraint design that are more directly relevant to good restraint fit.

  16. The end of the art connoisseur? Experts and knowledge production in the visual arts in the digital age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Arora (Payal); F.R.R. Vermeylen (Filip)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn this digital age, declarations surface on the death of the expert and the democratization of information. Crowd wisdom is seen as the new guide in constructing and evaluating knowledge. In the context of the art world, this tension between the amateurs and the experts becomes

  17. The association between peer, parental influence and tobacco product features and earlier age of onset of regular smoking among adults in 27 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippidis, Filippos T; Agaku, Israel T; Vardavas, Constantine I

    2015-10-01

    Factors that influence smoking initiation and age of smoking onset are important considerations in tobacco control. We evaluated European Union (EU)-wide differences in the age of onset of regular smoking, and the potential role of peer, parental and tobacco product design features on the earlier onset of regular smoking among adults influenced their decision to start smoking, including peer influence, parental influence and features of tobacco products. Multi-variable logistic regression, adjusted for age; geographic region; education; difficulty to pay bills; and gender, was used to assess the role of the various pro-tobacco influences on early onset of regular smoking (i.e. influenced by peers (OR = 1.70; 95%CI 1.30-2.20) or parents (OR = 1.60; 95%CI 1.21-2.12) were more likely to have started smoking regularly <18 years old. No significant association between design and marketing features of tobacco products and an early initiation of regular smoking was observed (OR = 1.04; 95%CI 0.83-1.31). We identified major differences in smoking initiation patterns among EU countries, which may warrant different approaches in the prevention of tobacco use. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  18. Nifedipine inhibits advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) interaction-mediated proximal tubular cell injury via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Takanori; Yamagishi, Sho-ichi; Takeuchi, Masayoshi; Ueda, Seiji; Fukami, Kei; Okuda, Seiya

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Nifedipine inhibited the AGE-induced up-regulation of RAGE mRNA levels in tubular cells, which was prevented by GW9662, an inhibitor of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ. → GW9662 treatment alone increased RAGE mRNA levels in tubular cells. → Nifedipine inhibited the AGE-induced reactive oxygen species generation, NF-κB activation and increases in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and transforming growth factor-β gene expression in tubular cells, all of which were blocked by GW9662. -- Abstract: There is a growing body of evidence that advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) interaction evokes oxidative stress generation and subsequently elicits inflammatory and fibrogenic reactions, thereby contributing to the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy. We have previously found that nifedipine, a calcium-channel blocker (CCB), inhibits the AGE-induced mesangial cell damage in vitro. However, effects of nifedipine on proximal tubular cell injury remain unknown. We examined here whether and how nifedipine blocked the AGE-induced tubular cell damage. Nifedipine, but not amlodipine, a control CCB, inhibited the AGE-induced up-regulation of RAGE mRNA levels in tubular cells, which was prevented by the simultaneous treatment of GW9662, an inhibitor of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ). GW9662 treatment alone was found to increase RAGE mRNA levels in tubular cells. Further, nifedipine inhibited the AGE-induced reactive oxygen species generation, NF-κB activation and increases in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and transforming growth factor-beta gene expression in tubular cells, all of which were blocked by GW9662. Our present study provides a unique beneficial aspect of nifedipine on diabetic nephropathy; it could work as an anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory agent against AGEs in tubular cells by suppressing RAGE expression via PPARγ activation.

  19. Nifedipine inhibits advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) interaction-mediated proximal tubular cell injury via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, Takanori [Department of Pathophysiology and Therapeutics of Diabetic Vascular Complications, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Yamagishi, Sho-ichi, E-mail: shoichi@med.kurume-u.ac.jp [Department of Pathophysiology and Therapeutics of Diabetic Vascular Complications, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Takeuchi, Masayoshi [Department of Pathophysiological Science, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science, Hokuriku University, Kanazawa (Japan); Ueda, Seiji; Fukami, Kei; Okuda, Seiya [Department of Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan)

    2010-07-23

    Research highlights: {yields} Nifedipine inhibited the AGE-induced up-regulation of RAGE mRNA levels in tubular cells, which was prevented by GW9662, an inhibitor of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma}. {yields} GW9662 treatment alone increased RAGE mRNA levels in tubular cells. {yields} Nifedipine inhibited the AGE-induced reactive oxygen species generation, NF-{kappa}B activation and increases in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and transforming growth factor-{beta} gene expression in tubular cells, all of which were blocked by GW9662. -- Abstract: There is a growing body of evidence that advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) interaction evokes oxidative stress generation and subsequently elicits inflammatory and fibrogenic reactions, thereby contributing to the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy. We have previously found that nifedipine, a calcium-channel blocker (CCB), inhibits the AGE-induced mesangial cell damage in vitro. However, effects of nifedipine on proximal tubular cell injury remain unknown. We examined here whether and how nifedipine blocked the AGE-induced tubular cell damage. Nifedipine, but not amlodipine, a control CCB, inhibited the AGE-induced up-regulation of RAGE mRNA levels in tubular cells, which was prevented by the simultaneous treatment of GW9662, an inhibitor of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}). GW9662 treatment alone was found to increase RAGE mRNA levels in tubular cells. Further, nifedipine inhibited the AGE-induced reactive oxygen species generation, NF-{kappa}B activation and increases in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and transforming growth factor-beta gene expression in tubular cells, all of which were blocked by GW9662. Our present study provides a unique beneficial aspect of nifedipine on diabetic nephropathy; it could work as an anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory agent against AGEs in tubular cells by suppressing RAGE expression

  20. Land use history, floodplain development, and soil erosion in the vicinity of a millstone production center since the Iron Age in the Segbachtal near Mayen (eastern Eifel, Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotterweich, Markus; Wenzel, Stefan; Schreg, Rainer; Fülling, Alexander; Engel, Max

    2015-04-01

    In Roman times, the stone and pottery production near Mayen in western Germany reached a very high intensity which would have satisfied the needs of a much wider area. The rate and volume of production was unprecedented and never reached the same level thereafter. The Segbach valley study site with an area of only a few square kilometres offers a very special geoarchaeological archive. The Roman land use structures were completely preserved under a 2 meter thick layer of sediment and are now partially exposed in a gully due to erosion. Pedological, sedimentological and geophysical studies at the colluvium and floodplain sediments as well as relict field structures showed that in the last 2500 years there has been a considerable human impact on both water and sediment budgets. This also had various implications on the further development of water courses, soils and relief. Evidence for the development of flood plain sediments can be traced as far back as the late La Tène period, the Roman Iron Age, and since the Middle Ages. On one particular south-facing slope we found evidence of recultivation measures on a former quarry tailing heap dating from the Middle Ages. This and other human construction activities and land uses lead to a significant change in erosion and sedimentation patterns. It is surprising that sedimentation in flood plains was largely absent during the Roman Iron Age despite intensive land use. Evidence shows that flash flood events with intensive accumulation of soil matter in flood plains only occurred during the High Middle Ages. Sediments from the late Middle ages and the Modern Times are largely missing. The research undertaken in Segbach valley not only offers new insights into specific local historical land uses and land use changes but also fundamental knowledge about the principles and impacts of long-term human-environment interactions.

  1. A new approach to defining rotation ages on the basis of productive and technological aspects. Application to natural Pinus sylvestris L. stands in Central Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo-Alboreca, A.; García-Villabrille, J.D.; Corral-Rivas, J.J.; Alía, R.; Montero, G.

    2017-01-01

    Aim of study: To propose a new approach to defining rotation ages on the basis of productive and technological aspects and to present an example of application of the methodology to natural Pinus sylvestris stands in relation to silvicultural treatment (light or heavy thinning) and site index. Area of study: Central Spain. Material and methods: We assumed that the price per m3 of logwood suitable for veneer is four times higher than logwood not apt for veneer. Considering the yield distribution for different technological and commercial classes, a model of diameter distributions and yield tables, the variation in an average price index for different age classes, site indexes and silvicultural treatments was calculated. The age at which the price index rises by less than 3%, the proportion of trees with d.b.h. higher than 40 cm, and other aspects such as the possible presence of fungal decay in old-growth stands were also taken into account to establish three criteria for defining rotation ages. Main results: The proposed methodology generates a wide range of rotation ages between 100 and 140 years for lightly thinned stands, and between 90 and 140 years for heavily thinned stands, depending on the site index. Research highlights: The proposed approach is based on technological and productive criteria, with the limitations imposed by sanitary risks. The methodology can be applied to generate rotation ages in relation to different site indexes and silvicultural treatments, provided that the timber market prices and the yield distribution for different technological and commercial classes are known, and that a model of diameter distributions and yield tables are available.

  2. A new approach to defining rotation ages on the basis of productive and technological aspects. Application to natural Pinus sylvestris L. stands in Central Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojo-Alboreca, A.; García-Villabrille, J.D.; Corral-Rivas, J.J.; Alía, R.; Montero, G.

    2017-11-01

    Aim of study: To propose a new approach to defining rotation ages on the basis of productive and technological aspects and to present an example of application of the methodology to natural Pinus sylvestris stands in relation to silvicultural treatment (light or heavy thinning) and site index. Area of study: Central Spain. Material and methods: We assumed that the price per m3 of logwood suitable for veneer is four times higher than logwood not apt for veneer. Considering the yield distribution for different technological and commercial classes, a model of diameter distributions and yield tables, the variation in an average price index for different age classes, site indexes and silvicultural treatments was calculated. The age at which the price index rises by less than 3%, the proportion of trees with d.b.h. higher than 40 cm, and other aspects such as the possible presence of fungal decay in old-growth stands were also taken into account to establish three criteria for defining rotation ages. Main results: The proposed methodology generates a wide range of rotation ages between 100 and 140 years for lightly thinned stands, and between 90 and 140 years for heavily thinned stands, depending on the site index. Research highlights: The proposed approach is based on technological and productive criteria, with the limitations imposed by sanitary risks. The methodology can be applied to generate rotation ages in relation to different site indexes and silvicultural treatments, provided that the timber market prices and the yield distribution for different technological and commercial classes are known, and that a model of diameter distributions and yield tables are available.

  3. Strangeness production in Ni+Ni collisions at 1.93 AGeV; Production d'etrangete dans les collisions Ni+Ni a 1.93 AGeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, X

    2004-12-15

    This work deals with the production of strange particles in Ni + Ni collisions at 1.93 A GeV detected with the Fopi (four pi) detector at the heavy ion synchrotron SIS (GSI - Germany). We have limited our investigation to the study of {lambda} and {xi} hyperons. The first chapter presents the models used to describe ultra-relativistic heavy ions collisions. In the second chapter we present the main experimental results concerning the production and transport of strange particles in an energy domain ranging from SIS to RHIC (relativistic heavy ion collider) energies. The third chapter is dedicated to the specificities of the Fopi detector. The fourth chapter deals with the production of {lambda} particles in Ni + Ni collisions. An analysis method based on neuron network has been used in parallel with a more classical method. The production rate and temperature of {lambda} have been deduced from both methods. The neuron network method gives a statistical gain and allows a better identification of particles with low transverse impulses. The fifth chapter is dedicated to the detection of the doubly strange {xi}{sup -} particle. A detailed study about the stability of the signal is presented. In the last chapter all our experimental results are confronted with theoretical predictions. The UrQMD model that uses a hard equation of state, can simulate satisfactorily the production rates of {lambda} and K{sup +} as well as their dependency on collision centrality despite the fact that this model does not use a potential linked to the medium density. The comparison between experimental results and predictions given by the IQMD model (that is based on a soft equation of state) is better when the version of the model that does not take into account the effects of the media is used. We see that the choices for the nuclear matter compressibility, for the particles involved in Kaon and {lambda} creation process, or for the interaction potential with dense medium, appear to be

  4. Strangeness production in Ni+Ni collisions at 1.93 AGeV; Production d'etrangete dans les collisions Ni+Ni a 1.93 AGeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, X

    2004-12-15

    This work deals with the production of strange particles in Ni + Ni collisions at 1.93 A GeV detected with the Fopi (four pi) detector at the heavy ion synchrotron SIS (GSI - Germany). We have limited our investigation to the study of {lambda} and {xi} hyperons. The first chapter presents the models used to describe ultra-relativistic heavy ions collisions. In the second chapter we present the main experimental results concerning the production and transport of strange particles in an energy domain ranging from SIS to RHIC (relativistic heavy ion collider) energies. The third chapter is dedicated to the specificities of the Fopi detector. The fourth chapter deals with the production of {lambda} particles in Ni + Ni collisions. An analysis method based on neuron network has been used in parallel with a more classical method. The production rate and temperature of {lambda} have been deduced from both methods. The neuron network method gives a statistical gain and allows a better identification of particles with low transverse impulses. The fifth chapter is dedicated to the detection of the doubly strange {xi}{sup -} particle. A detailed study about the stability of the signal is presented. In the last chapter all our experimental results are confronted with theoretical predictions. The UrQMD model that uses a hard equation of state, can simulate satisfactorily the production rates of {lambda} and K{sup +} as well as their dependency on collision centrality despite the fact that this model does not use a potential linked to the medium density. The comparison between experimental results and predictions given by the IQMD model (that is based on a soft equation of state) is better when the version of the model that does not take into account the effects of the media is used. We see that the choices for the nuclear matter compressibility, for the particles involved in Kaon and {lambda} creation process, or for the interaction potential with dense medium, appear to be

  5. Productive Extension of Semantic Memory in School-Aged Children: Relations with Reading Comprehension and Deployment of Cognitive Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Patricia J.; Blue, Shala N.; Xu, Aoxiang; Esposito, Alena G.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated 7- to 10-year-old children's productive extension of semantic memory through self-generation of new factual knowledge derived through integration of separate yet related facts learned through instruction or through reading. In Experiment 1, an experimenter read the to-be-integrated facts. Children successfully learned and…

  6. Treadmill Exercise Attenuates Retinal Oxidative Stress in Naturally-Aged Mice: An Immunohistochemical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan-Sik Kim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the retina, a number of degenerative diseases, including glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration, may occur as a result of aging. Oxidative damage is believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of aging as well as to age-related retinal disease. Although physiological exercise has been shown to reduce oxidative stress in rats and mice, it is not known whether it has a similar effect in retinal tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate retinal oxidative stress in naturally-aged mice. In addition, we evaluated the effects of aerobic training on retinal oxidative stress by immunohistochemically evaluating oxidative stress markers. A group of twelve-week-old male mice were not exercised (young control. Two groups of twenty-two-month-old male mice were created: an old control group and a treadmill exercise group. The old control group mice were not exercised. The treadmill exercise group mice ran on a treadmill (5 to 12 m/min, 30 to 60 min/day, 3 days/week for 12 weeks. The retinal thickness and number of cells in the ganglion cell layer of the naturally-aged mice were reduced compared to those in the young control mice. However, treadmill exercise reversed these morphological changes in the retinas. We evaluated retinal expression of carboxymethyllysine (CML, 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG and nitrotyrosine. The retinas from the aged mice showed increased CML, 8-OHdG, and nitrotyrosine immunostaining intensities compared to young control mice. The exercise group exhibited significantly lower CML levels and nitro-oxidative stress than the old control group. These results suggest that regular exercise can reduce retinal oxidative stress and that physiological exercise may be distinctly advantageous in reducing retinal oxidative stress.

  7. REIMEP-22 inter-laboratory comparison. ''U Age Dating - determination of the production date of a uranium certified test sample''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venchiarutti, Celia; Richter, Stephan; Jakopic, Rozle; Aregbe, Yetunde [European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Geel (Belgium). Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM); Varga, Zsolt; Mayer, Klaus [European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Karlsruhe (Germany). Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU)

    2015-07-01

    The REIMEP-22 inter-laboratory comparison aimed at determining the production date of a uranium certified test sample (i.e. the last chemical separation date of the material). Participants in REIMEP-22 on ''U Age Dating - Determination of the production date of a uranium certified test sample'' received one low-enriched 20 mg uranium sample for mass spectrometry measurements and/or one 50 mg uranium sample for a-spectrometry measurements, with an undisclosed value for the production date. They were asked to report the isotope amount ratios n({sup 230}Th)/n({sup 234}U) for the 20 mg uranium sample and/or the activity ratios A({sup 230}Th)/A({sup 234}U) for the 50 mg uranium sample in addition to the calculated production date of the certified test samples with its uncertainty. Reporting of the {sup 231}Pa/{sup 235}U ratio and the respective calculated production date was optional. Eleven laboratories reported results in REIMEP-22. Two of them reported results for both the 20 mg and 50 mg uranium certified test samples. The measurement capability of the participants was assessed against the independent REIMEP-22 reference value by means of z- and zeta-scores in compliance with ISO 13528:2005. Furthermore a performance assessment criterion for acceptable uncertainty was applied to evaluate the participants' results. In general, the REIMEP-22 participants' results were satisfactory. This confirms the analytical capabilities of laboratories to determine accurately the age of uranium materials with low amount of ingrown thorium (young certified test sample). The Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (EC-JRC) organised REIMEP-22 in parallel to the preparation and certification of a uranium reference material certified for the production date (IRMM-1000a and IRMM-1000b).

  8. K-Ar ages of the Nyuto-Takakura volcanic products, southern part of the Sengan geothermal area, northeast Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suto, Shigeru; Uto, Kozo; Uchiumi, Shigeru

    1990-01-01

    The K-Ar age determination of the volcanic rocks from the Nyuto-Takakura volcano group, northeast Japan, was carried out. Nyuto-Takakura volcanoes are situated in the southern part of the Sengan geothermal area. And the Young Volcanic Rocks in the area were already divided into the Early stage volcanics (erupted in Matsuyama reversed epoch or more older epoch) and the Later stage volcanics (erupted in Brunhes normal epoch) by accumulated paleomagnetic and K-Ar age data. The results in this study are as follows; Nyuto Volcano: 0.63±0.06, 0.36±0.07 Ma, Sasamoriyama Volcano: 0.09±0.07, 0.3±0.3 Ma, Marumori Lava Dome: 0.4±0.3, 0.31±0.12 Ma, Mikadoyama Lava Dome: <1 Ma, Takakurayama-Kotakakurayama volcano: 1.4±0.5, 1.0±0.4, <0.4 Ma. The determinated ages are concordant with the volcanic stratigraphy and the paleomagnetic data. Nyuto Volcano, Sasamoriyama Volcano, Marumori Lava Dome, Mikadoyama Lava Dome and upper part of the Takakurayama-Kotakakurayama Volcano are interpreted to be erupted in Brunhes normal epoch. The volcanic rocks from the lower part of the Takakurayama-Kotakakurayama volcano show normal magnetic polarity, so they are interpreted to be erupted in Jaramillo normal polarity event. The Early stage volcanics and the Later stage volcanics in the studied area are tend to be distributed in the central part and the outer part of the area, respectively. But the determinated ages in this study show that there is no simple migration of the eruption center of the volcanic rocks from the central part to the peripheral part. There is no geothermal manifestation or alteration area around the Sasamoriyama Volcano and the Marumori Lava Dome, which are the youngest volcanoes in the studied area. So it is concluded that there is no direct correlation between the eruption age of the nearest volcano and the geothermal activity. (author)

  9. Phenolic compounds and sensorial characterization of wines aged with alternative to barrel products made of Spanish oak wood (Quercus pyrenaica Willd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, L; Del Alamo, M; Nevares, I; Fernández, J A; Fernández de Simón, B; Cadahía, E

    2012-04-01

    Wood of Quercus pyrenaica has suitable properties for the wine ageing process. However, the forest available for the barrel making from this particular type of tree is very limited. Nevertheless, it is highly advisable to use this kind of wood in order to manufacture alternative oak products. This study presents the results of ageing the same red wine using different pieces of wood (chips and staves) of Spanish oak (Q. pyrenaica), American oak (Quercus alba) and French oak (Quercus petraea) in conjunction with small, controlled amounts of oxygen. In addition, the phenolic parameters, colour and sensory analysis point out that wines aged with Q. pyrenaica pieces have similar enological characteristics to those aged with American or French oak pieces of wood (chips and staves). Furthermore, the total oxygen consumed and its relation with sensory properties also has been studied in this article in order to know how the oxygen behaves in these processes. Besides, it is going to put forward the fact that chips and staves from Q. pyrenaica oak are suitable for the ageing of red wines and better considered than American or French ones, showing higher aromatic intensity, complexity, woody, balsamic and cocoa. Finally, the tasters valued highly the wines with staves, pointing out its flavour and roundness in mouth.

  10. (R)-α-Lipoic acid inhibits fructose-induced myoglobin fructation and the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghelani, Hardik; Razmovski-Naumovski, Valentina; Pragada, Rajeswara Rao; Nammi, Srinivas

    2018-01-15

    Fructose-mediated protein glycation (fructation) has been linked to an increase in diabetic and cardiovascular complications due to over consumption of high-fructose containing diets in recent times. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the protective effect of (R)-α-lipoic acid (ALA) against fructose-induced myoglobin fructation and the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in vitro. The anti-glycation activity of ALA was determined using the formation of AGEs fluorescence intensity, iron released from the heme moiety of myoglobin and the level of fructosamine. The fructation-induced myoglobin oxidation was examined using the level of protein carbonyl content and thiol group estimation. The results showed that co-incubation of myoglobin (1 mg/mL), fructose (1 M) and ALA (1, 2 and 4 mM) significantly inhibited the formation of AGEs during the 30 day study period. ALA markedly decreased the levels of fructosamine, which is directly associated with the reduction of AGEs formation. Furthermore, ALA significantly reduced free iron release from myoglobin which is attributed to the protection of myoglobin from fructose-induced glycation. The results also demonstrated a significant protective effect of ALA on myoglobin oxidative damages, as seen from decreased protein carbonyl content and increased protein thiols. These findings provide new insights into the anti-glycation properties of ALA and emphasize that ALA supplementation is beneficial in the prevention of AGEs-mediated diabetic and cardiovascular complications.

  11. Advanced glycation end-product (AGE)-albumin from activated macrophage is critical in human mesenchymal stem cells survival and post-ischemic reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Myeongjoo; Kang, Woong Chol; Oh, Seyeon; Bayarsaikhan, Delger; Ahn, Hyosang; Lee, Jaesuk; Park, Hyunjin; Lee, Sojung; Choi, Junwon; Lee, Hye Sun; Yang, Phillip C; Byun, Kyunghee; Lee, Bonghee

    2017-09-14

    Post-ischemic reperfusion injury (PIRI) triggers an intense inflammatory response which is essential for repair but is also implicated in pathogenesis of post-ischemic remodeling in several organs in human. Stem cell therapy has recently emerged as a promising method for treatment of PIRI in human. However, satisfactory results have not been reported due to severe loss of injected stem cells in PIRI including critical limb ischemia (CLI). For investigating the advanced glycation end-product-albumin (AGE-albumin) from activated macrophages is critical in both muscle cell and stem cell death, we evaluated the recovery of PIRI-CLI by injection of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBD-MSCs) with or without soluble receptor for AGEs (sRAGE). Our results showed that activated M1 macrophages synthesize and secrete AGE-albumin, which induced the skeletal muscle cell death and injected hBD-MSCs in PIRI-CLI through RAGE increase. Combined injection of sRAGE and hBD-MSCs resulted in enhanced survival of hBD-MSCs and angiogenesis in PIRI-CLI mice. Taken together, AGE-albumin from activated macrophages is critical for both skeletal muscle cell and hBD-MSCs death in PIRI-CLI. Therefore, the inhibition of AGE-albumin from activated macrophages could be a successful therapeutic strategy for treatment of PIRI including CLI with or without stem cell therapy.

  12. High $p_{T}$ charged-pion production in Pb-Au collisions at 158 AGeV/c

    CERN Document Server

    Agakichiev, G; Braun-Munzinger, P; Drees, A; Esumi, S C; Faschingbauer, U; Fraenkel, Zeev; Fuchs, C; Glässel, P; Pérez de los Heros, C; Holl, P; Jung, C; Lenkeit, B C; Messer, F; Messer, M; Panebratsev, Yu A; Pfeiffer, A; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Razin, S V; Rehak, P; Richter, M; Saveljic, N; Schükraft, Jürgen; Shimansky, S S; Seipp, W; Socol, E; Specht, H J; Stachel, J J; Tel-Zur, G; Tserruya, Itzhak; Ullrich, T S; Voigt, C A; Weber, C; Wessels, J P; Wienold, T; Wurm, J P; Yurevich, V I

    2000-01-01

    The CERES/Na45 experiment at CERN SPS measured transverse momentum spectra ofcharged-pions in the range 1AGeV/c Pb-Aucollisions. The invariant transverse momentum spectra are exponential over theentire observed range. The average inverse slope is 245+/- 5MeV/c, it shows a2.4 0ncrease with centrality of the collision over the 35most centralfraction of the cross section. The pi-/pi+ ratio is constant at 1.028+/-0.005over the pt interval measured.

  13. The effect of inactivated yeast-based products on the process of wine aging, phenolic compounds and sensory characteristics of red wine Prokupac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malićanin Marko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Keeping of red wine in bottles is very important for its maturation and quality. However, there are numerous changes that happen during that period, usually caused by oxidative processes and changes in structure and content of polyphenolic compounds. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of Inactivated dry yeast (IDY products on aging, phenolics content, colour stability and sensory characteristics of red wine Prokupac (Serbian autochthonous variety. The treatment of wine was done by 3 different IDYP (Lallemand, Canada: Optimum White, Opti Less and Noblesse, applied as 0.2 g/L and 0.4 g /L during 15 days. Subsequently, wine clarification was done, followed by filtration and bottling. Untreated wines were used for comparison. Wine was subjected to accelerated aging (10 days at 55 ° C and also to normal aging conditions during one year. To determine the influence of IDYP following parameters were monitored: dissolved O2, free and total SO2, sugar free extract, content of total phenolics, flavonoids, flavan-3-ols and anthocyanins, percent of polymeric color, color tint, color intensity and sensory characteristics (Panel method. The obtained results clearly show that IDY products are good scavengers of oxygen and have a positive impact on wine quality preservation and its organoleptic characteristics. However, a slight decrease of polyphenols content was detected.

  14. Exercise is more than medicine:The working age population’s well-being and productivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gisela Sjøgaard; Jeanette Reffstrup Christensen; Just Bendix Justesen; Mike Murray; Tina Dalager; Gitte Hansen Fredslund; Karen Søgaard

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical activity (PA) includes muscle activity during exercise, manual work, and leisure time activities including sport. Conflicting results exist regarding health effects of PA that may deteriorate with manual work and elite sports, but improve when performed in moderation in accordance with international guidelines and may additionally enhance well-being and productivity. Methods: In Denmark 15 randomized controlled trials have been conducted, introducing exercise at the workplace enrolling>3500 workers. The interventions lasted from 10 to 52 weeks and offered~1 h weekly supervised exercise during working hours according to the concept of intelligent physical exercise training (IPET) that is based on evidenced sports sciences training principles and tailored to work exposure, employee health status, and physical capacity. Questionnaire surveys and health checks including blood and muscle sampling were performed at baseline and follow-up. The job groups included: office and computer workers, dentists, industrial technicians, cleaning personnel, health care workers, construction workers, and fighter/helicopter pilots. Results: In all job groups significant improvements were documented regarding health outcomes. These were job group specific:neck pain was reduced among office and computer workers, dentists, industrial laboratory technicians, health care workers as well as fighter pilots. Cardio-respiratory fitness—a health risk indicator for cardio-metabolic diseases—was improved among office and computer workers, health care workers, and construction workers. Additionally, other improvements were evidenced such as increased muscle strength and balance control. Importantly, productivity increased with improved muscle strength and decreased body mass index. Conclusion: IPET does enhance health if an exercise program with evidenced efficacy is implemented by expert trainees with support of the employer. Accordingly, in every study group outcomes of

  15. Lysine-Derived Protein-Bound Heyns Compounds in Bakery Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treibmann, Stephanie; Hellwig, Anne; Hellwig, Michael; Henle, Thomas

    2017-12-06

    Fructose and dicarbonyl compounds resulting from fructose in heated foods have been linked to pathophysiological pathways of several metabolic disorders. Up to now, very little has been known about the Maillard reaction of fructose in food. Heyns rearrangement compounds (HRCs), the first stable intermediates of the Maillard reaction between amino components and fructose, have not yet been quantitated as protein-bound products in food. Therefore, the HRCs glucosyllysine and mannosyllysine were synthesized and characterized by NMR. Protein-bound HRCs in cookies containing various sugars and in commercial bakery products were quantitated after enzymatic hydrolysis by RP-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS in the multiple reaction monitoring mode through application of the standard addition method. Protein-bound HRCs were quantitated for the first time in model cookies and in commercial bakery products containing honey, banana, and invert sugar syrup. Concentrations of HRCs from 19 to 287 mg/kg were found, which were similar to or exceeded the content of other frequently analyzed Maillard reaction products, such as N-ε-carboxymethyllysine (10-76 mg/kg), N-ε-carboxyethyllysine (2.5-53 mg/kg), and methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone 1 (10-218 mg/kg) in the analyzed cookies. These results show that substantial amounts of HRCs form during food processing. Analysis of protein-bound HRCs in cookies is therefore useful to evaluate the Maillard reaction of fructose.

  16. Assessing the predictive value of means-end-chain theory: an application to meat product choice by Australian middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Page, Aurore; Cox, David N; Georgie Russell, C; Leppard, Phillip I

    2005-04-01

    Means-end-chain theory seeks to understand how consumers make links between products and self-relevant consequences and values. To date, means-end-chain theory has remained a descriptive process and has not been applied to predicting product choice. Within the context of cooking meat, the main objective of this research was to assess the predictive value of the means-end-chain theory. In a two part study, we first undertook a laddering study (n=58 middle-aged women) focusing on cooking three different meat products, using small group administration and paper-and-pencil responses to elicit mean-end-chains (MEC). In the second part, we considered all the MEC independently and incorporated them into a questionnaire, which was also comprised of psycho-social predictors from a range of behavioural models. Responses were elicited from a sample of middle-aged women (n=247). Although MEC explained little of the variance in self-reported behaviour, they were shown to be an important predictor of attitude. Contrary to expectations, the least abstract levels of the MEC appeared to be the most predictive. A critical examination of the data suggested a need to reconsider the means-end-chain theory since it appears to take the respondents beyond their own awareness of their behaviours.

  17. Consumption of bakery products, sweetened soft drinks and yogurt among children aged 6-7 years: association with nutrient intake and overall diet quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; García, Esther López; Gorgojo, Lydia; Garcés, Carmen; Royo, Miguel Angel; Martín Moreno, José María; Benavente, Mercedes; Macías, Alfonso; De Oya, Manuel

    2003-03-01

    The present study tests the hypothesis that higher consumption of bakery products, sweetened soft drinks and yogurt is associated with higher intake of energy, saturated fats, sugars and worse overall diet quality among Spanish children. This is a cross-sectional study covering 1112 children aged 6.0-7.0 years in four Spanish cities. Nutrient and food intake were obtained through a food-frequency questionnaire, and overall diet quality calculated using the healthy-eating index (HEI) developed by Kennedy et al. (1995). Standardized methods were used to measure anthropometric variables. Associations of interest were summarized as the difference in nutrient and food consumption between the value of the fifth and the first quintile of consumption (dq) of bakery products, sweetened soft drinks or yogurt, adjusted for energy intake and BMI. Bakery products, sweetened soft drinks and yogurt supplied 15.5, 1.0 and 5.6 % energy intake respectively. Higher consumption of these three foods was associated with greater energy intake (Pbakery products was associated with the proportion of energy derived from intake of total carbohydrates (dq 4.5 %, Pbakery products, sweetened soft drinks and yogurt were usually very small. We conclude that the impact of the consumption of bakery products, sweetened soft drinks and yogurt on the quality of the diet of Spanish children is only modest, although it may contribute to aggravating certain unhealthy characteristics of their diet, particularly excess energy, saturated fats and sugars. Therefore, consumption of bakery products and sweetened soft drinks should be moderated, and priority given to consumption of low-fat, low-sugar yogurt.

  18. Marketing to Youth in the Digital Age: The Promotion of Unhealthy Products and Health Promoting Behaviours on Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Dunlop

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The near-ubiquitous use of social media among adolescents and young adults creates opportunities for both corporate brands and health promotion agencies to target and engage with young audiences in unprecedented ways. Traditional media is known to have both a positive and negative influence on youth health behaviours, but the impact of social media is less well understood. This paper first summarises current evidence around adolescents’ exposure to the promotion and marketing of unhealthy products such as energy dense and nutrient poor food and beverages, alcohol, and tobacco on social media sites such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and YouTube. We explore emerging evidence about the extent of exposure to marketing of these harmful products through social media platforms and potential impacts of exposure on adolescent health. Secondly, we present examples of health-promoting social media campaigns aimed at youth, with the purpose of describing innovative campaigns and highlighting lessons learned for creating effective social media interventions. Finally, we suggest implications for policy and practice, and identify knowledge gaps and opportunities for future research.

  19. The Meaning of Literature and Literature as Meaning—A Productive Challenge of Modern Times from the Middle Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrecht Classen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The marriage of literature and science might not be possible strictly speaking, but a marriage of humanities with philosophy, psychology, religion, ethics, ecology, and social studies, for instance, might well work, as a close analysis of some medieval narratives will illustrate. This paper intends to demonstrate once again what the humanities could truly mean, insofar as the discussion will not only lay bare textual elements or philological concerns, but it will also indicate how much relevant literature helps us to address crucial questions of religious, ethical, social, moral, and philosophical kinds, building powerful bridges between the past and the present. In order to test this premise even in extreme situations, here a number of medieval texts will be introduced and analyzed as to their timeless message and hence their extremely important function of creating meaning for readers/listeners both from the Middle Ages and today.

  20. Neutrinos from the Sun, pollution of the Galaxy by the products of stellar nucleosynthesis and the terrestrial ice ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchowicz, B.

    1978-01-01

    One of the possible explanations of Davis' observational results on solar neutrinos is the hypothesis stating that the metal abundance Z is extremely low throughout the whole Sun, with the exception of its surface layers. Accretion of interstellar matter during the voyage of the Sun in the Galaxy should be responsible for the higher abundance of the heavy elements of the solar surface. The matter which was accreted by the Sun might have contained a higher percentage of the heavy elements than the matter out of which the Sun was born. Periods of enhanced accretion during the passage of the Sun through the spiral arms of the Galaxy can be ralated to the successive ages in the history of the Earth. (author)

  1. Pair Housing of Dairy Calves and Age at Pairing: Effects on Weaning Stress, Health, Production and Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, Sarah L; Boyland, Natasha K; Mlynski, David T; James, Richard; Croft, Darren P

    2017-01-01

    The early social environment can influence the health and behaviour of animals, with effects lasting into adulthood. In Europe, around 60% of dairy calves are reared individually during their first eight weeks of life, while others may be housed in pairs or small groups. This study assessed the effects of varying degrees of social contact on weaning stress, health and production during pen rearing, and on the social networks that calves later formed when grouped. Forty female Holstein-Friesian calves were allocated to one of three treatments: individually housed (I, n = 8), pair-housed from day five (P5, n = 8 pairs), and pair-housed from day 28 (P28, n = 8 pairs). From day 48, calves were weaned by gradual reduction of milk over three days, and vocalisations were recorded as a measure of stress for three days before, during and after weaning. Health and production (growth rate and concentrate intakes) were not affected by treatment during the weaning period or over the whole study. Vocalisations were highest post-weaning, and were significantly higher in I calves than pair-reared calves. Furthermore, P28 calves vocalised significantly more than P5 calves. The social network of calves was measured for one month after all calves were grouped in a barn, using association data from spatial proximity loggers. We tested for week-week stability, social differentiation and assortment in the calf network. Additionally, we tested for treatment differences in: coefficient of variation (CV) in association strength, percentage of time spent with ex-penmate (P5 and P28 calves only) and weighted degree centrality (the sum of the strength of an individual's associations). The network was relatively stable from weeks one to four and was significantly differentiated, with individuals assorting based on prior familiarity. P5 calves had significantly higher CV in association strength than I calves in week one (indicating more heterogeneous social associations) but there were no

  2. Cold-rolled sheets production of stainless martensite-ageing steel smelted by vacuum arc and electroslag techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivkin, A A; Grishkov, A I; Suslin, A P; Nesterenko, A A; Lola, V N [Tsentral' nyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Chernoj Metallurgii, Moscow (USSR)

    1975-05-01

    In cooperation with a number of metallurgical works the production of a high strength sheet stainless maraging steel EHP678 (000KH11N10M2T) has been tested by rolling cylindrical ingots of vacuum arc smelting at the blooming (the mass of rough ingots was 5.1 to 6.0 t, that of cleaned ingots - 3.8 to 5.1 t) or rectangular ingots of electroslag smelting (13 t) at the slabbing. The recommended regimes of heating and deformation are much similar to those used for the steel-KH18N10T. The output of valid cold-rolled sheets proved to be rather low (0.24 t/t for the vacuum arc smelting and 0.30 t/t for the electroslag smelting) mainly due to the losses on cleaning and a considerable portion of wrong-size slabs. The data are presented on the steel-EHP678 properties after various heat treatments. For the production of wide cold-rolled sheets of the steel EHP678 it is recommended to use steelmaking procedure with electroslag smelting including open-hearth melting in arc furnaces, rolling of ingots at the slabbing with heating up to 1260-1280 deg C (hold-up of 4.5 to 5 hrs); electroslag smelting for rectangular section slabs, rolling of ingots of electroslag smelting at the slabbing with their heating up to 1250 deg C (hold-up of 5.5 to 6 hrs), rolling at the 1680-type mill with heating up to 1250-1260 deg C (hold-up of 4 to 4.5 hrs ensuring the rolling temperature after a rough group not below 1100 deg C), quenching of hot-rolled sheets heating up to 920-940 deg C (hold-up of 3 to 3.5 min/mm), shot peening of sheets for descaling (provided the respective equipment is available) with a subsequent short-time pickling in an acid solution and cold rolling with a summary deformation of 35 to 45 %. The steelmaking with the electroslag smelting is much more profitable as regards to the fine technology of number of the main procedures, convenient cooperation of the works and a considerably greater output of the final products out of one ton of the steel produced.

  3. The ground stone assemblage of a metal workers community: An unexplored dimension of Iron Age copper production at Timna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Greener

    2016-10-01

    In the framework of the renewed excavations at several of the copper smelting sites at Timna, a pioneering study was conducted in which more than 1000 ground stone tools were identified and registered. These tools include, among others, grinding stones, pounders, anvils and mortars; most were manufactured of compacted sandstone and granite, exposed in several locations in the valley. In this paper we present a typology and quantitative analysis of the ground stone tools which were used by the metal workers, and offer an interpretation of how the various types of tools were employed as part of the copper production process. This provides new insights regarding the smelting process and the conditions needed for its successful outcome.

  4. Effect of prepubertal and postpubertal growth and age at first calving on production and reproduction traits during the first 3 lactations in Holstein dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krpálková, L; Cabrera, V E; Vacek, M; Stípková, M; Stádník, L; Crump, P

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), average daily weight gain (ADG), and age at first calving (AFC) of Holstein heifers on production and reproduction parameters in the 3 subsequent lactations. The data set consisted of 780 Holstein heifers calved at 2 dairy farms in the Czech Republic from 2007 to 2011. Their BW and BCS were measured at monthly intervals during the rearing period (5 to 18 mo of age), and the milk production and reproduction data of the first 3 lactations were collected over an 8-yr period (2005 to 2012). The highest milk yield in the first lactation was found in the group with medium ADG (5 to 14 mo of age; 0.949 to 0.850 kg of ADG). The highest average milk yield over lifetime performance was detected in heifers with the highest total ADG (≥ 0.950 kg/d). The difference in milk yield between the evaluated groups of highest ADG (in total and postpubertal growth ≥ 0.950 kg/d and in prepubertal growth ≥ 0.970 kg/d) and the lowest ADG (≤ 0.849 kg/d) was approximately 1,000 kg/305 d per cow. The highest milk yield in the first lactation was found in the group with the highest AFC ≥ 751 d, for which fat and protein content in the milk was not reduced. Postpubertal growth (11 to 14 mo of age) had the greatest effect on AFC. The group with lowest AFC ≤ 699 d showed a negative effect on milk yield but only in the first 100 d of the first parity. The highest ADG was detrimental to reproduction parameters in the first lactation. The highest BW at 14 mo (≥ 420 kg) led to lower AFC. Groups according to BCS at 14 mo showed no differences in AFC or milk yield in the first lactation or lifetime average production per lactation. We concluded that low AFC ≤ 699 d did not show a negative effect on subsequent production and reproduction parameters. Therefore, a shorter rearing period is recommended for dairy herds with suitable management. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science

  5. Resonance production and exotic clusters in Au+Au, d+Au and p+p collisions at √(s) = 200 AGeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besliu, Calin; Jipa, Alexandru; Lungescu, Andrea; Zgura, Sorin

    2004-01-01

    The resonance production in Au+Au, d+Au and p+p collisions at √(s) = 200 AGeV are presented. The resonances are used as a sensitive tool to examine the collision dynamics in the hadronic medium through their decay and regeneration. The modification of resonance mass, width, and shape due to phase space and dynamical effects are also discussed. The measurement of resonances provides an important tool for studying the dynamics in relativistic heavy-ion collisions by probing the time evolution of the source from chemical to kinetic freeze-out and the hadronic interactions at later stages

  6. The effect of dietary protein and lysine on egg quality and production of laying hens during 28-42 weeks of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Mohammadi Emarat

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary crude protein and lysine levels on quality and quantity of egg production. Fifteen diets consisted of 3 levels of protein (14, 15 and 16% and 5 levels of lysine (0.71, 0.74, 0.77, 0.80 and 0.83 % in a 35 factorial arrangement were provided. Each diet was randomly fed to 4 replicates of 12 birds, during four periods of 4 weeks (28-44wks of age. Egg number and mortality was recorded daily, whereas feed consumption determined for each period. Eggs from each replicate were weighed at the end of three consecutive days of each period and six eggs were used to measure the egg quality characteristics. Although the feed intake did not affected by dietary protein but the egg production, egg mass and feed conversion were improved significantly (p

  7. Study of {lambda} hyperon production in C+C collisions at 2 AGeV beam energy with the HADES spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanaki, K.

    2007-03-15

    The HADES spectrometer is a high resolution detector installed at the SIS/GSI, Darmstadt. It was primarily designed for studying dielectron decay channels of vector mesons. However, its high accuracy capabilities make it an attractive tool for investigating other rare probes at these beam energies, like strange baryons. Development and investigation of Multiwire Drift Chambers for high spatial resolution have been provided. One of the early experimental runs of HADES was analyzed and the {lambda} hyperon signal was successfully reconstructed for the first time in C+C collisions at 2 AGeV beam kinetic energy. The total {lambda} production cross section is contrasted with expectations from simulations and compared with measurements of the {lambda} yield in heavier systems at the same energy. In addition, the result is considered in the context of strangeness balance and the relative strangeness content of the reaction products is determined. (orig.)

  8. Study of Λ hyperon production in C+C collisions at 2 AGeV beam energy with the HADES spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanaki, K.

    2007-03-01

    The HADES spectrometer is a high resolution detector installed at the SIS/GSI, Darmstadt. It was primarily designed for studying dielectron decay channels of vector mesons. However, its high accuracy capabilities make it an attractive tool for investigating other rare probes at these beam energies, like strange baryons. Development and investigation of Multiwire Drift Chambers for high spatial resolution have been provided. One of the early experimental runs of HADES was analyzed and the Λ hyperon signal was successfully reconstructed for the first time in C+C collisions at 2 AGeV beam kinetic energy. The total Λ production cross section is contrasted with expectations from simulations and compared with measurements of the Λ yield in heavier systems at the same energy. In addition, the result is considered in the context of strangeness balance and the relative strangeness content of the reaction products is determined. (orig.)

  9. Prenatal Dexamethasone and Postnatal High-Fat Diet Decrease Interferon Gamma Production through an Age-Dependent Histone Modification in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong-Ren; Tain, You-Lin; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Hung, Pi-Lien; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng; Huang, Li-Tung

    2016-01-01

    Overexposure to prenatal glucocorticoid (GC) disturbs hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolism and susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. A high-fat (HF) diet is a major environmental factor that can cause metabolic syndrome. We aimed to investigate whether prenatal GC plus a postnatal HF diet could alter immune programming in rat offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given intraperitoneal injections of dexamethasone or saline at 14–21 days of gestation. Male offspring were then divided into four groups: vehicle, prenatal dexamethasone exposure, postnatal HF diet (VHF), and prenatal dexamethasone exposure plus a postnatal HF diet (DHF). The rats were sacrificed and adaptive immune function was evaluated. Compared to the vehicle, the DHF group had lower interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production by splenocytes at postnatal day 120. Decreases in H3K9 acetylation and H3K36me3 levels at the IFN-γ promoter correlated with decreased IFN-γ production. The impaired IFN-γ production and aberrant site-specific histone modification at the IFN-γ promoter by prenatal dexamethasone treatment plus a postnatal HF diet resulted in resilience at postnatal day 180. Prenatal dexamethasone and a postnatal HF diet decreased IFN-γ production through a site-specific and an age-dependent histone modification. These findings suggest a mechanism by which prenatal exposure to GC and a postnatal environment exert effects on fetal immunity programming. PMID:27669212

  10. Prenatal Dexamethasone and Postnatal High-Fat Diet Decrease Interferon Gamma Production through an Age-Dependent Histone Modification in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ren Yu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Overexposure to prenatal glucocorticoid (GC disturbs hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolism and susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. A high-fat (HF diet is a major environmental factor that can cause metabolic syndrome. We aimed to investigate whether prenatal GC plus a postnatal HF diet could alter immune programming in rat offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given intraperitoneal injections of dexamethasone or saline at 14–21 days of gestation. Male offspring were then divided into four groups: vehicle, prenatal dexamethasone exposure, postnatal HF diet (VHF, and prenatal dexamethasone exposure plus a postnatal HF diet (DHF. The rats were sacrificed and adaptive immune function was evaluated. Compared to the vehicle, the DHF group had lower interferon gamma (IFN-γ production by splenocytes at postnatal day 120. Decreases in H3K9 acetylation and H3K36me3 levels at the IFN-γ promoter correlated with decreased IFN-γ production. The impaired IFN-γ production and aberrant site-specific histone modification at the IFN-γ promoter by prenatal dexamethasone treatment plus a postnatal HF diet resulted in resilience at postnatal day 180. Prenatal dexamethasone and a postnatal HF diet decreased IFN-γ production through a site-specific and an age-dependent histone modification. These findings suggest a mechanism by which prenatal exposure to GC and a postnatal environment exert effects on fetal immunity programming.

  11. The atypical hydrodynamics of the Mayotte Lagoon (Indian Ocean): Effects on water age and potential impact on plankton productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, C.; Devenon, J. L.; Pagano, M.; Rougier, G.; Blanchot, J.; Arfi, R.

    2017-09-01

    In mesotidal lagoons of the Indian Ocean, the coral reef barrier may be temporarily submerged at high tide and partially exposed at low tide, and this may cause unusual lagoon dynamics. A field measurement campaign was conducted in the north-east Mayotte Lagoon in order to understand these processes. An experimental approach was used, combining measurements taken by 1) a side-mounted Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) on a moving boat along transects through the reef passages (17 transects) and 2) by more conventional high-resolution moored ADCP measurements. A specific tidal analysis methodology was used to determine the spatial variability of the velocity. The tidal hydrodynamics within the lagoon were determined using a numerical model and then analyzed. The tide acted as a quasi-progressive forced wave in the lagoon: at low tide, water entered through the south passage, over the reef and left the lagoon through the north passage. This flow was reversed at high tide. The tide-driven quasi-progressive wave created a specific lagoon dynamics. Contrary to most other channel lagoons, the flow over the reef was mainly outward. This increases the inflow through the passages, which renews the water in the lagoon as shown by the indicators of age and origin of the water inside the lagoon. This study also showed the importance of these indicators for better understanding the variations and levels of plankton biomass (with chlorophyll concentration as proxy) which is quite high in this lagoon.

  12. Intake of dairy products, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus in childhood and age at menarche in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Studies indicate that milk intake is associated with insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 concentrations and height in childhood, whether milk and other dairy products promote puberty remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate influences of pre-pubertal intakes of milk, yogurt and cheese on menarcheal age in Tehranian girls. The associations of total dietary calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg, and phosphorus (P with menarcheal age were also examined. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted on 134 pre-pubertal girls, aged 4-12 years at baseline, who participated in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS, and were followed for a median of 6.5 years. Dietary intakes were determined at initiation of the study using two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls and the age of menarche was documented during the follow-up. Logistic regression was used to calculate the risk of reaching menarche ≤ 12 years according to pre-pubertal levels of dairy or mineral intakes. RESULTS: The risk of earlier menarche was higher in girls with higher intakes of milk [OR: 2.28 (95% CI: 1.03-5.05], Ca [OR: 3.20 (95%CI: 1.39-7.42], Mg [OR: 2.43 (95% CI: 1.12-5.27] and P [OR: 3.37 (95 % CI: 1.44-7.87 after controlling for energy and protein intake, interval between the age at study initiation and the age of menarche, and maternal age at menarche (Model 1. Girls in the middle tertile of cheese intakes had a lower risk of reaching menarche ≤ 12 years than those in the lowest tertile after controlling for covariates in model 1. These associations remained significant after further adjustment of BMI Z-score at baseline. The relationship of Ca, Mg, and P with menarche remained after further adjustment for height Z-score at baseline, whereas the association between milk and cheese intakes became non-significant. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-pubertal intake of milk, but not cheese and yogurt, may hasten age at menarche.

  13. Natural attenuation of aged tar-oil in soils: A case study from a former gas production site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Pavel; Eickhorst, Thilo; Wehrer, Markus; Georgiadis, Anna; Rennert, Thilo; Eusterhues, Karin; Totsche, Kai Uwe

    2017-04-01

    Contamination of soils with tar oil occurred on many industrial sites in Europe. The main source of such contamination has been former manufactured gas plants (MGP). As many of them were destroyed during the World War II or abandoned in the second half of the XXth century, the contamination is depleted in volatile and degradable hydrocarbons (HC) but enriched in the heavy oil fractions due to aging processes. We studied a small tar-oil spill in a former MGP reservoir basin. The tar-oil had a total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content of 245 mg/g. At the margin of the spill, vegetation has started to overgrow and intensively root the tar-oil layer. This zone comprised the uppermost 5-7 cm of our profile and contained 28 mg/g of TPH (A-layer)- The layer below the root zone (7-15 cm) was the most contaminated, with 90 mg/g TPH (B-layer). The layer underneath (15-22 cm) had smaller concentrations of 16 mg/g TPH (C-layer). Further down in the profile (D-layer) we found only slightly higher TPH content than in the control samples (1,4 mg/g vs 0,6 mg/g). The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons analysis showed the same distribution throughout all layers with highest contents of the PAHs with 4-6 condensed aromatic rings. Direct cell count and extraction of microbial biomass showed that the highly contaminated soil layers A and B had 2-3 times more bacteria than the control soils. CARD-FISH analysis revealed that in samples from layers A and B Archaea were more abundant (12% opposing to 6-7% in control soil). Analysis of bacteria (tested for Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma- and Epsilonproteobacteria and Actinobacteria) showed the dominance of Alphaproteobacteria in the layer A and C both beneath and above the most contaminated layer B. The primers covered the whole microbial consortia in these two layers, leaving almost no unidentified cells. In the most contaminated layer B Alphaproteobacteria amounted only to 20% of the microbial consortium, and almost 40% of the cells remained

  14. The Contributing Factors to Injury’s Length of Stay in Hospital Among Productive Age Workers in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusianawaty Tana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Injury is one of the factors that contribute to health problems and disabilities. In Indonesia, the data oninjury and its impact are still limited and only focus on formal workers. Methods: This research aimed to describe thecharacteristics of injury by occupation and to identify factors contributed to severity (length of stay in hospital amongproductive age workers in Indonesia, using the data of National Health Research (Riskesdas in 2013. Results: We analyzed30.455 data using complex samples at 95% confi dence level. People worked as farmer, fi sherman, labor, entrepreneur,and others had more injuries in 12 months than employee (p = 0.0001. Non traffi c accident as cause of injury was alsohigher in those group of occupations than employee (p = 0.0001. The contributing factors of length of stay in hospital werethe injury with concussion (OR 23.1; 95% CI 9.2–58.1 p = 0.0001, fractures (OR 6.3; 95%CI 4.6–8.6 p = 0.0001, eyeinjury (OR 3.0; 95% CI 1.2–7.3 p = 0.0001, followed by road traffi c accident (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.5–2.9 p = 0.0001, andinjury occurred in the business/industry/construction/farm area (OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.2–2.4 p = 0.006. Conclusion: Factorsthat contributed to the length of stay in hospital of the injury were the type of injury, cause of injury, and the area of injury.Recommendation: Efforts to overcome the injury need to be improved, especially for traffi c accidents and injury in thebusiness/industry/construction/farm area.

  15. Novel Natural Products for Healthy Ageing from the Mediterranean Diet and Food Plants of Other Global Sources-The MediHealth Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltenberger, Birgit; Halabalaki, Maria; Schwaiger, Stefan; Adamopoulos, Nicolas; Allouche, Noureddine; Fiebich, Bernd L; Hermans, Nina; Jansen-Dürr, Pidder; Kesternich, Victor; Pieters, Luc; Schönbichler, Stefan; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Tran, Hung; Trougakos, Ioannis P; Viljoen, Alvaro; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Wolfrum, Christian; Xynos, Nikos; Stuppner, Hermann

    2018-05-06

    There is a rapid increase in the percentage of elderly people in Europe. Consequently, the prevalence of age-related diseases will also significantly increase. Therefore, the main goal of MediHealth, an international research project, is to introduce a novel approach for the discovery of active agents of food plants from the Mediterranean diet and other global sources that promote healthy ageing. To achieve this goal, a series of plants from the Mediterranean diet and food plants from other origins are carefully selected and subjected to in silico, cell-based, in vivo (fly and mouse models), and metabolism analyses. Advanced analytical techniques complement the bio-evaluation process for the efficient isolation and identification of the bioactive plant constituents. Furthermore, pharmacological profiling of bioactive natural products, as well as the identification and synthesis of their metabolites, is carried out. Finally, optimization studies are performed in order to proceed to the development of innovative nutraceuticals, dietary supplements or herbal medicinal products. The project is based on an exchange of researchers between nine universities and four companies from European and non-European countries, exploiting the existing complementary multidisciplinary expertise. Herein, the unique and novel approach of this interdisciplinary project is presented.

  16. Productive performance and blood profiles of laying hens fed Hermetia illucens larvae meal as total replacement of soybean meal from 24 to 45 weeks of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marono, S; Loponte, R; Lombardi, P; Vassalotti, G; Pero, M E; Russo, F; Gasco, L; Parisi, G; Piccolo, G; Nizza, S; Di Meo, C; Attia, Y A; Bovera, F

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the research was to study the effects of an insect meal from Hermetia illucens larvae (HILM) as complete replacement of soybean meal (SBM) on productive performance and blood profiles of laying hens, from 24 to 45 wk of age. A total of 108 24-week-old Lohmann Brown Classic laying hens was equally divided into 2 groups (54 hens/group, 9 replicates of 6 hens/group). From 24 to 45 wk of age, the groups were fed 2 different isoproteic and isoenergetic diets: the control group (SBM) was fed a corn-soybean meal based diet, while in the HILM group the soybean meal was completely replaced by Hermetia illucens larvae meal. Feed intake, number of eggs produced, and egg weight were recorded weekly along the trial. At 45 wk of age, blood samples were collected from 2 hens per replicate. The use of HIML led to a more favorable (P meal produced a higher percentage of eggs from small (S), medium (M), and extra-large (XL) classes (P meal, while creatinine was higher (P meal can be a suitable alternative protein source for laying hens even if the complete replacement of soybean meal needs further investigation to avoid the negative effects on feed intake. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  17. Technological and stylistic evaluation of the Early Bronze Age pottery at Tarsus-Gozlukule, Turkey: Pottery production and its interaction with economic, social, and cultural spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlu, Elif

    This dissertation presents a technological and stylistic assessment of Early Bronze Age pottery production at Tarsus-Gozlukule, a multi-period mound settlement located in the Cilician Plain in southern Turkey. Pottery production, like all other man-made objects, is firstly a technological act. This dissertation maintains that material style (involving formal, technical, and decorative choices expressed by the artisan) of an artifact should be investigated as a whole as such an integrative study would be the most adequate way of understanding economic circumstances, social representation, and cultural boundaries. To facilitate this integrative investigation, seventy-two samples of Early Bronze Age pottery excavated from Tarsus-Gozlukule in the 1930s and 1940s.were selected for mineralogical, morphological, and chemical analyses. Petrographic and powder X-Ray Diffraction analyses were performed to determine the mineralogical makeup, Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope imagery was used to determine the morphology of these samples, and semi-quantitave Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy analysis was performed on some samples to determine chemical properties of the clays. As a result of these scientific analyses various fabric groups were established. Afterwards formal shape and stylistic analysis was performed where shapes and surface treatments of the samples were analyzed and compared to the known local and non-local examples. Such an integrative approach to pottery production facilitates a better definition of the local pottery production process and enables an assessment of the technological know-how of the local pottery producers, their labor organization and its role within the operating markets, their function within the sociopolitical structure, and how such issues relate to the cultural boundaries within the community. Defining the paradigm of the local pottery production process leads to a broader investigation of issues related to the technological

  18. The effect of age and carbohydrate and protein sources on digestibility, fecal microbiota, fermentation products, fecal IgA, and immunological blood parameters in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, A P J; Ayane, L; Putarov, T C; Loureiro, B A; Neto, B P; Casagrande, M F; Gomes, M O S; Glória, M B A; Carciofi, A C

    2017-06-01

    The present study compared the effects of diets formulated with fibers of different fermentability and protein sources of animal or vegetable origins on old and adult dogs. The experiment was organized in a 3 (diets) × 2 (ages) factorial arrangement, totaling 6 treatments. Thirty-six Beagle dogs were used (18 old dogs [10.2 ± 1.0 yr] and 18 young adult dogs [2.6 ± 0.9 yr]), with 6 dogs per treatment. Three diets with similar compositions were used: a nonfermentable insoluble fiber source (sugarcane fiber) and chicken byproduct meal (nonfermentable fiber [NFF] diet), a fermentable fiber source (beet pulp) and chicken byproduct meal (fermentable fiber [FF] diet), and soybean meal as a protein and fiber source (soybean meal [SM] diet). Data were evaluated using the MIXED procedure and considering the effects and interactions of block, animal, diets, and age. Means were compared using Tukey's test ( dogs had a reduced coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility of DM, which was explained by the age and diet interaction of CP and fat digestibility that was lower for old than for adult dogs fed the FF diet ( dogs fed the NFF diet had increased DM content ( dogs fed the FF and SM diets compared with dogs fed the NFF diet ( dogs compared with adult dogs fed the FF diet ( dogs compared with adult dogs ( dogs fed the SM diet regardless of age ( dogs had reduced peripheral T and B lymphocytes ( dogs fed the SM diet had increased IgA in feces compared with animals fed the NFF and FF diets ( dogs, both the FF and SM diets induced increased IgA compared with the NFF diet ( dogs. The protein and oligosaccharides of soybean meal are digestible by dogs, induce the production of SCFA and spermidine, and increase fecal IgA. Old dogs had increased putrecine, cadaverine, and spermine fecal concentrations.

  19. Aging impacts of low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) on furfural production residue-derived biochars: Porosity, functional properties, and inorganic minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guocheng; Chen, Lei; Jiang, Zhixiang; Zheng, Hao; Dai, Yanhui; Luo, Xianxiang; Wang, Zhenyu

    2017-12-31

    The aging of biochar by low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs), which are typical root-derived exudates, is not well understood. Three LMWOAs (ethanoic, malic, and citric acids) were employed to investigate their aging impacts on the biochars from furfural production residues at 300-600°C (BC300-600). The LMWOAs created abundant macropores in BC300, whereas they significantly increased the mesoporosity and surface area of BC600 by 13.5-27.0% and 44.6-61.5%, respectively. After LMWOA aging, the content of C and H of the biochars increased from 51.3-60.2% and 1.87-3.45% to 56.8-69.9% and 2.06-4.45%, respectively, but the O content decreased from 13.8-24.8% to 7.82-19.4% (except BC300). For carbon fraction in the biochars, the LMWOAs barely altered the bulk and surface functional properties during short-term aging. The LMWOAs facilitated the dissolution of minerals (e.g., K 2 Mg(PO 3 ) 4 , AlPO 4 , and Pb 2 P 2 O 7 ) and correspondingly promoted the release of not only plant nutrients (K + , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Fe 3+ , PO 4 3- , and SO 4 2- ) but also toxic metals (Al 3+ and Pb 2+ ). This research provided systematic insights on the responses of biochar properties to LMWOAs and presented direct evidence for acid activation of inorganic minerals in the biochars by LMWOAs, which could enhance the understanding of environmental behaviors of biochars in rhizosphere soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of livestock production system and concentrate level on carcass traits and meat quality of foals slaughtered at 18 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, J M; Crecente, S; Franco, D; Sarriés, M V; Gómez, M

    2014-03-01

    This trial was conducted to study the effect of livestock production system (freedom extensive system (FES) v. semi extensive system (SES)) and amount of finishing feed (1.5 v. 3.0 kg of commercial feed) in SES on carcass characteristics, meat quality and nutritional value of meat foal slaughtered at 18 months of age. For this study, a total of 49 foals (21 from FES and 28 from SES) were used. The obtained results showed that SES had a positive influence on carcass characteristic because these foals showed the best values for live weight, carcass weight, dressing percentage, perimeter of leg (PL) and carcass compactness index. On the other hand, finishing feeding also had a significant (Plean thickness, as the highest values were obtained in foals finished with 3 kg of commercial fodder. The physico-chemical properties were significantly affected by the livestock production system with the exception of ashes content (P>0.05). Foals finished in SES increased in 408% the intramuscular fat content (0.23 v. 1.17%, for foals reared in FES and SES, respectively). On the other hand, L*-value and a*-value were significantly (Pproduction system, as foals from the FES group had a more intense redder color (higher CIE a*-value) and higher lightness (higher CIE L*-value) compared with those from the SES group. Finally, meat nutritional value was significantly affected by livestock production system, as foals from an extensive production system on wood pasture could be considered as healthier in relation to their fatty acid profiles (low n-6/n-3 ratio and high hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic ratio) as a result of the beneficial grass intake on meat fatty acid profile.

  1. Genetic analysis of oocyte and embryo production traits in Guzerá breed donors and their associations with age at first calving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, B C; Peixoto, M G C D; Bruneli, F T; Ramos, P V B; Balieiro, J C C

    2016-04-26

    The objective of this study was to estimate variance components for oocyte and embryo production traits in Guzerá breed female donors, and investigate their associations with age at first calving (AFC). The traits analyzed were the number of viable oocytes (NOV), the number of grade I oocytes (NGI), the number of cleaved embryos (NCLV), and viable embryos produced (NEMB), and the percentages of viable oocytes (POV), grade I oocytes (PGI), cleaved embryos (PCLV), and viable embryos (PEMB). Data were obtained from 5173 ovary puncture and in vitro fertilization (IVF) sessions using 1080 Guzerá female donors of different ages, occurred from March 2005 to July 2013. Variables were log-transformed (logeX+1) prior to analysis. (Co)variance components were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood (REML), using one- and two-trait animal models. Permanent environment and IVF sire (father of the embryos) random effects were included. Estimated heritabilities for NOV, NGI, NCLV, NEMB, POV, PGI, PCLV, and PEMB were 0.19, 0.08, 0.16, 0.14, 0.04, 0.03, 0.01, and 0.07, respectively. Repeatabilities for count traits (NOV, NGI, NCLV, and NEMB) varied from 0.14 and 0.32, higher than estimated for percentage traits (POV, PGI, PCLV, and PEMB), which varied from 0.01 to 0.08. Selection for NOV may be more appropriate in breeding programs than selection for NEMB, because of its strong genetic correlation (0.68) with NEMB and its greater time- and cost-effectiveness. AFC was only weakly associated with the oocyte and embryo production traits, which indicates that there would be no effect on AFC when selecting for these traits.

  2. Production of strangeness in Ar+KCl reactions at 1.756 AGeV with HADES; Produktion von Seltsamkeit in Ar+KCl Reaktionen bei 1.756 AGeV mit HADES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmah, Alexander Marc

    2008-05-15

    In september/october 2005 the first of heavier colliding systems was investigated with the HADES spectrometer by using an Ar projectile and a KCl target at a bombarding energy of 1.756 AGeV. With 850 million semi-central reactions in the colliding system Ar+KCl the opportunity was given for one of the most extensive hadron analyses in the SIS energy regime. The results of these analyses are presented in this thesis. The main focal point is the production of particles with strangeness content. The particle ratios of {lambda} and K{sup 0}{sub S} are comparable to those of other experiments. The corrections of acceptance, detector-, cut- and reconstruction efficiency is done using the simulation packages PLUTO, UrQMD and GEANT. With the corrected transverse mass spectra rapidity distributions and particle multiplicities are calculated. Due to the nearly full sample of reconstructed particles carrying strangeness, one can conclude to the missing part, which is connected to the charged {sigma}-hyperons. Within the error bars the fraction of {sigma}{sup {+-}}{sup ,0} is at least 12 % of the {lambda} multiplicity. The detection of the {phi} vector meson far below the nucleon-nucleon production threshold in the decay channel {phi} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -} exceeds with 168 {+-} 18 the only up to now published data by more than a factor 7. The extracted effective temperature of T{sub eff}=80{+-}9{sup +2}{sub -3} is a brand-new result. The determined {phi}/K{sup -} ratio is 0.59{sup +0.30}{sub -0.29}. (orig.)

  3. Phase I clinical studies of the advanced glycation end-product (AGE)-breaker TRC4186: safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Kumar P; Shiwalkar, Ajay; Kotecha, Jignesh; Thakkar, Purav; Srivastava, Ambrish; Chauthaiwale, Vijay; Sharma, Sanjay K; Cross, Maurice R; Dutt, Chaitanya

    2009-01-01

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications through a variety of mechanisms including endothelial dysfunction and structural abnormalities in the vasculature and myocardium. Reducing the AGEs burden and their ensuing pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidative and pro-coagulant effect with associated dysfunctional proteins in various target tissues may retard the progression of and even reverse diabetic macro- and microvascular complications. Pyridinium, 3-[[2-(methylsulfonyl) hydrazino] carbonyl]-1-[2-oxo-2-2-thienyl) ethyl]-chloride (TRC4186) has demonstrated AGE-breaking activities in in vitro experiments and improvement in the endothelial and myocardial function in animal models of diabetes mellitus with reduction of AGEs accumulation in tissues over time. The safety of TRC4186 has been established in in vitro and in vivo preclinical studies. Thus, this drug is being developed for the treatment of complications associated with diabetes. This investigation set out to evaluate the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of TRC4186 in healthy human subjects after single and multiple ascending doses, fixed doses in elderly male and female subjects, and with food and different formulations of the compound. Four studies were conducted during phase I clinical development of TRC4186. These were: (i) a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose, dose-ascending study in healthy male subjects with doses of TRC4186 ranging from 250 to 2500 mg administered as an oral solution (total six doses); (ii) a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple-dose, dose-ascending study in healthy male subjects with three doses of TRC4186 ranging from 500 to 2000 mg twice daily for 6 days with a final single dose on day 7; (iii) a randomized, open-label, three-way crossover study to assess the effect of food (fasted vs fed) and formulation (solution vs tablet) with TRC4186 500 mg; (iv) a randomized, double

  4. Multiclausal Utterances Aren't Just for Big Kids: A Framework for Analysis of Complex Syntax Production in Spoken Language of Preschool- and Early School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Karen Barako; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2013-01-01

    Complex syntax production emerges shortly after the emergence of two-word combinations in oral language and continues to develop through the school-age years. This article defines a framework for the analysis of complex syntax in the spontaneous language of preschool- and early school-age children. The purpose of this article is to provide…

  5. Building IoT Services for Aging in Place Using Standard-Based IoT Platforms and Heterogeneous IoT Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattah, Sheik Mohammad Mostakim; Sung, Nak-Myoung; Ahn, Il-Yeup; Ryu, Minwoo; Yun, Jaeseok

    2017-10-11

    An aging population and human longevity is a global trend. Many developed countries are struggling with the yearly increasing healthcare cost that dominantly affects their economy. At the same time, people living with old adults suffering from a progressive brain disorder such as Alzheimer's disease are enduring even more stress and depression than those patients while caring for them. Accordingly, seniors' ability to live independently and comfortably in their current home for as long as possible has been crucial to reduce the societal cost for caregiving and thus give family members peace of mind, called 'aging in place' (AIP). In this paper we present a way of building AIP services using standard-based IoT platforms and heterogeneous IoT products. An AIP service platform is designed and created by combining previous standard-based IoT platforms in a collaborative way. A service composition tool is also created that allows people to create AIP services in an efficient way. To show practical usability of our proposed system, we choose a service scenario for medication compliance and implement a prototype service which could give old adults medication reminder appropriately at the right time (i.e., when it is time to need to take pills) through light and speaker at home but also wrist band and smartphone even outside the home.

  6. Effect of transportation duration of 1-day-old chicks on postplacement production performances and pododermatitis of broilers up to slaughter age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergoug, H; Guinebretière, M; Tong, Q; Roulston, N; Romanini, C E B; Exadaktylos, V; Berckmans, D; Garain, P; Demmers, T G M; McGonnell, I M; Bahr, C; Burel, C; Eterradossi, N; Michel, V

    2013-12-01

    This experiment studied the effect of transportation duration of 1-d-old chicks on dehydration, mortality, production performance, and pododermatitis during the growout period. Eggs from the same breeder flock (Ross PM3) were collected at 35, 45, and 56 wk of age, for 3 successive identical experiments. In each experiment, newly hatched chicks received 1 of 3 transportation duration treatments from the hatchery before placement in the on-site rearing facility: no transportation corresponding to direct placement in less than 5 min (T00), or 4 (T04) or 10 h (T10) of transportation. The chicks were housed in 35-m(2) pens (650 birds each) and reared until 35 d old. Hematocrit and chick BW were measured on sample chicks before and after transportation. During the growout period, bird weight, feed uptake, and feed conversion ratio were measured weekly until slaughter. Transportation duration affected BW; T00 groups had a significantly higher BW than T04 and T10 transported birds but this effect lasted only until d 21. No clear effect on hematocrit, feed uptake, feed conversion ratio, or mortality was observed for birds transported up to 10 h. The decrease in weight in T10 birds was associated with less severe pododermatitis. Increasing age of the breeder flock was correlated with reduced egg fertility and hatchability, and also with higher quality and BW of hatched chicks. Chicks from older breeders also exhibited reduced mortality during the growout period.

  7. Building IoT Services for Aging in Place Using Standard-Based IoT Platforms and Heterogeneous IoT Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheik Mohammad Mostakim Fattah

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available An aging population and human longevity is a global trend. Many developed countries are struggling with the yearly increasing healthcare cost that dominantly affects their economy. At the same time, people living with old adults suffering from a progressive brain disorder such as Alzheimer’s disease are enduring even more stress and depression than those patients while caring for them. Accordingly, seniors’ ability to live independently and comfortably in their current home for as long as possible has been crucial to reduce the societal cost for caregiving and thus give family members peace of mind, called ‘aging in place’ (AIP. In this paper we present a way of building AIP services using standard-based IoT platforms and heterogeneous IoT products. An AIP service platform is designed and created by combining previous standard-based IoT platforms in a collaborative way. A service composition tool is also created that allows people to create AIP services in an efficient way. To show practical usability of our proposed system, we choose a service scenario for medication compliance and implement a prototype service which could give old adults medication reminder appropriately at the right time (i.e., when it is time to need to take pills through light and speaker at home but also wrist band and smartphone even outside the home.

  8. Beneficial effects of banana (Musa sp. var. elakki bale) flower and pseudostem on hyperglycemia and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Jamuna J; Shobha, Mysore S; Sambaiah, Kari; Salimath, Paramahans V

    2011-09-01

    Diabetes is a chronic health problem and major cause of death in most of the countries. Diet management plays an important role in controlling diabetes and its complications along with insulin and drugs. We have examined the effect of banana (Musa sp. var. elakki bale) flower and pseudostem on hyperglycemia and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Our results indicated that banana flower and pseudostem have low glycemic index and have a high content of dietary fiber and antioxidants. Diabetic symptoms like hyperglycemia, polyuria, polyphagia, polydipsia, urine sugar, and body weight were ameliorated in banana flower- and pseudostem-treated rats. Increased glomerular filtration rate in the diabetic group (5.1 ± 0.22 ml/min) was decreased in banana flower-fed (2.5 ± 0.37 ml/min) and pseudostem-fed (3.0 ± 0.45 ml/min) groups and were significant at P banana flower- and pseudostem-fed groups, it was reduced to 9.21 ± 0.32 and 9.29 ± 0.24 μg/mg protein, respectively, and were significant at P banana flower and pseudostem have anti-diabetic and anti-AGEs properties and are beneficial as food supplements for diabetics.

  9. Textile production in the Bronze Age: an assemblage of splindes or bobbins of yarn from the site of Terlinques (Villena, Alicante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jover Maestre, Francisco Javier

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The archeological field work on the Bronze Age site of Terlinques (Villena, Alicante has given an exceptional sample of spindles or bobbins of rush fibre of yarn in a room destroyed by a violent fire. A meticulous study of these special objects and their process of analysis and restoration yields new perspectives on knowledge in first stages of textile production during Bronze Age in Eastern Spain.

    Los trabajos arqueológicos que se llevan a cabo en el yacimiento de la Edad del Bronce de Terlinques (Villena, Alicante han proporcionado un excepcional conjunto de husos o bobinas de hilo de junco. Éstos se hallaban almacenados en el interior de una habitación destruida por un violento incendio. El detenido estudio de estos singulares objetos y su proceso de análisis y restauración nos permite aproximamos, desde nuevas perspectivas, al conocimiento de la producción textil en las etapas iniciales de la Edad del Bronce en el Levante de la Península Ibérica.

  10. Evaluation of In Vitro Inhibitory Activity of Rye-Buckwheat Ginger Cakes with Rutin on the Formation of Advanced Glycation End-Products (AGEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przygodzka Małgorzata

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the relationship between the inhibitory effects of extracts from rye-buckwheat ginger cakes supplemented with low and high rutin dosage baked without or with dough fermentation step on the formation of fluorescent advanced glycation end-products (AGEs, and phenolic compounds, rutin, D-chiro-inositol and antioxidant capacity were addressed. The cakes were based on rye flour substituted by light buckwheat flour or flour from roasted buckwheat groats at 30% level, and were produced with or without dough fermentation step. The inhibitory effect against AGEs formation was studied in bovine serum albumin (BSA-glucose and BSA-methylglyoxal (MGO systems. The antioxidant capacity was measured by 2,2-diphenyl- -1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and cyclic voltammetry (CV, rutin and D-chiro-inositol contents by HPLC and total phenolics (TPC by spectrophotometric assays. The study showed the inhibitory effects of extracts from rye-buckwheat ginger cakes supplemented with low and high rutin dosage. The results of the inhibitory activity were highly correlated in two applied model systems. Enrichment of rye-buckwheat ginger cakes with rutin improved their antioxidant properties. The correlation studies showed that the inhibitory effects of rye-buckwheat ginger cakes produced with dough fermentation step and enhanced with rutin against formation of AGEs were highly correlated with TPC, rutin and D-chiro-inositol contents, and antioxidant capacity. Moreover, the effect of rutin enrichment was clearly seen in cakes obtained with dough fermentation step, even the inhibitory activity was slightly lower as compared to the cakes produced without dough fermentation.

  11. Effects of 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate [corrected] and sodium lauryl sulfate on the production and expression of cytokines and proto-oncogenes in photoaged and intrinsically aged human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, D H; Youn, J I; Eun, H C

    2001-11-01

    Skin aging may be divided into photoaging and intrinsic aging. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate and sodium lauryl sulfate on the production and expression of cytokines and proto-oncogenes in photoaged and intrinsically aged skin, compared with young skin. Keratinocytes were taken from newborns, young adults in their twenties, and from the forearm and thigh of volunteers in their fifties and seventies. Interleukin-1alpha and -6, and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, c-fos and c-myc were measured after cultured keratinocytes had been treated with 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate and sodium lauryl sulfate. There has been no report concerning the dependence of cytokine production by sodium lauryl sulfate upon photoaging and intrinsic aging. This study also involves the first investigation of the effects of aging on c-myc expression by 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate treatment. Cytokine production decreased markedly with age. These results suggest the progressive decline of cellular function with age. The ratio of cytokine production in the irritant-treated group compared with that in the control group showed a different pattern in photoaging and intrinsic aging. With the significant difference between photoaging and intrinsic aging, T/C ratio decreased in interleukin-1alpha and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist upon aging, whereas it increased in interleukin-6. S/C ratio was uniquely elevated on photoaged skin in the 50 y age group. It is suggested that photoaged skin shows an exaggerated reaction to surfactant. Compared with the control, c-fos expression in 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate-treated keratinocytes decreased with age in the thigh, but increased in the photoaged skin of forearm. The increased c-fos expression in 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate-treated keratinocytes could be relevant for the predisposition of photoaged keratinocytes to malignant transformation.

  12. [Product development on the basis of cereal and leguminous flours to coeliac disease in children aged 6-24 months; II: properties of the mixtures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezal Mezquita, P; Urtuvia Gatica, V; Ramírez Quintanilla, V; Arcos Zavala, R

    2011-01-01

    The nutritional formulations of high protein content, provided by a flour mixture from two Andean cultures, quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd) and lupino (Lupinus albus L), with two traditional cereals, maize (Zea mays L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.), entailed to the preparation of a "sweet mixture" for the elaboration of "queques" and another "dessert mixture" flavoured with banana, that can be prepared with water or milk, constituted a good alternative as food supplement for the nutrition of children aged 6-24 months who suffer from celiac disease, since they contribute to the quality improvement of the protein, by essential amino acids compensation, they are of low cost and allow an increase in availability of products for gluten-intolerant children. Some physical, chemical, rheological, mechanical and fluidity properties, as well as the color of these mixtures for a period of conservation of 90 days were evaluated. At the end of the storage, the sweet mixture turned out to be of "little flow" and the dessert mixture changed from "little flow" to "easy flow". Viscosity for the dessert mixture, with its two types of dilutions, water and milk, presented a behavior of pseudoplastic fluid. It was possible to guess that the time of shelf life of the mixtures would be of 9 months before achieving the rancidity limit (10 mEq of oxigen/kg of fat, which would disqualify the product for consumption). The CIEL*a*b* color coordinates did not show significant differences keeping the colour in "a beige" tonality.

  13. Effect of irradiation on Nε-carboxymethyl-lysine and Nε-carboxyethyl-lysine formation in cooked meat products during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Ligang; He, Zhiyong; Zeng, Maomao; Zheng, Zongping; Chen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of irradiation on N ε -carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) and N ε -carboxyethyl-lysine (CEL) formation in cooked red and white meats during storage. The results showed that irradiation did not affect CML/CEL formation (0 weeks). After 6 weeks, CML/CEL contents in the irradiated samples exhibited a higher growth rate than the non-irradiated samples, especially the red meat. The results of electron spin resonance spectrometry and 2-Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances suggested irradiation had induced free-radical reactions and accelerated lipid oxidation during storage. A linear correlation (r=0.810–0.906, p<0.01) was found between the loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids content and increase of CML/CEL content in the irradiated samples after 0 and 6 weeks of storage. The results indicate that irradiation-induced lipid oxidation promotes CML/CEL formation, and CML/CEL formation by the lipid oxidation pathways may be an important pathway for CML/CEL accumulation in irradiated meat products during storage. - Highlights: • The effect of irradiation on CML and CEL formation in meat products is investigated. • CML and CEL contents in irradiated meat products exhibit a higher growth rate than non-irradiated samples. • PUFAs oxidation induced by irradiation promotes CML and CEL formation. • Lipid oxidation pathways are an important pathway for CML and CEL accumulation in irradiated samples during storage.

  14. Age-related pattern and monocyte-acquired haemozoin associated production of erythropoietin in children with severe malarial anaemia in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abugri, James; Tetteh, John Kweku Amissah; Oseni, Lateef Adebayo; Mensah-Brown, Henrietta Esi; Delimini, Rupert Kantunye; Obuobi, David Osei; Akanmori, Bartholomew Dicky

    2014-08-20

    Malaria continues to be a global health challenge, affecting more than half the world's population and causing approximately 660,000 deaths annually. The majority of malaria cases are caused by Plasmodium falciparum and occur in sub-Saharan Africa. One of the major complications asscociated with malaria is severe anaemia, caused by a cycle of haemoglobin digestion by the parasite. Anaemia due to falciparum malaria in children has multifactorial pathogenesis, which includes suppression of bone marrow activity. Recent studies have shown that haemozoin, which is a by-product of parasite haemoglobin digestion, may play an important role in suppression of haemoglobin production, leading to anaemia. In this study we correlated the levels of erythropoietin (EPO), as an indicator of stimulation of haemoglobin production, to the levels of monocyte acquired haemozoin in children with both severe and uncomplicated malaria. There was a significantly negative correlation between levels of haemozoin-containing monocytes and EPO, which may suggest that haemozoin suppresses erythropoiesis in severe malaria. A multiple linear regression analysis and simple bar was used to investigate associations between various haematological parameters. To examine the levels of erythropoietin in the age categories, the levels of erythropoietin was measured using a commercial Enyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Giemsa-stained blood smears were used to determine percentage pigment containing monocytes. The haemozoin containing monocytes was expressed as a percentage of the total number of monocytes. To obtain the number of haemozoin containing monocytes/μL the percentage of haemozoin containing monocytes was multiplied by the absolute number of monocytes/μL from the automated haematology analyzer. The levels of erythropoietin in younger children (<3 years) was significantly higher than in older children with a similar degree of malaria anaemia (Hb levels) (p < 0.005). Haemozoin

  15. Successful Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufiqurrahman Nasihun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The emerging concept of successful aging is based on evidence that in healthy individual when they get aged, there are  considerable variations in physiological functions alteration. Some people exhibiting greater, but others very few or no age related alteration. The first is called poor aging and the later is called successful pattern of aging (Lambert SW, 2008. Thus, in the simple words the successful aging concept is define as an opportunity of old people to stay  active and productive condition despite they get aged chronologically. Aging itself might be defined as the progressive accumulation of changes with time associated with or responsible for the ever-increasing susceptibility to disease and death which accompanies advancing age (Harman D, 1981. The time needed to accumulate changes is attributable to aging process. The marked emerging questions are how does aging happen and where does aging start? To answer these questions and because of the complexity of aging process, there are more than 300 aging theories have been proposed to explain how and where aging occured and started respectively. There are too many to enumerate theories and classification of aging process. In summary, all of these aging theories can be grouped into three clusters: 1. Genetics program theory, this theory suggests that aging is resulted from program directed by the genes; 2. Epigenetic theory, in these theory aging is resulted from environmental random events not determined by the genes; 3. Evolutionary theory, which propose that aging is a medium for disposal mortal soma in order to avoid competition between organism and their progeny for food and space, did not try to explain how aging occur, but possibly answer why aging occur (De la Fuente. 2009. Among the three groups of aging theories, the epigenetic theory is useful to explain and try to solve the enigma of aging which is prominently caused by internal and external environmental influences

  16. Unique Pattern of Protein-Bound Maillard Reaction Products in Manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) Honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwig, Michael; Rückriemen, Jana; Sandner, Daniel; Henle, Thomas

    2017-05-03

    As a unique feature, honey from the New Zealand manuka tree (Leptospermum scoparium) contains substantial amounts of dihydroxyacetone (DHA) and methylglyoxal (MGO). Although MGO is a reactive intermediate in the Maillard reaction, very little is known about reactions of MGO with honey proteins. We hypothesized that the abundance of MGO should result in a particular pattern of protein-bound Maillard reaction products (MRPs) in manuka honey. A protein-rich high-molecular-weight fraction was isolated from 12 manuka and 8 non-manuka honeys and hydrolyzed enzymatically. By HPLC-MS/MS, 8 MRPs, namely, N-ε-fructosyllysine, N-ε-maltulosyllysine, carboxymethyllysine, carboxyethyllysine (CEL), pyrraline, formyline, maltosine, and methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone 1 (MG-H1), were quantitated. Compared to non-manuka honeys, the manuka honeys were characterized by high concentrations of CEL and MG-H1, whereas the formation of N-ε-fructosyllysine was suppressed, indicating concurrence reactions of glucose and MGO at the ε-amino group of protein-bound lysine. Up to 31% of the lysine and 8% of the arginine residues, respectively, in the manuka honey protein can be modified to CEL and MG-H1, respectively. CEL and MG-H1 concentrations correlated strongly with the MGO concentration of the honeys. Manuka honey possesses a special pattern of protein-bound MRPs, which might be used to prove the reliability of labeled MGO levels in honeys and possibly enable the detection of fraudulent MGO or DHA addition to honey.

  17. Analysis of electron pair production in the collision system Ar+KCl at 1.76 AGeV; Analyse der Elektronpaarproduktion im Stosssystem Ar+KCl bei 1,76 AGeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, Simon Martin

    2008-06-30

    The HADES-spectrometer at GSI is used to measure the production of the light vector mesons {rho}, {omega} and {phi} at SIS energies. Therefore, the medium sized collision system Ar+KCl was measured at 1.76 AGeV kinetic energy of beam particles. In this system the density of particle tracks is much larger as compared to the formerly used collision system C+C, making it necessary to upgrade the data analysis. The previous method of hard-cuts - used for particle identification - was replaced by a newly developed multi-variate analysis based on an artificial neural network. This algorithm has the benefit, that it is more robust against fluctuations in one or more of the used detector observables. This increases the overall efficiency and purity of the analysis procedure. Furthermore, the reconstruction of particle tracks inside the HADES spectrometer is based on a few position information, only. During analysis of raw data, these information are combined to a artificially large manifold of tracks. This leads to the general problem that one has to select the maximum number of true physical tracks out of this set of tracks per event. A new method of track selection is used to filter the data not only to select single tracks, but also to identify electron pairs created during Dalitz-decay of {pi}{sup 0} mesons, which build the bulk of combinatorial background. The result of the analysis is an efficiency corrected invariant mass spectrum of electron pairs, normalized to the mean number of pions per event. The spectrum consists of more than 16,000 pairs with an invariant mass larger than 150 MeV. In total more than 150000 pairs were found. A first comparison with the spectra calculated by using the old analysis approach shows a 30% enhancement in yield of reconstructed electron pairs. A first comparison with a simple thermal model implemented by the Pluto event generator, opens the possibility to compare the measured pair yield of {omega} and {phi} mesons via m{sub T

  18. Effects of aging, aphasia, and Parkinson’s disease on the time course of lemma selection during sentence production: evidence from eyetracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyeon Lee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sentence production involves intricate coordination of planning and speaking. In the word-by-word incremental model, speakers start their speech upon preparing a single lemma, taxing the pre-speech memory buffer minimally (deSmedt, 1990; Griffin, 2001; Kempen & Hoenkamp, 1987. Alternatively, speakers may prepare multiple words in advance, such as up to the verb (Ferreria, 2000; Lindsley, 1975 or the entire clause (Garret, 1982; Ford, 1982 to avoid producing disfluencies and momentary word retrieval difficulties during speech. Sentence production in young healthy speakers is largely incremental, with some strategic flexibility (Ferreira & Swets, 2000; Schriefers et al., 1998. However, how the time course of lexical selection during sentence production is affected in speakers with reduced cognitive-linguistic capacity remains unclear. The present study examined the effects of aging, aphasia, and Parkinson’s disease (PD on the time course of lemma selection during sentence production, using eyetracking. Data from a group of 16 young, 14 older, 12 PD, and 12 agrammatic aphasic speakers are reported. Young and aphasic speakers’ data are drawn from Lee, Yoshida, & Thompson (accepted to compare with PD and older speakers’ data. Participants described three object pictures (A, B, C using the sentence frame “the A and the B are above the C” (Griffin, 2001. Each picture’s codability (name agreement was manipulated to be high (clock or low (couch/sofa. Speakers experience increased lemma selection difficulty when naming low codable pictures, resulting in increased gaze durations. Participants’ gaze durations to each picture were measured and aligned with the speech onset of sentences to see ‘when’ each lemma was prepared. Results showed that aphasic and PD speakers produced significantly fewer target sentences than young and older speakers, with this difference pronounced only when sentences included low-codable pictures for the PD group

  19. Mitochondrial DNA Variants Mediate Energy Production and Expression Levels for CFH, C3 and EFEMP1 Genes: Implications for Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, M. Cristina; Chwa, Marilyn; Atilano, Shari R.; Pavlis, Janelle M.; Falatoonzadeh, Payam; Ramirez, Claudio; Malik, Deepika; Hsu, Tiffany; Woo, Grace; Soe, Kyaw; Nesburn, Anthony B.; Boyer, David S.; Kuppermann, Baruch D.; Jazwinski, S. Michal; Miceli, Michael V.; Wallace, Douglas C.; Udar, Nitin

    2013-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with the development and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Recent studies using populations from the United States and Australia have demonstrated that AMD is associated with mitochondrial (mt) DNA haplogroups (as defined by combinations of mtDNA polymorphisms) that represent Northern European Caucasians. The aim of this study was to use the cytoplasmic hybrid (cybrid) model to investigate the molecular and biological functional consequences that occur when comparing the mtDNA H haplogroup (protective for AMD) versus J haplogroup (high risk for AMD). Methodology/Principal Findings Cybrids were created by introducing mitochondria from individuals with either H or J haplogroups into a human retinal epithelial cell line (ARPE-19) that was devoid of mitochondrial DNA (Rho0). In cybrid lines, all of the cells carry the same nuclear genes but vary in mtDNA content. The J cybrids had significantly lower levels of ATP and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species production, but increased lactate levels and rates of growth. Q-PCR analyses showed J cybrids had decreased expressions for CFH, C3, and EFEMP1 genes, high risk genes for AMD, and higher expression for MYO7A, a gene associated with retinal degeneration in Usher type IB syndrome. The H and J cybrids also have comparatively altered expression of nuclear genes involved in pathways for cell signaling, inflammation, and metabolism. Conclusion/Significance Our findings demonstrate that mtDNA haplogroup variants mediate not only energy production and cell growth, but also cell signaling for major molecular pathways. These data support the hypothesis that mtDNA variants play important roles in numerous cellular functions and disease processes, including AMD. PMID:23365660

  20. Mitochondrial DNA variants mediate energy production and expression levels for CFH, C3 and EFEMP1 genes: implications for age-related macular degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Cristina Kenney

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with the development and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Recent studies using populations from the United States and Australia have demonstrated that AMD is associated with mitochondrial (mt DNA haplogroups (as defined by combinations of mtDNA polymorphisms that represent Northern European Caucasians. The aim of this study was to use the cytoplasmic hybrid (cybrid model to investigate the molecular and biological functional consequences that occur when comparing the mtDNA H haplogroup (protective for AMD versus J haplogroup (high risk for AMD.Cybrids were created by introducing mitochondria from individuals with either H or J haplogroups into a human retinal epithelial cell line (ARPE-19 that was devoid of mitochondrial DNA (Rho0. In cybrid lines, all of the cells carry the same nuclear genes but vary in mtDNA content. The J cybrids had significantly lower levels of ATP and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species production, but increased lactate levels and rates of growth. Q-PCR analyses showed J cybrids had decreased expressions for CFH, C3, and EFEMP1 genes, high risk genes for AMD, and higher expression for MYO7A, a gene associated with retinal degeneration in Usher type IB syndrome. The H and J cybrids also have comparatively altered expression of nuclear genes involved in pathways for cell signaling, inflammation, and metabolism.Our findings demonstrate that mtDNA haplogroup variants mediate not only energy production and cell growth, but also cell signaling for major molecular pathways. These data support the hypothesis that mtDNA variants play important roles in numerous cellular functions and disease processes, including AMD.

  1. Forty years of furosine - forty years of using Maillard reaction products as indicators of the nutritional quality of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbersdobler, Helmut F; Somoza, Veronika

    2007-04-01

    The Maillard reaction products (MRPs) most widely used as markers of the nutritional quality of foods are furosine, N(epsilon)-carboxymethyllysine (CML), hydroxymethylfurfural, pyrraline, pentosidine and pronyl-lysine. One of the MRPs identified first was furosine, which was quantified in foods 40 years ago as a chemical indicator of the Amadori compound N(epsilon)-fructoselysine. Since then, furosine has gained broad attention by food chemists and biomedical researchers, as its formation upon heat treatment is well characterised. Moreover, it represents the Amadori products from early Maillard reactions in which amino acids react with reducing carbohydrates, resulting in a loss of their availability. This is of importance for the essential amino acid lysine, which is also the limiting amino acid in many proteins. In order to evaluate the nutritional quality of a protein, the concomitant analysis of free - and nutritionally available - lysine and the amount of lysine reacted to form the respective MRP is essential, even for mildly processed foods. The other chemical markers of heat treatment such as CML, pyrraline, pentosidine or pronyl-lysine seem to be useful markers of the advanced stages of Maillard reactions. Compared to the conditions in which furosine is formed, these compounds are generated under more severe conditions of heat treatment. However, the concentrations analysed are significantly lower than those of furosine. Therefore, the nutritional evaluation of a food protein should include not only furosine, but also other chemical markers of heat treatment such as, for example, CML, pyrraline and pentosidine.

  2. Aging Brain, Aging Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selkoe, Dennis J.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the aging process related to physical changes of the human neural structure involved in learning, memory, and reasoning. Presents evidence that indicates such alterations do not necessarily signal the decline in cognitive function. Vignettes provide images of brain structures involved in learning, memory, and reasoning; hippocampal…

  3. COMBINING LIDAR ESTIMATES OF BIOMASS AND LANDSAT ESTIMATES OF STAND AGE FOR SPATIALLY EXTENSIVE VALIDATION OF MODELED FOREST PRODUCTIVITY. (R828309)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extensive estimates of forest productivity are required to understand the relationships between shifting land use, changing climate and carbon storage and fluxes. Aboveground net primary production of wood (NPPAw) is a major component of total NPP and...

  4. Colour and surface fluorescence development and their relationship with Maillard reaction markers as influenced by structural changes during cornflakes production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farroni, Abel; Buera, María Del Pilar

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this work was to study colour and surface fluorescence development in relation to the chemical markers for the Maillard reaction at the cooking, flaking and toasting stages of cornflake production process. Colour was measured by a calibrated computer vision system. Surface fluorescence was measured on compressed samples. Aqueous extracted Maillard reaction markers (hydroxymethylfurfural, carboxymethyl-lysine, absorbance at 420nm and total fluorescence) were measured on protease hydrolyzed samples. Sample microstructure was observed by scanning electron microscopy. During cooking the colour coordinates L(∗) and b(∗) decreased and a(∗) increased. After flaking, the samples appeared lighter, while the pigment concentration, fluorescence and hydroxymethylfurfural did not change. Toasting generated bubbles in the matrix and L(∗) apparently increased, although brown pigment concentration increased. Pigment concentration did not correlate with surface colour due to the destruction or generation of interfaces. Surface and microstructure effects can be avoided by milling and compressing the samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Aging of gaseous detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Va'Vra, J.

    1990-03-01

    This paper makes an overview of developments in the wire chamber aging field since the wire chamber aging workshop held at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California on January 16--17, 1986. The author discusses new techniques to analyze the gas impurities and the wire aging products, wire ''nonaging'' in clean systems, wire aging in systems containing various impurities, various examples of problems which can ''prime'' surfaces prior to the occurrence of the aging, and some recent aging experience with the ''SSC micro-straw tubes.'' 35 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Quali-quantitative study of nutritional status and eating patterns in children aged 1-3 years from low-income families in two population groups with different productive activities (Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Pasarin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe the nutritional status and eating patterns of children aged 1-3 years from low-income families who reside in areas with different productive activities: primary production and production of goods and services. A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed with a qualitative and quantitative methodology, evaluating anthropometric and biochemical nutritional status, food intake, economic and demographic characteristics, dietary practices and representations. The results show that children from areas of primary production had a lower prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency. They also had a higher consumption of energy, calcium, zinc, vitamin A and protein and a greater diversity and quality in food consumption. We can conclude that the geographical context of families closer to sources of primary production favors interaction with individuals outside of the family, expanding both the informal social network and access to better quality nutritional food.

  7. Root biomass, turnover and net primary productivity of a coffee agroforestry system in Costa Rica: effects of soil depth, shade trees, distance to row and coffee age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defrenet, Elsa; Roupsard, Olivier; Van den Meersche, Karel; Charbonnier, Fabien; Pastor Pérez-Molina, Junior; Khac, Emmanuelle; Prieto, Iván; Stokes, Alexia; Roumet, Catherine; Rapidel, Bruno; de Melo Virginio Filho, Elias; Vargas, Victor J; Robelo, Diego; Barquero, Alejandra; Jourdan, Christophe

    2016-08-21

    In Costa Rica, coffee (Coffea arabica) plants are often grown in agroforests. However, it is not known if shade-inducing trees reduce coffee plant biomass through root competition, and hence alter overall net primary productivity (NPP). We estimated biomass and NPP at the stand level, taking into account deep roots and the position of plants with regard to trees. Stem growth and root biomass, turnover and decomposition were measured in mixed coffee/tree (Erythrina poeppigiana) plantations. Growth ring width and number at the stem base were estimated along with stem basal area on a range of plant sizes. Root biomass and fine root density were measured in trenches to a depth of 4 m. To take into account the below-ground heterogeneity of the agroforestry system, fine root turnover was measured by sequential soil coring (to a depth of 30 cm) over 1 year and at different locations (in full sun or under trees and in rows/inter-rows). Allometric relationships were used to calculate NPP of perennial components, which was then scaled up to the stand level. Annual ring width at the stem base increased up to 2·5 mm yr -1 with plant age (over a 44-year period). Nearly all (92 %) coffee root biomass was located in the top 1·5 m, and only 8 % from 1·5 m to a depth of 4 m. Perennial woody root biomass was 16 t ha -1 and NPP of perennial roots was 1·3 t ha -1 yr -1 Fine root biomass (0-30 cm) was two-fold higher in the row compared with between rows. Fine root biomass was 2·29 t ha -1 (12 % of total root biomass) and NPP of fine roots was 2·96 t ha -1 yr -1 (69 % of total root NPP). Fine root turnover was 1·3 yr -1 and lifespan was 0·8 years. Coffee root systems comprised 49 % of the total plant biomass; such a high ratio is possibly a consequence of shoot pruning. There was no significant effect of trees on coffee fine root biomass, suggesting that coffee root systems are very competitive in the topsoil. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on

  8. Associations between age at first calving, rearing average daily weight gain, herd milk yield and dairy herd production, reproduction, and profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krpálková, L; Cabrera, V E; Kvapilík, J; Burdych, J; Crump, P

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations of variable intensity in rearing dairy heifers on 33 commercial dairy herds, including 23,008 cows and 18,139 heifers, with age at first calving (AFC), average daily weight gain (ADG), and milk yield (MY) level on reproduction traits and profitability. Milk yield during the production period was analyzed relative to reproduction and economic parameters. Data were collected during a 1-yr period (2011). The farms were located in 12 regions in the Czech Republic. The results show that those herds with more intensive rearing periods had lower conception rates among heifers at first and overall services. The differences in those conception rates between the group with the greatest ADG (≥0.800 kg/d) and the group with the least ADG (≤0.699 kg/d) were approximately 10 percentage points in favor of the least ADG. All the evaluated reproduction traits differed between AFC groups. Conception at first and overall services (cows) was greatest in herds with AFC ≥800 d. The shortest days open (105 d) and calving interval (396 d) were found in the middle AFC group (799 to 750 d). The highest number of completed lactations (2.67) was observed in the group with latest AFC (≥800 d). The earliest AFC group (≤749 d) was characterized by the highest depreciation costs per cow at 8,275 Czech crowns (US$414), and the highest culling rate for cows of 41%. The most profitable rearing approach was reflected in the middle AFC (799 to 750 d) and middle ADG (0.799 to 0.700 kg) groups. The highest MY (≥8,500 kg) occurred with the earliest AFC of 780 d. Higher MY led to lower conception rates in cows, but the highest MY group also had the shortest days open (106 d) and a calving interval of 386 d. The same MY group had the highest cow depreciation costs, net profit, and profitability without subsidies of 2.67%. We conclude that achieving low AFC will not always be the most profitable approach, which will depend upon farm

  9. Functional and structural causes of forests productivity decay with age: experimental analysis of a chrono-sequence of maritime pine stands; Causes fonctionnelles et structurales du declin de productivite des forets avec l'age: analyse experimentale d'une chronosequence de peuplements de pin maritime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delzon, S.

    2004-06-15

    The aim of this work was to understand the causes of forest growth decline with increasing age. We investigated changes in several eco-physiological parameters in a chrono-sequence of four even-aged maritime pine stands. Above-ground productivity declined by a factor of 2.5 from the youngest to the oldest stands. This decline was explained by a decrease of gross primary production, due to a decline in both stand leaf area and foliar productivity. Our measurements clearly showed a decrease in leaf-specific hydraulic conductance with increasing tree height (50% lower in 30 m trees than in 10 m trees). We also found that needle water potential was maintained above a minimum threshold value of -2.0 MPa independently of tree age and height. This hydraulic homeostasis occurred through a decline in leaf / sapwood area ratio (hydraulic compensation) and a decline in stomatal conductance (physiological compensation). Both the increased investment in non-productive versus productive tissues and stomatal closure may have contributed to the observed decrease in foliar productivity with increasing tree height. Consequently, over-storey transpiration was reduced by a factor of three between the 10-yr and the 91-yr old stands. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that the total ecosystem evaporation remains constant in ageing forests due to an increase in under-storey transpiration, which may counterbalance the decrease in tree transpiration. Photosynthetic capacity also decreased in older stands, mainly through a decline in phosphorus concentration. Our results support the hypothesis that the age-related decline in forest growth is associated with decreased availability of the most limiting resource, this being phosphorus for the maritime Pine chrono-sequence investigated. (author)

  10. Linking size and age at sexual maturation to body growth, productivity and recruitment of Atlantic cod stocks spanning the North Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köster, Fritz; Trippel, E.A.; Tomkiewicz, Jonna

    2013-01-01

    Sexual maturation patterns of 22 North Atlantic stocks of cod (Gadus morhua) were examined and related to geographical distribution area, ambient water temperature, growth and surplus production. Four patterns were identified, i.e. sexual maturation early in life at small size, early in life...... Atlantic stocks. This comparative analysis suggests that maturation patterns relate to growth potential and surplus production whereas annual production of recruits per unit biomass appears unrelated to average size at sexual maturation...

  11. Stochastic modelling of optimum initial body weight, daily weight gain and effect of genetic changes in ovulation rate and age at sexual maturity on total egg production of broiler breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, R; Hocking, P M

    2009-01-01

    1. A model that simulates the total production of eggs (TEP) in broiler breeders was used to predict the optimum initial (20 week) body weight (IBWexp), daily weight gains from 20 to 30 (DWGexp(20-30)) and 31 to 62 weeks of age (DWGexp(31-62)), age at photostimulation (affecting age at first egg, AFEexp), coefficients of variation of initial body weight (CV-IBWexp) and age at first egg (CV-AFEexp), and the effect of genetically increasing the numbers of yellow follicles at the onset of lay. 2. The results suggest that TEP in broiler breeders is very sensitive to changes in body weight gain during the first 10 weeks of the production period and body weight at the start of egg production, whereas changes in body weight gain after peak rate of lay showed only minor effects on TEP. Increasing CV-IBWexp was associated with a linear decrease in the mean and increased variability of TEP. 3. Decreasing AFEexp was negatively associated with TEP, whereas higher CV-AFEexp increased variability of TEP and had a trivial affect on the mean. 4. Results of the simulation suggested that reducing ovarian yellow follicle numbers by means of genetic selection could reduce the degree of feed restriction currently used in broiler breeder commercial stocks while maintaining total egg production. Higher numbers of yellow follicles associated with selection for higher growth rate would not result in lower egg production if the body weight target was maintained at the currently recommended commercial level and the effect on TEP of increasing the target in proportion to potential body weight may be relatively small.

  12. Fish products and their trade in Tauric Chersonesos/Byzantine Cherson: the development of a traditional craft from Antiquity to the Middle Ages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čechová, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 1 (2014), s. 229-236. ISBN 978-2-87772-579-8. ISSN 2101-2849 Institutional support: RVO:68378017 Keywords : Tauric Chersonesos * fish products Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  13. Aging changes in the bones - muscles - joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the 40s in women. Lipofuscin (an age-related pigment) and fat are deposited in muscle tissue. The ... changes in body shape Aging changes in hormone production Aging changes in organs, tissues, and cells Aging ...

  14. Active Aging Promotion: Results from the Vital Aging Program

    OpenAIRE

    Caprara, Mariagiovanna; Molina, María Ángeles; Schettini, Rocío; Santacreu, Marta; Orosa, Teresa; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel; Rojas, Macarena; Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío

    2013-01-01

    Active aging is one of the terms in the semantic network of aging well, together with others such as successful, productive, competent aging. All allude to the new paradigm in gerontology, where by aging is considered from a positive perspective. Most authors in the field agree active aging is a multidimensional concept, embracing health, physical and cognitive fitness, positive affect and control, social relationships and engagement. This paper describes Vital Aging, an individual activ...

  15. Age at first introduction of cow milk products and other food products in relation to infant atopic manifestations in the first 2 years of life: the KOALA Birth Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, Bianca E. P.; Thijs, Carel; van Ree, Ronald; van den Brandt, Piet A.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Scientific evidence is scarce about timing of solid-food introduction and its association with the development of atopy. We aimed to evaluate any associations between the introduction of cow milk products/other solid food products and infant atopic manifestations in the second year of

  16. Learning and Active Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton-Lewis, Gillian M.; Buys, Laurie; Lovie-Kitchin, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Learning is an important aspect of aging productively. This paper describes results from 2645 respondents (aged from 50 to 74+ years) to a 165-variable postal survey in Australia. The focus is on learning and its relation to work; social, spiritual, and emotional status; health; vision; home; life events; and demographic details. Clustering…

  17. Age and Scientific Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stephen

    1979-01-01

    The long-standing belief that age is negatively associated with scientific productivity and creativity is shown to be based upon incorrect analysis of data. Studies reported in this article suggest that the relationship between age and scientific performance is influenced by the operation of the reward system. (Author)

  18. Advanced glycation end products, physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of cooked lamb loins affected by cooking method and addition of flavour precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldan, Mar; Loebner, Jürgen; Degen, Julia; Henle, Thomas; Antequera, Teresa; Ruiz-Carrascal, Jorge

    2015-02-01

    The influence of the addition of a flavour enhancer solution (FES) (d-glucose, d-ribose, l-cysteine and thiamin) and of sous-vide cooking or roasting on moisture, cooking loss, instrumental colour, sensory characteristics and formation of Maillard reaction (MR) compounds in lamb loins was studied. FES reduced cooking loss and increased water content in sous-vide samples. FES and cooking method showed a marked effect on browning development, both on the meat surface and within. FES led to tougher and chewier texture in sous-vide cooked lamb, and enhanced flavour scores of sous-vide samples more markedly than in roasted ones. FES added meat showed higher contents of furosine; 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural did not reach detectable levels. N-ε-carboxymethyllysine amounts were rather low and not influenced by the studied factors. Cooked meat seems to be a minor dietary source of MR products, regardless the presence of reducing sugars and the cooking method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The impact of raw materials and baking conditions on Maillard reaction products, thiamine, folate, phytic acid and minerals in white bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helou, Cynthia; Gadonna-Widehem, Pascale; Robert, Nathalie; Branlard, Gérard; Thebault, Jacques; Librere, Sarah; Jacquot, Sylvain; Mardon, Julie; Piquet-Pissaloux, Agnès; Chapron, Sophie; Chatillon, Antoine; Niquet-Léridon, Céline; Tessier, Frédéric J

    2016-06-15

    The aim of this study was to develop a white bread with improved nutrient contents and reduced levels of potentially harmful Maillard reaction products such as N(ε)-carboxymethyllysine (CML) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). Assays were carried out through a full factorial experimental design allowing the simultaneous analysis of four factors at two levels: (1) wheat flour extraction rates (ash content: 0.60%-0.72%), (2) leavening agents (bakers' yeast - bakers' yeast and sourdough), (3) prebaking and (4) baking conditions (different sets of time and temperature). The baking conditions affected HMF and CML as well as certain mineral contents. A reduced baking temperature along with a prolonged heat treatment was found to be favourable for reducing both the CML (up to 20%) and HMF concentrations (up to 96%). The presence of sourdough decreased the formation of CML (up to 28%), and increased the apparent amounts of calcium (up to 8%) and manganese (up to 17.5%) probably through acidification of the dough. The extraction rate of flours as well as interactions between multiple factors also affected certain mineral content. However, compounds like folate, thiamine, copper, zinc, iron and phytic acid were not affected by any of the factors studied.

  20. Na+/K+-ATPase interaction with methylglyoxal as reactive metabolic side product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svrckova, Marika; Zatloukalova, Martina; Dvorakova, Petra; Coufalova, Dominika; Novak, David; Hernychova, Lenka; Vacek, Jan

    2017-07-01

    Proteins are subject to oxidative modification and the formation of adducts with a broad spectrum of reactive species via enzymatic and non-enzymatic mechanisms. Here we report that in vitro non-enzymatic methylglyoxal (MGO) binding causes the inhibition and formation of MGO advanced glycation end-products (MAGEs) in Na + /K + -ATPase (NKA). Concretely, MGO adducts with NKA amino acid residues (mainly Arg) and N ε -(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) formation were found. MGO is not only an inhibitor for solubilized NKA (IC 50 =91±16μM), but also for reconstituted NKA in the lipid bilayer environment, which was clearly demonstrated using a DPPC/DPPE liposome model in the presence or absence of the NKA-selective inhibitor ouabain. High-resolution mass spectrometric analysis of a tryptic digest of NKA isolated from pig (Sus scrofa) kidney indicates that the intracellular α-subunit is naturally (post-translationally) modified by MGO in vivo. In contrast to this, the β-subunit could only be modified by MGO artificially, and the transmembrane part of the protein did not undergo MGO binding under the experimental setup used. As with bovine serum albumin, serving as the water-soluble model, we also demonstrated a high binding capacity of MGO to water-poorly soluble NKA using a multi-spectral methodology based on electroanalytical, immunochemical and fluorimetric tools. In addition, a partial suppression of the MGO-mediated inhibitory effect could be observed in the presence of aminoguanidine (pimagedine), a glycation suppressor and MGO-scavenger. All the results here were obtained with the X-ray structure of NKA in the E1 conformation (3WGV) and could be used in the further interpretation of the functionality of this key enzyme in the presence of highly-reactive metabolic side-products, glycation agents and generally under oxidative stress conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Aging Effects on the Properties of Imidazolium-, Quaternary Ammonium-, Pyridinium-, and Pyrrolidinium-Based Ionic Liquids Used in Fuel and Energy Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Elise B.; Smith, L. Taylor; Williamson, Tyler K.; Kendrick, Sarah E.

    2013-11-21

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are often cited for their excellent thermal stability, a key property for their use as solvents and in the chemical processing of biofuels. However, there has been little supporting data on the long-term aging effect of the temperature on these materials. Imizadolium-, quaternary ammonium-, pyridinium-, and pyrrolidnium-based ILs with the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide anions were aged for 2520 h (15 weeks) at 200 °C in air to determine the effects of an oxidizing environment on their chemical structure and thermal stability over time. Finally, it was found that the minor changes in the cation chemistry could greatly affect the properties of the ILs over time.

  2. Enhanced production of low-mass electron-positron pairs in 40-AGeV Pb-Au collisions at the CERN SPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamová, D; Agakichiev, G; Appelshäuser, H; Belaga, V; Braun-Munzinger, P; Cherlin, A; Damjanović, S; Dietel, T; Dietrich, L; Drees, A; Esumi, S I; Filimonov, K; Fomenko, K; Fraenkel, Z; Garabatos, C; Glässel, P; Hering, G; Holeczek, J; Kushpil, V; Lenkeit, B; Maas, A; Marín, A; Milosević, J; Milov, A; Miśkowiec, D; Panebrattsev, Yu; Petchenova, O; Petrácek, V; Pfeiffer, A; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Rehak, P; Richter, M; Sako, H; Schmitz, W; Sedykh, S; Seipp, W; Sharma, A; Shimansky, S; Slívová, J; Specht, H J; Stachel, J; Sumbera, M; Tilsner, H; Tserruya, I; Wessels, J P; Wienold, T; Windelband, B; Wurm, J P; Xie, W; Yurevich, S; Yurevich, V

    2003-07-25

    We report on first measurements of low-mass electron-positron pairs in Pb-Au collisions at the CERN SPS beam energy of 40 AGeV. The observed pair yield integrated over the range of invariant masses 0.2e(+)e(-) annihilation with a modified rho propagator. They may be linked to chiral symmetry restoration and support the notion that the in-medium modifications of the rho are more driven by baryon density than by temperature.

  3. Enhanced production of low-mass electron-positron pairs in 40-AGeV Pb-Au collisions at the CERN SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Adamova, D; Appelshäuser, H; Belaga, V; Braun-Munzinger, P; Cherlin, A; Damjanovic, S; Dietel, T; Dietrich, L; Drees, A; Esumi, S I; Filimonov, K; Fomenko, K; Fraenkel, Zeev; Garabatos, C; Glässel, P; Hering, G; Holeczek, J; Kushpil, V; Lenkeit, B C; Maas, A; Marin, A; Milosevic, J; Milov, A; Miskowiec, D; Panebratsev, Yu A; Petchenova, O Yu; Petracek, V; Pfeiffer, A; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Rehak, P; Richter, M; Sako, H; Schmitz, W; Sedykh, S; Seipp, W; Sharma, A; Shimansky, S S; Slivova, J; Specht, H J; Stachel, J; Sumbera, M; Tilsner, H; Tserruya, Itzhak; Wessels, J P; Wienold, T; Windelband, B; Wurm, J P; Xie, W; Yurevich, S; Yurevich, V I

    2003-01-01

    We report on first measurements of low-mass electron pairs in Pb-Au collisions at the lower SPS beam energy of 40 AGeV. The pair yield integrated over the range of invariant masses 0.2 e+ e- annihilation with a modified rho-propagator. They may be linked to chiral symmetry restoration and support the notion that the in-medium modifications of the rho are more driven by baryon density than by temperature.

  4. Ageing Polulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Terkel; Lauridsen, Jørgen Trankjær; Bech, Mickael

    2013-01-01

    An ageing society is characterised by an increasing median age of the population. The purpose of this chapter is to document the existing knowledge about the association between population ageing and health care expenditure, and to supplement this overview by a summary of our original research...... is that ageing as such can be expected only to a cause modest increase in health care expenditure per capita in the future. This conclusion is supported by our own empirical study, based on 15 EU countries....

  5. Early-life gut bacteria associate with IL-4-, IL-10- and IFN-γ production at two years of age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A Johansson

    Full Text Available Microbial exposure early in life influences immune maturation and potentially also the development of immune-mediated disease. Here we studied early-life gut colonization in relation to cytokine responses at two years of age. Fecal samples were collected from infants during the first two months of life. DNA was extracted from the fecal samples and Bifidobacterium (B. adolescentis, B. breve, B. bifidum, a group of lactobacilli (L. casei, L. paracasei and L. rhamnosus as well as Staphylococcus (S. aureus were detected with real time PCR. Peripheral mononuclear cells were stimulated with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA and numbers of IL-4-, IL-10- and IFN-γ secreting cells were evaluated using ELISpot. We further stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells with bacterial supernatants in vitro and assessed the IL-4-, IL-10- and IFN-γ inducing capacity by flow cytometry and ELISA. Early S. aureus colonization associated with higher numbers of IL-4- (p = 0.022 and IL-10 (p = 0.016 producing cells at two years of age. In contrast to colonization with S. aureus alone, co-colonization with lactobacilli associated with suppression of IL-4- (p = 0.004, IL-10- (p = 0.004 and IFN-γ (p = 0.034 secreting cells. In vitro stimulations of mononuclear cells with bacterial supernatants supported a suppressive role of L. rhamnosus GG on S. aureus-induced cytokine responses. We demonstrate that the early gut colonization pattern associates with the PHA-induced cytokine profile at two years of age and our in vitro findings support that specific bacterial species influence the T helper cell subsets. This suggests that dysbiosis in the early microbiota may modulate the risk of developing inflammatory conditions like allergy.

  6. Skin Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out ...

  7. Communication & Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, William E.

    This extensive bibliography contains more than 1,800 entries about communication and aging. The citations include journal articles, unpublished papers, speeches, dissertations, research studies, and books that relate aging and the aged to a variety of topics, including the following: physiological deterioration, socialization, political…

  8. Age-related changes in luteal dynamics: preliminary associations with antral follicular dynamics and hormone production during the human menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baerwald, Angela; Vanden Brink, Heidi; Hunter, Caitlin; Beuker, Denae; Lim, Hyun; Lee, Chel Hee; Chizen, Donna

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that the development of luteal phase dominant follicles (LPDFs) as women age is associated with abnormal luteal function. Luteal and antral follicle diameter were quantified in ovulatory women of midreproductive age (MRA; 18-35 y; n = 9) and advanced reproductive age (ARA; 45-55 y; n = 16) every 1 to 3 days during one complete interovulatory interval. Blood was drawn at each visit and assayed for progesterone, estradiol, inhibin A, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone. Luteal diameter and hormone profiles were compared within MRA and ARA women with versus without LPDFs. Luteal growth and regression profiles were similar in MRA women with typical versus no LPDFs (13.9, 14.8 mm; P > 0.1); however, luteal phase estradiol and progesterone were greater in MRA women with typical (91.1 ng/L, 8.81 μg/L) versus no (48.8 ng/L, 7.32 μg/L) LPDFs, respectively (LPDF effect, P < 0.1). In the ARA group, mean luteal diameter was lowest in women with atypical LPDFs (12.3 mm), greatest in those with typical LPDFs (16.0 mm), and moderate in those with no LPDFs (13.6 mm), (P < 0.1). Reduced luteal growth in ARA women with atypical versus typical and/or no LPDFs occurred simultaneously to greater luteal phase estradiol (199 vs 69.0, 78.4 ng/L) lower progesterone (7.38 vs 10.7, 13.8 ug/L), and lower inhibin A (36.3, 35.6, 51.2) (P < 0.1). The development of LPDFs as women age was associated with reduced luteal growth, greater estradiol, lower progesterone, and lower inhibin A. These findings provide preliminary evidence that variations in antral folliculogenesis contribute to luteal insufficiency during the menopausal transition.

  9. Production and aging of paramagnetic point defects in P-doped floating zone silicon irradiated with high fluence 27 MeV electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joita, A. C.; Nistor, S. V.

    2018-04-01

    Enhancing the long term stable performance of silicon detectors used for monitoring the position and flux of the particle beams in high energy physics experiments requires a better knowledge of the nature, stability, and transformation properties of the radiation defects created over the operation time. We report the results of an electron spin resonance investigation in the nature, transformation, and long term stability of the irradiation paramagnetic point defects (IPPDs) produced by high fluence (2 × 1016 cm-2), high energy (27 MeV) electrons in n-type, P-doped standard floating zone silicon. We found out that both freshly irradiated and aged (i.e., stored after irradiation for 3.5 years at 250 K) samples mainly contain negatively charged tetravacancy and pentavacancy defects in the first case and tetravacancy defects in the second one. The fact that such small cluster vacancy defects have not been observed by irradiation with low energy (below 5 MeV) electrons, but were abundantly produced by irradiation with neutrons, strongly suggests the presence of the same mechanism of direct formation of small vacancy clusters by irradiation with neutrons and high energy, high fluence electrons, in agreement with theoretical predictions. Differences in the nature and annealing properties of the IPPDs observed between the 27 MeV electrons freshly irradiated, and irradiated and aged samples were attributed to the presence of a high concentration of divacancies in the freshly irradiated samples, defects which transform during storage at 250 K through diffusion and recombination processes.

  10. Calcium intake and osteoporosis: the influence of calcium intake from dairy products on hip bone mineral density and fracture incidence - a population-based study in women over 55 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarek, Dariusz; Głąbska, Dominika; Kołota, Aleksandra; Adamczyk, Piotr; Czekajło, Aleksandra; Grzeszczak, Władysław; Drozdzowska, Bogna; Pluskiewicz, Wojciech

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of osteoporosis increases with age and is most frequently observed in postmenopausal women. The objective of the present population-based cohort study was to assess the influence of Ca intake from dairy sources on hip bone mineral density and hip fracture incidence in a group of Polish women over 55 years of age. The main outcome measures included: bone mineral density, the number of previous fractures and the reported Ca intake from dairy sources, assessed by a diet questionnaire. The RAC-OST-POL Study was conducted in the District of Raciborz in the south of Poland. The study was carried out in a group of 625 women, randomly recruited from the general population of women aged >55 years. Median Ca intake from dairy products was lower in the group of women with femoral neck T-score ≤-2·5 than in the group with T-score >-2·5 (275 v. 383 mg/d; P = 0·0019). For total hip score, the difference was close to borderline significance (P = 0·0698). Median Ca intake from dairy products was lower in the group of women with previous fractures than in those without fracture history (336 v. 395 mg/d; P = 0·0254). The main dairy source of Ca in the analysed group included milk drinks, rennet cheese and milk. Higher dairy Ca intake is recommended, since a number of the women analysed were unable to satisfy their Ca requirement exclusively from their diet.

  11. Active ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frode F. Jacobsen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The concept of active ageing has been gaining prominence in the Nordic countries and beyond. This has been reflected in policy papers in Norway and other Nordic nations. Aims: The aim of this article is to analyse the topic of active ageing in five Norwegian White Papers (2002 to 2015 and discuss those policy documents in context of relevant research literature. Methods: A qualitative document analyses is employed focusing on how active ageing, and ageing in general, is described and which concepts are employed. No ethical approval was needed. Findings: The general theme of ageing and the specific theme of active ageing are increasingly prominent in the Norwegian White Papers studied. In all documents, some assumptions regarding ageing and active ageing seem implicit, such as independence being more important than (interdependence. ‘Productive’ activities like participation in working life are stressed, while others, like reading, watching TV or watching children playing in the street, are ignored. Conclusions: The policy documents demonstrate that the topic of active ageing is growing in importance. The documents increasingly seem to stress ‘productive’ activities – those related to working life, voluntary work or sports and physical training. They exclude activities that are meaningful for many older people, like watching their grandchildren play or reading books. Implications for practice: Practitioners in older people’s care could consider reflecting on: Government documents dealing with their own practice The prevalent concept of active ageing The trend of active ageing as a facilitating or hindering factor for good care work How present discourse on active ageing may influence their attitude towards frail older persons How they wish to relate to active ageing in their own practice

  12. Aging research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, D.F. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The USNRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research has developed a program for nuclear plant aging research (NPAR) to achieve an understanding of nuclear plant aging, its potential effects on safety, and methods for its detection and mitigation, sufficient for addressing safety and regulatory issues and supporting regulatory decisions on issues. Specifically, the NRC has aggressive research and regulatory programs associated with aging effects on piping, steam generators, containments, structures, and electrical and mechanical systems and components. In addition to safety assessment for the original license period for nuclear power plants, this aging information will be extremely useful in providing technical bases for efficient and effective regulation associated with possible license extension. This paper discusses the major activities of USNRC sponsored aging research program and recommends an approach to manage and handle aging at nuclear power plants

  13. Influence of production system, age an sex on carcass parameters and some biochemical meat quality characteristics of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Sampels

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Carcass composition in reindeer is affected by feed intake and the age and sex of the animal. Studies have also shown that age, sex, carcass trim fat content and total intramuscular fat content (IMF influence lipid class composition. The aim of this study was to compare lipid class composition and IMF in relation to carcass weight, conformation and trim fat content, and to investigate how these parameters are affected by age, sex and different feed sources. Five groups of reindeer were studied. Two groups of calves were fed two grain-based pelleted feeds with different lipid compositions for approximately two months before slaughter. One of these groups was fed with conventional pellets, and the other with pellets enriched with linseed cake to increase the amount of n-3 fatty acids in the diet. Three groups of grazing reindeer were also included in the study, consisting of adult males, adult females or calves. Reindeer calves fed pellets had higher slaughter weights, higher trim fat content and better carcass conformation scores compared to the grazing calves. However, there was no significant difference in IMF between pellet-fed and grazing calves. Adult female reindeer had the highest and grazing calves the lowest slaughter weights, trim fat and IMF. There was no difference in lipid class composition in meat from calves fed with the two pelleted feeds, whereas grazing calves had a higher amount of phospholipids. Squalene was identified and quantified as a component of intramuscular lipids in reindeer meat. Effekt av produktionssystem, ålder och kön på slaktkroppskvalitet och några biokemiska egenskaper hos renköttAbstract in Swedish / Sammandrag: Slaktkroppssammansättningen hos renar påverkas av både foderintag, fodersammansättning och djurens ålder och kön. Tidigare har vi visat att renens kön, ålder, mängden intramuskulärt fett (IMF och putsfett på slaktkroppen påverkar sammansättningen av lipidklasser. Syftet med denna

  14. The effects of different anesthesia techniques on free radical production after tourniquet-induced ischemia-reperfusion injury at children's age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budić Ivana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Reperfusion of previously ischemic tissue leads to injuries mediated by reactive oxygen species. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of different anesthesia techniques on oxidative stress caused by tourniquetinduced ischemia-reperfusion (IR injury during extremity operations at children's age. Methods. The study included 45 patients American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA classification I or II, 8 to 17 years of age, undergoing orthopedic procedures that required bloodless limb surgery. The children were randomized into three groups of 15 patients each: general inhalational anesthesia with sevoflurane (group S, total intravenous anesthesia with propofol (group T and regional anesthesia (group R. Venous blood samples were obtained at four time points: before peripheral nerve block and induction of general anesthesia (baseline, 1 min before tourniquet release (BTR, 5 and 20 min after tourniquet release (ATR. Postischemic reperfusion injury was estimated by measurement of concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA in plasma and erythrocytes as well as catalase (CAT activity. Results. Plasma MDA concentration in the group S was significantly higher at 20 min ATR in comparison with the groups T and R (6.78 ± 0.33 μmolL-1-1 vs 4.07 ± 1.53 and 3.22 ± 0.9. μmolL-1-1, respectively. There was a significant difference in MDA concentration in erytrocythes between the groups S and T after 5 min of reperfusion (5.88 ± 0.88 vs 4.27 ± 1.04 nmol/mlEr, p < 0.05. Although not statistically significant, CAT activity was slightly increased as compared to baseline in both groups S and R. In the group T, CAT activity decreased at all time points when compared with baseline, but the observed decrease was only statistically significant at BTR (34.70 ± 9.27 vs 39.69 ± 12.91 UL-1, p < 0.05. Conclusion. Continuous propofol infusion and regional anesthesia techniques attenuate lipid peroxidation and IR injury connected with tourniquet

  15. A two-stage fixed-bed reactor for direct hydrotreatment of volatiles from the hydropyrolysis of biomass: effect of catalyst temperature, pressure and catalyst ageing time on product characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pindoria, R.V.; Megaritis, A.; Herod, A.A.; Kandiyoti, R. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Technology

    1998-12-01

    This investigation involved the hydropyrolysis of biomass (eucalyptus globulus) and the immediate catalytic hydrocracking of pyrolytic oils in the second stage of the reactor. The effects of temperature, pressure and the catalyst ageing time on the final product tar have been studied using the catalyst Zeolite H-ZSM5. The catalytically hydrocracked tar/oil products were characterised and compared with the hydropyrolysis product from the first stage of the reactor to determine the effect of catalytic hydrocracking. The carbon deposition on the catalyst has been examined using thermogravimetric analysis. The tar yields after catalytic hydrocracking decreased with increasing pressure and temperature of the cracking stage. The tar yields at 10 bar pressure were greater than those at 40 bar pressure. The fresh zeolite catalyst trapped more than 40% of the product from the hydropyrolysis stage and TGA evidence indicated that this was not as carbon deposition but as volatiles trapped in the zeolite matrix. Reuse of the catalyst resulted in little more uptake of volatiles; however, extended use of the catalyst did not result in increased yields of liquid products but in increased production of light volatiles or gas. The H-ZSM5 catalyst appeared to act as a more active cracking catalyst rather than to promote hydrogenation or deoxygenation of the liquids produced in the hydropyrolysis stage. Characterisation of the liquids by SEC and UV fluorescence indicated that structural changes were relatively minor despite the significant changes in yields of liquids with process conditions. Available reaction routes do not appear to allow specific deoxygenation pathways to predominate without disintegration of parent molecules to lighter volatiles, under the conditions used here. 41 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. THE NEUTRAL INTERSTELLAR GAS TOWARD SNR W44: CANDIDATES FOR TARGET PROTONS IN HADRONIC {gamma}-RAY PRODUCTION IN A MIDDLE-AGED SUPERNOVA REMNANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshiike, S.; Fukuda, T.; Sano, H.; Ohama, A.; Moribe, N.; Torii, K.; Hayakawa, T.; Okuda, T.; Yamamoto, H.; Mizuno, N.; Onishi, T.; Fukui, Y. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan); Tajima, H.; Maezawa, H.; Mizuno, A. [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Nishimura, A.; Kimura, K.; Ogawa, H. [Department of Astrophysics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Giuliani, A. [INAF-IASF Milano, via E. Bassini 15, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Koo, B.-C., E-mail: yoshiike@a.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-10

    We present an analysis of the interstellar medium (ISM) toward the {gamma}-ray supernova remnant (SNR) W44. We used NANTEN2 {sup 12}CO(J = 2-1) and {sup 12}CO(J = 1-0) data and Arecibo H I data in order to identify the molecular and atomic gas in the SNR. We confirmed that the molecular gas is located in the SNR shell with a primary peak toward the eastern edge of the shell. We newly identified high-excitation molecular gas along the eastern shell of the SNR in addition to the high-excitation broad gas previously observed inside the shell; the line intensity ratio between the {sup 12}CO(J = 2-1) and {sup 12}CO(J = 1-0) transitions in these regions is greater than {approx}1.0, suggesting a kinetic temperature of 30 K or higher, which is most likely due to heating by shock interaction. By comparing the ISM with {gamma}-rays, we find that target protons of hadronic origin are dominated by molecular protons of average density around 200 cm{sup -3}, where the possible contribution of atomic protons is 10% or less. This average density is consistent with the recent discovery of the low-energy {gamma}-rays suppressed in 50 MeV-10 GeV as observed with AGILE and Fermi. The {gamma}-ray spectrum differs from place to place in the SNR, suggesting that the cosmic-ray (CR) proton spectrum significantly changes within the middle-aged SNR perhaps due to the energy-dependent escape of CR protons from the acceleration site. We finally derive a total CR proton energy of {approx}10{sup 49} erg, consistent with the SN origin of the majority of the CRs in the Galaxy.

  17. A novel flexible clinical multiphoton tomograph for early melanoma detection, skin analysis, testing of anti-age products, and in situ nanoparticle tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinigel, Martin; Breunig, Hans Georg; Gregory, Axel; Fischer, Peter; Kellner-Höfer, Marcel; Bückle, Rainer; König, Karsten

    2010-02-01

    High-resolution 3D microscopy based on multiphoton induced autofluorescence and second harmonic generation have been introduced in 1990. 13 years later, CE-marked clinical multiphoton systems for 3D imaging of human skin with subcellular resolution have first been launched by JenLab company with the tomography DermaInspect®. This year, the second generation of clinical multiphoton tomographs was introduced. The novel multiphoton tomograph MPTflex, equipped with a flexible articulated optical arm, provides an increased flexibility and accessibility especially for clinical and cosmetical examinations. Improved image quality and signal to noise ratio (SNR) are achieved by a very short source-drain spacing, by larger active areas of the detectors and by single photon counting (SPC) technology. Shorter image acquisition time due to improved image quality reduces artifacts and simplifies the operation of the system. The compact folded optical design and the light-weight structure of the optical head eases the handling. Dual channel detectors enable to distinguish between intratissue elastic fibers and collagenous structures simultaneously. Through the use of piezo-driven optics a stack of optical cross-sections (optical sectioning) can be acquired and 3D imaging can be performed. The multiphoton excitation of biomolecules like NAD(P)H, flavins, porphyrins, elastin, and melanin is done by picojoule femtosecond laser pulses from an tunable turn-key femtosescond near infrared laser system. The ability for rapid high-quality image acquisition, the user-friendly operation of the system and the compact and flexible design qualifies this system to be used for melanoma detection, diagnostics of dermatological disorders, cosmetic research and skin aging measurements as well as in situ drug monitoring and animal research.

  18. Successful ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusumastuti, Sasmita; Derks, Marloes G. M.; Tellier, Siri

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ageing is accompanied by an increased risk of disease and a loss of functioning on several bodily and mental domains and some argue that maintaining health and functioning is essential for a successful old age. Paradoxically, studies have shown that overall wellbeing follows a curvili...

  19. Ageing genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rattan, Suresh

    2018-01-01

    The idea of gerontogenes is in line with the evolutionary explanation of ageing as being an emergent phenomenon as a result of the imperfect maintenance and repair systems. Although evolutionary processes did not select for any specific ageing genes that restrict and determine the lifespan...... of an individual, the term ‘gerontogenes’ primarily refers to any genes that may seem to influence ageing and longevity, without being specifically selected for that role. Such genes can also be called ‘virtual gerontogenes’ by virtue of their indirect influence on the rate and process of ageing. More than 1000...... virtual gerontogenes have been associated with ageing and longevity in model organisms and humans. The ‘real’ genes, which do influence the essential lifespan of a species, and have been selected for in accordance with the evolutionary life history of the species, are known as the longevity assurance...

  20. Measurement of low-mass e{sup +}e{sup -} pair production in 2 AGeV C-C collisions with HADES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudol, Malgorzata

    2007-07-01

    The search for a modification of hadron properties inside nuclear matter at normal and/or high temperature and density is one of the most interesting issues of modern nuclear physics. Dilepton experiments, give insight into the properties of strong interaction and the nature of hadron mass generation. One of these research tools is the HADES spectrometer. HADES is a high acceptance dilepton spectrometer installed at the heavy-ion synchrotron (SIS) at GSI, Darmstadt. The main physics motivation of HADES is the measurement of e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs in the invariant-mass range up to 1 GeV/c{sup 2} in pion- and proton-induced reactions, as well as in heavy-ion collisions. The goal is to investigate the properties of the vector mesons {rho}, {omega} and of other hadrons reconstructed from e{sup +}e{sup -} decay pairs. Dileptons are penetrating probes allowing to study the in-medium properties of hadrons. However, the measurement of such dilepton pairs is difficult because of a very large background from other processes in which leptons are created. This thesis presents the analysis of the data provided by the first physics run with the HADES spectrometer. For the first time e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs produced in C+C collisions at an incident energy of 2 GeV per nucleon have been collected with sufficient statistics. This experiment is of particular importance since it allows to address the puzzling pair excess measured by the former DLS experiment at a beam energy 1.04 AGeV. The thesis consists of five chapters. The first chapter presents the physics case which is addressed in the work. In the second chapter the HADES spectrometer is introduced with the characteristic of specific detectors which are part of the spectrometer. Chapter three focusses on the issue of charged-particle identification. The fourth chapter discusses the reconstruction of the di-electron spectra in C+C collisions. In this part of the thesis a comparison with theoretical models is included as well

  1. Optimal Aging and Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Strulik, Holger

    2010-01-01

    health investments. At the same time, physiological aspects of the aging process influence optimal savings and health investment. We calibrate the model for the average US male in 2000 and proceed to show that the calibrated model accounts well for the cross-country link between labor productivity......This study introduces physiological aging into a simple model of optimal intertemporal consumption. In this endeavor we draw on the natural science literature on aging. According to the purposed theory, the speed of the aging process and the time of death are endogenously determined by optimal...... and life expectancy in the same year ("the Preston curve"); cross-country income differences can explain differences in life expectancy at age 20 of up to a decade. Moreover, technological change in health care of about 1.1% per year can account for the observed shift in the Preston curve between 1980...

  2. To Age With Honour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    that embraces economic values of speed, efficiency, growth and (re)productivity. In the welfare state the elderly are kept out of traditional functions. In a utilitarian sense, they feel useless, and it becomes difficult to ‘age with honour’ in the sense of maintaining their sense of dignity as an effect...

  3. Skin beautification with oral non-hydrolized versions of carnosine and carcinine: Effective therapeutic management and cosmetic skincare solutions against oxidative glycation and free-radical production as a causal mechanism of diabetic complications and skin aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Deyev, Anatoliy I; Savel'yeva, Ekaterina L; Lankin, Vadim Z; Yegorov, Yegor E

    2012-10-01

    Advanced glycation Maillard reaction end products (AGEs) are causing the complications of diabetes and skin aging, primarily via adventitious and cross-linking of proteins. Long-lived proteins such as structural collagen are particularly implicated as pathogenic targets of AGE processes. The formation of α-dicarbonyl compounds represents an important step for cross-linking proteins in the glycation or Maillard reaction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of glycation coupled to the glycation free-radical oxidation reactions as markers of protein damage in the aging of skin tissue proteins and diabetes. To elucidate the mechanism for the cross-linking reaction, we studied the reaction between a three-carbon α-dicarbonyl compound, methylglyoxal, and amino acids using EPR spectroscopy, a spectrophotometric kinetic assay of superoxide anion production at the site of glycation and a chemiluminescence technique. The transglycating activity, inhibition of transition metal ions peroxidative catalysts, resistance to hydrolysis of carnosine mimetic peptide-based compounds with carnosinase and the protective effects of carnosine, carcinine and related compounds against the oxidative damage of proteins and lipid membranes were assessed in a number of biochemical and model systems. A 4-month randomized, double-blind, controlled study was undertaken including 42 subjects where the oral supplement of non-hydrolized carnosine (Can-C Plus® formulation) was tested against placebo for 3 months followed by a 1-month supplement-free period for both groups to assess lasting effects. Assessment of the age-related skin parameters and oral treatment efficacy measurements included objective skin surface evaluation with Visioscan® VC 98 and visual assessment of skin appearance parameters. The results together confirm that a direct one-electron transfer between a Schiff base methylglyoxal dialkylimine (or its protonated form) and methylglyoxal is responsible for

  4. Premature aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sassaki, Hideo

    1992-01-01

    The hypothesis that radiation may accelerate aging phenomenon has been studied extensively, using the population of A-bomb survivors. In this paper, non-specific radiation-induced premature aging is discussed with a review of the literature. Cardiac lipofuscin, papillary fibrosis, aortic extensibility, hexamine/collagen ratio in the skin and aorta, testicular changes, giant hepatic cell nucleus, and neurofibril changes have so far been studied pathologically in the context of A-bomb radiation. Only testicular sclerosis has been found to correlate with distance from the hypocenter. Suggestive correlation was found to exist between the hexamine/collagen ratio in the skin and aorta and A-bomb radiation. Grip strength and hearing ability were decreased in the group of 100 rad and the group of 50-99 rad, respectively. The other physiological data did not definitely correlate with A-bomb radiation. Laboratory data, including erythrocyte sedimentation rate, α and β globulin levels, phytohemagglutinin reaction, T cell counts, erythrocyte glycophorin-A, the incidence of cerebral stroke, ischemic heart disease, and cataract were age-dependent and correlated with A-bomb radiation. These findings indicated that the occurrence of arteriosclerosis-related diseases, changes in immunological competence, and some pathological and physiological findings altered with advancing age, suggesting the correlation with A-bomb radiation. In general, it cannot be concluded that there is a positive correlation between A-bomb radiation and the premature aging. (N.K.) 51 refs

  5. Methylglyoxal-induced modification causes aggregation of myoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sauradipta; Maity, Subhajit; Chakraborti, Abhay Sankar

    2016-02-01

    Post-translational modification of proteins by Maillard reaction, known as glycation, is thought to be the root cause of different complications, particularly in diabetes mellitus and age-related disorders. Methylglyoxal (MG), a reactive α-oxoaldehyde, increases in diabetic condition and reacts with proteins to form advanced glycation end products (AGEs) following Maillard-like reaction. We have investigated the in vitro effect of MG (200 μM) on the monomeric heme protein myoglobin (Mb) (100 μM) in a time-dependent manner (7 to 18 days incubation at 25 °C). MG induces significant structural alterations of the heme protein, including heme loss, changes in tryptophan fluorescence, decrease of α-helicity with increased β-sheet content etc. These changes occur gradually with increased period of incubation. Incubation of Mb with MG for 7 days results in formation of the AGE adducts: carboxyethyllysine at Lys-16, carboxymethyllysine at Lys-87 and carboxyethyllysine or pyrraline-carboxymethyllysine at Lys-133. On increasing the period of incubation up to 14 days, additional AGEs namely, carboxyethyllysine at Lys-42 and hydroimidazolone or argpyrimidine at Arg-31 and Arg-139 have been detected. MG also induces aggregation of Mb, which is clearly evident with longer period of incubation (18 days), and appears to have amyloid nature. MG-derived AGEs may thus have an important role as the precursors of protein aggregation, which, in turn, may be associated with physiological complications.

  6. Successful ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Morten Hillgaard; Söderqvist, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Since the late 1980s, the concept of ‘ successful ageing’ has set the frame for discourse about contemporary ageing research. Through an analysis of the reception to John W. Rowe and Robert L. Kahn's launch of the concept of ‘ successful ageing’ in 1987, this article maps out the important themes...... and discussions that have emerged from the interdisciplinary field of ageing research. These include an emphasis on interdisciplinarity; the interaction between biology, psycho-social contexts and lifestyle choices; the experiences of elderly people; life-course perspectives; optimisation and prevention...... strategies; and the importance of individual, societal and scientific conceptualisations and understandings of ageing. By presenting an account of the recent historical uses, interpretations and critiques of the concept, the article unfolds the practical and normative complexities of ‘ successful ageing’....

  7. Fecal excretion of Maillard reaction products and the gut microbiota composition of rats fed with bread crust or bread crumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helou, C; Anton, P M; Niquet-Léridon, C; Spatz, M; Tessier, F J; Gadonna-Widehem, P

    2017-08-01

    A comparison between the impacts of advanced (N ε -carboxymethyllysine - CML) and terminal (melanoidins) Maillard reaction products from bread on gut microbiota was carried out in this study. Gut microbiota composition as well as fecal excretion of CML from both bread crust and bread crumb, and of melanoidins from bread crust were assessed on a rodent model. Rats were fed with pellets supplemented or not with 13% of bread crust, bread crumb, a fiber-free bread crust model (glucose, starch and gluten heated together) or a fiber-free-melanoidin-free bread model (glucose-starch and gluten heated separately) for four weeks. These model systems were developed to limit the presence of wheat-native dietary fibers such as cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin. CML and melanoidins in pellets and feces were evaluated by LC/MS-MS and HPLC/fluorescence respectively, and gut microbiota composition was determined by cultivation and molecular approaches. Diets supplemented with crumb or the fiber-free-melanoidin-free model contained respectively 17% and 64% less melanoidins than their respective controls. A higher excretion of melanoidins was observed for rats fed with crust or bread crust model compared to their controls, confirming that melanoidins are in contact with gut microbiota. No impact of diets was observed on Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and lactic flora. A decrease of enterobacteria was only observed for rats fed with the diet supplemented with the fiber-free bread crust model. Moreover, a significant increase of bifidobacteria numbers in the presence of crust, crumb and both bread models was observed, showing that this bifidogenic effect of bread is not due to the presence of melanoidins or wheat-native dietary fibers.

  8. Aging Differently

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zajitschek, Felix; Jin, Tuo; Colchero, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Diet effects on age-dependent mortality patterns are well documented in a large number of animal species, but studies that look at the effects of nutrient availability on late-life mortality plateaus are lacking. Here, we focus on the effect of dietary protein content (low, intermediate, and high...... based on Bayesian inference of age-specific mortality rates and found a deceleration of late-life mortality rates on all diets in males but only on the intermediate (standard) diet in females. The difference in mortality rate deceleration between males and females on extreme diets suggests...

  9. Composição bromatológica e produtividade do capim-andropógon em diferentes idades de rebrota em sistema silvipastoril = Bromatological composition and productivity of Andropogon grass at different ages of resprout in silvopastoral system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlúcia da Silva Bezerra Lacerda

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a composição e produtividade do capim-andropógon (Andropogon gayanus Kunth. em diferentes idades de rebrota, associado às espécies arbóreas pau-d’arco (Tabebuia serratifolia e jatobá (Hymenaea courbaril no período chuvoso, em Teresina, Piauí.Adotou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 3 x 2, com parcelas subdivididas, sendo as parcelas os ambientes (sombreamento com jatobá e pau-d’arco e área aberta e posições (nascente e poente, e as subparcelas as idades (35, 49 e 63 dias, com cinco repetições. Houve interação ambiente x idade para MS na planta, FDN e FDA na planta e nas folhas e NIDN nas folhas. A PB nas folhas à sombra foi superior (9,65 ± 0,94% em relação à área aberta (9,16 ± 1,41%. Houve efeito linear decrescente (p The study evaluated composition and productivity of Andropogon grass at different ages of resprout, associated with the species Tabebuiaserratifolia and Hymenaea courbaril, during the rainy period, in Teresina, Piauí. A random blocks design was adopted, in a 3 x 2 factorial scheme, with subdivided parcels, being the parcels theenvironments (shading with Tabebuia serratifolia, Hymenaea courbaril and open area and position (rising and setting, and subparcels the ages (35, 49 and 63 days, with five repetitions. There wasinteraction between the environment and age for DM in the plant, NDF and ADF in the plant and leaves, and NDIN in leaves. The CP in leaves in the shade was higher (9.65 ± 0.94% compared to the open area (9.16 ± 1.41%. There was a linear effect (p < 0.01 of the age on CPin the plant and leaves. From days 47.7 and 48.8 there was a reduction in the leaf/steam ratio of Andropogon grass under T. serratifolia and H. courbaril, respectively. The culture of the grass in silvopastoral systems is viable, due to the stability in the composition of DM and ADF in the ratios of NDIN and ADIN in the plant and leaves, as well as for CP in plant and NDF in leaves, with

  10. Aging Well

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frieman, Catherine J.; Bruck, Joanna; Rebay-Salisbury, Katharina

    2017-01-01

    This article consist of several short individual articles which were solicited as responses to and reflections on Paul Treherne’s seminal meditation on Bronze Age male identity and warriorhood. Authors were asked to build on Treherne’s work and to reflect on how it had impacted their own research...

  11. Ice Ages

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    that the precession of the earth's orbit caused ice ages. The precession of the earth's orbit leads to changes in the time of the year at which ... than in the southern hemisphere. ..... small increase in ocean temperature implies a large increase in.

  12. Increased production of cosmogenic 10Be recorded in oceanic sediment sequences: Information on the age, duration, and amplitude of the geomagnetic dipole moment minimum over the Matuyama-Brunhes transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Quentin; Thouveny, Nicolas; Bourlès, Didier L.; Bassinot, Franck; Savranskaia, Tatiana; Valet, Jean-Pierre; Aster Team

    2018-05-01

    New high-resolution authigenic 10Be/9Be ratio (Be-ratio) records covering the last geomagnetic reversal, i.e. the Matuyama-Brunhes transition (MBT), have been obtained and set on a time scale using benthic δ18O (Cibicides wuellerstorfi) records. The geographic distribution of the four studied sites allows global comparison between the North Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans. All Be-ratio records contain a two-fold increase triggered by the geomagnetic dipole moment (GDM) collapse associated with the MBT. The stratigraphic position of the Be-ratio spike, relative to marine isotope stages, allows establishment of a robust astrochronological framework for the MBT, anchoring its age between 778 and 766 ka (average mid-peaks at 772 ka), which is consistent with all other available 10Be-proxy records from marine, ice and loess archives. The global 10Be atmospheric production doubling represents an increase of more than 300 atoms m-2 s-1 that is compatible with the increased magnitude of atmospheric 10Be production obtained by simulations between the present GDM and a null-GDM. The minimum 10Be-derived GDM average computed for the 776-771 ka interval is 1.7 ± 0.4 ×1022 Am2, in agreement with model simulations and absolute paleointensities of transitional lava flows.

  13. Influence of grinding size of the main cereal of the diet on egg production and eggs quality of brown egg laying hens from 33 to 65 weeks of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, J; Saldaña, B; Cámara, L; Berrocoso, J D; Mateos, G G

    2018-04-17

    The influence of grinding size of the main cereal of the diet on production and egg quality traits was studied in brown hens from 33 to 65 wk of age. The experiment was completely randomized with 6 treatments arranged as a 3 × 2 factorial with 3 main cereals (barley, corn, and wheat) and 2 grinding size of the cereal (6 and 10 mm screen). Each treatment was replicated 11 times (10 hens/replicate). Diets were isonutritive and contained 2,740 kcal/kg AMEn and 16.8% CP. Egg production, ADFI, egg weight, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were determined by period (4 wk) and for the entire experiment. Egg quality traits (percentage of undergrades, Haugh units, thickness, strength, color of the shell, and proportion of albumen, yolk, and shell) were measured also by period. No interactions between main cereal and grinding size of the main cereal of the diet were observed for any of the traits studied. Feed intake, egg production, and BW gain were not affected by diet or grinding size. Eggs were heavier (P < 0.01) in hens fed barley than in hens fed corn or wheat, probably because of the higher fat content of the barley diets. Also, FCR tended to improve in hens fed barley compared with hens fed corn or wheat (P = 0.07). Diet did not affect any of the egg quality traits studied. In summary, barley and wheat conveniently supplemented with enzymes, can be used in substitution of corn at levels of up to 55% in diets for laying hens, without any adverse effect on egg production or egg quality traits. Moreover, the substitution of corn by a combination of barley and supplemental fat increased egg size. Consequently, the inclusion of one or other cereal in the diet will depend primarily on their relative cost. Within the range studied, screen size (6 vs. 10 mm) of the cereal had limited effects on hen production.

  14. Age-related increase in the fraction of CD27-CD4+ T cells and IL-4 production as a feature of CD4+ T cell differentiation in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, E. W.; Remarque, E. J.; Hinloopen, B.; van der Pouw-Kraan, T.; van Lier, R. A.; Ligthart, G. J.; Nagelkerken, L.

    1994-01-01

    The influence of ageing on phenotype and function of CD4+ T cells was studied by comparing young (19-28 years of age) and aged (75-84 years of age) donors that were selected using the SENIEUR protocol to exclude underlying disease. An age-related increase was observed in the relative number of

  15. Prenatal dietary load of Maillard reaction products combined with postnatal Coca-Cola drinking affects metabolic status of female Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurecká, Radana; Koborová, Ivana; Janšáková, Katarína; Tábi, Tamás; Szökő, Éva; Somoza, Veronika; Šebeková, Katarína; Celec, Peter

    2015-04-01

    To assess the impact of prenatal exposure to Maillard reaction products (MRPs) -rich diet and postnatal Coca-Cola consumption on metabolic status of female rats. Diet rich in MRPs and consumption of saccharose/fructose sweetened soft drinks is presumed to impose increased risk of development of cardiometabolic afflictions, such as obesity or insulin resistance. At the first day of pregnancy, 9 female Wistar rats were randomized into two groups, pair-fed either with standard rat chow (MRP-) or MRPs-rich diet (MRP+). Offspring from each group of mothers was divided into two groups and given either water (Cola-) or Coca-Cola (Cola+) for drinking ad libitum for 18 days. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed, and circulating markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, glucose and lipid metabolism were assessed. MRP+ groups had higher weight gain, significantly so in the MRP+/Cola- vs MRP-/Cola-. Both prenatal and postnatal intervention increased carboxymethyllysine levels and semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase activity, both significantly higher in MRP+/Cola + than in MRP-/Cola-. Total antioxidant capacity was lower in MRP+ groups, with significant decrease in MRP+/Cola + vs MRP-/Cola+. Rats drinking Coca-Cola had higher insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, heart rate, advanced oxidation of protein products, triacylglycerols, and oxidative stress markers measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances compared to rats drinking water, with no visible effect of MRPs-rich diet. Metabolic status of rats was affected both by prenatal and postnatal dietary intervention. Our results suggest that combined effect of prenatal MRPs load and postnatal Coca-Cola drinking may play a role in development of metabolic disorders in later life.

  16. Aging Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Theodore D Cosco; David Brehme; Nora Grigoruta; Lisa-Katrin Kaufmann; Liis Lemsalu; Ruth Meex; Angela Schuurmans; Neslihan Sener

    2014-01-01

    Despite the proliferation of successful ageing (SA) research, the literature is dominated by researcher-driven Anglophone conceptualisations. To date, lay perspectives of SA have not been examined in Europe or Turkey. The current study aims to conduct a mixed-methods examination of conceptualisations of SA in seven underrepresented countries. Using snowball sampling via social media sites, an online survey consisting of established closed-ended and open-ended items – translated into seven lan...

  17. Healthy ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Adrian Paul; Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline; Bartels, Else Marie

    2009-01-01

    The study employed mechanical stretching in vitro of sections of abdominal aorta of elderly mice to investigate any benefits of oral treatment with alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) on arterial elasticity. Eighteen female mice (50-weeks-old) were assigned to a control (2% w/v) Na2-AKG or (2% w/v) a Ca-AK...... investigation as a candidate for therapies targeting arterial stiffening with age....

  18. Golden Age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      Sometimes, a moment can announce the end of an age. The gold market is like that. Within two transaction days, the gold slumped by 13%and saw a 25%tumble from the high point in August 2011. According to the classic investment theory, a 20%-above decline means the shift from“a bull”to“a bear”market.   The super bear market of gold has lasted a dozen years. But the bull-to-bear shift was completed within only 20 minutes. Wall Street’s analysts and ordinary Chinese people had different understandings to the golden age.   Expecting a bear market, Wall Street continuously dumped gold, resulting in a diving of gold price. Seeing the benefits, leisure Chinese madams made a gold rush, causing a slight bounce of gold price. On April 23, renowned investment bank Goldman Sachs suspended the short sale. So,“Chinese aunts”beating back Wall Street’s analysts became the hottest topic online for the time being.   What are the decisive factors for the crash of gold price? Will the gold market complete a real bull-to-bear shift? Will the golden age of gold be farther or nearer?

  19. The Aging Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Theurey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction is a central event in many pathologies and contributes as well to age-related processes. However, distinguishing between primary mitochondrial dysfunction driving aging and a secondary mitochondrial impairment resulting from other cell alterations remains challenging. Indeed, even though mitochondria undeniably play a crucial role in aging pathways at the cellular and organismal level, the original hypothesis in which mitochondrial dysfunction and production of free radicals represent the main driving force of cell degeneration has been strongly challenged. In this review, we will first describe mitochondrial dysfunctions observed in aged tissue, and how these features have been linked to mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS–mediated cell damage and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA mutations. We will also discuss the clues that led to consider mitochondria as the starting point in the aging process, and how recent research has showed that the mitochondria aging axis represents instead a more complex and multifactorial signaling pathway. New working hypothesis will be also presented in which mitochondria are considered at the center of a complex web of cell dysfunctions that eventually leads to cell senescence and death.

  20. Symbiotic Origin of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Edward F; Vatolin, Sergei

    2018-06-01

    Normally aging cells are characterized by an unbalanced mitochondrial dynamic skewed toward punctate mitochondria. Genetic and pharmacological manipulation of mitochondrial fission/fusion cycles can contribute to both accelerated and decelerated cellular or organismal aging. In this work, we connect these experimental data with the symbiotic theory of mitochondrial origin to generate new insight into the evolutionary origin of aging. Mitochondria originated from autotrophic α-proteobacteria during an ancient endosymbiotic event early in eukaryote evolution. To expand beyond individual host cells, dividing α-proteobacteria initiated host cell lysis; apoptosis is a product of this original symbiont cell lytic exit program. Over the course of evolution, the host eukaryotic cell attenuated the harmful effect of symbiotic proto-mitochondria, and modern mitochondria are now functionally interdependent with eukaryotic cells; they retain their own circular genomes and independent replication timing. In nondividing differentiated or multipotent eukaryotic cells, intracellular mitochondria undergo repeated fission/fusion cycles, favoring fission as organisms age. The discordance between cellular quiescence and mitochondrial proliferation generates intracellular stress, eventually leading to a gradual decline in host cell performance and age-related pathology. Hence, aging evolved from a conflict between maintenance of a quiescent, nonproliferative state and the evolutionarily conserved propagation program driving the life cycle of former symbiotic organisms: mitochondria.

  1. [Market and ageing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joël, M-E

    2005-06-01

    Ageing can be defined as growth of the proportion of elderly people in the population, but also as a group of transformations in life cycles: older age at time of first job, marriage, birth of first child, early retirement, longer life expectancy, active retirement, greater number of dependent persons. The economic impact of the ageing population has been extensively studied from the perspective of the social security fund. In France and in most developed countries, population ageing has considerably destabilized social accounting creating a gap between a system thought out after WWII and the present social environment. The current response of social security system to elderly person's needs is considered inadequate. There are however other consequences of ageing. It is important to measure the upheaval caused by longer life expectancy and changing life stages on all markets. Three kinds of markets are involved in different ways: job market, services market for the elderly and all goods market for seniors and golden aged. Many studies have focused on the links between economic production and physiological ageing. The traditional organisation of working conditions stresses working intensity over experience, young workers'capabilities over than those of older workers. The link between age and the job market can also be analyzed by considering supply and demand for employment for workers over 50. Another question is the workforce shortage forecasted in some sectors (health and social sectors in particular) and the role of immigration. Growth in the supply of long-term care will require restructuring of the sector's logistics and financing. Certain trends are appearing: government authorities are reducing their supply of services, private production is increasing, public financing is being maintained, and individual contributions are growing while the role of insurance has remained stagnant. A qualitative analysis of the markets also shows heterogeneous workers

  2. Aging Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore D Cosco

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the proliferation of successful ageing (SA research, the literature is dominated by researcher-driven Anglophone conceptualisations. To date, lay perspectives of SA have not been examined in Europe or Turkey. The current study aims to conduct a mixed-methods examination of conceptualisations of SA in seven underrepresented countries. Using snowball sampling via social media sites, an online survey consisting of established closed-ended and open-ended items – translated into seven languages – was administered. Grounded theory methods and descriptive statistics were used to analyse qualitative and quantitative data, respectively.

  3. The costs of diabetes among Australians aged 45-64 years from 2015 to 2030: projections of lost productive life years (PLYs), lost personal income, lost taxation revenue, extra welfare payments and lost gross domestic product from Health&WealthMOD2030.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Deborah; Shrestha, Rupendra N; Cunich, Michelle M; Passey, Megan E; Veerman, Lennert; Tanton, Robert; Kelly, Simon J

    2017-01-09

    To project the number of people aged 45-64 years with lost productive life years (PLYs) due to diabetes and related costs (lost income, extra welfare payments, lost taxation revenue); and lost gross domestic product (GDP) attributable to diabetes in Australia from 2015 to 2030. A simulation study of how the number of people aged 45-64 years with diabetes increases over time (based on population growth and disease trend data) and the economic losses incurred by individuals and the government. Cross-sectional outputs of a microsimulation model (Health&WealthMOD2030) which used the Australian Bureau of Statistics' Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers 2003 and 2009 as a base population and integrated outputs from two microsimulation models (Static Incomes Model and Australian Population and Policy Simulation Model), Treasury's population and labour force projections, and chronic disease trends data. Australian population aged 45-64 years in 2015, 2020, 2025 and 2030. Lost PLYs, lost income, extra welfare payments, lost taxation revenue, lost GDP. 18 100 people are out of the labour force due to diabetes in 2015, increasing to 21 400 in 2030 (18% increase). National costs consisted of a loss of $A467 million in annual income in 2015, increasing to $A807 million in 2030 (73% increase). For the government, extra annual welfare payments increased from $A311 million in 2015 to $A350 million in 2030 (13% increase); and lost annual taxation revenue increased from $A102 million in 2015 to $A166 million in 2030 (63% increase). A loss of $A2.1 billion in GDP was projected for 2015, increasing to $A2.9 billion in 2030 attributable to diabetes through its impact on PLYs. Individuals incur significant costs of diabetes through lost PLYs and lost income in addition to disease burden through human suffering and healthcare costs. The government incurs extra welfare payments, lost taxation revenue and lost GDP, along with direct healthcare costs. Published by the BMJ

  4. Aging in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travin, D Y; Feniouk, B A

    2016-12-01

    Rodents are the most commonly used model organisms in studies of aging in vertebrates. However, there are species that may suit this role much better. Most birds (Aves), having higher rate of metabolism, live two-to-three times longer than mammals of the same size. This mini-review briefly covers several evolutionary, ecological, and physiological aspects that may contribute to the phenomenon of birds' longevity. The role of different molecular mechanisms known to take part in the process of aging according to various existing theories, e.g. telomere shortening, protection against reactive oxygen species, and formation of advanced glycation end-products is discussed. We also address some features of birds' aging that make this group unique and perspective model organisms in longevity studies.

  5. Aging Blepharoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inchang Cho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In performing upper blepharoplasty in the elderly, looking younger and keeping the eyelidsharmonious with the rest of the face have to be achieved at the same time. The most importantgoal in upper blepharoplasty for aging is correcting the drooping upper eyelid skin, and inthis process, the surgeon may or may not create a double eyelid fold. The pros and cons haveto be fully discussed with the patient, but the author personally prefers creating a doublefold unless the patient refuses, because it is efficient in correcting and preventing furtherdrooping of the skin. In most patients, the brow is elevated to compensate for the droopingeyelid, and when the drooping is corrected, brow ptosis may ensue. The surgeon has to preparefor these consequences before performing the procedure, and estimate the exact amountof skin to be excised. In the elderly, the skin and the orbicularis oculi muscle is thin, with adecreased amount of subcutaneous fat and retro-orbicularis oculi fat, and in most cases,excision of the skin alone is enough to correct the deformity. Removing large portions ofsoft tissue may also prolong the recovery period. Unlike younger patients, the lower skinflap should not be stretched too much in the elderly, as it may create an aggressive lookingappearance. A few wrinkles in the lower flap should remain untouched to create a naturallook. In this article, the author’s own methods of performing an aging blepharoplasty aredescribed specifically, with a step-by-step guide and surgical tips.

  6. Aging management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godin, R.

    1995-01-01

    As of December 1994, 34 PWR 900 MW units and 20 PWR 1300 MW units are in operation, giving a total of more than 57,000 MW installed. These units are standardized and provide 75 percent of the French electrical output. They were all brought into service within a 15 year period. Considering the situation of those units in the production capacity, it is hardly necessary to point out the importance of a correct assessment of their potential lifetime (plant life management). This plant life management includes: technical aspects, safety aspects, economic aspects, operational aspects, national and international environment

  7. Figurines in Pietrele: Copper Age ideology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svend Hansen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Major trends in figurine production of the copper age settlement of Pietrele (Romania are discussed. The bone figurines are seen as an ideological innovation of the Early Copper Age system in the Eastern Balkans.

  8. Aging changes in the male reproductive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/004017.htm Aging changes in the male reproductive system To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Aging changes in the male reproductive system may include changes in testicular tissue, sperm production, ...

  9. Aging Gracefully.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldorf, Heidi A

    2017-06-01

    At the Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Dermatology in 2016, I directed the symposium entitled ‘Aging Gracefully’ for the second time. The symposium’s primary learning objective was to give the audience a framework for managing aesthetic patients. In the last decade, there has been a significant increase in the options for and availability of noninvasive and minimally invasive rejuvenation. With that has been an associated surge in interest by physicians and patients. And, as the number of procedures across the globe increases, so too do the number of aesthetically poor outcomes. Most come from practitioners doing paint-by-numbers treatment. As experts in skin biology and treatment, dermatologists should practice the highest-level cosmetic as well as general dermatology. The faculty presented information to aid practitioners how best to approach patients and formulate a cosmetic plan. The faculty discussed important considerations based on patient gender, age, and skin type. Updated information on the science of cosmeceuticals and the benefits of early noninvasive intervention was presented as were next generation devices and alternatives to standard therapies. The faculty have kindly condensed their AAD presentations for this supplement. I thank L’Oréal and the Journal of Drugs in Dermatology for giving us the opportunity to present this information to a wider audience in this e-supplement. Heidi A. Waldorf MD Director of Laser & Cosmetic Dermatology, The Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, NY Icahn School of Medicine of Mount Sinai, New York, NY Waldorf Dermatology Aesthetics, Nanuet, NY

  10. Aging Blepharoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inchang Cho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In performing upper blepharoplasty in the elderly, looking younger and keeping the eyelids harmonious with the rest of the face have to be achieved at the same time. The most important goal in upper blepharoplasty for aging is correcting the drooping upper eyelid skin, and in this process, the surgeon may or may not create a double eyelid fold. The pros and cons have to be fully discussed with the patient, but the author personally prefers creating a double fold unless the patient refuses, because it is efficient in correcting and preventing further drooping of the skin. In most patients, the brow is elevated to compensate for the drooping eyelid, and when the drooping is corrected, brow ptosis may ensue. The surgeon has to prepare for these consequences before performing the procedure, and estimate the exact amount of skin to be excised. In the elderly, the skin and the orbicularis oculi muscle is thin, with a decreased amount of subcutaneous fat and retro-orbicularis oculi fat, and in most cases, excision of the skin alone is enough to correct the deformity. Removing large portions of soft tissue may also prolong the recovery period. Unlike younger patients, the lower skin flap should not be stretched too much in the elderly, as it may create an aggressive looking appearance. A few wrinkles in the lower flap should remain untouched to create a natural look. In this article, the author's own methods of performing an aging blepharoplasty are described specifically, with a step-by-step guide and surgical tips.

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Shigella spp. isolated from children under 5 years of age attending tertiary care hospitals, Nepal along with first finding of ESBL-production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhital, Subhash; Sherchand, Jeevan Bahadur; Pokharel, Bharat Mani; Parajuli, Keshab; Mishra, Shyam Kumar; Sharma, Sangita; Kattel, Hari Prasad; Khadka, Sundar; Khatiwada, Sulochana; Rijal, Basista

    2017-06-05

    Shigella is an important cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in resource-poor countries. The treatment of shigellosis mostly requires antibiotics. However, the increase of multidrug resistance along with emergence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase and ciprofloxacin resistance among Shigella spp. has challenged the situation. This study was conducted to determine the distribution of species and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Shigella species isolated from stool specimen among children less than 5 years of age in Nepal. Out of total 717 stool samples collected, 15 cases of Shigella spp. was isolated which includes 12 S. flexneri and 3 S. sonnei. Multidrug resistance was found among 13(86%) of the isolates. One of the isolates of S. flexneri was found to be ESBL-producer with MIC >256 mg/L for cefixime. The high occurrence of multidrug resistance among Shigella spp. along with a case of ESBL-production for the first time in Nepal alarms the concerns about dissemination of the resistant isolates. So, systemic monitoring of the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Shigella spp. is becoming crucial to guide therapy.

  12. [Strategies for successful ageing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco Ríos, Adriana Martha; López Velarde Peña, Tatiana; Martínez Gallardo Prieto, Lorenza

    2016-01-01

    There has been an increase in the interest of anti-ageing medicine in the last few years, with a growth in the industry of products that promise to prolong life and restore all the suffering or "defects" produced by age. The understanding of ageing has changed over the years, giving rise to the possibility of intervening in different metabolic and cellular pathways, and thus, delaying the appearance of the degenerative chronic diseases that appear with age, and that are finally the causing factors of the vulnerability that leads to our death. It is hoped that we can help the clinician to orientate their patients, who, due to the overwhelming amount of information they receive by the Internet, arrive at the clinic full of questions, waiting to receive absolute answer from their physician in order to increase their longevity and quality of life. This article presents an analysis of the physical activity, diets, supplements and drugs that are being investigated as anti-ageing measures and of the many clinical studies that have produced encouraging, measurable and reproducible results. Copyright © 2015 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. The steel scrap age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauliuk, Stefan; Milford, Rachel L; Müller, Daniel B; Allwood, Julian M

    2013-04-02

    Steel production accounts for 25% of industrial carbon emissions. Long-term forecasts of steel demand and scrap supply are needed to develop strategies for how the steel industry could respond to industrialization and urbanization in the developing world while simultaneously reducing its environmental impact, and in particular, its carbon footprint. We developed a dynamic stock model to estimate future final demand for steel and the available scrap for 10 world regions. Based on evidence from developed countries, we assumed that per capita in-use stocks will saturate eventually. We determined the response of the entire steel cycle to stock saturation, in particular the future split between primary and secondary steel production. During the 21st century, steel demand may peak in the developed world, China, the Middle East, Latin America, and India. As China completes its industrialization, global primary steel production may peak between 2020 and 2030 and decline thereafter. We developed a capacity model to show how extensive trade of finished steel could prolong the lifetime of the Chinese steelmaking assets. Secondary steel production will more than double by 2050, and it may surpass primary production between 2050 and 2060: the late 21st century can become the steel scrap age.

  14. Neurogenesis in the aging brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, Deana M; Solano-Fonseca, Rene; Kokovay, Erzsebet

    2017-10-01

    Adult neurogenesis is the process of producing new neurons from neural stem cells (NSCs) for integration into the brain circuitry. Neurogenesis occurs throughout life in the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) of the lateral ventricle and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. However, during aging, NSCs and their progenitors exhibit reduced proliferation and neuron production, which is thought to contribute to age-related cognitive impairment and reduced plasticity that is necessary for some types of brain repair. In this review, we describe NSCs and their niches during tissue homeostasis and how they undergo age-associated remodeling and dysfunction. We also discuss some of the functional ramifications in the brain from NSC aging. Finally, we discuss some recent insights from interventions in NSC aging that could eventually translate into therapies for healthy brain aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Age and Stress Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Genoa is a software product that predicts progressive aging and failure in a variety of materials. It is the result of a SBIR contract between the Glenn Research Center and Alpha Star Corporation. Genoa allows designers to determine if the materials they plan on applying to a structure are up to the task or if alternate materials should be considered. Genoa's two feature applications are its progressive failure simulations and its test verification. It allows for a reduction in inspection frequency, rapid design solutions, and manufacturing with low cost materials. It will benefit the aerospace, airline, and automotive industries, with future applications for other uses.

  16. Tequila production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedeño, M

    1995-01-01

    Tequila is obtained from the distillation of fermented juice of agave plant, Agave tequilana, to which up to 49% (w/v) of an adjunct sugar, mainly from cane or corn, could be added. Agave plants require from 8 to 12 years to mature and during all this time cleaning, pest control, and slacken of land are required to produce an initial raw material with the appropriate chemical composition for tequila production. Production process comprises four steps: cooking to hydrolyze inulin into fructose, milling to extract the sugars, fermentation with a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to convert the sugars into ethanol and organoleptic compounds, and, finally, a two-step distillation process. Maturation, if needed, is carried out in white oak barrels to obtain rested or aged tequila in 2 or 12 months, respectively.

  17. Active aging promotion: results from the vital aging program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprara, Mariagiovanna; Molina, María Ángeles; Schettini, Rocío; Santacreu, Marta; Orosa, Teresa; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel; Rojas, Macarena; Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío

    2013-01-01

    Active aging is one of the terms in the semantic network of aging well, together with others such as successful, productive, competent aging. All allude to the new paradigm in gerontology, whereby aging is considered from a positive perspective. Most authors in the field agree active aging is a multidimensional concept, embracing health, physical and cognitive fitness, positive affect and control, social relationships and engagement. This paper describes Vital Aging, an individual active aging promotion program implemented through three modalities: Life, Multimedia, and e-Learning. The program was developed on the basis of extensive evidence about individual determinants of active aging. The different versions of Vital Aging are described, and four evaluation studies (both formative and summative) are reported. Formative evaluation reflected participants' satisfaction and expected changes; summative evaluations yielded some quite encouraging results using quasi-experimental designs: those who took part in the programs increased their physical exercise, significantly improved their diet, reported better memory, had better emotional balance, and enjoyed more cultural, intellectual, affective, and social activities than they did before the course, thus increasing their social relationships. These results are discussed in the context of the common literature within the field and, also, taking into account the limitations of the evaluations accomplished.

  18. Active Aging Promotion: Results from the Vital Aging Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariagiovanna Caprara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Active aging is one of the terms in the semantic network of aging well, together with others such as successful, productive, competent aging. All allude to the new paradigm in gerontology, whereby aging is considered from a positive perspective. Most authors in the field agree active aging is a multidimensional concept, embracing health, physical and cognitive fitness, positive affect and control, social relationships and engagement. This paper describes Vital Aging, an individual active aging promotion program implemented through three modalities: Life, Multimedia, and e-Learning. The program was developed on the basis of extensive evidence about individual determinants of active aging. The different versions of Vital Aging are described, and four evaluation studies (both formative and summative are reported. Formative evaluation reflected participants’ satisfaction and expected changes; summative evaluations yielded some quite encouraging results using quasi-experimental designs: those who took part in the programs increased their physical exercise, significantly improved their diet, reported better memory, had better emotional balance, and enjoyed more cultural, intellectual, affective, and social activities than they did before the course, thus increasing their social relationships. These results are discussed in the context of the common literature within the field and, also, taking into account the limitations of the evaluations accomplished.

  19. 27 CFR 19.648 - Age of brandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Age of brandy. 19.648 Section 19.648 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Requirements § 19.648 Age of brandy. If brandy is aged for a period of less than two years, the age thereof...

  20. Produtividade da couve-flor em função da idade de transplantio das mudas e tamanhos de células na bandeja Cauliflower production depending on age of seedling and cell size of the trays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Godoy

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado de novembro de 2000 a abril de 2001, na UNESP em São Manuel (SP. Estudou-se o efeito do tamanho da célula da bandeja de poliestireno expandido e a idade de transplantio das mudas sobre a produção de couve-flor, híbrido Shiromaru II. Usaram-se bandejas com 128 e 288 células, correspondentes a 34,6 e 9,7 cm³/célula, respectivamente, e mudas transplantadas aos 27, 34, 41 e 48 dias após a semeadura. Os tratamentos foram arranjados como fatorial 2 x 4, dispostos no delineamento de blocos casualizados, com cinco repetições. Foram avaliados, por ocasião do transplantio, o número de folhas, peso fresco, peso seco e área foliar das mudas. A parcela experimental no campo foi constituída por dez plantas. Nas colheitas, avaliaram-se a porcentagem de plantas com cabeça comercial e nestas, o número de folhas, peso fresco e diâmetro da cabeça. A produção total por parcela foi obtida com a soma do peso fresco de todas as cabeças consideradas comerciais. A produção de mudas em bandejas com 128 células proporcionou maior porcentagem de plantas comerciais (64% relativamente às bandejas com 288 células (45%, maior peso médio de cabeça (337 g na bandeja com 128 e 247 g na bandeja com 288 células e maior produção de plantas comerciais (36,9 t/ha em bandeja de 128 células e 19,9 t/ha em bandeja de 288 células. As mudas transplantadas com 32 dias apresentaram maior peso médio de cabeça (319 g. Concluiu-se ser recomendável produzir mudas de couve-flor em bandejas com 128 células.The experiment was carried out from November/2000 to April/2001, in São Manuel, São Paulo State, Brazil. The effect of cell size of two polyestyrene trays and age of seedling at transplanting date was observed, on the production of cauliflower, hybrid Shiromaru II. Trays with 128 and 288 cells, corresponding to 34.6 and 9.7 cm³/cell, respectively, were used with seedlings transplanted at 27; 34; 41 and 48 days after sowing date

  1. Comparative LC-MS/MS profiling of free and protein-bound early and advanced glycation-induced lysine modifications in dairy products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegele, Joerg; Buetler, Timo; Delatour, Thierry

    2008-01-01

    Free and protein-bound forms of early and advanced glycation-induced lysine (Lys) modifications were quantified in dairy products by LC-MS/MS using a stable isotope dilution assay. The glycation profiles for N ε -fructoselysine (FL), N ε -carboxymethyllysine (CML) and pyrraline (Pyr) were monitored in raw and processed cow milk to investigate whether free glycation products could serve as fast and simple markers to assess the extent of protein glycation in dairy products. In all milk samples, the fraction of free glycation adducts was predominantly composed of advanced modifications, e.g. 8.34 ± 3.81 nmol CML per μmol of free Lys (Lys free ) and 81.5 ± 87.8 nmol Pyr μmol -1 Lys free -1 vs. 3.72 ± 1.29 nmol FL μmol -1 Lys free -1 . In contrast, the protein-bound early glycation product FL considerably outweighed the content of CML and Pyr in milk proteins of raw and processed cow milk, whereas severely heat treated milk products, e.g. condensed milk, contained a higher amount of protein-bound advanced glycation adducts. Typical values recorded for milk samples processed under mild conditions were 0.47 ± 0.08 nmol FL μmol -1 of protein-bound Lys (Lys p-b ), 0.04 ± 0.03 nmol CML μmol -1 Lys p-b -1 and 0.06 ± 0.02 nmol Pyr μmol -1 Lys p-b -1 . It was particularly noticeable, however, that mild heat treatment of raw milk, i.e. pasteurization and UHT treatment, did not significantly increase the amount of both free and protein-bound Lys modifications. In conclusion, the profiles of free and protein-bound glycation-induced Lys modifications were found to be different and a screening of free glycation adducts does, therefore, not allow for a conclusion about the protein glycation status of dairy products

  2. Comparative LC-MS/MS profiling of free and protein-bound early and advanced glycation-induced lysine modifications in dairy products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegele, Joerg [Nestle Research Centre, Nestec Ltd., Vers-chez-les-Blanc, CH-1000 Lausanne 26 (Switzerland)], E-mail: joerg.hegele@rdls.nestle.com; Buetler, Timo; Delatour, Thierry [Nestle Research Centre, Nestec Ltd., Vers-chez-les-Blanc, CH-1000 Lausanne 26 (Switzerland)

    2008-06-09

    Free and protein-bound forms of early and advanced glycation-induced lysine (Lys) modifications were quantified in dairy products by LC-MS/MS using a stable isotope dilution assay. The glycation profiles for N{sup {epsilon}}-fructoselysine (FL), N{sup {epsilon}}-carboxymethyllysine (CML) and pyrraline (Pyr) were monitored in raw and processed cow milk to investigate whether free glycation products could serve as fast and simple markers to assess the extent of protein glycation in dairy products. In all milk samples, the fraction of free glycation adducts was predominantly composed of advanced modifications, e.g. 8.34 {+-} 3.81 nmol CML per {mu}mol of free Lys (Lys{sub free}) and 81.5 {+-} 87.8 nmol Pyr {mu}mol{sup -1} Lys{sub free}{sup -1} vs. 3.72 {+-} 1.29 nmol FL {mu}mol{sup -1} Lys{sub free}{sup -1}. In contrast, the protein-bound early glycation product FL considerably outweighed the content of CML and Pyr in milk proteins of raw and processed cow milk, whereas severely heat treated milk products, e.g. condensed milk, contained a higher amount of protein-bound advanced glycation adducts. Typical values recorded for milk samples processed under mild conditions were 0.47 {+-} 0.08 nmol FL {mu}mol{sup -1} of protein-bound Lys (Lys{sub p-b}), 0.04 {+-} 0.03 nmol CML {mu}mol{sup -1} Lys{sub p-b}{sup -1} and 0.06 {+-} 0.02 nmol Pyr {mu}mol{sup -1} Lys{sub p-b}{sup -1}. It was particularly noticeable, however, that mild heat treatment of raw milk, i.e. pasteurization and UHT treatment, did not significantly increase the amount of both free and protein-bound Lys modifications. In conclusion, the profiles of free and protein-bound glycation-induced Lys modifications were found to be different and a screening of free glycation adducts does, therefore, not allow for a conclusion about the protein glycation status of dairy products.

  3. Oil Origin and Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Barenbaum

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The question of oil age is discussed on the basis of the biosphere concept of oil and gas formation. It considers oil and gas deposits as underground carbon traps circulating through the Earth’s surface in the three main cycles of the circulation. A theoretical model has been developed that makes it possible to explain from these positions the phenomenon of replenishment of oil and gas deposits in the process of field development. The model provides a balance between carbon flows on the ascending and descending branches of its circulation through the Earth’s surface. In this model, the ascending flow of carbon is represented by the products of subsoil degassing (СН4, СО2 and extracted by the person from the depths of oil, gas and coal. A descending flow is an organic matter and carbonates that are submerged in the subsoil in the processes of sedimentation and subduction of lithospheric plates, as well as atmospheric COsub>2, entering the Earth’s surface with meteoric waters in the process of their climatic circulation. Since the fields are filled with hydrocarbons formed in cycles of carbon with widely differing circulation times, instead of the term ‘age of oil’, it is suggested to use the terms ‘trap formation time’ and ‘hydrocarbon life time in the trap’. This approach to the question of oil age in the biosphere concept leads to a number of conclusions, from which it follows that: 1 the ‘old’ petroleum of biogenic genesis is extracted at the initial stage of the development of deposits, whereas in the depletion stage the ‘young’ hydrocarbons of abiogenic synthesis prevail; 2 the age of industrial accumulations of oil on our planet is hardly older than the Pleistocene, while gaseous, liquid and bituminous fractions of oil have different lifetimes in traps.

  4. Aging trends -- the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddlecom, A E; Domingo, L J

    1996-03-01

    This report presents a description of the trends in growth of the elderly population in the Philippines and their health, disability, education, work status, income, and family support. The proportion of elderly in the Philippines is much smaller than in other Southeast Asian countries, such as Singapore and Malaysia. The elderly population aged over 65 years increased from 2.7% of total population in 1990 to 3.6% in 1990. The elderly are expected to comprise 7.7% of total population in 2025. The proportion of elderly is small due to the high fertility rate. Life expectancy averages 63.5 years. The aged dependency ratio will double from 5.5 elderly per 100 persons aged 15-64 years in 1990 to 10.5/100 in 2025. A 1984 ASEAN survey found that only 11% of elderly rated their health as bad. The 1990 Census reveals that 3.9% were disabled elderly. Most were deaf, blind, or orthopedically impaired. 16% of elderly in the ASEAN survey reported not seeing a doctor even when they needed to. 54% reported that a doctor was not visited due to the great expense. In 1980, 67% of men and 76% of women aged over 60 years had less than a primary education. The proportion with a secondary education in 2020 is expected to be about 33% for men and 33% for women. 66.5% of men and 28.5% of women aged over 60 years were in the formal labor force in 1990. Women were less likely to receive cash income from current jobs or pensions. 65% of earnings from older rural people was income from agricultural production. 60% of income among urban elderly was from children, and 23% was from pensions. Family support is provided to the elderly in the form of coresidence. In 1988, 68% of elderly aged over 60 years lived with at least one child. Retirement or nursing homes are uncommon. The Philippines Constitution states that families have a duty to care for elderly members.

  5. Oral Health and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Oral Health and Aging Oral Health and Aging Past Issues / Summer 2016 Table of Contents Jerrold ... they may need. Read More "Oral Health and Aging" Articles Oral Health and Aging / 4 Myths About ...

  6. Mitochondrial Metabolism in Aging Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesnefsky, Edward J.; Chen, Qun; Hoppel, Charles L.

    2016-01-01

    Altered mitochondrial metabolism is the underlying basis for the increased sensitivity in the aged heart to stress. The aged heart exhibits impaired metabolic flexibility, with a decreased capacity to oxidize fatty acids and enhanced dependence on glucose metabolism. Aging impairs mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, with a greater role played by the mitochondria located between the myofibrils, the interfibrillar mitochondria. With aging, there is a decrease in activity of complexes III and IV, which account for the decrease in respiration. Furthermore, aging decreases mitochondrial content among the myofibrils. The end result is that in the interfibrillar area there is an approximate 50% decrease in mitochondrial function, affecting all substrates. The defective mitochondria persist in the aged heart, leading to enhanced oxidant production and oxidative injury and the activation of oxidant signaling for cell death. Aging defects in mitochondria represent new therapeutic targets, whether by manipulation of the mitochondrial proteome, modulation of electron transport, activation of biogenesis or mitophagy, or the regulation of mitochondrial fission and fusion. These mechanisms provide new ways to attenuate cardiac disease in elders by preemptive treatment of age-related defects, in contrast to the treatment of disease-induced dysfunction. PMID:27174952

  7. Mitochondrial DNA repair and aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandavilli, Bhaskar S.; Santos, Janine H.; Van Houten, Bennett

    2002-01-01

    The mitochondrial electron transport chain plays an important role in energy production in aerobic organisms and is also a significant source of reactive oxygen species that damage DNA, RNA and proteins in the cell. Oxidative damage to the mitochondrial DNA is implicated in various degenerative diseases, cancer and aging. The importance of mitochondrial ROS in age-related degenerative diseases is further strengthened by studies using animal models, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila and yeast. Research in the last several years shows that mitochondrial DNA is more susceptible to various carcinogens and ROS when compared to nuclear DNA. DNA damage in mammalian mitochondria is repaired by base excision repair (BER). Studies have shown that mitochondria contain all the enzymes required for BER. Mitochondrial DNA damage, if not repaired, leads to disruption of electron transport chain and production of more ROS. This vicious cycle of ROS production and mtDNA damage ultimately leads to energy depletion in the cell and apoptosis

  8. Mitochondrial DNA repair and aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandavilli, Bhaskar S.; Santos, Janine H.; Van Houten, Bennett

    2002-11-30

    The mitochondrial electron transport chain plays an important role in energy production in aerobic organisms and is also a significant source of reactive oxygen species that damage DNA, RNA and proteins in the cell. Oxidative damage to the mitochondrial DNA is implicated in various degenerative diseases, cancer and aging. The importance of mitochondrial ROS in age-related degenerative diseases is further strengthened by studies using animal models, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila and yeast. Research in the last several years shows that mitochondrial DNA is more susceptible to various carcinogens and ROS when compared to nuclear DNA. DNA damage in mammalian mitochondria is repaired by base excision repair (BER). Studies have shown that mitochondria contain all the enzymes required for BER. Mitochondrial DNA damage, if not repaired, leads to disruption of electron transport chain and production of more ROS. This vicious cycle of ROS production and mtDNA damage ultimately leads to energy depletion in the cell and apoptosis.

  9. Immunosupportive therapies in aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamas Fülöp

    2007-04-01

    subpopulations resulting from antigen exposure, and altered T cell activation pathways. However, a body of data indicates that innate immune responses, including the critical bridge between innate and adaptive immunity, and antigen presenting capacity are not completely resistant to senescence processes. The consequences of all these alterations are an increased incidence of infections, as well as possibly cancers, autoimmune disorders, and chronic inflammatory diseases. The leading question is what, if anything, can we do to prevent these deleterious changes without dangerously dysregulating the precarious balance of productive immunity versus immunopathology? There are many potential new therapeutic means now available to modulate immunosenescence and many others are expected to be available shortly. One main problem in applying these experimental therapies is ethical: there is a common feeling that as ageing is not a disease; the elderly are not sick and therefore do not require adventurous therapies with unpredictable side-effects in mostly frail individuals. Animal models are not helpful in this context. In this chapter we will first briefly review what we think we know about human immunosenescence and its consequences for the health status of elderly individuals. We will then discuss possible interventions that might one day become applicable in an appropriate ethical environment.Keywords: immunosenescence, T cells, phagocytic cells, nutrition, vaccination, exercise, CMV, inflammaging, IRP, immunorestorative therapies

  10. The aging male project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Saad

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available With an increasing life expectancy and a decreasing reproduction rate, the population structure changes. A Jenapharm R & D program investigates the endocrinology of aging men. In men, a decrease in production of sex steroids and other hormones with age can be observed. The typical patterns of daily rhythmicity become less distinct. This is part of a very complex picture in which not only isolated hormones are involved, but also the influence of hormones on each other. Many factors from the external and intemal environment mediated by neurotransmitters constantly affect the highly sensitive hormonal balance. Therefore, aging has also been defined as "the gradual dysfunction of homeostatic processes". Declining testosterone (T levels are involved in 'andropausal' symptoms in men: loss of libido, erectile dysfunction, insulin receptor resistance, obesity, osteoporosis, disturbances of lipid metabolism, myocardial and circulatory disturbances, impaired well-being and mood. Data are derived from studies in hypogonadal men treated by T replacement. In such parients under T treatment libido increases, fat mass decreases, muscle strenth, bone mineral density and erythropoesis increase. Whether the symptoms of andropause in aging men could successfully be treated by T substitution remains to be investigated. Negative effects of T, especially on the prostate and the cardiovascular system, are under discussion. There is increasing evidence that low T levels seem to be a risk factor for both the prostate and the cardiovascular system. Jenapharm's new testosterone undecanoate formulation for intramuscular injection can be administered every three months. T levels remain within the physiologic range. No supraphysiologic peaks occur. In women, estrogens have beneficial non-genital effects. Studies concentrate on synthetic estrogens for men without feminizing properties such as gynecomastia and reduced testicular size. Several derivatives of 17-

  11. Age and osteoarthritis: are AGEs the link?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, P.A.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a common joint disease in the elderly. By far the most important risk factor for osteoarthritis is aging. Age-related changes in the articular cartilage may be responsible for age-related increase in the number of people with osteoarthritis. One of the most striking changes in

  12. Optimal Investment in Age-Structured Goodwill

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Faggian; Luca Grosset

    2012-01-01

    Segmentation is a core strategy in modern marketing, and age-specific segmentation based on the age of the consumers is very common in practice. Age-specific segmentation enables the change of the segments composition during time and can be studied only by means of dynamic advertising models. Here we assume that a firm wants to optimally promote and sell a single product in an age-segmented market and we model the awareness of this product using an infinite dimensional Nerlove-Arrow goodwill ...

  13. Women of an uncertain age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blum, Matthias; Colvin, Christopher; McAtackney, Laura

    2017-01-01

    in order to facilitate a better assessment of sources of this productivity growth, including the relative contribution of men and women. This is done by exploiting the frequency at which age data heap at round ages, widely interpreted as an indicator of a population's basic numeracy skills. Because...... Földvári, van Leeuwen, and van Leeuwen-Li find that gender-specific trends in this measure derived from census returns are biased by who is reporting and recording the age information, any computed numeracy trends are corrected using data from prison and workhouse registers, sources in which women...... ostensibly self-reported their age. The findings show that rural Irish women born early in the nineteenth century had substantially lower levels of human capital than uncorrected census data would otherwise suggest. These results are large in magnitude and thus economically significant. The speed at which...

  14. Assessment of protein quality of soybean meal and 00-rapeseed meal toasted in the presence of lignosulfonate by amino acid digestibility in growing pigs and Maillard reaction products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, T G; Bikker, P; van der Poel, A F B; Hendriks, W H

    2016-03-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine protein quality in processed protein sources using the content of AA, -methylisourea (OMIU)-reactive Lys, Maillard reaction products (MRP), and cross-link products; the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA; and growth performance in growing pigs as criteria. Differences in protein quality were created by secondary toasting (at 95°C for 30 min) of soybean meal (SBM) and rapeseed meal (RSM) in the presence of lignosulfonate resulting in processed SBM (pSBM) and processed RSM (pRSM). The processing treatment was used as a model for overprocessed protein sources. Ten growing pigs were each fed 1 of the 4 diets containing SBM, pSBM, RSM, or pRSM in each of 3 periods. Ileal chyme was collected at the end of each period and analyzed for CP, AA, and OMIU-reactive Lys. Diets were analyzed for furosine and carboxymethyllysine (CML) as an indicator for MRP and lysinoalanine (LAL), which is a cross-link product. The SBM and RSM diets contained furosine, CML, and LAL, indicating that the Maillard reaction and cross-linking had taken place in SBM and RSM, presumably during the oil extraction/desolventizing process. The amounts of furosine, CML, and LAL were elevated in pSBM and pRSM due to further processing. Processing resulted in a reduction in total and OMIU-reactive Lys contents and a decrease in G:F from 0.52 to 0.42 for SBM and 0.46 to 0.39 for RSM ( = 0.006), SID of CP from 83.9 to 71.6% for SBM and 74.9 to 64.6% for RSM ( < 0.001), and SID of AA ( < 0.001), with the largest effects for total and OMIU-reactive Lys. The effects of processing could be substantial and should be taken into account when using processed protein sources in diets for growing pigs. The extent of protein damage may be assessed by additional analyses of MRP and cross-link products.

  15. Immunosupportive therapies in aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fülöp, Tamas; Larbi, Anis; Hirokawa, Katsuiku; Mocchegiani, Eugenio; Lesourd, Bruno; Castle, Stephen; Wikby, Anders; Franceschi, Claudio; Pawelec, Graham

    2007-01-01

    The primary role of the immune system is to protect the organism against pathogens, but age-associated alterations to immunity increase the susceptibility of the elderly to infectious disease. The exact nature of these changes is still controversial, but the use of screening procedures, such as the SENIEUR protocol to exclude underlying illness, helped to better characterize the changes actually related to physiological aging rather than pathology. It is generally agreed that the most marked changes occur in the cellular immune response reflecting profound alterations in T cells. Much of this is due to thymic involution as well as changes in the proportions of T cell subpopulations resulting from antigen exposure, and altered T cell activation pathways. However, a body of data indicates that innate immune responses, including the critical bridge between innate and adaptive immunity, and antigen presenting capacity are not completely resistant to senescence processes. The consequences of all these alterations are an increased incidence of infections, as well as possibly cancers, autoimmune disorders, and chronic inflammatory diseases. The leading question is what, if anything, can we do to prevent these deleterious changes without dangerously dysregulating the precarious balance of productive immunity versus immunopathology? There are many potential new therapeutic means now available to modulate immunosenescence and many others are expected to be available shortly. One main problem in applying these experimental therapies is ethical: there is a common feeling that as ageing is not a disease; the elderly are not sick and therefore do not require adventurous therapies with unpredictable side-effects in mostly frail individuals. Animal models are not helpful in this context. In this chapter we will first briefly review what we think we know about human immunosenescence and its consequences for the health status of elderly individuals. We will then discuss possible

  16. Description of lithic production processes during the Bronze Age in the Eastern area of the Iberian Peninsula | Caracterización de los procesos de producción lítica durante la Edad del Bronce en el Levante de la Península Ibérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Jover Maestre

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some general considerations about lithic production processes during the Bronze Age in the Eastern area of the Iberian Peninsula. Lithic evidencies in Bronce Age sites are studied and compared with lithic productions of previous archaeological periods. | Se presentan algunas consideraciones generales sobre los procesos de producción lítica durante la Edad del Bronce en el Levante de la península Ibérica, a partir del estudio de las evidencias líticas documentadas en un amplio número de asentamientos y de su comparación cualitativa con las producciones de las fases arqueológicas previas.

  17. Corrected Age for Preemies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Our Sponsors Ages & Stages Ages & Stages Ages and Stages Prenatal Baby (0-12 mos.) Toddler 1-3yrs. Preschool 3-5yrs Grade School 5-12yrs. Teen 12- ... the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Baby ... Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > ...

  18. Nutrients, Microglia Aging, and Brain Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the life expectancy continues to increase, the cognitive decline associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD becomes a big major issue in the world. After cellular activation upon systemic inflammation, microglia, the resident immune cells in the brain, start to release proinflammatory mediators to trigger neuroinflammation. We have found that chronic systemic inflammatory challenges induce differential age-dependent microglial responses, which are in line with the impairment of learning and memory, even in middle-aged animals. We thus raise the concept of “microglia aging.” This concept is based on the fact that microglia are the key contributor to the acceleration of cognitive decline, which is the major sign of brain aging. On the other hand, inflammation induces oxidative stress and DNA damage, which leads to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species by the numerous types of cells, including macrophages and microglia. Oxidative stress-damaged cells successively produce larger amounts of inflammatory mediators to promote microglia aging. Nutrients are necessary for maintaining general health, including the health of brain. The intake of antioxidant nutrients reduces both systemic inflammation and neuroinflammation and thus reduces cognitive decline during aging. We herein review our microglia aging concept and discuss systemic inflammation and microglia aging. We propose that a nutritional approach to controlling microglia aging will open a new window for healthy brain aging.

  19. Nutrients, Microglia Aging, and Brain Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhou; Yu, Janchun; Zhu, Aiqin; Nakanishi, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    As the life expectancy continues to increase, the cognitive decline associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) becomes a big major issue in the world. After cellular activation upon systemic inflammation, microglia, the resident immune cells in the brain, start to release proinflammatory mediators to trigger neuroinflammation. We have found that chronic systemic inflammatory challenges induce differential age-dependent microglial responses, which are in line with the impairment of learning and memory, even in middle-aged animals. We thus raise the concept of "microglia aging." This concept is based on the fact that microglia are the key contributor to the acceleration of cognitive decline, which is the major sign of brain aging. On the other hand, inflammation induces oxidative stress and DNA damage, which leads to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species by the numerous types of cells, including macrophages and microglia. Oxidative stress-damaged cells successively produce larger amounts of inflammatory mediators to promote microglia aging. Nutrients are necessary for maintaining general health, including the health of brain. The intake of antioxidant nutrients reduces both systemic inflammation and neuroinflammation and thus reduces cognitive decline during aging. We herein review our microglia aging concept and discuss systemic inflammation and microglia aging. We propose that a nutritional approach to controlling microglia aging will open a new window for healthy brain aging.

  20. Hormonal contraception, thrombosis and age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Øjvind

    2014-01-01

    : First choice in women below 35 years should be a combined low-risk pill, that is, with a second-generation progestin, with the lowest compliable dose of estrogen. Young women with risk factors of thrombosis such as age above 35 years, genetic predispositions, adiposity, polycystic ovary syndrome......INTRODUCTION: This paper reviews the risk of thrombosis with use of different types of hormonal contraception in women of different ages. AREAS COVERED: Combined hormonal contraceptives with desogestrel, gestodene, drospirenone or cyproterone acetate (high-risk products) confer a sixfold increased...

  1. PerformAge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Tine

    2012-01-01

    are constituted as experts on aging. In the humanistic model of aging, the aging self becomes the expert on the process of becoming of age. Thi sconflicting aspect of the discursive battlefield on aging will be elaborated in the framework of PerformAge and understood as a temporal and spatial theorising of aging......: the poetics of aging. Making the lived experience the centrepiece of this paper, poetic representations of aging lives (Laurel Richardson, 1991, 1992) will articulate subjectively felt experiences in social encounters between people performing age. In writing the social (Dorothy E. Smith, 1999) encounters, I...... as a researcher perform age in the process of figuring the possible age performativities as subject positioning performativity (Judith Butler, 1995) in the social encounters and textualized in poetic representations. Inspired by the work on Reifungsromane (Barbara Frey Waxman, 1990), I do not want to paint...

  2. New concept of age(ing: Prospective age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devedžić Mirjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While the last century was the century of world population growth, according to demographers, the XXI century will be century of population aging. Statistics undoubtedly show that number of elderly will continue it’s growth in the future. If old age is seen as period of life with reduced physical and mental capabilities and increased disability, and demographic aging as increase of dependent population, trends are quite disturbing, at least in certain societal segments. In developed countries, this population category is no longer treated as passive or as a "burden of society" and efforts are made for better social inclusion of older people. In contrast to growing interest in this phenomenon, the concepts that define the aging of the population remained stagnant. The aim of this paper is to introduce into domestic literature the term "prospective age" as a dynamic category which is more affected with socio-historical conditions, not only with biological as traditional definition of aging suggested. Papers written by Sanderson and Scherbov offer new methodological options for study of population aging, because it takes into account the biometric rather than chronological approach. Calculation of prospective years is a simple operation that requires pair of the same number of remained life expectancy from life tables for two different periods (the year of concern is index, and the one we are comparing with is standard year, so that phrase "40s is the new 30s" or "70s the new 60s" gets scientific foundation. Average remaining years of life represent a realistic indicator suggesting increased capacity, activity and vitality of individuals, which is due to accepted demographic parameters still considered old. „Prospective threshold“ is defined as the age when life expectancy falls below 15 years (it is subjective choice made by Sanderson and Scherbov, which is also used in this paper and during the elaboration of these ideas three demographic

  3. Características de produção e valor nutritivo do capim Pensacola (Paspalum notatum Fluegge var. saurae Parodi em função da idade de corte Production characteristics and nutritive value of pensacola bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Fluegge var. saurae Parodi in response to cutting age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Maluf Haddad

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento teve como objetivo avaliar a produção de matéria seca, a digestibilidade in vitro e a variação na composição químico-bromatológica e mineral do capim-pensacola (Paspalum notatum Fluegge var. saurae Parodi em função da idade de corte. O delineamento estatístico adotado foi inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos e cinco repetições. Os tratamentos constaram de seis idades de corte, com intervalo de 15 dias entre cada corte, sendo o primeiro corte realizado 20 dias após o rebaixamento. A produção de matéria seca aumentou de forma quadrática (P The objective of this experiment was to evaluate dry matter production, in vitro dry matter digestibility, variation in chemical composition and in macro and micro mineral contents in Pensacola bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Fluegge var. saurae Parodi as related to cutting age. The experimental design was completely randomized with six treatments, replicated five times. Treatments consisted of six cutting ages spaced 15 days apart, with the first cut made 20 days after staging. Dry matter production increased quadratically (P < 0.05 with increased age. In vitro dry matter digestibility and crude protein concentration decreased quadratically (P < 0.05 with increased age. Conversely, neutral detergent fiber increased quadratically (P < 0.05, whereas acid detergent fiber concentrations varied cubically (P < 0.05. Concentrations of the phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and sulfur decreased quadratically (P < 0.05, whereas potassium concentration varied cubically (P < 0.05 with increased age. Concentrations of copper and zinc decreased quadratically (P < 0.05, whereas that of manganese increased quadratically (P < 0.05. Results showed that the recommended cuttings should be performed in day 30 intervals, in order to garantee, if one seeks a good digestibility, adequate protein and mineral contents.

  4. Mitochondrial role in cell aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel, J.; Fleming, J.; Economos, A. C.; Johnson, J. E., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The experimental studies on the mitochondria of insect and mammalian cells are examined with a view to an analysis of intrinsic mitochondrial senescence, and its relation to the age-related changes in other cell organelles. The fine structural and biochemical data support the concept that the mitochondria of fixed postmitotic cells may be the site of intrinsic aging because of the attack by free radicals and lipid peroxides originating in the organelles as a by-product of oxygen reduction during respiration. Although the cells have numerous mechanisms for counteracting lipid peroxidation injury, there is a slippage in the antioxidant protection. Intrinsic mitochondrial aging could thus be considered as a specific manifestation of oxygen toxicity. It is proposed that free radical injury renders an increasing number of the mitochondria unable to divide, probably because of damage to the lipids of the inner membrane and to mitochondrial DNA.

  5. Hemostasis and ageing

    OpenAIRE

    Mari, D.; Ogliari, G.; Castaldi, D.; Vitale, G.; Bollini, E.M.; Lio, D.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract On March 19, 2008 a Symposium on Pathophysiology of Ageing and Age-Related Diseases was held in Palermo, Italy. The lecture of D. Mari on Hemostasis and ageing is summarized herein. Physiological ageing is associated with increased plasma levels of many proteins of blood coagulation together with fibrinolysis impairment. This may be of great concern in view of the known association between vascular and thromboembolic diseases and ageing. On the other hand, centenarians are characteri...

  6. Heart Age PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the September 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Your heart age is the age of your heart and blood vessels as a result of your risk factors for heart attack and stroke. If you smoke or have high blood pressure, your heart age will be much higher than your actual age. Learn what you can do to lower your heart age and keep it low.

  7. Impact of type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome on myocardial structure and microvasculature of men with coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yii Michael

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome are associated with impaired diastolic function and increased heart failure risk. Animal models and autopsy studies of diabetic patients implicate myocardial fibrosis, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, altered myocardial microvascular structure and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy. We investigated whether type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome are associated with altered myocardial structure, microvasculature, and expression of AGEs and receptor for AGEs (RAGE in men with coronary artery disease. Methods We performed histological analysis of left ventricular biopsies from 13 control, 10 diabetic and 23 metabolic syndrome men undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery who did not have heart failure or atrial fibrillation, had not received loop diuretic therapy, and did not have evidence of previous myocardial infarction. Results All three patient groups had similar extent of coronary artery disease and clinical characteristics, apart from differences in metabolic parameters. Diabetic and metabolic syndrome patients had higher pulmonary capillary wedge pressure than controls, and diabetic patients had reduced mitral diastolic peak velocity of the septal mitral annulus (E', consistent with impaired diastolic function. Neither diabetic nor metabolic syndrome patients had increased myocardial interstitial fibrosis (picrosirius red, or increased immunostaining for collagen I and III, the AGE Nε-(carboxymethyllysine, or RAGE. Cardiomyocyte width, capillary length density, diffusion radius, and arteriolar dimensions did not differ between the three patient groups, whereas diabetic and metabolic syndrome patients had reduced perivascular fibrosis. Conclusions Impaired diastolic function of type 2 diabetic and metabolic syndrome patients was not dependent on increased myocardial fibrosis, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, alteration of the

  8. The importance of mitochondrial DNA in aging and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus Desler; Espersen, Maiken Lise Marcker; Singh, Keshav K

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in premature aging, age-related diseases, and tumor initiation and progression. Alterations of the mitochondrial genome accumulate both in aging tissue and tumors. This paper describes our contemporary view of mechanisms by which alterations...... of the mitochondrial genome contributes to the development of age- and tumor-related pathological conditions. The mechanisms described encompass altered production of mitochondrial ROS, altered regulation of the nuclear epigenome, affected initiation of apoptosis, and a limiting effect on the production...

  9. Tobacco Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exposure is High in Multiunit Housing Smokeless Products Electronic Cigarettes Youth Tobacco Prevention Tobacco Products Tobacco Ingredient ... Tweet Share Compartir Find Fact Sheets on Products (Cigars, Bidis and Betel Quid with Tobacco (Gutka) and ...

  10. The Aging Epigenome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Lauren N.

    2016-01-01

    During aging, the mechanisms that normally maintain health and stress resistance strikingly decline, resulting in decrepitude, frailty, and ultimately death. Exactly when and how this decline occurs is unknown. Changes in transcriptional networks and chromatin state lie at the heart of age-dependent decline. These epigenomic changes are not only observed during aging but also profoundly affect cellular function and stress resistance, thereby contributing to the progression of aging. We propose that the dysregulation of transcriptional and chromatin networks is a crucial component of aging. Understanding age-dependent epigenomic changes will yield key insights into how aging begins and progresses and should lead to the development of new therapeutics that delay or even reverse aging and age-related diseases. PMID:27259204

  11. Epigenetic predictor of age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Bocklandt

    Full Text Available From the moment of conception, we begin to age. A decay of cellular structures, gene regulation, and DNA sequence ages cells and organisms. DNA methylation patterns change with increasing age and contribute to age related disease. Here we identify 88 sites in or near 80 genes for which the degree of cytosine methylation is significantly correlated with age in saliva of 34 male identical twin pairs between 21 and 55 years of age. Furthermore, we validated sites in the promoters of three genes and replicated our results in a general population sample of 31 males and 29 females between 18 and 70 years of age. The methylation of three sites--in the promoters of the EDARADD, TOM1L1, and NPTX2 genes--is linear with age over a range of five decades. Using just two cytosines from these loci, we built a regression model that explained 73% of the variance in age, and is able to predict the age of an individual with an average accuracy of 5.2 years. In forensic science, such a model could estimate the age of a person, based on a biological sample alone. Furthermore, a measurement of relevant sites in the genome could be a tool in routine medical screening to predict the risk of age-related diseases and to tailor interventions based on the epigenetic bio-age instead of the chronological age.

  12. Mycotoxins in poultry production

    OpenAIRE

    Resanović Radmila M.; Nešić Ksenija D.; Nesić Vladimir D.; Palić Todor D.; Jaćević Vesna M.

    2009-01-01

    All poultry is sensitive to mycotoxins. This partly depends on the type, age and production categories of poultry, their living conditions and nutritive status and partly on the type, quantity and duration of mycotoxin ingestion. The presence of mycotoxins results in significant health disorders and a decrease in production performances. This leads to considerable economic loss for the poultry industry - either direct losses, i.e. death of the poultry or the indirect ones, i.e. the decrease i...

  13. Technical Efficiency Evaluation of Market Age and Enterprise Size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Technical Efficiency Evaluation of Market Age and Enterprise Size for Broiler Production in Imo State, Nigeria. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription ... Key words: Broiler Production, Technical Efficiency and Scale of Operation ...

  14. Aging in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Helene H

    2013-06-01

    This article reviews the empirical studies that test socioemotional aging across cultures. The review focuses on comparisons between Western (mostly North Americans and Germans) and Eastern cultures (mostly Chinese) in areas including age-related personality, social relationships, and cognition. Based on the review, I argue that aging is a meaning-making process. Individuals from each cultural context internalize cultural values with age. These internalized cultural values become goals that guide adult development. When individuals from different cultures each pursue their own goals with age, cultural differences in socioemotional aging occur.

  15. Produtividade de forragem e morfogênese de "Trachypogon vestitus" em diferentes idades de rebrota nos cerrados de Roraima Forage production and morphogenesis of “Trachypogon vestitus” under different regrowth ages in the Roraima’s savannas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Gianluppi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O efeito da idade da planta ao corte (21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63 e 70 dias sobre a produção de forragem e características morfogênicas e estruturais de Trachypogon vestitus, submetido a queima, durante o período chuvoso, foi avaliado em condições de campo. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com três repetições. As avaliações foram realizadas no período de maio a julho de 2009. O aumento da idade das plantas resultou em maiores rendimentos de forragem, taxa absoluta de crescimento (TAC, número de perfilhos/planta, número de folhas/perfilho, tamanho médio de folhas, área foliar e taxas de expansão e senescência foliar. As relações entre idade das plantas e o rendimento de matéria seca, a TAC, a taxa de expansão foliar e o tamanho médio de folhas da gramínea foram ajustadas ao modelo quadrático de regressão, sendo os máximos valores registrados aos 65,8; 50,1; 43,4 e 62,0 dias de rebrota, respectivamente. As taxas de crescimento da cultura, taxa de crescimento relativo, taxas de aparecimento de perfilhos e de folhas foram inversamente proporcionais às idades das plantas. Visando conciliar produtividade de forragem com a maximização das características morfogênicas e estruturais da gramínea, o período de utilização mais adequado de suas pastagens situa-se entre 49 e 56 dias de rebrota.The effects of plant age regrowth (21; 28; 35; 42; 49; 56; 63 and 70 days on dry matter yield, and morphogenetic and structural characteristics of Trachypogon vestitus, submitted to burning, during rainy season, were evaluated under natural field conditions. Evaluations were carried out during the period of May to July 2009. The dry matter yield, absolute growth rate, number of tillers/plant, number of leafs/plant, leaf area, leaf senescence and elongation rates and blade length increased consistently with growth stage. The relations between dry matter yield and absolute growth rate, elongation leaf rate and

  16. Aging and Health: Cataracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Problems Glaucoma Macular Degeneration Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Cataracts Basic Facts & Information ... Are Cataracts? Cataracts are a common result of aging and occur frequently in older people. About one ...

  17. Aging changes in immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004008.htm Aging changes in immunity To use the sharing features ... cells and antibodies th