WorldWideScience

Sample records for printable version electrochromic

  1. Manufacture and demonstration of organic photovoltaic-powered electrochromic displays using roll coating methods and printable electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob; Dam, Henrik Friis; Reynolds, John R.

    2012-01-01

    active material (ECP-Magenta) and poly(N-octadecyl-(propylene-1,3-dioxy)-3,4-pyrrole-2,5-diyl) as a minimally colored, charge balancing material (MCCP). Two electrolyte systems were compared to allow development of fully printable and laminated devices on flexible substrates. Devices of various sizes, up...... to 7 × 8 cm2, are demonstrated with pixelated devices containing pixel sizes of 4 × 4 mm2 or 13 × 13 mm2. The transmission contrast exhibited by the devices, when switched between the fully bleached and fully colored state, was 58% at a visible wavelength of 550 nm, and the devices exhibited switching...... times of photovoltaic devices (with or without the use of a lithium-polymer battery) to power the devices between the colored and bleached state, illustrating a self-powered ECD. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part B...

  2. Electrochromic nanocomposite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliron, Delia; Llordes, Anna; Buonsanti, Raffaella; Garcia, Guillermo

    2018-04-10

    The present invention provides an electrochromic nanocomposite film. In an exemplary embodiment, the electrochromic nanocomposite film, includes (1) a solid matrix of oxide based material and (2) transparent conducting oxide (TCO) nanostructures embedded in the matrix. In a further embodiment, the electrochromic nanocomposite film farther includes a substrate upon which the matrix is deposited. The present invention also provides a method of preparing an electrochromic nanocomposite film.

  3. Printable organic and inorganic materials for flexible electrochemical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, Pawel Jerzy

    The growing demand of consumer printed electronics such as smart cards, smart packaging, automotive displays, electronic paper and others led to the increased interest in fully printed electrochemical devices. These components are expected to be developed based on printed thin films derived from cheap and widely accessible compounds. This dissertation presents the long stretch of technical research that was performed to realize printed energy efficient concepts such as electrochromic displays and smart-windows. Within this broad theme, the presented study had a number of specific objectives, however, the overall aim was to develop low-cost material systems (i.e. printable mixtures) at a lab-scale, which would be compatible with large-scale roll-to-roll processing. Presented results concern three main topics: (i) dual-phase inorganic electrochromic material processed at low temperature, (ii) enhancement in electrochromic performance via metaloxide nanoparticles engineering, and (iii) highly conductive and mechanically stable solid-state electrolyte. First two topics are related to crystallographic structure of metal-oxide films derived from sol-gel precursor, which is shown to be critical for electrochemical performance. The proposed method of microstructure control enables development of electrochromic films which outperform their amorphous or nanocrystalline analogues presented in the state-of-the-art due to their superior chemical and physical properties. Developed materials and processes resulted in electrochemical devices exhibiting optical density on the level of 0.82 and switching time shorter than 3 seconds, reaching performance at practical level. Third topic concerns a new concept of solid state electrolyte based on plastic crystal doped with lithium salt, dispersed in a thermosetting polymer resin network. This soft matter printable electrolyte meets requirements for electrochromic applications, exhibiting ionic conductivities of 10. -6 - 10. -4 S cm-1 at

  4. Electrochromism in transition metal oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada, W.

    1993-01-01

    Electrochromism is discussed for transition metal oxides. Particularly tungsten oxide and nickel oxide are reviewed, in order to put forth the different aspects of the field. Since this phenomena has been reviewed by several authors, it is not tried to be comprehensive but rather pedagogical. The basic requirements for a material -in both non-emissive displays and energy efficiency applications- to be electrochromic, a general view of electrochromic mechanism, anodic and cathodic electrochromic materials, and current problems for a electrochromic theory are presented. (author) 45 refs., 8 figs

  5. Review on electrochromic devices for automotive glazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiryont, Hulya

    1991-12-01

    Electrochromic materials have been intensively studied for applications of various switchable optical systems. These materials exhibit adjustable optical absorption upon reversible oxidation/reduction processes. Since a reversible oxidation/reduction phenomenon is provided by electrically-driven electrochemical reactions, these materials are known as electrochromics. There are many publications including proceedings, books, and review articles written on electrochromic (EC) materials and their applications. This paper focuses on conventional and some new electrochromic devices (ECD), their specifications, and applications.

  6. Nanocrystal-polymer nanocomposite electrochromic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliron, Delia; Runnerstrom, Evan; Helms, Brett; Llordes, Anna; Buonsanti, Raffaella; Garcia, Guillermo

    2015-12-08

    Described is an electrochromic nanocomposite film comprising a solid matrix of an oxide based material, the solid matrix comprising a plurality of transparent conducting oxide (TCO) nanostructures dispersed in the solid matrix and a lithium salt dispersed in the solid matrix. Also described is a near infrared nanostructured electrochromic device having a functional layer comprising the electrochromic nanocomposite film.

  7. Nanostructured transparent conducting oxide electrochromic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliron, Delia; Tangirala, Ravisubhash; Llordes, Anna; Buonsanti, Raffaella; Garcia, Guillermo

    2016-05-17

    The embodiments described herein provide an electrochromic device. In an exemplary embodiment, the electrochromic device includes (1) a substrate and (2) a film supported by the substrate, where the film includes transparent conducting oxide (TCO) nanostructures. In a further embodiment, the electrochromic device further includes (a) an electrolyte, where the nanostructures are embedded in the electrolyte, resulting in an electrolyte, nanostructure mixture positioned above the substrate and (b) a counter electrode positioned above the mixture. In a further embodiment, the electrochromic device further includes a conductive coating deposited on the substrate between the substrate and the mixture. In a further embodiment, the electrochromic device further includes a second substrate positioned above the mixture.

  8. Photoresponsive Smart Coloration Electrochromic Supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Tae Gwang; Kim, Donghyuk; Kim, Yong Ho; Park, Minkyu; Hyun, Seungmin; Han, Seung Min

    2017-08-01

    Electrochromic devices have been widely adopted in energy saving applications by taking advantage of the electrode coloration, but it is critical to develop a new electrochromic device that can undergo smart coloration and can have a wide spectrum in transmittance in response to input light intensity while also functioning as a rechargeable energy storage system. In this study, a photoresponsive electrochromic supercapacitor based on cellulose-nanofiber/Ag-nanowire/reduced-graphene-oxide/WO 3 -composite electrode that is capable of undergoing "smart" reversible coloration while simultaneously functioning as a reliable energy-storage device is developed. The fabricated device exhibits a high coloration efficiency of 64.8 cm 2 C -1 and electrochemical performance with specific capacitance of 406.0 F g -1 , energy/power densities of 40.6-47.8 Wh kg -1 and 6.8-16.9 kW kg -1 . The electrochromic supercapacitor exhibits excellent cycle reliability, where 75.0% and 94.1% of its coloration efficiency and electrochemical performance is retained, respectively, beyond 10 000 charge-discharge cycles. Cyclic fatigue tests show that the developed device is mechanically durable and suitable for wearable electronics applications. The smart electrochromic supercapacitor system is then integrated with a solar sensor to enable photoresponsive coloration where the transmittance changes in response to varying light intensity. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. RBS analysis of electrochromic layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D C; Bell, J M [University of Technology, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Kenny, M J; Wielunski, L S [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Lindfield, NSW (Australia). Div. of Applied Physics

    1994-12-31

    Tungsten oxide thin films produced by dip-coating from tungsten alkoxide solutions are of interest for their application in large area switchable windows. The application consists of a layer of electrochromic tungsten oxide (W0{sub 3}) on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass in contact with a complementary structure. Electrochromic devices are switchable between states of high and low transparency by the application of a small voltage. The mechanism relies on the dual injection of ions and electrons into the W0{sub 3} layer from adjacent layers in the device. Electrochromic tungsten oxide can be deposited using standard techniques (eg. sputtering and evaporation) but also using sol-gel deposition. Sol-gel processing has an advantage over conventional preparation techniques because of the simplicity of the equipment. The scaling up to large area coatings is also feasible. RBS and forward recoil has been used to obtain profiles for individual elements in the structure of electrochromic films. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  10. RBS analysis of electrochromic layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.C.; Bell, J.M. [University of Technology, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Kenny, M.J.; Wielunski, L.S. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Lindfield, NSW (Australia). Div. of Applied Physics

    1993-12-31

    Tungsten oxide thin films produced by dip-coating from tungsten alkoxide solutions are of interest for their application in large area switchable windows. The application consists of a layer of electrochromic tungsten oxide (W0{sub 3}) on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass in contact with a complementary structure. Electrochromic devices are switchable between states of high and low transparency by the application of a small voltage. The mechanism relies on the dual injection of ions and electrons into the W0{sub 3} layer from adjacent layers in the device. Electrochromic tungsten oxide can be deposited using standard techniques (eg. sputtering and evaporation) but also using sol-gel deposition. Sol-gel processing has an advantage over conventional preparation techniques because of the simplicity of the equipment. The scaling up to large area coatings is also feasible. RBS and forward recoil has been used to obtain profiles for individual elements in the structure of electrochromic films. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Electrochromic in conjugated polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picado Valenzuela, Alfredo

    2007-01-01

    This revision considered object the description of one of the materials with the greatest potential in the field of electrochromic (mainly in the visible region): the conjugated polymers (CP), area of enormous potential both now and in a short time ahead. The CP are insulating materials and organic semiconductors in a state not doped. They can be doped positively or negatively being observed a significant increase in the conductivity and being generated a color change in these materials. The understanding of how optical properties vary based on the chemical structure of the polymer or its mixtures and more precisely of the alternatives that can be entered into the conjugated system or π system to obtain a material that besides to be flexible, environmentally stable, presents the colored states. The revision was centred chiefly in the polypyrrole (Ppy), the polythiophene (PTh) and their derivatives such as poly (3.4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). The advantage of using monomers with variable structure, to adjust the composition of the copolymer, or to blend with the PC, allows to obtain a variety of colored states that can be modulated through the visible spectrum and even with applications to wavelengths outside of this region. Because the PC presented at least two different colored states can be varied continuously as a function of the voltage applied. In some cases, they may submit multicoloured statements, which offers a range of possibilities for their application in flexible electronic devices type screens and windows. Applications include smart windows, camouflage clothing and data screens. This type of material is emerging as one of the substitutes of the traditional inorganic semiconductor, with the advantage of its low cost, high flexibility and the possibility to generate multiple colors through the handling of the monomers in the structure and control of energy of his band gap. (author) [es

  12. Integrated electrochromic aperture diaphragm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutschmann, T.; Oesterschulze, E.

    2014-05-01

    In the last years, the triumphal march of handheld electronics with integrated cameras has opened amazing fields for small high performing optical systems. For this purpose miniaturized iris apertures are of practical importance because they are essential to control both the dynamic range of the imaging system and the depth of focus. Therefore, we invented a micro optical iris based on an electrochromic (EC) material. This material changes its absorption in response to an applied voltage. A coaxial arrangement of annular rings of the EC material is used to establish an iris aperture without need of any mechanical moving parts. The advantages of this device do not only arise from the space-saving design with a thickness of the device layer of 50μm. But it also benefits from low power consumption. In fact, its transmission state is stable in an open circuit, phrased memory effect. Only changes of the absorption require a voltage of up to 2 V. In contrast to mechanical iris apertures the absorption may be controlled on an analog scale offering the opportunity for apodization. These properties make our device the ideal candidate for battery powered and space-saving systems. We present optical measurements concerning control of the transmitted intensity and depth of focus, and studies dealing with switching times, light scattering, and stability. While the EC polymer used in this study still has limitations concerning color and contrast, the presented device features all functions of an iris aperture. In contrast to conventional devices it offers some special features. Owing to the variable chemistry of the EC material, its spectral response may be adjusted to certain applications like color filtering in different spectral regimes (UV, optical range, infrared). Furthermore, all segments may be switched individually to establish functions like spatial Fourier filtering or lateral tunable intensity filters.

  13. Next-Generation Multifunctional Electrochromic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Guofa; Wang, Jiangxin; Lee, Pooi See

    2016-08-16

    The rational design and exploration of electrochromic devices will find a wide range of applications in smart windows for energy-efficient buildings, low-power displays, self-dimming rear mirrors for automobiles, electrochromic e-skins, and so on. Electrochromic devices generally consist of multilayer structures with transparent conductors, electrochromic films, ion conductors, and ion storage films. Synthetic strategies and new materials for electrochromic films and transparent conductors, comprehensive electrochemical kinetic analysis, and novel device design are areas of active study worldwide. These are believed to be the key factors that will help to significantly improve the electrochromic performance and extend their application areas. In this Account, we present our strategies to design and fabricate electrochromic devices with high performance and multifunctionality. We first describe the synthetic strategies, in which a porous tungsten oxide (WO3) film with nearly ideal optical modulation and fast switching was prepared by a pulsed electrochemical deposition method. Multiple strategies, such as sol-gel/inkjet printing methods, hydrothermal/inkjet printing methods, and a novel hybrid transparent conductor/electrochromic layer have been developed to prepare high-performance electrochromic films. We then summarize the recent advances in transparent conductors and ion conductor layers, which play critial roles in electrochromic devices. Benefiting from the developments of soft transparent conductive substrates, highly deformable electrochromic devices that are flexible, foldable, stretchable, and wearable have been achieved. These emerging devices have great potential in applications such as soft displays, electrochromic e-skins, deformable electrochromic films, and so on. We finally present a concept of multifunctional smart glass, which can change its color to dynamically adjust the daylight and solar heat input of the building or protect the users' privacy

  14. Electrochromic fiber-shaped supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuli; Lin, Huijuan; Deng, Jue; Zhang, Ye; Sun, Xuemei; Chen, Peining; Fang, Xin; Zhang, Zhitao; Guan, Guozhen; Peng, Huisheng

    2014-12-23

    An electrochromic fiber-shaped super-capacitor is developed by winding aligned carbon nanotube/polyaniline composite sheets on an elastic fiber. The fiber-shaped supercapacitors demonstrate rapid and reversible chromatic transitions under different working states, which can be directly observed by the naked eye. They are also stretchable and flexible, and are woven into textiles to display designed signals in addition to storing energy. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Prototype solid-state electrochromic window devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dao, L.H.; Nguyen, M.T.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses electrochromic smart windows which are prospective devices for the control of light transmission in response to the variation of brightness of the environment. The fabrication of electrochromic windows based on cathodically coloring transition metal oxides and anodically coloring conducting polymers are described. The device consists of gel or glassy polymer electrolytes sandwiches by a pair of transparent conducting glass coated respectively with a thin film of WO 3 or MoO 3 prepared by electrodeposition, and with a thin film of ploy(aniline) derivatives obtained by electropolymerization or solution casting. The electrochromic properties of the five-layer smart window devices are presented

  16. Photovoltaic Powering And Control System For Electrochromic Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Stephen C.; Michalski, Lech A.; Volltrauer, Hermann N.; Van Dine, John E.

    2000-04-25

    A sealed insulated glass unit is provided with an electrochromic device for modulating light passing through the unit. The electrochromic device is controlled from outside the unit by a remote control electrically unconnected to the device. Circuitry within the unit may be magnetically controlled from outside. The electrochromic device is powered by a photovoltaic cells. The photovoltaic cells may be positioned so that at least a part of the light incident on the cell passes through the electrochromic device, providing a form of feedback control. A variable resistance placed in parallel with the electrochromic element is used to control the response of the electrochromic element to changes in output of the photovoltaic cell.

  17. Photochemical stability of electrochromic polymers and devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob; Madsen, Morten Vesterager; Krebs, Frederik C

    2013-01-01

    The stability of fully printed flexible organic electrochromics based on 11 different conjugated polymers is explored from the fundamental chemical degradation level to the operational device level. The photochemical stability of the electrochromic polymers (ECPs) is studied enabling an analysis ...... based on flexible barrier substrates exhibit increased stability and are indeed viable in devices such as shading elements, light management systems, displays with low switching speed requirements and signage. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry....

  18. 3D-Printable Antimicrobial Composite Resins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yue, Jun; Zhao, Pei; Gerasimov, Jennifer Y.; van de Lagemaat, Marieke; Grotenhuis, Arjen; Rustema-Abbing, Minie; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.; Herrmann, Andreas; Ren, Yijin

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is seen as a game-changing manufacturing process in many domains, including general medicine and dentistry, but the integration of more complex functions into 3D-printed materials remains lacking. Here, it is expanded on the repertoire of 3D-printable materials to include antimicrobial

  19. Materials And Devices In Electrochromic Window Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Stuart F.; Anderson, Elizabeth J.; Plante, Timothy D.; Rauh, R. David

    1985-12-01

    Windows with switchable electrochromic glazings are potentially useful for regulating solar input to building interiors. In this article, we describe the structure and operation of a proposed solid-state electrochromic glazing based on crystalline LixWO3 (c-LiXWO3) and a low coloration efficiency counter electrode material such as amorphous Nb2O5 (a-Nb2O5). The importance of reversibility in electrochromic glazing operation is emphasized, and optical switching experiments that demonstrate reversible lithium insertion/extraction in c-LixW03, a-LixWO3, and a-LixNb2O5 are described. Additional optical switching experiments in tandem electrochromic cells comprised of c-LixWO3/a-Nb2O5 and a-LixWO3/a-Nb2O5 demonstrated the proposed design, indicating reversible optical switching over 500 and 200 complete cycles, respectively, without degradation. Optical data on the evolution of reflective and absorp-tive modulation in c-LixWO3 are presented and solar attenuation results are used to demon-strate the advantage of using crystalline electrochromics to conserve daylighting during electrochromic window operation.

  20. Direct Photopatterning of Electrochromic Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob; Dyer, Aubrey L.; Shen, D. Eric

    2013-01-01

    Propylenedioxythiophene (ProDOT) polymers are synthesized using an oxidative polymerization route that results in methacrylate substituted poly(ProDOTs) having a Mn of 10–20 kDa wherein the methacrylate functionality constitutes from 6 to 60% of the total monomer units. Solutions of these polymers...... show excellent film forming abilities, with thin films prepared using both spray‐casting and spin‐coating. These polymers are demonstrated to crosslink upon UV irradiation at 350 nm, in the presence of an appropriate photoinitiator, to render the films insoluble to common organic solvents....... Electrochemical, spectroelectrochemical, and colorimetric analyses of the crosslinked polymer films are performed to establish that they retain the same electrochromic qualities as the parent polymers with no detriment to the observed properties. To demonstrate applicability for multi‐film processing...

  1. Physics and applications of electrochromic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlicka, Agnieszka; Avellaneda, Cesar O.

    2003-07-01

    Solid state electrochromic devices (ECD) are of considerable technological and commercial interest because of their controllable transmission, absorption and/or reflectance. For instance, a major application of these devices is in smart windows that can regulate the solar gains of buildings and also in glare attenuation in automobile rear view mirrors. Other applications include solar cells, small and large area flat panel displays, satellite temperature control, food monitoring, and document authentication. A typical electrochromic device has a five-layer structure: GS/TC/EC/IC/IS/TC/GS, where GS is a glass substrate, TC is a transparent conductor, generally ITO (indium tin oxide) or FTO (fluorine tin oxide), EC is an electrochromic coating, IC is an ion conductor (solid or liquid electrolyte) and IS is an ion storage coating. Generally, the EC and IS layers are deposited separately on the TC coatings and then jointed with the IC and sealed. The EC and IS are thin films that can be deposited by sputtering, CVD, sol-gel precursors, etc. There are different kinds of organic, inorganic and organic-inorganic films that can be used to make electrochromic devices. Thin electrochromic films can be: WO3, Nb2O5, Nb2O5:Li+ or Nb2O5-TiO2 coatings, ions storage films: CeO2-TiO2, CeO2-ZrO2 or CeO2-TiO2-ZrO2 and electrolytes like Organically Modified Electrolytes (Ormolytes) or polymeric films also based on natural polymers like starch or cellulose. These last are very interesting due to their high ionic conductivity, high transparency and good mechanical properties. This paper describes construction and properties of different thin oxide and polymeric films and also shows the optical response of an all sol-gel electrochromic device with WO3/Ormolyte/CeO2-TiO2 configuration.

  2. Edge printability: techniques used to evaluate and improve extreme wafer edge printability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Bill; Demmert, Cort; Jekauc, Igor; Tiffany, Jason P.

    2004-05-01

    The economics of semiconductor manufacturing have forced process engineers to develop techniques to increase wafer yield. Improvements in process controls and uniformities in all areas of the fab have reduced film thickness variations at the very edge of the wafer surface. This improved uniformity has provided the opportunity to consider decreasing edge exclusions, and now the outermost extents of the wafer must be considered in the yield model and expectations. These changes have increased the requirements on lithography to improve wafer edge printability in areas that previously were not even coated. This has taxed all software and hardware components used in defining the optical focal plane at the wafer edge. We have explored techniques to determine the capabilities of extreme wafer edge printability and the components of the systems that influence this printability. We will present current capabilities and new detection techniques and the influence that the individual hardware and software components have on edge printability. We will show effects of focus sensor designs, wafer layout, utilization of dummy edge fields, the use of non-zero overlay targets and chemical/optical edge bead optimization.

  3. Electrochromic Windows: Advanced Processing Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAGE Electrochromics, Inc

    2006-12-13

    This project addresses the development of advanced fabrication capabilities for energy saving electrochromic (EC) windows. SAGE EC windows consist of an inorganic stack of thin films deposited onto a glass substrate. The window tint can be reversibly changed by the application of a low power dc voltage. This property can be used to modulate the amount of light and heat entering buildings (or vehicles) through the glazings. By judicious management of this so-called solar heat gain, it is possible to derive significant energy savings due to reductions in heating lighting, and air conditioning (HVAC). Several areas of SAGE’s production were targeted during this project to allow significant improvements to processing throughput, yield and overall quality of the processing, in an effort to reduce the cost and thereby improve the market penetration. First, the overall thin film process was optimized to allow a more robust set of operating points to be used, thereby maximizing the yield due to the thin film deposition themselves. Other significant efforts aimed at improving yield were relating to implementing new procedures and processes for the manufacturing process, to improve the quality of the substrate preparation, and the quality of the IGU fabrication. Furthermore, methods for reworking defective devices were developed, to enable devices which would otherwise be scrapped to be made into useful product. This involved the in-house development of some customized equipment. Finally, the improvements made during this project were validated to ensure that they did not impact the exceptional durability of the SageGlass® products. Given conservative estimates for cost and market penetration, energy savings due to EC windows in residences in the US are calculated to be of the order 0.026 quad (0.026×1015BTU/yr) by the year 2017.

  4. Printable Thin Film Supercapacitors Using Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Kaempgen, Martti

    2009-05-13

    Thin film supercapacitors were fabricated using printable materials to make flexible devices on plastic. The active electrodes were made from sprayed networks of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) serving as both electrodes and charge collectors. Using a printable aqueous gel electrolyte as well as an organic liquid electrolyte, the performances of the devices show very high energy and power densities (6 W h/kg for both electrolytes and 23 and 70 kW/kg for aqueous gel electrolyte and organic electrolyte, respectively) which is comparable to performance in other SWCNT-based supercapacitor devices fabricated using different methods. The results underline the potential of printable thin film supercapacitors. The simplified architecture and the sole use of printable materials may lead to a new class of entirely printable charge storage devices allowing for full integration with the emerging field of printed electronics. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  5. Fully Screen-Printed, Large-Area, and Flexible Active-Matrix Electrochromic Displays Using Carbon Nanotube Thin-Film Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xuan; Lau, Christian; Liu, Yihang; Wu, Fanqi; Gui, Hui; Liu, Qingzhou; Ma, Yuqiang; Wan, Haochuan; Amer, Moh R; Zhou, Chongwu

    2016-11-22

    Semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes are ideal semiconductors for printed electronics due to their advantageous electrical and mechanical properties, intrinsic printability in solution, and desirable stability in air. However, fully printed, large-area, high-performance, and flexible carbon nanotube active-matrix backplanes are still difficult to realize for future displays and sensing applications. Here, we report fully screen-printed active-matrix electrochromic displays employing carbon nanotube thin-film transistors. Our fully printed backplane shows high electrical performance with mobility of 3.92 ± 1.08 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , on-off current ratio I on /I off ∼ 10 4 , and good uniformity. The printed backplane was then monolithically integrated with an array of printed electrochromic pixels, resulting in an entirely screen-printed active-matrix electrochromic display (AMECD) with good switching characteristics, facile manufacturing, and long-term stability. Overall, our fully screen-printed AMECD is promising for the mass production of large-area and low-cost flexible displays for applications such as disposable tags, medical electronics, and smart home appliances.

  6. Optical and electrochromic properties of Sn:WO3 cermets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashrit, P.V.; Bader, G.; Girouard, F.E.; Truong, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses optical and electrochromic properties of Sn:WO 3 cermets deposited by alternate layer thermal deposition. These cermets exhibit electrical and optical behavior in the as deposited state. The inclusion of Sn in the WO 3 matrix enhances the Electrical conductivity of the system and renders them fairly transparent in the visible region. The electrochromic behavior of such systems is studied under both proton and Li + ion injection. The good conductivity and good transmission combined with good electrochromic characteristics of these systems indicate the possibility of utilizing this type of cermet for the dual role of transparent conductor (TC) and electrochromic (EC) layer

  7. Printability of Synthetic Papers by Electrophotography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozália Szentgyörgyvölgyi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the printability of synthetic papers by the electrophotography technique. Prints of cmyk colour fields from 20% to 100% raster tone values were printed on three types of synthetic papers (one film synthetic paper and two fiber synthetic papers. The investigation of the appearance included densitometric measurement of the cmyk prints. The results have shown differences in the optical density and optical tone value between cmyk prints made on various synthetic papers. The highest optical density and the increase of the optical tone value were observed on the film synthetic paper, where cmyk prints were more saturated. The highest abrasion resistance of cmyk prints was obtained from the fibre synthetic paper.

  8. DNA Based Electrochromic and Photovoltaic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    using deoxyribonucleic acid complex as an electron blocking layer App. Phys. Lett. 88 (2006) 171109. 23. F.H.C. Crick , J.D. Watson . The complementary...9550-09-1-0647 final 01-09-2009 ; 30-11-2011 DNA Based Electrochromic and Photovoltaic Cells FA 9550-09-1-0647 Pawlicka, Agnieszka, J. Instituto de...Available. DNA is an abundant natural product with very good biodegradation properties and can be used to obtain gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) with high

  9. High performance passive matrix electrochromic display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliev, A.E.

    2003-01-01

    A matrix addressable electrochromic display (ECD) based on solid polymer electrolyte screen-printed on the surface of nano structured WO 3 +0.1TiO 2 electrodes, in which all pixels were insulted by negative photoresist material has been developed. Five types of nano structured films produced by a sol-gel method were investigated to enhance the electrochemical, optical, and mechanical properties of electrochromic tungsten oxide films. The film based on WO 3-x +0.1TiO 2-y sol-gel solution mixed with 32 mol.% oxalic acid was found to be stable and has excellent characteristics in coloring/bleaching kinetics. The ECD used nano structured electrochromic tungsten trioxide layer protected by SiO 2 -CeO 2 -Li 2 O thin film solid electrolyte, screen-printed solid polymer electrolyte mixed with white TiO 2 pigment (P25), and metallic counter electrode covered with carbon layer, has exhibited fast switching, excellent memory effect and substantially free from image diffusion and cross talk effects. (author)

  10. Study on Electrochromic Effect of Polyaniline Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lienda Handojo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The light transmission factor of an electrochromic film changes reversibly with the application of an electrical voltage. Thereby the transparent film becomes reversibly opaque so that it may be used to control light transmission. In this paper the results of a study on polyaniline film as an electrochromic active material is reported. Polyaniline looks yellow transparent in the reduced state and turns to green-blue at its oxidized state. The electrochromic device considered in this paper was fabricated in planar configuration of ITO glass - polyaniline film - electrolyte - ITO glass which involved 1.0M H2SO4 solution. The measurement of the current density yields voltamograms for several values of the rate of voltage change, while the optical  characteristics were measured with ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. To inspect the light control properties, the intensity of solar radiation propagating through the device was derived. It is found that in its reduced state, the device transmits 70% of the incoming radiation, while in the oxidized state only 11% of the radiation is left. The result of recycling test indicated that film is stable over 5,000 cycles.

  11. Electrochromic device based on electrospun WO{sub 3} nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dulgerbaki, Cigdem; Maslakci, Neslihan Nohut; Komur, Ali Ihsan; Oksuz, Aysegul Uygun, E-mail: ayseguluygun@sdu.edu.tr

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • WO{sub 3} electrochromic nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning technique. • WO{sub 3} nanofibers switched reversibly from transparent to blue color. • Electrochromic device was assembled using ionic liquid based gel electrolyte. • Significant optical modulation and excellent cycling stability were achieved for ECD. - Abstract: The tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) nanofibers were grown directly onto an ITO-coated glass via an electrospinning method for electrochromic applications. The electrochromic properties of WO{sub 3} nanofibers were investigated in the presence of different electrolytes including a series of ionic liquids and classic LiClO{sub 4}-PC system. A significant optical modulation of 20.82% at 760 nm, reversible coloration with efficiency of 64.58 cm{sup 2}/C and excellent cycling stability were achieved for the nanofiber electrochromic device (ECD) with ionic liquid based gel electrolyte.

  12. Oligoaniline-containing electrochromic polymers with tunable properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Li

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available Electrochromic polymers have attracted much attention due to their potential applications in displays, smart windows, intelligent mirrors, and wearable devices. Here, a novel polyamic acid containing aniline pentamer with improved electrochromic properties and new functionalities was synthesized via oxidative coupling polymerization, followed by postpolymerization of tetraaniline, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane, and fluorene, respectively. With the introduction of tetraaniline pendants, the resultant polymer exhibits improved electrochromic performance with high optical contrast value and rapid switching rate, because of the high content of electrochromic units in the polymeric structure. The polyamic acid functionalized with polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane, demonstrates a great enhancement of switching rate in the electrochromism, due to the rapid electrolyte migration through polymer film under electrochemical potentials. In addition, a new electrofluorochromic feature is easily achieved through the introduction of fluorescent fluorene groups into the polymeric architecture.

  13. Application of Nanostructures in Electrochromic Materials and Devices: Recent Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Min Wang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The recent progress in application of nanostructures in electrochromic materials and devices is reviewed. ZnO nanowire array modified by viologen and WO3, crystalline WO3 nanoparticles and nanorods, mesoporous WO3 and TiO2, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene nanotubes, Prussian blue nanoinks and nanostructures in switchable mirrors are reviewed. The electrochromic properties were significantly enhanced by applying nanostructures, resulting in faster switching responses, higher stability and higher optical contrast. A perspective on the development trends in electrochromic materials and devices is also proposed.

  14. Assessment of printability for printed electronics patterns by measuring geometric dimensions and defining assessment parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Sung Woong; Kim, Cheol; Kim, Chung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    The printability of patterns for printed electronic devices determines the performance, yield rate, and reliability of the devices; therefore, it should be assessed quantitatively. In this paper, parameters for printability assessment of printed patterns for width, pinholes, and edge waviness are suggested. For quantitative printability assessment, printability grades for each parameter are proposed according to the parameter values. As examples of printability assessment, printed line patterns and mesh patterns obtained using roll-to-roll gravure printing are used. Both single-line patterns and mesh patterns show different levels of printability, even in samples obtained using the same printing equipment and conditions. Therefore, for reliable assessment, it is necessary to assess the printability of the patterns by enlarging the sampling area and increasing the number of samples. We can predict the performance of printed electronic devices by assessing the printability of the patterns that constitute them

  15. Assessment of printability for printed electronics patterns by measuring geometric dimensions and defining assessment parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Sung Woong [Dept. of Robotics Engineering, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Cheol; Kim, Chung Hwan [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The printability of patterns for printed electronic devices determines the performance, yield rate, and reliability of the devices; therefore, it should be assessed quantitatively. In this paper, parameters for printability assessment of printed patterns for width, pinholes, and edge waviness are suggested. For quantitative printability assessment, printability grades for each parameter are proposed according to the parameter values. As examples of printability assessment, printed line patterns and mesh patterns obtained using roll-to-roll gravure printing are used. Both single-line patterns and mesh patterns show different levels of printability, even in samples obtained using the same printing equipment and conditions. Therefore, for reliable assessment, it is necessary to assess the printability of the patterns by enlarging the sampling area and increasing the number of samples. We can predict the performance of printed electronic devices by assessing the printability of the patterns that constitute them.

  16. Atmospheric pressure DBD gun and its application in ink printability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Qiang; Zhang Yuefei; Han Erli; Ge Yuanjing

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a plasma source discharging at atmospheric pressure and its characterization diagnosed by a Langmuir probe and a digital camera are presented. As an application the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) gun modifying an ultraviolet cured resin surface for ink printability is reported. The results from the digital camera indicate the uniformity and homogeneity of the plasma generated from the gun in the downstream but depending on the input power, diameter of electrodes, gas flow rates and the distance between the substrates and the nozzle. The contact angle measurement proves the efficiency of gun during the surface modification. The ink printability following DBD gun processing described here was significantly improved. The performed surface analysis using Fourier transform infrared indicates that the polarity of surface grafted in plasma is responsible for the film printability

  17. Application issues for large-area electrochromic windows incommercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eleanor S.; DiBartolomeo, D.L.

    2000-05-01

    Projections of performance from small-area devices to large-area windows and enterprise marketing have created high expectations for electrochromic glazings. As a result, this paper seeks to precipitate an objective dialog between material scientists and building-application scientists to determine whether actual large-area electrochromic devices will result in significant performance benefits and what material improvements are needed, if any, to make electrochromics more practical for commercial building applications. Few in-situ tests have been conducted with large-area electrochromic windows applied in buildings. This study presents monitored results from a full-scale field test of large-area electrochromic windows to illustrate how this technology will perform in commercial buildings. The visible transmittance (Tv) of the installed electrochromic ranged from 0.11 to 0.38. The data are limited to the winter period for a south-east-facing window. The effect of actual device performance on lighting energy use, direct sun control, discomfort glare, and interior illumination is discussed. No mechanical system loads were monitored. These data demonstrate the use of electrochromics in a moderate climate and focus on the most restrictive visual task: computer use in offices. Through this small demonstration, we were able to determine that electrochromic windows can indeed provide unmitigated transparent views and a level of dynamic illumination control never before seen in architectural glazing materials. Daily lighting energy use was 6-24 percent less compared to the 11 percent-glazing, with improved interior brightness levels. Daily lighting energy use was 3 percent less to 13 percent more compared to the 38 percent-glazing, with improved window brightness control. The electrochromic window may not be able to fulfill both energy-efficiency and visual comfort objectives when low winter direct sun is present, particularly for computer tasks using cathode-ray tube (CRT

  18. A Paper-Based Electrochromic Array for Visualized Electrochemical Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Fengling Zhang; Tianyi Cai; Liang Ma; Liyuan Zhan; Hong Liu

    2017-01-01

    We report a battery-powered, paper-based electrochromic array for visualized electrochemical sensing. The paper-based sensing system consists of six parallel electrochemical cells, which are powered by an aluminum-air battery. Each single electrochemical cell uses a Prussian Blue spot electrodeposited on an indium-doped tin oxide thin film as the electrochromic indicator. Each electrochemical cell is preloaded with increasing amounts of analyte. The sample activates the battery for the sensin...

  19. Recent progress in thermochromics and electrochromics: A brief survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granqvist, Claes G.

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary architecture is characterized by large glazings, which are able to accomplish good indoors–outdoors contact and daylighting. However, glazings, encompassing windows and glass facades, are challenging with regard to energy efficiency and often lead to excessive solar energy ingress and to large thermal losses, which must be balanced by energy-demanding cooling or heating. Cooling, especially, has grown strongly in importance during recent years. Emerging technologies utilizing thermochromics and electrochromics allow control of the inflow of visible light and solar energy and thereby produce better energy efficiency than traditional glazings employing static solutions. Thermochromic thin films, based on vanadium dioxide, let through less solar energy at high temperature than at low temperature, whereas electrochromic devices include thin films—usually based on tungsten oxide and nickel oxide—that can change their transmittance of solar energy and visible light upon the application of a voltage. It is important that electrochromics, and to some degree thermochromics, can enhance indoor comfort and lead to better living and working conditions. The present brief review covers a number of recent advances in thermochromics and electrochromics with a view to applications in energy-efficient buildings. - Highlights: • Thermochromics and electrochromics are introduced • These technologies are based on thin oxide films • Smart windows use thermochromics and electrochromics • The technologies can lead to energy efficiency in windows

  20. Recent progress in thermochromics and electrochromics: A brief survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granqvist, Claes G., E-mail: claes-goran.granqvist@angstrom.uu.se

    2016-09-01

    Contemporary architecture is characterized by large glazings, which are able to accomplish good indoors–outdoors contact and daylighting. However, glazings, encompassing windows and glass facades, are challenging with regard to energy efficiency and often lead to excessive solar energy ingress and to large thermal losses, which must be balanced by energy-demanding cooling or heating. Cooling, especially, has grown strongly in importance during recent years. Emerging technologies utilizing thermochromics and electrochromics allow control of the inflow of visible light and solar energy and thereby produce better energy efficiency than traditional glazings employing static solutions. Thermochromic thin films, based on vanadium dioxide, let through less solar energy at high temperature than at low temperature, whereas electrochromic devices include thin films—usually based on tungsten oxide and nickel oxide—that can change their transmittance of solar energy and visible light upon the application of a voltage. It is important that electrochromics, and to some degree thermochromics, can enhance indoor comfort and lead to better living and working conditions. The present brief review covers a number of recent advances in thermochromics and electrochromics with a view to applications in energy-efficient buildings. - Highlights: • Thermochromics and electrochromics are introduced • These technologies are based on thin oxide films • Smart windows use thermochromics and electrochromics • The technologies can lead to energy efficiency in windows.

  1. Electrochromic mirror using viologen-anchored nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Han Na [Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Nature-mimic I/O interface Research Section, 218 Gajeong-roYuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); University of Science and Technology, Advanced Device Technology, 217 Gajeong-roYuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seong M.; Ah, Chil Seong; Song, Juhee; Ryu, Hojun; Kim, Yong Hae [Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Nature-mimic I/O interface Research Section, 218 Gajeong-roYuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae-Youb, E-mail: youby@etri.re.kr [Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Nature-mimic I/O interface Research Section, 218 Gajeong-roYuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); University of Science and Technology, Advanced Device Technology, 217 Gajeong-roYuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Three types of ECM device were fabricated using viologen-anchored ECDs. • The devices were investigated according to their optical structures. • The anti-reflection material affects the reflectance and the coloration efficiency. • The device design of ECMs is a crucial factor for clear reflected images. - Abstract: Electrochromic mirrors (ECMs) that are used in automobile mirrors need to have high reflectance, a high contrast ratio, and a clear image. In particular, it is critical that distortions of clear images are minimized for safety. Therefore, an ECM is fabricated using viologen-anchored nanoparticles and a magnesium fluoride (MgF{sub 2}) layer with an anti-reflection function. The ECM has approximately 30.42% in the reflectance dynamic range and 125 cm{sup 2}/C high coloration efficiency.

  2. Solution-Processed Smart Window Platforms Based on Plasmonic Electrochromics

    KAUST Repository

    Abbas, Sara

    2018-04-30

    Electrochromic smart windows offer a viable route to reducing the consumption of buildings energy, which represents about 30% of the worldwide energy consumption. Smart windows are far more compelling than current static windows in that they can dynamically modulate the solar spectrum depending on climate and lighting conditions or simply to meet personal preferences. The latest generation of smart windows relies on nominally transparent metal oxide nanocrystal materials whose chromism can be electrochemically controlled using the plasmonic effect. Plasmonic electrochromic materials selectively control the near infrared (NIR) region of the solar spectrum, responsible for solar heat, without affecting the visible transparency. This is in contrast to conventional electrochromic materials which block both the visible and NIR and thus enables electrochromic devices to reduce the energy consumption of a building or a greenhouse in warm climate regions due to enhancements of both visible lighting and heat blocking. Despite this edge, this technology can benefit from important developments, including low-cost solution-based manufacturing on flexible substrates while maintaining durability and coloration efficiency, demonstration of independent control in the NIR and visible spectra, and demonstration of self-powering capabilities. This thesis is focused on developing low-temperature and all-solution processed plasmonic electrochromic devices and dual-band electrochromic devices. We demonstrate new device fabrication approaches in terms of materials and processes which enhance electrochromic performance all the while maintaining low processing temperatures. Scalable fabrication methods are used to highlight compatibility with high throughput, continuous roll-to-roll fabrication on flexible substrates. In addition, a dualband plasmonic electrochromic device was developed by combining the plasmonic layer with a conventional electrochromic ion storage layer. This enables

  3. Electrochromic Devices Based on Porous Tungsten Oxide Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Djaoued

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in the synthesis of transition metal oxides in the form of porous thin films have opened up opportunities in the construction of electrochromic devices with enhanced properties. In this paper, synthesis, characterization and electrochromic applications of porous WO3 thin films with different nanocrystalline phases, such as hexagonal, monoclinic, and orthorhombic, are presented. Asymmetric electrochromic devices have been constructed based on these porous WO3 thin films. XRD measurements of the intercalation/deintercalation of Li+ into/from the WO3 layer of the device as a function of applied coloration/bleaching voltages show systematic changes in the lattice parameters associated with structural phase transitions in LixWO3. Micro-Raman studies show systematic crystalline phase changes in the spectra of WO3 layers during Li+ ion intercalation and deintercalation, which agree with the XRD data. These devices exhibit interesting optical modulation (up to ~70% due to intercalation/deintercalation of Li ions into/from the WO3 layer of the devices as a function of applied coloration/bleaching voltages. The obtained optical modulation of the electrochromic devices indicates that, they are suitable for applications in electrochromic smart windows.

  4. Characterisation and application of WO3 films for electrochromic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapinski, Thomas; Marszalek, Konstanty; Swatowska, Barbara; Stanco, Agnieszka

    2013-07-01

    Electrochromic system is the one of the most popular devices using color memory effect under the influence of an applied voltage. The electrochromic system was produced based on the thin WO3 electrochromic films. Films were prepared by RF magnetron sputtering from tungsten targets in a reactive Ar+O2 gas atmosphere of various Ar/O2 ratios. The technological gas mixture pressure was 3 Pa and process temperature 30°C. Structural and optical properties of WO3 films were investigated for as-deposited and heat treated samples at temperature range from 350°C to 450°C in air. The material revealed the dependence of properties on preparation conditions and on post-deposition heat treatment. Main parameters of thin WO3 films: thickness d, refractive index n, extinction coefficient k and energy gap Eg were determined and optimized for application in electrochromic system. The main components of the system were glass plate with transparent conducting oxides, electrolyte, and glass plate with transparent conducting oxides and WO3 layer. The optical properties of the system were investigated when a voltage was applied across it. The electrochromic cell revealed the controllable transmittance depended on the operation voltage.

  5. Energy Efficient Electrochromic Windows Incorporating Ionic Liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheri Boykin; James Finley; Donald Anthony; Julianna Knowles; Richard Markovic; Michael Buchanan; Mary Ann Fuhry; Lisa Perrine

    2008-11-30

    One approach to increasing the energy efficiency of windows is to control the amount of solar radiation transmitted through a window by using electrochromic technology. What is unique about this project is that the electrochromic is based on the reduction/oxidation reactions of cathodic and anodic organic semi-conducting polymers using room temperature ionic liquids as ion transport electrolytes. It is believed that these types of coatings would be a lower cost alternative to traditional all inorganic thin film based electrochromic technologies. Although there are patents1 based on the proposed technology, it has never been reduced to practice and thoroughly evaluated (i.e. durability and performance) in a window application. We demonstrate that by using organic semi-conductive polymers, specific bands of the solar spectrum (specifically visible and near infrared) can be targeted for electrochemical variable transmittance responsiveness. In addition, when the technology is incorporated into an insulating glass unit, the energy parameters such as the solar heat gain coefficient and the light to solar gain ratio are improved over that of a typical insulating glass unit comprised of glass with a low emissivity coating. A minimum of {approx}0.02 quads of energy savings per year with a reduction of carbon emissions for electricity of {approx}320 MKg/yr benefit is achieved over that of a typical insulating glass unit including a double silver low-E coating. Note that these values include a penalty in the heating season. If this penalty is removed (i.e. in southern climates or commercial structures where cooling is predominate year-round) a maximum energy savings of {approx}0.05 quad per year and {approx}801 MKg/yr can be achieved over that of a typical insulating glass unit including a double silver low-E coating. In its current state, the technology is not durable enough for an exterior window application. The primary downfall is that the redox chemistry fails to

  6. Electrochromic properties of self-assembled nanoparticle multilayer films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Bo; Li Hong; Zhang Lanlan; Peng Jun

    2010-01-01

    Hexagonal tungsten bronze (HTB) nanocrystal and TiO 2 nanoparticles were assembled into thin films by layer-by-layer self-assembly method. HTB nanocrystals were synthesized by hydrothermal route at 155 o C. UV-Vis spectra showed that the HTB/TiO 2 films exhibit a linear increase in film thickness with assembly exposure steps. The electrochromic property of the film was carefully investigated. Cyclic voltammetry indicated that the redox peak was around -0.5 V. The electrochromic contrast, coloration efficiency, switching speed, stability and optical memory were carefully investigated. The films vary from white to blue and finally dark brown. The electrochromic contrast is 63.9% at 633 nm. The coloration efficiency of the films is relatively high. The response time is less than 3 s.

  7. Electrochromic properties of nanocrystalline MoO3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, C.-S.; Chan, C.-C.; Huang, H.-T.; Peng, C.-H.; Hsu, W.-C.

    2008-01-01

    Electrochromic MoO 3 thin films were prepared by a sol-gel spin-coating technique. The spin-coated films were initially amorphous; they were calcined, producing nanocrystalline MoO 3 thin films. The effects of annealing temperatures ranging from 100 o C to 500 o C were investigated. The electrochemical and electrochromic properties of the films were measured by cyclic voltammetry and by in-situ optical transmittance techniques in 1 M LiClO 4 /propylene carbonate electrolyte. Experimental results showed that the transmittance of MoO 3 thin films heat-treated at 350 o C varied from 80% to 35% at λ = 550 nm (ΔT = ∼ 45%) and from 86% to 21% at λ ≥ 700 nm (ΔT = ∼ 65%) after coloration. Films heat-treated at 350 deg. C exhibited the best electrochromic properties in the present study

  8. Carbazole based electrochromic polymers with benzoazole units: Effect of heteroatom variation on electrochromic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Doyranli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of carbazole-based polymers were synthesized via Suzuki polymerization between N-(2-ethylhexylcarbazole-3,6-bis(ethyleneboronate (Cbz and dibromobenzazole unit. Three different polymers, PCBN, PCBS and PCBSe were obtained from 4,7-dibromo-2-hexyl-2H-benzotriazole (BN, 4,7-dibromo-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole- (BS and 4,7-dibromo-2,1,3-benzoselenadiazole (BSe, respectively. It is observed that, the variation of heteroatoms (N,S and Se on the benzazole unit have most important effect on electro-optic properties of the PCBX polymers. Neutral state color of the polymer films and their electrochromic performances are also influenced. Among the synthesized polymers, the PCBS bearing 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole as acceptor units has a broad absorption and 50% of ΔT in the near-IR regime at the oxidized state. This property of PCBS is a great advantage for near-IR electrochromic applications.

  9. Printable semiconductor structures and related methods of making and assembling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Rogers, John A.; Menard, Etienne; Lee, Keon Jae; Khang; , Dahl-Young; Sun, Yugang; Meitl, Matthew; Zhu, Zhengtao; Ko, Heung Cho; Mack, Shawn

    2013-03-12

    The present invention provides a high yield pathway for the fabrication, transfer and assembly of high quality printable semiconductor elements having selected physical dimensions, shapes, compositions and spatial orientations. The compositions and methods of the present invention provide high precision registered transfer and integration of arrays of microsized and/or nanosized semiconductor structures onto substrates, including large area substrates and/or flexible substrates. In addition, the present invention provides methods of making printable semiconductor elements from low cost bulk materials, such as bulk silicon wafers, and smart-materials processing strategies that enable a versatile and commercially attractive printing-based fabrication platform for making a broad range of functional semiconductor devices.

  10. Custom 3D Printable Silicones with Tunable Stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durban, Matthew M; Lenhardt, Jeremy M; Wu, Amanda S; Small, Ward; Bryson, Taylor M; Perez-Perez, Lemuel; Nguyen, Du T; Gammon, Stuart; Smay, James E; Duoss, Eric B; Lewicki, James P; Wilson, Thomas S

    2018-02-01

    Silicone elastomers have broad versatility within a variety of potential advanced materials applications, such as soft robotics, biomedical devices, and metamaterials. A series of custom 3D printable silicone inks with tunable stiffness is developed, formulated, and characterized. The silicone inks exhibit excellent rheological behavior for 3D printing, as observed from the printing of porous structures with controlled architectures. Herein, the capability to tune the stiffness of printable silicone materials via careful control over the chemistry, network formation, and crosslink density of the ink formulations in order to overcome the challenging interplay between ink development, post-processing, material properties, and performance is demonstrated. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Elucidation of the electrochromic mechanism of nanostructured iron oxides films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Lobato, M.A.; Martinez, Arturo I.; Castro-Roman, M. [Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute, Cinvestav Campus Saltillo, Carr. Saltillo-Monterrey Km. 13, Ramos Arizpe, Coah. 25900 (Mexico); Perry, Dale L. [Mail Stop 70A1150, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Zarate, R.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Catolica del Norte, Casilla 1280, Antofagasta (Chile); Escobar-Alarcon, L. (Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico)

    2011-02-15

    Nanostructured hematite thin films were electrochemically cycled in an aqueous solution of LiOH. Through optical, structural, morphological, and magnetic measurements, the coloration mechanism of electrochromic iron oxide thin films was elucidated. The conditions for double or single electrochromic behavior are given in this work. During the electrochemical cycling, it was found that topotactic transformations of hexagonal crystal structures are favored; i.e. {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} to Fe(OH){sub 2} and subsequently to {delta}-FeOOH. These topotactic redox reactions are responsible for color changes of iron oxide films. (author)

  12. Electrochromic device containing metal oxide nanoparticles and ultraviolet blocking material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Guillermo; Koo, Bonil; Gregoratto, Ivano; Basu, Sourav; Rosen, Evelyn; Holt, Jason; Thomsen, Scott

    2017-10-17

    An electrochromic device includes a nanostructured transition metal oxide bronze layer that includes one or more transition metal oxide and one or more dopant. The electrochromic device also includes nanoparticles containing one or more transparent conducting oxide (TCO), a solid state electrolyte, a counter electrode, and at least one protective layer to prevent degradation of the one or more nanostructured transition metal oxide bronze. The nanostructured transition metal oxide bronze selectively modulates transmittance of near-infrared (NIR) and visible radiation as a function of an applied voltage to the device.

  13. Retrofit electrochromic glazing in a UK office

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Kelly Waskett

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrochromic (EC glazing is now considered a viable alternative to fixed transmittance glazing. It has the potential to enable occupants to control daylight glare and solar heat gain without the use of blinds or external shading devices, giving users more access to daylight with all its inherent benefits. Furthermore, EC glazing can reduce energy consumption by decreasing cooling loads and electric lighting usage. Most research to date has studied the effects of EC glazing in scale models, computer simulations and full scale test rooms, and some of these studies have included human participants. However, there is a general lack of understanding regarding the performance and suitability of EC glazing in real-world working environments. A case study of the first UK retrofit application of EC glazing is being conducted in two adjacent offices in a university campus building. The offices are occupied by administration staff and have large southeastfacing windows. The existing double glazed units were replaced with commercially-available EC glazed units in 2012. Over a period of more than 18 months, the rooms were monitored intensively to record the effect of the EC glazing on both the physical room environment and the occupants themselves. A large amount of data from the monitoring programme is currently undergoing detailed analysis. Initial findings emerging from the installation and post-installation period are described in this paper.

  14. Environmental assessment of electrochromic glazing production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrrakou, E.; Papaefthimiou, S.; Yianoulis, P.

    2005-01-01

    The life cycle analysis method was used to determine the environmental impacts associated with the production of an electrochromic (EC) glazing (called ECD). This paper describes the inventory analysis for all the basic materials used during the manufacture of the ECD, i.e. K-Glass, tungsten oxide (WO 3 ), poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA), propylene carbonate (PC), lithium perchlorate (LiClO 4 ) and acetic silicone sealant. K-Glass, PC and PMMA account for the 98% of the total device mass and the CO 2 emissions during their production processes are 810 g. The total embodied energy was estimated to be 49 MJ/ECD, with 32.1 MJ/unit of them derived from the K-Glass. The comparison of the total embodied energies of the ECD and various insulating glass units concluded that mass-produced EC glazings could easily compete with them in terms of environmental performance, anticipating cost attenuation and overall thermal and optical behavior. The above analysis could be implemented for the reduction of the embodied energy of the ECD life cycle, since it is proposed as an energy saving device. (Author)

  15. Electrochromic artificial muscles based on nanoporous metal-polymer composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Detsi, E.; Onck, P. R.; De Hosson, J. T. M.

    2013-01-01

    This work shows that a nano-coating of electrochromic polymer grown onto the ligaments of nanoporous gold causes reversible dimensional and color changes during electrochemical actuation. This combination of electromechanical and optical properties opens additional avenues for the applications of

  16. TiO 2 counter electrode for electrochromic devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 38; Issue 2 ... The band gap energy decreases (g) from 3.45 eV for pristine CeO2 to 2.98–3.09 eV ... as counter electrode in electrochromic smart windows in which they are able to retain ...

  17. Organic/inorganic electrochromic nanocomposites with various interfacial interactions: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Shanxin, E-mail: xiongsx@xust.edu.cn; Yin, Siyuan; Wang, Yuyun; Kong, Zhenzhen; Lan, Jinpeng; Zhang, Runlan; Gong, Ming; Wu, Bohua; Chu, Jia; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • We review the effects of interfacial interactions in electrochromic nanocomposites. • Interfacial interactions are useful for film fabrication and property-enhancement. • The strong interaction can enhance the electron conduction and structural strength. • The weak interactions exist widely between organic and inorganic phases. • Multiple weak interactions can provide various performance-adjusting approaches. - Abstract: Electrochromic properties of organic or inorganic materials can be improved through preparing organic/inorganic electrochromic nanocomposites. In electrochromic nanocomposites, the interfacial interactions between the organic and inorganic phases play three important roles in preparation and application of the nanocomposites. Firstly, the interfacial interactions result in stable molecular structures. Secondly, they also improve the electron conduction and ion transport process in the nanocomposites. Thirdly, they enhance the electrochemical and electrochromic properties of the nanocomposites. In this paper, we review the common interfacial interactions including covalent bond, coordination bond, electrostatic interaction, hydrogen bond and π-π stacking interaction between the organic and inorganic phases in the electrochromic nanocomposites. The preparation method, the relationship between the structure and properties, and the mechanism of modulation of electrochromic effect in the nanocomposites with various interfacial interactions are surveyed. The strong interfacial interaction, e.g., covalent bond, is helpful for obtaining electrochromic nanocomposites with high electron conduction and high structural strength. However it is very complicated to construct covalent bond between the organic and inorganic phases. Another strong interfacial interaction, the coordination bond is mainly confined to preparation of electrochromic complex of metal ion and pyridine derivative. While, the weak interfacial interactions, e

  18. Organic/inorganic electrochromic nanocomposites with various interfacial interactions: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Shanxin; Yin, Siyuan; Wang, Yuyun; Kong, Zhenzhen; Lan, Jinpeng; Zhang, Runlan; Gong, Ming; Wu, Bohua; Chu, Jia; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We review the effects of interfacial interactions in electrochromic nanocomposites. • Interfacial interactions are useful for film fabrication and property-enhancement. • The strong interaction can enhance the electron conduction and structural strength. • The weak interactions exist widely between organic and inorganic phases. • Multiple weak interactions can provide various performance-adjusting approaches. - Abstract: Electrochromic properties of organic or inorganic materials can be improved through preparing organic/inorganic electrochromic nanocomposites. In electrochromic nanocomposites, the interfacial interactions between the organic and inorganic phases play three important roles in preparation and application of the nanocomposites. Firstly, the interfacial interactions result in stable molecular structures. Secondly, they also improve the electron conduction and ion transport process in the nanocomposites. Thirdly, they enhance the electrochemical and electrochromic properties of the nanocomposites. In this paper, we review the common interfacial interactions including covalent bond, coordination bond, electrostatic interaction, hydrogen bond and π-π stacking interaction between the organic and inorganic phases in the electrochromic nanocomposites. The preparation method, the relationship between the structure and properties, and the mechanism of modulation of electrochromic effect in the nanocomposites with various interfacial interactions are surveyed. The strong interfacial interaction, e.g., covalent bond, is helpful for obtaining electrochromic nanocomposites with high electron conduction and high structural strength. However it is very complicated to construct covalent bond between the organic and inorganic phases. Another strong interfacial interaction, the coordination bond is mainly confined to preparation of electrochromic complex of metal ion and pyridine derivative. While, the weak interfacial interactions, e

  19. Electrochromism for organic materials in polymeric all-solid-state systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Yoshihiko; Tani, Chizuka

    1983-10-01

    This letter reports a new electrochromic polymeric film system consisting of a polymer, an electrochromic (EC) dye which is pyrazoline or tetrathiafulvalene (TTF), and lithium perchlorate (LiClO4). The electrochromic cell structure is glass/ITO/polymeric EC film/Au film. The cell using pyrazoline as an EC dye exhibited yellow coloration at 1.0 V and the cell with TTF exhibited red coloration at 3.5 V. These cells exhibited memory.

  20. Development of a New Stretchable and Screen Printable Conductive Ink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Anwar A.

    Stretchable conductive ink is a key enabler for stretchable electronics. This thesis research focuses on the development of a new stretchable and screen printable conductive ink. After print and cure, this ink would be capable of being stretched by at least 500 cycles at 20% strain without increasing its resistance by more than 30 times the original resistance, while maintaining electrical and mechanical integrity. For a stretchable and screen-printable conductive ink, the correct morphology of the metal powder selected and the ability of the binder to be stretched after the sintering process, are both indispensable. This research has shown that a bi-modal mixture of fine and large-diameter silver flakes will improve stretchability. While the smaller flakes increase the conductivity and lower the sintering temperature, the larger flake particles promote ohmic connectivity during stretching. The bi-modal flake distribution increases connection points while enhancing packing density and lowering the thermal activation barrier. The polymer binder phase plays a crucial role in offering stretchability to the stretchable conductive inks. The silver flakes by themselves are not stretchable but they are contained within a stretchable binder system. The research demonstrates that commonly used printable ink binder when combined with large-chain polymers through a process known as 'elastomeric chain polymerization' will enable the conductive ink to become more stretchable. This research has shown that the new stretchable and screen printable silver conductive ink developed based upon the two insights mentioned above; (1) bi modal flakes to improve ohmic connectivity during stretching and (2) elastomeric chain polymerized binder system which could stretch even after the ink is sintered to the substrate, can exhibit an ink stretchability of at least 500 cycles at 20% strain while increasing the resistance by less than 30 times the original resistance. Wavy print patterns can

  1. Printable, flexible and stretchable diamond for thermal management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, John A; Kim, Tae Ho; Choi, Won Mook; Kim, Dae Hyeong; Meitl, Matthew; Menard, Etienne; Carlisle, John

    2013-06-25

    Various heat-sinked components and methods of making heat-sinked components are disclosed where diamond in thermal contact with one or more heat-generating components are capable of dissipating heat, thereby providing thermally-regulated components. Thermally conductive diamond is provided in patterns capable of providing efficient and maximum heat transfer away from components that may be susceptible to damage by elevated temperatures. The devices and methods are used to cool flexible electronics, integrated circuits and other complex electronics that tend to generate significant heat. Also provided are methods of making printable diamond patterns that can be used in a range of devices and device components.

  2. Fabrication of PLA Filaments and its Printable Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjie; Zhou, Jianping; Ma, Yuming; Wang, Jie; Xu, Jie

    2017-12-01

    Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is a typical 3D printing technology and preparation of qualified filaments is the basis. In order to prepare polylactic acid (PLA) filaments suitable for personalized FDM 3D printing, this article investigated the effect of factors such as extrusion temperature and screw speed on the diameter, surface roughness and ultimate tensile stress of the obtained PLA filaments. The optimal process parameters for fabrication of qualified filaments were determined. Further, the printable performance of the obtained PLA filaments for 3D objects was preliminarily explored.

  3. Variable Emissivity Electrochromics Using Ionic Electrolytes and Low Solar Absorptance Coatings, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In recent work, this firm developed a highly promising, patented variable emittance technology based on electrochromic Conducting Polymers, with: (1) Thin ( 105...

  4. Variable Emissivity Electrochromics using Ionic Electrolytes and Low Solar Absorptance Coatings, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This work further developed a highly promising variable emissivity technology for spacecraft thermal control, based on unique conducting polymer (CP) electrochromics...

  5. 3D Printability of Alginate-Carboxymethyl Cellulose Hydrogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Ahasan; Sathish, Venkatachalem; Mallik, Sanku; Khoda, Bashir

    2018-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) bio-printing is a revolutionary technology to reproduce a 3D functional living tissue scaffold in-vitro through controlled layer-by-layer deposition of biomaterials along with high precision positioning of cells. Due to its bio-compatibility, natural hydrogels are commonly considered as the scaffold material. However, the mechanical integrity of a hydrogel material, especially in 3D scaffold architecture, is an issue. In this research, a novel hybrid hydrogel, that is, sodium alginate with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) is developed and systematic quantitative characterization tests are conducted to validate its printability, shape fidelity and cell viability. The outcome of the rheological and mechanical test, filament collapse and fusion test demonstrate the favorable shape fidelity. Three-dimensional scaffold structures are fabricated with the pancreatic cancer cell, BxPC3 and the 86% cell viability is recorded after 23 days. This hybrid hydrogel can be a potential biomaterial in 3D bioprinting process and the outlined characterization techniques open an avenue directing reproducible printability and shape fidelity. PMID:29558424

  6. 3D Printability of Alginate-Carboxymethyl Cellulose Hydrogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahasan Habib

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D bio-printing is a revolutionary technology to reproduce a 3D functional living tissue scaffold in-vitro through controlled layer-by-layer deposition of biomaterials along with high precision positioning of cells. Due to its bio-compatibility, natural hydrogels are commonly considered as the scaffold material. However, the mechanical integrity of a hydrogel material, especially in 3D scaffold architecture, is an issue. In this research, a novel hybrid hydrogel, that is, sodium alginate with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC is developed and systematic quantitative characterization tests are conducted to validate its printability, shape fidelity and cell viability. The outcome of the rheological and mechanical test, filament collapse and fusion test demonstrate the favorable shape fidelity. Three-dimensional scaffold structures are fabricated with the pancreatic cancer cell, BxPC3 and the 86% cell viability is recorded after 23 days. This hybrid hydrogel can be a potential biomaterial in 3D bioprinting process and the outlined characterization techniques open an avenue directing reproducible printability and shape fidelity.

  7. Research on the printability of hydrogels in 3D bioprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yong; Yang, Feifei; Zhao, Haiming; Gao, Qing; Xia, Bing; Fu, Jianzhong

    2016-07-01

    As the biocompatible materials, hydrogels have been widely used in three- dimensional (3D) bioprinting/organ printing to load cell for tissue engineering. It is important to precisely control hydrogels deposition during printing the mimic organ structures. However, the printability of hydrogels about printing parameters is seldom addressed. In this paper, we systemically investigated the printability of hydrogels from printing lines (one dimensional, 1D structures) to printing lattices/films (two dimensional, 2D structures) and printing 3D structures with a special attention to the accurate printing. After a series of experiments, we discovered the relationships between the important factors such as air pressure, feedrate, or even printing distance and the printing quality of the expected structures. Dumbbell shape was observed in the lattice structures printing due to the hydrogel diffuses at the intersection. Collapses and fusion of adjacent layer would result in the error accumulation at Z direction which was an important fact that could cause printing failure. Finally, we successfully demonstrated a 3D printing hydrogel scaffold through harmonize with all the parameters. The cell viability after printing was compared with the casting and the results showed that our bioprinting method almost had no extra damage to the cells.

  8. 3D Printability of Alginate-Carboxymethyl Cellulose Hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Ahasan; Sathish, Venkatachalem; Mallik, Sanku; Khoda, Bashir

    2018-03-20

    Three-dimensional (3D) bio-printing is a revolutionary technology to reproduce a 3D functional living tissue scaffold in-vitro through controlled layer-by-layer deposition of biomaterials along with high precision positioning of cells. Due to its bio-compatibility, natural hydrogels are commonly considered as the scaffold material. However, the mechanical integrity of a hydrogel material, especially in 3D scaffold architecture, is an issue. In this research, a novel hybrid hydrogel, that is, sodium alginate with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) is developed and systematic quantitative characterization tests are conducted to validate its printability, shape fidelity and cell viability. The outcome of the rheological and mechanical test, filament collapse and fusion test demonstrate the favorable shape fidelity. Three-dimensional scaffold structures are fabricated with the pancreatic cancer cell, BxPC3 and the 86% cell viability is recorded after 23 days. This hybrid hydrogel can be a potential biomaterial in 3D bioprinting process and the outlined characterization techniques open an avenue directing reproducible printability and shape fidelity.

  9. Assist feature printability prediction by 3-D resist profile reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xin; Huang, Jensheng; Chin, Fook; Kazarian, Aram; Kuo, Chun-Chieh

    2012-06-01

    Sub-resolution Assist Features (SRAFs) are powerful tools to enhance the focus margin of drawn patterns. SRAFs are placed and sized so they do not print on the wafer, but the larger the SRAF, the more effective it becomes at enhancing through-focus stability. The size and location of an SRAF that will image on a wafer is highly dependent upon neighboring patterns and models of SRAF printability are, at present, unreliable. Model-based SRAF placement has been used to enhance resolution at 20nm node processes and below with stringent requirements that inserted SRAFs will not be imaged on wafer. However, despite widespread SRAF use and hard data as to SRAF effectiveness, it has been very difficult to develop a process model that accurately predicts under what process conditions an SRAF will image on a wafer. More accurate models of SRAF printing should allow model based SRAF placement to be relaxed, resulting in more effective SRAF placement and broader focus margins. One of the first problems with the concept of SRAF printability is the definition of an SRAF printing on a wafer. This is not obvious because two different states of printing exist. The first print state is when a residue is left on a wafer from the SRAF. The first state can be considered printing from the point of view that photoresist is on the wafer and the photoresist may even lift off and cause defects. However, the first state can be considered non-printing because the over etch from the etch process will generally remove the photoresist residual and the material underneath. The second state is when a pattern is formed and etched into the substrate, a state at which the pattern has clearly printed on the wafer. Of course, intermediate states may also be defined. In order to be applicable, an SRAF printability model must be able to predict both printing states. In addition, the model must be able to extrapolate to configurations beyond those used to develop the model in the first place. These model

  10. Classification and printability of EUV mask defects from SEM images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Wonil; Price, Daniel; Morgan, Paul A.; Rost, Daniel; Satake, Masaki; Tolani, Vikram L.

    2017-10-01

    Classification and Printability of EUV Mask Defects from SEM images EUV lithography is starting to show more promise for patterning some critical layers at 5nm technology node and beyond. However, there still are many key technical obstacles to overcome before bringing EUV Lithography into high volume manufacturing (HVM). One of the greatest obstacles is manufacturing defect-free masks. For pattern defect inspections in the mask-shop, cutting-edge 193nm optical inspection tools have been used so far due to lacking any e-beam mask inspection (EBMI) or EUV actinic pattern inspection (API) tools. The main issue with current 193nm inspection tools is the limited resolution for mask dimensions targeted for EUV patterning. The theoretical resolution limit for 193nm mask inspection tools is about 60nm HP on masks, which means that main feature sizes on EUV masks will be well beyond the practical resolution of 193nm inspection tools. Nevertheless, 193nm inspection tools with various illumination conditions that maximize defect sensitivity and/or main-pattern modulation are being explored for initial EUV defect detection. Due to the generally low signal-to-noise in the 193nm inspection imaging at EUV patterning dimensions, these inspections often result in hundreds and thousands of defects which then need to be accurately reviewed and dispositioned. Manually reviewing each defect is difficult due to poor resolution. In addition, the lack of a reliable aerial dispositioning system makes it very challenging to disposition for printability. In this paper, we present the use of SEM images of EUV masks for higher resolution review and disposition of defects. In this approach, most of the defects detected by the 193nm inspection tools are first imaged on a mask SEM tool. These images together with the corresponding post-OPC design clips are provided to KLA-Tencor's Reticle Decision Center (RDC) platform which provides ADC (Automated Defect Classification) and S2A (SEM

  11. Gel electrolytes with ionic liquid plasticiser for electrochromic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, S.; Shepherd, R.L.; Innis, P.C.; Murphy, P.; Hall, C.; Fabretto, R.; Wallace, G.G.

    2011-01-01

    The comparative performance of conducting polymer electrochromic devices (ECDs) utilising gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) plasticised with ethylene carbonate/propylene carbonate or (N-butyl-3-methylpyridinium trifluoromethanesulphonylimide (P 14 TFSI) has been made. Lithium perchlorate and lithium trifluoromethanesulphonylimide salts were used in the GPEs to provide enhanced ionic conductivity and inhibit phase separation of the polyethyleneoxide (PEO) and plasticiser. ECDs were assembled from cathodically colouring, polyethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT), and anodically colouring, polypyrrole (PPy), conducting polymer electrochromes deposited by vapour deposition. The photopic contrast switching over the visible light spectrum, switching speeds and device stability of the ECDs were obtained. These studies demonstrate that the ionic liquid (IL) plasticised GPEs are a suitable replacement for pure IL based devices and volatile organic solvent plasticisers based upon ethylene carbonate/propylene carbonate mixtures.

  12. Gel electrolytes with ionic liquid plasticiser for electrochromic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, S.; Shepherd, R.L.; Innis, P.C. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, University of Wollongong, Northfields Avenue, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Murphy, P. [Ian Wark Research Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Mawson Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Hall, C.; Fabretto, R. [Ian Wark Research Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Wallace, G.G., E-mail: gwallace@uow.edu.a [ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, University of Wollongong, Northfields Avenue, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)

    2011-04-15

    The comparative performance of conducting polymer electrochromic devices (ECDs) utilising gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) plasticised with ethylene carbonate/propylene carbonate or (N-butyl-3-methylpyridinium trifluoromethanesulphonylimide (P{sub 14}TFSI) has been made. Lithium perchlorate and lithium trifluoromethanesulphonylimide salts were used in the GPEs to provide enhanced ionic conductivity and inhibit phase separation of the polyethyleneoxide (PEO) and plasticiser. ECDs were assembled from cathodically colouring, polyethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT), and anodically colouring, polypyrrole (PPy), conducting polymer electrochromes deposited by vapour deposition. The photopic contrast switching over the visible light spectrum, switching speeds and device stability of the ECDs were obtained. These studies demonstrate that the ionic liquid (IL) plasticised GPEs are a suitable replacement for pure IL based devices and volatile organic solvent plasticisers based upon ethylene carbonate/propylene carbonate mixtures.

  13. Assembly of tungsten oxide nanobundles and their electrochromic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Xueting; Sun Shibin; Li Zhenjiang; Xu Xiao; Qiu Yanyan

    2011-01-01

    Lenticular W 18 O 49 nanobundles composed of ultra-thin nanowires with diameters of 5-10 nm have been synthesized through a simple solvothermal method with hexachloride as precursor and mixed cyclohexanol and ethanol as solvent. Electrochromic films were prepared by assembling the W 18 O 49 nanobundle suspension onto tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) coated glass. Results showed that self-assembly of the W 18 O 49 nanobundles was strongly influenced by the solvents employed to disperse the nanobundles. The W 18 O 49 nanobundles coated films exhibited excellent electrochromic stability and reversibility. The W 18 O 49 nanobundle films also showed much higher charge-insertion density compared with the WO 3 nanorod film, which may be due to the ultrathin feature of single nanowires constituting the nanobundles, unique oxygen vacancies of monoclinic W 18 O 49 , and the highly ordered assembly of the nanobundles.

  14. A Paper-Based Electrochromic Array for Visualized Electrochemical Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengling Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a battery-powered, paper-based electrochromic array for visualized electrochemical sensing. The paper-based sensing system consists of six parallel electrochemical cells, which are powered by an aluminum-air battery. Each single electrochemical cell uses a Prussian Blue spot electrodeposited on an indium-doped tin oxide thin film as the electrochromic indicator. Each electrochemical cell is preloaded with increasing amounts of analyte. The sample activates the battery for the sensing. Both the preloaded analyte and the analyte in the sample initiate the color change of Prussian Blue to Prussian White. With a reaction time of 60 s, the number of electrochemical cells with complete color changes is correlated to the concentration of analyte in the sample. As a proof-of-concept analyte, lactic acid was detected semi-quantitatively using the naked eye.

  15. A Paper-Based Electrochromic Array for Visualized Electrochemical Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengling; Cai, Tianyi; Ma, Liang; Zhan, Liyuan; Liu, Hong

    2017-01-31

    We report a battery-powered, paper-based electrochromic array for visualized electrochemical sensing. The paper-based sensing system consists of six parallel electrochemical cells, which are powered by an aluminum-air battery. Each single electrochemical cell uses a Prussian Blue spot electrodeposited on an indium-doped tin oxide thin film as the electrochromic indicator. Each electrochemical cell is preloaded with increasing amounts of analyte. The sample activates the battery for the sensing. Both the preloaded analyte and the analyte in the sample initiate the color change of Prussian Blue to Prussian White. With a reaction time of 60 s, the number of electrochemical cells with complete color changes is correlated to the concentration of analyte in the sample. As a proof-of-concept analyte, lactic acid was detected semi-quantitatively using the naked eye.

  16. Electrochromism and local order in amorphous WO/sub 3/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeller, H R; Beyeler, H U

    1977-06-01

    WO/sub 3/ films prepared under different conditions (evaporation, reactive sputtering and spraying of aqueous solutions of metatungstic acid) differ by orders of magnitude in their electrochromic sensitivity. Diffuse X-ray studies show the evaporated and sputtered films to be amorphous and to consists of a disordered network of corner sharing WO/sub 6/ octahedra. Sprayed films have different degrees of crystallinity depending on spraying conditions. From differential scanning calorimetry we conclude that the crystal water present in most films strongly affects the local order of the corner sharing octahedra. We find that crystal water not only provides a high ionic conductivity which is conditional for a fast electrochromic reaction but also stabilises electrocatalytically active surface sites for fast hydrogen or Li exchange with the adjacent electrolyte.

  17. Patterned polyaniline encapsulated in titania nanotubes for electrochromism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Haiming; Wang, Yi; Pan, Lei; Zhang, Leipeng; Zhang, Hangchuan; Shang, Lei; Qu, Huiying; Li, Na; Zhao, Jiupeng; Li, Yao

    2018-02-21

    In this article, we report the preparation of a TiO 2 nanotube array (TNA) film used as a transparent electrochromic material and a TNA/polyaniline patterned hybrid electrochromic film utilized as an information display material. The TNA film was fabricated by an anodizing process, and a surface patterned TNA with extreme wettability contrast (hydrophilic/hydrophobic) on a TNA surface through self-assembly (SAM) and photocatalytic lithography is fabricated. Then the TNA/polyaniline hybrid film was prepared by electrodeposition of aniline in an aqueous solution. Finally, the electrochromic properties of the TNA film and the TNA/polyaniline hybrid film were investigated. Compared with neat TNA film and polyaniline (PANI) films, the hybrid film shows a much higher optical contrast in the near infrared range. The TNA/polyaniline hybrid film shows higher coloration efficiencies of 24.4 cm 2 C -1 at a wavelength of 700 nm and 17.1 cm 2 C -1 at a wavelength of 1050 nm compared to the TNA coloration efficiency. The color switching time (20.9 s or 22.9 s) of TNA/polyaniline is faster than TNA.

  18. Color combination of conductive polymers for black electrochromism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Haijin; Kim, Yuna; Bhuvana, Thiruvelu; Lee, Jiyea; Yang, Xu; Park, Cheolmin; Kim, Eunkyoung

    2012-01-01

    Conducting polymers that absorb three primary colors, red, green, and blue (RGB), were introduced with a yellow electrochromic polymer (Y) for the preparation of black electrochromic devices. Red poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and blue poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) were coated on one side of the electrode as a cathodically coloring electrochromic (EC) layer, while green poly(aniline-N-butylsulfonate) (PANBS) and yellow EC poly{[1,3-bis(9',9'-dihexylfluoren-20-yl)azulenyl]-alt-[2",7"-(9",9"-dihexylfluorenyl]} (PDHFA) were coated on the opposite electrode to complete a complementary EC device. The yellow PDHFA layer effectively compensated for absorption below 450 nm and above the 600 nm region, which was lacking in the RGB electrode. The resultant RGBY ECD provided a black color near the CIE black with L*, a*, and b* values of 32, -1.1, and 3.7, respectively, covering a broad absorption in the visible range in the colored state. The state of the black EC device was maintained, even after the electricity was turned off for 200 h, showing stable memory effect. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  19. Polyaniline/Carbon nanotube Electrochromic Films: Electrochemical Polymerization and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Xia; Zhao, Liang; Ma, De-Yue; Zeng, Yu-Run

    2018-02-01

    Polyaniline/Carbon nanotube (PANI/CNT) composite films doped with dodecyl-benzene sulfonic acid were synthesized by cyclic voltammetry on an ITO-coated glass substrate. FTIR, XRD and electrochemical analyzer were used to characterize the micro-morphology, chemical structure, crystallinity and electrochromic behavior of the films, respectively. The effect of CNT content on the properties of the films was investigated. Results show that the introducing CNTs make aniline polymerize easier than before. Within a range, the conductivity and crystallinity of PANI/CNT composites improves with CNT content increasing. The electrochromic device made from the PAN/CNT film with a CNT content of 2.5wt% presents a reflectance contrast of 38.8%, a mean response time of 2.3s and a coloration efficiency of 386.4cm2/C at 540nm. The PAN/CNT film shows better electrochromic behaviors due to some interaction between CNTs and the PANI backbones than PANI film.

  20. An UV photochromic memory effect in proton-based WO3 electrochromic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yong; Lee, S.-H.; Mascarenhas, A.; Deb, S. K.

    2008-01-01

    We report an UV photochromic memory effect on a standard proton-based WO 3 electrochromic device. It exhibits two memory states, associated with the colored and bleached states of the device, respectively. Such an effect can be used to enhance device performance (increasing the dynamic range), re-energize commercial electrochromic devices, and develop memory devices

  1. An UV photochromic memory effect in proton-based WO3 electrochromic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Lee, S.-H.; Mascarenhas, A.; Deb, S. K.

    2008-11-01

    We report an UV photochromic memory effect on a standard proton-based WO3 electrochromic device. It exhibits two memory states, associated with the colored and bleached states of the device, respectively. Such an effect can be used to enhance device performance (increasing the dynamic range), re-energize commercial electrochromic devices, and develop memory devices.

  2. Printable Spacecraft: Flexible Electronic Platforms for NASA Missions. Phase One

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Kendra (Principal Investigator); Van Buren, David (Principal Investigator)

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric confetti. Inchworm crawlers. Blankets of ground penetrating radar. These are some of the unique mission concepts which could be enabled by a printable spacecraft. Printed electronics technology offers enormous potential to transform the way NASA builds spacecraft. A printed spacecraft's low mass, volume and cost offer dramatic potential impacts to many missions. Network missions could increase from a few discrete measurements to tens of thousands of platforms improving areal density and system reliability. Printed platforms could be added to any prime mission as a low-cost, minimum resource secondary payload to augment the science return. For a small fraction of the mass and cost of a traditional lander, a Europa flagship mission might carry experimental printed surface platforms. An Enceladus Explorer could carry feather-light printed platforms to release into volcanic plumes to measure composition and impact energies. The ability to print circuits directly onto a variety of surfaces, opens the possibility of multi-functional structures and membranes such as "smart" solar sails and balloons. The inherent flexibility of a printed platform allows for in-situ re-configurability for aerodynamic control or mobility. Engineering telemetry of wheel/soil interactions are possible with a conformal printed sensor tape fit around a rover wheel. Environmental time history within a sample return canister could be recorded with a printed sensor array that fits flush to the interior of the canister. Phase One of the NIAC task entitled "Printable Spacecraft" investigated the viability of printed electronics technologies for creating multi-functional spacecraft platforms. Mission concepts and architectures that could be enhanced or enabled with this technology were explored. This final report captures the results and conclusions of the Phase One study. First, the report presents the approach taken in conducting the study and a mapping of results against the proposed

  3. Electrochromic Windows: Process and Fabrication Improvements for Lower Total Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Burdis; Neil Sbar

    2007-03-31

    The overall goal with respect to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to achieve significant national energy savings through maximized penetration of EC windows into existing markets so that the largest cumulative energy reduction can be realized. The speed with which EC windows can be introduced and replace current IGU's (and current glazings) is clearly a strong function of cost. Therefore, the aim of this project was to investigate possible improvements to the SageGlass{reg_sign} EC glazing products to facilitate both process and fabrication improvements resulting in lower overall costs. The project was split into four major areas dealing with improvements to the electrochromic layer, the capping layer, defect elimination and general product improvements. Significant advancements have been made in each of the four areas. These can be summarized as follows: (1) Plasma assisted deposition for the electrochromic layer was pursued, and several improvements made to the technology for producing a plasma beam were made. Functional EC devices were produced using the new technology, but there are still questions to be answered regarding the intrinsic properties of the electrochromic films produced by this method. (2) The capping layer work was successfully implemented into the existing SageGlass{reg_sign} product, thereby providing a higher level of transparency and somewhat lower reflectivity than the 'standard' product. (3) Defect elimination is an ongoing effort, but this project spurred some major defect reduction programs, which led to significant improvements in yield, with all the implicit benefits afforded. In particular, major advances were made in the development of a new bus bar application process aimed at reducing the numbers of 'shorts' developed in the finished product, as well as making dramatic improvements in the methods used for tempering the glass, which had previously been seen to produce a defect which appeared as a

  4. 3D Printable Filaments Made of Biobased Polyethylene Biocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Filgueira

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Two different series of biobased polyethylene (BioPE were used for the manufacturing of biocomposites, complemented with thermomechanical pulp (TMP fibers. The intrinsic hydrophilic character of the TMP fibers was previously modified by grafting hydrophobic compounds (octyl gallate and lauryl gallate by means of an enzymatic-assisted treatment. BioPE with low melt flow index (MFI yielded filaments with low void fraction and relatively low thickness variation. The water absorption of the biocomposites was remarkably improved when the enzymatically-hydrophobized TMP fibers were used. Importantly, the 3D printing of BioPE was improved by adding 10% and 20% TMP fibers to the composition. Thus, 3D printable biocomposites with low water uptake can be manufactured by using fully biobased materials and environmentally-friendly processes.

  5. 3D-Printable Bioactivated Nanocellulose-Alginate Hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppiniemi, Jenni; Lahtinen, Panu; Paajanen, Antti; Mahlberg, Riitta; Metsä-Kortelainen, Sini; Pinomaa, Tatu; Pajari, Heikki; Vikholm-Lundin, Inger; Pursula, Pekka; Hytönen, Vesa P

    2017-07-05

    We describe herein a nanocellulose-alginate hydrogel suitable for 3D printing. The composition of the hydrogel was optimized based on material characterization methods and 3D printing experiments, and its behavior during the printing process was studied using computational fluid dynamics simulations. The hydrogel was biofunctionalized by the covalent coupling of an enhanced avidin protein to the cellulose nanofibrils. Ionic cross-linking of the hydrogel using calcium ions improved the performance of the material. The resulting hydrogel is suitable for 3D printing, its mechanical properties indicate good tissue compatibility, and the hydrogel absorbs water in moist conditions, suggesting potential in applications such as wound dressings. The biofunctionalization potential was shown by attaching a biotinylated fluorescent protein and a biotinylated fluorescent small molecule via avidin and monitoring the material using confocal microscopy. The 3D-printable bioactivated nanocellulose-alginate hydrogel offers a platform for the development of biomedical devices, wearable sensors, and drug-releasing materials.

  6. Materials Properties of Printable Edible Inks and Printing Parameters Optimization during 3D Printing: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chunyan; Zhang, Min; Bhandari, Bhesh

    2018-06-01

    Interest in additive manufacture has grown significantly in recent years, driving a need for printable materials that can sustain high strains and still fulfill their function in applications such as tissue engineering, regenerative medicine field, food engineering and field of aerospace, etc. As an emerging and promising technology, 3Dprinting has attracted more and more attention with fast manipulation, reduce production cost, customize geometry, increase competitiveness and advantages in many hot research areas. Many researchers have done a lot of investigations on printable materials, ranging from a single material to composite material. Main content: This review focuses on the contents of printable edible inks. It also gathers and analyzes information on the effects of printable edible ink material properties on 3D print accuracy. In addition, it discusses the impact of printing parameters on accurate printing, and puts forward current challenges and recommendations for future research and development.

  7. A stretchable and screen-printable conductive ink for stretchable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Anwar; Pecht, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Stretchable electronics can offer an added degree of design freedom and generate products with unprecedented capabilities. Stretchable conductive ink serving as interconnect, is a key enabler for stretchable electronics. This paper focuses on the development of a stretchable and screen printable conductive ink which could be stretched more than 500 cycles at 20% strain while maintaining electrical and mechanical integrity. The screen printable and stretchable conductive ink developed in this paper marks an important milestone for this nascent technology.

  8. Programmatic conversion of crystal structures into 3D printable files using Jmol

    OpenAIRE

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Williams, Antony J.; Tkachenko, Valery; Karapetyan, Karen; Pshenichnov, Alexey; Hanson, Robert M.; Liddie, Jahred M.; Bara, Jason E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Three-dimensional (3D) printed crystal structures are useful for chemistry teaching and research. Current manual methods of converting crystal structures into 3D printable files are time-consuming and tedious. To overcome this limitation, we developed a programmatic method that allows for facile conversion of thousands of crystal structures directly into 3D printable files. Results A collection of over 30,000 crystal structures in crystallographic information file (CIF) format from...

  9. Electrochromic Ni–Fe oxide thin films synthesized by an atmospheric pressure plasma jet for flexible electrochromic application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yun-Sen, E-mail: yslin@fcu.edu.tw; Chuang, Pei-Ying; Shie, Ping-Shiun

    2014-11-03

    Flexible-electrochromic organo-nickel-iron oxide (NiFe{sub x}O{sub y}C{sub z}) films deposited onto flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET)/indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates using atmospheric-pressure plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition with an atmospheric pressure plasma jet under various flow rates of oxygen gases are investigated. Precursors [nickelocence, Ni(C{sub 5}H{sub 5}){sub 2}] and [ferrocence, Fe(C{sub 5}H{sub 5}){sub 2}] vapors are carried by argon gas, mixed by oxygen gas and injected into air plasma torch for a rapid synthesis of NiFe{sub x}O{sub y}C{sub z} films by a short duration of the substrate, 32 s, in the plasmas. Uniform light modulation on PET/ITO/NiFe{sub x}O{sub y}C{sub z} is produced while the moving PET/ITO substrate is exposed to plasma torch at room temperature (∼ 23 °C) and atmospheric pressure. Light modulation with up to a 43.2% transmittance variation at a wavelength of 708 nm even after 200 cycles of Li{sup +} intercalation and de-intercalation in a 1 M LiClO{sub 4}-propylene carbonate electrolyte is accomplished. - Highlights: • Rapid deposition of electrochromic organo-nickel–iron oxide (NiFe{sub x}O{sub y}C{sub z}) films • Enhanced electrochromic performance of NiFe{sub x}O{sub y}C{sub z} films by oxygen gas addition • Uniform light modulation on NiFe{sub x}O{sub y}C{sub z} films produced by air plasma jet • Porous surfaces allow reversible Li{sup +} intercalation and deintercalation.

  10. Hole-Transporting Materials for Printable Perovskite Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Vivo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Perovskite solar cells (PSCs represent undoubtedly the most significant breakthrough in photovoltaic technology since the 1970s, with an increase in their power conversion efficiency from less than 5% to over 22% in just a few years. Hole-transporting materials (HTMs are an essential building block of PSC architectures. Currently, 2,2’,7,7’-tetrakis-(N,N’-di-p-methoxyphenylamine-9,9’-spirobifluorene, better known as spiro-OMeTAD, is the most widely-used HTM to obtain high-efficiency devices. However, it is a tremendously expensive material with mediocre hole carrier mobility. To ensure wide-scale application of PSC-based technologies, alternative HTMs are being proposed. Solution-processable HTMs are crucial to develop inexpensive, high-throughput and printable large-area PSCs. In this review, we present the most recent advances in the design and development of different types of HTMs, with a particular focus on mesoscopic PSCs. Finally, we outline possible future research directions for further optimization of the HTMs to achieve low-cost, stable and large-area PSCs.

  11. Printable low-cost sensor systems for healthcare smart textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Pratyush; Kumar, Prashanth S.; Oh, Sechang; Kwon, Hyeokjun; Mathur, Gyanesh N.; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2011-04-01

    Smart textiles-based wearable health monitoring systems (ST-HMS) have been presented as elegant solutions to the requirements of individuals across a wide range of ages. They can be used to monitor young or elderly recuperating /convalescent patients either in hospital or at home, or they can be used by young athletes to monitor important physiological parameters to better design their training or fitness program. Business and academic interests, all over the world, have fueled a great deal of work in the development of this technology since 1990. However, two important impediments to the development of ST-HMS are:-integration of flexible electrodes, flexible sensors, signal conditioning circuits and data logging or wireless transmission devices into a seamless garment and a means to mass manufacture the same, while keeping the costs low. Roll-to-roll printing and screen printing are two low cost methods for large scale manufacturing on flexible substrates and can be extended to textiles as well. These two methods are, currently, best suited for planar structures. The sensors, integrated with wireless telemetry, facilitate development of a ST-HMS that allows for unobtrusive health monitoring. In this paper, we present our results with planar screen printable sensors based on conductive inks which can be used to monitor EKG, abdominal respiration effort, blood pressure, pulse rate and body temperature. The sensor systems were calibrated, and tested for sensitivity, reliability and robustness to ensure reuse after washing cycles.

  12. Towards a fully printable battery: robocast deposition of separators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atanassov, Plamen Borissov; Fenton, Kyle Ross; Apblett, Christopher Alan

    2010-01-01

    The development of thin batteries has presented several interesting problems which are not seen in traditional battery sizes. As the size of a battery reaches a minimum, the usable capacity of the battery decreases due to the fact that the major constituent of the battery becomes the package and separator. As the size decreases, the volumetric contribution from the package and separator increases. This can result in a reduction of capacity from these types of batteries of nearly all of the available power. The development of a method for directly printing the battery layers, including the package, in place would help to alleviate this problem. The technology used in this paper to directly print battery components is known as robocasting and is capable of direct writing of slurries in complex geometries. This method is also capable of conformally printing on three dimensional surfaces, opening up the possibility of novel batteries based on tailoring battery footprints to conform to the available substrate geometry. Interfacial resistance can also be reduced by using the direct write method. Each layer is printed in place on the battery stack instead of being stacked one at a time. This ensures an intimate contact and seal at every interface within the cell. By limiting the resistance at these interfaces, we effectively help increase the useable capacity of our battery through increase transport capability. We have developed methodology for printing several different separator materials for use in a lithium cell. When combined with a printable cathode comprised of LiFePO 4 (as seen in Figure 1) and a lithium anode, our battery is capable of delivering a theoretical capacity of 170 mAh g -1 . This capacity is diminished by transport phenomena within the cell which limit the transport rate of the lithium ions during the discharge cycle. The material set chosen for the printable separator closely resemble those used in commercially available separators in order to keep

  13. Transparent and Printable Regenerated Kenaf Cellulose/PVA Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatika Kaco

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose was extracted from kenaf core powder by a series of bleaching processes and subsequently dissolved using an alkaline LiOH/urea solvent at low temperatures. The produced cellulose solution was mixed with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA with different ratios of cellulose/PVA and coagulated to produce regenerated transparent films. The films were then air dried to produce transparent film. The effects of PVA content on tensile index, transparency, pore size, and printability of the films were studied. A slight reduction of 7% on the tensile index of the film was observed when the content of PVA increased to 10%. Nevertheless, the addition of 10% of PVA increased the porosity of the regenerated cellulose/PVA film, while the transparency of the film increased by 10%. The films were color-printed using a laser printer and can be recycled, in which the printed ink can be removed easily from the films with higher amount of PVA content. In addition, the films can be reprinted repeatedly several times.

  14. Hole-Transporting Materials for Printable Perovskite Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salunke, Jagadish K.; Priimagi, Arri

    2017-01-01

    Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) represent undoubtedly the most significant breakthrough in photovoltaic technology since the 1970s, with an increase in their power conversion efficiency from less than 5% to over 22% in just a few years. Hole-transporting materials (HTMs) are an essential building block of PSC architectures. Currently, 2,2’,7,7’-tetrakis-(N,N’-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,9’-spirobifluorene), better known as spiro-OMeTAD, is the most widely-used HTM to obtain high-efficiency devices. However, it is a tremendously expensive material with mediocre hole carrier mobility. To ensure wide-scale application of PSC-based technologies, alternative HTMs are being proposed. Solution-processable HTMs are crucial to develop inexpensive, high-throughput and printable large-area PSCs. In this review, we present the most recent advances in the design and development of different types of HTMs, with a particular focus on mesoscopic PSCs. Finally, we outline possible future research directions for further optimization of the HTMs to achieve low-cost, stable and large-area PSCs. PMID:28914823

  15. Printable and Rewritable Full Block Copolymer Structural Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Han Sol; Lee, Jinseong; Cho, Suk Man; Park, Tae Hyun; Kim, Min Ju; Park, Chanho; Lee, Seung Won; Kim, Kang Lib; Ryu, Du Yeol; Huh, June; Thomas, Edwin L; Park, Cheolmin

    2017-08-01

    Structural colors (SCs) of photonic crystals (PCs) arise from selective constructive interference of incident light. Here, an ink-jet printable and rewritable block copolymer (BCP) SC display is demonstrated, which can be quickly written and erased over 50 times with resolution nearly equivalent to that obtained with a commercial office ink-jet printer. Moreover, the writing process employs an easily modified printer for position- and concentration-controlled deposition of a single, colorless, water-based ink containing a reversible crosslinking agent, ammonium persulfate. Deposition of the ink onto a self-assembled BCP PC film comprising a 1D stack of alternating layers enables differential swelling of the written BCP film and produces a full-colored SC display of characters and images. Furthermore, the information can be readily erased and the system can be reset by application of hydrogen bromide. Subsequently, new information can be rewritten, resulting in a chemically rewritable BCP SC display. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Assembly of tungsten oxide nanobundles and their electrochromic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang Xueting, E-mail: xuetingchang@yahoo.cn [Institute of Marine Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai 200135 (China); College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266061 (China); Sun Shibin [Institute of Marine Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai 200135 (China); College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266061 (China); Li Zhenjiang; Xu Xiao; Qiu Yanyan [College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266061 (China)

    2011-04-15

    Lenticular W{sub 18}O{sub 49} nanobundles composed of ultra-thin nanowires with diameters of 5-10 nm have been synthesized through a simple solvothermal method with hexachloride as precursor and mixed cyclohexanol and ethanol as solvent. Electrochromic films were prepared by assembling the W{sub 18}O{sub 49} nanobundle suspension onto tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) coated glass. Results showed that self-assembly of the W{sub 18}O{sub 49} nanobundles was strongly influenced by the solvents employed to disperse the nanobundles. The W{sub 18}O{sub 49} nanobundles coated films exhibited excellent electrochromic stability and reversibility. The W{sub 18}O{sub 49} nanobundle films also showed much higher charge-insertion density compared with the WO{sub 3} nanorod film, which may be due to the ultrathin feature of single nanowires constituting the nanobundles, unique oxygen vacancies of monoclinic W{sub 18}O{sub 49}, and the highly ordered assembly of the nanobundles.

  17. Electrocolorimetry of electrochromic materials on flexible ITO electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, Carlos [Requimte, Dep. Quimica, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); YDreams, Madan Parque, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Parola, A.J.; Pina, F. [Requimte, Dep. Quimica, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Fonseca, J.; Freire, C. [Requimte, Dep. Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2008-08-15

    Electrochromic materials are characterized by their colour changes upon applied voltage. Colour can mean many things: a certain kind of light, its effect on the human eye, or the result of this effect in the mind of the viewer. Since the electrochromic materials are developed towards real life applications it is relevant to characterize them with the usual commercial colour standards. A colorimetric study of electrogenerated Prussian blue and electrogenerated polymers based on salen-type complexes of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Pd(II) deposited over transparent flexible electrodes of polyethylene terephthalate coated with indium tin oxide (PET/ITO electrodes) was carried out using the CIELAB coordinates. A cuvette with a designed adapter to allow potentiostatic control was placed on an integrating sphere installed in the sample compartment of a spectrophotometer to run the colorimetric measurements. The colour evolution in situ was measured through the transmittance of the films by potentiostatic control. Chronocoulometry/chronoabsorptometry was used to evaluate maximum coloration efficiencies for the coloration step: 184 (Pd), 161 (Cu) and 83 cm{sup 2}/C (Ni) and for bleaching: 199 (Pd), 212 (Cu) and 173 cm{sup 2}/C (Ni) of the Pd, Cu and Ni polymer films, respectively. The Prussian Blue/Prussian White states over the PET/ITO films were relatively reversible while the reversibility and stability of the polymers based on the metals salen-type complexes depends on the metal, Pd being the most stable. (author)

  18. Electrochromic properties of a novel low band gap conductive copolymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yigitsoy, Basak; Varis, Serhat; Tanyeli, Cihangir; Akhmedov, Idris M.; Toppare, Levent [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2007-07-10

    A copolymer of 2,5-di(thiophen-2-yl)-1-p-tolyl-1H-pyrrole (DTTP) with 3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene (EDOT) was electrochemically synthesized. The resultant copolymer P(DTTP-co-EDOT) was characterized via cyclic voltammetry, FTIR, SEM, conductivity measurements and spectroelectrochemistry. Copolymer film has distinct electrochromic properties. It has four different colors (chestnut, khaki, camouflage green, and blue). At the neutral state {lambda}{sub max} due to the {pi}-{pi}{sup *} transition was found to be 487 nm and E{sub g} was calculated as 1.65 eV. Double potential step chronoamperometry experiment shows that copolymer film has good stability, fast switching time (less than 1 s) and good optical contrast (20%). An electrochromic device based on P(DTTP-co-EDOT) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) was constructed and characterized. The device showed reddish brown color at -0.6 V when the P(DTTP-co-EDOT) layer was in its reduced state; whereas blue color at 2.0 V when PEDOT was in its reduced state and P(DTTP-co-EDOT) layer was in its oxidized state. At 0.2 V intermediate green state was observed. Maximum contrast (%{delta}T) and switching time of the device were measured as 18% and 1 s at 615 nm. ECD has good environmental and redox stability. (author)

  19. Characterization of MAPLE deposited WO3 thin films for electrochromic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyadjiev, S. I.; Stefan, N.; Szilágyi, I. M.; Mihailescu, N.; Visan, A.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Stan, G. E.; Besleaga, C.; Iliev, M. T.; Gesheva, K. A.

    2017-01-01

    Tungsten trioxide (WO3) is a widely studied material for electrochromic applications. The structure, morphology and optical properties of WO3 thin films, grown by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) from monoclinic WO3 nano-sized particles, were investigated for their possible application as electrochromic layers. A KrF* excimer (λ=248 nm, ζFWHM=25 ns) laser source was used in all experiments. The MAPLE deposited WO3 thin films were studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Cyclic voltammetry measurements were also performed, and the coloring and bleaching were observed. The morpho-structural investigations disclosed the synthesis of single-phase monoclinic WO3 films consisting of crystalline nano-grains embedded in an amorphous matrix. All thin films showed good electrochromic properties, thus validating application of the MAPLE deposition technique for the further development of electrochromic devices.

  20. Characterization of MAPLE deposited WO3 thin films for electrochromic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyadjiev, S I; Iliev, M T; Stefan, N; Mihailescu, N; Visan, A; Mihailescu, I N; Szilágyi, I M; Stan, G E; Besleaga, C; Gesheva, K A

    2017-01-01

    Tungsten trioxide (WO 3 ) is a widely studied material for electrochromic applications. The structure, morphology and optical properties of WO 3 thin films, grown by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) from monoclinic WO 3 nano-sized particles, were investigated for their possible application as electrochromic layers. A KrF* excimer (λ=248 nm, ζ FWHM =25 ns) laser source was used in all experiments. The MAPLE deposited WO 3 thin films were studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Cyclic voltammetry measurements were also performed, and the coloring and bleaching were observed. The morpho-structural investigations disclosed the synthesis of single-phase monoclinic WO 3 films consisting of crystalline nano-grains embedded in an amorphous matrix. All thin films showed good electrochromic properties, thus validating application of the MAPLE deposition technique for the further development of electrochromic devices. (paper)

  1. Li+ ions diffusion into sol-gel V2O5 thin films: electrochromic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmoussa, M.; Outzourhit, A.; Bennouna, A.; Ihlal, A.

    2009-10-01

    V{2}O{5} thin films were prepared by the sol-gel spin coating process. The Li+ ions insertion effect on optical and electrochromic properties of those films was studied. The diffusion coefficient was calculated using both cyclic voltammograms and chronoamperometric curves. The amount x of Li+ ions in LixV{2}O{5} was also calculated. Finally, the electrochromic performance evolution characteristics such as the reversibility, coloration efficiency, coloration memory stability and response time were studied.

  2. Electrochromic Molecular Imprinting Sensor for Visual and Smartphone-Based Detections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capoferri, Denise; Álvarez-Diduk, Ruslan; Del Carlo, Michele; Compagnone, Dario; Merkoçi, Arben

    2018-05-01

    Electrochromic effect and molecularly imprinted technology have been used to develop a sensitive and selective electrochromic sensor. The polymeric matrices obtained using the imprinting technology are robust molecular recognition elements and have the potential to mimic natural recognition entities with very high selectivity. The electrochromic behavior of iridium oxide nanoparticles (IrOx NPs) as physicochemical transducer together with a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) as recognition layer resulted in a fast and efficient translation of the detection event. The sensor was fabricated using screen-printing technology with indium tin oxide as a transparent working electrode; IrOx NPs where electrodeposited onto the electrode followed by thermal polymerization of polypyrrole in the presence of the analyte (chlorpyrifos). Two different approaches were used to detect and quantify the pesticide: direct visual detection and smartphone imaging. Application of different oxidation potentials for 10 s resulted in color changes directly related to the concentration of the analyte. For smartphone imaging, at fixed potential, the concentration of the analyte was dependent on the color intensity of the electrode. The electrochromic sensor detects a highly toxic compound (chlorpyrifos) with a 100 fM and 1 mM dynamic range. So far, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first work where an electrochromic MIP sensor uses the electrochromic properties of IrOx to detect a certain analyte with high selectivity and sensitivity.

  3. The optical and electrochemical properties of electrochromic films: WO3+xV2O5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhuying; Liu, Hui; Liu, Ye; Yang, Shaohong; Liu, Yan; Wang, Chong

    2010-05-01

    Since Deb's experiment in 1973 on the electrochromic effect, transmissive electrochromic films exhibit outstanding potential as energy efficient window controls which allow dynamic control of the solar energy transmission. These films with non-volatile memory, once in the coloured state, remain in the same state even after removal of the field. The optical and electrochemical properties of electrochromic films using magnetron sputter deposition tungsten oxide thin films and vanadium oxide doped tungsten-vanadium oxide thin films on ITO coated glass were investigated. From the UV region of the transmittance spectra, the optical band gap energy from the fundamental absorption edge can be determined. And the Cyclic voltammograms of these thin films in 1 mol LiClO4 propylene carbonate electrolyte (LIPC) were measured and analysed. The anode electrochromic V2O5 doped cathode electrochromic WO3 could make films colour changing while the transmittance of films keeped invariance. These performance characteristics make tungstenvanadium oxide colour changeably thin films are suitable for electrochromic windows applications.

  4. Low Mass Printable Devices for Energy Capture, Storage, and Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Donald O.; Singer, Christopher E.; Rogers, Jan R.; Schramm, Harry F.; Fabisinski, Leo L.; Lowenthal, Mark; Ray, William J.; Fuller, Kirk A.

    2010-01-01

    The energy-efficient, environmentally friendly technology that will be presented is the result of a Space Act Agreement between NthDegree Technologies Worldwide, Inc., and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The work combines semiconductor and printing technologies to advance lightweight electronic and photonic devices having excellent potential for commercial and exploration applications. Device development involves three projects that relate to energy generation and consumption: (1) a low-mass efficient (low power, low heat emission) micro light-emitting diode (LED) area lighting device; (2) a low-mass omni-directional efficient photovoltaic (PV) device with significantly improved energy capture; and (3) a new approach to building super-capacitors. These three technologies, energy capture, storage, and usage (e.g., lighting), represent a systematic approach for building efficient local micro-grids that are commercially feasible; furthermore, these same technologies, appropriately replacing lighting with lightweight power generation, will be useful for enabling inner planetary missions using smaller launch vehicles and to facilitate surface operations during lunar and planetary surface missions. The PV device model is a two sphere, light trapped sheet approximately 2-mm thick. The model suggests a significant improvement over current thin film systems. For lighting applications, all three technology components are printable in-line by printing sequential layers on a standard screen or flexographic direct impact press using the three-dimensional printing technique (3DFM) patented by NthDegree. One primary contribution to this work in the near term by the MSFC is to test the robustness of prototype devices in the harsh environments that prevail in space and on the lunar surface. It is anticipated that this composite device, of which the lighting component has passed off-gassing testing, will function

  5. Open-Source 3D-Printable Optics Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenlong; Anzalone, Nicholas C.; Faria, Rodrigo P.; Pearce, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    Just as the power of the open-source design paradigm has driven down the cost of software to the point that it is accessible to most people, the rise of open-source hardware is poised to drive down the cost of doing experimental science to expand access to everyone. To assist in this aim, this paper introduces a library of open-source 3-D-printable optics components. This library operates as a flexible, low-cost public-domain tool set for developing both research and teaching optics hardware. First, the use of parametric open-source designs using an open-source computer aided design package is described to customize the optics hardware for any application. Second, details are provided on the use of open-source 3-D printers (additive layer manufacturing) to fabricate the primary mechanical components, which are then combined to construct complex optics-related devices. Third, the use of the open-source electronics prototyping platform are illustrated as control for optical experimental apparatuses. This study demonstrates an open-source optical library, which significantly reduces the costs associated with much optical equipment, while also enabling relatively easily adapted customizable designs. The cost reductions in general are over 97%, with some components representing only 1% of the current commercial investment for optical products of similar function. The results of this study make its clear that this method of scientific hardware development enables a much broader audience to participate in optical experimentation both as research and teaching platforms than previous proprietary methods. PMID:23544104

  6. Open-source 3D-printable optics equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenlong; Anzalone, Nicholas C; Faria, Rodrigo P; Pearce, Joshua M

    2013-01-01

    Just as the power of the open-source design paradigm has driven down the cost of software to the point that it is accessible to most people, the rise of open-source hardware is poised to drive down the cost of doing experimental science to expand access to everyone. To assist in this aim, this paper introduces a library of open-source 3-D-printable optics components. This library operates as a flexible, low-cost public-domain tool set for developing both research and teaching optics hardware. First, the use of parametric open-source designs using an open-source computer aided design package is described to customize the optics hardware for any application. Second, details are provided on the use of open-source 3-D printers (additive layer manufacturing) to fabricate the primary mechanical components, which are then combined to construct complex optics-related devices. Third, the use of the open-source electronics prototyping platform are illustrated as control for optical experimental apparatuses. This study demonstrates an open-source optical library, which significantly reduces the costs associated with much optical equipment, while also enabling relatively easily adapted customizable designs. The cost reductions in general are over 97%, with some components representing only 1% of the current commercial investment for optical products of similar function. The results of this study make its clear that this method of scientific hardware development enables a much broader audience to participate in optical experimentation both as research and teaching platforms than previous proprietary methods.

  7. Open-source 3D-printable optics equipment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenlong Zhang

    Full Text Available Just as the power of the open-source design paradigm has driven down the cost of software to the point that it is accessible to most people, the rise of open-source hardware is poised to drive down the cost of doing experimental science to expand access to everyone. To assist in this aim, this paper introduces a library of open-source 3-D-printable optics components. This library operates as a flexible, low-cost public-domain tool set for developing both research and teaching optics hardware. First, the use of parametric open-source designs using an open-source computer aided design package is described to customize the optics hardware for any application. Second, details are provided on the use of open-source 3-D printers (additive layer manufacturing to fabricate the primary mechanical components, which are then combined to construct complex optics-related devices. Third, the use of the open-source electronics prototyping platform are illustrated as control for optical experimental apparatuses. This study demonstrates an open-source optical library, which significantly reduces the costs associated with much optical equipment, while also enabling relatively easily adapted customizable designs. The cost reductions in general are over 97%, with some components representing only 1% of the current commercial investment for optical products of similar function. The results of this study make its clear that this method of scientific hardware development enables a much broader audience to participate in optical experimentation both as research and teaching platforms than previous proprietary methods.

  8. Printable elastic conductors by in situ formation of silver nanoparticles from silver flakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuhisa, Naoji; Inoue, Daishi; Zalar, Peter; Jin, Hanbit; Matsuba, Yorishige; Itoh, Akira; Yokota, Tomoyuki; Hashizume, Daisuke; Someya, Takao

    2017-08-01

    Printable elastic conductors promise large-area stretchable sensor/actuator networks for healthcare, wearables and robotics. Elastomers with metal nanoparticles are one of the best approaches to achieve high performance, but large-area utilization is limited by difficulties in their processability. Here we report a printable elastic conductor containing Ag nanoparticles that are formed in situ, solely by mixing micrometre-sized Ag flakes, fluorine rubbers, and surfactant. Our printable elastic composites exhibit conductivity higher than 4,000 S cm-1 (highest value: 6,168 S cm-1) at 0% strain, and 935 S cm-1 when stretched up to 400%. Ag nanoparticle formation is influenced by the surfactant, heating processes, and elastomer molecular weight, resulting in a drastic improvement of conductivity. Fully printed sensor networks for stretchable robots are demonstrated, sensing pressure and temperature accurately, even when stretched over 250%.

  9. Electrochromism of the electroless deposited cuprous oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neskovska, R.; Ristova, M.; Velevska, J.; Ristov, M.

    2007-01-01

    Thin cuprous oxide films were prepared by a low cost, chemical deposition (electroless) method onto glass substrates pre-coated with fluorine doped tin oxide. The X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the Cu 2 O composition of the films. Visible transmittance spectra of the cuprous oxide films were studied for the as-prepared, colored and bleached films. The cyclic voltammetry study showed that those films exhibited cathode coloring electrochromism, i.e. the films showed change of color from yellowish to black upon application of an electric field. The transmittance across the films for laser light of 670 nm was found to change due to the voltage change for about 50%. The coloration memory of those films was also studied during 6 h, ex-situ. The coloration efficiency at 670 nm was calculated to be 37 cm 2 /C

  10. Influence of stoichiometry on electrochromic cerium-titanium oxide compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kullman, L.; Richardson, T.; Rubin, M.; Slack, J.; Rottkay, K. von

    1997-01-01

    CeO 2 -TiO 2 finds use as passive counter-electrode in electrochromic devices. Thin films were produced by de-sputtering in a wide range of compositions. Influence of total pressure and oxygen partial pressure on the optical constants of TiO 2 was investigated. Slightly substoichiometric Ti0 2 films exhibit a red-shift of the bandgap. The Ti0 2 content in the compound essentially determines the degree of cathodical coloring upon Li + intercalation [1]. However, pure TiO 2 films with comparable visible transmittance in the clear state behave differently during electrochemical cycling depending on oxygen stoichiometry. Films that are deposited at higher total pressure are more oxygen rich and require initial formatting until current voltage cycles become stable. CeO 2 -Ti0 2 films of intermediate compositions have the relatively highest charge capacity. Comparison with atomic force microscopy indicates a correlation of small grain size with high charge capacity

  11. Electrochromic absorbance changes in relation to electron transport and energy coupling in thylakoid membranes : [Electrochrome absorptie veranderingen in relatie tot elektronentransport en energiekoppeling in thylakoid membranen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooms, J.J.J.

    1990-01-01

    This thesis deals mainly with the analysis and interpretation of the flash-induced electrochromic absorbance changes in isolated chloroplasts of spinach and pea plants. The amplitude and kinetics of the flash-induced absorbance changes at 518 nm (P515) are discussed in relation to the

  12. A step toward development of printable dosage forms for poorly soluble drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raijada, Dharaben Kaushikkumar; Genina, Natalja; Fors, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to formulate printable dosage forms for a poorly soluble drug (piroxicam; PRX) and to gain understanding of critical parameters to be considered during development of such dosage forms. Liquid formulations of PRX were printed on edible paper using piezoelectric inkjet...

  13. Effect of Electrochemically Deposited MgO Coating on Printable Perovskite Solar Cell Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. Nirmal Peiris

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we studied the effect of MgO coating thickness on the performance of printable perovskite solar cells (PSCs by varying the electrodeposition time of Mg(OH2 on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO/TiO2 electrode. Electrodeposited Mg(OH2 in the electrode was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX analysis and scanning electron microscopic (SEM images. The performance of printable PSC structures on different deposition times of Mg(OH2 was evaluated on the basis of their photocurrent density-voltage characteristics. The overall results confirmed that the insulating MgO coating has an adverse effect on the photovoltaic performance of the solid state printable PSCs. However, a marginal improvement in the device efficiency was obtained for the device made with the 30 s electrodeposited TiO2 electrode. We believe that this undesirable effect on the photovoltaic performance of the printable PSCs is due to the higher coverage of TiO2 by the insulating MgO layer attained by the electrodeposition technique.

  14. Printable elastic conductors by in situ formation of silver nanoparticles from silver flakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matsuhisa, N.; Inoue, D.; Zalar, P.; Jin, H.; Matsuba, Y.; Itoh, A.; Yokota, T.; Hashizume, D.; Someya, T.

    2017-01-01

    Printable elastic conductors promise large-area stretchable sensor/actuator networks for healthcare, wearables and robotics. Elastomers with metal nanoparticles are one of the best approaches to achieve high performance, but large-area utilization is limited by difficulties in their processability.

  15. Preparation and Characterization of Carbon Nano tube-based Electrochromic Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad Shahazmi Mohd Zambri; Norani Muti Mohamed; Kait, C.F.

    2011-01-01

    Electrochromic materials that can change their optical properties reversibly for an applied potential due to electrochemical oxidation and reduction have been used in various applications of electrochromic windows or smart glass. Conducting polymer like poly aniline (PANI) is one of the most promising electrochromic materials because of its ease of synthesis and environmental stability. However, the electrochemically deposited poly aniline exhibit substantial resistivity which is attributed to the lack of conducting pathways at the nano scale associated with random deposition morphology. This paper describes the study in developing electrochromic material that will exhibit higher conductivity by using carbon nano tubes (CNTs) as the filler. Preparation of electrochromic material on ITO and FTO glass substrate was done by electrochemical process using mixture of CNTs and PANI in H 2 SO 4 at several loading of CNTs, voltage applied and duration of the process. PANI and PANI/ CNTs films produced were then characterized using SEM and Hall Effect measurement. From the study, highly conductive PANI/ CNTs film can be obtained by using optimum condition of the process parameters. PANI film deposited on FTO glass substrate was also found to be of good quality with conductivity two orders of magnitude higher than the film deposited on ITO glass substrate. (author)

  16. Electrochromic Asymmetric Supercapacitor Windows Enable Direct Determination of Energy Status by the Naked Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ying; Chai, Zhisheng; Liang, Zhimin; Sun, Peng; Xie, Weiguang; Zhao, Chuanxi; Mai, Wenjie

    2017-10-04

    Because of the popularity of smart electronics, multifunctional energy storage devices, especially electrochromic supercapacitors (SCs), have attracted tremendous research interest. Herein, a solid-state electrochromic asymmetric SC (ASC) window is designed and fabricated by introducing WO 3 and polyaniline as the negative and positive electrodes, respectively. The two complementary materials contribute to the outstanding electrochemical and electrochromic performances of the fabricated device. With an operating voltage window of 1.4 V and an areal capacitance of 28.3 mF cm -2 , the electrochromic devices show a high energy density of 7.7 × 10 -3 mW h cm -2 . Meanwhile, they exhibit an obvious and reversible color transition between light green (uncharged state) and dark blue (charged state), with an optical transmittance change between 55 and 12% at a wavelength of 633 nm. Hence, the energy storage level of the ASC is directly related to its color and can be determined by the naked eye, which means it can be incorporated with other energy cells to visual display their energy status. Particularly, a self-powered and color-indicated system is achieved by combining the smart windows with commercial solar cell panels. We believe that the novel electrochromic ASC windows will have great potential application for both smart electronics and smart buildings.

  17. Enhanced electrochromic coloration in Ag nanoparticle decorated WO3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharade, Rohini R.; Mali, Sawanta S.; Patil, Satish P.; Patil, Kashinath R.; Gang, Myong G.; Patil, Pramod S.; Kim, Jin H.; Bhosale, Popatrao N.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrochromic WO 3 /Ag nanocomposites prepared by hybrid physico-chemical route. • XRD and XPS results confirm formation of Ag 8 W 4 O 16 phase. • WO 3 /Ag thin films showed good optical transmittance change and coloration efficiency. • SPR enhanced coloration and bleaching mechanism is well explained for electrochromism. • Color stimuli are quantified using CIE chromaticity principles. -- Abstract: WO 3 /Ag composite thin films were prepared by microwave assisted sol–gel synthesis (MW-SGS) of WO 3 followed by vacuum evaporation of Ag nanoparticles and their enhanced electrochromic coloration was investigated. The composition and morphology of WO 3 thin films with different thickness of Ag layer obtained by vacuum evaporation were investigated. Distinct plasmon absorption bands of Ag nanoparticle thin films were obtained. The optical band gap energy of WO 3 /Ag films decreased with increasing the Ag layer thickness. The surface of these films has been examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to gain information about the chemical states of species present at surfaces. Experimental results indicated that the conductivity of the films increased after surface modification by Ag layer. To investigate the origin of enhanced electrochromic absorption in optical properties, working electrode consisting of WO 3 /Ag thin film was used and observed the optical properties during electrochemical reaction. It was found that composite electrode shows enhancement in electrochromic properties in terms of optical modulation (ΔOD) and coloration efficiency (η)

  18. Lighting energy savings potential of split-pane electrochromic windows controlled for daylighting with visual comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Software, Anyhere; Fernandes, Luis; Lee, Eleanor; Ward, Greg

    2013-03-15

    A simulation study was conducted to evaluate lighting energy savings of split-pane electrochromic (EC) windows controlled to satisfy key visual comfort parameters. Using the Radiance lighting simulation software, interior illuminance and luminance levels were computed for a south-facing private office illuminated by a window split into two independently-controlled EC panes. The transmittance of these was optimized hourly for a workplane illuminance target while meeting visual comfort constraints, using a least-squares algorithm with linear inequality constraints. Blinds were successively deployed until visual comfort criteria were satisfied. The energy performance of electrochromics proved to be highly dependent on how blinds were controlled. With hourly blind position adjustments, electrochromics showed significantly higher (62percent and 53percent, respectively without and with overhang) lighting energy consumption than clear glass. With a control algorithm designed to better approximate realistic manual control by an occupant, electrochromics achieved significant savings (48percent and 37percent, respectively without and with overhang). In all cases, energy consumption decreased when the workplace illuminance target was increased. In addition, the fraction of time during which the occupant had an unobstructed view of the outside was significantly greater with electrochromics: 10 months out of the year versus a handful of days for the reference case.

  19. Paper-based electrochemical sensing platform with integral battery and electrochromic read-out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Crooks, Richard M

    2012-03-06

    We report a battery-powered, microelectrochemical sensing platform that reports its output using an electrochromic display. The platform is fabricated based on paper fluidics and uses a Prussian blue spot electrodeposited on an indium-doped tin oxide thin film as the electrochromic indicator. The integrated metal/air battery powers both the electrochemical sensor and the electrochromic read-out, which are in electrical contact via a paper reservoir. The sample activates the battery and the presence of analyte in the sample initiates the color change of the Prussian blue spot. The entire system is assembled on the lab bench, without the need for cleanroom facilities. The applicability of the device to point-of-care sensing is demonstrated by qualitative detection of 0.1 mM glucose and H(2)O(2) in artificial urine samples.

  20. Eliminating degradation and uncovering ion-trapping dynamics in electrochromic WO3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Rui-Tao; Granqvist, Claes G.; Niklasson, Gunnar A.

    2015-01-01

    Amorphous WO3 thin films are of keen interest as cathodic electrodes in transmittance-modulating electrochromic devices. However, these films suffer from ion-trapping-induced degradation of optical modulation and reversibility upon extended Li+-ion exchange. Here, we demonstrate that ion-trapping-induced degradation, which is commonly believed to be irreversible, can be successfully eliminated by constant-current-driven de-trapping, i.e., WO3 films can be rejuvenated and regain their initial highly reversible electrochromic performance. Pronounced ion-trapping occurs when x exceeds ~0.65 in LixWO3 during ion insertion. We find two main kinds of Li+-ion trapping sites (intermediate and deep) in WO3, where the intermediate ones are most prevalent. Li+-ions can be completely removed from intermediate traps but are irreversibly bound in deep traps. Our results provide a general framework for developing and designing superior electrochromic materials and devices. PMID:26259104

  1. Photoelectric conversion and electrochromic properties of lutetium tetrakis(tert-butyl)bisphthalocyaninate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Andrew Teh; Hu Tenyi; Liu Lungchang

    2003-01-01

    Both photoelectric and electrochromic effects on lutetium tetrakis(tert-butyl)bisphthalocyaninate (Lu(TBPc) 2 ) have been carried out in this study. Lu(TBPc) 2 is known for its electrochromic performance, but its photoelectric effect has not mentioned in the literature. The electrochromic properties of Lu(TBPc) 2 have been measured by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and UV-Vis spectrometer at the same time. It takes less than 1.5 s for the color to change from red to green under 0.9 V. Its cycle life is at least over 500 times. Furthermore, we also investigate its photoelectric conversion properties. Its photoelectric cell exhibits a positive photo-electricity conversion effect with a short-circuit photocurrent (46.4 μA/cm 2 ) under illumination of white light (1.201 mW/cm 2 )

  2. Citric acid induced W18O49 electrochromic films with enhanced optical modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Junliang; Song, Bin; Zhao, Gaoling; Han, Gaorong

    2018-06-01

    Electrochromic materials exhibit promising applications in energy-saving fields for their ability to control heat from outdoors. Nanostructured W18O49 has drawn attention for its one-dimensional structure to transfer charge efficiently as a remarkable electrochromic material. W18O49 bi-layer films were fabricated through a facile one-step solvothermal process with citric acid as a chelating agent. The addition of citric acid improved the deposition on the substance, and a nanostructured film with a denser layer at the bottom and a tussock-like upper layer was obtained. The bi-layer film exhibited an enhanced optical modulation of 68.7%, a coloration efficiency of 82.1 cm2/C with stability over 400 cycles, and fast response times (1.4 s and 2.3 s for bleaching and coloring), with expectation to be applied in the electrochromic field.

  3. Colorless triphenylamine-based aliphatic thermoset epoxy for multicolored and near-infrared electrochromic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Ya-Wen; Yen, Hung-Ju; Wu, Jia-Hao; Liou, Guey-Sheng

    2014-03-12

    In this study, two novel colorless thermoset epoxy resins with anodically electrochromism were prepared from the thermal curing of two triphenylamine-based diamine monomers, 4,4'-diamino-4″-methoxytriphenylamine (1) and N,N'-bis(4-aminophenyl)-N,N'-di(4-methoxylphenyl)-1,4-phenylenediamine (2) with aliphatic epoxy triglycidyl isocyanurate, respectively. The resulting thermoset epoxy resins showed excellent softening temperature (Ts, 270 and 280 °C) due to the rigid structure and highly crosslinking density. In addition, novel colorless epoxy resin films revealed good reversible electrochemical oxidation and interesting multi-electrochromic behavior with high contrast ratio both in visible and near-infrared regions. The aliphatic thermoset epoxy resins also exhibited high transparency in visible region as colorless and great potential for practical electrochromic applications.

  4. Solid-State Electrochromic Device Consisting of Amorphous WO3 and Various Thin Oxide Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shizukuishi, Makoto; Shimizu, Isamu; Inoue, Eiichi

    1980-11-01

    A mixed oxide containing Cr2O3 was introduced into an amorphous WO3 solid-state electrochromic device (ECD) in order to improve its colour memory effect. The electrochromic characteristics were greatly affected by the chemical constituents of a dielectric layer on the a-WO3 layer. Particularly, long memory effect and low power dissipation were attained in a solid-state ECD consisting of a-WO3 and Cr2O3\\cdotV2O5(50 wt.%). Some electrochromic characteristics of the a-WO3/Cr2O3\\cdotV2O5 ECD and the role of V2O5 were investigated.

  5. Electrochromic Behaviors of Water-Soluble Polyaniline with Covalently Bonded Acetyl Ferrocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shanxin; Wang, Ru; Li, Shuaishuai; Wu, Bohua; Chu, Jia; Wang, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Runlan; Gong, Ming

    2018-04-01

    A novel ferrocene-containing hybrid electrochromic material was synthesized via copolymerization of aniline with p-phenylenediamine functionalized acetyl ferrocene in the presence of poly (styrene sulfonate) dopant in an aqueous medium, and neat polyaniline (PANI) was prepared for comparison. The polymerization characteristics and the structure of the copolymer were systematically studied by Fourier-transform infrared, meanwhile, their electrochromic properties and electrochemical behaviors were tested by UV-vis spectra, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). It was found that the strong covalent bond and large conjugated system between PANI and ferrocene enhance the electron transfer rate and electron delocalization in the ferrocene-polyaniline (Fc-PANI) hybrid. In particular, the electrochromic device with Fc-PANI as the active layer shows significant enhancement in optical contrast over the PANI-based device.

  6. ILT based defect simulation of inspection images accurately predicts mask defect printability on wafer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deep, Prakash; Paninjath, Sankaranarayanan; Pereira, Mark; Buck, Peter

    2016-05-01

    At advanced technology nodes mask complexity has been increased because of large-scale use of resolution enhancement technologies (RET) which includes Optical Proximity Correction (OPC), Inverse Lithography Technology (ILT) and Source Mask Optimization (SMO). The number of defects detected during inspection of such mask increased drastically and differentiation of critical and non-critical defects are more challenging, complex and time consuming. Because of significant defectivity of EUVL masks and non-availability of actinic inspection, it is important and also challenging to predict the criticality of defects for printability on wafer. This is one of the significant barriers for the adoption of EUVL for semiconductor manufacturing. Techniques to decide criticality of defects from images captured using non actinic inspection images is desired till actinic inspection is not available. High resolution inspection of photomask images detects many defects which are used for process and mask qualification. Repairing all defects is not practical and probably not required, however it's imperative to know which defects are severe enough to impact wafer before repair. Additionally, wafer printability check is always desired after repairing a defect. AIMSTM review is the industry standard for this, however doing AIMSTM review for all defects is expensive and very time consuming. Fast, accurate and an economical mechanism is desired which can predict defect printability on wafer accurately and quickly from images captured using high resolution inspection machine. Predicting defect printability from such images is challenging due to the fact that the high resolution images do not correlate with actual mask contours. The challenge is increased due to use of different optical condition during inspection other than actual scanner condition, and defects found in such images do not have correlation with actual impact on wafer. Our automated defect simulation tool predicts

  7. The correlations of electrochromism and thermochromism of tungsten oxide films studied by slow positron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Chuangxin; Zhou Chunlan; Zhang Zhiming; Wang Baoyi; Wei Long

    2004-01-01

    Electrochromic (EC) and thermochromic (TC) tungsten oxide (WO 3 ) films, deposited by magnetron sputtering and vacuum thermal evaporation, were studied systematically by means of slow positron measurements. The S parameters of colored amorphous WO 3 film and crystalline WO 3 film behaved quite similarly in the processes of thermochromism and electrochromism, little influenced by the different deposition methods. It indicates that the coloration processes under various external conditions are correlated with each other. It also shows that the slow positron beam technique may play a particular role in the study of chromogenic materials. (orig.)

  8. Electrochromic coatings made of surface modified rutile and anatase pigments: Influence of trisilanol POSS dispersant on electrochromic effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihelčič, Mohor [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Francetič, Vojmir [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Ljubljani, Aškerčeva cesta 5, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pori, Pavli [Chemcolor Sevnica d.o.o., Dolenje Brezovo 35, 8290 Sevnica (Slovenia); Gradišar, Helena [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kovač, Janez [Jožef Stefan Institute., Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Orel, Boris, E-mail: boris.orel@ki.si [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); CO-NOT, Hajdrihova 19, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Transparent pigmented coatings were deposited from titania dispersions. • Trisilanol POSS was used as dispersant. • Surface modification of pigment particles was established from TEM, TG and IR. • IR spectra studies revealed covalent and H-bond dispersant/pigment interactions. • Electrochromic properties of titanina pigment coatings were shown and discussed. - Abstract: Polyhedral oligomeric silsesqioxanes (POSS) compounds consisting of [RSiO{sub 3/2}]{sub n} groups organized in the form of various polyhedra (T{sub n}, n = 3, 6, 8, 10, 12, ….) have not often been used as pigment surface modifiers. Their interactions with pigments are not known in detail and coatings deposited from pigments modified by POSS dispersants are rare. Identification of interactions between a dispersant and the surface of pigments is important from the point of view of obtaining stable pigment dispersions enabling the deposition of optical coatings with high pigment loading, low haze and mechanical integrity. Thin TiO{sub 2} (anatase) pigment coatings (70–260 nm) were deposited from pigment dispersions prepared by milling metatitanic acid (mTiA) powder agglomerates with trisilanol heptaisobutyl silsesquioxane dispersant (trisilanol POSS) in butanol and hexane. The results of TEM, EDAX and TG measurements confirmed the influence of trisilanol POSS dispersant on the formation of a dispersion with a uniform distribution of mTiA and rutile (mTiR) nanoparticles with a size of about 30 ± 5.0 nm and 90 ± 5.0 nm, respectively, as determined from dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. The mTiA/trisilanol POSS dispersions with added titanium tetraisopropoxide were deposited on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass (spin-coating) and indium tin oxide coated polymeric substrate (ITO PET) (coil-coating) and thermally treated at 150 °C. UV–vis spectra, AFM and SEM results showed that the pigment coatings exhibited low haze (up to 6

  9. Electrochromic coatings made of surface modified rutile and anatase pigments: Influence of trisilanol POSS dispersant on electrochromic effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihelčič, Mohor; Francetič, Vojmir; Pori, Pavli; Gradišar, Helena; Kovač, Janez; Orel, Boris

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Transparent pigmented coatings were deposited from titania dispersions. • Trisilanol POSS was used as dispersant. • Surface modification of pigment particles was established from TEM, TG and IR. • IR spectra studies revealed covalent and H-bond dispersant/pigment interactions. • Electrochromic properties of titanina pigment coatings were shown and discussed. - Abstract: Polyhedral oligomeric silsesqioxanes (POSS) compounds consisting of [RSiO 3/2 ] n groups organized in the form of various polyhedra (T n , n = 3, 6, 8, 10, 12, ….) have not often been used as pigment surface modifiers. Their interactions with pigments are not known in detail and coatings deposited from pigments modified by POSS dispersants are rare. Identification of interactions between a dispersant and the surface of pigments is important from the point of view of obtaining stable pigment dispersions enabling the deposition of optical coatings with high pigment loading, low haze and mechanical integrity. Thin TiO 2 (anatase) pigment coatings (70–260 nm) were deposited from pigment dispersions prepared by milling metatitanic acid (mTiA) powder agglomerates with trisilanol heptaisobutyl silsesquioxane dispersant (trisilanol POSS) in butanol and hexane. The results of TEM, EDAX and TG measurements confirmed the influence of trisilanol POSS dispersant on the formation of a dispersion with a uniform distribution of mTiA and rutile (mTiR) nanoparticles with a size of about 30 ± 5.0 nm and 90 ± 5.0 nm, respectively, as determined from dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. The mTiA/trisilanol POSS dispersions with added titanium tetraisopropoxide were deposited on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass (spin-coating) and indium tin oxide coated polymeric substrate (ITO PET) (coil-coating) and thermally treated at 150 °C. UV–vis spectra, AFM and SEM results showed that the pigment coatings exhibited low haze (up to 6%), low surface

  10. BIPV-powered smart windows utilizing photovoltaic and electrochromic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rong-Hua; Chen, Yu-Chia

    2012-01-01

    A BIPV-powered smart window comprising a building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) panel and an all-solid-state electrochromic (EC) stack is proposed. In the proposed device, the output voltage of the BIPV panel varies in accordance with the intensity of the incident light and is modulated in such a way as to generate the EC stack voltage required to maintain the indoor illuminance within a specified range. Two different EC stacks are fabricated and characterized, namely one stack comprising ITO/WO(3)/Ta(2)O(5)/ITO and one stack comprising ITO/WO(3)/lithium-polymer electrolyte/ITO. It is shown that of the two stacks, the ITO/WO(3)/lithium-polymer electrolyte/ITO stack has a larger absorptance (i.e., approximately 99% at a driving voltage of 3.5 V). The experimental results show that the smart window incorporating an ITO/WO(3)/lithium-polymer electrolyte/ITO stack with an electrolyte thickness of 1.0 μm provides an indoor illuminance range of 750-1,500 Lux under typical summertime conditions in Taiwan.

  11. BIPV-Powered Smart Windows Utilizing Photovoltaic and Electrochromic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chia Chen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A BIPV-powered smart window comprising a building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV panel and an all-solid-state electrochromic (EC stack is proposed. In the proposed device, the output voltage of the BIPV panel varies in accordance with the intensity of the incident light and is modulated in such a way as to generate the EC stack voltage required to maintain the indoor illuminance within a specified range. Two different EC stacks are fabricated and characterized, namely one stack comprising ITO/WO3/Ta2O5/ITO and one stack comprising ITO/WO3/lithium-polymer electrolyte/ITO. It is shown that of the two stacks, the ITO/WO3/lithium-polymer electrolyte/ITO stack has a larger absorptance (i.e., approximately 99% at a driving voltage of 3.5 V. The experimental results show that the smart window incorporating an ITO/WO3/lithium-polymer electrolyte/ITO stack with an electrolyte thickness of 1.0 μm provides an indoor illuminance range of 750–1,500 Lux under typical summertime conditions in Taiwan.

  12. Effect of micro-patterned fluorine-doped tin oxide films on electrochromic properties of Prussian blue films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyuha; Kim, A-Young; Park, Ji Hun; Jung, Hun-Gi; Choi, Wonchang; Lee, Hwa Young; Lee, Joong Kee

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PB-based ECD employed micro-patterned FTO electrode was fabricated. • Effect of interface morphology on electrochromic characteristics was examined. • Electrochromic properties were enhanced by employing a patterned interface. - Abstract: The effect of interface morphology on electrochromic characteristics was examined for an electrochromic device (ECD). Micro-patterned fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) films were fabricated using a photolithography process. Prussian blue (PB) films were then deposited on the patterned FTO films. The surface areas of both PB films and FTO films were increased by patterning. ECDs were assembled using patterned PB/FTO films as the electrochromic electrode, bare FTO films as the counter electrode, and an electrolyte containing LiClO 4 salt. The increased effective surface area of the patterned PB/FTO electrode boosted the mobility of ions at the interphase between the electrolyte and PB electrode, and the electron transfer between PB films and FTO films. As a result, electrochromic properties such as transmittance and response time were significantly improved by employing the patterned FTO films as the transparent conductive oxide layer of the electrochromic electrode

  13. Effect of micro-patterned fluorine-doped tin oxide films on electrochromic properties of Prussian blue films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyuha [Center for Energy Convergence Research, Green City Technology Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, A-Young [Center for Energy Convergence Research, Green City Technology Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Material Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji Hun; Jung, Hun-Gi; Choi, Wonchang; Lee, Hwa Young [Center for Energy Convergence Research, Green City Technology Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joong Kee, E-mail: leejk@kist.re.kr [Center for Energy Convergence Research, Green City Technology Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PB-based ECD employed micro-patterned FTO electrode was fabricated. • Effect of interface morphology on electrochromic characteristics was examined. • Electrochromic properties were enhanced by employing a patterned interface. - Abstract: The effect of interface morphology on electrochromic characteristics was examined for an electrochromic device (ECD). Micro-patterned fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) films were fabricated using a photolithography process. Prussian blue (PB) films were then deposited on the patterned FTO films. The surface areas of both PB films and FTO films were increased by patterning. ECDs were assembled using patterned PB/FTO films as the electrochromic electrode, bare FTO films as the counter electrode, and an electrolyte containing LiClO{sub 4} salt. The increased effective surface area of the patterned PB/FTO electrode boosted the mobility of ions at the interphase between the electrolyte and PB electrode, and the electron transfer between PB films and FTO films. As a result, electrochromic properties such as transmittance and response time were significantly improved by employing the patterned FTO films as the transparent conductive oxide layer of the electrochromic electrode.

  14. Printable optical sensors based on H-bonded supramolecular cholesteric liquid crystal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzer, Nicole; Guneysu, Hilal; Davies, Dylan J D; Yildirim, Derya; Vaccaro, Antonio R; Broer, Dirk J; Bastiaansen, Cees W M; Schenning, Albertus P H J

    2012-05-09

    A printable H-bonded cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) polymer film has been fabricated that, after conversion to a hygroscopic polymer salt film, responds to temperature and humidity by changing its reflection color. Fast-responding humidity sensors have been made in which the reflection color changes between green and yellow depending on the relative humidity. The change in reflection band is a result of a change in helix pitch in the film due to absorption and desorption of water, resulting in swelling/deswelling of the film material. When the polymer salt was saturated with water, a red-reflecting film was obtained that can potentially act as a time/temperature integrator. Finally, the films were printed on a foil, showing the potential application of supramolecular CLC materials as low-cost, printable, battery-free optical sensors.

  15. 3D printable highly conductive and mechanically strong thermoplastic-based nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabiai, Ilyass; Therriault, Daniel

    Highly conductive 3D printable inks can be used to design electrical devices with various functionalities and geometries. We use the solvent evaporation assisted 3D-printing method to create high resolution structures made of poly(lactid) acid (PLA) reinforced with multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNTs). We characterize fibers with diameters ranging between 100 μm to 330 μm and reinforced with MWCNTs from 0.5 up to 40wt% here. Tensile test, shrinkage ratio, density and electrical conductivity measurements of the printed nanocomposite are presented. The material's electrical conductivity is strongly improved by adding MWCNTs (up to 3000S/m), this value was found to be higher than any 3D-printable carbon based material available in the literature. It is observed that MWCNTs significantly increase the material's strength and stiffness while reducing its ductility. The ink's density was also higher while still being in the range of polymers' densities. The presented nanocomposite is light weight, highly conductive, has good mechanical properties and can be printed in a freeform fashion at the micro scale. A myriad of low power consumption with less resistive heating sensors and devices can potentially be designed using it and integrated into other 3D printable products.

  16. Electrochromic effects in relation to energy transduction and energy coupling in chloroplast membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, R.L.A.

    1986-01-01

    A study was made on the kinetics of the flash-induced P515 electrochromic bandshift signal in spinach leaves and isolated chloroplasts. It was found that part of the signal (i.e. the slow component, also called reaction 2), normally present in dark-adapted membranes is absent from the signal under

  17. Conductive transition metal oxide nanostructured electrochromic material and optical switching devices constructed thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattox, Tracy M.; Koo, Bonil; Garcia, Guillermo; Milliron, Delia J.; Trizio, Luca De; Dahlman, Clayton

    2017-10-10

    An electrochromic device includes a nanostructured transition metal oxide bronze layer that includes one or more transition metal oxide and one or more dopant, a solid state electrolyte, and a counter electrode. The nanostructured transition metal oxide bronze selectively modulates transmittance of near-infrared (NIR) spectrum and visible spectrum radiation as a function of an applied voltage to the device.

  18. Electrochromic Characteristics of Nitrogen-Doped Graphene/TiO2 Nanocomposite Electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chien-Hsin; Chen, Shih-Ming; Wang, Tzong-Liu; Shieh, Yeong-Tarng

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped graphene (NDG)/titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles were coated on indium-tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates to fabricate NDG-TiO 2 nanocomposite electrodes. 3-methylthiophene (3MT) was electrochemically deposited on the NDG-TiO 2 films to form poly(3-methylthiophene) (P3MT/NDG/TiO 2 ) composite electrochromic electrodes. The introduction of NDG and TiO 2 mesoporous films significantly increased the initial maximum optical contrast (ΔT%) to 70% as compared 41% of pure ITO electrodes, whereas the P3MT/NDG/TiO 2 composite electrodes enhanced the adhesion of P3MT polymers to the NDG/TiO 2 /ITO substrate, thereby increasing the long-term stability of the corresponding electrochromic devices. Experimental results reveal that P3MT/NDG/TiO 2 composite electrodes retained up to 90% of ΔT%, relative to 70% remaining ΔT% of pure ITO electrodes. This illustrates the enhanced long-term stability achieved through the introduction of a NDG-TiO 2 nanocomposite films in electrochromic devices. These devices demonstrated excellent response time characteristics and ΔT% value of 6 s and ca. of 70%, respectively. This work has shown that conductive polymer/NDG/TiO 2 composite electrodes are well suited to electrochromic devices for the promotion of performance and stability

  19. Tungsten oxide nanowires grown on graphene oxide sheets as high-performance electrochromic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Xueting; Sun, Shibin; Dong, Lihua; Hu, Xiong; Yin, Yansheng

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Electrochromic mechanism of tungsten oxide nanowires-reduced graphene oxide composite. - Highlights: • A novel inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid composite was prepared. • The hybrid composite has sandwich-like structure. • The hybrid composite exhibited high-quality electrohcromic performance. - Abstract: In this work, we report the synthesis of a novel hybrid electrochromic composite through nucleation and growth of ultrathin tungsten oxide nanowires on graphene oxide sheets using a facile solvothermal route. The competition between the growth of tungsten oxide nanowires and the reduction of graphene oxide sheets leads to the formation of sandwich-structured tungsten oxide-reduced graphene oxide composite. Due to the strongly coupled effect between the ultrathin tungsten oxide nanowires and the reduced graphene oxide nanosheets, the novel electrochromic composite exhibited high-quality electrochromic performance with fast color-switching speed, good cyclic stability, and high coloration efficiency. The present tungsten oxide-reduced graphene oxide composite represents a new approach to prepare other inorganic-reduced graphene oxide hybrid materials for electrochemical applications

  20. Double-Sided Electrochromic Device Based on Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjejri, Issam; Doherty, Cara M; Rubio-Martinez, Marta; Drisko, Glenna L; Rougier, Aline

    2017-11-22

    Devices displaying controllably tunable optical properties through an applied voltage are attractive for smart glass, mirrors, and displays. Electrochromic material development aims to decrease power consumption while increasing the variety of attainable colors, their brilliance, and their longevity. We report the first electrochromic device constructed from metal organic frameworks (MOFs). Two MOF films, HKUST-1 and ZnMOF-74, are assembled so that the oxidation of one corresponds to the reduction of the other, allowing the two sides of the device to simultaneously change color. These MOF films exhibit cycling stability unrivaled by other MOFs and a significant optical contrast in a lithium-based electrolyte. HKUST-1 reversibly changed from bright blue to light blue and ZnMOF-74 from yellow to brown. The electrochromic device associates the two MOF films via a PMMA-lithium based electrolyte membrane. The color-switching of these MOFs does not arise from an organic-linker redox reaction, signaling unexplored possibilities for electrochromic MOF-based materials.

  1. Spray deposited CeO2–TiO2 counter electrode for electrochromic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    application in smart window technology. The technological requirement of smart windows includes the electrochromic working electrode and ion storage layer that should be optically passive after intercalation/deintercalation process. There are only few materials which are used as an optically passive counter electrode with ...

  2. Synthesis and Performance of Highly Stable Star-Shaped Polyaniline Electrochromic Materials with Triphenylamine Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shanxin; Li, Shuaishuai; Zhang, Xiangkai; Wang, Ru; Zhang, Runlan; Wang, Xiaoqin; Wu, Bohua; Gong, Ming; Chu, Jia

    2018-02-01

    The molecular architecture of conducting polymers has a significant impact on their conjugated structure and electrochemical properties. We have investigated the influence of star-shaped structure on the electrochemical and electrochromic properties of polyaniline (PANI). Star-shaped PANI (SPANI) was prepared by copolymerization of aniline with triphenylamine (TPA) using an emulsion polymerization method. With addition of less than 4.0 mol.% TPA, the resulting SPANI exhibited good solubility in xylene with dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSA) as doping acid. The structure and thermal stability of the SPANI were characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis, and the electrochemical behavior was analyzed by cyclic voltammetry (CV). The electrochromic properties of SPANI were tested using an electrochemical workstation combined with an ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrometer. The results show that, with increasing TPA loading, the thermal stability of SPANI increased. With addition of 4.0 mol.% TPA, the weight loss of SPANI was 36.9% at 700°C, much lower than the value of 71.2% for PANI at the same temperature. The low oxidation potential and large enclosed area of the CV curves indicate that SPANI possesses higher electrochemical activity than PANI. Enhanced electrochromic properties including higher optical contrast and better electrochromic stability of SPANI were also obtained. SPANI with 1.6 mol.% TPA loading exhibited the highest optical contrast of 0.71, higher than the values of 0.58 for PANI, 0.66 for SPANI-0.4%, or 0.63 for SPANI-4.0%. Overdosing of TPA resulted in slow switching speed due to slow ion transport in short branched chains of star-shaped PANI electrochromic material. Long-term stability testing confirmed that all the SPANI-based devices exhibited better stability than the PANI-based device.

  3. Improved Electrochromic Characteristics of a Honeycomb-Structured Film Composed of NiO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyeeun; Lee, Yulhee; Kim, Dong In; Seo, Hyeon Jin; Yu, Jung-Hoon; Nam, Sang-Hun; Boo, Jin-Hyo

    2018-09-01

    Color changes controlled by electronic energies have been studied for many years in order to fabricate energy-efficient smart windows. Reduction and oxidization of nickel oxide under the appropriate voltage can change the color of a window. For a superior nickel oxide (NiO) electrochromic device (ECD), it is important to control the chemical and physical characteristics of the surface. In this study, we applied polystyrene bead templates to nickel oxide films to fabricate a honeycomb-structured electrochromic (EC) layer. We synthesized uniform polystyrene beads using the chemical wet method and placed them on substrates to create honeycomb-structured NiO films. Then, the EC characteristics of the nickel oxide films with a honeycomb structure were evaluated with UV-Visible and cyclic voltammetry. FE-SEM and AFM were used to measure the morphologies of the nanostructures and the efficiencies of the redox reactions related to the specific surface area.

  4. On-chip electrochromic micro display for a disposable bio-sensor chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanjun; Tsukamoto, Takashiro; Tanaka, Shuji

    2017-12-01

    This paper reports an on-chip electrochromic micro display made of polyaniline (PANi) which can be easily made on a CMOS chip. Micro-patterned PANi thin films were selectively deposited on pre-patterned microelectrodes by using electrodeposition. The optimum conditions for deposition and electrochromism were investigated. An 8-pixel on-chip micro display was made on a Si chip. The color of each PANi film could be independently but simultaneously controlled, which means any 1-byte digital data could be displayed on the display. The PANi display had a response time as fast as about 100 ms, which means the transfer data rate was as fast as 80 bits per second.

  5. Preparation, Characterization, and Electrochromic Properties of Nanocellulose-Based Polyaniline Nanocomposite Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sihang; Sun, Gang; He, Yongfeng; Fu, Runfang; Gu, Yingchun; Chen, Sheng

    2017-05-17

    On the basis of nanocellulose obtained by acidic swelling and ultrasonication, rodlike nanocellulose/polyaniline nanocomposites with a core-shell structure have been prepared via in situ polymerization. Compared to pure polyaniline, the nanocomposites show superior film-forming properties, and the prepared nanocomposite films demonstrate excellent electrochemical and electrochromic properties in electrolyte solution. Nanocomposite films, especially the one prepared with 40% polyaniline coated nanocomposite, exhibited faster response time (1.5 s for bleaching and 1.0 s for coloring), higher optical contrast (62.9%), higher coloration efficiency (206.2 cm 2 /C), and more remarkable switching stability (over 500 cycles). These novel nanocellulose-based nanorod network films are promising novel electrochromic materials with excellent properties.

  6. Electrochromism of solid films of blue form of lutetium phthalocyanine complexe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavrilov, V I; Konstantinov, A P; Luk' yanets, E A; Shelepin, I V

    1986-12-01

    Results of spectral-electrochemical study on electrochromic films of blue form of tret-butyl-substituted lutetium diphthalocyanine deposited on the surface of an electrode contacting with electrolyte aqueous solution are presented. In the 0.2-1.15 V potential range sweep of the electrode potential is followed by reversible change of the film colour in the following succession: blue reversible green reversible red. Electrochromic properties of the film confirm the corresponding spectral transitions from the initial state to monoelectron-oxidized and further on to the product of two-electron oxidation. Under potential sweeping towards the anode in the 1.4 V range and irreversible wave arises; potential achievement of this wave brings about complete change in the form of j, E-curves. The consequent electrode processes are followed by change in the film colour green - red that is associated witn mechanical fracture of the film.

  7. Electrochromic properties of bipolar pulsed magnetron sputter deposited tungsten–molybdenum oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Tai-Nan [Chemical Engineering Division, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taoyuan 325, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Yi Han; Lee, Chin Tan [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Quemoy University, Kinmen 892, Taiwan, ROC (China); Han, Sheng [Center of General Education, National Taichung Institute of Technology, Taichung 404, Taiwan, ROC (China); Weng, Ko-Wei, E-mail: kowei@nqu.edu.tw [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Quemoy University, Kinmen 892, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2015-06-01

    There are great interests in electrochromic technology for smart windows and displays over past decades. In this study, the WMoO{sub x} thin films were deposited onto indium tin oxide glass and silicon substrates by pulsed magnetron sputter system with W and Mo targets. The films were deposited with fixed W target power while the variant parameter of Mo target power in the range 50, 100, 150 and 200 W was investigated. The working pressure was fixed at 1.33 Pa with a gas mixture of Ar (30 sccm) and O{sub 2} (15 sccm). The film thickness increased with the Mo target power. Higher plasma power resulted in a crystalline structure which would reduce the electrochromic property of the film. The influence of plasma powers applied to Mo target on the structural, optical and electrochromic properties of the WMoO{sub x} thin films has been investigated. WMoO{sub x} films grown at Mo target powers less than 100 W were found to be amorphous. The films deposited at 150 W, which is the optimal fabrication condition, exhibit better electrochromic properties with high optical modulation, high coloration efficiency and less color memory effect at wavelength 400, 550 and 800 nm. The improvement resulted from the effect of doping Mo has been tested. The maximum ΔT (%) values are 36.6% at 400 nm, 65.6% at 550 nm, and 66.6% at 800 nm for pure WO{sub 3} film. The addition of Mo content in the WMoO{sub x} films provides better resistance to the short wavelength light source and can be used in the concerned application. - Highlights: • WMoO{sub x} films are deposited by pulsed magnetron sputter with pure W and Mo targets. • Mo addition in WMoO{sub x} provides better resistance to short wavelength light source. • WMoO{sub x} films exhibit electrochemical stability in the cycling test.

  8. Electrochromism and photocatalysis in dendrite structured Ti:WO3 thin films grown by sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karuppasamy, A., E-mail: karuppasamy@psnacet.edu.in

    2015-12-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Dendrite structured Ti doped WO{sub 3} (WTO) thin films are grown by co-sputtering. • Sputtering condition influences structure and surface morphology of WTO films. • Titanium doping and annealing lead to dendritic surface structures in WTO films. • Structural, optical, electrochromic and photocatalytic properties of WTO films. • Enhanced electrochromism and photocatalysis in dendrite structured WTO thin films. - Abstract: Titanium doped tungsten oxide (Ti:WO{sub 3}) thin films with dendrite surface structures were grown by co-sputtering titanium and tungsten in Ar + O{sub 2} atmosphere. Ti:WO{sub 3} thin films were deposited at oxygen flow rates corresponding to pressures in the range 1.0 × 10{sup −3}–5.0 × 10{sup −3} mbar. Argon flow rate and sputtering power densities for titanium (2 W/cm{sup 2}) and tungsten (3 W/cm{sup 2}) were kept constant. Ti:WO{sub 3} films deposited at an oxygen pressure of 5 × 10{sup −3} mbar are found to be better electrochromic and photocatalytic. They have high optical modulation (80% at λ = 550 nm), coloration efficiency (60 cm{sup 2}/C at λ = 550 nm), electron/ion storage and removal capacity (Qc: −22.01 mC/cm{sup 2}, Qa: 17.72 mC/cm{sup 2}), reversibility (80%) and methylene blue decomposition rate (−1.38 μmol/l d). The combined effects of titanium doping, dendrite surface structures and porosity leads to significant enhancement in the electrochromic and photocatalytic properties of Ti:WO{sub 3} films.

  9. Electrochromism and photocatalysis in dendrite structured Ti:WO3 thin films grown by sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karuppasamy, A.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Dendrite structured Ti doped WO 3 (WTO) thin films are grown by co-sputtering. • Sputtering condition influences structure and surface morphology of WTO films. • Titanium doping and annealing lead to dendritic surface structures in WTO films. • Structural, optical, electrochromic and photocatalytic properties of WTO films. • Enhanced electrochromism and photocatalysis in dendrite structured WTO thin films. - Abstract: Titanium doped tungsten oxide (Ti:WO 3 ) thin films with dendrite surface structures were grown by co-sputtering titanium and tungsten in Ar + O 2 atmosphere. Ti:WO 3 thin films were deposited at oxygen flow rates corresponding to pressures in the range 1.0 × 10 −3 –5.0 × 10 −3 mbar. Argon flow rate and sputtering power densities for titanium (2 W/cm 2 ) and tungsten (3 W/cm 2 ) were kept constant. Ti:WO 3 films deposited at an oxygen pressure of 5 × 10 −3 mbar are found to be better electrochromic and photocatalytic. They have high optical modulation (80% at λ = 550 nm), coloration efficiency (60 cm 2 /C at λ = 550 nm), electron/ion storage and removal capacity (Qc: −22.01 mC/cm 2 , Qa: 17.72 mC/cm 2 ), reversibility (80%) and methylene blue decomposition rate (−1.38 μmol/l d). The combined effects of titanium doping, dendrite surface structures and porosity leads to significant enhancement in the electrochromic and photocatalytic properties of Ti:WO 3 films.

  10. Isomer effect on the near-infrared electrochromism of anthraquinone imides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Bin; Chen, Fengkun; Jiang, Hong; Zhang, Jie; Wan, Xinhua

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Two pairs of unsubstituted isomers (Ia and Ib) and nitro-substituted isomers (IIa and IIb) of anthraquinone imides (AQIs), which are a unique type of cathodically-colouring NIR electrochromic materials bearing both quinone and imide moieties, were synthesized. • Isomer effect on the NIR electrochromism of n-type optoelectric materials was first approached. • A meaningful reference to design cathodically active NIR EC materials, in which the molecular planarity and the orientation of polar groups are two key elements must to be carefully considered, is provided. - Abstract: To deeply explore the interplay between molecular structure and near-infrared electrochromism of anthraquinone imides, two pairs of unsubstituted isomers (Ia and Ib) and nitro-substituted isomers (IIa and IIb) of anthraquinone imides were synthesized, in which the molecules Ia and IIa took more linear shapes than Ib and IIb. Cyclic voltammetry and spectroelectrochemistry were combined to investigate their electrochemical properties. Cyclic voltammetry showed that Ib and IIb revealed decreased first reduction potentials and low cyclic stability compared to their isomers, indicating that the isomerization weakened the stabilization effect. Upon one-electron reduction, both the absorption wavelengths and absorption intensities of radical anions were greatly dependent on the structures of isomers. The radical anions of Ia, IIa, and IIb illustrated NIR absorptions peaked at 820, 1260, and 1380 nm, respectively, but that of Ib exhibited only weak absorption in the visible region centered at 660 nm. Gaussian calculations suggested that the electrons were delocalized over the whole molecular skeletons of Ia and IIa radical anions, but the effective conjugation length was interrupted on the imide section in both Ib and IIb. The isomer effects on the effective conjugation length and electron density distribution were considered to rationalize the

  11. Effect of modified ITO substrate on electrochromic properties of polyaniline films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon-Silva, U.; Nicho, M.E.; Cruz-Silva, Rodolfo [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas, UAEMor, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Hu, Hailin [Departamento de Materiales Solares, Centro de Investigacion en Energia, UNAM, Av. Xochicalco S/N, Temixco, 62580, Morelos (Mexico)

    2007-09-22

    In this work, we report the morphological and electrochromic properties of electrochemically synthesized polyaniline (PANI) thin films on bare and modified indium-tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates. In the last case, the surface of ITO glass was covered by a self-assembled monolayer of N-phenyl-{gamma}-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (PAPTS). Atomic force microscopy images and perfilometry show that smoother and thinner PANI films were grown on PAPTS-modified ITO substrates. PANI-based electrochromic devices (ECDs) were assembled by using a viscous polymeric electrolyte (PE) of LiClO{sub 4} and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) co-dissolved in a mixture of propylene and ethylene carbonate. The architectural design of the devices was glass/ITO/PANI/PE/ITO/glass. A dual ECD was also prepared by collocating a poly(3-methylthiophene) (P3MT) thin film as a complementary electrochromic element. The effect of the PAPTS-modified ITO substrate is reflected in a higher optical transmittance at bleach state and a little less color change at 550 nm of PANI-based ECDs. (author)

  12. Electrochromism in surface modified crystalline WO3 thin films grown by reactive DC magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppasamy, A.

    2013-10-01

    In the present work, tungsten oxide thin films were deposited at various oxygen chamber pressures (1.0-5.0 × 10-3 mbar) by maintaining the sputtering power density and argon pressure constant at 3.0 W/cm2 and 1.2 × 10-2 mbar, respectively. The role of surface morphology and porosity on the electrochromic properties of crystalline tungsten oxide thin films has been investigated. XRD and Raman studies reveal that all the samples post annealed at 450 ̊C in air for 3.0 h settle in monoclinic crystal system of tungsten oxide (W18O49). Though the phase of material is indifferent to oxygen pressure variations (PO2), morphology and film density shows a striking dependence on PO2. A systematic study on plasma (OES), morphology, optical and electrochromic properties of crystalline tungsten oxide reveal that the films deposited at PO2 of 2.0 × 10-3 mbar exhibit better coloration efficiency (58 cm2/C), electron/ion capacity (Qc: -25 mC/cm2), and reversibility (92%). This is attributed to the enhanced surface properties like high density of pores and fine particulates (100 nm) and to lesser bulk density of the film (ρ/ρo = 0.84) which facilitates the process of intercalation/de-intercalation of protons and electrons. These results show good promise toward stable and efficient crystalline tungsten oxide based electrochromic device applications.

  13. Synergistic tungsten oxide/organic framework hybrid nanofibers for electrochromic device application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulgerbaki, Cigdem; Komur, Ali Ihsan; Nohut Maslakci, Neslihan; Kuralay, Filiz; Uygun Oksuz, Aysegul

    2017-08-01

    We report the first successful applications of tungsten oxide/conducting polymer hybrid nanofiber assemblies in electrochromic devices. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/tungsten oxide (PEDOT/WO3) and polypyrrole/tungsten oxide (PPy/WO3) composites were prepared by an in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of monomers in different ionic liquids; 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIMBF4), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIMPF6), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide (BMIMTFSI) and 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide (BMPTFSI). Electrospinning process was used to form hybrid nanofibers from chemically synthesized nanostructures. The electrospun hybrid samples were compared from both morphological and electrochemical perspectives. Importantly, deposition of nanofibers from chemically synthesized hybrids can be achieved homogenously, on nanoscale dimensions. The morphologies of these assemblies were evaluated by SEM, whereas their electroactivity was characterized by cyclic voltammetry. Electrochromic devices made from hybrid nanofiber electrodes exhibited highest chromatic contrast of 37.66% for PEDOT/WO3/BMIMPF6, 40.42% for PPy/WO3/BMIMBF4 and show a strong electrochromic color change from transparent to light brown. Furthermore, the nanofiber devices exhibit outstanding stability when color switching proceeds, which may ensure a versatile platform for color displays, rear-view mirrors and smart windows.

  14. Solar driven electrochromic photoelectrochemical fuel cells for simultaneous energy conversion, storage and self-powered sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhu; Zhang, Lina; Cui, Kang; Xu, Caixia; Li, Hao; Liu, Hong; Yu, Jinghua

    2018-02-15

    One solar-driven electrochromic photoelectrochemical fuel cell (PFC) with highly efficient energy conversion and storage is easily constructed to achieve quantitative self-powered sensing. Layered bismuth oxyiodide-zinc oxide nanorod arrays (ZnO@BiOI NRA) with a core/shell p-n heterostructure are fabricated as the photoanode with electrochromic Prussian blue (PB) as the cathode. The core/shell p-n heterostructure for the ZnO@BiOI photoanode can effectively boost the photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance through the improvement of photon absorption and charge carrier separation. The optimal assembled PFC yields an open-circuit voltage (V OC ) of 0.48 V with the maximum power output density (P max ) as high as 155 μW cm -2 upon illumination. Benefitting from the interactive color-changing behavior of PB, the cathode not only exhibits cathodic catalytic activity in the PFC but also serves as an electrochromic display for self-powered sensing. The as-constructed PFC possesses multiple readable signal output nanochannels through the maximum power output density (P max ) of the PFC or the color change of PB. Meanwhile, the dual-signal-output makes the as-constructed self-powered sensor highly available in various operations demands with the enhanced reliability. With the advantages of high efficiency of PFCs, unique assay ability, and broad environmental suitability, the constructed self-powered platform shows broad application prospects as an integrated smart analytical device.

  15. Dip-Coating Process Engineering and Performance Optimization for Three-State Electrochromic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lu; Yang, Dejiang; Fei, Lixun; Huang, Yue; Wu, Fang; Sun, Yiling; Shi, Jiayuan; Xiang, Yong

    2017-06-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles were modified onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) via dip-coating technique with different nanoparticle sizes, lifting speeds, precursor concentrations, and dipping numbers. Electrodeposition-based electrochromic device with reversible three-state optical transformation (transparent, mirror, and black) was fabricated subsequently by sandwiching a suitable amount of gel electrolyte between modified FTO electrode and flat FTO electrode. Correlation between dip-coating process engineering, morphological features of TiO2 thin films, i.e., thickness and roughness, as well as performance of electrochromic devices, i.e., optical contrast, switching time, and cycling stability, were investigated. The modified device exhibits high optical contrast of 57%, the short coloration/bleaching switching time of 6 and 20 s, and excellent cycling stability after 1500 cycles of only 27% decrement rate by adjusting dip-coating processes engineering. The results in this study will provide valuable guidance for rational design of the electrochromic device with satisfactory performance.

  16. Large-scale fabrication of pseudocapacitive glass windows that combine electrochromism and energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peihua; Sun, Peng; Chai, Zhisheng; Huang, Langhuan; Cai, Xiang; Tan, Shaozao; Song, Jinhui; Mai, Wenjie

    2014-10-27

    Multifunctional glass windows that combine energy storage and electrochromism have been obtained by facile thermal evaporation and electrodeposition methods. For example, WO3 films that had been deposited on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass exhibited a high specific capacitance of 639.8 F g(-1). Their color changed from transparent to deep blue with an abrupt decrease in optical transmittance from 91.3% to 15.1% at a wavelength of 633 nm when a voltage of -0.6 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) was applied, demonstrating its excellent energy-storage and electrochromism properties. As a second example, a polyaniline-based pseudocapacitive glass was also developed, and its color can change from green to blue. A large-scale pseudocapacitive WO3-based glass window (15×15 cm(2)) was fabricated as a prototype. Such smart pseudocapacitive glass windows show great potential in functioning as electrochromic windows and concurrently powering electronic devices, such as mobile phones or laptops. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Fabrication of WO3-based electrochromic displays using solid or gel-like organic electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilopoulou, M; Aspiotis, G; Kostis, I; Argitis, P; Davazoglou, D

    2005-01-01

    New all solid-state electrochromic displays were fabricated by chemically vapor depositing and patterning a tungsten oxide film on SnO 2 :F covered glass substrates. Aluminum sheets were used as counter electrodes to form electrochromic displays using solid or gel-like organic electrolytes. These ionically conductive and electronically insulating electrolytes were based on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and poly(2-hydrohyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) into which phospho-tungstic acid was added at various concentrations. In some devices the electrolyte was formed by addition of photoacid generator into the polymeric matrix and exposure at deep UV light. It was found that displays exhibit an intense, reversible electrochromic effect with reflectivity varying by a factor of five between the uncolored to the colored state. The coloring voltage depends strongly on the polymeric matrix, the thickness of the electrolyte and post-apply baking conditions and is of the order of 6-9 V. The response time was found to be of the order of 500 ms; coloration and bleaching times were comparable

  18. Syntheses and electrochromic and fluorescence properties of three double dithienylpyrroles derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Gang; Fu Xiangkai; Huang Jing; Wu Chuanlong; Wu Liu; Deng Jun; Du Qiuliang; Zou Xiaochuan

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Three kinds of double dithienylpyrroles derivatives have been successfully prepared by the Knorr-Paal condensation between 1,4-di(thiophen-2-yl) butane-1,4-dione and aromatic diamines. → Their polymer films were successfully synthesized via electropolymerization. → The polymer films had stable and well-defined reversible redox process, low optical band gap and multicolor electrochromic behavior. → All the monomers and polymers exhibited different intensity emission bands at different wavelengths. - Abstract: Three double dithienylpyrroles derivatives have been successfully prepared by performing a Knorr-Paal condensation between 1,4-di(thiophen-2-yl) butane-1,4-dione and various aromatic diamines. Additionally, their corresponding polymer films were synthesized via electropolymerization. Their electrochemical, spectroelectrochemical and electrochromic behaviors were further investigated by thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry, UV-vis absorption and fluorescence emission spectra. Scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated that the polymer films possessed homogeneous, compact and smooth layer structures and thermal stabilities (up to nearly 180 deg. C). Cyclic voltammograms and UV-vis absorption spectra studies showed that the polymer films have stable, well-defined, reversible redox processes, low optical band gaps (E g < 2.2 eV) and multicolor electrochromic behaviors. Additionally, the fluorescence spectra study showed that all of the monomers and polymers exhibited different intensity emission bands at different wavelengths.

  19. 'Printability' of Candidate Biomaterials for Extrusion Based 3D Printing: State-of-the-Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Stuart; Jessop, Zita M; Al-Sabah, Ayesha; Whitaker, Iain S

    2017-08-01

    Regenerative medicine has been highlighted as one of the UK's 8 'Great Technologies' with the potential to revolutionize patient care in the 21st Century. Over the last decade, the concept of '3D bioprinting' has emerged, which allows the precise deposition of cell laden bioinks with the aim of engineering complex, functional tissues. For 3D printing to be used clinically, there is the need to produce advanced functional biomaterials, a new generation of bioinks with suitable cell culture and high shape/print fidelity, to match or exceed the physical, chemical and biological properties of human tissue. With the rapid increase in knowledge associated with biomaterials, cell-scaffold interactions and the ability to biofunctionalize/decorate bioinks with cell recognition sequences, it is important to keep in mind the 'printability' of these novel materials. In this illustrated review, we define and refine the concept of 'printability' and review seminal and contemporary studies to highlight the current 'state of play' in the field with a focus on bioink composition and concentration, manipulation of nozzle parameters and rheological properties. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Graphene-Decorated Nanocomposites for Printable Electrodes in Thin Wafer Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshizadeh, N.; Sivoththaman, S.

    2017-12-01

    Printable electrodes that induce less stress and require lower curing temperatures compared to traditional screen-printed metal pastes are needed in thin wafer devices such as future solar cells, and in flexible electronics. The synthesis of nanocomposites by incorporating graphene nanopowders as well as silver nanowires into epoxy-based electrically conductive adhesives (ECA) is examined to improve electrical conductivity and to develop alternate printable electrode materials that induce less stress on the wafer. For the synthesized graphene and Ag nanowire-decorated ECA nanocomposites, the curing kinetics were studied by dynamic and isothermal differential scanning calorimetry measurements. Thermogravimetric analysis on ECA, ECA-AG and ECA/graphene nanopowder nanocomposites showed that the temperatures for onset of decomposition are higher than their corresponding glass transition temperature ( T g) indicating an excellent thermal resistance. Printed ECA/Ag nanowire nanocomposites showed 90% higher electrical conductivity than ECA films, whereas the ECA/graphene nanocomposites increased the conductivity by over two orders of magnitude. Scanning electron microscopy results also revealed the effect of fillers morphology on the conductivity improvement and current transfer mechanisms in nanocomposites. Residual stress analysis performed on Si wafers showed that the ECA and nanocomposite printed wafers are subjected to much lower stress compared to those printed with metallic pastes. The observed parameters of low curing temperature, good thermal resistance, reasonably high conductivity, and low residual stress in the ECA/graphene nanocomposite makes this material a promising alternative in screen-printed electrode formation in thin substrates.

  1. Characterization of printable cellular micro-fluidic channels for tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yahui; Chen, Howard; Ozbolat, Ibrahim T; Yu, Yin

    2013-01-01

    Tissue engineering has been a promising field of research, offering hope of bridging the gap between organ shortage and transplantation needs. However, building three-dimensional (3D) vascularized organs remains the main technological barrier to be overcome. One of the major challenges is the inclusion of a vascular network to support cell viability in terms of nutrients and oxygen perfusion. This paper introduces a new approach to the fabrication of vessel-like microfluidic channels that has the potential to be used in thick tissue or organ fabrication in the future. In this research, we investigate the manufacturability of printable micro-fluidic channels, where micro-fluidic channels support mechanical integrity as well as enable fluid transport in 3D. A pressure-assisted solid freeform fabrication platform is developed with a coaxial needle dispenser unit to print hollow hydrogel filaments. The dispensing rheology is studied, and effects of material properties on structural formation of hollow filaments are analyzed. Sample structures are printed through the developed computer-controlled system. In addition, cell viability and gene expression studies are presented in this paper. Cell viability shows that cartilage progenitor cells (CPCs) maintained their viability right after bioprinting and during prolonged in vitro culture. Real-time PCR analysis yielded a relatively higher expression of cartilage-specific genes in alginate hollow filament encapsulating CPCs, compared with monolayer cultured CPCs, which revealed that printable semi-permeable micro-fluidic channels provided an ideal environment for cell growth and function. (paper)

  2. UV Ink-Jet printability and durability of stone and foil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeja Muck

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available he use of ultraviolet (UV printing technology has impacted printing industry in last years due to its applicability on many different »absorptive« as well as »non-absorptive« printing materials. The printability of building materials and recycled foils is relatively unknown. For primary building materials like stones, functionality can be explored with the use of UV printing technology; increased visual, informative effect or even “creative printing” of buildings. Also several aspects of recycled foils reusability as a printing material could be find (printed packaging material or also like secondary building materials. In the present study, printability of the stone and recycled foil and durability of UV prints was explored by means of macroscopically and microscopically characterization. Results indicate that higher print quality can be achieved on polished stone and on coated foil, which surfaces have higher smoothness. Durability of UV prints at freezing is higher at unpolished stone and coated foil that is at materials with the higher surface energy.

  3. Electrochromic properties of poly (1-(phenyl)-2,5-di(2-thienyl)-1H-pyrrole-co-3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene) and its application in electrochromic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkuc, S.; Sahmetlioglu, E.; Tanyeli, C.; Akhmedov, I. M.; Toppare, L.

    2008-06-01

    Electrochemical copolymerization of 1-(phenyl)-2,5-di(2-thienyl)-1H-pyrrole (PTP) with 3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene (EDOT) was carried out in acetonitrile (AN)/NaClO4/LiClO4 (0.1 M) solvent-electrolyte couple via potentiodynamic electrolysis. Characterizations of the resulting copolymer were performed via cyclic voltammetry (CV), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and spectroelectrochemical analysis. Spectroelectrochemical analyses show that the copolymer of PTP with EDOT has an electronic band gap (due to π to π∗ transition) of 1.9 eV at 480 nm, with a claret red in the fully reduced form and a blue color in the fully oxidized form. Via kinetic studies, the optical contrast (ΔT %) was found to be 8% for P(PTP-co-EDOT). Results showed that the time required to reach 95% of the ultimate transmittance was 1.7 s for the copolymer. The P(PTP-co-EDOT) film was used to construct a dual type polymer electrochromic device (ECDs) with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene) (PEDOT). Spectroelectrochemistry, electrochromic switching and open circuit memory of the device were investigated.

  4. Large-Scale Multifunctional Electrochromic-Energy Storage Device Based on Tungsten Trioxide Monohydrate Nanosheets and Prussian White.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Zhijie; Li, Xiaomin; Chen, Yongbo; He, Xiaoli; Xu, Xiaoke; Gao, Xiangdong

    2017-09-06

    A high-performance electrochromic-energy storage device (EESD) is developed, which successfully realizes the multifunctional combination of electrochromism and energy storage by constructing tungsten trioxide monohydrate (WO 3 ·H 2 O) nanosheets and Prussian white (PW) film as asymmetric electrodes. The EESD presents excellent electrochromic properties of broad optical modulation (61.7%), ultrafast response speed (1.84/1.95 s), and great coloration efficiency (139.4 cm 2 C -1 ). In particular, remarkable cyclic stability (sustaining 82.5% of its initial optical modulation after 2500 cycles as an electrochromic device, almost fully maintaining its capacitance after 1000 cycles as an energy storage device) is achieved. The EESD is also able to visually detect the energy storage level via reversible and fast color changes. Moreover, the EESD can be combined with commercial solar cells to constitute an intelligent operating system in the architectures, which would realize the adjustment of indoor sunlight and the improvement of physical comfort totally by the rational utilization of solar energy without additional electricity. Besides, a scaled-up EESD (10 × 11 cm 2 ) is further fabricated as a prototype. Such promising EESD shows huge potential in practically serving as electrochromic smart windows and energy storage devices.

  5. Transmissive-to-black fast electrochromic switching from a long conjugated pendant group and a highly dispersed polymer/SWNT

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qiang

    2018-01-03

    In this study, a novel conjugated polymer, denoted as ECPblack, is synthesized. ECPblack demonstrated a unique electrochromic behavior with an ultrahigh contrast ratio (over 80%) in most of the visible regions, boasting an ultrahigh integrated contrast ratio of 71.8% between 380 nm and 880 nm. The long conjugated pendant group (pyrene) in ECPblack enhances the absorption in the blue region in its second oxidized state and results in transmissive-to-black electrochromic switching between the neutral state and the oxidized state. The transmissive-to-black electrochromic switching polymer with an ultrahigh contrast ratio could be especially attractive for applications in electronic displays. In addition, when polytriarylamine/nanotube (SWNT/P2) dispersion is doped in ECPblack, the response time of its electrochemical and electrochromic behaviors is further reduced. The electrochromic switching and bleaching time of SWNT/P2/ECPblack decreased by 73% and 80%, respectively. The improvement is caused by the phase separation of the rigid SWNT and the flexible polymer, which generates a rough surface morphology and provides more pathways for faster diffusion of counterions (ClO4-). The polymer/SWNT doping technique provides a simple way to accelerate ion diffusion in anodically coloring materials.

  6. Transmissive-to-black fast electrochromic switching from a long conjugated pendant group and a highly dispersed polymer/SWNT

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qiang; Tsai, Chou-Yi; Abidin, Taufik; Jiang, Jyh-Chiang; Shie, Wan-Ru; Li, Lain-Jong; Liaw, Der-Jang

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a novel conjugated polymer, denoted as ECPblack, is synthesized. ECPblack demonstrated a unique electrochromic behavior with an ultrahigh contrast ratio (over 80%) in most of the visible regions, boasting an ultrahigh integrated contrast ratio of 71.8% between 380 nm and 880 nm. The long conjugated pendant group (pyrene) in ECPblack enhances the absorption in the blue region in its second oxidized state and results in transmissive-to-black electrochromic switching between the neutral state and the oxidized state. The transmissive-to-black electrochromic switching polymer with an ultrahigh contrast ratio could be especially attractive for applications in electronic displays. In addition, when polytriarylamine/nanotube (SWNT/P2) dispersion is doped in ECPblack, the response time of its electrochemical and electrochromic behaviors is further reduced. The electrochromic switching and bleaching time of SWNT/P2/ECPblack decreased by 73% and 80%, respectively. The improvement is caused by the phase separation of the rigid SWNT and the flexible polymer, which generates a rough surface morphology and provides more pathways for faster diffusion of counterions (ClO4-). The polymer/SWNT doping technique provides a simple way to accelerate ion diffusion in anodically coloring materials.

  7. A Facile Methodology for the Development of a Printable and Flexible All-Solid-State Rechargeable Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Bibekananda; Yadav, Amit; Khan, Salman; Kar, Kamal K

    2017-06-14

    Development of printable and flexible energy storage devices is one of the most promising technologies for wearable electronics in textile industry. The present work involves the design of a printable and flexible all-solid-state rechargeable battery for wearable electronics in textile applications. Copper-coated carbon fiber is used to make a poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-based polymer nanocomposite for a flexible and conductive current collector layer. Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO 4 ) and titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) are utilized to prepare the cathode and anode layers, respectively, with PEO and carbon black composites. The PEO- and Li salt-based solid composite separator layer is utilized for the solid-state and safe electrolyte. Fabrication of all these layers and assembly of them through coating on fabrics are performed in the open atmosphere without using any complex processing, as PEO prevents the degradation of the materials in the open atmosphere. The performance of the battery is evaluated through charge-discharge and open-circuit voltage analyses. The battery shows an open-circuit voltage of ∼2.67 V and discharge time ∼2000 s. It shows similar performance at different repeated bending angles (0° to 180°) and continuous bending along with long cycle life. The application of the battery is also investigated for printable and wearable textile applications. Therefore, this printable, flexible, easily processable, and nontoxic battery with this performance has great potential to be used in portable and wearable textile electronics.

  8. Surfactant-assisted ultrasonic spray pyrolysis of nickel oxide and lithium-doped nickel oxide thin films, toward electrochromic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denayer, Jessica [Group of Research in Energy and Environment for MATerials (GREENMAT), University of Liège, allée de la chimie 3, 4000 Liège (Belgium); Bister, Geoffroy [Environmental and Material Research Association (CRIBC-INISMa), avenue gouverneur cornez 4, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Simonis, Priscilla [Laboratory LPS, University of Namur, rue de bruxelles 61, 5000 Namur (Belgium); Colson, Pierre; Maho, Anthony [Group of Research in Energy and Environment for MATerials (GREENMAT), University of Liège, allée de la chimie 3, 4000 Liège (Belgium); Aubry, Philippe [Environmental and Material Research Association (CRIBC-INISMa), avenue gouverneur cornez 4, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Vertruyen, Bénédicte [Group of Research in Energy and Environment for MATerials (GREENMAT), University of Liège, allée de la chimie 3, 4000 Liège (Belgium); Henrist, Catherine, E-mail: catherine.henrist@ulg.ac.be [Group of Research in Energy and Environment for MATerials (GREENMAT), University of Liège, allée de la chimie 3, 4000 Liège (Belgium); Lardot, Véronique; Cambier, Francis [Environmental and Material Research Association (CRIBC-INISMa), avenue gouverneur cornez 4, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Cloots, Rudi [Group of Research in Energy and Environment for MATerials (GREENMAT), University of Liège, allée de la chimie 3, 4000 Liège (Belgium)

    2014-12-01

    Highlights: • Surfactant-assisted USP: a novel and low cost process to obtain high quality nickel oxide films, with or without lithium dopant. • Increased uniformity and reduced light scattering thanks to the addition of a surfactant. • Improved electrochromic performance (coloration efficiency and contrast) for lithium-doped films by comparison with the undoped NiO film. - Abstract: Lithium-doped nickel oxide and undoped nickel oxide thin films have been deposited on FTO/glass substrates by a surfactant-assisted ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. The addition of polyethylene glycol in the sprayed solution has led to improved uniformity and reduced light scattering compared to films made without surfactant. Furthermore, the presence of lithium ions in NiO films has resulted in improved electrochromic performances (coloration contrast and efficiency), but with a slight decrease of the electrochromic switching kinetics.

  9. Correlating rheological properties and printability of collagen bioinks: the effects of riboflavin photocrosslinking and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantides, Nicole; Wang, Louis; Pruiksma, Tylar; Siemiatkoski, Joseph; Dugopolski, Caroline; Shortkroff, Sonya; Kennedy, Stephen; Bonassar, Lawrence J

    2017-07-05

    Collagen has shown promise as a bioink for extrusion-based bioprinting, but further development of new collagen bioink formulations is necessary to improve their printability. Screening these formulations by measuring print accuracy is a costly and time consuming process. We hypothesized that rheological properties of the bioink before, during, and/or after gelation can be used to predict printability. In this study, we investigated the effects of riboflavin photocrosslinking and pH on type I collagen bioink rheology before, during, and after gelation and directly correlated these findings to the printability of each bioink formulation. From the riboflavin crosslinking study, results showed that riboflavin crosslinking increased the storage moduli of collagen bioinks, but the degree of improvement was less pronounced at higher collagen concentrations. Dots printed with collagen bioinks with riboflavin crosslinking exhibited smaller dot footprint areas than those printed with collagen bioinks without riboflavin crosslinking. From the pH study, results showed that gelation kinetics and final gel moduli were highly pH dependent and both exhibited maxima around pH 8. The shape fidelity of printed lines was highest at pH 8-9.5. The effect of riboflavin crosslinking and pH on cell viability was assessed using bovine chondrocytes. Cell viability in collagen gels was found to decrease after blue light activated riboflavin crosslinking but was not affected by pH. Correlations between rheological parameters and printability showed that the modulus associated with the bioink immediately after extrusion and before deposition was the best predictor of bioink printability. These findings will allow for the more rapid screening of collagen bioink formulations.

  10. Electrochromic characteristics of a nickel borate thin film investigated by in situ XAFS and UV/vis spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Masaaki; Iida, Tsuyoshi; Mineo, Takehiro

    2014-01-01

    The electrochromic transition of a nickel borate thin film between colorless and brown was examined by means of in situ XAFS and UV/vis spectroscopy. The XAFS spectra showed that the average valence state of the nickel species in the film changed from +2.1 to +3.8 following the application of an electrode potential. Additionally, a broad peak at 700 nm was observed during in situ UV/vis absorption measurements on the application of a positive potential. These results suggest that the nickel borate film reversibly forms a NiOOH structure with a domain size of several nanometers during the electrochromic reaction. (author)

  11. Studies of solid-state electrochromic devices based on Peo/siliceous hybrids doped with lithium perchlorate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, P.C.; Silva, M.M.; Smith, M.J.; Goncalves, A.; Fortunato, E.

    2007-01-01

    Sol-gel hybrid organic-inorganic networks, doped with a lithium salt, have been used as electrolytes in prototype smart windows. The work described in this presentation is focused on the application of these networks as dual-function electrolyte/adhesive components in solid-state electrochromic devices. The performance of multi-layer electrochromic devices was characterized as a function of the choice of precursor used to prepare the polymer electrolyte component and the guest salt concentration. The prototype devices exhibited good open-circuit memory, coloration efficiency, optical contrast and stability

  12. Printable photonic crystals with high refractive index for applications in visible light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calafiore, Giuseppe; Mejia, Camilo A; Munechika, Keiko; Peroz, Christophe; Piña-Hernandez, Carlos; Fillot, Quentin; Dhuey, Scott; Sassolini, Simone; Salvadori, Filippo; Cabrini, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) of functional high-refractive index materials has proved to be a powerful candidate for the inexpensive manufacturing of high-resolution photonic devices. In this paper, we demonstrate the fabrication of printable photonic crystals (PhCs) with high refractive index working in the visible wavelengths. The PhCs are replicated on a titanium dioxide-based high-refractive index hybrid material by reverse NIL with almost zero shrinkage and high-fidelity reproducibility between mold and printed devices. The optical responses of the imprinted PhCs compare very well with those fabricated by conventional nanofabrication methods. This study opens the road for a low-cost manufacturing of PhCs and other nanophotonic devices for applications in visible light. (paper)

  13. Post annealing performance evaluation of printable interdigital capacitive sensors by principal component analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Zia, Asif Iqbal

    2015-06-01

    The surface roughness of thin-film gold electrodes induces instability in impedance spectroscopy measurements of capacitive interdigital printable sensors. Post-fabrication thermodynamic annealing was carried out at temperatures ranging from 30 °C to 210 °C in a vacuum oven and the variation in surface morphology of thin-film gold electrodes was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Impedance spectra obtained at different temperatures were translated into equivalent circuit models by applying complex nonlinear least square curve-fitting algorithm. Principal component analysis was applied to deduce the classification of the parameters affected due to the annealing process and to evaluate the performance stability using mathematical model. Physics of the thermodynamic annealing was discussed based on the surface activation energies. The post anneal testing of the sensors validated the achieved stability in impedance measurement. © 2001-2012 IEEE.

  14. An electroluminescence device for printable electronics using coprecipitated ZnS:Mn nanocrystal ink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, T; Hama, T; Adachi, D; Nakashizu, Y; Okamoto, H

    2009-01-01

    Electroluminescence (EL) devices for printable electronics using coprecipitated ZnS:Mn nanocrystal (NC) ink are demonstrated. The EL properties of these devices were investigated along with the structural and optical properties of ZnS:Mn NCs with an emphasis on their dependence on crystal size. Transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction studies revealed that the NCs, with a crystal size of 3-4 nm, are nearly monodisperse; the crystal size can be controlled by the Zn 2+ concentration in the starting solution for coprecipitation. The results of optical studies indicate the presence of quantum confinement effects; in addition, the NC surfaces are well passivated, regardless of the crystal size. Finally, an increase in the luminance of EL devices with a decrease in crystal size is observed, which suggests the excitation mechanism of ZnS:Mn NC EL devices.

  15. Inkjet printable nanosilver suspensions for enhanced sintering quality in rapid manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, John G; Creehan, Kevin D; Kuhn, Howard A

    2007-01-01

    Inkjet printable nanosilver suspensions were prepared by dispersing 30 nm silver particles into a water-based binder system to enhance the sintering quality in rapid manufacturing. During three-dimensional printing (3DP), the nanosilver suspensions were inkjet printed onto repetitively spread microsilver powder for selective joining. Since the nanosilver particles in the suspensions can be sintered at relatively low temperatures to bond the neighbouring microsilver powder, they were used to provide the continuous bonding strength of the manufacturing parts during the heat-up procedure of the sintering operation. Comparative study shows that the silver parts printed using the nanosilver suspension were significantly enhanced in sintering quality than those printed using the binder system, especially when the silver parts had thin or small features with high aspect ratios

  16. EUV actinic defect inspection and defect printability at the sub-32 nm half pitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Sungmin; Kearney, Patrick; Wurm, Stefan; Goodwin, Frank; Han, Hakseung; Goldberg, Kenneth; Mochi, Iacopp; Gullikson, Eric M.

    2009-08-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) mask blanks with embedded phase defects were inspected with a reticle actinic inspection tool (AIT) and the Lasertec M7360. The Lasertec M7360, operated at SEMA TECH's Mask Blank Development Center (MBDC) in Albany, NY, has a sensitivity to multilayer defects down to 40-45 nm, which is not likely sufficient for mask blank development below the 32 nm half-pitch node. Phase defect printability was simulated to calculate the required defect sensitivity for a next generation blank inspection tool to support reticle development for the sub-32 nm half-pitch technology node. Defect mitigation technology is proposed to take advantage of mask blanks with some defects. This technology will reduce the cost of ownership of EUV mask blanks. This paper will also discuss the kind of infrastructure that will be required for the development and mass production stages.

  17. Post annealing performance evaluation of printable interdigital capacitive sensors by principal component analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Zia, Asif Iqbal; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas Chandra; Yu, Paklam; Al-Bahadly, Ibrahim H.; Gooneratne, Chinthaka Pasan; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2015-01-01

    The surface roughness of thin-film gold electrodes induces instability in impedance spectroscopy measurements of capacitive interdigital printable sensors. Post-fabrication thermodynamic annealing was carried out at temperatures ranging from 30 °C to 210 °C in a vacuum oven and the variation in surface morphology of thin-film gold electrodes was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Impedance spectra obtained at different temperatures were translated into equivalent circuit models by applying complex nonlinear least square curve-fitting algorithm. Principal component analysis was applied to deduce the classification of the parameters affected due to the annealing process and to evaluate the performance stability using mathematical model. Physics of the thermodynamic annealing was discussed based on the surface activation energies. The post anneal testing of the sensors validated the achieved stability in impedance measurement. © 2001-2012 IEEE.

  18. Enhanced printability of thermoplastic polyurethane substrates by silica particles surface interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, S., E-mail: s.cruz@dep.uminho.pt [IPC/I3N – Institute of Polymers and Composites/Inst. of Nanostructures, Nanomodelling and Nanofabrication, Department Polymer Engineering, University of Minho, 4804-533 Guimarães (Portugal); Rocha, L.A. [CMEMS, University of Minho, 4804-533 Guimarães (Portugal); Viana, J.C. [IPC/I3N – Institute of Polymers and Composites/Inst. of Nanostructures, Nanomodelling and Nanofabrication, Department Polymer Engineering, University of Minho, 4804-533 Guimarães (Portugal)

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A new method development for surface treatment of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) substrates. • The proposed method increases TPU surface energy (by 45%) and consequently the TPU wettability. • Great increase of the TPU surface roughness (by 621%). • Inkjet printed conductive ink was applied to the surface treated TPU substrate and significant improvements on the printability were obtained. - Abstract: A new method developed for the surface treatment of thermoplastic polymer substrates that increases their surface energies is introduced in this paper. The method is environmental friendly and low cost. In the proposed surface treatment method, nanoparticles are spread over the thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) flexible substrate surface and then thermally fixed. This latter step allows the nanoparticles sinking-in on the polymer surface, resulting in a higher polymer–particle interaction at their interfacial region. The addition of nanoparticles onto the polymer surface increases surface roughness. The extent of the nanoparticles dispersion and sink-in in the substrate was evaluated through microscopy analysis (SEM). The roughness of the surface treated polymeric substrate was evaluated by AFM analysis. Substrate critical surface tension (ST) was measured by contact angle. In general, a homogeneous roughness form is achieved to a certain level. Great increase of the TPU surface roughness (by 621%) was induced by the propose method. The proposed surface treatment method increased significantly the substrate ST (by 45%) and consequently the TPU wettability. This novel surface treatment of thermoplastic polymers was applied to the inkjet printing of TPU substrates with conductive inks, and significant improvements on the printability were obtained.

  19. Printability of papers recycled from toner and inkjet-printed papers after deinking and recycling processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karademir, Arif; Aydemir, Cem; Tutak, Dogan; Aravamuthan, Raja

    2018-04-01

    In our contemporary world, while part of the fibers used in the paper industry is obtained from primary fibers such as wood and agricultural plants, the rest is obtained from secondary fibers from waste papers. To manufacture paper with high optical quality from fibers of recycled waste papers, these papers require deinking and bleaching of fibers at desired levels. High efficiency in removal of ink from paper mass during recycling, and hence deinkability, are especially crucial for the optical and printability quality of the ultimate manufactured paper. In the present study, deinkability and printability performance of digitally printed paper with toner or inkjet ink were compared for the postrecycling product. To that end, opaque 80 g/m 2 office paper was digitally printed under standard printing conditions with laser toner or inkjet ink; then these sheets of paper were deinked by a deinking process based on the INGEDE method 11 p. After the deinking operation, the optical properties of the obtained recycled handsheets were compared with unprinted (reference) paper. Then the recycled paper was printed on once again under the same conditions as before with inkjet and laser printers, to monitor and measure printing color change before and after recycling, and differences in color universe. Recycling and printing performances of water-based inkjet and toner-based laser printed paper were obtained. The outcomes for laser-printed recycled paper were better than those for inkjet-printed recycled paper. Compared for luminosity Y, brightness, CIE a* and CIE b* values, paper recycled from laser-printed paper exhibited higher value than paper recycled from inkjet-printed paper.

  20. Fast printing of thin, large area, ITO free electrochromics on flexible barrier foil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Roar R.; Hösel, Markus; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2013-01-01

    Processing of large area, indium tin oxide (ITO) free electrochromic (EC) devices has been carried out using roll-toroll (R2R) processing. By use of very fine high-conductive silver grids with a hexagonal structure, it is possible to achieve good transparency of the electrode covered substrates...... and when used in EC devices switching times are similar to corresponding ITO devices. This is obtained without the uneven switching of larger areas, which is generally observed when using ITO because of its high-sheet resistance. The silver electrode structures for 18 ×18 cm2 devices can be processed...

  1. Investigation of water content in electrolyte solution on electrochromic properties of WO3 thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Abadi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten oxide thin films were prepared by a cathodic electrodeposition method at -0.450 mV in order to investigate how water content affects their electrochromic properties. FESEM images exhibit that WO3 thin films consist of 65 nm uniform grains. Thin Films were electrochemically investigated in 0.1M LiClO4 in propylene carbonate electrolyte with and without 5vol% water content by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The results indicate that tungsten oxide thin films exhibit faster switching time between coloration and bleaching states and also higher coloration efficiency in hydrated electrolyte.  

  2. Doping, Ionic Conductivity and Photothermal Stability of Functionalized DNA for Solar Energy Conversion and Electrochromic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    and coworkers 1,2,3,4 . They are renewable and biodegradable materials, recovered from waste in food industry (fruits, animal and fish meat waste) and...charges leads to the change of its absorption spectrum, or in other words to a change of its color . However in most cases the electrolyte used is in...electrodes (cf. Fig. 25). CeO2- TiO2 BK7 BK7 SOLID ELECTROLYTE ITO WO3 ITO Fig. 25. Structure of the used electrochromic cell 21 Figure 26

  3. FORMATION AND ELECTROCHEMICAL BEHAVIOUR OF POLYION COMPLEXES FOR ELECTROCHROMIC DISPLAY MATERIAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Guoxiang; WANG Bing; DENG Zhenghua; LUO Chunqiao

    1988-01-01

    Formation of intermacromolecular complexes containing viologen and electron-transfer reaction occurred on the electrode modified by the complex films were studied. Compositions and morphology of the complexes depend on the properties of polyanion and chemical environment of complexation. The analytical results of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and rotating disk voltammetry(RDV) indicated: (1) active sites of viologen in network of complexes transferred single electron reversibly; (2) the redox peak currents showed excellent symmetry and stability; (3) redox potentials were related to properties of polyanions, varying from -0.4 to -0.6V (vs. SCE). Electrochromic materials with different displaying colors could be obtained by changing the structure of polyviologen.

  4. Solid-state electrochromic cell with anodic iridium oxide film electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dautremont-Smith, W.C.; Beni, G.; Schiavone, L.M.; Shay, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    A new solid-state electrochromic cell has been fabricated using an anodic iridium oxide film (AIROF) display electrode. The cell has the symmetric sandwich structure AIROFvertical-barNafionvertical-barAIROF, with the Nafion solid electrolyte opacified by an in situ precipitation technique. A symmetric square-wave voltage of 1.5 V amplitude produces clearly perceivable color changes from pale to dark blue-gray in approx. =1 sec when viewed in diffuse reflection. Good open-circuit optical memory is exhibited:

  5. Structure, electrochromic and optical properties of WO3 film prepared by dip coating-pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Haitao; Shang Fuliang; Gao Ling; Han Haitao

    2007-01-01

    The tungsten oxide (WO 3 ) film was grown by dip coating-pyrolysis method with the PEG-400 as the structure-directing agent. Microstructure of the WO 3 film was characterized by TG-DSC, XRD and SEM techniques. It was found that the film annealed at 350 deg. C for 2 h comprised cubic WO 3 and orthorhombic WO 3 . The measurements of the cyclic voltammetry (CV) and UV-vis spectrum suggested that the WO 3 film had a good electrochromic reversibility performance. The film possessed excellent modulation to the visible light and the maximal average transmittance modulation reached 70.06%

  6. Study on the flow of molten polymers in a mold an investigation on mold printability; Kobunshi yoyutai no kanagatanai bisho ryudo. Kanagata tenshasei no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kano, Y.; Nishimura, T.; Ito, S. [Ube Industries Ltd. Yamaguchi (Japan)] Usui, H. [Kobe Univ. (Japan)] Saeki, T. [Yamaguchi Univ. (Japan)

    1998-09-15

    A visualization experiment was carried out using a small metal mold with rectangular grooves as a mold printable model to observe the micro-flow of molten polymer in a metal mold. The glitter, which is an index of printability, was correlated with blow velocity and space area. Since it is highly correlated with space area, it can be thought that filling up well the fine grooves of mold heighten the glitter and printability as well. The effect of such factors as mold temperature, polymer melt temperature, air blow pressure and air blow velocity on the mold printability was investigated. For high density polyethylene and polypropylene, the glitter depended the most on the mold temperature. The higher the temperature, the higher the glitter. It was also found that the increase in blow pressure was effective. For high density polyethylene, the effect of blow velocity and polymer melt temperature was also recognized. 3 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Electrochromism: basis and application of nanomaterials in development of high performance electrodes; Eletrocromismo: fundamentos e a aplicacao de nanomateriais no desenvolvimento de eletrodos de alto desempenho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintanilha, Ronaldo C.; Rocha, Igor; Vichessi, Raquel B.; Lucht, Emili; Naidek, Karine; Winnischofer, Herbert; Vidotti, Marcio [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica

    2014-07-01

    This review deals with the basis and novel trends in electrochromism, describing the basic aspects and methodologies employed for the construction and analyses of different modified electrodes. The work presents the classic materials used for the construction of electrochromic electrodes, such as WO{sub 3} and a view on the basic concepts of chromaticity as a useful approach for analyzing colorimetric results. The report also addresses how the incorporation of nanomaterials and the consequent novel modification of electrodes have furthered this area of science, producing electrochromic electrodes with high performance, high efficiency and low response times. (author)

  8. Solution processed large area fabrication of Ag patterns as electrodes for flexible heaters, electrochromics and organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Ritu; Walia, Sunil; Hösel, Markus

    2014-01-01

    , the process takes only a few minutes without any expensive instrumentation. The electrodes exhibited excellent adhesion and mechanical properties, important for flexible device application. Using Ag patterned electrodes, heaters operating at low voltages, pixelated electrochromic displays as well as organic...... solar cells have been demonstrated. The method is extendable to produce defect-free patterns over large areas as demonstrated by roll coating....

  9. A novel donor-acceptor polymeric electrochromic material containing carbazole and 1,8-naphtalimide as subunit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyuncu, Fatma Baycan, E-mail: fatmabaycan@hotmail.co [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, 17020 Canakkale (Turkey); Koyuncu, Sermet [Can Vocational School, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, 17400 Canakkale (Turkey); Ozdemir, Eyup, E-mail: eozdemir@comu.edu.t [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, 17020 Canakkale (Turkey)

    2010-07-01

    We report here the synthesis of a novel polymeric electrochromic material containing carbazole (Cbz)-donor and 1,8-napthalimide-acceptor as subunit. The band gap E{sub g} was measured using UV-vis spectroscopy and compared with that obtained by cyclic voltammetry (CV). Due to intramolecular electron transfer from Cbz-donor to 1,8-napthalimide-acceptor, the fluorescence quenching was observed. When the spectro-electrochemical and electrochromic properties of polymer film were investigated, various tones of green color were obtained on the polymeric film. In the positive regime, the polymer film obtained thereby is dark green resulting from the association of carbazolylium cation radicals at oxidized state and then it can be bleached by electrochemical reduction. Besides, in the negative regime, yellowish green color of film converted to blue attributed to reduction of the 1,8-napthalimide moiety. Finally, the polymeric electrochromic exhibits multi-electrochromic behavior, high redox stability, high coloration efficiency and reasonable response time.

  10. A novel donor-acceptor polymeric electrochromic material containing carbazole and 1,8-naphtalimide as subunit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyuncu, Fatma Baycan; Koyuncu, Sermet; Ozdemir, Eyup

    2010-01-01

    We report here the synthesis of a novel polymeric electrochromic material containing carbazole (Cbz)-donor and 1,8-napthalimide-acceptor as subunit. The band gap E g was measured using UV-vis spectroscopy and compared with that obtained by cyclic voltammetry (CV). Due to intramolecular electron transfer from Cbz-donor to 1,8-napthalimide-acceptor, the fluorescence quenching was observed. When the spectro-electrochemical and electrochromic properties of polymer film were investigated, various tones of green color were obtained on the polymeric film. In the positive regime, the polymer film obtained thereby is dark green resulting from the association of carbazolylium cation radicals at oxidized state and then it can be bleached by electrochemical reduction. Besides, in the negative regime, yellowish green color of film converted to blue attributed to reduction of the 1,8-napthalimide moiety. Finally, the polymeric electrochromic exhibits multi-electrochromic behavior, high redox stability, high coloration efficiency and reasonable response time.

  11. Spin coated versus dip coated electrochromic tungsten oxide films: Structure, morphology, optical and electrochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deepa, M.; Saxena, T.K.; Singh, D.P.; Sood, K.N.; Agnihotry, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    A sol-gel derived acetylated peroxotungstic acid sol encompassing 4 wt.% of oxalic acid dihydrate (OAD) has been employed for the deposition of tungsten oxide (WO 3 ) films by spin coating and dip coating techniques, in view of smart window applications. The morphological and structural evolution of the as-deposited spin and dip coated films as a function of annealing temperature (250 and 500 o C) has been examined and compared by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). A conspicuous feature of the dip coated film (annealed at 250 o C) is that its electrochromic and electrochemical properties ameliorate with cycling without degradation in contrast to the spin coated film for which these properties deteriorate under repetitive cycling. A comparative study of spin and dip coated nanostructured thin films (annealed at 250 o C) revealed a superior performance for the cycled dip coated film in terms of higher transmission modulation and coloration efficiency in solar and photopic regions, faster switching speed, higher electrochemical activity as well as charge storage capacity. While the dip coated film could endure 2500 color-bleach cycles, the spin coated film could sustain only a 1000 cycles. The better cycling stability of the dip coated film which is a repercussion of a balance between optimal water content, porosity and grain size hints at its potential for electrochromic window applications

  12. In situ infrared spectroscopic study of the electrochromic reactions of tungsten trioxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, M.A.; Maheswari, S.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on thin WO 3 films which are transparent in the oxidized state and colored in the reduced state. These changes in optical properties are associated with compositional variations of the material. Changes in vibrational intensities of W double-bond O, W emdash O, and W double-bond O emdash H bonds in the electrochromic WO 3 film were detected by an in situ FTIR technique at various stages of reduction (coloration). The absorbance due to O emdash H stretching and bending vibrations was found to increase during the electrochemical reduction of the film, indicating the incorporation of water into the film along with the formation of H x WO 3 bronze during coloration. The absorbance due to W double-bond O vibration decreased while that due to W emdash O vibration increased during reduction. These observations suggest that during the coloration process W double-bond O bonds break and new W emdash O bonds form in the film, and thus, provide direct evidence for the electrochromic reaction. O 2 W double-bond O + xH + + xe - ↔ O 2 W emdash O emdash H x

  13. Optical and electrochromic properties of sol-gel deposited Ti- doped vanadium oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezer, N.; Sabuncu, S.

    1997-01-01

    Because of the yellowish color, vanadium oxide films in the as deposited state is not as favorable as transparent coatings for most elector chromic devices. an interesting possibility to alter the yellowish colours is the doping with other non-absorbing metal oxides. Ti doped vanadium oxide films with various amounts of titanium were synthesized and investigated as transparent counter electrodes for electrochromic transmissive device application. Electrochromic titanium doped vanadium pentoxide (V sub 2 O 5) coatings were prepared by the sol-gel dip coating technique. The coating solutions were synthesized from vanadium tri(isopropoxide) precursors. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies showed that the sol-gel deposited doped films heat treated at temperatures below 350 degree centigrade, were amorphous, whereas hose heat treated at higher temperatures were slight y crystalline. The optical and electrochemical properties of the Ti doped vanadium oxide films has been investigated in 0.1 m LiClO sub 4 propylene carbonate solution color changes by dropping were noted for all investigated films exhibits good electrochemical cycling (CV) measurements also showed that Ti doped V sub 2 O sub 5 films exhibits good electrochemical cycling reversibility, 'in situ' optical measurement revealed that those films exhibits good electrochemical cycling the spectra range 300 < lambda < 800 nm and change color between yellow and light green. The change in visible transmittance was 25 % for 5% Ti doped film. (author)

  14. Micro-structured electrochromic device based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutschmann, T; Oesterschulze, E

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in consumer electronics, e.g. smartphones, tablet PCs or compact cameras, demand the development of very compact, active, optical microsystems. Because of their low power consumption, low operation voltage and cheap fabrication, voltage-controlled electrochromic devices (ECDs) based on polymer materials are promising candidates. However, the broad application of ECDs is still hindered by crucial technological obstacles. In this paper, we address two main issues: the structuring of the electrochromic material (ECM) and its underlying transparent conductive electrode on a microscale and additionally, the assembly of the ECD as an electrochemical cell with the challenges of airtight sealing, appropriate chemical stability, electrical insulation and the necessity of defining a compartment to hold the liquid electrolyte inside the cell. We first introduce a technological sequence consisting of batch processes (UV lithography and dry and wet etching) to render the microscale structuring of the ECM possible. Furthermore, we exploit the outstanding properties of the thick film dry photoresist Ordyl SY 300 to complete the assembly of ECDs with single-layer technology. As a proof of principle, we present the first results of an ECD device based on a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) material that works as an aperture stop with three coaxial segments, each individually controlled by an external voltage. (paper)

  15. Characterization of Porous WO3 Electrochromic Device by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien Chon Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the microstructure of the anodic tungsten oxide (WO3 and its use in an electrochromic (EC glass device. When voltages between 100 V and 160 V were applied to tungsten film for 1 h under 0.4 wt. % NaF electrolyte, porous WO3 film was formed. The film, which had a large surface area, was used as electrochromic film for EC glass. The average transmittance in a visible region of the spectrum for a 144 cm2 EC device was above 75% in the bleached state and below 40% in the colored state, respectively. Repeatability using of the colored/bleached cycles was tested good by a cyclic voltammograms method. The internal impedance values under colored and bleached states were detected and simulated using an electrical impedance spectra (EIS technique. The EC glass impedance characteristics were simulated using resistors, capacitors, and Warburg impedance. The ITO/WO3, WO3/electrolyte, electrolyte/NiO, and NiO/ITO interfaces can be simulated using a resistance capacitance (RC parallel circuits, and bulk materials such as the indium tin oxide (ITO and conducting wire can be simulated by using a series of resisters.

  16. Multicolored, Low-Voltage-Driven, Flexible Organic Electrochromic Devices Based on Oligomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Zhijun; Zeng, Jinming; Li, Hui; Liu, Ping; Deng, Wenji

    2018-04-20

    In this study, a series of organic conjugated oligomers containing 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) and aromatic groups are synthesized, which are as follows: 2,5-di(methyl benzoate)-3,4-ethylenedioxy-thiophene (1EDOT-2B-COOCH 3 ), 5,5'-di(methyl benzoate)-2,2'-bi(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (2EDOT-2B-COOCH 3 ), 5,5″-di(methyl benzoate)-2,2':5',2″-ter(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (3EDOT-2B-COOCH 3 ), and 5,5″'-di(methyl benzoate)-2,2':5',2″: 5″,2″'-quater(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (4EDOT-2B-COOCH 3 ). Using these oligomers as active materials, flexible organic electrochromic devices are fabricated. The device structure is indium tin oxide-PET plastic slide (ITO-PET)/active layer/conducting gel/ITO-PET, and the electrochromic properties of oligomers are investigated. These oligomers exhibit reversible color changes upon electrochemical doping and dedoping. The highest optical contrast is exhibited by 4EDOT-2B-COOCH 3 , which is 75.2% at 700 nm. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. A transparent electrochromic metal-insulator switching device with three-terminal transistor geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katase, Takayoshi; Onozato, Takaki; Hirono, Misako; Mizuno, Taku; Ohta, Hiromichi

    2016-05-01

    Proton and hydroxyl ion play an essential role for tuning functionality of oxides because their electronic state can be controlled by modifying oxygen off-stoichiometry and/or protonation. Tungsten trioxide (WO3), a well-known electrochromic (EC) material for smart window, is a wide bandgap insulator, whereas it becomes a metallic conductor HxWO3 by protonation. Although one can utilize electrochromism together with metal-insulator (MI) switching for one device, such EC-MI switching cannot be utilized in current EC devices because of their two-terminal structure with parallel-plate configuration. Here we demonstrate a transparent EC-MI switchable device with three-terminal TFT-type structure using amorphous (a-) WO3 channel layer, which was fabricated on glass substrate at room temperature. We used water-infiltrated nano-porous glass, CAN (calcium aluminate with nano-pores), as a liquid-leakage-free solid gate insulator. At virgin state, the device was fully transparent in the visible-light region. For positive gate voltage, the active channel became dark blue, and electrical resistivity of the a-WO3 layer drastically decreased with protonation. For negative gate voltage, deprotonation occurred and the active channel returned to transparent insulator. Good cycleability of the present transparent EC-MI switching device would have potential for the development of advanced smart windows.

  18. Electrochemical polymerization of 9-fluorenecarboxylic acid and its electrochromic device application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezgin, Buket; Cihaner, Atilla; Onal, Ahmet M.

    2008-01-01

    Poly(9-fluorenecarboxylic acid) (PFCA) was synthesized by electrochemical oxidation of 9-fluorenecarboxylic acid (FCA) using a mixture of nitromethane and boron trifluoride diethyl etherate as the solvent and tetrabutylammonium tetrafluoroborate as the supporting electrolyte. An insoluble and conducting brownish-orange film was deposited on the electrode surface, both during repetitive cycling and constant potential electrolysis at 1.15 V. Characterization of the polymer film has been carried out using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy technique and thermal behavior was studied via thermal gravimetric analysis. Structural analysis showed that the polymerization of FCA occurred at 2,7-position. Spectroelectrochemical behavior of the polymer film on indium tin oxide working electrode was studied by recording the electronic absorption spectra, in-situ, in monomer-free electrolytic solution at different potentials and it is found that the PFCA film can be reversibly cycled between 0.0 V and 1.2 V. Furthermore, a dual type electrochromic device based on PFCA was constructed and its spectroelectrochemical properties were investigated. The electrochromic device exhibits color change from transparent to dark blue with a good open circuit memory

  19. Sunlight-charged electrochromic battery based on hybrid film of tungsten oxide and polyaniline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xueting; Hu, Ruirui; Sun, Shibin; Liu, Jingrong; Lei, Yanhua; Liu, Tao; Dong, Lihua; Yin, Yansheng

    2018-05-01

    Electrochromic (EC) energy storage devices that could realize the multifunctional integration of energy storage and electrochromism have gained much recent attention. Herein, an EC battery based on the hybrid film of W18O49 and polyaniline (PANI) is developed and assembled, which integrates energy storage and EC functions in one device. The W18O49/PANI-EC battery delivers a discharging capacity of 52.96 mA h g-1, which is about two times higher than that of the W18O49-EC battery. Sunlight irradiation could greatly promote the oxidation reactions of both W18O49 and PANI during the charging process of the W18O49/PANI-EC battery, thus effectively accelerating the charging rate. This work provides a green, convenient, environmentally friendly, and cost-free charging strategy for the EC energy systems and could further advance the development of the multifunctional EC devices based on the organic/inorganic composites.

  20. Improved electrochromical properties of sol-gel WO3 thin films by doping gold nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naseri, N.; Azimirad, R.; Akhavan, O.; Moshfegh, A.Z.

    2010-01-01

    In this investigation, the effect of gold nanocrystals on the electrochromical properties of sol-gel Au doped WO 3 thin films has been studied. The Au-WO 3 thin films were dip-coated on both glass and indium tin oxide coated conducting glass substrates with various gold concentrations of 0, 3.2 and 6.4 mol%. Optical properties of the samples were studied by UV-visible spectrophotometry in a range of 300-1100 nm. The optical density spectra of the films showed the formation of gold nanoparticles in the films. The optical bandgap energy of Au-WO 3 films decreased with increasing the Au concentration. Crystalline structure of the doped films was investigated by X-ray diffractometry, which indicated formation of gold nanocrystals in amorphous WO 3 thin films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to study the surface chemical composition of the samples. XPS analysis indicated the presence of gold in metallic state and the formation of stoichiometric WO 3 . The electrochromic properties of the Au-WO 3 samples were also characterized using lithium-based electrolyte. It was found that doping of Au nanocrystals in WO 3 thin films improved the coloration time of the layer. In addition, it was shown that variation of Au concentration led to color change in the colored state of the Au-WO 3 thin films.

  1. Investigation of mechanical bending instability in flexible low-temperature-processed electrochromic display devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Chin-Pao; Chou, Chuan-Pu; Hsu, Che-Hsiang; Teng, Tun-Chien; Cheng, Chun-Hu, E-mail: chcheng@ntnu.edu.tw; Syu, Yu-Yang

    2015-06-01

    In this study, polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) was investigated as a flexible substrate because, compared with polyethylene terephthalate, it achieves a lower root mean square roughness and transmittance, which is favorable for reducing leakage from the bottom of flexible substrates. A flexible device structure composed of tungsten oxide/indium-doped tin oxide/PEN was used in an electrochromic (EC) test. The experimental results show that the flexible EC display device achieved a high transmittance difference of > 40% and color efficiency of 70.2 cm{sup 2}/C at 560 nm. The transmittance difference was degraded in the visible range after 200 cycles of continuous bending. Furthermore, compared with flat fresh devices, the WO{sub 3} device exhibited poor retention properties in a colored state after being subjected to longer bending cycles. - Highlights: • Flexible electrochromic device with endurance bending was demonstrated. • Interface defects or vacancies near the flexible substrate affect the self-bleaching behavior. • High color efficiency of 117.2 cm{sup 2}/coul at 700 nm wavelength is reached. • Interface defect centers lower the redox energy barrier which reduces the bleaching time.

  2. A wide-gap a-SiC:H PV-powered electrochromic window coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, W.; Lee, S.H.; Xu, Y.; Benson, D.K.; Deb, S.K.; Branz, H.M. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The authors report on the first monolithic, amorphous-silicon-based, photovoltaic-powered electrochromic window coating. The coating employs a wide bandgap a-Si{sub 1{minus}x}C{sub x}:H n-i-p photovoltaic (PV) cell as a semitransparent power supply, and a Li{sub y}WO{sub 3}/LiAlF{sub 4}/V{sub 2}O{sub 5} electrochromic (EC) device as an optical-transmittance modulator. The EC device is deposited directly on top of a PV cell that coats a glass substrate. The a-Si{sub 1{minus}x}C{sub x}:H PV cell has a Tauc gap of 2.2 eV and a transmittance of 60--80% over a large portion of the visible light spectrum. The authors reduced the thickness of the device to about 600 {angstrom} while maintaining a 1-sun open-circuit voltage of 0.9 V and short-circuit current of 2 mA/cm{sup 2}. The prototype 16 cm{sup 2} PV/EC device modulates the transmittance by more than 60% over a large portion of the visible spectrum. The coloring and bleaching times of the EC device are approximately 1 minute under normal operating conditions ({+-} 1 volt). A brief description of photoelectrochromic windows study is also given.

  3. Fast Switching Electrochromic Devices Containing Optimized BEMA/PEGMA Gel Polymer Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Garino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimized thermoset gel polymer electrolyte based on Bisphenol A ethoxylate dimethacrylate and Poly(ethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate (BEMA/PEGMA was prepared by facile photo-induced free radical polymerisation technique and tested for the first time in electrochromic devices (ECD combining WO3 sputtered on ITO as cathodes and V2O5 electrodeposited on ITO as anodes. The behaviour of the prepared ECD was investigated electrochemically and electro-optically. The ECD transmission spectrum was monitored in the visible and near-infrared region by varying applied potential. A switching time of ca. 2 s for Li+ insertion (coloring and of ca. 1 s for Li+ de-insertion (bleaching were found. UV-VIS spectroelectrochemical measurements evidenced a considerable contrast between bleached and colored state along with a good stability over repeated cycles. The reported electrochromic devices showed a considerable enhancement of switching time with respect to the previously reported polymeric ECD indicating that they are good candidates for the implementation of intelligent windows and smart displays.

  4. Donor-π-bridge-acceptor type polymeric materials with pendant electron-withdrawing groups for electrochromic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Qing; Wei, Youxiu; Zheng, Jianming; Xu, Chunye

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Donor-π-bridge-acceptor copolymers with different electrophilic groups were synthesized. • Electrochromic devices composed of PBDTTPAs layers, as the working electrode, and vanadium pentoxide, as the counter electrode, were fabricated and evaluated. • The PBDTTPA-CHO film and device show multicolor electrochromic behavior which exhibited vivid yellow, green, and gray with better electrochromic performance than PBDTTPA-COOH. - Abstract: A novel donor-π-bridge-acceptor copolymer, PBDTTPA-CHO, containing 4-(Bis(4-bromophenyl)-amino)benzaldehyde (TPA-CHO) and 4,8-bis-(2-ethyl- hexyloxy)-oxybenzo-[1,2-b:3,4-b’]dithiophene (BDT), was successfully synthesized using Stille coupling polymerization, and the pendant aldehyde group was modified with cyanoacetic acid to synthesize another polymer, PBDTTPA-COOH. Each of these new polymers are soluble in organic solvents and can be cast onto rigid or flexible substrates. The polymers with different electrophilic groups exhibit different electrochromic behaviors, including different colors, driving voltages and transmittances. The polymer film of PBDTTPA-CHO manifests reversible electrochemical oxidation and reduction accompanied by multicolor changes from its yellow neutral state to a highly absorbent green semi-oxidized state and a gray fully oxidized state, its transmittance change at 601 nm is 43%. PBDTTPA-COOH switches between orange and light green. We fabricated and evaluated electrochromic devices using a PBDTTPA layer as the working electrode and vanadium pentoxide as the counter electrode. With the contribution of counter electrodes, devices of both polymers show similar color changes but higher transmittance than their films

  5. Aluminum doped nickel oxide thin film with improved electrochromic performance from layered double hydroxides precursor in situ pyrolytic route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Jingjing; Lai, Lincong; Zhang, Ping; Li, Hailong; Qin, Yumei; Gao, Yuanchunxue; Luo, Lei; Lu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Electrochromic materials with unique performance arouse great interest on account of potential application values in smart window, low-power display, automobile anti-glare rearview mirror, and e-papers. In this paper, high-performing Al-doped NiO porous electrochromic film grown on ITO substrate has been prepared via a layered double hydroxides(LDHs) precursor in situ pyrolytic route. The Al 3+ ions distributed homogenously within the NiO matrix can significantly influence the crystallinity of Ni-Al LDH and NiO:Al 3+ films. The electrochromic performance of the films were evaluated by means of UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and chronoamperometry(CA) measurements. In addition, the ratio of Ni 3+ /Ni 2+ also varies with Al content which can lead to different electrochemical performances. Among the as-prepared films, NiO film prepared from Ni-Al (19:1) LDH show the best electrochromic performance with a high transparency of 96%, large optical modulation range (58.4%), fast switching speed (bleaching/coloration times are 1.8/4.2 s, respectively) and excellent durability (30% decrease after 2000 cycles). The improved performance was owed to the synergy of large NiO film specific surface area and porous morphology, as well as Al doping stifled the formation of Ni 3+ making bleached state more pure. This LDHs precursor pyrolytic method is simple, low-cost and environmental benign and is feasible for the preparation of NiO:Al and other Al-doped oxide thin film. - Graphical abstract: The ratio of Ni 3+ /Ni 2+ varies with Al content which can lead to different electrochemical performances. Among the as-prepared films, NiO film prepared from Ni-Al (19:1) LDH show the best electrochromic performance with a high transparency of 96%, large optical modulation range, fast switching speed and excellent durability. Display Omitted

  6. Spectral and optical performance of electrochromic poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) deposited on transparent conducting oxide coated glass and polymer substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sindhu, S.; Narasimha Rao, K.; Ahuja, Sharath; Kumar, Anil; Gopal, E.S.R.

    2006-01-01

    Electrochromic devices utilizing conjugated polymers as electrochromic layers have gained increasing attention owing to their optical properties, fast switching times and contrast ratios. Polyethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT) is an excellent material from its electrochromic properties, high conductivity and high stability in the doped form. Aqueous dispersions of PEDOT were either spin coated or electro-polymerized on transparent conducting oxide coated glass and polyethylene tetraphthalate (PET) film substrates. The spectro- and opto-electrochemical studies of the films on transparent conducting oxide coated glass/PET substrates were performed. These films have application in the fabrication of electrochromic windows (smart windows). Smart window devices having excellent switching characteristics over wide range of temperature are used for glazing applications. The aerospace industry is interested in the development of visors and windows that can control glare for pilots and passengers, especially if the coatings can be made on curved surfaces and electrically conducting

  7. Properties and Printability of Inkjet and Screen-Printed Silver Patterns for RFID Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmerón, José F.; Molina-Lopez, Francisco; Briand, Danick; Ruan, Jason J.; Rivadeneyra, Almudena; Carvajal, Miguel A.; Capitán-Vallvey, L. F.; de Rooij, Nico F.; Palma, Alberto J.

    2014-02-01

    We report the modeling, and geometrical and electrical characterization, of inkjet and screen-printed patterns on different polymeric substrates for use as antennas in radio-frequency identification (RFID) applications. We compared the physical and electrical characteristics of two silver nanoparticle-based commercial inkjet-printable inks and one screen-printable silver paste, when deposited on polyimide (PI), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and polyetherimide (PEI) substrates. First, the thickness of the inkjet-printed patterns was predicted by use of an analytical model based on printing conditions and ink composition. The predicted thickness was confirmed experimentally, and geometrical characterization of the lines was completed by measuring the root-mean-square roughness of the patterns. Second, direct-current electrical characterization was performed to identify the printing conditions yielding the lowest resistivity and sheet resistance. The minimum resistivity for the inkjet-printing method was 8.6 ± 0.8 μΩ cm, obtained by printing four stacked layers of one of the commercial inks on PEI, whereas minimum resistivity of 44 ± 7 μΩ cm and 39 ± 4 μΩ cm were obtained for a single layer of screen-printed ink on polyimide (PI) with 140 threads/cm mesh and 90 threads/cm mesh, respectively. In every case, these minimum values of resistivity were obtained for the largest tested thickness. Coplanar waveguide transmission lines were then designed and characterized to analyze the radio-frequency (RF) performance of the printed patterns; minimum transmission losses of 0.0022 ± 0.0012 dB/mm and 0.0016 ± 0.0012 dB/mm measured at 13.56 MHz, in the high-frequency (HF) band, were achieved by inkjet printing on PEI and screen printing on PI, respectively. At 868 MHz, in the ultra-high-frequency band, the minimum values of transmission loss were 0.0130 ± 0.0014 dB/mm for inkjet printing on PEI and 0.0100 ± 0.0014 dB/mm for screen printing on PI. Although the

  8. Printability Study of Bioprinted Tubular Structures Using Liquid Hydrogel Precursors in a Support Bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houzhu Ding

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Microextrusion-based bioprinting within a support bath material is an emerging additive manufacturing paradigm for complex three-dimensional (3D tissue construct fabrication. Although a support bath medium enables arbitrary in-process geometries to be printed, a significant challenge lies in preserving the shape fidelity upon the extraction of the support bath material. Based on the bioprinting in a support bath paradigm, this paper advances quantitative analyses to systematically determine the printability of cell-laden liquid hydrogel precursors towards filament-based tissue constructs. First, a yield stress nanoclay material is judiciously selected as the support bath medium owing to its insensitivity to temperature and ionic variations that are considered in the context of the current gelatin-alginate bio-ink material formulation. Furthermore, phenomenological observations for the rheology-mediated print outcomes enable the compositions for the bio-ink material (10% gelatin, 3% alginate, in tandem with the support bath medium (4% nanoclay, 0.5% CaCl2, to be identified. To systematically evaluate the performance outcomes for bioprinting within a support bath, this paper advances an experimental parametric study to optimize the 3D structural shape fidelity by varying parameters such as the layer height, extrusion flowrate, printing temperature, and printhead speed, towards fabricating complex 3D structures with the stabilization of the desired shape outcome. Specifically, it is found that the layer height and printhead speed are determinant parameters for the extent of successive layer fusion. Moreover, maintenance of an optimal bath temperature is identified as a key parameter for establishing the printability for the hydrogel bio-ink. Studying this effect is enabled by the custom design of a PID temperature control system with integration with the bioprinter for real-time precision control of the support bath temperature. In order to qualify

  9. Capillary Thinning and Pinch-off Dynamics and Printability of Polyelectrolyte Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vivek; Jimenez, Leidy N.; Dinic, Jelena; Parsi, Nikila

    Biological macromolecules like proteins, DNA and polysaccharides, and many industrial polymers, are classified together as polyelectrolytes for in solution, the repeat units in their backbone are decorated with disassociated, charge-bearing ionic groups, surrounded by counter-ions. In diverse applications like inkjet printing, sprayable cosmetics and insecticides, paints and coatings that involve formation of fluid columns or sheets that undergo progressive thinning and pinch-off into drops, the dominant flow within the necking filament is extensional in nature. The extensional rheology response of the charged macromolecular solutions is not as well understood as that of their uncharged counterparts. Here focus on the characterization of capillary thinning and pinch-off dynamics, extensional rheology and printability of two model systems: sodium (polystyrene sulfonate) and poly(acrylic acid) by using dripping-onto-substrate (DoS) rheometry technique. Both the measured extensional relaxation times and the extensional viscosity values show salt- and polymer concentration-dependent behavior that is not expected or anticipated from the typical shear rheology response.

  10. Fully printable, strain-engineered electronic wrap for customizable soft electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Junghwan; Lee, Byeongmoon; Oh, Eunho; Kim, Hyunjong; Kim, Sangwoo; Lee, Seunghwan; Hong, Yongtaek

    2017-03-24

    Rapid growth of stretchable electronics stimulates broad uses in multidisciplinary fields as well as industrial applications. However, existing technologies are unsuitable for implementing versatile applications involving adaptable system design and functions in a cost/time-effective way because of vacuum-conditioned, lithographically-predefined processes. Here, we present a methodology for a fully printable, strain-engineered electronic wrap as a universal strategy which makes it more feasible to implement various stretchable electronic systems with customizable layouts and functions. The key aspects involve inkjet-printed rigid island (PRI)-based stretchable platform technology and corresponding printing-based automated electronic functionalization methodology, the combination of which provides fully printed, customized layouts of stretchable electronic systems with simplified process. Specifically, well-controlled contact line pinning effect of printed polymer solution enables the formation of PRIs with tunable thickness; and surface strain analysis on those PRIs leads to the optimized stability and device-to-island fill factor of strain-engineered electronic wraps. Moreover, core techniques of image-based automated pinpointing, surface-mountable device based electronic functionalizing, and one-step interconnection networking of PRIs enable customized circuit design and adaptable functionalities. To exhibit the universality of our approach, multiple types of practical applications ranging from self-computable digital logics to display and sensor system are demonstrated on skin in a customized form.

  11. Synthesis of silicon nanocomposite for printable photovoltaic devices on flexible substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odo, E. A.; Faremi, A. A.

    2017-06-01

    Renewed interest has been established in the preparation of silicon nanoparticles for electronic device applications. In this work, we report on the production of silicon powders using a simple ball mill and of silicon nanocomposite ink for screen-printable photovoltaic device on a flexible substrate. Bulk single crystalline silicon was milled for 25 h in the ball mill. The structural properties of the produced silicon nanoparticles were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that the particles remained highly crystalline, though transformed from their original single crystalline state to polycrystalline. The elemental composition using energy dispersive X-ray florescence spectroscopy (EDXRF) revealed that contamination from iron (Fe) and chromium (Cr) of the milling media and oxygen from the atmosphere were insignificant. The size distribution of the nanoparticles follows a lognormal pattern that ranges from 60 nm to about 1.2 μm and a mean particle size of about 103 nm. Electrical characterization of screen-printed PN structures of the nanocomposite formed by embedding the powder into a suitable water-soluble polymer on Kapton sheet reveals an enhanced photocurrent transport resulting from photo-induced carrier generation in the depletion region with energy greater that the Schottky barrier height at the metal-composite interface.

  12. Printable polymer actuators from ionic liquid, soluble polyimide, and ubiquitous carbon materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaizumi, Satoru; Ohtsuki, Yuto; Yasuda, Tomohiro; Kokubo, Hisashi; Watanabe, Masayoshi

    2013-07-10

    We present here printable high-performance polymer actuators comprising ionic liquid (IL), soluble polyimide, and ubiquitous carbon materials. Polymer electrolytes with high ionic conductivity and reliable mechanical strength are required for high-performance polymer actuators. The developed polymer electrolytes comprised a soluble sulfonated polyimide (SPI) and IL, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide ([C2mim][NTf2]), and they exhibited acceptable ionic conductivity up to 1 × 10(-3) S cm(-1) and favorable mechanical properties (elastic modulus >1 × 10(7) Pa). Polymer actuators based on SPI/[C2mim][NTf2] electrolytes were prepared using inexpensive activated carbon (AC) together with highly electron-conducting carbon such as acetylene black (AB), vapor grown carbon fiber (VGCF), and Ketjen black (KB). The resulting polymer actuators have a trilaminar electric double-layer capacitor structure, consisting of a polymer electrolyte layer sandwiched between carbon electrode layers. Displacement, response speed, and durability of the actuators depended on the combination of carbons. Especially the actuators with mixed AC/KB carbon electrodes exhibited relatively large displacement and high-speed response, and they kept 80% of the initial displacement even after more than 5000 cycles. The generated force of the actuators correlated with the elastic modulus of SPI/[C2mim][NTf2] electrolytes. The displacement of the actuators was proportional to the accumulated electric charge in the electrodes, regardless of carbon materials, and agreed well with the previously proposed displacement model.

  13. Fluoropolymer based composite with Ag particles as 3D printable conductive ink for stretchable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; La, Thanh Giang; Li, Xinda; Chung, Hyun Joong

    The recent development of stretchable electronics expands the scope of wearable and healthcare applications. This creates a high demand in stretchy conductor that can maintain conductivity at high strain conditions. Here, we describe a simple fabrication pathway to achieve stretchable, 3D-printable and low-cost conductive composite ink. The ink is used to print complex stretchable patterns with high conductivity. The elastic ink is composed of silver(Ag) flakes, fluorine rubber, an organic solvent and surfactant. The surfactant plays multiple roles in in the composite. The surfactant promotes compatibility between silver flakes and fluorine rubber; at the same time, it affects the mechanical properties of the hosting fluoropolymers and adhesion properties of the composite. Based on experimental observations, we discuss the exact role of the surfactant in the composite. The resulting composite exhibits high conductivity value of 8.49 *10 4 S/m along with high reliability against repeated stretching/releasing cycles. Interesting examples of transfer printing of the printed ink and its applications in working devices, such as RFID tag and antennas, are also showcased.

  14. Directly Printable Flexible Strain Sensors for Bending and Contact Feedback of Soft Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Elgeneidy

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a fully printable sensorized bending actuator that can be calibrated to provide reliable bending feedback and simple contact detection. A soft bending actuator following a pleated morphology, as well as a flexible resistive strain sensor, were directly 3D printed using easily accessible FDM printer hardware with a dual-extrusion tool head. The flexible sensor was directly welded to the bending actuator’s body and systematically tested to characterize and evaluate its response under variable input pressure. A signal conditioning circuit was developed to enhance the quality of the sensory feedback, and flexible conductive threads were used for wiring. The sensorized actuator’s response was then calibrated using a vision system to convert the sensory readings to real bending angle values. The empirical relationship was derived using linear regression and validated at untrained input conditions to evaluate its accuracy. Furthermore, the sensorized actuator was tested in a constrained setup that prevents bending, to evaluate the potential of using the same sensor for simple contact detection by comparing the constrained and free-bending responses at the same input pressures. The results of this work demonstrated how a dual-extrusion FDM printing process can be tuned to directly print highly customizable flexible strain sensors that were able to provide reliable bending feedback and basic contact detection. The addition of such sensing capability to bending actuators enhances their functionality and reliability for applications such as controlled soft grasping, flexible wearables, and haptic devices.

  15. Fully printable, strain-engineered electronic wrap for customizable soft electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Junghwan; Lee, Byeongmoon; Oh, Eunho; Kim, Hyunjong; Kim, Sangwoo; Lee, Seunghwan; Hong, Yongtaek

    2017-03-01

    Rapid growth of stretchable electronics stimulates broad uses in multidisciplinary fields as well as industrial applications. However, existing technologies are unsuitable for implementing versatile applications involving adaptable system design and functions in a cost/time-effective way because of vacuum-conditioned, lithographically-predefined processes. Here, we present a methodology for a fully printable, strain-engineered electronic wrap as a universal strategy which makes it more feasible to implement various stretchable electronic systems with customizable layouts and functions. The key aspects involve inkjet-printed rigid island (PRI)-based stretchable platform technology and corresponding printing-based automated electronic functionalization methodology, the combination of which provides fully printed, customized layouts of stretchable electronic systems with simplified process. Specifically, well-controlled contact line pinning effect of printed polymer solution enables the formation of PRIs with tunable thickness; and surface strain analysis on those PRIs leads to the optimized stability and device-to-island fill factor of strain-engineered electronic wraps. Moreover, core techniques of image-based automated pinpointing, surface-mountable device based electronic functionalizing, and one-step interconnection networking of PRIs enable customized circuit design and adaptable functionalities. To exhibit the universality of our approach, multiple types of practical applications ranging from self-computable digital logics to display and sensor system are demonstrated on skin in a customized form.

  16. Precisely printable and biocompatible silk fibroin bioink for digital light processing 3D printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soon Hee; Yeon, Yeung Kyu; Lee, Jung Min; Chao, Janet Ren; Lee, Young Jin; Seo, Ye Been; Sultan, Md Tipu; Lee, Ok Joo; Lee, Ji Seung; Yoon, Sung-Il; Hong, In-Sun; Khang, Gilson; Lee, Sang Jin; Yoo, James J; Park, Chan Hum

    2018-04-24

    Although three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting technology has gained much attention in the field of tissue engineering, there are still several significant engineering challenges to overcome, including lack of bioink with biocompatibility and printability. Here, we show a bioink created from silk fibroin (SF) for digital light processing (DLP) 3D bioprinting in tissue engineering applications. The SF-based bioink (Sil-MA) was produced by a methacrylation process using glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) during the fabrication of SF solution. The mechanical and rheological properties of Sil-MA hydrogel proved to be outstanding in experimental testing and can be modulated by varying the Sil-MA contents. This Sil-MA bioink allowed us to build highly complex organ structures, including the heart, vessel, brain, trachea and ear with excellent structural stability and reliable biocompatibility. Sil-MA bioink is well-suited for use in DLP printing process and could be applied to tissue and organ engineering depending on the specific biological requirements.

  17. Printable Electrochemical Biosensors: A Focus on Screen-Printed Electrodes and Their Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichiro Yamanaka

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this review we present electrochemical biosensor developments, focusing on screen-printed electrodes (SPEs and their applications. In particular, we discuss how SPEs enable simple integration, and the portability needed for on-field applications. First, we briefly discuss the general concept of biosensors and quickly move on to electrochemical biosensors. Drawing from research undertaken in this area, we cover the development of electrochemical DNA biosensors in great detail. Through specific examples, we describe the fabrication and surface modification of printed electrodes for sensitive and selective detection of targeted DNA sequences, as well as integration with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. For a more rounded approach, we also touch on electrochemical immunosensors and enzyme-based biosensors. Last, we present some electrochemical devices specifically developed for use with SPEs, including USB-powered compact mini potentiostat. The coupling demonstrates the practical use of printable electrode technologies for application at point-of-use. Although tremendous advances have indeed been made in this area, a few challenges remain. One of the main challenges is application of these technologies for on-field analysis, which involves complicated sample matrices.

  18. Effects of oxidation potential and retention time on electrochromic stability of poly (3-hexyl thiophene) films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Ho; Hyun Song, Seok; Kim, Hyo-Jae; Oh, Seong-Hyeon; Han, Song-Yi; Kim, Goung; Nah, Yoon-Chae

    2018-06-01

    Herein, we report the effects of applied voltage on the electrochromic (EC) stability of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) films during EC reactions. The transmittance difference and cycling stability of these films were monitored to optimize the oxidation voltage, and their chemical compositions were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy after long-term electrochemical cycling. High oxidation voltages increased the color contrast of P3HT films but decreased their cycling stability due to facilitating chemical degradation. Furthermore, at an optimized oxidation voltage, the retention time during potential pulsing was adjusted utilizing the optical memory of P3HT, revealing that the decreased voltage application time reduced power consumption by 9.6% and enhanced EC stability without loss of color contrast.

  19. Electrochromics for smart windows: Oxide-based thin films and devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granqvist, Claes G.

    2014-01-01

    Electrochromic (EC) smart windows are able to vary their throughput of visible light and solar energy by the application of an electrical voltage and are able to provide energy efficiency and indoor comfort in buildings. Section 1 explains why this technology is important and timely by first outlining today's precarious situation concerning increasing energy use and associated effects on the world's climate, and this section also underscores the great importance of enhancing the energy efficiency of buildings by letting them function more in harmony with the environment—particularly its varying temperature—than is possible with current mainstream technologies. This same chapter also surveys recent work on the energy savings and other benefits that are possible with EC-based technologies. Section 2 then provides some notes on the history of the EC effect and its applications. Section 3 presents a generic design for the oxide-based EC devices that are most in focus for present-day applications and research. This design includes five superimposed layers with a centrally-positioned electrolyte connecting two oxide films—at least one of which having EC properties—and with transparent electrical conductors surrounding the three-layer structure in the middle. It is emphasized that this construction can be viewed as a thin-film electrical battery whose charging state is manifested as optical absorption. Also discussed are six well known hurdles for the implementation of these EC devices, as well as a number of practical constructions of EC-based smart windows. Section 4 is an in-depth discussion of various aspects of EC oxides. It begins with a literature survey for 2007–2013, which updates earlier reviews, and is followed by a general discussion of optical and electronic effects and, specifically, on charge transfer absorption in tungsten oxide. Ionic effects are then treated with foci on the inherent nanoporosity of the important EC oxides and on the

  20. Amorphous ITO thin films prepared by DC sputtering for electrochromic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, V.; Cui, H.N.; Meng, L.J.; Fortunato, E.; Martins, R.

    2002-01-01

    Indium-Tin-Oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates using DC magnetron reactive sputtering at different bias voltages and substrate temperatures. Some improvements were obtained on film properties, microstructure and other physical characteristics for different conditions. Amorphous and polycrystalline films can be obtained for various deposition conditions. The transmission, absorption, spectral and diffuse reflection of ITO films were measured in some ranges of UV-Vis-NIR. The refractive index (n), Energy band gap E g and the surface roughness of the film were derived from the measured spectra data. The carrier density (n c ) and the carrier mobility (μ) of the film micro conductive properties were discussed. The films exhibited suitable optical transmittance and conductivity for electrochromic applications

  1. Electrochromics for smart windows: Oxide-based thin films and devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granqvist, Claes G.

    2014-08-01

    Electrochromic (EC) smart windows are able to vary their throughput of visible light and solar energy by the application of an electrical voltage and are able to provide energy efficiency and indoor comfort in buildings. Section 1 explains why this technology is important and timely by first outlining today's precarious situation concerning increasing energy use and associated effects on the world's climate, and this section also underscores the great importance of enhancing the energy efficiency of buildings by letting them function more in harmony with the environment—particularly its varying temperature—than is possible with current mainstream technologies. This same chapter also surveys recent work on the energy savings and other benefits that are possible with EC-based technologies. Section 2 then provides some notes on the history of the EC effect and its applications. Section 3 presents a generic design for the oxide-based EC devices that are most in focus for present-day applications and research. This design includes five superimposed layers with a centrally-positioned electrolyte connecting two oxide films—at least one of which having EC properties—and with transparent electrical conductors surrounding the three-layer structure in the middle. It is emphasized that this construction can be viewed as a thin-film electrical battery whose charging state is manifested as optical absorption. Also discussed are six well known hurdles for the implementation of these EC devices, as well as a number of practical constructions of EC-based smart windows. Section 4 is an in-depth discussion of various aspects of EC oxides. It begins with a literature survey for 2007–2013, which updates earlier reviews, and is followed by a general discussion of optical and electronic effects and, specifically, on charge transfer absorption in tungsten oxide. Ionic effects are then treated with foci on the inherent nanoporosity of the important EC oxides and on the

  2. Electrochromism and Swelling of Polypyrrole Membranes: An Electrochemical and Ellipsometric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. Zerbino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of polypyrrole (Ppy layers on gold electrodes in nearly neutral pH solutions is analysed using “in situ” voltametric and ellipsometric techniques. Different film structures are obtained depending on the potentiodynamic programme and the composition of the electrolyte. More compact dodecylsulphate-(DS doped Ppy layers were grown at 1.2 V versus RHE than those obtained by applying a higher potential. The more compact layers correspond to the growth of an oxidised Ppy/DS layer that shows low pseudo capacity behaviour. After dipping, the doped Ppy/DS film in KCl solution-significant variations in optical indices and thickness are detected as a function of the applied potential. Higher electrochromism as well as decrease in film thickness after cathodisation is achieved. The optical indices and the thickness of the Ppy layer formed under different applied potential/time programmes are estimated.

  3. Integrated electrochromic iris device for low power and space-limited applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutschmann, T; Oesterschulze, E

    2014-01-01

    We present a micro-electrooptical iris based on the electrochromic polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene). Two ring-shaped concentric polymer-segments embedded in a transparent electrochemical cell form the micro iris. The polymer layers change their absorption when an external voltage is applied. This iris device benefits from the absence of any mechanically moving part. This renders a very slim design possible, which is suited for small integrated camera systems. During operation the polymer maintains its absorbing state without power consumption. Its low driving voltage of maximum 1.5 V is beneficial for battery powered applications. The impact of the iris on the depth of focus and transmission control as well as its dynamical behavior will be addressed. (paper)

  4. Effect of post annealing treatment on electrochromic properties of spray deposited niobium oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mujawar, S.H.; Inamdar, A.I.; Betty, C.A.; Ganesan, V.; Patil, P.S.

    2007-01-01

    Niobium oxide thin films were deposited on the glass and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates using simple and inexpensive spray pyrolysis technique. During deposition of the films various process parameters like nozzle to substrate distance, spray rate, concentration of sprayed solution were optimized to obtain well adherent and transparent films. The films prepared were further annealed and effect of post annealing on the structural, morphological, optical and electrochromic properties was studied. Structural and morphological characterizations of the films were carried out using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. Electrochemical properties of the niobium oxide thin films were studied by using cyclic-voltammetry, chronoamperometry and chronocoulometry

  5. Novel electrochromic devices based on composite films of poly(2,5-dimethoxyaniline)-waterborne polyurethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.-H.; Chong, L.-W.; Huang, L.-M.; Lee, Y.-L.; Wen, T.-C.

    2005-01-01

    Waterborne polyurethane (WPU) was spin-coated on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass. Poly(2,5-dimethoxyaniline) (PDMA) was deposited using electrochemical polymerization as conducting composite film on the above WPU/ITO electrode and used as an electrode in an electrochromic device assembly. Tungsten oxide (WO 3 ) coated ITO glass was used as the other electrode with LiClO 4 doped gelled polyethylene oxide (PEO) as polymer electrolyte. The configuration of an electrochromic device was assembled: ITO/WPU-PDMA II LiClO 4 -PC-PEO (400,000) II WO 3 /ITO, where PC represents propylene carbonate. The characterization of the single electrodes, ITO/WPU-PDMA composite, ITO/WO 3 , and the device was performed by using cyclic voltammetry. The columbic efficiency (CE) of the ITO/WPU-PDMA composite and ITO/WO 3 electrodes were close to 100%. The optical contrast of the single electrodes and the device were determined by UV-vis spectroelectrochemical studies. A visible contrast in color upon switching the potential from -1.50 to +1.50 V was noticed for the device. The device was pale yellow at -1.5 V and dark green at +1.5 V. The CE of the device was 91%. Double potential chronamperomtry was used to determine the response time of coloring and bleaching processes. The bleaching process was found to be faster than coloring. The stability of the device was established by polarizing the device and recording the UV-vis spectrum in open circuit conditions. Bleaching state is more stable than coloring state

  6. Annealing induced structural evolution and electrochromic properties of nanostructured tungsten oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Ching-Lin [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Chung-Kwei [School of Dental Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei City 110, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wang, Chun-Kai [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wang, Sheng-Chang [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Southern Taiwan University, Tainan 710, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Jow-Lay, E-mail: JLH888@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung 81148, Taiwan, ROC (China); Research Center for Energy Technology and Strategy, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-12-31

    The effect of microstructure on the optical and electrochemical properties of nanostructured tungsten oxide films was evaluated as a function of annealing temperature. The films using block copolymer as the template were prepared from peroxotungstic acid (PTA) by spin-coating onto the substrate and post-annealed at 250–400 °C to form tungsten oxide films with nanostructure. The microstructure of the films was measured by X-ray diffraction and surface electron microscopy. The films annealed at temperatures below 300 °C are characterized by amorphous or nanocrystalline structures with a pore size of less than 10 nm. The evaluated annealing temperature caused a triclinic crystalline structure and microcracks. Cyclic voltammetry measurements were performed in a LiClO{sub 4}-propylene carbonate electrolyte. The results showed that the ion inserted capacity were maximized for films annealed at 300 °C and decreased with the increasing of annealing temperature. The electrochromic properties of the nanostructured tungsten oxide films were evaluated simultaneously by potentiostat and UV–vis spectroscopy. The films annealed at 300 °C exhibit high transmission modulation (∆T ∼ 40%) at λ = 633 nm and good kinetic properties. As a result, the correlation between the microstructure and kinetic properties was established, and the electrochromic properties have been demonstrated. - Highlights: • Surfactant-assisted WO{sub 3} films have been prepared by sol–gel method. • Nanostructure of porous WO{sub 3} film is retained after crystallization. • Kinetic properties of WO{sub 3} can be improved by nanostructure and crystallinity.

  7. Redox induced switching dynamics of a three colour electrochromic metallopolymer film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Qiang; McNally, Andrea; Keyes, Tia E.; Forster, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Thin films of a novel Ru-phenolate based metallopolymer, [Ru(terpy)(box)PVP 20 ]PF 6 , in which one in every twenty of the 4-vinyl pyridine monomer units is labelled with the ruthenium complex have been formed on glassy carbon electrodes, terpy is 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine, box is 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)benzoxazole, and PVP is poly(4-vinylpyridine). Cyclic voltammetry and Raman spectroscopy reveal that the Ru 2+/3+ couple is electrochemically reversible but that the phenolate ligand based oxidation is irreversible. These redox processes are associated with reversible colour changes from wine red (reduced) to red orange (mixed composition) then to light green (oxidized) in the visible region and an irreversible change in the near-IR region, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy reveals that repeated switching in LiClO 4 aqueous solution does not induce any significant structural change within the deposit films. Cyclic voltammetry has been used to determine the electrochromic switching rate under semi-infinite linear diffusion conditions. In aqueous LiClO 4 , the homogeneous charge transport diffusion coefficient, D CT , decreases from 3.6 ± 0.3 x 10 -13 to 2.7 ± 0.2 x 10 -13 cm 2 s -1 as the LiClO 4 concentration increases from 0.1 to 1.0 M. This weak dependence of D CT on electrolyte concentration suggests that counterion availability is not rate-determining and that the overall rate of charge transport through the metallopolymer film is limited by the rate of segmental polymer chain motion necessary to bring adjacent centres sufficiently close to allow electron transfer to occur. Also the impact of changing the identity of the charge compensating anion of the redox electrochromic switching rate has been investigated. Finally, the electronic conductivity has been determined using interdigitated array electrodes (IDAs)

  8. Focused R&D For Electrochromic Smart Windowsa: Significant Performance and Yield Enhancements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Burdis; Neil Sbar

    2003-01-31

    There is a need to improve the energy efficiency of building envelopes as they are the primary factor governing the heating, cooling, lighting and ventilation requirements of buildings--influencing 53% of building energy use. In particular, windows contribute significantly to the overall energy performance of building envelopes, thus there is a need to develop advanced energy efficient window and glazing systems. Electrochromic (EC) windows represent the next generation of advanced glazing technology that will (1) reduce the energy consumed in buildings, (2) improve the overall comfort of the building occupants, and (3) improve the thermal performance of the building envelope. ''Switchable'' EC windows provide, on demand, dynamic control of visible light, solar heat gain, and glare without blocking the view. As exterior light levels change, the window's performance can be electronically adjusted to suit conditions. A schematic illustrating how SageGlass{reg_sign} electrochromic windows work is shown in Figure I.1. SageGlass{reg_sign} EC glazings offer the potential to save cooling and lighting costs, with the added benefit of improving thermal and visual comfort. Control over solar heat gain will also result in the use of smaller HVAC equipment. If a step change in the energy efficiency and performance of buildings is to be achieved, there is a clear need to bring EC technology to the marketplace. This project addresses accelerating the widespread introduction of EC windows in buildings and thus maximizing total energy savings in the U.S. and worldwide. We report on R&D activities to improve the optical performance needed to broadly penetrate the full range of architectural markets. Also, processing enhancements have been implemented to reduce manufacturing costs. Finally, tests are being conducted to demonstrate the durability of the EC device and the dual pane insulating glass unit (IGU) to be at least equal to that of conventional

  9. TouchTerrain: A simple web-tool for creating 3D-printable topographic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasiuk, Franciszek J.; Harding, Chris; Renner, Alex Raymond; Winer, Eliot

    2017-12-01

    An open-source web-application, TouchTerrain, was developed to simplify the production of 3D-printable terrain models. Direct Digital Manufacturing (DDM) using 3D Printers can change how geoscientists, students, and stakeholders interact with 3D data, with the potential to improve geoscience communication and environmental literacy. No other manufacturing technology can convert digital data into tangible objects quickly at relatively low cost; however, the expertise necessary to produce a 3D-printed terrain model can be a substantial burden: knowledge of geographical information systems, computer aided design (CAD) software, and 3D printers may all be required. Furthermore, printing models larger than the build volume of a 3D printer can pose further technical hurdles. The TouchTerrain web-application simplifies DDM for elevation data by generating digital 3D models customized for a specific 3D printer's capabilities. The only required user input is the selection of a region-of-interest using the provided web-application with a Google Maps-style interface. Publically available digital elevation data is processed via the Google Earth Engine API. To allow the manufacture of 3D terrain models larger than a 3D printer's build volume the selected area can be split into multiple tiles without third-party software. This application significantly reduces the time and effort required for a non-expert like an educator to obtain 3D terrain models for use in class. The web application is deployed at http://touchterrain.geol.iastate.edu/

  10. Printable organometallic perovskite enables large-area, low-dose X-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Churl; Kim, Kwang Hee; Son, Dae-Yong; Jeong, Dong-Nyuk; Seo, Ja-Young; Choi, Yeong Suk; Han, In Taek; Lee, Sang Yoon; Park, Nam-Gyu

    2017-10-01

    Medical X-ray imaging procedures require digital flat detectors operating at low doses to reduce radiation health risks. Solution-processed organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have characteristics that make them good candidates for the photoconductive layer of such sensitive detectors. However, such detectors have not yet been built on thin-film transistor arrays because it has been difficult to prepare thick perovskite films (more than a few hundred micrometres) over large areas (a detector is typically 50 centimetres by 50 centimetres). We report here an all-solution-based (in contrast to conventional vacuum processing) synthetic route to producing printable polycrystalline perovskites with sharply faceted large grains having morphologies and optoelectronic properties comparable to those of single crystals. High sensitivities of up to 11 microcoulombs per air KERMA of milligray per square centimetre (μC mGyair-1 cm-2) are achieved under irradiation with a 100-kilovolt bremsstrahlung source, which are at least one order of magnitude higher than the sensitivities achieved with currently used amorphous selenium or thallium-doped cesium iodide detectors. We demonstrate X-ray imaging in a conventional thin-film transistor substrate by embedding an 830-micrometre-thick perovskite film and an additional two interlayers of polymer/perovskite composites to provide conformal interfaces between perovskite films and electrodes that control dark currents and temporal charge carrier transportation. Such an all-solution-based perovskite detector could enable low-dose X-ray imaging, and could also be used in photoconductive devices for radiation imaging, sensing and energy harvesting.

  11. Printable organometallic perovskite enables large-area, low-dose X-ray imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Churl; Kim, Kwang Hee; Son, Dae-Yong; Jeong, Dong-Nyuk; Seo, Ja-Young; Choi, Yeong Suk; Han, In Taek; Lee, Sang Yoon; Park, Nam-Gyu

    2017-10-04

    Medical X-ray imaging procedures require digital flat detectors operating at low doses to reduce radiation health risks. Solution-processed organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have characteristics that make them good candidates for the photoconductive layer of such sensitive detectors. However, such detectors have not yet been built on thin-film transistor arrays because it has been difficult to prepare thick perovskite films (more than a few hundred micrometres) over large areas (a detector is typically 50 centimetres by 50 centimetres). We report here an all-solution-based (in contrast to conventional vacuum processing) synthetic route to producing printable polycrystalline perovskites with sharply faceted large grains having morphologies and optoelectronic properties comparable to those of single crystals. High sensitivities of up to 11 microcoulombs per air KERMA of milligray per square centimetre (μC mGy air -1 cm -2 ) are achieved under irradiation with a 100-kilovolt bremsstrahlung source, which are at least one order of magnitude higher than the sensitivities achieved with currently used amorphous selenium or thallium-doped cesium iodide detectors. We demonstrate X-ray imaging in a conventional thin-film transistor substrate by embedding an 830-micrometre-thick perovskite film and an additional two interlayers of polymer/perovskite composites to provide conformal interfaces between perovskite films and electrodes that control dark currents and temporal charge carrier transportation. Such an all-solution-based perovskite detector could enable low-dose X-ray imaging, and could also be used in photoconductive devices for radiation imaging, sensing and energy harvesting.

  12. Cyclic voltammetry on sputter-deposited films of electrochromic Ni oxide: Power-law decay of the charge density exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Rui-Tao, E-mail: Ruitao.Wen@angstrom.uu.se; Granqvist, Claes G.; Niklasson, Gunnar A. [Department of Engineering Sciences, The A°ngström Laboratory, Uppsala University, P. O. Box 534, SE-75121 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-10-20

    Ni-oxide-based thin films were produced by reactive direct-current magnetron sputtering and were characterized by X-ray diffraction and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. Intercalation of Li{sup +} ions was accomplished by cyclic voltammetry (CV) in an electrolyte of LiClO{sub 4} in propylene carbonate, and electrochromism was documented by spectrophotometry. The charge density exchange, and hence the optical modulation span, decayed gradually upon repeated cycling. This phenomenon was accurately described by an empirical power law, which was valid for at least 10{sup 4} cycles when the applied voltage was limited to 4.1 V vs Li/Li{sup +}. Our results allow lifetime assessments for one of the essential components in an electrochromic device such as a “smart window” for energy-efficient buildings.

  13. Optical detection of ion diffusion in electrochromic poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy)thiophene film using microcantilever electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Rong; Stokbro, Kurt; Madsen, Dorte Nørgaard

    2005-01-01

    potential of the film induced dark (light-absorbing) rings, which spread out from the anode on a time scale of seconds. The rate of expansion of the rings as well as the final diameter depended on the bias voltage. Using two micro four-point probes simultaneously, we measured with one probe the conductance......We present measurements of microscale electrochromic switching of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy)thiophene doped with poly(4-styrene sulfonate), thin film using microfabricated multi-point probe electrodes. After treatment with a dilute hydrochloric acid, a voltage bias above 3 V with respect to the ground...... of the film outside, near and inside a dark ring induced by a voltage applied to another probe and found the resistivity to be directly related to the observed absorbance of the film. The standard electrochromic mechanism of ion insertion was used to explain the observations. We anticipate this experimental...

  14. An economic analysis of the deposition of electrochromic WO3 via sputtering or plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, D.; Henderson, P.B.; Hollingsworth, R.E.; Jensen, D.G.

    2005-01-01

    The costs of manufacturing electrochromic WO 3 thin films deposited by either radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) or DC reactive magnetron sputtering of metal targets were modeled. Both inline systems for large area glass substrates and roll-to-roll systems for flexible webs were compared. Costs of capital, depreciation, raw materials, labor, power, and other miscellaneous items were accounted for in the model. The results predict that on similar sized systems, PECVD can produce electrochromic WO 3 for as little as one-third the cost, and have more than 10 times the annual production capacity of sputtering. While PECVD cost is dominated by raw materials, primarily WF 6 , sputtering cost is dominated by labor and depreciation

  15. An economic analysis of the deposition of electrochromic WO{sub 3} via sputtering or plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, D. [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., 7201 Hamilton Blvd., Allentown, PA 18195-7201 (United States); Henderson, P.B. [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., 7201 Hamilton Blvd., Allentown, PA 18195-7201 (United States)]. E-mail: henderpb@airproducts.co; Hollingsworth, R.E. [ITN Energy Systems Inc., 8130 Shaffer Pkwy, Littleton, CO 80127 (United States); Jensen, D.G. [ITN Energy Systems Inc., 8130 Shaffer Pkwy, Littleton, CO 80127 (United States)

    2005-06-15

    The costs of manufacturing electrochromic WO{sub 3} thin films deposited by either radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) or DC reactive magnetron sputtering of metal targets were modeled. Both inline systems for large area glass substrates and roll-to-roll systems for flexible webs were compared. Costs of capital, depreciation, raw materials, labor, power, and other miscellaneous items were accounted for in the model. The results predict that on similar sized systems, PECVD can produce electrochromic WO{sub 3} for as little as one-third the cost, and have more than 10 times the annual production capacity of sputtering. While PECVD cost is dominated by raw materials, primarily WF{sub 6}, sputtering cost is dominated by labor and depreciation.

  16. The influence of printing parameters on cell survival rate and printability in microextrusion-based 3D cell printing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Li, Yang; Mao, Shuangshuang; Sun, Wei; Yao, Rui

    2015-11-02

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell printing technology has provided a versatile methodology to fabricate cell-laden tissue-like constructs and in vitro tissue/pathological models for tissue engineering, drug testing and screening applications. However, it still remains a challenge to print bioinks with high viscoelasticity to achieve long-term stable structure and maintain high cell survival rate after printing at the same time. In this study, we systematically investigated the influence of 3D cell printing parameters, i.e. composition and concentration of bioink, holding temperature and holding time, on the printability and cell survival rate in microextrusion-based 3D cell printing technology. Rheological measurements were utilized to characterize the viscoelasticity of gelatin-based bioinks. Results demonstrated that the bioink viscoelasticity was increased when increasing the bioink concentration, increasing holding time and decreasing holding temperature below gelation temperature. The decline of cell survival rate after 3D cell printing process was observed when increasing the viscoelasticity of the gelatin-based bioinks. However, different process parameter combinations would result in the similar rheological characteristics and thus showed similar cell survival rate after 3D bioprinting process. On the other hand, bioink viscoelasticity should also reach a certain point to ensure good printability and shape fidelity. At last, we proposed a protocol for 3D bioprinting of temperature-sensitive gelatin-based hydrogel bioinks with both high cell survival rate and good printability. This research would be useful for biofabrication researchers to adjust the 3D bioprinting process parameters quickly and as a referable template for designing new bioinks.

  17. Nanomaterials for benign indoor environments: Electrochromics for 'smart windows', sensors for air quality, and photo-catalysts for air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granqvist, C.G.; Azens, A.; Heszler, P.; Kish, L.B.; OEsterlund, L.

    2007-01-01

    Nanomaterials can be used in a number of technologies in order to accomplish benign indoor environments. This paper takes a unified view on this problem from a solar-energy-based perspective and specifically considers electrochromics for achieving good day-lighting jointly with energy efficiency, sensors aimed at air quality assessment, and photocatalysis for air cleaning. Recent results, mainly from the authors' laboratories, are reported for all of these areas. (author)

  18. Defect engineering of two-dimensional WO{sub 3} nanosheets for enhanced electrochromism and photoeletrochemical performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xiaofang; Zheng, Xiaoli; Yan, Bo; Xu, Tao; Xu, Qun, E-mail: qunxu@zzu.edu.cn

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • We establish a facile strategy by solvothermal reaction and hydrogenation to synthesize 2D WO{sub 3} ultrathin nanosheets with abundant oxygen vacancies. • We find that the hydrogenated WO{sub 3} ultrathin nanosheets exhibit outstanding electrochromism properties. • Moreover, the hydrogenated WO{sub 3} nanosheets also exhibit remarkable photocatalytic performance. • The outstanding electrochromism and photoelectrochemical performances are mainly due to increased oxygen vacancies and narrowed band gap. - Abstract: The capability of introduction of oxygen vacancies in a controlled way has emerged as the heart of modern transition metal oxide semiconductor chemistry. As chemical defects, the oxygen vacancies have been proposed as electron donors, which are prone to increase carrier density and promote charge carrier separation. Herein, we have successfully prepared 2D WO{sub 3} ultrathin nanosheets with abundant surface oxygen vacancies by a combination of facile solvothermal reaction and hydrogenation method. The resultant hydrogenated WO{sub 3} ultrathin nanosheets exhibit remarkable electrochromism and photocatalytic performances compared with the non-hydrogenated samples, mainly due to their increased oxygen vacancies, narrowed band gap coupled with fast charge transfer and enhanced adsorption of visible light.

  19. Electrochromic Radiator Coupon Level Testing and Full Scale Thermal Math Modeling for Use on Altair Lunar Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannon, Erika T.; Bower, Chad E.; Sheth, Rubik; Stephan, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    In order to control system and component temperatures, many spacecraft thermal control systems use a radiator coupled with a pumped fluid loop to reject waste heat from the vehicle. Since heat loads and radiation environments can vary considerably according to mission phase, the thermal control system must be able to vary the heat rejection. The ability to "turn down" the heat rejected from the thermal control system is critically important when designing the system. Electrochromic technology as a radiator coating is being investigated to vary the amount of heat rejected by a radiator. Coupon level tests were performed to test the feasibility of this technology. Furthermore, thermal math models were developed to better understand the turndown ratios required by full scale radiator architectures to handle the various operation scenarios encountered during a mission profile for the Altair Lunar Lander. This paper summarizes results from coupon level tests as well as the thermal math models developed to investigate how electrochromics can be used to increase turn down ratios for a radiator. Data from the various design concepts of radiators and their architectures are outlined. Recommendations are made on which electrochromic radiator concept should be carried further for future thermal vacuum testing.

  20. Effects of Fluoro Substitution on the Electrochromic Performance of Alternating Benzotriazole and Benzothiadiazole-Based Donor–Acceptor Type Copolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Two new donor–acceptor type electrochromic copolymers containing non-fluorinated and di-fluorinated benzothiadiazole analogues, namely P(TBT-TBTh and P(TBT-F-TBTh, were synthesized successfully through chemical polymerization. Both polymers were measured by cyclic voltammetry, UV-vis spectroscopy, colorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis to study the influence of fluoro substitution on the electrochromic performance. The results demonstrated that the two polymer films displayed well-defined redox peaks in pairs during the p-type doping, and showed distinct color change from dark gray blue to light green for P(TBT-TBTh with the band gap of 1.51 eV, and from gray blue to celandine green for P(TBT-F-TBTh with the band gap of 1.58 eV. P(TBT-F-TBTh presented lower highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO energy levels, and better stability than P(TBT-TBTh. It was found that the two fluorine atoms participated in not only inductive effects but also mesomeric effects in the P(TBT-F-TBTh backbone. In addition, the polymers exhibited high optical contrasts, short response time, and favorable coloration efficiency, especially in the near infrared region. The characterization results indicated that the two reported polymers can be the potential choice as electrochromic materials.

  1. Optical, structural and electrochromic behavior studies on nanocomposite thin film of aniline, o-toluidine and WO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi-Ashtiani, Hamed; Bahari, Ali

    2016-08-01

    In the field of materials for electrochromic (EC) applications much attention was paid to the derivatives of aniline. We report on the optical, structural and electrochromic properties of electrochromic thin film based on composite of WO3 nanoparticles and copolymer of aniline and o-toluidine prepared by electrochemical polymerization method on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass. The thin film was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The morphology of prepared thin film was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) as well. The optical spectra of nanocomposite thin film were characterized in the 200-900 nm wavelength range and EC properties of nanocomposite thin film were studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV). The calculation of optical band gaps of thin film exhibited that the thin film has directly allowed transition with the values of 2.63 eV on first region and 3.80 eV on second region. Dispersion parameters were calculated based on the single oscillator model. Finally, important parameters such as dispersion energy, oscillator energy and lattice dielectric constant were determined and compared with the data from other researchers. The nonlinear optical properties such as nonlinear optical susceptibility, nonlinear absorption coefficient and nonlinear refractive index were extracted. The obtained results of nanocomposite thin film can be useful for the optoelectronic applications.

  2. Low-potential electrosynthesis of novel electroactive poly(9-fluorenemethanol) and its electrochromic and blue-light-emitting properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shimin; Qin, Leiqiang; Lu, Baoyang; Xu, Jingkun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The electropolymerization of 9-fluorenemethanol (FMO) was reported. ► Semiconducting poly(9-fluorenemethanol) (PFMO) film was electrosynthesized. ► PFMO shows favorable solubility and good redox activity and stability. ► PFMO exhibits electrochromic nature from pale brown to dark blue. ► PFMO is highly fluorescent with its emission at 418 nm and a quantum yield of 0.52. -- Abstract: In this paper we describe the electropolymerization of 9-fluorenemethanol (FMO) in boron trifluoride diethyl etherate, which leads to low-potential electrodeposition of semiconducting poly(9-fluorenemethanol) (PFMO) film under optimized conditions. The as-formed PFMO film shows favorable solubility in common organic solvents, good redox activity and stability with a conductivity of 10 −2 S cm −1 , good thermal stability, and uniform morphology. Besides, PFMO exhibits electrochromic nature with its color changing from pale brown in its reduced form to dark blue upon oxidation, but its electrochromic performances are relatively poor. Fluorescence spectral studies demonstrated that soluble PFMO is highly fluorescent with its maximum emission at 418 nm and a quantum yield of 0.52, and it can emit bright blue light under 365 nm UV light irradiation

  3. Aluminum doped nickel oxide thin film with improved electrochromic performance from layered double hydroxides precursor in situ pyrolytic route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Jingjing; Lai, Lincong; Zhang, Ping; Li, Hailong; Qin, Yumei; Gao, Yuanchunxue; Luo, Lei; Lu, Jun, E-mail: lujun@mail.buct.edu.cn

    2016-09-15

    Electrochromic materials with unique performance arouse great interest on account of potential application values in smart window, low-power display, automobile anti-glare rearview mirror, and e-papers. In this paper, high-performing Al-doped NiO porous electrochromic film grown on ITO substrate has been prepared via a layered double hydroxides(LDHs) precursor in situ pyrolytic route. The Al{sup 3+} ions distributed homogenously within the NiO matrix can significantly influence the crystallinity of Ni-Al LDH and NiO:Al{sup 3+} films. The electrochromic performance of the films were evaluated by means of UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and chronoamperometry(CA) measurements. In addition, the ratio of Ni{sup 3+}/Ni{sup 2+} also varies with Al content which can lead to different electrochemical performances. Among the as-prepared films, NiO film prepared from Ni-Al (19:1) LDH show the best electrochromic performance with a high transparency of 96%, large optical modulation range (58.4%), fast switching speed (bleaching/coloration times are 1.8/4.2 s, respectively) and excellent durability (30% decrease after 2000 cycles). The improved performance was owed to the synergy of large NiO film specific surface area and porous morphology, as well as Al doping stifled the formation of Ni{sup 3+} making bleached state more pure. This LDHs precursor pyrolytic method is simple, low-cost and environmental benign and is feasible for the preparation of NiO:Al and other Al-doped oxide thin film. - Graphical abstract: The ratio of Ni{sup 3+}/Ni{sup 2+} varies with Al content which can lead to different electrochemical performances. Among the as-prepared films, NiO film prepared from Ni-Al (19:1) LDH show the best electrochromic performance with a high transparency of 96%, large optical modulation range, fast switching speed and excellent durability. Display Omitted.

  4. Electrochromic Glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-31

    this glass and that dipole-dipole correlations contribute to the "ferroelectric-like" character of this amorphous system. The TeO2 -W03 glasses can only...shows the dielectric constant and Fig. I(b) glass from pure TeO2 ot pure WO. In addition, glass the tan 8 of the WO glass as a function of temperature... glasses containing WO, in various glass forming nitworks of LifO-B1O0, Na:O-BzO,, and TeO2 were prepared from reagent grade oxides at 800 C - 9SO C in

  5. Printable Fabrication of Nanocoral-Structured Electrodes for High-Performance Flexible and Planar Supercapacitor with Artistic Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuanjing; Gao, Yuan; Fan, Zhiyong

    2017-11-01

    Planar supercapacitors with high flexibility, desirable operation safety, and high performance are considered as attractive candidates to serve as energy-storage devices for portable and wearable electronics. Here, a scalable and printable technique is adopted to construct novel and unique hierarchical nanocoral structures as the interdigitated electrodes on flexible substrates. The as-fabricated flexible all-solid-state planar supercapacitors with nanocoral structures achieve areal capacitance up to 52.9 mF cm -2 , which is 2.5 times that of devices without nanocoral structures, and this figure-of-merit is among the highest in the literature for the same category of devices. More interestingly, due to utilization of the inkjet-printing technique, excellent versatility on electrode-pattern artistic design is achieved. Particularly, working supercapacitors with artistically designed patterns are demonstrated. Meanwhile, the high scalability of such a printable method is also demonstrated by fabrication of large-sized artistic supercapacitors serving as energy-storage devices in a wearable self-powered system as a proof of concept. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Tungsten Trioxide/Zinc Tungstate Bilayers: Electrochromic Behaviors, Energy Storage and Electron Transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Huige; Ding, Daowei; Yan, Xingru; Guo, Jiang; Shao, Lu; Chen, Haoran; Sun, Luyi; Colorado, Henry A.; Wei, Suying; Guo, Zhanhu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Tungsten oxide and zinc tungstate bilayers have been prepared via a facile sol-gel method for integrated applications of electrochromic behaviors and energy storage;. • Electron transfer behaviors between the semiconductor bilayer films have been found dependent on the bilayer assembly sequence;. • Methylene blue (MB) has been employed for the first time as an indicator to study the electron transfer phenomenon in the bilayer films. - Abstract: Pair-sequentially spin-coated tungsten trioxide (WO 3 ) and zinc tungstate (ZnWO 4 ) bilayer films onto indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass slides have been prepared via sol-gel methods followed by annealing. The bilayers (ZnWO 4 /WO 3 denoting the bilayer film with the inner layer of ZnWO 4 and the outer layer of WO 3 on the ITO while WO 3 /ZnWO 4 standing for the bilayer film with the inner layer of WO 3 and the outer layer of ZnWO 4 on the ITO) exhibit integrated functions of electrochromic and energy storage behaviors as indicated by the in situ spectroelectrochemistry and cyclic voltammetry (CV) results. Accordingly, blue color was observed for the bilayer films at -1 V in 0.5 M H 2 SO 4 solution. An areal capacitance of 140 and 230 μF/cm 2 was obtained for the ZnWO 4 /WO 3 , and WO 3 /ZnWO 4 film, respectively, at a scan rate of 0.05 V/s in the CV measurements. The CV results also unveiled the electron transfer behavior between the semiconductor films in the oxidation process, suggesting a sequence-dependent electrochemical response in the bilayer films. Meanwhile, methylene blue (MB) was used as an indicator to study the electron transfer phenomenon during the reduction process at negative potentials of -0.4 and -0.8 V, in 0.5 M Na 2 SO 4 . The results indicated that the electrons transfer across the bilayers was enhanced at more negative potentials

  7. Fe(II) and Co (II) complexes of (4-(4-bromophenyl)-[2,2'-bipyridine]-6-carboxylic acid) synthesis, characterization and electrochromic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saba, A.; Maqsood, Z.T.; Wasim, A.A.; Basha, F.Z.

    2017-01-01

    In this study novel complexes of substituted bipyridine (4-(4-bromophenyl)-[2,2'-bipyridine]-6-carboxylic acid) with Fe/sup +2/ and Co/sup +2/ were synthesized and characterized by different physical, analytical and spectral techniques which includes /sup 1/ H-NMR, MALDI-MS, FTIR, UV-VIS Spectrophotometry, CHN analysis and conductometry. Mole ratio method revealed that both complexes satisfied ML2 stoichiometry. Other characterization studies showed that substituted bipyridine acted as a tridentate ligand, with two pyridine N and one carboxylic O atom as binding sites per ligand molecule. The complexes were found octahedral, neutral and possessed fairly high molar absorptivities in visible region. Electrochromic studies revealed that Fe (II) complex had relatively good electrochromic properties with a reversible color change from blue to pale yellow. Co (II) complex, however, did not show significant electrochromic properties in the visible region. (author)

  8. Modelling of the solid state electrochromic system WO/sub 3//HSbO/sub 3/ x 2H/sub 2/O/Ni(OH)/sub 2/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagzdons, J L; Bajars, G E; Lusis, A R [AN Litovskoj SSR, Vilnyus. Inst. Fiziki Poluprovodnikov

    1984-08-16

    The problem of compatibility of electrochromic materials (ECM) with the solid electrolyte and the selection of solid electrolytes has been studied by means of modelling. The model electrochromic system (ECS) containing cathodically coloring ECM (WO/sub 3/), anodically coloring ECM (Ni(OH)/sub 2/), and a solid proton electrolyte (HSbO/sub 3/ x 2H/sub 2/O), as well as ECS containing H/sub x/WO/sub 3/ as counterelectrode has been investigated by the aid of cyclic voltammograms. Results show the compatibility of both the cathodic (WO/sub 3/) and anodic (Ni(OH)/sub 2/) ECM with solid proton electrolyte. Effective electrochromic devices can be worked out on their basis.

  9. Polyimide-polyether mixed conductors as switchable materials for electrochromic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michot, C; Baril, D; Armand, M [Laboratoire d` Ionique et d` Electrochimie du Solide, ENSEEG, Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble, Saint-Martin d` Heres (France)

    1995-12-01

    A new family of redox-active polymers have been obtained by polycondensation of {alpha},{omega}-diamino oligopolyethers with various aromatic tetracarboxylic acid anhydrides. The polyether blocks retain the usual cation co-ordination ability leading to solid-state ionic conduction while the relatively large electron affinity of the bis-imide moieties formed in the block polymers allows the reversible formation of stable radical anions ({sup -} and {sup 2-}) in the range 2-2.6 V vs. Li. Either slow-scan or microelectrode voltammetry indicate that the totality of the redox centres in such materials are readily accessible for all polyether spacer lengths tested (6-22 ether fragments), suggesting both a fast electron-exchange mechanism between anion radicals and a tendency for self assembly (stacking) of the planar aromatic groups. When increasing the number of atoms in the aromatic ring, the peak separation became smaller (benzene>naphthalene>perylene), resulting ultimately in simultaneous 2-electrons injection. These materials, due to the high coloration efficiency of the reduced state and their ready processability in thin films are excellent candidate for the realisation of laminated solid-state electrochromic devices

  10. Preparation of electrochromic thin films by transformation of manganese(II) carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojkovikj, Sasho; Najdoski, Metodija; Koleva, Violeta; Demiri, Sani

    2013-10-01

    A new chemical bath method for deposition of manganese(II) carbonate thin film on electroconductive FTO glass substrates is designed. The homogeneous thin films with thickness in the range of 70 to 500 nm are deposited at about 98 °C from aqueous solution containing urea and MnCl2. The chemical process is based on a low temperature hydrolysis of the manganese complexes with urea. Three types of films are under consideration: as-deposited, annealed and electrochemically transformed thin films. The structure of the films is studied by XRD, IR and Raman spectroscopy. Electrochemical and optical properties are examined in eight different electrolytes (neutral and alkaline) and the best results are achieved in two component aqueous solution of 0.1 M KNO3 and 0.01 M KOH. It is established that the as-deposited MnCO3 film undergoes electrochemically transformation into birnessite-type manganese(IV) oxide films, which exhibit electrochromic color changes (from bright brown to pale yellow and vice versa) with 30% difference in the transmittance of the colored and bleached state at 400 nm.

  11. Integration of graphene sensor with electrochromic device on modulus-gradient polymer for instantaneous strain visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tingting; Zhong, Yujia; Tao, Dashuai; Li, Xinming; Zang, Xiaobei; Lin, Shuyuan; Jiang, Xin; Li, Zhihong; Zhu, Hongwei

    2017-09-01

    In nature, some animals change their deceptive coloration for camouflage, temperature preservation or communication. This astonishing function has inspired scientists to replicate the color changing abilities of animals with artificial skin. Recently, some studies have focused on the smart materials and devices with reversible color changing or light-emitting properties for instantaneous strain visualization. However, most of these works only show eye-detectable appearance change when subjected to large mechanical deformation (100%-500% strain), and conspicuous color change at small strain remains rarely explored. In the present study, we developed a user-interactive electronic skin with human-readable optical output by assembling a highly sensitive resistive strain sensor with a stretchable organic electrochromic device (ECD) together. We explored the substrate effect on the electromechanical behavior of graphene and designed a strategy of modulus-gradient structure to employ graphene as both the highly sensitive strain sensing element and the insensitive stretchable electrode of the ECD layer. Subtle strain (0-10%) was enough to evoke an obvious color change, and the RGB value of the color quantified the magnitude of the applied strain. Such high sensitivity to smaller strains (0-10%) with color changing capability will potentially enhance the function of wearable devices, robots and prosthetics in the future.

  12. Ionically conducting Er3+-doped DNA-based biomembranes for electrochromic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leones, R.; Fernandes, M.; Sentanin, F.; Cesarino, I.; Lima, J.F.; Zea Bermudez, V. de; Pawlicka, A.; Magon, C.J.; Donoso, J.P.; Silva, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Biopolymer-based membranes have particular interest due to their biocompatibility, Biodegradability, easy extraction from natural resources and low cost. The incorporation of Er 3+ ions into natural macromolecule hosts with the purpose of producing highly efficient emitting phosphors is of widespread interest in materials science, due to their important roles in display devices. Thus, biomembranes may be viewed as innovative materials for the area of optics. This paper describes studies of luminescent material DNA-based membranes doped with erbium triflate and demonstrates that their potential technological applications may be expanded to electrochromic devices. The sample that exhibits the highest ionic conductivity is DNA 10 Er, (1.17 × 10 −5 and 7.76 × 10 −4 S.cm −1 at 30 and 100 °C, respectively). DSC, XRD and POM showed that the inclusion of the guest salt into DNA does not change significantly its amorphous nature. The overall redox stability was ca. 2.0 V indicating that these materials have an acceptable stability window for applications in solid state electrochemical devices. The EPR analysis suggested that the Er 3+ ions are distributed in various environments. A small ECD comprising a Er 3+ -doped DNA-based membrane was assembled and tested by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. These electrochemical analyses revealed a pale blue color to transparent color change and a decrease of the charge density from -4.0 to -1.2 mC.cm −2 during 4000 color/bleaching cycles

  13. Synthesis of electrochromic vanadium oxide by pulsed spray pyrolysis technique and its properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, C E; Tarwal, N L; Shinde, P S; Patil, P S; Deshmukh, H P

    2009-01-01

    A new improved pulsed spray pyrolysis technique (PSPT) was employed to deposit a vanadium oxide (V 2 O 5 ) thin film from a methanolic vanadium chloride precursor onto glass and conducting F : SnO 2 coated glass substrates. The structural, morphological, electrical, optical and spectroscopic properties of the film deposited at 573 K were studied. Infrared spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction confirmed the presence of the V 2 O 5 phase. The V 2 O 5 film (thickness ∼118 nm) is polycrystalline with a tetragonal crystal structure. Scanning electron microscopy reveals compact granular morphology consisting of ∼80-100 nm size grains. The film is transparent in the visible region (average %T ∼70%) with an optical band gap energy of 2.47 eV involving both direct and indirect optical transitions. The room temperature electrical resistivity (conductivity) of the film is 1.6 x 10 8 Ω cm (6.25 x 10 -9 S cm -1 ) with an activation energy of 0.67 eV in the temperature range 300-550 K. It exhibited cathodic electrochromism in the lithium containing electrolyte (0.5 M LiClO 4 + propylene carbonate).

  14. A new repeatable, optical writing and electrical erasing device based on photochromism and electrochromism of viologen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Li-ping; Wei, Jian; Wang, Yue-chuan; Ding, Guo-jing; Yang, Yu-lin

    2012-01-01

    New optical writing and electrical erasing devices have been successfully fabricated that exploit the photochromism and electrochromism of viologen. In a preliminary study, both the structures of viologen and device were investigated in detail by UV–vis spectra in order to confirm their effects on the optical writing and electrical erasing performances of corresponding devices. For sandwiched, single and complementary devices based on benzyl viologen (BV 2+ ), only optical writing can be performed, not electrical erasing operations, which indicated these devices cannot realize optical information rewriting. For single and complementary devices based on styrene-functional viologen (V BV 2+ ) and acrylic-functional viologen (ACV 2+ ), optical writing and electrical erasing operations can be reversibly performed and optical information rewriting realized. It is clear that single devices based on V BV 2+ and ACV 2+ possess better performance accompanied with contrast without significant degradation and bleaching times and without significant deterioration over 10 repeated writing/erasing cycles. Furthermore, we put forward possible mechanisms for sandwiched, single and complementary devices based on V BV 2+ and ACV 2+ for the optical writing and electrical erasing operations. This study provides a new strategy to design optical writing and electrical erasing devices to realize optical information rewriting. (paper)

  15. Mesoporous amorphous tungsten oxide electrochromic films: a Raman analysis of their good switching behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatzikyriakou, Dafni; Krins, Natacha; Gilbert, Bernard; Colson, Pierre; Dewalque, Jennifer; Denayer, Jessica; Cloots, Rudi; Henrist, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Mesoporous films exhibit better electrochemical kinetics compared to the dense films. • Mesoporous films exhibit better reversibility compared to the dense films. • Li + cations disrupt WO 3 network in a reversible way in the mesoporous film. • Li + irreversibly intercalate in the voids of crystallites in the dense film. - Abstract: The intercalation and de-intercalation of lithium cations in electrochromic tungsten oxide thin films are significantly influenced by their structural and surface characteristics. In this study, we prepared two types of amorphous films via the sol-gel technique: one dense and one mesoporous in order to compare their response upon lithium intercalation and de-intercalation. According to chronoamperometric measurements, Li + intercalates/de-intercalates faster in the mesoporous film (24s/6s) than in the dense film (48s/10s). The electrochemical measurements (cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry) also showed worse reversibility for the dense film compared to the mesoporous film, giving rise to important Li + trapping and remaining coloration of the film. Raman analysis showed that the mesoporous film provides more accessible and various W-O surface bonds for Li + intercalation. On the contrary, in the first electrochemical insertion and de-insertion in the dense film, Li + selectively reacts with a few surface W-O bonds and preferentially intercalates into pre-existing crystallites to form stable irreversible Li x WO 3 bronze

  16. TiO2 nanowires for potential facile integration of solar cells and electrochromic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang, Pengfei; Chen, Zhongwei; Yang, Peihua; Liu, Pengyi; Mai, Wenjie; Cai, Xiang; Tan, Shaozao

    2013-01-01

    Self-powered systems usually consist of energy-acquisition components, energy-storage components and functional components. The development of nanoscience and nanotechnology has greatly improved the performance of all the components of self-powered systems. However, huge differences in the materials and configurations in the components cause large difficulties for integration and miniaturization of self-powered systems. Design and fabrication of different components in a self-powered system with the same or similar materials/configurations should be able to make the above goal easier. In this work, a proof-of-concept experiment involving an integrated self-powered color-changing system consisting of TiO 2 nanowire based sandwich dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and electrochromic devices (ECDs) is designed and demonstrated. When sunlight illuminates the entire system, the DSSCs generate electrical power and turn the ECD to a darker color, dimming the light; by switching the connection polarity of the DSSCs, the lighter color can be regained, implying the potential application of this self-powered color-changing system for next generation sun glasses and smart windows. (paper)

  17. Microstructure, optical, and electrochromic properties of sol-gel nanoporous tungsten oxide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djaoued, Yahia; Ashrit, P. V.; Badilescu, S.; Bruning, R.

    2003-08-01

    Porous tungsten oxide films have been prepared by a nonhydrolitic sol-gel method using poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as a structure directing agent. The method entails the hydrolysis of an ethanolic solution of tungsten ethoxide (formed by the reaction of WCl6 with ethanol) followed by condensation and polymerization at the PEG-tungsten oxide oligometers interface. A highly porous WO3 framework was obtained after PEG was burned off by calcination at a relativley low temperature. AFM images of the films treated thermally show an ordered material rather than microscopic particulates. Both fibrilar nanostructures and striped phase can be obtained via this approach, depending on the concentration of PEG in the coating solution. XRD data from the fibrils indicate that they are crystalline with very small crystals, whereas the striped phases obtained with 20% PEG correspond to two crystalline phases, one, the stoichiometric WO3 and the other one an oxygen deficient phase, containing larger crystals (~28 nm). The results show that PEG promotes the formation of oxygen deficient phases and delays crystallization. Compared to WO3 with no PEG, the optical and electrochromic properties of the macroporous tungsten oxide films appear to be significantly improved. The formation of organized nanostructures is tentatively accounted for by the strong hydrogen bonding interactions between PEG and the tungsten oxide oligomers.

  18. Variable Emittance Electrochromics Using Ionic Electrolytes and Low Solar Absorptance Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, Prasanna

    2011-01-01

    One of the last remaining technical hurdles with variable emittance devices or skins based on conducting polymer electrochromics is the high solar absorptance of their top surfaces. This high solar absorptance causes overheating of the skin when facing the Sun in space. Existing technologies such as mechanical louvers or loop heat pipes are virtually inapplicable to micro (solar absorption to Alpha(s) of between 0.30 and 0.46. Coupled with the emittance properties of the variable emittance skins, this lowers the surface temperature of the skins facing the Sun to between 30 and 60 C, which is much lower than previous results of 100 C, and is well within acceptable satellite operations ranges. The performance of this technology is better than that of current new technologies such as microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), electrostatics, and electrophoretics, especially in applications involving micro and nano spacecraft. The coatings are deposited inside a high vacuum, layering multiple coatings onto the top surfaces of variable emittance skins. They are completely transparent in the entire relevant infrared region (about 2 to 45 microns), but highly reflective in the visible-NIR (near infrared) region of relevance to solar absorptance.

  19. The structural feasibility of 3D-printing houses using printable polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Veen, A.C.; Coenders, J.L.; Veer, F.A.; Nijsse, R.; Houtman, R.; Schonwalder, J.

    2015-01-01

    At this point in time, 3D-printing techniques in general, but especially applied for the building industry, still are in a phase of early experiments. One of the experimental attempts is to print a full-scale, three-story high, house in Amsterdam, using an up scaled version of a FDM-printer that is

  20. Toward Plastic Smart Windows: Optimization of Indium Tin Oxide Electrodes for the Synthesis of Electrochromic Devices on Polycarbonate Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenti, Marco; Bianco, Stefano; Castellino, Micaela; Garino, Nadia; Virga, Alessandro; Pirri, Candido F; Mandracci, Pietro

    2016-03-01

    Plastic smart windows are becoming one of the key elements in view of the fabrication of inexpensive, lightweight electrochromic (EC) devices to be integrated in the new generation of high-energy-efficiency buildings and automotive applications. However, fabricating electrochromic devices on polymer substrates requires a reduction of process temperature, so in this work we focus on the development of a completely room-temperature deposition process aimed at the preparation of ITO-coated polycarbonate (PC) structures acting as transparent and conductive plastic supports. Without providing any substrate heating or surface activation pretreatments of the polymer, different deposition conditions are used for growing indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films by the radiofrequency magnetron sputtering technique. According to the characterization results, the set of optimal deposition parameters is selected to deposit ITO electrodes having high optical transmittance in the visible range (∼90%) together with low sheet resistance (∼8 ohm/sq). The as-prepared ITO/PC structures are then successfully tested as conductive supports for the fabrication of plastic smart windows. To this purpose, tungsten trioxide thin films are deposited by the reactive sputtering technique on the ITO/PC structures, and the resulting single electrode EC devices are characterized by chronoamperometric experiments and cyclic voltammetry. The fast switching response between colored and bleached states, together with the stability and reversibility of their electrochromic behavior after several cycling tests, are considered to be representative of the high quality of the EC film but especially of the ITO electrode. Indeed, even if no adhesion promoters, additional surface activation pretreatments, or substrate heating were used to promote the mechanical adhesion among the electrode and the PC surface, the observed EC response confirmed that the developed materials can be successfully employed for the

  1. Hybrid Optical Devices: The Case of the Unification of the Electrochromic Device and the Organic Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre F. S. Guedes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of Hybrid Optical Devices, using some flexible optically transparent substrate material and organic semiconductor materials, has been widely utilized by the organic electronic industry, when manufacturing new technological products. The Hybrid Optical Device is constituted by the union of the electrochromic device and the organic solar cell. The flexible organic photovoltaic solar cells, in this hybrid optical device, have been the Poly base (3-hexyl thiophene, P3HT, Phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester, PCBM and Polyaniline, PANI, all being deposited in Indium Tin Oxide, ITO. In addition, the thin film, obtained by the deposition of PANI, and prepared in perchloric acid solution, has been identified through PANI-X1. In the flexible electrochromic device, the Poly base (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene, PEDOT, has been prepared in Propylene Carbonate, PC, being deposited in Indium Tin Oxide, ITO. Also, both devices have been united by an electrolyte solution prepared with Vanadium Pentoxide, V2O5, Lithium Perchlorate, LiClO4, and Polymethylmethacrylate, PMMA. This device has been characterized through Electrical Measurements, such as UV-Vis Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Thus, the result obtained through electrical measurements has demonstrated that the flexible organic photovoltaic solar cell presented the characteristic curve of standard solar cell after spin-coating and electrodeposition. Accordingly, the results obtained with optical and electrical characterization have revealed that the electrochromic device demonstrated some change in optical absorption, when subjected to some voltage difference. Moreover, the inclusion of the V2O5/PANI-X1 layer reduced the effects of degradation that this hybrid organic device caused, that is, solar irradiation. Studies on Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM have found out that the surface of V2O5/PANI-X1 layers can be strongly conditioned by the surface morphology of the

  2. Drop-on-Demand Inkjet Printhead Performance Enhancement by Dynamic Lumped Element Modeling for Printable Electronics Fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maowei He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The major challenge in printable electronics fabrication is the print resolution and accuracy. In this paper, the dynamic lumped element model (DLEM is proposed to directly simulate an inkjet-printed nanosilver droplet formation process and used for predictively controlling jetting characteristics. The static lumped element model (LEM previously developed by the authors is extended to dynamic model with time-varying equivalent circuits to characterize nonlinear behaviors of piezoelectric printhead. The model is then used to investigate how performance of the piezoelectric ceramic actuator influences jetting characteristics of nanosilver ink. Finally, the proposed DLEM is applied to predict the printing quality using nanosilver ink. Experimental results show that, compared to other analytic models, the proposed DLEM has a simpler structure with the sufficient simulation and prediction accuracy.

  3. Printable, Degradable, and Biocompatible Ion Gels from a Renewable ABA Triblock Polyester and a Low Toxicity Ionic Liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Boxin; Schneiderman, Deborah K.; Bidoky, Fazel Zare; Frisbie, C.Daniel; Lodge, Timothy P. (UMM)

    2017-09-15

    We have designed printable, biocompatible, and degradable ion gels by combining a novel ABA triblock aliphatic polyester, poly(ε-decalactone)-b-poly(dl-lactide)-b-poly(ε-decalactone), and a low toxicity ionic liquid, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bistrifluoromethanesulfonylimide ([P14][TFSI]). Due to the favorable compatibility between amorphous poly(dl-lactide) and [P14][TFSI] and the insolubility of the poly(ε-decalactone), the triblock polymer forms self-assembled micellar cross-links similar to thermoplastic elastomers, which ensures similar processing conditions and mechanical robustness during the fabrication of printed electrolyte-gated organic transistor devices. Additionally, the ester backbone in the polymer structure enables efficient hydrolytic degradation of these ion gels compared to those made previously using carbon-backbone polymers.

  4. π-Extended tetrathiafulvalene BODIPY (ex-TTF-BODIPY): A redox switched "on-off-on" electrochromic system with two near-infrared fluorescent outputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bill, N. L.; Lim, J. M.; Davis, C. M.

    2014-01-01

    A pi-extended tetrathiafulvalene-boradiazaindacene chimera, ex-TTF-BODIPY, has been prepared. The resulting system undergoes sequential one-electron oxidations, allowing access to both the mono-oxidized radical cationic and dicationic states. Additionally, ex-TTF-BODIPY displays electrochromic...

  5. Fabrication of transparent conductive tri-composite film for electrochromic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dahyun; Lee, Minji; Kim, Hyungsub; Chu, Won-shik; Chun, Doo-man; Ahn, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Caroline Sunyong

    2017-12-01

    A transparent conductive electrode (TCE) based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) was developed using a dry deposition method for application as an electrochromic (EC) device. To improve its electrical conductivity and stable EC performance, AgNW and TiO2 nanoparticles were included in the TCE film. The resulting TiO2/AgNW/PEDOT:PSS hybrid film showed electrical sheet resistivity of 23 Ω/sq., similar to that of a commercial TCE film. When +2.0 V was applied to the hybrid film, the response current was stable, maintaining a value of 2.0 mA. We found that the hybrid film could be used as an EC device, without using commercial TCE film. Antimony-doped tin oxide on indium-doped tin oxide-glass as an ion-storage layer was combined with the hybrid film, with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (EMIM-TFSI) injected into the EC device as an ionic liquid electrolyte. The optical transmittance difference between the colored and bleached states was 23% at 630 nm; under applied voltages of -2.0 V and +2.0 V, the coloration efficiency was 127.83 cm2/C. Moreover, cyclic transmittance with switching voltage for 3 h showed stable optical transmittance of 31% at 630 nm. Cyclic voltammetry measurements indicated stable behavior over 50 cycles. Thus, the proposed TCE configuration (TiO2/AgNW/PEDOT:PSS) shows great potential as a substitute for commercial TCEs, the cost of which depends on the availability of rare-earth materials.

  6. Structure, stability and electrochromic properties of polyaniline film covalently bonded to indium tin oxide substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wenzhi, E-mail: zhangwz@xatu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Photoelectric Functional Materials and Devices of Shaanxi Province, School of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Xi’an Technological University, Xi’an 710021 (China); Ju, Wenxing; Wu, Xinming; Wang, Yan; Wang, Qiguan; Zhou, Hongwei; Wang, Sumin [Key Laboratory for Photoelectric Functional Materials and Devices of Shaanxi Province, School of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Xi’an Technological University, Xi’an 710021 (China); Hu, Chenglong [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Chemical Materials and Devices of Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Jianghan University, Wuhan 430056 (China)

    2016-03-30

    Graphical abstract: A chemical bonding approach was proposed to prepare the PANI film covalently bonded to ITO substrate and the film exhibited high electrochemical activities and stability compared with that obtained by conventional film-forming approach. - Highlights: • The PANI film covalently bonded to ITO substrate was prepared using ABPA as modifier. • The oxidative potentials of the obtained PANI film were decreased. • The obtained PANI film exhibits high electrochemical activities and stability. - Abstract: Indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate was modified with 4-aminobenzylphosphonic acid (ABPA), and then the polyaniline (PANI) film covalently bonded to ITO substrate was prepared by the chemical oxidation polymerization. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements demonstrated that chemical binding was formed between PANI and ABPA-modified ITO surface, and the maximum thickness of PANI layer is about 30 nm. The adhesive strength of PANI film on ITO substrate was tested by sonication. It was found that the film formed on the modified ITO exhibited a much better stability than that on bare one. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and UV–vis spectroscopy measurements indicated that the oxidative potentials of PANI film on ABPA-modified ITO substrate were decreased and the film exhibited high electrochemical activities. Moreover, the optical contrast increased from 0.58 for PANI film (without ultrasound) to 1.06 for PANI film (after ultrasound for 60 min), which had an over 83% enhancement. The coloration time was 20.8 s, while the bleaching time was 19.5 s. The increase of electrochromic switching time was due to the lower ion diffusion coefficient of the large cation of (C{sub 4}H{sub 9}){sub 4}N{sup +} under the positive and negative potentials as comparison with the small Li{sup +} ion.

  7. Stretchable and Hydrophobic Electrochromic Devices Using Wrinkled Graphene and PEDOT:PSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Kartik Nemani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an electrochromic device (ECD fabricated using PEDOT:PSS and graphene as active conductive electrode films and a flexible compliant polyurethane substrate with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonylimide (EMI-TSFI additive, as ionic medium. This device with a docile, elastic intermediate substrate along with a transparency controlled PEDOT:PSS film provides a wide color contrast and fast switching rate. We harness wrinkling instability of graphene to achieve a hydrophobic nature without compromising transparency of the ECD. This mechanical self-assembly approach helps in controlling the wavelength of wrinkles generated by inducing measured prestrain conditions and regulating the modulus contrast by selection of underlying materials used, hereby controlling the extent of transparency. The reduction and oxidation switching times for the device were analyzed to be 5.76 s and 5.34 s for a 90% transmittance change at an operating DC voltage of 15 ± 0.1 V. Strain dependent studies show that the performance was robust with the device retaining switching contrasts even at 15% uniaxial strain conditions. Our device also exhibits superior antiwetting properties with an average water contact angle of 110°  ± 2° at an induced radial prestrain of 30% in the graphene film. A wide range color contrast, flexibility, and antiwetting nature of the device envision its uses in smart windows, visors, and other wearable equipment where these functionalities are of outmost importance for developing new generation of smart interactive devices.

  8. A Pilot Demonstration of Electrochromic and Thermochromic Windows in the Denver Federal Center, Building 41, Denver, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eleanor S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fernandes, Luis L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goudey, Chad Howdy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jonsson, Carl Jacob [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Curcija, D. Charlie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Pang, Xiufeng [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); DiBartolomeo, Dennis [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hoffmann, Sabine [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Chromogenic glazing materials are emerging technologies that tint reversibly from a clear to dark tinted state either passively in response to environmental conditions or actively in response to a command from a switch or building automation system. Switchable coatings on glass manage solar radiation and visible light while enabling unobstructed views to the outdoors. Building energy simulations estimate that actively controlled, near-term chromogenic glazings can reduce perimeter zone heating, ventilation, and airconditioning (HVAC) and lighting energy use by 10-20% and reduce peak electricity demand by 20-30%, achieving energy use levels that are lower than an opaque, insulated wall. This project demonstrates the use of two types of chromogenic windows: thermochromic and electrochromic windows. By 2013, these windows will begin production in the U.S. by multiple vendors at high-volume manufacturing plants, enabling lower cost and larger area window products to be specified. Both technologies are in the late R&D stage of development, where cost reductions and performance improvements are underway. Electrochromic windows have been installed in numerous buildings over the past four years, but monitored energy-efficiency performance has been independently evaluated in very limited applications. Thermochromic windows have been installed in one other building with an independent evaluation, but results have not yet been made public.

  9. A new processable electrochromic polymer based on an electron deficient fluorene derivative with a high coloration efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Çarbaş, Buket Bezgin; Kivrak, Arif; Önal, Ahmet M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Electrochemical synthesis and elecroptical properties of a new soluble polymer based on fluorenone and 3,4-propylenedioxythiophene are highlighted. ► The polymer film exhibits reversible electrochromic behavior and both p and n dopable. ► In addition it has high electrochemical stability and coloration efficiency. ► In THF, polymer film emits orange light when excited at 355 nm. - Abstract: A new fluorenone based soluble polymer, namely poly(2,7-bis-(3,3-dihexyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-thieno[3,4-b][1,4]dioxepin-6-yl) -fluoren-9-one) (PPFP), containing propylenedioxythiophene (ProDOT) as a donor and fluorenone (FO) as an acceptor group is highlighted. Electrochemical polymerization of 2,7-bis-(3,3-dihexyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-thieno[3,4-b][1,4]dioxepin-6-yl) -fluoren-9-one (PFP) was achieved in dichloromethane/acetonitrile mixture with 0.1 M tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate via potential cycling. The polymer shows an electrochromic behavior, a color change from orange to dark blue during oxidation with a high coloration efficiency (422 cm 2 /C at 684 nm) and orange to yellow during reduction with high optical and electrochemical stability as compared to its close analogues, in addition it is found to be both p and n dopable. Furthermore, this soluble polymer exhibits fluorescent properties (the emission of orange light (578 nm) in THF solution).

  10. In situ preparation of composite from conjugated polyschiff bases and multiwalled carbon nanotube: Synthesis, electrochromic, acidochromic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Lina; Cai Jiwei; Zhao Ping; Niu Haijun; Wang Cheng; Bai Xuduo; Wang Wen

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The introduction of carbon nanotubes greatly improves the photochromic property of the composites. Highlights: ► MWNTs/PSB composite was prepared by in situ polymerization with a new type of PSB. ► The introduction of carbon nanotubes greatly improves the photochromic property of the composites. ► The composites exhibited excellent thermal stability and reversible electrochemical behavior. - Abstract: Polyschiff base (PSB) which has the structure of C=N double bond is well known as conducting material with high thermal resistance, chemical and electrical properties. Recently, it was used as hole transporting material in organic light emitting diode (OLED), chemical sensor and electrochromic materials. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with excellent properties such as unique electrical, mechanical, optical and chemical properties are promising reinforcing materials for polymer composites which improve the comprehensive properties of polymers. In this paper, conjugated PSB-grafted multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) composite was prepared by in situ polymerization. The resultant composites were characterized by thermogravimetric (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV–vis absorption, photoluminescence (PL), cyclic voltammograms (CV), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and Raman spectroscopy. The composites exhibited high thermal stability and excellent reversibilities of electrochromic, photochromic, acidochromic characteristics, with the color change from the light yellow to blue.

  11. Effects of oxygen contents on the electrochromic properties of tungsten oxide films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, H.-H.

    2008-01-01

    The electrochromism have been extensively investigated due to their potential applications such as smart window of architecture and automobile glazing to save energy and modulate the transmittance of light and solar radiation. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of sputtering conditions on the microstructure and electrochromic properties of tungsten oxide films prepared by dc reactive magnetron sputtering. Experimental results showed that the deposition rate of WO 3-y films decreased with increasing oxygen flow rate. XRD and Raman spectra analysis suggests that the WO 3-y films deposited at various oxygen flow rates are poor crystallinity or amorphous. The transmission change between colored and bleached states at a wavelength of 550 nm was 61.4% as the oxygen content was 60%. The coloration efficiency slightly increases with increasing oxygen flow rate in the low oxygen content region and reaching a maximum value of 38.94 cm 2 /C at 60% oxygen content. In addition, the films deposited at 60% oxygen content showed a good reversibility. The effects of lithium ions intercalated on the transmission of WO 3-y films were also discussed

  12. Electro-optical evaluation of tungsten oxide and vanadium pentoxide thin films for modeling an electrochromic device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Najafi Ashtiani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, tungsten oxide and vanadium oxide electrochromic thin films were placed in vacuum and in a thickness of 200 nm on a transparent conductive substrate of SnO2:F using the physical method of thermal evaporation. Then they were studied for the optical characteristics in the wavelength range from 400 to 700 nm and for their electrical potentials in the range form +1.5 to -1.5 volts. The films were post heated in order to assess changes in energy gap with temperature, at temperatures120 , 300 and 500°C. Refractive and extinction coefficients and the transition type of films in the visible light range and in the thickness of 200 nm were determined and measured. X-ray diffraction pattern and SEM images and cyclic Voltammetry of layers were also studied. The results of this study due to the deposition of layers, the layer thickness selected, the type of substrate, the range of annealing temperatures and selected electrolyte were in full compliance with the works of other researchers [1,2,3]. Therefore, these layers with features such as crystal structure, refractive and even extinction coefficients in the range of visible light, the appropriate response of chromic switch in the replication potential, good adhesion to the substrate, and the high amount of optical transmition and so on, prove useful to be used in an electrochromic device

  13. The improvement of all-solid-state electrochromic devices fabricated with the reactive sputter and cathodic arc technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Chuan Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The all-solid-state electrochromic device (ECD with the one substrate structure fabricated by the reactive dc magnetron sputtering (DCMS and cathodic vacuum arc plasma (CVAP technology has been developed for smart electrochromic (EC glass application. The EC layer and ion conductor layer were deposited by reactive DCMS and CVAP technology, respectively. The ion conductor layer Ta2O5 deposited by the CVAP technology has provided the better porous material structure for ion transportation and showed 1.76 times ion conductivity than devices with all sputtering process. At the same time, the EC layer WO3 and NiO deposited by the reactive DCMS have also provided the high quality and uniform characteristic to overcome the surface roughness effect of the CVAP ion conductor layer in multilayer device structure. The all-solid-state ECD with the CVAP ion conductor layer has demonstrated a maximum transmittance variation (ΔT of 55% at 550nm and a faster-switching speed. Furthermore, the lower equipment cost and higher deposition rate could be achieved by the application of CVAP technology.

  14. Fully Roll-to-Roll Gravure Printable Wireless (13.56 MHz) Sensor-Signage Tags for Smart Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hwiwon; Park, Hyejin; Park, Yongsu; Jung, Minhoon; Kim, Byung Chul; Wallace, Gordon; Cho, Gyoujin

    2014-06-01

    Integration of sensing capabilities with an interactive signage through wireless communication is enabling the development of smart packaging wherein wireless (13.56 MHz) power transmission is used to interlock the smart packaging with a wireless (13.56 MHz) reader or a smart phone. Assembly of the necessary componentry for smart packaging on plastic or paper foils is limited by the manufacturing costs involved with Si based technologies. Here, the issue of manufacturing cost for smart packaging has been obviated by materials that allow R2R (roll-to-roll) gravure in combination with R2R coating processes to be employed. R2R gravure was used to print the wireless power transmission device, called rectenna (antenna, diode and capacitor), and humidity sensor on poly(ethylene terephtalate) (PET) films while electrochromic signage units were fabricated by R2R coating. The signage units were laminated with the R2R gravure printed rectenna and sensor to complete the prototype smart packaging.

  15. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): Data and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Statistics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir COPD Death Rates in the United States Printable Version [ ... Ohio and Mississippi Rivers. Printable Version [PDF 733KB] COPD Prevalence in the United States Printable Version [PDF ...

  16. Printable organic thin film transistors for glucose detection incorporating inkjet-printing of the enzyme recognition element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkington, D., E-mail: Daniel.Elkington@newcastle.edu.au; Wasson, M.; Belcher, W.; Dastoor, P. C.; Zhou, X. [Centre for Organic Electronics, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan 2308 (Australia)

    2015-06-29

    The effect of device architecture upon the response of printable enzymatic glucose sensors based on poly(3-hexythiophene) (P3HT) organic thin film transistors is presented. The change in drain current is used as the basis for glucose detection and we show that significant improvements in drain current response time can be achieved by modifying the design of the sensor structure. In particular, we show that eliminating the dielectric layer and reducing the thickness of the active layer reduce the device response time considerably. The results are in good agreement with a diffusion based model of device operation, where an initial rapid dedoping process is followed by a slower doping of the P3HT layer from protons that are enzymatically generated by glucose oxidase (GOX) at the Nafion gate electrode. The fitted diffusion data are consistent with a P3HT doping region that is close to the source-drain electrodes rather than located at the P3HT:[Nafion:GOX] interface. Finally, we demonstrate that further improvements in sensor structure and morphology can be achieved by inkjet-printing the GOX layer, offering a pathway to low-cost printed biosensors for the detection of glucose in saliva.

  17. Nanothin Coculture Membranes with Tunable Pore Architecture and Thermoresponsive Functionality for Transfer-Printable Stem Cell-Derived Cardiac Sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Seungmi; Yoo, Jin; Jang, Yeongseon; Han, Jin; Yu, Seung Jung; Park, Jooyeon; Jung, Seon Yeop; Ahn, Kyung Hyun; Im, Sung Gap; Char, Kookheon; Kim, Byung-Soo

    2015-10-27

    Coculturing stem cells with the desired cell type is an effective method to promote the differentiation of stem cells. The features of the membrane used for coculturing are crucial to achieving the best outcome. Not only should the membrane act as a physical barrier that prevents the mixing of the cocultured cell populations, but it should also allow effective interactions between the cells. Unfortunately, conventional membranes used for coculture do not sufficiently meet these requirements. In addition, cell harvesting using proteolytic enzymes following coculture impairs cell viability and the extracellular matrix (ECM) produced by the cultured cells. To overcome these limitations, we developed nanothin and highly porous (NTHP) membranes, which are ∼20-fold thinner and ∼25-fold more porous than the conventional coculture membranes. The tunable pore size of NTHP membranes at the nanoscale level was found crucial for the formation of direct gap junctions-mediated contacts between the cocultured cells. Differentiation of the cocultured stem cells was dramatically enhanced with the pore size-customized NTHP membrane system compared to conventional coculture methods. This was likely due to effective physical contacts between the cocultured cells and the fast diffusion of bioactive molecules across the membrane. Also, the thermoresponsive functionality of the NTHP membranes enabled the efficient generation of homogeneous, ECM-preserved, highly viable, and transfer-printable sheets of cardiomyogenically differentiated cells. The coculture platform developed in this study would be effective for producing various types of therapeutic multilayered cell sheets that can be differentiated from stem cells.

  18. 100 °C Thermal Stability of Printable Perovskite Solar Cells Using Porous Carbon Counter Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranwal, Ajay K; Kanaya, Shusaku; Peiris, T A Nirmal; Mizuta, Gai; Nishina, Tomoya; Kanda, Hiroyuki; Miyasaka, Tsutomu; Segawa, Hiroshi; Ito, Seigo

    2016-09-22

    Many efforts have been made towards improving perovskite (PVK) solar cell stability, but their thermal stability, particularly at 85 °C (IEC 61646 climate chamber tests), remains a challenge. Outdoors, the installed solar cell temperature can reach up to 85 °C, especially in desert regions, providing sufficient motivation to study the effect of temperature stress at or above this temperature (e.g., 100 °C) to confirm the commercial viability of PVK solar cells for industrial companies. In this work, a three-layer printable HTM-free CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 PVK solar cell with a mesoporous carbon back contact and UV-curable sealant was fabricated and tested for thermal stability over 1500 h at 100 °C. Interestingly, the position of the UV-curing glue was found to drastically affect the device stability. The side-sealed cells show high PCE stability and represent a large step toward commercialization of next generation organic-inorganic lead halide PVK solar cells. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. High optical and switching performance electrochromic devices based on a zinc oxide nanowire with poly(methyl methacrylate) gel electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Young Tea; Chu, Daping, E-mail: dpc31@cam.ac.uk [Electrical Engineering Division, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Neeves, Matthew; Placido, Frank [Thin Film Centre, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley PA1 2BE (United Kingdom); Smithwick, Quinn [Disney Research, 521 Circle Seven Drive, Glendale, Los Angeles, California 91201 (United States)

    2014-11-10

    High performance electrochromic devices have been fabricated and demonstrated utilizing a solid polymer electrolyte and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire (NW) array counter electrode. The poly(methyl methacrylate) based polymer electrolyte was spin coated upon hydrothermally grown ZnO NW array counter electrodes, while electron beam evaporated NiO{sub x} thin films formed the working electrodes. Excellent optical contrast and switching speeds were observed in the fabricated devices with active areas of 2 cm{sup 2}, exhibiting an optical contrast of 73.11% at the wavelength of 470 nm, combined with a fast switching time of 0.2 s and 0.4 s for bleaching and coloration, respectively.

  20. Synthesis of Dimethyl-Substituted Polyviologen and Control of Charge Transport in Electrodes for High-Resolution Electrochromic Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kan Sato

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrochromic (EC polymers such as polyviologens have been attracting considerable attention as wet-processable electrodes for EC displays, thanks to their brilliant color change accompanied with reversible redox reactions. To establish wider usage, achieving multicolor and high-resolution characteristics is indispensable. In this paper, we demonstrated that the introduction of substituents such as methyl groups into bipyridine units changed the stereostructure of the cation radicals, and thus shifted the color (e.g., ordinary purple to blue. Also, by relaxing excessive π-stacking between the viologen moieties, the response rate was improved by a factor of more than 10. The controlled charge transport throughout the polyviologen layer gave rise to the fabrication of EC displays which are potentially suitable for the thin film transistor (TFT substrate as the counter electrodes with submillimeter pixels. The findings can be versatilely used for the new design of polyviologens with enhanced electrochemical properties and high-resolution, multicolor EC displays.

  1. High optical and switching performance electrochromic devices based on a zinc oxide nanowire with poly(methyl methacrylate) gel electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Young Tea; Chu, Daping; Neeves, Matthew; Placido, Frank; Smithwick, Quinn

    2014-01-01

    High performance electrochromic devices have been fabricated and demonstrated utilizing a solid polymer electrolyte and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire (NW) array counter electrode. The poly(methyl methacrylate) based polymer electrolyte was spin coated upon hydrothermally grown ZnO NW array counter electrodes, while electron beam evaporated NiO x thin films formed the working electrodes. Excellent optical contrast and switching speeds were observed in the fabricated devices with active areas of 2 cm 2 , exhibiting an optical contrast of 73.11% at the wavelength of 470 nm, combined with a fast switching time of 0.2 s and 0.4 s for bleaching and coloration, respectively

  2. Chemically fabricated LiFePO{sub 4} thin film electrode for transparent batteries and electrochromic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Béléké, Alexis B. [Institut de recherche d’Hydro-Québec, 1800 Boul. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, QC J3X 1S3 (Canada); Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, M.H. Wong Building, 3610 rue University, Montréal, QC H3A 2B2 (Canada); Faure, Cyril [Institut de recherche d’Hydro-Québec, 1800 Boul. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, QC J3X 1S3 (Canada); Röder, Manuel [Center for Applied Electrochemistry, Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research, Neunerplatz 2, 97083 Würzburg (Germany); Hovington, Pierre [Institut de recherche d’Hydro-Québec, 1800 Boul. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, QC J3X 1S3 (Canada); Posset, Uwe [Center for Applied Electrochemistry, Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research, Neunerplatz 2, 97083 Würzburg (Germany); Guerfi, Abdelbast [Institut de recherche d’Hydro-Québec, 1800 Boul. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, QC J3X 1S3 (Canada); Zaghib, Karim, E-mail: zaghib.karim@ireq.ca [Institut de recherche d’Hydro-Québec, 1800 Boul. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, QC J3X 1S3 (Canada)

    2016-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Simplified diagram of the novel sol-gel approach of preparation of colorless and transparent LiFePO{sub 4} thin film electrode. - Highlights: • Novel sol-gel synthesis of colorless LFP thin film electrode for transparent Li-ion battery. • High performance of the electrode at various current densities: 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 μA/cm{sup 2}. • LFP nanoparticles exhibit an excellent electro-activity. • Colorless LFP thin film shows a transmittance above 80% versus FTO. • Higher transmittance of LFP electrode a potential candidate for electrochromic devices. - Abstract: We report a new sol-gel approach of synthesis of LiFePO{sub 4} (LFP) thin film and its application as cathode materials for transparent Li-ion battery in half-cell configuration. LFP thin films were obtained from an alcoholic colloidal suspension of iron acetylacetonate (Fe(AcAc){sub 3}) and aqueous lithium dihydrogen phosphate (LiH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}) deposited on fluorine tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate, followed by heating at 450 °C under nitrogen gas for 1 h. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed that the LFP films have an orthorhombic crystal system with space group Pnma (62). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows spherical LFP nanoparticles aggregates homogenously deposited all over the surface of FTO substrate containing 3-D open pores. The electrochemical behaviors of thin film vs Li/Li{sup +} cell were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements. The cycle life was evaluated by running 1000 cycles of charge-discharge at a current density of 20 μA/cm{sup 2}. The transmission spectra reveal 85–90% of transparency versus FTO as reference, which makes it a potential candidate as a complementary electrode in electrochromic devices (ECDs).

  3. Enhanced electrochromic properties of TiO2 nanoporous film prepared based on an assistance of polyethylene glycol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shunjian; Luo, Xiaorui; Xiao, Zonghu; Luo, Yongping; Zhong, Wei; Ou, Hui; Li, Yinshuai

    2017-01-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) was employed as pore-forming agent to prepare TiO2 nanoporous film based on spin-coating a TiO2 nanoparticle mixed paste on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass. The electrochromic and optical properties of the obtained TiO2 film were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA) and UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The results show that the PEG in the mixed paste endows the TiO2 film with well-developed porous structure and improves the uniformity of the TiO2 film, which are helpful for the rapid intercalation and extraction of lithium ions within the TiO2 film and the strengthening of the diffuse reflection of visible light in the TiO2 film. As a result, the TiO2 film derived from the mixed paste with PEG displays higher electrochemical activity and more excellent electrochromic performances compared with the TiO2 film derived from the mixed paste without PEG. The switching times of coloration/bleaching are respectively 10.16/5.65 and 12.77/6.13 s for the TiO2 films with PEG and without PEG. The maximum value of the optical contrast of the TiO2 film with PEG is 21.2% while that of the optical contrast of the TiO2 film without PEG is 14.9%. Furthermore, the TiO2 film with PEG has better stability of the colored state than the TiO2 film without PEG.

  4. Electrochemical investigation of electrochromic devices based on NiO and WO3 films using different lithium salts electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Youxiu; Chen, Mu; Liu, Weiming; Li, Lei; Yan, Yue

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •ECDs based on NiO and WO 3 films using different electrolytes were fabricated. •Effect of different electrolytes on films and ECDs was investigated. •Applied voltage distribution on NiO and WO 3 electrodes in an ECD was studied. •Voltage distribution on films was unbalanced and associated with electrolyte. •Films have different impedance behavior in different states and electrolytes. -- Abstract: Electrochromic devices (ECDs) with different liquid electrolytes were fabricated using NiO film as counter electrode, WO 3 film as working electrode. The effect of liquid electrolytes containing different lithium salts (LiClO 4 , LiPF 6 , LiTFSI) on films and ECDs was investigated, such as transmittance change, charge density, memory effect and cyclic stability. Films or ECDs using LiPF 6 electrolyte have excellent electrochromic properties but low cyclic stability, compared with LiClO 4 and LiTFSI electrolytes. In order to deeply understand the effect of electrolyte on films and devices, the voltage distribution of films based on an analog cell and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were measured and analyzed in different lithium salts electrolytes. Results show that voltage distribution and EIS characteristics of films have obvious difference in liquid LiClO 4 , LiPF 6 and LiTFSI electrolytes. Voltage distribution on NiO and WO 3 films is unbalanced and the impedance of films in bleached and colored states is different in the same electrolyte.

  5. Enhanced electrochromic and energy storage performance in mesoporous WO3 film and its application in a bi-functional smart window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Qi; Wang, Xiu-Li; Xia, Xin-Hui; Yao, Zhu-Jun; Zhong, Yu; Tu, Jiang-Ping

    2018-05-03

    Construction of multifunctional photoelectrochemical energy devices is of great importance to energy saving. In this study, we have successfully prepared a mesoporous WO3 film on FTO glass via a facile dip-coating sol-gel method; the designed mesoporous WO3 film exhibited advantages including high transparency, good adhesion and high porosity. Also, multifunctional integrated energy storage and optical modulation ability are simultaneously achieved by the mesoporous WO3 film. Impressively, the mesoporous WO3 film exhibits a noticeable electrochromic energy storage performance with a large optical modulation up to 75.6% at 633 nm, accompanied by energy storage with a specific capacity of 75.3 mA h g-1. Furthermore, a full electrochromic energy storage window assembled with the mesoporous WO3 anode and PANI nanoparticle cathode is demonstrated with large optical modulation and good long-term stability. Our research provides a new route to realize the coincident utilization of optical-electrochemical energy.

  6. Remarkable ability to modulate light transmittance and block heat in the bleached state combined in one electrochromic material: highly crystalline polyaniline

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gospodinova, Natalia; Skorokhoda, Taras; Lobaz, Volodymyr

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 6 (2018), s. 2227-2231 ISSN 0024-9297 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-14791S Grant - others:OPPK(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21545 Program:OPPK Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : electrochromic * chain ordering * conducting polymers Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 5.835, year: 2016

  7. The effects of heat treatment on optical, structural, electrochromic and bonding properties of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coşkun, Özlem Duyar, E-mail: duyar@hacettepe.edu.tr [Hacettepe University, Department of Physics Engineering, Thin Film Preparation and Characterization Laboratory, Ankara (Turkey); Demirel, Selen, E-mail: nymph24@gmail.com [Hacettepe University, Department of Physics Engineering, Thin Film Preparation and Characterization Laboratory, Ankara (Turkey); Hacettepe University, Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine Department, Ankara (Turkey); Atak, Gamze, E-mail: gbaser@hacettepe.edu.tr [Hacettepe University, Department of Physics Engineering, Thin Film Preparation and Characterization Laboratory, Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-11-05

    Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films were deposited onto heated glass substrates by RF magnetron sputtering using a Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} target. The films were annealed in air at temperatures between 400 and 700 °C for 6 h. Effects of the crystalline structure on optical, structural, electrochromic and bonding properties of the Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films were investigated by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, optical spectrophotometry and electrochemical measurements. The film refractive index varied between 2.09 and 2.22 at the wavelength of 550 nm depending on the annealing temperature. The decrease of the optical band gap revealed for the films with increasing annealing temperature is attributed to oxygen-ion vacancies in the film structure. The orthorhombic structure of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} films resulted in good electrochromic properties with high colouration efficiencies of 19.56 cm{sup 2}/C and 53.24 cm{sup 2}/C at 550 nm and 1000 nm, respectively. The optical, structural and electrochromic properties of the different crystalline polymorphic forms of the Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} films make them attractive for optical applications. - Highlights: • Stoichiometric Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} films prepared using RF magnetron sputtering technique. • The different crystalline forms of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films obtained by annealing. • The optical, structural and electrochromic properties of the films were investigated. • The optical band gap decreased with increasing annealing temperature. • The orthorhombic T-Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} films exhibited a higher colouration efficiency.

  8. To Investigate the Absorption, Dynamic Contact Angle and Printability Effects of Synthetic Zeolite Pigments in an Inkjet Receptive Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalindre, Swaraj Sunil

    Ink absorption performance in inkjet receptive coatings containing synthetic zeolite pigments was studied. Coating pigment pore and particle size distribution are the key parameters that influence in modifying media surface properties, thus affecting the rate of ink penetration and drying time (Scholkopf, et al. 2004). The primary objective of this study was: (1) to investigate the synthetic zeolite pigment effects on inkjet ink absorption, dynamic contact angle and printability, and (2) to evaluate these novel synthetic zeolite pigments in replacing the fumed silica pigments in conventional inkjet receptive coatings. In this research study, single pigment coating formulations (in equal P:B ratio) were prepared using microporous synthetic zeolite pigments (5A, Organophilic and 13X) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) binder. The laboratory-coated samples were characterized for absorption, air permeance, roughness, drying time, wettability and print fidelity. Based on the rheological data, it was found that the synthetic zeolite formulated coatings depicted a Newtonian flow behavior at low shear; while the industry accepted fumed silica based coatings displayed a characteristically high pseudoplastic flow behavior. Our coated samples generated using microporous synthetic zeolite pigments produced low absorption, reduced wettability and accelerated ink drying characteristics. These characteristics were caused due to the synthetic zeolite pigments, which resulted in relatively closed surface structure coated samples. The research suggested that no single selected synthetic zeolite coating performed better than the conventional fumed silica based coatings. Experimental data also showed that there was no apparent relationship between synthetic zeolite pigment pore sizes and inkjet ink absorption. For future research, above coated samples should be evaluated for pore size distribution using Mercury Porosimeter, which quantifies surface porosity of coated samples. This presented

  9. [External cephalic version].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Santana, B; Duarez-Coronado, M; Plaza-Arranz, J

    2016-08-01

    To analyze the rate of successful external cephalic versions in our center and caesarean sections that would be avoided with the use of external cephalic versions. From January 2012 to March 2016 external cephalic versions carried out at our center, which were a total of 52. We collected data about female age, gestational age at the time of the external cephalic version, maternal body mass index (BMI), fetal variety and situation, fetal weight, parity, location of the placenta, amniotic fluid index (ILA), tocolysis, analgesia, and newborn weight at birth, minor adverse effects (dizziness, hypotension and maternal pain) and major adverse effects (tachycardia, bradycardia, decelerations and emergency cesarean section). 45% of the versions were unsuccessful and 55% were successful. The percentage of successful vaginal delivery in versions was 84% (4% were instrumental) and 15% of caesarean sections. With respect to the variables studied, only significant differences in birth weight were found; suggesting that birth weight it is related to the outcome of external cephalic version. Probably we did not find significant differences due to the number of patients studied. For women with breech presentation, we recommend external cephalic version before the expectant management or performing a cesarean section. The external cephalic version increases the proportion of fetuses in cephalic presentation and also decreases the rate of caesarean sections.

  10. Covalently Bonded Polyaniline and para-phenylenediamine Functionalized Graphene Oxide: How the Conductive Two-dimensional Nanostructure Influences the Electrochromic Behaviors of Polyaniline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Shanxin; Li, Zhufeng; Gong, Ming; Wang, Xiaoqin; Fu, Jialun; Shi, Yujing; Wu, Bohua; Chu, Jia

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: Polyaniline (PANI) was attached onto the reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets through copolymerization of aniline with a para-phenylenediamine (PPD) functionalized graphene oxide (GO-PPD) using the poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) as the macromolecular dopant agent to produce a water-dispersible electrochromic material. The structures and the morphologies analysis confirm that the final electrochromic materials (rGO-PANI) are the mixture of PANI/PSS and the covalently bonded rGO-PANI (rGO-PANI hybrid). The rGO-PANI hybrid can be found to form a parallel arrangement to the substrate in the spin-coated film. This parallel arrangement of the layered two-dimensional nanostructure of rGO-PANI hybrid may narrow the ion transportation pathways of the exchanged ions, which will result in a high charge transfer resistance and slow switching speed. Meanwhile, with the conductive rGO added, the electrical conductivity of the electrochromic layer will be increased, which will benefit to low charge transfer resistance and high optical contrast. So the conductive two-dimensional nanostructure has a double-face influence on the electrochromic performances of PANI, which include a positive influence on the electrical conductivity and a negative influence on the ion diffusion. The overall influences depend on the loading amount of GO-PPD. With 4 wt.% GO-PPD feeding, the optical contrast was enhanced by 36% from 0.38 for PANI/PSS to 0.52 for rGO-PANI-3, while the coloration time was almost same as that of PANI/PSS and the bleaching time was decreased by ∼20% from 9.1s for PANI/PSS to 7.4s for rGO-PANI-3. The electrochemical tests showed that with the increasing of GO-PPD loading, the peak currents of cyclic voltammetry (CV) curves were increased, and the peak locations shifted to the positive potential for oxidation peak and the negative potential for reduction peak, respectively, which confirmed that the double-face influences of rGO-PANI on the

  11. Versioning Complex Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macduff, Matt C.; Lee, Benno; Beus, Sherman J.

    2014-06-29

    Using the history of ARM data files, we designed and demonstrated a data versioning paradigm that is feasible. Assigning versions to sets of files that are modified with some special assumptions and domain specific rules was effective in the case of ARM data, which has more than 5000 datastreams and 500TB of data.

  12. Low-cost, highly transparent flexible low-e coating film to enable electrochromic windows with increased energy savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berland, Brian [ITN Energy Systems, Inc., Littleton, CO (United States); Hollingsworth, Russell [ITN Energy Systems, Inc., Littleton, CO (United States)

    2015-03-31

    Five Quads of energy are lost through windows annually in the U.S. Low-e coatings are increasingly employed to reduce the wasted energy. Most commonly, the low-e coating is an oxide material applied directly to the glass at high temperature. With over 100,000,000 existing homes, a retrofit product is crucial to achieve widespread energy savings. Low-e films, i.e. coatings on polymeric substrates, are now also available to meet this need. However, the traditional oxide materials and process is incompatible with low temperature plastics. Alternate high performing low-e films typically incorporate materials that limit visible transmission to 35% or less. Further, the cost is high. The objective of this award was to develop a retrofit, integrated low-e/electrochromic window film to dramatically reduce energy lost through windows. While field testing of state-of-the-art electrochromic (EC) windows show the energy savings are maximized if a low-e coating is used in conjunction with the EC, available low-e films have a low visible transmission (~70% or less) that limits the achievable clear state and therefore, appearance and energy savings potential. Comprehensive energy savings models were completed at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL). A parametric approach was used to project energy usage for windows with a large range of low-e properties across all U.S. climate zones, without limiting the study to materials that had already been produced commercially or made in a lab. The model enables projection of energy savings for low-e films as well as integrated low-e/EC products. This project developed a novel low-e film, optimized for compatibility with EC windows, using low temperature, high deposition rate processes for the growth of low-e coatings on plastic films by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Silica films with good density and optical properties were demonstrated at deposition rates as high as 130Å/sec. A simple bi-layer low-e stack of

  13. Reversing the Trend of Large Scale and Centralization in Manufacturing: The Case of Distributed Manufacturing of Customizable 3-D-Printable Self-Adjustable Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jephias Gwamuri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the trend in manufacturing has been towards centralization to leverage economies of scale, the recent rapid technical development of open-source 3-D printers enables low-cost distributed bespoke production. This paper explores the potential advantages of a distributed manufacturing model of high-value products by investigating the application of 3-D printing to self-refraction eyeglasses. A series of parametric 3-D printable designs is developed, fabricated and tested to overcome limitations identified with mass-manufactured self-correcting eyeglasses designed for the developing world's poor. By utilizing 3-D printable self-adjustable glasses, communities not only gain access to far more diversity in product design, as the glasses can be customized for the individual, but 3-D printing also offers the potential for significant cost reductions. The results show that distributed manufacturing with open-source 3-D printing can empower developing world communities through the ability to print less expensive and customized self-adjusting eyeglasses. This offers the potential to displace both centrally manufactured conventional and self-adjusting glasses while completely eliminating the costs of the conventional optics correction experience, including those of highly-trained optometrists and ophthalmologists and their associated equipment. Although, this study only analyzed a single product, it is clear that other products would benefit from the same approach in isolated regions of the developing world.

  14. Roll-to-Roll sputtered ITO/Cu/ITO multilayer electrode for flexible, transparent thin film heaters and electrochromic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Hyun; Lee, Sang-Mok; Ko, Eun-Hye; Kim, Tae-Ho; Nah, Yoon-Chae; Lee, Sang-Jin; Lee, Jae Heung; Kim, Han-Ki

    2016-09-22

    We fabricate high-performance, flexible, transparent electrochromic (EC) films and thin film heaters (TFHs) on an ITO/Cu/ITO (ICI) multilayer electrode prepared by continuous roll-to-roll (RTR) sputtering of ITO and Cu targets. The RTR-sputtered ICI multilayer on a 700 mm wide PET substrate at room temperature exhibits a sheet resistance of 11.8 Ω/square and optical transmittance of 73.9%, which are acceptable for the fabrication of flexible and transparent EC films and TFHs. The effect of the Cu interlayer thickness on the electrical and optical properties of the ICI multilayer was investigated in detail. The bending and cycling fatigue tests demonstrate that the RTR-sputtered ICI multilayer was more flexible than a single ITO film because of high strain failure of the Cu interlayer. The flexible and transparent EC films and TFHs fabricated on the ICI electrode show better performances than reference EC films and TFHs with a single ITO electrode. Therefore, the RTR-sputtered ICI multilayer is the best substitute for the conventional ITO film electrode in order to realize flexible, transparent, cost-effective and large-area EC devices and TFHs that can be used as flexible and smart windows.

  15. Optimization of PEDOT films in ionic liquid supercapacitors: demonstration as a power source for polymer electrochromic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österholm, Anna M; Shen, D Eric; Dyer, Aubrey L; Reynolds, John R

    2013-12-26

    We report on the optimization of the capacitive behavior of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) films as polymeric electrodes in flexible, Type I electrochemical supercapacitors (ESCs) utilizing ionic liquid (IL) and organic gel electrolytes. The device performance was assessed based on figures of merit that are critical to evaluating the practical utility of electroactive polymer ESCs. PEDOT/IL devices were found to be highly stable over hundreds of thousands of cycles and could be reversibly charged/discharged at scan rates between 500 mV/s and 2 V/s depending on the polymer loading. Furthermore, these devices exhibit leakage currents and self-discharge rates that are comparable to state of the art electrochemical double-layer ESCs. Using an IL as device electrolyte allowed an extension of the voltage window of Type I ESCs by 60%, resulting in a 2.5-fold increase in the energy density obtained. The efficacies of tjese PEDOT ESCs were assessed by using them as a power source for a high-contrast and fast-switching electrochromic device, demonstrating their applicability in small organic electronic-based devices.

  16. Transparent Wood Smart Windows: Polymer Electrochromic Devices Based on Poly(3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene):Poly(Styrene Sulfonate) Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Augustus W; Li, Yuanyuan; De Keersmaecker, Michel; Shen, D Eric; Österholm, Anna M; Berglund, Lars; Reynolds, John R

    2018-03-09

    Transparent wood composites, with their high strength and toughness, thermal insulation, and excellent transmissivity, offer a route to replace glass for diffusely transmitting windows. Here, conjugated-polymer-based electrochromic devices (ECDs) that switch on-demand are demonstrated using transparent wood coated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as a transparent conducting electrode. These ECDs exhibit a vibrant magenta-to-clear color change that results from a remarkably colorless bleached state. Furthermore, they require low energy and power inputs of 3 mWh m -2 at 2 W m -2 to switch due to a high coloration efficiency (590 cm 2  C -1 ) and low driving voltage (0.8 V). Each device component is processed with high-throughput methods, which highlights the opportunity to apply this approach to fabricate mechanically robust, energy-efficient smart windows on a large scale. © 2018 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  17. Roll-to-Roll Production of Transparent Silver-Nanofiber-Network Electrodes for Flexible Electrochromic Smart Windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sen; Bai, Xiaopeng; Wang, Haiyang; Wang, Haolun; Song, Jianan; Huang, Kai; Wang, Chang; Wang, Ning; Li, Bo; Lei, Ming; Wu, Hui

    2017-11-01

    Electrochromic smart windows (ECSWs) are considered as the most promising alternative to traditional dimming devices. However, the electrode technology in ECSWs remains stagnant, wherein inflexible indium tin oxide and fluorine-doped tin oxide are the main materials being used. Although various complicated production methods, such as high-temperature calcination and sputtering, have been reported, the mass production of flexible and transparent electrodes remains challenging. Here, a nonheated roll-to-roll process is developed for the continuous production of flexible, extralarge, and transparent silver nanofiber (AgNF) network electrodes. The optical and mechanical properties, as well as the electrical conductivity of these products (i.e., 12 Ω sq -1 at 95% transmittance) are comparable with those AgNF networks produced via high-temperature sintering. Moreover, the as-prepared AgNF network is successfully assembled into an A4-sized ECSW with short switching time, good coloration efficiency, and flexibility. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Pairing of near-ultraviolet solar cells with electrochromic windows for smart management of the solar spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, Nicholas C.; Sezen-Edmonds, Melda; Gao, Jia; Lin, Xin; Liu, Amy; Yao, Nan; Kahn, Antoine; Loo, Yueh-Lin

    2017-08-01

    Current smart window technologies offer dynamic control of the optical transmission of the visible and near-infrared portions of the solar spectrum to reduce lighting, heating and cooling needs in buildings and to improve occupant comfort. Solar cells harvesting near-ultraviolet photons could satisfy the unmet need of powering such smart windows over the same spatial footprint without competing for visible or infrared photons, and without the same aesthetic and design constraints. Here, we report organic single-junction solar cells that selectively harvest near-ultraviolet photons, produce open-circuit voltages eclipsing 1.6 V and exhibit scalability in power generation, with active layers (10 cm2) substantially larger than those typical of demonstration organic solar cells (0.04-0.2 cm2). Integration of these solar cells with a low-cost, polymer-based electrochromic window enables intelligent management of the solar spectrum, with near-ultraviolet photons powering the regulation of visible and near-infrared photons for natural lighting and heating purposes.

  19. The effect of water on the electrochromic properties of WO{sub 3} films prepared by vacuum and chemical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leftheriotis, G.; Papaefthimiou, S.; Yianoulis, P. [Department of Physics, University of Patras, Patras 26500 (Greece)

    2004-06-01

    We present a comparative study on the effect of absorbed water on the properties of tungsten oxide films prepared by two different methods (e-gun evaporation, and an aqueous sol-gel technique). Scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and electrochemical techniques have been used to assess the film properties. It has been found that the preparation method of the films greatly affects their water content and thus, electron gun evaporated films have less water incorporated into their structure than their sol-gel counterparts. The former are closely packed and transparent with most of their water content adsorbed on their surface, while the latter have a porous structure, being opaque, highly hydroxylated and hydrated to a lesser extent. Both types of films exhibit reversible electrochromism, with the evaporated films being stable up to 5000 coloration-bleaching cycles and the sol-gel ones gradually degrading after 1000 cycles. Irreversible Li{sup +} trapping related to the presence of water and hydroxyl radicals has been envisaged as the cause of the inferior cycling stability of the sol-gel films.

  20. Photochromic and electrochromic performances of new types of donor/acceptor systems based on crosslinked polyviologen film and electron donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Liping; Ding Guojing; Li Chaolong; Wang Yuechuan

    2011-01-01

    Viologen-functionalized copolymer COPV 2+ was synthesized by copolymer graft-modified, which was crosslinked by NH 3 .H 2 O gas-fumigated at 25 deg. C for 4 h due to the condensation of the siloxanes of COPV 2+ film. Simultaneously, different donor/acceptor systems had been prepared based on crosslinked polyviologen film (COPV 2+ ) and N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-1,4-phenylenediamine (TMPD) or hydroxyethylferrocene (HEFc) in order to shorten the response times and improve contrast ratios in response to external photo- and potential stimuli. The evolution of structures from COPO to COPV 2+ is carefully characterized. The COPV 2+ /TMPD and COPV 2+ /HEFc films exhibited both photochromic and electrochromic performances. After UV irradiations, COPV 2+ /TMPD and COPV 2+ /HEFc films changed their colors from colorless to deep blue, while optical transmissions at 610 nm decreased about 64% and 75%, respectively. When removing out from UV irradiation, the colored COPV 2+ /TMPD and COPV 2+ /HEFc films faded to the original colors within about 60 min. When COPV 2+ /TMPD and COPV 2+ /HEFc films were biased with negative voltage of -2.5 V, they changed their colors from colorless to deep blue in 4 s and 3 s, while the optical transmissions at 556 nm decreased about 81% and 75%, respectively. When electric impulse was switched off, the colored COPV 2+ /TMPD and COPV 2+ /HEFc films faded to the original colors within about 7 s and 6 s, respectively.

  1. Statistical mixture design and multivariate analysis of inkjet printed a-WO3/TiO2/WOX electrochromic films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, Pawel Jerzy; Pereira, Luís; Martins, Rodrigo; Fortunato, Elvira

    2014-01-13

    An efficient mathematical strategy in the field of solution processed electrochromic (EC) films is outlined as a combination of an experimental work, modeling, and information extraction from massive computational data via statistical software. Design of Experiment (DOE) was used for statistical multivariate analysis and prediction of mixtures through a multiple regression model, as well as the optimization of a five-component sol-gel precursor subjected to complex constraints. This approach significantly reduces the number of experiments to be realized, from 162 in the full factorial (L=3) and 72 in the extreme vertices (D=2) approach down to only 30 runs, while still maintaining a high accuracy of the analysis. By carrying out a finite number of experiments, the empirical modeling in this study shows reasonably good prediction ability in terms of the overall EC performance. An optimized ink formulation was employed in a prototype of a passive EC matrix fabricated in order to test and trial this optically active material system together with a solid-state electrolyte for the prospective application in EC displays. Coupling of DOE with chromogenic material formulation shows the potential to maximize the capabilities of these systems and ensures increased productivity in many potential solution-processed electrochemical applications.

  2. A Resettable Keypad Lock with Visible Readout Based on Closed Bipolar Electrochemistry and Electrochromic Poly(3-methylthiophene) Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Lian, Wenjing; Liu, Hongyun

    2016-03-24

    A closed bipolar electrode (BPE) system was developed with electrochromic poly(3-methylthiophene) (PMT) films electropolymerized on the ITO/rGO electrode as one pole of BPE in the reporting reservoir and the bare ITO electrode as another pole of BPE in the analyte reservoir, in which rGO represents reduced graphene oxide. Under a suitable driving voltage (Vtot), the electrochemical reduction/oxidation of electroactive probes, such as H2O2/glutathione (Glu), in the analyte reservoir could induce the reversible color change of PMT films in the reporting reservoir between blue and red. Based on this, a keypad lock with H2O2 , Glu, and Vtot =-3.0 V as the three inputs and the color change of PMT films as the visible output was established. This system was easily operated and did not need to synthesize the complex compounds or DNA molecules. The security system was easy to reset and could be used repeatedly. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Version pressure feedback mechanisms for speculative versioning caches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberger, Alexandre E.; Gara, Alan; O& #x27; Brien, Kathryn M.; Ohmacht, Martin; Zhuang, Xiaotong

    2013-03-12

    Mechanisms are provided for controlling version pressure on a speculative versioning cache. Raw version pressure data is collected based on one or more threads accessing cache lines of the speculative versioning cache. One or more statistical measures of version pressure are generated based on the collected raw version pressure data. A determination is made as to whether one or more modifications to an operation of a data processing system are to be performed based on the one or more statistical measures of version pressure, the one or more modifications affecting version pressure exerted on the speculative versioning cache. An operation of the data processing system is modified based on the one or more determined modifications, in response to a determination that one or more modifications to the operation of the data processing system are to be performed, to affect the version pressure exerted on the speculative versioning cache.

  4. Self-Stacked Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanosheets Coated with Cobalt-Nickel Hydroxide by One-Step Electrochemical Deposition toward Flexible Electrochromic Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Fabian; Yu, Zi-You; Wang, Jin-Long; Yu, Shu-Hong; Lei, Yong

    2015-09-01

    The implementation of an optical function into supercapacitors is an innovative approach to make energy storage devices smarter and to meet the requirements of smart electronics. Here, it is reported for the first time that nickel-cobalt hydroxide on reduced graphene oxide can be utilized for flexible electrochromic supercapacitors. A new and straightforward one-step electrochemical deposition process is introduced that is capable of simultaneously reducing GO and depositing amorphous Co(1-x)Ni(x)(OH)2 on the rGO. It is shown that the rGO nanosheets are homogeneously coated with metal hydroxide and are vertically stacked. No high temperature processes are used so that flexible polymer-based substrates can be coated. The synthesized self-stacked rGO-Co(1-x)Ni(x)(OH)2 nanosheet material exhibits pseudocapacitive charge storage behavior with excellent rate capability, high Columbic efficiency, and nondiffusion limited behavior. It is shown that the electrochemical behavior of the Ni(OH)2 can be modulated, by simultaneously depositing nickel and cobalt hydroxide, into broad oxidization and reduction bands. Further, the material exhibits electrochromic property and can switch between a bleached and transparent state. Literature comparison reveals that the performance characteristics of the rGO-Co(1-x)Ni(x)(OH)2 nanosheet material, in terms of gravimetric capacitance, areal capacitance, and long-term cycling stability, are among the highest reported values of supercapacitors with electrochromic property. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Electrochemistry of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-polyaniline/ Prussian blue electrochromic devices containing an ionic liquid based gel electrolyte film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepa, Melepurath; Awadhia, Arvind; Bhandari, Shweta

    2009-07-21

    Electrochromic devices based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) as the cathodic coloring electrode and polyaniline (PANI) or Prussian blue (PB) as the counter electrode containing a highly conductive, self-supporting, distensible and transparent polymer-gel electrolyte film encapsulating an ionic liquid, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidiniumbis-(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, have been fabricated. Polarization, charge transfer and diffusion processes control the electrochemistry of the functional electrodes during coloration and bleaching and these phenomena differ when PEDOT and PANI/PB were employed alternately as working electrodes. While the electrochemical impedance response shows good similitude for PEDOT and PANI electrodes, the responses of PEDOT and PB were significantly different in the PEDOT-PB device, especially during reduction of PB, wherein the overall amplitude of the impedance response is enormous. Large values of the coloration efficiency maxima of 281 cm2 C(-1) (lambda = 583 nm) and 274 cm2 C(-1) (lambda = 602 nm), achieved at -1.0 and -1.5 V for the PEDOT PANI and PEDOT-PB devices have been correlated to the particularly low magnitude of charge transfer resistance and high polarization capacitance operative at the PEDOT ionic liquid based electrolyte interface at these dc potentials, thus allowing facile ion-transport and consequently resulting in enhanced absorption modulation. Moderately fast switching kinetics and the ability of these devices to sustain about 2500 cycles of clear-to-dark and dark-to-clear without incurring major losses in the optical contrast, along with the ease of construction of these cells in terms of high scalability and reproducibility of the synthetic procedure for fabrication of the electrochromic films and the ionic liquid based gel electrolyte film, are indicators of the promise these devices hold for practical applications like electrochromic windows and displays.

  6. One-step inkjet printing of tungsten oxide-poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulphonate hybrid film and its applications in electrochromic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Thi-Thuy-Nga, E-mail: thuysnga@gmail.com; Chan, Chih-Yu; He, Ju-Liang

    2016-03-31

    Hybrid film comprised tungsten oxide and poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulphonate (WO{sub 3}–PEDOT:PSS) was developed by applying one-step inkjet printing from an office inkjet printer. The WO{sub 3} nanoparticles were synthesized from commercial crystalline WO{sub 3} powder through a wet ball-milling process, which is a simple, environmentally friendly, and cost-effective method of using water as a green solvent and low-energy milling. The WO{sub 3}–PEDOT:PSS inkjet ink was prepared by dispersing the as-milled WO{sub 3} and PEDOT:PSS in n-propanol and deionized water. The inkjet-printed WO{sub 3}–PEDOT:PSS thin films show marked improvements of cathodic electrochromism over WO{sub 3} films: the transmittance change of 20% at 550 nm (visible region) and 35% at 900 nm (infrared region) along with the response time of 5.67/0.30 s in their colored/bleached state, and the electrochromic coloration efficiency of 27.86 cm{sup 2}/C at 550 nm and 69.64 cm{sup 2}/C at 900 nm. - Highlights: • WO{sub 3} nanoparticles were synthesized by milling commercial crystalline WO{sub 3}. • Wet ball-milling was carried out by using water as a green solvent and low energy. • WO{sub 3}–PEDOT:PSS hybrid ink was simply prepared by adding n-propanol and DI water. • WO{sub 3}–PEDOT:PSS hybrid films were inkjet-printed via an office inkjet printer. • WO{sub 3}–PEDOT:PSS films show better electrochromic performances than WO{sub 3} films.

  7. Novel poly(triphenylamine-alt-fluorene) with asymmetric hexaphenylbenzene and pyrene moieties: synthesis, fluorescence, flexible near-infrared electrochromic devices and theoretical investigation

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Po-I.

    2016-01-13

    © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016. In this study, a new triphenylamine-alt-fluorene conjugated copolymer, HPBPYFL6, with hexaphenylbenzene (HPB) and pyrene as asymmetrical pendant groups was synthesized via Suzuki coupling polymerization. The conjugated polymer had a weight-average molecular weight of 5.8 × 104 g mol-1 with a polydispersity index of 2.5 characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). HPBPYFL6 showed good solubility in common organic solvents such as NMP, THF, toluene and dichloromethane at 25°C. In addition, HPBPYFL6 possessed a high glass transition temperature of 260°C and a 10% weight-loss temperature of 503°C in nitrogen. HPBPYFL6 bearing a pyrene moiety had a solvatochromic fluorescence shift from a green to an orange emission as the polarity of the solvent increased. Cyclic voltammetry of HPBPYFL6 films cast onto indium-tin oxide-coated glass (ITO-glass) exhibited two oxidation redox couples at an E1/2 value of 0.82 and 1.17 V versus Ag/Ag+ in an acetonitrile solution. The HPBPYFL6 film on graphene-coated PET had an E1/2 value of 0.24 and 1.12 V. Conjugated polymer films exhibited reversible electrochromic behaviour with a colour change from pale yellow to deep blue upon electrochemical oxidation and high absorbance in the near-infrared (NIR) region. The switching and bleaching times were 5.16 s and 3.12 s for 1231 nm and were 3.30 s and 3.74 s for 1030 nm of HPBPYFL6 on ITO-glass. The strong NIR electrochromic absorbance of HPBPYFL6 was attributed to intervalence charge transfer by the incorporation of the HPB moiety. This phenomenon was confirmed by chemical oxidation as the oxidant contents increased in the solution state. Furthermore, the electrochromic mechanism was interpreted by DFT calculation and the simulated NIR electrochromic spectra of model compound HPBPYFL are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  8. Determining Optimal Decision Version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Ioana Amariei

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we start from the calculation of the product cost, applying the method of calculating the cost of hour- machine (THM, on each of the three cutting machines, namely: the cutting machine with plasma, the combined cutting machine (plasma and water jet and the cutting machine with a water jet. Following the calculation of cost and taking into account the precision of manufacturing of each machine, as well as the quality of the processed surface, the optimal decisional version needs to be determined regarding the product manufacturing. To determine the optimal decisional version, we resort firstly to calculating the optimal version on each criterion, and then overall using multiattribute decision methods.

  9. Version 2 of RSXMULTI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinicke, P.; Berg, D.; Constanta-Fanourakis, P.; Quigg, E.K.

    1985-01-01

    MULTI is a general purpose, high speed, high energy physics interface to data acquisition and data investigation system that runs on PDP-11 and VAX architecture. This paper describes the latest version of MULTI, which runs under RSX-11M version 4.1 and supports a modular approach to the separate tasks that interface to it, allowing the same system to be used in single CPU test beam experiments as well as multiple interconnected CPU, large scale experiments. MULTI uses CAMAC (IEE-583) for control and monitoring of an experiment, and is written in FORTRAN-77 and assembler. The design of this version, which simplified the interface between tasks, and eliminated the need for a hard to maintain homegrown I/O system is also discussed

  10. Versioning of printed products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuijn, Chris

    2005-01-01

    During the definition of a printed product in an MIS system, a lot of attention is paid to the production process. The MIS systems typically gather all process-related parameters at such a level of detail that they can determine what the exact cost will be to make a specific product. This information can then be used to make a quote for the customer. Considerably less attention is paid to the content of the products since this does not have an immediate impact on the production costs (assuming that the number of inks or plates is known in advance). The content management is typically carried out either by the prepress systems themselves or by dedicated workflow servers uniting all people that contribute to the manufacturing of a printed product. Special care must be taken when considering versioned products. With versioned products we here mean distinct products that have a number of pages or page layers in common. Typical examples are comic books that have to be printed in different languages. In this case, the color plates can be shared over the different versions and the black plate will be different. Other examples are nation-wide magazines or newspapers that have an area with regional pages or advertising leaflets in different languages or currencies. When considering versioned products, the content will become an important cost factor. First of all, the content management (and associated proofing and approval cycles) becomes much more complex and, therefore, the risk that mistakes will be made increases considerably. Secondly, the real production costs are very much content-dependent because the content will determine whether plates can be shared across different versions or not and how many press runs will be needed. In this paper, we will present a way to manage different versions of a printed product. First, we will introduce a data model for version management. Next, we will show how the content of the different versions can be supplied by the customer

  11. COSY INFINITY Version 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, Kyoko; Berz, Martin

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we review the features in the newly released version of COSY INFINITY, which currently has a base of more than 1000 registered users, focusing on the topics which are new and some topics which became available after the first release of the previous versions 8 and 8.1. The recent main enhancements of the code are devoted to reliability and efficiency of the computation, to verified integration, and to rigorous global optimization. There are various data types available in COSY INFINITY to support these goals, and the paper also reviews the feature and usage of those data types

  12. A Low-Cost Open Source 3D-Printable Dexterous Anthropomorphic Robotic Hand with a Parallel Spherical Joint Wrist for Sign Languages Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bulgarelli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel open-source 3D-printable dexterous anthropomorphic robotic hand specifically designed to reproduce Sign Languages’ hand poses for deaf and deaf-blind users. We improved the InMoov hand, enhancing dexterity by adding abduction/adduction degrees of freedom of three fingers (thumb, index and middle fingers and a three-degrees-of-freedom parallel spherical joint wrist. A systematic kinematic analysis is provided. The proposed robotic hand is validated in the framework of the PARLOMA project. PARLOMA aims at developing a telecommunication system for deaf-blind people, enabling remote transmission of signs from tactile Sign Languages. Both hardware and software are provided online to promote further improvements from the community.

  13. Printable Transfer-Free and Wafer-Size MoS2/Graphene van der Waals Heterostructures for High-Performance Photodetection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingfeng; Cook, Brent; Gong, Maogang; Gong, Youpin; Ewing, Dan; Casper, Matthew; Stramel, Alex; Wu, Judy

    2017-04-12

    Two-dimensional (2D) MoS 2 /graphene van der Waals heterostructures integrate the superior light-solid interaction in MoS 2 and charge mobility in graphene for high-performance optoelectronic devices. Key to the device performance lies in a clean MoS 2 /graphene interface to facilitate efficient transfer of photogenerated charges. Here, we report a printable and transfer-free process for fabrication of wafer-size MoS 2 /graphene van der Waals heterostructures obtained using a metal-free-grown graphene, followed by low-temperature growth of MoS 2 from the printed thin film of ammonium thiomolybdate on graphene. The photodetectors based on the transfer-free MoS 2 /graphene heterostructures exhibit extraordinary short photoresponse rise/decay times of 20/30 ms, which are significantly faster than those of the previously reported MoS 2 /transferred-graphene photodetectors (0.28-1.5 s). In addition, a high photoresponsivity of up to 835 mA/W was observed in the visible spectrum on such transfer-free MoS 2 /graphene heterostructures, which is much higher than that of the reported photodetectors based on the exfoliated layered MoS 2 (0.42 mA/W), the graphene (6.1 mA/W), and transfer-free MoS 2 /graphene/SiC heterostructures (∼40 mA/W). The enhanced performance is attributed to the clean interface on the transfer-free MoS 2 /graphene heterostructures. This printable and transfer-free process paves the way for large-scale commercial applications of the emerging 2D heterostructures in optoelectronics and sensors.

  14. Tailoring nanostructure and bioactivity of 3D printable hydrogels with self-assemble Peptides Amphiphile (PA) for promoting bile duct formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ming; Lewis, Phillip L; Shah, Ramille N

    2018-05-31

    3D-printing has expanded our ability to produce reproducible and more complex scaffold architectures for tissue engineering applications. In order to enhance the biological response within these 3D printed scaffolds incorporating nanostructural features and/or specific biological signaling may be an effective means to optimize tissue regeneration. Peptides Amphiphiles (PAs) are a versatile supramolecular biomaterial with tailorable nanostructural and biochemical features. PAs are widely used in tissue engineering applications such as angiogenesis, neurogenesis, and bone regeneration. Thus, the addition of PAs is a potential solution that can greatly expand the utility of 3D bio-printing hydrogels in the field of regenerative medicine. In this paper, we firstly developed a 3D printable thiolated-gelatin bioink supplemented with PAs to tailor the bioactivity and nanostructure which allows for the incorporation of cells. The bioink can be printed at 4 °C and stabilized to last a long time (>1 month) in culture at 37 °C by via a dual secondary cross-linking strategy using calcium ions and homobifunctional maleiminde-poly (ethylene glycol). Rheological properties of inks were characterized and were suitable for printing multi-layered structures. We additionally demonstrated enhanced functionality of ink formulations by utilizing a laminin-mimetic IKVAV-based PA system within a 3D-printable ink containing cholangiocytes. Viability and functional staining showed that the IKVAV PA nanofibers stimulated cholangioctyes to form functional tubular structures, which was not observed in other ink formulations. . © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  15. An investigation of the insertion of the cations H{sup +}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +} on the electrochromic properties of the thermally evaporated WO{sub 3} thin films grown at different substrate temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, K.J. [Applied Physics Department, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, M.S. University of Baroda, Kalabhavan, Vadodara 390001, Gujarat (India); Panchal, C.J., E-mail: cjpanchal_msu@yahoo.com [Applied Physics Department, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, M.S. University of Baroda, Kalabhavan, Vadodara 390001, Gujarat (India); Desai, M.S. [Applied Physics Department, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, M.S. University of Baroda, Kalabhavan, Vadodara 390001, Gujarat (India); Mehta, P.K. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara 390002, Gujarat (India)

    2010-11-01

    The phenomenon of electrochromism in tungsten trioxide (WO{sub 3}) thin films has recently attained considerable interest due to their enormous applications in inorganic thin film electrochromic devices. We have investigated the compositional, optical, and electrochromic properties of the WO{sub 3} thin films grown at different substrate temperatures by the thermal evaporation of WO{sub 3} powder. The thin films were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photo-emission spectroscopy (XPS), and electrochemical techniques. The XPS analysis suggested that the oxygen to tungsten (O/W) ratio decreases, i.e., the oxygen deficiency increases, on increasing the substrate temperature up to 500 deg. C. The electrochemical analysis provided a comparative study of the coloration efficiency (CE) of the WO{sub 3} thin films intercalated with three different ions viz. H{sup +}, Na{sup +}, and K{sup +}. The effect of the variation of the substrate temperature on the CE and the switching time have also been investigated for the WO{sub 3} thin films intercalated with H{sup +} ions; the thin films deposited at RT and intercalated with H{sup +} ions are found to possess adequate electrochromic properties viz. CE and switching time from device point of view.

  16. Electrochromic Type E-Paper Using Poly(1H-Thieno[3,4-d]Imidazol-2(3H-One Derivatives by a Novel Printing Fabrication Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirihiro Nakano

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we report poly(1H-thieno[3,4-d]imidazol-2(3H-one (pTIO derivatives for an electrochromic (EC type e-paper and its novel printing fabrication process. pTIO is a kind of conductive polymer (CP s which are known as one of the EC materials. The electrochromism of pTIO is unique, because its color in doped state is almost transparent (pale gray. A transparent state is required to show a white color in a see-through view of an EC type e-paper. An electrochromism of CP has a good memory effect which is applicable for e-paper. The corresponding monomers of CP are able to be polymerized with an electrochemical method, which be made good use of for the fabrication process of e-paper. pTIO derivatives are copolymerized with other pi-conjugated X unit, which adjusts the color of electrochromism. Finally, we fabricated a segment matrix EC display using pTIO derivatives by ink-jet printing.

  17. Efficient synthesis of tungsten oxide hydrate-based nanocomposites for applications in bifunctional electrochromic-energy storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xueting; Hu, Ruirui; Sun, Shibin; Lu, Tong; Liu, Tao; Lei, Yanhua; Dong, Lihua; Yin, Yansheng; Zhu, Yanqiu

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we realized the large-scale synthesis of WO3 · H2O nanoflakes (NFs), g-C3N4/WO3 · H2O nanocomposite (NC) and graphene (G)/WO3 · H2O NC via a sonochemical process with tungsten salt as the precursor, g-C3N4 or G sheets as the supports, and distilled water as the solvent. Both the g-C3N4/WO3 · H2O NC and G/WO3 · H2O NC exhibited much better electrochromic (EC) performance (higher coloration efficiencies and faster response times) than that of the WO3 · H2O NFs. Using the WO3 · H2O-based materials as electrode materials, EC batteries that integrate the energy storage and EC functions in one device have been assembled. The energy status of the EC batteries could be visually indicated by the reversible color variations. Compared with the plain WO3 · H2O-based EC batteries, the NC-based EC batteries possessed a lower color contrast between the charged and discharged conditions but much longer discharge durations. The EC batteries could be quickly charged in a few seconds by adding H2O2, and the charged batteries exhibited significantly-enhanced discharging durations in comparison with the initial ones. The g-C3N4/WO3 · H2O NC-EC batteries charged by a small amount of H2O2 could produce a long discharging duration up to 760 min.

  18. Applications of Tris(4-(thiophen-2-ylphenylamine- and Dithienylpyrrole-based Conjugated Copolymers in High-Contrast Electrochromic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzi-Yi Wu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tris(4-(thiophen-2-ylphenylamine- and dithienylpyrrole-based copolymers (P(TTPA-co-DIT and P(TTPA-co-BDTA were electropolymerized on ITO electrode by applying constant potentials of 1.0, 1.1, and 1.2 V. Spectroelectrochemical investigations revealed that P(TTPA-co-DIT film displayed more color changes than P(TTPA-co-BDTA film. The P(TTPA-co-DIT film is yellow in the neutral state, yellowish-green and green in the intermediate state, and blue (1.2 V in highly oxidized state. The ∆Tmax of the P(TTPA-co-DIT and P(TTPA-co-BDTA films were measured as 60.3% at 1042 nm and 47.1% at 1096 nm, respectively, and the maximum coloration efficiency (η of P(TTPA-co-DIT and P(TTPA-co-BDTA films were calculated to be 181.9 cm2·C−1 at 1042 nm and 217.8 cm2·C−1 at 1096 nm, respectively, in an ionic liquid solution. Dual type electrochromic devices (ECDs consisting of P(TTPA-co-DIT (or P(TTPA-co-BDTA anodic copolymer, ionic liquid-based electrolyte, and poly(3,4-(2,2-diethylpropylenedioxythiophene (PProDOT-Et2 cathodic polymer were constructed. P(TTPA-co-BDTA/PProDOT-Et2 ECD showed high ΔTmax (48.1% and high coloration efficiency (649.4 cm2·C−1 at 588 nm. Moreover, P(TTPA-co-DIT/PProDOT-Et2 and P(TTPA-co-BDTA/PProDOT-Et2 ECDs displayed satisfactory optical memory and long term switching stability.

  19. Electrochromic nickel oxide films and their compatibility with potassium hydroxide and lithium perchlorate in propylene carbonate: Optical, electrochemical and stress-related properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Rui-Tao, E-mail: Ruitao.Wen@angstrom.uu.se; Niklasson, Gunnar A.; Granqvist, Claes G.

    2014-08-28

    Porous nickel oxide films were deposited onto unheated indium tin oxide coated glass substrates by reactive dc magnetron sputtering. These films had a cubic NiO structure. Electrochromic properties were evaluated in 1 M potassium hydroxide (KOH) and in 1 M lithium perchlorate in propylene carbonate (Li–PC). Large optical modulation was obtained for ∼ 500-nm-thick films both in KOH and in Li–PC (∼ 70% and ∼ 50% at 550 nm, respectively). In KOH, tensile and compressive stresses, due to the expansion and contraction of the lattice, were found for films in their bleached and colored state, respectively. In Li–PC, compressive stress was seen both in colored and bleached films. Durability tests with voltage sweeps between − 0.5 and 0.65 V vs Ag/AgCl in KOH showed good durability for 10,000 cycles, whereas voltage sweeps between 2.0 and 4.7 V vs Li/Li{sup +} in Li–PC yielded significant degradation after 1000 cycles. - Highlights: • Ni oxide films were studied in KOH and in LiClO{sub 4} + propylene carbonate (Li–PC). • Good electrochromism was found in both electrolytes. • In KOH, tensile/compressive stresses were seen in bleached/colored films. • In Li–PC, compressive stress was seen both in colored and bleached films.

  20. A poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonic acid)/titanium oxide nanocomposite film synthesized by sol–gel assisted electropolymerization for electrochromic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Jinlin; Song, Hua; Li, Suning; Wang, Lin; Han, Lu; Ling, Han; Lu, Xuehong

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we report the facile synthesis of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonic acid)/titanium dioxide (PEDOT:PSS/TiO 2 ) nanocomposite film by sol–gel assisted electropolymerization. The structure, morphology and composition of the films were investigated by different techniques, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscope and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The PEDOT:PSS/TiO 2 nanocomposite film was applied for electrochromic application. The results indicate that the PEDOT:PSS/TiO 2 nanocomposite film exhibits a higher optical contrast and a much better stability as compared to PEDOT:PSS film. The significant performance enhancement can be attributed to the nanoscale particle size and uniform size distribution of PEDOT:PSS/TiO 2 and the synergistic effect between the inorganic nano-TiO 2 and organic PEDOT:PSS material. - Highlights: • Facile synthesis of PEDOT:PSS/TiO 2 nanocomposite film by electropolymerization • PEDOT:PSS/TiO 2 film shows nano-scaled particle sizes and uniform size distribution. • PEDOT:PSS/TiO 2 film shows higher optical contrasts and faster switching speed. • PEDOT:PSS/TiO 2 film displays a good stability for electrochromic application

  1. Improvement of the electrochromic response of a low-temperature sintered dye-modified porous electrode using low-resistivity indium tin oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yuichi; Suemori, Kouji; Hoshino, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    An indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticle-based porous electrode sintered at low temperatures was investigated as a transparent electrode for electrochromic displays (ECDs). The electrochromic (EC) response of the dye-modified ITO porous electrode sintered at 150 °C, which exhibited a generally low resistivity, was markedly superior to that of a conventional dye-modified TiO 2 porous electrode sintered at the same temperature. Moreover, the EC characteristics of the dye-modified ITO porous electrode sintered at 150 °C were better than those of the high-temperature (450 °C) sintered conventional dye-modified TiO 2 porous electrode. These improvements in the EC characteristics of the dye-modified ITO porous electrode are attributed to its lower resistivity than that of the TiO 2 porous electrodes. In addition to its sufficiently low resistivity attained under the sintering conditions required for flexible ECD applications, the ITO porous film had superior visible-light transparency and dye adsorption capabilities. We conclude that the process temperature, resistivity, optical transmittance, and dye adsorption capability of the ITO porous electrode make it a promising transparent porous electrode for flexible ECD applications.

  2. Thickness dependence of electro-optical properties of WO{sub 3} films as an electrochromic functional material for energy-efficient applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esmail, Ayat; Hashem, Hany; Soltan, Soltan; Hammam, Mahmoud; Ramadan, Ahmed [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Helwan University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2017-01-15

    WO{sub 3} films of different thicknesses (100, 200, and 300 nm) were prepared by two vacuum physical vapor deposition (PVD) methods (thermal evaporation and an electron gun). Electrophysical measurements (cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry) were carried out using a potentiostat in an electrochromic cell (liquid device) that consists of a substrate coated with double layers of F: SnO{sub 2} and WO{sub 3} served as working electrodes. X-ray diffraction showed an amorphous structure for all the deposited WO{sub 3} thin films. While the transmission in the bleached state does not change and it is close to the as-deposited state, it is slightly less at larger thickness. The cyclic voltammogram was more open (more current flow) for thicker films due to the less dense structure with many channels. Also, the coloration efficiency was higher at low thickness. The response time was of the order of seconds and decreased for coloration, while it increased for the bleaching process as the film thickness increases. According to the proposed figure of merit, the electrochromic performance deteriorates as the WO{sub 3} film thickness decreases. However, the thickness is more effective in the case of an electron gun. Generally, continuous films but thinner than 200 nm, are recommended for deposition methods. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Electrochromic nickel oxide films and their compatibility with potassium hydroxide and lithium perchlorate in propylene carbonate: Optical, electrochemical and stress-related properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Rui-Tao; Niklasson, Gunnar A.; Granqvist, Claes G.

    2014-01-01

    Porous nickel oxide films were deposited onto unheated indium tin oxide coated glass substrates by reactive dc magnetron sputtering. These films had a cubic NiO structure. Electrochromic properties were evaluated in 1 M potassium hydroxide (KOH) and in 1 M lithium perchlorate in propylene carbonate (Li–PC). Large optical modulation was obtained for ∼ 500-nm-thick films both in KOH and in Li–PC (∼ 70% and ∼ 50% at 550 nm, respectively). In KOH, tensile and compressive stresses, due to the expansion and contraction of the lattice, were found for films in their bleached and colored state, respectively. In Li–PC, compressive stress was seen both in colored and bleached films. Durability tests with voltage sweeps between − 0.5 and 0.65 V vs Ag/AgCl in KOH showed good durability for 10,000 cycles, whereas voltage sweeps between 2.0 and 4.7 V vs Li/Li + in Li–PC yielded significant degradation after 1000 cycles. - Highlights: • Ni oxide films were studied in KOH and in LiClO 4 + propylene carbonate (Li–PC). • Good electrochromism was found in both electrolytes. • In KOH, tensile/compressive stresses were seen in bleached/colored films. • In Li–PC, compressive stress was seen both in colored and bleached films

  4. High-performance electrochromic device based on nanocellulose/polyaniline and nanocellulose/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) composite thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sihang; Fu, Runfang; Du, Zoufei; Jiang, Mengjin; Zhou, Mi; Gu, Yingchun; Chen, Sheng

    2017-07-01

    With the development of nanotechnology, nanocomposite materials based on renewable resources are the focus of this research. Nanocellulose was prepared using sulfuric acid to swell cotton pulp, following with extensive ultrasonication. Nanocellulose/polyaniline (NC/PANI) and nanocellulose/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (NC/PEDOT) nanocomposites with core/shell structure were manufactured by in situ polymerization. The film-forming properties and electrochromic properties of PANI and PEDOT were significantly improved using the nanocellulose as matrix. NC/PANI and NC/PEDOT composite films were studied in single and dual electrochromic devices (ECDs). A viscous gel electrolyte (GE) was used in ECDs. The architectural design of single and dual device was ITO/NC-PANI/GE/ITO or ITO/NC-PEDOT/GE/ITO and ITO/NC-PANI/GE/NC-PEDOT/ITO, respectively. The dual ECD based on NC/PANI and NC/PEDOT composite films exhibited a higher color contrast (30.3%), shortest response time (1.5 s for bleaching and 1.9 s for coloring), largest coloration efficiency (241.6 C/cm2), and best cycling stability (over 150 cycles) compared with the single devices.

  5. Preparations and characterizations of tunable and multicolored electrochromic copolymers derived from a novel star-shaped monomer and BEDOT-V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Kai; Yang, Wenge; Hu, Yonghong; Kai, Yumei; Shi, Ying

    2014-01-01

    A novel star-shaped monomer 1,3,5-Tri[2-(3,4-ethylenedioxythien-2-yl)vin-1-yl]benzene (TEDOT-V-B) was synthesized by Wittig coupling reaction. The copolymers with BEDOT-V at different feed ratios were prepared onto the ITO-coated glass by cyclic voltammetry (CV) method and the electrochromic properties were reported. The influences of different feed ratios on the spectroelectrochemical and kinetic properties were investigated. Spectroelectrochemical studies indicated that the maximum absorption wavelengths of the copolymer films bathochromically shifted with feed ratios. In addition, the copolymers had tunable and low band gaps. When the feed ratio of BEDOT-V-B/BEDOT-V was 1:3, the copolymer film showed the fastest oxidation switching time of 0.9s (567 nm) and 0.9s (967 nm) and the fastest reduction switching time of 0.8s (567 nm) and 0.9s (967 nm). Compared with PBEDOT-V, the copolymers showed tunable and multicolored electrochromism through feed ratios and the RGB colors were achieved. Additionally, the surface morphology of the copolymer film was investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM)

  6. A poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonic acid)/titanium oxide nanocomposite film synthesized by sol–gel assisted electropolymerization for electrochromic application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jinlin, E-mail: jinlinlu@hotmail.com [School of Materials and Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology, Liaoning, Anshan 114051 (China); Song, Hua [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, University of Science and Technology, Liaoning, Anshan 114051 (China); Li, Suning; Wang, Lin; Han, Lu [School of Materials and Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology, Liaoning, Anshan 114051 (China); Ling, Han; Lu, Xuehong [School of Material Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore)

    2015-06-01

    In this article, we report the facile synthesis of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonic acid)/titanium dioxide (PEDOT:PSS/TiO{sub 2}) nanocomposite film by sol–gel assisted electropolymerization. The structure, morphology and composition of the films were investigated by different techniques, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscope and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The PEDOT:PSS/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite film was applied for electrochromic application. The results indicate that the PEDOT:PSS/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite film exhibits a higher optical contrast and a much better stability as compared to PEDOT:PSS film. The significant performance enhancement can be attributed to the nanoscale particle size and uniform size distribution of PEDOT:PSS/TiO{sub 2} and the synergistic effect between the inorganic nano-TiO{sub 2} and organic PEDOT:PSS material. - Highlights: • Facile synthesis of PEDOT:PSS/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite film by electropolymerization • PEDOT:PSS/TiO{sub 2} film shows nano-scaled particle sizes and uniform size distribution. • PEDOT:PSS/TiO{sub 2} film shows higher optical contrasts and faster switching speed. • PEDOT:PSS/TiO{sub 2} film displays a good stability for electrochromic application.

  7. The approach of in-situ doping ion conductor fabricated with the cathodic arc plasma for all-solid-state electrochromic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Chuan Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The all-solid-state electrochromic device (ECD with the one substrate structure fabricated by the reactive dc magnetron sputtering (DCMS and in-situ doping cathodic vacuum arc plasma (CVAP technology has been developed. The electrochromic (EC layer and ion conductor layer were deposited by reactive DCMS and CVAP technology, respectively. The in-situ doping ion conductor Ta2O5 deposited by the CVAP technology has provided the better material structure for ion transportation and showed about 2 times ion conductivity than the external doping process. The all-solid-state ECD with the in-situ doping CVAP ion conductor layer has demonstrated a maximum transmittance variation (ΔT of 71% at 550 nm, and a faster switching speed. The lower production cost and higher process stability could be achieved by the application of in-situ doping CVAP technology without breaking the vacuum process. Furthermore, the ion doping process with the reuse of energy during the CVAP process is not only decreasing the process steps, but also reducing the process energy consumption.

  8. Version control with Git

    CERN Document Server

    Loeliger, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Get up to speed on Git for tracking, branching, merging, and managing code revisions. Through a series of step-by-step tutorials, this practical guide takes you quickly from Git fundamentals to advanced techniques, and provides friendly yet rigorous advice for navigating the many functions of this open source version control system. This thoroughly revised edition also includes tips for manipulating trees, extended coverage of the reflog and stash, and a complete introduction to the GitHub repository. Git lets you manage code development in a virtually endless variety of ways, once you understand how to harness the system's flexibility. This book shows you how. Learn how to use Git for several real-world development scenarios ; Gain insight into Git's common-use cases, initial tasks, and basic functions ; Use the system for both centralized and distributed version control ; Learn how to manage merges, conflicts, patches, and diffs ; Apply advanced techniques such as rebasing, hooks, and ways to handle submodu...

  9. Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN), Version 1 (Version Superseded)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Please note, this dataset has been superseded by a newer version (see below). Users should not use this version except in rare cases (e.g., when reproducing previous...

  10. COSY INFINITY version 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, Kyoko; Berz, Martin

    1999-01-01

    The latest version of the particle optics code COSY INFINITY is presented. Using Differential Algebraic (DA) methods, the code allows the computation of aberrations of arbitrary field arrangements to in principle unlimited order. Besides providing a general overview of the code, several recent techniques developed for specific applications are highlighted. These include new features for the direct utilization of detailed measured fields as well as rigorous treatment of remainder bounds

  11. EASI graphics - Version II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allensworth, J.A.

    1984-04-01

    EASI (Estimate of Adversary Sequence Interruption) is an analytical technique for measuring the effectiveness of physical protection systems. EASI Graphics is a computer graphics extension of EASI which provides a capability for performing sensitivity and trade-off analyses of the parameters of a physical protection system. This document reports on the implementation of the Version II of EASI Graphics and illustrates its application with some examples. 5 references, 15 figures, 6 tables

  12. The Unified Extensional Versioning Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asklund, U.; Bendix, Lars Gotfred; Christensen, H. B.

    1999-01-01

    Versioning of components in a system is a well-researched field where various adequate techniques have already been established. In this paper, we look at how versioning can be extended to cover also the structural aspects of a system. There exist two basic techniques for versioning - intentional...

  13. Fully Roll-to-Roll Gravure Printable Wireless (13.56 MHz) Sensor-Signage Tags for Smart Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hwiwon; Park, Hyejin; Park, Yongsu; Jung, Minhoon; Kim, Byung Chul; Wallace, Gordon; Cho, Gyoujin

    2014-01-01

    Integration of sensing capabilities with an interactive signage through wireless communication is enabling the development of smart packaging wherein wireless (13.56 MHz) power transmission is used to interlock the smart packaging with a wireless (13.56 MHz) reader or a smart phone. Assembly of the necessary componentry for smart packaging on plastic or paper foils is limited by the manufacturing costs involved with Si based technologies. Here, the issue of manufacturing cost for smart packaging has been obviated by materials that allow R2R (roll-to-roll) gravure in combination with R2R coating processes to be employed. R2R gravure was used to print the wireless power transmission device, called rectenna (antenna, diode and capacitor), and humidity sensor on poly(ethylene terephtalate) (PET) films while electrochromic signage units were fabricated by R2R coating. The signage units were laminated with the R2R gravure printed rectenna and sensor to complete the prototype smart packaging. PMID:24953037

  14. PVWatts Version 5 Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobos, A. P.

    2014-09-01

    The NREL PVWatts calculator is a web application developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) that estimates the electricity production of a grid-connected photovoltaic system based on a few simple inputs. PVWatts combines a number of sub-models to predict overall system performance, and makes includes several built-in parameters that are hidden from the user. This technical reference describes the sub-models, documents assumptions and hidden parameters, and explains the sequence of calculations that yield the final system performance estimate. This reference is applicable to the significantly revised version of PVWatts released by NREL in 2014.

  15. URGENCES NOUVELLE VERSION

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    The table of emergency numbers that appeared in Bulletin 10/2002 is out of date. The updated version provided by the Medical Service appears on the following page. Please disregard the previous version. URGENT NEED OF A DOCTOR GENEVAPATIENT NOT FIT TO BE MOVED: Call your family doctor Or SOS MEDECINS (24H/24H) 748 49 50 Or ASSOC. OF GENEVA DOCTORS (7H-23H) 322 20 20 PATIENT CAN BE MOVED: HOPITAL CANTONAL 24 Micheli du Crest 372 33 11 382 33 11 CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL 6 rue Willy Donzé 382 68 18 382 45 55 MATERNITY 24 Micheli du Crest 382 68 16 382 33 11 OPHTALMOLOGY 22 Alcide Jentzer 382 84 00 HOPITAL DE LA TOUR Meyrin 719 61 11 CENTRE MEDICAL DE MEYRIN Champs Fréchets 719 74 00 URGENCES : FIRE BRIGADE 118 FIRE BRIGADE CERN 767 44 44 BESOIN URGENT D'AMBULANCE (GENEVE ET VAUD) : 144 POLICE 117 ANTI-POISON CENTRE 24H/24H 01 251 51 510 EUROPEAN EMERGENCY CALL: 112 FRANCE PATIENT NOT FIT TO BE MOVED: call your family doctor PATIENT CAN BE MOVED: ST. JULIE...

  16. The Effect of Ar/O2 Ratio on Electrochromic Response Time of Ni Oxides Grown Using an RF Sputtering System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Kwang-Soon; Nah, Yoon-Chae; Yum, Jun-Ho; Sung, Yung-Eun

    2002-02-01

    The effect of Ar:O2 ratio on the electrochromic properties and the response time of NiO grown by RF sputtering were investigated by in situ transmittance measurements with continuous potential cycling and pulse potential cycling. The transmittance difference, coloration efficiency, memory effect, and cycling stability were all found to be independent of the Ar:O2 ratio. However, the transmittance of the as-deposited NiO as well as the response time were significantly affected. This may be attributed to the excess of oxygen occupied interstitial sites in the sputtered NiO that could result in the generation of Ni3+ ions and interference with proton intercalation/deintercalation.

  17. Electrochromic behavior of poly(3,5-bis(4-bromophenyl)dithieno[3,2-b;2',3'-d]thiophene)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osken, Ipek; Bildirir, Hakan; Ozturk, Turan

    2011-01-01

    Electropolymerization of 3,5-bis(4-bromophenyl)dithieno[3,2-b;2',3'-d]thiophene, having a mild electron-withdrawing bromine atom attached to the para position of the two phenyl groups of dithienothiophene, was performed, utilizing a potentiodynamic method. The resultant homopolymer was characterized by cyclic volyammetry, fourier transform infrared and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Spectroelectrochemical and electrochromic properties were investigated and a device was constructed with polyethylenedioxythiophene to understand the characteristics in detail, which had the potential range of 0.0-2.0 V for operating the device between green and blue colors. It had a good optical contrast of 18% with a switching time of less than a second. Moreover, open circuit memory and stability of the device were investigated.

  18. Electrochromic properties of multicolored novel polymer synthesized via combination of benzotriazole and N-functionalized 2,5-di(2-thienyl)-1H-pyrrole units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rende, Eda; Kilic, Cihan E.; Udum, Yasemin Arslan; Toffoli, Daniele; Toppare, Levent

    2014-01-01

    Synthesis of new conducting polymers is desired since their electrochemical and optical properties enable them to be used as active layers in many device applications. Benzotriazole and N-functionalized 2,5-di(2-thienyl)-1H-pyrrole (SNS Series) containing polymers showed very promising results as electrochromic materials. In order to observe the effect of the combination of these two units, three new monomers; 2-(6-(2,5-bis(5-methylthiophen-2-yl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)hexyl)-4,7-di (thiophen-2-yl)-2H benzo[d][1,2,3]triazole (M1), 2-(6-(2,5-di(thiophen-2-yl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)hexyl)-4,7-di(thiophen-2-yl) -2H-benzo[d][1,2,3]triazole (M2) and 2-(6-(2,5-di(thiophen-2-yl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)hexyl)-4,7-bis (5-methylthiophen-2-yl)-2H-benzo[d][1,2,3]triazole (M3) were synthesized. To better characterize the electronic and spectroscopic properties of the monomers, density functional theory (DFT) and its time-dependent generalization (TD-DFT) were used to calculate their vertical ionization potentials, vertical electron affinity and to simulate and interpret their infrared and UV-vis spectra. The monomers were electrochemically polymerized and the resultant polymers were characterized with cyclic voltammetry and UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy techniques. An electrochromic device was constructed with electrochemical polymer of M2. The device switched between red and blue colors and showed exceptional optical memory

  19. Applications of Poly(indole-6-carboxylic acid-co-2,2′-bithiophene Films in High-Contrast Electrochromic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Wen Kuo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Two homopolymers (poly(indole-6-carboxylic acid (PInc and poly(2,2′-bithiophene (PbT and a copolymer (poly(indole-6-carboxylic acid-co-2,2′-bithiophene (P(Inc-co-bT are electrodeposited on ITO electrode surfaces via electrochemical method. Electrochemical and electrochromic properties of PInc, PbT, and P(Inc-co-bT films were characterized using cyclic voltammetry and in situ UV-Vis spectroscopy. The anodic P(Inc-co-bT film prepared using Inc./bT = 1/1 feed molar ratio shows high optical contrast (30% at 890 nm and coloring efficiency (112 cm2 C−1 at 890 nm. P(Inc-co-bT film revealed light yellow, yellowish green, and bluish grey in the neutral, intermediate, and oxidation states, respectively. Electrochromic devices (ECDs were constructed using PInc, PbT, or P(Inc-co-bT film as anodic layer and PEDOT-PSS as cathodic layer. P(Inc-co-bT/PMMA-PC-ACN-LiClO4/PEDOT-PSS ECD showed high ∆T (31% at 650 nm, and PInc/PMMA-PC-ACN-LiClO4/PEDOT-PSS ECD displayed high coloration efficiency (416.7 cm2 C−1 at 650 nm. The optical memory investigations of PInc/PMMA-PC-ACN-LiClO4/PEDOT-PSS, PbT/PMMA-PC-ACN-LiClO4/PEDOT-PSS, and P(Inc-co-bT/PMMA-PC-ACN-LiClO4/PEDOT-PSS ECDs exhibited that ECDs had adequate optical memory in bleaching and coloring states.

  20. Effect of Post-annealing on the Electrochromic Properties of Layer-by-Layer Arrangement FTO-WO3-Ag-WO3-Ag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseinzadeh, S.; Ghasemiasl, R.; Bahari, A.; Ramezani, A. H.

    2018-03-01

    In the current study, composites of tungsten trioxide (W03) and silver (Ag) are deposited in a layer-by-layer electrochromic (EC) arrangement onto a fluorine-doped tin oxide coated glass substrate. Tungsten oxide nanoparticles are an n-type semiconductor that can be used as EC cathode material. Nano-sized silver is a metal that can serve as an electron trap center that facilitates charge departure. In this method, the WO3 and Ag nanoparticle powder were deposited by physical vapor deposition onto the glass substrate. The fabricated electrochromic devices (ECD) were post-annealed to examine the effect of temperature on their EC properties. The morphology of the thin film was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Structural analysis showed that the addition of silver dopant increased the size of the aggregation of the film. The film had an average approximate roughness of about 17.8 nm. The electro-optical properties of the thin film were investigated using cyclic voltammetry and UV-visible spectroscopy to compare the effects of different post-annealing temperatures. The ECD showed that annealing at 200°C provided better conductivity (maximum current of about 90 mA in the oxidation state) and change of transmittance (ΔT = 90% at the continuous switching step) than did the other thin films. The optical band gaps of the thin film showed that it allowed direct transition at 3.85 eV. The EC properties of these combinations of coloration efficiency and response time indicate that the WO3-Ag-WO3-Ag arrangement is a promising candidate for use in such ECDs.

  1. Electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride) copolymer/octahydroxy-polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane nanofibrous mats as ionic liquid host: enhanced salt dissociation and its function in electrochromic device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Rui; Pramoda, Kumari Pallathadka; Liu, Wanshuang; Zhou, Dan; Ding, Guoqiang; He, Chaobin; Leong, Yew Wei; Lu, Xuehong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The well dispersed POSS-OH promotes the dissociation of both LiClO 4 and BMIM + BF 4 − . • POSS-OH significantly increases the ionic conductivity and lithium transference number. • POSS-OH containing electrolyte improves the optical contrast of electrochromic device. - Abstract: Electrospun polymer nanofibrous mats loaded with ionic liquids (ILs) and lithium salts are promising non-volatile electrolytes owing to their high ionic conductivities. However, the large cations of ILs are difficult to diffuse into solid electrodes, whereas the lithium ions in ILs tend to form anionic complexes with the IL anions, reducing the number of free lithium ions. To address these issues, octa(3-hydroxy-3-methylbutyldimethylsiloxy) polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS-OH), which has large specific surface area and functionality number, is incorporated into electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-co-HFP) nanofibrous mats, and the mats are used to host LiClO 4 /1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIM + BF 4 − ). It is found that POSS-OH can significantly increase both ionic conductivity and lithium transference number of the electrolytes owing to the Lewis acid-base interactions of POSS-OH with ClO 4 − and BF 4 − . The electrochromic device using the hybrid mat (with 5 wt% POSS-OH) loaded with LiClO 4 /BMIM + BF 4 − as the electrolyte shows significantly improved transmittance contrast and switching time, as a result of increased number of free lithium ions

  2. Printability of calcium phosphate: calcium sulfate powders for the application of tissue engineered bone scaffolds using the 3D printing technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zuoxin; Buchanan, Fraser; Mitchell, Christina; Dunne, Nicholas

    2014-05-01

    In this study, calcium phosphate (CaP) powders were blended with a three-dimensional printing (3DP) calcium sulfate (CaSO4)-based powder and the resulting composite powders were printed with a water-based binder using the 3DP technology. Application of a water-based binder ensured the manufacture of CaP:CaSO4 constructs on a reliable and repeatable basis, without long term damage of the printhead. Printability of CaP:CaSO4 powders was quantitatively assessed by investigating the key 3DP process parameters, i.e. in-process powder bed packing, drop penetration behavior and the quality of printed solid constructs. Effects of particle size, CaP:CaSO4 ratio and CaP powder type on the 3DP process were considered. The drop penetration technique was used to reliably identify powder formulations that could be potentially used for the application of tissue engineered bone scaffolds using the 3DP technique. Significant improvements (pprinted constructs were manufactured, which exhibited appropriate green compressive strength and a high level of printing accuracy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Melt sonoquenching: an affective process to obtain new hybrid material and achieve enhanced electrochromic performances based on V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/2,4,5-tris(1-methyl- 4-pyridinium)-imidazolide tetrafluoroborate nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Renato S. de; Goulart, Juliana da S.; Miranda, Fabio S.; Ponzio, Eduardo A., E-mail: eaponzio@vm.uff.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica

    2014-03-15

    Hybrid electrochromic materials are a very important class of compounds, because they enable new and/or better optical and electrochemical properties to be unfolded. This paper reports the synthesis of the new V{sub 2}O{sub 5}.1.26H{sub 2}O([C{sub 3}N{sub 2}(C{sub 6}H{sub 7}N){sub 3}]){sub 0.07} using the combination of two traditional methods, melting quenching and sonochemistry. The new material was characterized by several methods in order to verify the physical and chemical characteristics and its possible use as an electrochromic electrode. The organic guest provokes an interlayer spacing decrease of the inorganic matrix and the electrostatic interaction between the oxo groups of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} matrix and the pyridinium rings of the organic guest demonstrate a strong interaction. The new hybrid nanostructure presented good reversibility and cyclability during 50 cycles, electrochromic efficiency of 22 cm{sup 2} C{sup -1} (410 nm) and 96 % color retention after 50 cycles of color changing. (author)'.

  4. Low-cost fabrication of WO{sub 3} films using a room temperature and low-vacuum air-spray based deposition system for inorganic electrochromic device applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung-Ik [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sooyeun, E-mail: sooyeunk@u.washington.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Choi, Jung-Oh; Song, Ji-Hyeon [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Taya, Minoru [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Ahn, Sung-Hoon, E-mail: ahnsh@snu.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Advanced Machines and Design, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-31

    We report the deposition of tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) thin films on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates by using a room-temperature deposition system based on low-vacuum air-spray for the fabrication of inorganic electrochromic windows. The structure of the WO{sub 3} films was characterized using X-ray diffraction, and the surface morphology and film thickness were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The color of the prepared WO{sub 3} films changed from slight yellow to dark blue under applied voltages, demonstrating electrochromism. The WO{sub 3} film coated FTO glass exhibited a large electrochromic contrast of up to 50% at a wavelength of 800 nm. The electrochemical properties of the films were examined using cyclic voltammetry and chronocoulometry. - Highlights: • WO{sub 3} thin films were fabricated using an air-spray based deposition system at room temperature under low-vacuum conditions. • Dry WO{sub 3} particles were directly deposited on FTO and ITO glasses by using a low-cost deposition system. • The FTO glass based WO{sub 3} film showed the optical contrast of 50% at a wavelength of 800 nm.

  5. ERRATUM - French version only

    CERN Multimedia

    Le texte suivant remplace la version française de l'encadré paru en page 2 du Bulletin 28/2003 : Le 1er juillet 1953, les représentants des douze Etats Membres fondateurs du CERN signèrent la convention de l'Organisation. Aujourd'hui, le CERN compte vingt Etats Membres Européens : l'Allemagne, l'Autriche, la Belgique, la Bulgarie, le Danemark, l'Espagne, la Finlande, la France, la Grèce, la Hongrie, l'Italie, la Norvège, les Pays-Bas, la Pologne, le Portugal, la République Slovaque, la République Tchèque, le Royaume-Uni, la Suède, et la Suisse. Les Etats-Unis, l'Inde, l'Israël, le Japon, la Fédération Russe, la Turquie, la Commission Européenne et l'UNESCO ont un statut d'Etat observateur.

  6. Printable Solid-State Lithium-Ion Batteries: A New Route toward Shape-Conformable Power Sources with Aesthetic Versatility for Flexible Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Hee; Choi, Keun-Ho; Cho, Sung-Ju; Choi, Sinho; Park, Soojin; Lee, Sang-Young

    2015-08-12

    Forthcoming flexible/wearable electronic devices with shape diversity and mobile usability garner a great deal of attention as an innovative technology to bring unprecedented changes in our daily lives. From the power source point of view, conventional rechargeable batteries (one representative example is a lithium-ion battery) with fixed shapes and sizes have intrinsic limitations in fulfilling design/performance requirements for the flexible/wearable electronics. Here, as a facile and efficient strategy to address this formidable challenge, we demonstrate a new class of printable solid-state batteries (referred to as "PRISS batteries"). Through simple stencil printing process (followed by ultraviolet (UV) cross-linking), solid-state composite electrolyte (SCE) layer and SCE matrix-embedded electrodes are consecutively printed on arbitrary objects of complex geometries, eventually leading to fully integrated, multilayer-structured PRISS batteries with various form factors far beyond those achievable by conventional battery technologies. Tuning rheological properties of SCE paste and electrode slurry toward thixotropic fluid characteristics, along with well-tailored core elements including UV-cured triacrylate polymer and high boiling point electrolyte, is a key-enabling technology for the realization of PRISS batteries. This process/material uniqueness allows us to remove extra processing steps (related to solvent drying and liquid-electrolyte injection) and also conventional microporous separator membranes, thereupon enabling the seamless integration of shape-conformable PRISS batteries (including letters-shaped ones) into complex-shaped objects. Electrochemical behavior of PRISS batteries is elucidated via an in-depth analysis of cell impedance, which provides a theoretical basis to enable sustainable improvement of cell performance. We envision that PRISS batteries hold great promise as a reliable and scalable platform technology to open a new concept of cell

  7. Enigma Version 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shores, David; Goza, Sharon P.; McKeegan, Cheyenne; Easley, Rick; Way, Janet; Everett, Shonn; Guerra, Mark; Kraesig, Ray; Leu, William

    2013-01-01

    Enigma Version 12 software combines model building, animation, and engineering visualization into one concise software package. Enigma employs a versatile user interface to allow average users access to even the most complex pieces of the application. Using Enigma eliminates the need to buy and learn several software packages to create an engineering visualization. Models can be created and/or modified within Enigma down to the polygon level. Textures and materials can be applied for additional realism. Within Enigma, these models can be combined to create systems of models that have a hierarchical relationship to one another, such as a robotic arm. Then these systems can be animated within the program or controlled by an external application programming interface (API). In addition, Enigma provides the ability to use plug-ins. Plugins allow the user to create custom code for a specific application and access the Enigma model and system data, but still use the Enigma drawing functionality. CAD files can be imported into Enigma and combined to create systems of computer graphics models that can be manipulated with constraints. An API is available so that an engineer can write a simulation and drive the computer graphics models with no knowledge of computer graphics. An animation editor allows an engineer to set up sequences of animations generated by simulations or by conceptual trajectories in order to record these to highquality media for presentation. Enigma Version 12 Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas 28 NASA Tech Briefs, September 2013 Planetary Protection Bioburden Analysis Program NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California This program is a Microsoft Access program that performed statistical analysis of the colony counts from assays performed on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) spacecraft to determine the bioburden density, 3-sigma biodensity, and the total bioburdens required for the MSL prelaunch reports. It also contains numerous

  8. Characterization of dynamic thermal control schemes and heat transfer pathways for incorporating variable emissivity electrochromic materials into a space suit heat rejection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massina, Christopher James

    The feasibility of conducting long duration human spaceflight missions is largely dependent on the provision of consumables such as oxygen, water, and food. In addition to meeting crew metabolic needs, water sublimation has long served as the primary heat rejection mechanism in space suits during extravehicular activity (EVA). During a single eight hour EVA, approximately 3.6 kg (8 lbm) of water is lost from the current suit. Reducing the amount of expended water during EVA is a long standing goal of space suit life support systems designers; but to date, no alternate thermal control mechanism has demonstrated the ability to completely eliminate the loss. One proposed concept is to convert the majority of a space suit's surface area into a radiator such that the local environment can be used as a radiative thermal sink for rejecting heat without mass loss. Due to natural variations in both internal (metabolic) loads and external (environmental) sink temperatures, radiative transport must be actively modulated in order to maintain an acceptable thermal balance. Here, variable emissivity electrochromic devices are examined as the primary mechanism for enabling variable heat rejection. This dissertation focuses on theoretical and empirical evaluations performed to determine the feasibility of using a full suit, variable emissivity radiator architecture for space suit thermal control. Operational envelopes are described that show where a given environment and/or metabolic load combination may or may not be supported by the evaluated thermal architecture. Key integration considerations and guidelines include determining allowable thermal environments, defining skin-to-radiator heat transfer properties, and evaluating required electrochromic performance properties. Analysis also considered the impacts of dynamic environmental changes and the architecture's extensibility to EVA on the Martian surface. At the conclusion of this work, the full suit, variable emissivity

  9. Design and construction of hierarchical TiO2 nanorod arrays by combining layer-by-layer and hydrothermal crystallization techniques for electrochromic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongbo; Li, Xiaomin; Bi, Zhijie; He, Xiaoli; Li, Guanjie; Xu, Xiaoke; Gao, Xiangdong

    2018-05-01

    The hierarchical TiO2 (H-TiO2) nanorod arrays (NRAs) composed of single-crystalline nanorods and nanocrystals were finely designed and successfully constructed for electrochromic (EC) application. By combining layer-by-layer (LBL) method and hydrothermal crystallization technique, the superfine nanocrystals (5-7 nm), which can provide abundant active sites and facilitate ion insertion/extraction during EC reactions, were uniformly and conformally assembled on the surface of single-crystalline TiO2 (SC-TiO2) NRAs. The as-formed H-TiO2 NRAs integrate the advantages of one-dimensional NRAs with fast kinetics and superfine nanocrystals with high ion capacity, showing highly enhanced EC performance. Large optical contrast (40.3%), shorter coloring/bleaching time (22/4 s), high coloration efficiency (11.2 cm2 C-1), and excellent cycling stability can be achieved in H-TiO2 NRAs, superior to the pristine SC-TiO2 NRAs and nanocrystalline TiO2 films. This work provides a feasible and well-designed strategy to explore high-performance materials for EC application.

  10. GENII Version 2 Users’ Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, Bruce A.

    2004-03-08

    The GENII Version 2 computer code was developed for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to incorporate the internal dosimetry models recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the radiological risk estimating procedures of Federal Guidance Report 13 into updated versions of existing environmental pathway analysis models. The resulting environmental dosimetry computer codes are compiled in the GENII Environmental Dosimetry System. The GENII system was developed to provide a state-of-the-art, technically peer-reviewed, documented set of programs for calculating radiation dose and risk from radionuclides released to the environment. The codes were designed with the flexibility to accommodate input parameters for a wide variety of generic sites. Operation of a new version of the codes, GENII Version 2, is described in this report. Two versions of the GENII Version 2 code system are available, a full-featured version and a version specifically designed for demonstrating compliance with the dose limits specified in 40 CFR 61.93(a), the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS) for radionuclides. The only differences lie in the limitation of the capabilities of the user to change specific parameters in the NESHAPS version. This report describes the data entry, accomplished via interactive, menu-driven user interfaces. Default exposure and consumption parameters are provided for both the average (population) and maximum individual; however, these may be modified by the user. Source term information may be entered as radionuclide release quantities for transport scenarios, or as basic radionuclide concentrations in environmental media (air, water, soil). For input of basic or derived concentrations, decay of parent radionuclides and ingrowth of radioactive decay products prior to the start of the exposure scenario may be considered. A single code run can

  11. ELIPGRID-PC: Upgraded version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.R.

    1995-12-01

    Evaluating the need for and the effectiveness of remedial cleanup at waste sites often includes finding average contaminant concentrations and identifying pockets of contamination called hot spots. The standard tool for calculating the probability of detecting pockets of contamination called hot spots has been the ELIPGRID code of singer and Wickman. The ELIPGRID-PC program has recently made this algorithm available for an IBM reg-sign personal computer (PC) or compatible. A new version of ELIPGRID-PC, incorporating Monte Carlo test results and simple graphics, is herein described. Various examples of how to use the program for both single and multiple hot spot cases are given. The code for an American National Standards Institute C version of the ELIPGRID algorithm is provided, and limitations and further work are noted. This version of ELIPGRID-PC reliably meets the goal of moving Singer's ELIPGRID algorithm to the PC

  12. [Fetal version as ambulatory intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohe, G; Hartmann, W; Klapproth, C E

    1996-06-01

    The external cephalic version (ECV) of the fetus at term reduces the maternal and fetal risks of intrapartum breech presentation and Caesarean delivery. Since 1986 over 800 external cephalic versions were performed in the outpatient Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the Städtische Frauenklinik Stuttgart. 60.5% were successful. NO severe complications occurred. Sufficient amniotic fluid as well as the mobility of the fetal breech is a major criterion for the success of the ECV. Management requires a safe technique for mother and fetus. This includes ultrasonography, elektronic fetal monitoring and the ability to perform immediate caesarean delivery as well as the performance of ECV without analgesicas and sedatives. More than 70% of the ECV were successful without tocolysis. In unsuccessful cases the additional use of tocolysis improves the success rate only slightly. Therefore routine use of tocolysis does not appear necessary. External cephalic version can be recommended as an outpatient treatment without tocolysis.

  13. MEASUREMENT AND PRECISION, EXPERIMENTAL VERSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

    THIS DOCUMENT IS AN EXPERIMENTAL VERSION OF A PROGRAMED TEXT ON MEASUREMENT AND PRECISION. PART I CONTAINS 24 FRAMES DEALING WITH PRECISION AND SIGNIFICANT FIGURES ENCOUNTERED IN VARIOUS MATHEMATICAL COMPUTATIONS AND MEASUREMENTS. PART II BEGINS WITH A BRIEF SECTION ON EXPERIMENTAL DATA, COVERING SUCH POINTS AS (1) ESTABLISHING THE ZERO POINT, (2)…

  14. Montage Version 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Joseph; Katz, Daniel; Prince, Thomas; Berriman, Graham; Good, John; Laity, Anastasia

    2006-01-01

    The final version (3.0) of the Montage software has been released. To recapitulate from previous NASA Tech Briefs articles about Montage: This software generates custom, science-grade mosaics of astronomical images on demand from input files that comply with the Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) standard and contain image data registered on projections that comply with the World Coordinate System (WCS) standards. This software can be executed on single-processor computers, multi-processor computers, and such networks of geographically dispersed computers as the National Science Foundation s TeraGrid or NASA s Information Power Grid. The primary advantage of running Montage in a grid environment is that computations can be done on a remote supercomputer for efficiency. Multiple computers at different sites can be used for different parts of a computation a significant advantage in cases of computations for large mosaics that demand more processor time than is available at any one site. Version 3.0 incorporates several improvements over prior versions. The most significant improvement is that this version is accessible to scientists located anywhere, through operational Web services that provide access to data from several large astronomical surveys and construct mosaics on either local workstations or remote computational grids as needed.

  15. Dithienylpyrrole- and Tris[4-(2-thienylphenyl]amine-Containing Copolymers as Promising Anodic Layers in High-Contrast Electrochromic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzi-Yi Wu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Three dithienylpyrrole- and tris[4-(2-thienylphenyl]amine-containing copolymers (P(MPS-co-TTPA, P(MPO-co-TTPA, and P(ANIL-co-TTPA were deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO surfaces using electrochemical polymerization. Spectroelectrochemical characterizations of polymer films revealed that P(MPS-co-TTPA film was light olive green, greyish-green, bluish grey, and grey in neutral state, intermediate state, oxidized state, and highly oxidized state, respectively, whereas P(MPO-co-TTPA film was green moss, foliage green, dark greyish-green, and bluish-grey in neutral state, intermediate state, oxidized state, and highly oxidized state, respectively. The ΔTmax of P(MPS-co-TTPA film at 964 nm, P(MPO-co-TTPA film at 914 nm, and P(ANIL-co-TTPA film at 960 nm were 67.2%, 60.7%, and 67.1%, respectively, and the coloration efficiency (η of P(MPS-co-TTPA film at 964 nm, P(MPO-co-TTPA film at 914 nm, and P(ANIL-co-TTPA film at 960 nm were calculated to be 260.3, 176.6, and 230.8 cm2 C−1, respectively. Dual type complementary colored electrochromic devices (ECDs were constructed using P(MPS-co-TTPA, P(MPO-co-TTPA, or P(ANIL-co-TTPA as anodic copolymer layer and PProDOT-Et2 as cathodic polymer layer. P(MPO-co-TTPA/PProDOT-Et2 ECD revealed high ΔT (55.1% and high η (766.5 cm2 C−1 at 580 nm. Moreover, P(MPS-co-TTPA/PProDOT-Et2, P(MPO-co-TTPA/PProDOT-Et2, and P(ANIL-co-TTPA/PProDOT-Et2 ECDs showed satisfactory long-term cycling stability and optical memory.

  16. Black-to-Transmissive Electrochromism with Visible-to-Near-Infrared Switching of a Co(II)-Based Metallo-Supramolecular Polymer for Smart Window and Digital Signage Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chih-Yu; Zhang, Jian; Sato, Takashi; Moriyama, Satoshi; Higuchi, Masayoshi

    2015-08-26

    Black-to-transmissive electrochromism has been obtained with a Co(II)-based metallo-supramolecular polymer (polyCo). Thin films of polyCo, based on bisterpyridine ligand assembled with Co(II) metal ion, were constructed by spray casting the polymer onto ITO glass. With such simple fabricating means to form good-quality films, polyCo films show stable switching at the central metal ion of the Co(II)/Co(I) redox reaction when immersed in aqueous solution. With an increase in the pH of the aqueous electrolyte solution from neutral, the film exhibits a color response due to the interaction between the d-orbital electron and hydroxide ions affecting the d-d* transition. As a result, a nearly transparent-to-black electrochromic performance can be achieved with a transmittance difference at 550 nm of 74.3% (81.9-7.6%) in pH 13 solution. The light absorption of the film can be tuned over light regions from visible to near-infrared with a large attenuation.

  17. NCDC International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS) Project, Version 2 (Version Superseded)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Version 2 of the dataset has been superseded by a newer version. Users should not use version 2 except in rare cases (e.g., when reproducing previous studies that...

  18. NCDC International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS) Project, Version 1 (Version Superseded)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Version 1 of the dataset has been superseded by a newer version. Users should not use version 1 except in rare cases (e.g., when reproducing previous studies that...

  19. The FORM version of MINCER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larin, S.A.; Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Moscow; Tkachov, F.V.; McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ; Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Moscow; Vermaseren, J.A.M.

    1991-01-01

    The program MINCER for massless three-loop Feynman diagrams of the propagator type has been reprogrammed in the language of FORM. The new version is thoroughly optimized and can be run from a utility like the UNIX make, which allows one to conveniently process large numbers of diagrams. It has been used for some calculations that were previously not practical. (author). 22 refs.; 14 figs

  20. FORM version 4.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, J.; Ueda, T.; Vermaseren, J. A. M.; Vollinga, J.

    2013-05-01

    We present version 4.0 of the symbolic manipulation system FORM. The most important new features are manipulation of rational polynomials and the factorization of expressions. Many other new functions and commands are also added; some of them are very general, while others are designed for building specific high level packages, such as one for Gröbner bases. New is also the checkpoint facility, that allows for periodic backups during long calculations. Finally, FORM 4.0 has become available as open source under the GNU General Public License version 3. Program summaryProgram title: FORM. Catalogue identifier: AEOT_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEOT_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License, version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 151599 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 078 748 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: The FORM language. FORM itself is programmed in a mixture of C and C++. Computer: All. Operating system: UNIX, LINUX, Mac OS, Windows. Classification: 5. Nature of problem: FORM defines a symbolic manipulation language in which the emphasis lies on fast processing of very large formulas. It has been used successfully for many calculations in Quantum Field Theory and mathematics. In speed and size of formulas that can be handled it outperforms other systems typically by an order of magnitude. Special in this version: The version 4.0 contains many new features. Most important are factorization and rational arithmetic. The program has also become open source under the GPL. The code in CPC is for reference. You are encouraged to upload the most recent sources from www.nikhef.nl/form/formcvs.php because of frequent bug fixes. Solution method: See "Nature of Problem", above. Additional comments: NOTE: The code in CPC is for reference. You are encouraged

  1. Versions of the Waste Reduction Model (WARM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides a brief chronology of changes made to EPA’s Waste Reduction Model (WARM), organized by WARM version number. The page includes brief summaries of changes and updates since the previous version.

  2. Inclusion in the Workplace - Text Version | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Careers » Inclusion in the Workplace - Text Version Inclusion in the Workplace - Text Version This is the text version for the Inclusion: Leading by Example video. I'm Martin Keller. I'm the NREL of the laboratory. Another very important element in inclusion is diversity. Because if we have a

  3. A constructive version of AIP revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barros, A.; Hou, T.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we review a constructive version of the Approximation Induction Principle. This version states that bisimilarity of regular processes can be decided by observing only a part of their behaviour. We use this constructive version to formulate a complete inference system for the Algebra

  4. Embrittlement data base, version 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.A.

    1997-08-01

    The aging and degradation of light-water-reactor (LWR) pressure vessels is of particular concern because of their relevance to plant integrity and the magnitude of the expected irradiation embrittlement. The radiation embrittlement of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) materials depends on many different factors such as flux, fluence, fluence spectrum, irradiation temperature, and preirradiation material history and chemical compositions. These factors must be considered to reliably predict pressure vessel embrittlement and to ensure the safe operation of the reactor. Based on embrittlement predictions, decisions must be made concerning operating parameters and issues such as low-leakage-fuel management, possible life extension, and the need for annealing the pressure vessel. Large amounts of data from surveillance capsules and test reactor experiments, comprising many different materials and different irradiation conditions, are needed to develop generally applicable damage prediction models that can be used for industry standards and regulatory guides. Version 1 of the Embrittlement Data Base (EDB) is such a comprehensive collection of data resulting from merging version 2 of the Power Reactor Embrittlement Data Base (PR-EDB). Fracture toughness data were also integrated into Version 1 of the EDB. For power reactor data, the current EDB lists the 1,029 Charpy transition-temperature shift data points, which include 321 from plates, 125 from forgoings, 115 from correlation monitor materials, 246 from welds, and 222 from heat-affected-zone (HAZ) materials that were irradiated in 271 capsules from 101 commercial power reactors. For test reactor data, information is available for 1,308 different irradiated sets (352 from plates, 186 from forgoings, 303 from correlation monitor materials, 396 from welds and 71 from HAZs) and 268 different irradiated plus annealed data sets

  5. Strong versions of Bell's theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1994-01-01

    Technical aspects of a recently constructed strong version of Bell's theorem are discussed. The theorem assumes neither hidden variables nor factorization, and neither determinism nor counterfactual definiteness. It deals directly with logical connections. Hence its relationship with modal logic needs to be described. It is shown that the proof can be embedded in an orthodox modal logic, and hence its compatibility with modal logic assured, but that this embedding weakens the theorem by introducing as added assumptions the conventionalities of the particular modal logic that is adopted. This weakening is avoided in the recent proof by using directly the set-theoretic conditions entailed by the locality assumption

  6. ASPEN Version 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabideau, Gregg; Chien, Steve; Knight, Russell; Schaffer, Steven; Tran, Daniel; Cichy, Benjamin; Sherwood, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The Automated Scheduling and Planning Environment (ASPEN) computer program has been updated to version 3.0. ASPEN is a modular, reconfigurable, application software framework for solving batch problems that involve reasoning about time, activities, states, and resources. Applications of ASPEN can include planning spacecraft missions, scheduling of personnel, and managing supply chains, inventories, and production lines. ASPEN 3.0 can be customized for a wide range of applications and for a variety of computing environments that include various central processing units and random access memories.

  7. How do 10-camphorsulfonic acid, silver or aluminum nanoparticles influence optical, electrochemical, electrochromic and photovoltaic properties of air and thermally stable triphenylamine-based polyazomethine with carbazole moieties?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwan, Agnieszka; Boharewicz, Bartosz; Tazbir, Igor; Filapek, Michal; Korona, Krzysztof P.; Wróbel, Piotr; Stefaniuk, Tomasz; Ciesielski, Arkadiusz; Wojtkiewicz, Jacek; Wronkowska, Aleksandra A.; Wronkowski, Andrzej; Zboromirska-Wnukiewicz, Beata; Grankowska-Ciechanowicz, Sylwia; Kaminska, Maria; Szoplik, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Organic (10-camphorsulfonic acid, CSA), organic-inorganic (Ag-poly(vinylpyrrolidone), Ag-PVP with 10 and 20 nm size of Ag) or inorganic (Al, 18 nm) compounds were applied as new components of active layer in bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells based on a new polyazomethine (PAZ-Car-TPA) resulting in significant change of optical and electrical properties. Moreover, colloidal Ag (100 nm) and Ag-PVP in aqueous solution (10 nm) were tested as an addition to the hole transporting layer based on PEDOT:PSS in polyazomethine solar cells. CSA added to PAZ-Car-TPA decrease its energy gap from 1.91 to 1.20 eV and causes a significant bathochromic shift of the maximum of absorption band along with the change of the polymer color from yellow to red (electrochromic behavior). Photoluminescence maximum of PAZ-Car-TPA protonated with CSA showed 120 nm redshift from 500 to 620 nm in comparison to undoped PAZ-Car-TPA. HOMO-LUMO of PAZ-Car-TPA and its mixture with CSA were analyzed by cyclic voltammetry and quantum mechanical calculations using Density Functional Theory method. Refraction index and extinction coefficient of PAZ-Car-TPA and its mixtures with PC 71 BM as well as Ag or Al nanoparticles were investigated taking into consideration various thickness of polymer layer. The power conversion efficiency of the ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PAZ-Car-TPA:PCBM:CSA/Al device was five time higher than that of the device based on PAZ-Car-TPA:PCBM. Such an enhancement was found to be primarily due to the increase of the short-circuit current, suggesting that the charge collection increases upon the incorporation of CSA in the active layer. Moreover, presence of Ag-PVP (20 nm) or Al (18 nm) in device increased short circuit current of the constructed polymer solar cells. Additionally, devices were tested by external quantum efficiency measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in dark and under illumination. The polymer solar cell with PAZ-Car-TPA as donor in active layer showed good

  8. Trinuclear ruthenium dioxolene complexes based on the bridging ligand hexahydroxytriphenylene: electrochemistry, spectroscopy, and near-infrared electrochromic behaviour associated with a reversible seven-membered redox chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, Christopher S; Meijer, Anthony J H M; Ward, Michael D

    2010-01-07

    The trinuclear complexes [{(R2bipy)2Ru}3(mu3-HHTP)](PF6)3 [1(PF6)3, R = H; 2(PF6)3, R = 4-tBu] contain three {Ru(R2bipy)2}2+ fragments connected to the triangular tris-chelating ligand hexahydroxytriphenylene (H6HHTP). This bridging ligand contains three dioxolene-type binding sites, each of which can reversibly convert between dianionic catecholate (cat), monoanionic semiquinone (sq) or neutral quinone (q) redox states. The bridging ligand as a whole can therefore exist in seven different redox states from fully reduced [cat,cat,cat]6- through to fully oxidised, neutral [q,q,q]. Cyclic voltammetry of 1(PF6)3 in MeCN reveals six redox processes of which the three at more positive potentials (the sq/q couples) are reversible but the three at more negative potentials (the sq/cat couples) are irreversible with distorted wave shapes due to the insolubility of the reduced forms of the complex. In contrast, the more soluble complex 2(PF6)3 displays six reversible one-electron redox processes making all components of a seven-membered redox chain accessible. UV/Vis/NIR spectro-electrochemical studies reveal rich spectroscopic behaviour, with--in particular--very intense transitions in the near-IR region in many of the oxidation states associated with Ru(II)-->(dioxolene) MLCT and bridging ligand centred pi-pi* transitions. TDDFT calculations were used to analyse the electronic spectra in all seven oxidation states; the calculated spectra generally show very good agreement with experiment, which has allowed a fairly complete assignment of the low-energy transitions. The strong electrochromism of the complexes in the near-IR region has formed the basis of an optical window in which a thin film of 1(PF6)3 or 2(PF6)3 on a conductive glass surface can be reversibly and rapidly switched between redox states that alternate between strongly absorbing or near-transparent at 1100 nm, with--for 2(PF6)3--the switching being stable and reversible in water over thousands of cycles.

  9. School version of ESTE EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carny, P.; Suchon, D.; Chyly, M.; Smejkalova, E.; Fabova, V.

    2008-01-01

    ESTE EU is information system and software for radiological impacts assessment to the territory of the country in case of radiation accident inside/outside of the country .The program enables to model dispersion of radioactive clouds in small-scale and meso-scale. The system enables the user to estimate prediction of the source term (release to the atmosphere ) for any point of radiation/nuclear accident in Europe (for any point of the release, but especially for the sites of European power reactors ). The system enables to utilize results of real radiological monitoring in the process of source term estimation. Radiological impacts of release to the atmosphere are modelled and calculated across the Europe and displayed in the geographical information system (GIS). The school version of ESTE EU is intended for students of the universities which are interested in or could work in the field of emergency response, radiological and nuclear accidents, dispersion modelling, radiological impacts calculation and urgent or preventive protective measures implementation. The school version of ESTE EU is planned to be donated to specialized departments of faculties in Slovakia, Czech Republic, etc. System can be fully operated in Slovak, Czech or English language. (authors)

  10. School version of ESTE EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carny, P.; Suchon, D.; Chyly, M.; Smejkalova, E.; Fabova, V.

    2009-01-01

    ESTE EU is information system and software for radiological impacts assessment to the territory of the country in case of radiation accident inside/outside of the country .The program enables to model dispersion of radioactive clouds in small-scale and meso-scale. The system enables the user to estimate prediction of the source term (release to the atmosphere ) for any point of radiation/nuclear accident in Europe (for any point of the release, but especially for the sites of European power reactors ). The system enables to utilize results of real radiological monitoring in the process of source term estimation. Radiological impacts of release to the atmosphere are modelled and calculated across the Europe and displayed in the geographical information system (GIS). The school version of ESTE EU is intended for students of the universities which are interested in or could work in the field of emergency response, radiological and nuclear accidents, dispersion modelling, radiological impacts calculation and urgent or preventive protective measures implementation. The school version of ESTE EU is planned to be donated to specialized departments of faculties in Slovakia, Czech Republic, etc. System can be fully operated in Slovak, Czech or English language. (authors)

  11. Caracterização de filmes finos de Nb2O5 com propriedades eletrocrômicas Caracterization of OF Nb2O5 thin films with electrochromic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. O. Avellaneda

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The sols for thin electrochromic coatings of Nb2O5 were obtained by synthesis of the niobium butoxide from BuONa and NbCl5. The ~300nm thick films were deposited by dip-coating technique from the alkoxide solution and calcined at 560ºC in O2 atmosphere during 3 hours. The particles size of niobium oxide (V powder (~20mm was obtained from x-ray diffraction using the Scherrer equation. The coatings were characterized by cyclic voltammetry and cronoamperommetry techniques. The spectral variation of the optical transmittance were determined in situ as a function of the cyclical potencial and memory effect. The insertion process of lithium is reversible and change the film color from transparent (T=80% to dark blue (T=20%.

  12. Model-based version management system framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehmood, W.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a model-based version management system. Version Management System (VMS) a branch of software configuration management (SCM) aims to provide a controlling mechanism for evolution of software artifacts created during software development process. Controlling the evolution requires many activities to perform, such as, construction and creation of versions, identification of differences between versions, conflict detection and merging. Traditional VMS systems are file-based and consider software systems as a set of text files. File based VMS systems are not adequate for performing software configuration management activities such as, version control on software artifacts produced in earlier phases of the software life cycle. New challenges of model differencing, merge, and evolution control arise while using models as central artifact. The goal of this work is to present a generic framework model-based VMS which can be used to overcome the problem of tradition file-based VMS systems and provide model versioning services. (author)

  13. StreamStats, version 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Kernell G.; Newson, Jeremy K.; Smith, Martyn J.; Guthrie, John D.; Steeves, Peter A.; Haluska, Tana L.; Kolb, Katharine R.; Thompson, Ryan F.; Santoro, Richard D.; Vraga, Hans W.

    2017-10-30

    IntroductionStreamStats version 4, available at https://streamstats.usgs.gov, is a map-based web application that provides an assortment of analytical tools that are useful for water-resources planning and management, and engineering purposes. Developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the primary purpose of StreamStats is to provide estimates of streamflow statistics for user-selected ungaged sites on streams and for USGS streamgages, which are locations where streamflow data are collected.Streamflow statistics, such as the 1-percent flood, the mean flow, and the 7-day 10-year low flow, are used by engineers, land managers, biologists, and many others to help guide decisions in their everyday work. For example, estimates of the 1-percent flood (which is exceeded, on average, once in 100 years and has a 1-percent chance of exceedance in any year) are used to create flood-plain maps that form the basis for setting insurance rates and land-use zoning. This and other streamflow statistics also are used for dam, bridge, and culvert design; water-supply planning and management; permitting of water withdrawals and wastewater and industrial discharges; hydropower facility design and regulation; and setting of minimum allowed streamflows to protect freshwater ecosystems. Streamflow statistics can be computed from available data at USGS streamgages depending on the type of data collected at the stations. Most often, however, streamflow statistics are needed at ungaged sites, where no streamflow data are available to determine the statistics.

  14. MCNP(trademark) Version 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, Lawrence J.; Barrett, Richard F.; Booth, Thomas Edward; Briesmeister, Judith F.; Brown, Forrest B.; Bull, Jeffrey S.; Giesler, Gregg Carl; Goorley, John T.; Mosteller, Russell D.; Forster, R. Arthur; Post, Susan E.; Prael, Richard E.; Selcow, Elizabeth Carol; Sood, Avneet

    2002-01-01

    The Monte Carlo transport workhorse, MCNP, is undergoing a massive renovation at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in support of the Eolus Project of the Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASCI) Program. MCNP Version 5 (V5) (expected to be released to RSICC in Spring, 2002) will consist of a major restructuring from FORTRAN-77 (with extensions) to ANSI-standard FORTRAN-90 with support for all of the features available in the present release (MCNP-4C2/4C3). To most users, the look-and-feel of MCNP will not change much except for the improvements (improved graphics, easier installation, better online documentation). For example, even with the major format change, full support for incremental patching will still be provided. In addition to the language and style updates, MCNP V5 will have various new user features. These include improved photon physics, neutral particle radiography, enhancements and additions to variance reduction methods, new source options, and improved parallelism support (PVM, MPI, OpenMP).

  15. APGEN Version 5.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldague, Pierre; Page, Dennis; Chase, Adam

    2005-01-01

    Activity Plan Generator (APGEN), now at version 5.0, is a computer program that assists in generating an integrated plan of activities for a spacecraft mission that does not oversubscribe spacecraft and ground resources. APGEN generates an interactive display, through which the user can easily create or modify the plan. The display summarizes the plan by means of a time line, whereon each activity is represented by a bar stretched between its beginning and ending times. Activities can be added, deleted, and modified via simple mouse and keyboard actions. The use of resources can be viewed on resource graphs. Resource and activity constraints can be checked. Types of activities, resources, and constraints are defined by simple text files, which the user can modify. In one of two modes of operation, APGEN acts as a planning expert assistant, displaying the plan and identifying problems in the plan. The user is in charge of creating and modifying the plan. In the other mode, APGEN automatically creates a plan that does not oversubscribe resources. The user can then manually modify the plan. APGEN is designed to interact with other software that generates sequences of timed commands for implementing details of planned activities.

  16. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Ocean Near Surface Atmospheric Properties, Version 1 (Version Superseded)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Please note, this dataset has been superseded by a newer version (see below). Users should not use this version except in rare cases (e.g., when reproducing previous...

  17. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Ocean Heat Fluxes, Version 1.0 (Version Superseded)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Please note, this dataset has been superseded by a newer version (see below). Users should not use this version except in rare cases (e.g., when reproducing previous...

  18. Global Historical Climatology Network - Daily (GHCN-Daily), Version 2 (Version Superseded)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Please note, this dataset has been superseded by a newer version (see below). Users should not use this version except in rare cases (e.g., when reproducing previous...

  19. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Sea Surface Temperature - WHOI, Version 1.0 (Version Superseded)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Please note, this dataset has been superseded by a newer version (see below). Users should not use this version except in rare cases (e.g., when reproducing previous...

  20. HANFORD TANK WASTE OPERATIONS SIMULATOR VERSION DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ALLEN, G.K.

    2003-01-01

    This document describes the software version controls established for the Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS). It defines: the methods employed to control the configuration of HTWOS; the version of each of the 26 separate modules for the version 1.0 of HTWOS; the numbering rules for incrementing the version number of each module; and a requirement to include module version numbers in each case results documentation. Version 1.0 of HTWOS is the first version under formal software version control. HTWOS contains separate revision numbers for each of its 26 modules. Individual module version numbers do not reflect the major release HTWOS configured version number

  1. Schema Versioning for Multitemporal Relational Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Castro, Cristina; Grandi, Fabio; Scalas, Maria Rita

    1997-01-01

    Investigates new design options for extended schema versioning support for multitemporal relational databases. Discusses the improved functionalities they may provide. Outlines options and basic motivations for the new design solutions, as well as techniques for the management of proposed schema versioning solutions, includes algorithms and…

  2. Several versions of forward gas ionization calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babintsev, V.V.; Kholodenko, A.G.; Rodnov, Yu.V.

    1994-01-01

    The properties of several versions of a gas ionization calorimeter are analyzed by means of the simulation with the GEANT code. The jet energy and coordinate resolutions are evaluated. Some versions of the forward calorimeter meet the ATLAS requirements. 13 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs

  3. Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) - Monthly, Version 2.2 (Version Superseded)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Version 2.2 of the dataset has been superseded by a newer version. Users should not use version 2.2 except in rare cases (e.g., when reproducing previous studies...

  4. Moxibustion for Cephalic Version of Breech Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaeger, Judith M; Stoffel, Cynthia L; Bussell, Jeanie L; Cai, Hui Yan; Takayama, Miho; Yajima, Hiroyoshi; Takakura, Nobuari

    2018-05-01

    Moxibustion, a form of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is the burning of the herb moxa (Folium Artemisiae argyi or mugwort) over acupuncture points. It is often used in China to facilitate cephalic version of breech presentation. This article reviews the history, philosophy, therapeutic use, possible mechanisms of action, and literature pertaining to its use for this indication. For moxibustion, moxa can be rolled into stick form, placed directly on the skin, or placed on an acupuncture needle and ignited to warm acupuncture points. Studies have demonstrated that moxibustion may promote cephalic version of breech presentation and may facilitate external cephalic version. However, there is currently a paucity of research on the effects of moxibustion on cephalic version of breech presentation, and thus there is a need for further studies. Areas needing more investigation include efficacy, safety, optimal technique, and best protocol for cephalic version of breech presentation. © 2018 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  5. Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive (IGRA) Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive (IGRA) Version 2 consists of quality-controlled radiosonde observations of temperature, humidity, and wind at stations across...

  6. Integrated Procurement Management System, Version II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, L. J.

    1985-01-01

    Integrated Procurement Management System, Version II (IPMS II) is online/ batch system for collecting developing, managing and disseminating procurementrelated data at NASA Johnson Space Center. Portions of IPMS II adaptable to other procurement situations.

  7. TJ-II Library Manual (Version 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribaldos, V.; Milligen, B. Ph. van; Lopez-Fraguas, A.

    2001-01-01

    This is a manual of use of the TJ2 Numerical Library that has been developed for making numerical computations of different TJ-II configurations. This manual is a new version of the earlier manual CIEMAT report 806. (Author)

  8. Fetomaternal hemorrhage during external cephalic version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Marc; Marquette, Gerald P; Varin, Jocelyne; Champagne, Josette; Bujold, Emmanuel

    2008-07-01

    To estimate the frequency and volume of fetomaternal hemorrhage during external cephalic version for term breech singleton fetuses and to identify risk factors involved with this complication. A prospective observational study was performed including all patients undergoing a trial of external cephalic version for a breech presentation of at least 36 weeks of gestation between 1987 and 2001 in our center. A search for fetal erythrocytes using the standard Kleihauer-Betke test was obtained before and after each external cephalic version. The frequency and volume of fetomaternal hemorrhage were calculated. Putative risk factors for fetomaternal hemorrhage were evaluated by chi(2) test and Mann-Whitney U test. A Kleihauer-Betke test result was available before and after 1,311 trials of external cephalic version. The Kleihauer-Betke test was positive in 67 (5.1%) before the procedure. Of the 1,244 women with a negative Kleihauer-Betke test before external cephalic version, 30 (2.4%) had a positive Kleihauer-Betke test after the procedure. Ten (0.8%) had an estimated fetomaternal hemorrhage greater than 1 mL, and one (0.08%) had an estimated fetomaternal hemorrhage greater than 30 mL. The risk of fetomaternal hemorrhage was not influenced by parity, gestational age, body mass index, number of attempts at version, placental location, or amniotic fluid index. The risk of detectable fetomaternal hemorrhage during external cephalic version was 2.4%, with fetomaternal hemorrhage more than 30 mL in less than 0.1% of cases. These data suggest that the performance of a Kleihauer-Betke test is unwarranted in uneventful external cephalic version and that in Rh-negative women, no further Rh immune globulin is necessary other than the routine 300-microgram dose at 28 weeks of gestation and postpartum. II.

  9. Anesthetic management of external cephalic version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalifoux, Laurie A; Sullivan, John T

    2013-09-01

    Breech presentation is common at term and its reduction through external cephalic version represents a noninvasive opportunity to avoid cesarean delivery and the associated maternal morbidity. In addition to uterine relaxants, neuraxial anesthesia is associated with increased success of version procedures when surgical anesthetic dosing is used. The intervention is likely cost effective given the effect size and the avoided high costs of cesarean delivery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. SHUFFLE. Windows 95/98/2000 version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavic, S.; Zefran, B.

    2000-01-01

    Program package SHUFFLE was developed to help the user during fuel loading and unloading operations at a nuclear power plant. The first version, developed in 1992, has been written in the CLIPPER program language and run under the DOS operating system. Since the DOS environment exhibits several drawbacks regarding code portability and flexibility, the recent SHUFFLE version has been transformed to run under the MS Windows operating system. (author)

  11. Ecodesign Directive version 2.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This present report reports on the main findings of the project Ecodesign Directive version 2.0 - from Energy Efficiency to Resource Efficiency. The project is financed by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency and ran from December 2012 to June 2014.......This present report reports on the main findings of the project Ecodesign Directive version 2.0 - from Energy Efficiency to Resource Efficiency. The project is financed by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency and ran from December 2012 to June 2014....

  12. Cubical version of combinatorial differential forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Anders

    2010-01-01

    The theory of combinatorial differential forms is usually presented in simplicial terms. We present here a cubical version; it depends on the possibility of forming affine combinations of mutual neighbour points in a manifold, in the context of synthetic differential geometry.......The theory of combinatorial differential forms is usually presented in simplicial terms. We present here a cubical version; it depends on the possibility of forming affine combinations of mutual neighbour points in a manifold, in the context of synthetic differential geometry....

  13. Implementing version support for complex objects

    OpenAIRE

    Blanken, Henk

    1991-01-01

    New applications in the area of office information systems, computer aided design and manufacturing make new demands upon database management systems. Among others highly structured objects and their history have to be represented and manipulated. The paper discusses some general problems concerning the access and storage of complex objects with their versions and the solutions developed within the AIM/II project. Queries related to versions are distinguished in ASOF queries (asking informati...

  14. A kernel version of multivariate alteration detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Vestergaard, Jacob Schack

    2013-01-01

    Based on the established methods kernel canonical correlation analysis and multivariate alteration detection we introduce a kernel version of multivariate alteration detection. A case study with SPOT HRV data shows that the kMAD variates focus on extreme change observations.......Based on the established methods kernel canonical correlation analysis and multivariate alteration detection we introduce a kernel version of multivariate alteration detection. A case study with SPOT HRV data shows that the kMAD variates focus on extreme change observations....

  15. An investigation into the use of polymer blends to improve the printability of and regulate drug release from pharmaceutical solid dispersions prepared via fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhijjaj, Muqdad; Belton, Peter; Qi, Sheng

    2016-11-01

    FDM 3D printing has been recently attracted increasing research efforts towards the production of personalized solid oral formulations. However, commercially available FDM printers are extremely limited with regards to the materials that can be processed to few types of thermoplastic polymers, which often may not be pharmaceutically approved materials nor ideal for optimizing dosage form performance of poor soluble compounds. This study explored the use of polymer blends as a formulation strategy to overcome this processability issue and to provide adjustable drug release rates from the printed dispersions. Solid dispersions of felodipine, the model drug, were successfully fabricated using FDM 3D printing with polymer blends of PEG, PEO and Tween 80 with either Eudragit E PO or Soluplus. As PVA is one of most widely used polymers in FDM 3D printing, a PVA based solid dispersion was used as a benchmark to compare the polymer blend systems to in terms of processability. The polymer blends exhibited excellent printability and were suitable for processing using a commercially available FDM 3D printer. With 10% drug loading, all characterization data indicated that the model drug was molecularly dispersed in the matrices. During in vitro dissolution testing, it was clear that the disintegration behavior of the formulations significantly influenced the rates of drug release. Eudragit EPO based blend dispersions showed bulk disintegration; whereas the Soluplus based blends showed the 'peeling' style disintegration of strip-by-strip. The results indicated that interplay of the miscibility between excipients in the blends, the solubility of the materials in the dissolution media and the degree of fusion between the printed strips during FDM process can be used to manipulate the drug release rate of the dispersions. This brings new insight into the design principles of controlled release formulations using FDM 3D printing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. London SPAN version 4 parameter file format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-06-01

    Powernext SA is a Multilateral Trading Facility in charge of managing the French power exchange through an optional and anonymous organised trading system. Powernext SA collaborates with the clearing organization LCH.Clearnet SA to secure and facilitate the transactions. The French Standard Portfolio Analysis of Risk (SPAN) is a system used by LCH.Clearnet to calculate the initial margins from and for its clearing members. SPAN is a computerized system which calculates the impact of several possible variations of rates and volatility on by-product portfolios. The initial margin call is equal to the maximum probable loss calculated by the system. This document contains details of the format of the London SPAN version 4 parameter file. This file contains all the parameters and risk arrays required to calculate SPAN margins. London SPAN Version 4 is an upgrade from Version 3, which is also known as LME SPAN. This document contains the full revised file specification, highlighting the changes from Version 3 to Version 4

  17. New developments in program STANSOL version 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, W.H.

    1981-10-01

    STANSOL is a computer program that applied a solution for the mechanical displacement, stress, and strain in rotationally-transversely isotropic, homogeneous, axisymmetric solenoids. Careful application of the solution permits the complex mechanical behavior of multilayered, nonhomogeneous solenoids to be examined in which the loads may vary arbitrarily from layer to layer. Loads applied to the solenoid model by program STANSOL may consist of differential temperature, winding preload, internal and/or external surface pressure, and electromagnetic Lorentz body forces. STANSOL version 3, the latest update to the original version of the computer program, also permits structural analysis of solenoid magnets in which frictionless interlayer gaps may open or close. This paper presents the new theory coded into version 3 of the STANSOL program, as well as the new input data format and graphical output display of the resulting analysis

  18. Nuclear criticality safety handbook. Version 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-03-01

    The Nuclear Criticality Safety Handbook, Version 2 essentially includes the description of the Supplement Report to the Nuclear Criticality Safety Handbook, released in 1995, into the first version of Nuclear Criticality Safety Handbook, published in 1988. The following two points are new: (1) exemplifying safety margins related to modelled dissolution and extraction processes, (2) describing evaluation methods and alarm system for criticality accidents. Revision is made based on previous studies for the chapter that treats modelling the fuel system: e.g., the fuel grain size that the system can be regarded as homogeneous, non-uniformity effect of fuel solution, and burnup credit. This revision solves the inconsistencies found in the first version between the evaluation of errors found in JACS code system and criticality condition data that were calculated based on the evaluation. (author)

  19. An Improved Version of TOPAZ 3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnykh, Anatoly

    2003-01-01

    An improved version of the TOPAZ 3D gun code is presented as a powerful tool for beam optics simulation. In contrast to the previous version of TOPAZ 3D, the geometry of the device under test is introduced into TOPAZ 3D directly from a CAD program, such as Solid Edge or AutoCAD. In order to have this new feature, an interface was developed, using the GiD software package as a meshing code. The article describes this method with two models to illustrate the results

  20. A kernel version of spatial factor analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2009-01-01

    . Schölkopf et al. introduce kernel PCA. Shawe-Taylor and Cristianini is an excellent reference for kernel methods in general. Bishop and Press et al. describe kernel methods among many other subjects. Nielsen and Canty use kernel PCA to detect change in univariate airborne digital camera images. The kernel...... version of PCA handles nonlinearities by implicitly transforming data into high (even infinite) dimensional feature space via the kernel function and then performing a linear analysis in that space. In this paper we shall apply kernel versions of PCA, maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) analysis...

  1. Stratified B-trees and versioning dictionaries

    OpenAIRE

    Twigg, Andy; Byde, Andrew; Milos, Grzegorz; Moreton, Tim; Wilkes, John; Wilkie, Tom

    2011-01-01

    A classic versioned data structure in storage and computer science is the copy-on-write (CoW) B-tree -- it underlies many of today's file systems and databases, including WAFL, ZFS, Btrfs and more. Unfortunately, it doesn't inherit the B-tree's optimality properties; it has poor space utilization, cannot offer fast updates, and relies on random IO to scale. Yet, nothing better has been developed since. We describe the `stratified B-tree', which beats all known semi-external memory versioned B...

  2. Stress analysis for robot arm version 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar Abdul Rahman; Fikri, A.; Salleh, M. S.; Mohd Arif Hamzah; Azraf Azman; Rosli Darmawan; Mohd Rizal Mamat

    2010-01-01

    The design of a robot needs to be analyzed to ensure the specification and requirement by the user is full filled. Therefore, stress analysis has been performed on the robot arm version 2 after its complete fabrication. This paper discusses the result of the analysis and proposed measures to improve the future design of robot arm. (author)

  3. PROSA version 4.0 manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bicking, U.; Golly, W.; Peter, N.; Seifert, R.

    1991-05-01

    This report includes a comprehensive manual of the computer program PROSA which illustrate the handling and functioning of PROSA. The manual PROSA 4.0 (FORTRAN 77) describes the PC Version of PROSA including its program moduls. The PROSA program package is a statistical tool to decide on the basis of statistical assumptions whether in a given sequence of material balance periods a loss of material might have occurred. The evaluation of the material balance data is based on statistical test procedures. In the present PROSA Version 4.0 the three tests CUMUF test, PAGE's test and GEMUF test are applied to a sequence of material balances. PROSA Version 4.0 supports a real sequential evaluation. That means, PROSA is not only able to evaluate a series of MUF values sequentially after the campaign has finished, but also real sequentially during the campaign. PROSA Version 4.0 is a menu-guided computer program. Data input can be performed either by diskette or by key-enter. Result output is primarily an information whether or not an alarm is indicated. This information can be displayed either numerically or graphically. Therefore, a comfortable graphical output utility is attached to PROSA 4.0. The program moduls are compiled and linked with the Ryan Mc-Farland Compiler. The PROSA graphical utility uses the PLOT88 Library of Plotworks, Inc. (orig./HP) [de

  4. WIMSD4 Version 101 and cataloged procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, M.J.; Taubman, C.J.; Lawrence, J.H.

    1982-06-01

    The changes made to WIMSD4 to produce Version 101 on the Harwell IBM 3033 and the Winfrith ICL 2976 computers are summarised. A detailed description of the amended catalogued procedure for executing WIMSD4 on the Harwell Computer is given. (author)

  5. MCNP Version 6.2 Release Notes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bull, Jeffrey S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Solomon, C. J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brown, Forrest B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); McKinney, Gregg Walter [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rising, Michael Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dixon, David A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Martz, Roger Lee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hughes, Henry G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cox, Lawrence James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zukaitis, Anthony J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Armstrong, J. C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Forster, Robert Arthur [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Casswell, Laura [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-02-05

    Monte Carlo N-Particle or MCNP® is a general-purpose Monte Carlo radiation-transport code designed to track many particle types over broad ranges of energies. This MCNP Version 6.2 follows the MCNP6.1.1 beta version and has been released in order to provide the radiation transport community with the latest feature developments and bug fixes for MCNP. Since the last release of MCNP major work has been conducted to improve the code base, add features, and provide tools to facilitate ease of use of MCNP version 6.2 as well as the analysis of results. These release notes serve as a general guide for the new/improved physics, source, data, tallies, unstructured mesh, code enhancements and tools. For more detailed information on each of the topics, please refer to the appropriate references or the user manual which can be found at http://mcnp.lanl.gov. This release of MCNP version 6.2 contains 39 new features in addition to 172 bug fixes and code enhancements. There are still some 33 known issues the user should familiarize themselves with (see Appendix).

  6. ICRAF Species Switchboard. Version 1.2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindt, R.; Ordonez, J.; Smith, E.

    2015-01-01

    The current version of the Agroforestry Species Switchboard documents the presence of a total of 26,135 plant species (33,813 species including synonyms) across 19 web-based databases. When available, hyperlinks to information on the selected species in particular databases are provided. In total...

  7. A comparison of the Space Station version of ASTROMAG with two free-flyer versions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.

    1992-06-01

    This Report compares the Space Station version of ASTROMAG with free-flyer versions of ASTROMAG which could fly on an Atlas lla rocket and a Delta rocket. Launch with either free-flyer imposes severe weight limits on the magnet and its cryogenic system. Both versions of ASTROMAG magnet which fly on free-flying satellites do not have to be charged more than once during the mission. This permits one to simplify the charging system and the cryogenic system. The helium ll pump loop which supplies helium to the gas cooled electrical leads can be eliminated in both of the free-flyer versions of the ASTROMAG magnet. This report describes the superconducting dipole moment correction coils which are necessary for the magnet to operate on a free-flying satellite

  8. Major Upgrades to the AIRS Version-6 Ozone Profile Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Blaisdell, John; Iredell, Lena

    2015-01-01

    This research is a continuation of part of what was shown at the last AIRS Science Team Meeting in the talk Improved Water Vapor and Ozone Profiles in SRT AIRS Version-6.X and the AIRS February 11, 2015 NetMeeting Further improvements in water vapor and ozone profiles compared to Version-6.AIRS Version-6 was finalized in late 2012 and is now operational. Version-6 contained many significant improvements in retrieval methodology compared to Version-5. However, Version-6 retrieval methodology used for the water vapor profile q(p) and ozone profile O3(p) retrievals is basically unchanged from Version-5, or even from Version-4. Subsequent research has made significant improvements in both water vapor and O3 profiles compared to Version-6. This talk will concentrate on O3 profile retrievals. Improvements in water vapor profile retrievals are given in a separate presentation.

  9. RASCAL Version 2.0 workbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athey, G.F.; McKenna, T.J.

    1993-05-01

    The Radiological Assessment System for Consequence Analysis, Version 2.0 (RASCAL 2.0) has been developed for use by the NRC personnel who respond to radiological emergencies. This workbook is intended to complement the RASCAL 2.0 User's Guide (NUREG/CR-5247, Vol. 1). The workbook contains exercises designed to familiarize the user with the computer based tools of RASCAL through hands-on problem solving. The workbook is composed of four major sections. The first part is a RASCAL familiarization exercise to acquaint the user with the operation of the forms, menus, on-line help, and documentation. The latter three parts contain exercises in using the three tools of RASCAL Version 2.0: DECAY, FM-DOSE, and ST-DOSE. Each section of exercises is followed by discussion on how the tools could be used to solve the problem

  10. HECTR Version 1.5 user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingman, S.E.; Camp, A.L.; Wong, C.C.; King, D.B.; Gasser, R.D.

    1986-04-01

    This report describes the use and features of HECTR Version 1.5. HECTR is a relatively fast-running, lumped-volume containment analysis computer program that is most useful for performing parametric studies. The main purpose of HECTR is to analyze nuclear reactor accidents involving the transport and combustion of hydrogen, but HECTR can also function as an experiment analysis tool and can solve a limited set of other types of containment problems. New models added to HECTR Version 1.5 include fan coolers, containment leakage, continuous burning, and the capability to treat carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Models for the ice condenser, sumps, and Mark III suppression pool were upgraded. HECTR is designed for flexibility and provides for user control of many important parameters, particularly those related to hydrogen combustion. Built-in correlations and default values of key parameters are also provided

  11. Kernel versions of some orthogonal transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    Kernel versions of orthogonal transformations such as principal components are based on a dual formulation also termed Q-mode analysis in which the data enter into the analysis via inner products in the Gram matrix only. In the kernel version the inner products of the original data are replaced...... by inner products between nonlinear mappings into higher dimensional feature space. Via kernel substitution also known as the kernel trick these inner products between the mappings are in turn replaced by a kernel function and all quantities needed in the analysis are expressed in terms of this kernel...... function. This means that we need not know the nonlinear mappings explicitly. Kernel principal component analysis (PCA) and kernel minimum noise fraction (MNF) analyses handle nonlinearities by implicitly transforming data into high (even infinite) dimensional feature space via the kernel function...

  12. The Gaia Framework: Version Support In Web Based Open Hypermedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj; Kejser, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    The GAIA framework prototype, described herein, explores the possibilities and problems that arise when combining versioning and open hypermedia paradigms. It will be argued that it - by adding versioning as a separate service in the hypermedia architecture – is possible to build consistent...... versioning field and GAIA is compared with previous attempts at defining hypermedia versioning frameworks. GAIA is capable of multi-level versioning and versioning of structures and supports freezing mechanisms for both documents and hyperstructure. The experiences from GAIA provide an input to new reference...

  13. The Gaia Framework: Version Support In Web Based Open Hypermedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejser, Thomas; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2003-01-01

    The GAIA framework prototype, described herein, explores the possibilities and problems that arise when combining versioning and open hypermedia paradigms. It will be argued that it - by adding versioning as a separate service in the hypermedia architecture - is possible to build consistent...... versioning field and GAIA is compared with previous attempts at defining hypermedia versioning frameworks. GAIA is capable of multi-level versioning and versioning of structures and supports freezing mechanisms for both documents and hyperstructure. The experiences from GAIA provide an input to new reference...

  14. PC 386-based version of DORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanker, E.

    1992-01-01

    Problems encountered during the adaptation of DORT on a personal computer using a Fortran77 compiler are described, modifications done to solve these are explained. Three test cases were run with the modified version and results are compared with those obtained on an IBM 3090/200. Numerical differences were observed in the last three decimal digits of the computations at most. The running times on the PC were found to be satisfactory for these test cases

  15. UGV Control Interoperability Profile (IOP), Version 0

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    a tracked vehicle to climb stairs , traverse ditches/ruts, etc. The operator should be able to control the position of the flippers via the OCU and...Unclassified UGV Control Interoperability Profile (IOP) Version 0 Robotic Systems, Joint Project Office (RS JPO) SFAE-GCS-UGV MS...NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Robotic Systems, Joint Project Office (RS JPO),SFAE-GCS-UGV MS 266,6501 East 11 Mile Road

  16. Printable Transparent Conductive Films for Flexible Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongdong; Lai, Wen-Yong; Zhang, Yi-Zhou; Huang, Wei

    2018-03-01

    Printed electronics are an important enabling technology for the development of low-cost, large-area, and flexible optoelectronic devices. Transparent conductive films (TCFs) made from solution-processable transparent conductive materials, such as metal nanoparticles/nanowires, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and conductive polymers, can simultaneously exhibit high mechanical flexibility, low cost, and better photoelectric properties compared to the commonly used sputtered indium-tin-oxide-based TCFs, and are thus receiving great attention. This Review summarizes recent advances of large-area flexible TCFs enabled by several roll-to-roll-compatible printed techniques including inkjet printing, screen printing, offset printing, and gravure printing using the emerging transparent conductive materials. The preparation of TCFs including ink formulation, substrate treatment, patterning, and postprocessing, and their potential applications in solar cells, organic light-emitting diodes, and touch panels are discussed in detail. The rational combination of a variety of printed techniques with emerging transparent conductive materials is believed to extend the opportunities for the development of printed electronics within the realm of flexible electronics and beyond. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Tocolysis in term breech external cephalic version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor Azlin, M I; Haliza, H; Mahdy, Z A; Anson, I; Fahya, M N; Jamil, M A

    2005-01-01

    To study the effect of ritodrine tocolysis on the success of external cephalic version (ECV) and to assess the role of ECV in breech presentation at our centre. A prospective randomized double-blind-controlled trial comparing ritodrine and placebo in ECV of singleton term breech pregnancy at a tertiary hospital. Among the 60 patients who were recruited, there was a success rate of 36.7%. Ritodrine tocolysis significantly improved the success rate of ECV (50% vs. 23%; P=0.032). There was a marked effect of ritodrine tocolysis on the ECV success in nulliparae (36.4% vs. 13.0%) and multiparae (87.5% vs. 57.1%). External cephalic version has shown to reduce the rate of cesarean section for breech presentation by 33.5% in our unit. External cephalic version significantly reduced the rate of cesarean section in breech presentation, and ritodrine tocolysis improved the success of ECV and should be offered to both nulliparous and parous women in the case of term breech presentation.

  18. Mission Data System Java Edition Version 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinholtz, William K.; Wagner, David A.

    2013-01-01

    The Mission Data System framework defines closed-loop control system abstractions from State Analysis including interfaces for state variables, goals, estimators, and controllers that can be adapted to implement a goal-oriented control system. The framework further provides an execution environment that includes a goal scheduler, execution engine, and fault monitor that support the expression of goal network activity plans. Using these frameworks, adapters can build a goal-oriented control system where activity coordination is verified before execution begins (plan time), and continually during execution. Plan failures including violations of safety constraints expressed in the plan can be handled through automatic re-planning. This version optimizes a number of key interfaces and features to minimize dependencies, performance overhead, and improve reliability. Fault diagnosis and real-time projection capabilities are incorporated. This version enhances earlier versions primarily through optimizations and quality improvements that raise the technology readiness level. Goals explicitly constrain system states over explicit time intervals to eliminate ambiguity about intent, as compared to command-oriented control that only implies persistent intent until another command is sent. A goal network scheduling and verification process ensures that all goals in the plan are achievable before starting execution. Goal failures at runtime can be detected (including predicted failures) and handled by adapted response logic. Responses can include plan repairs (try an alternate tactic to achieve the same goal), goal shedding, ignoring the fault, cancelling the plan, or safing the system.

  19. Condiment: general synthesis of different versions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangin, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    CONDIMENT is a code for the computation of ion migration and diffusion in areas close to radwaste storage facilities. This type of application was found to require a mesh pattern and boundary conditions different from the usual, which justifies the writing of a new code. A first version (version 2) only convers the migration of a single, non radioactive ion. The discretization, the selection of an implicit scheme, and the various boundary conditions are described. Physical quantities such as diffusion coefficient, porosity, retardation factor and permeability vary in space but not in time. A first extension consists of taking consideration radioactivity and filiation. Discretization with respect to time is modified, and a check performed on the original analytical solutions. In a second extension, consideration is given to non-linear adsorption, which makes it necessary to use the NEWTON-RAPHSON method. One can thus modelize the FREUNDLICH isotherms, in spite of the singular point at the origin. Diffusion, apparent porosity and permeability values can be changed as computed proceeds. The last extension is the introduction of two ions with the formation of precipitate. The formulation is derived from that used for non-linear adsorption, the precipitate playing a part similar to that of adsorbed concentration. Agreement with the original analytical solutions is verified. The case of migration with several interacting ions is approached from the theoretical standpoint. We described the discretization, which is similar to that in the first version, but involves many additional variables. Numerical stability is shown to be unconditional [fr

  20. Overview of MPLNET Version 3 Cloud Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jasper R.; Campbell, James; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Stewart, Sebastian A.; Haftings, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Micro Pulse Lidar Network, version 3, cloud detection algorithm is described and differences relative to the previous version are highlighted. Clouds are identified from normalized level 1 signal profiles using two complementary methods. The first method considers vertical signal derivatives for detecting low-level clouds. The second method, which detects high-level clouds like cirrus, is based on signal uncertainties necessitated by the relatively low signal-to-noise ratio exhibited in the upper troposphere by eye-safe network instruments, especially during daytime. Furthermore, a multitemporal averaging scheme is used to improve cloud detection under conditions of a weak signal-to-noise ratio. Diurnal and seasonal cycles of cloud occurrence frequency based on one year of measurements at the Goddard Space Flight Center (Greenbelt, Maryland) site are compared for the new and previous versions. The largest differences, and perceived improvement, in detection occurs for high clouds (above 5 km, above MSL), which increase in occurrence by over 5%. There is also an increase in the detection of multilayered cloud profiles from 9% to 19%. Macrophysical properties and estimates of cloud optical depth are presented for a transparent cirrus dataset. However, the limit to which the cirrus cloud optical depth could be reliably estimated occurs between 0.5 and 0.8. A comparison using collocated CALIPSO measurements at the Goddard Space Flight Center and Singapore Micro Pulse Lidar Network (MPLNET) sites indicates improvements in cloud occurrence frequencies and layer heights.

  1. Reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the Resilience Scale and its short version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondo Maki

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clinical relevance of resilience has received considerable attention in recent years. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the Resilience Scale (RS and short version of the RS (RS-14. Findings The original English version of RS was translated to Japanese and the Japanese version was confirmed by back-translation. Participants were 430 nursing and university psychology students. The RS, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES, Social Support Questionnaire (SSQ, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS, and Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS were administered. Internal consistency, convergent validity and factor loadings were assessed at initial assessment. Test-retest reliability was assessed using data collected from 107 students at 3 months after baseline. Mean score on the RS was 111.19. Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the RS and RS-14 were 0.90 and 0.88, respectively. The test-retest correlation coefficients for the RS and RS-14 were 0.83 and 0.84, respectively. Both the RS and RS-14 were negatively correlated with the CES-D and SDS, and positively correlated with the RSES, SSQ and PSS (all p Conclusions This study demonstrates that the Japanese version of RS has psychometric properties with high degrees of internal consistency, high test-retest reliability, and relatively low concurrent validity. RS-14 was equivalent to the RS in internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity. Low scores on the RS, a positive correlation between the RS and perceived stress, and a relatively low correlation between the RS and depressive symptoms in this study suggest that validity of the Japanese version of the RS might be relatively low compared with the original English version.

  2. Comparing two versions of the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miley, Anna Åkerstedt; Kecklund, Göran; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn

    2016-01-01

    The Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) is frequently used to study sleepiness in various contexts. However, it exists in two versions, one with labels on every other step (version A), and one with labels on every step (version B) on the 9-point scale. To date, there are no studies examining whether these versions can be used interchangeably. The two versions were here compared in a 24 hr wakefulness study of 12 adults. KSS ratings were obtained every hour, alternating version A and B. Results indicated that the two versions are highly correlated, do not have different response distributions on labeled and unlabeled steps, and that the distributions across all steps have a high level of correspondence (Kappa = 0.73). It was concluded that the two versions are quite similar.

  3. United States Climate Reference Network (USCRN) Processed Data (Version Superseded)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Please note, this dataset has been superseded by a newer version (see below). Users should not use this version except in rare cases (e.g., when reproducing previous...

  4. Global Historical Climatology Network - Monthly (GHCN-M), Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Please note, the temperature portion of this dataset has been superseded by a newer version. Users should not use this version except in rare cases (e.g., when...

  5. Gridded Species Distribution, Version 1: Global Amphibians Presence Grids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Amphibians Presence Grids of the Gridded Species Distribution, Version 1 is a reclassified version of the original grids of amphibian species distribution...

  6. Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive (IGRA) - Monthly Means (Version Superseded)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Please note, this dataset has been superseded by a newer version (see below). Users should not use this version except in rare cases (e.g., when reproducing previous...

  7. Validity of the Spanish version of the Emotional Labour Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picardo, Juan M; López-Fernández, Consuelo; Hervás, María José Abellán

    2014-06-01

    In this article we address concerns raised by Brumit and Glenn (2013) regarding the validity of the Spanish version of the Emotional Labour Scale (ELS). We respond to requests in relation to the translated version of the scale and the eigenvalue series. We also give an explanation of the differences in results between the original version and the Spanish version of the scale. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Progress Towards AIRS Science Team Version-7 at SRT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Blaisdell, John; Iredell, Lena; Kouvaris, Louis

    2016-01-01

    The AIRS Science Team Version-6 retrieval algorithm is currently producing level-3 Climate Data Records (CDRs) from AIRS that have been proven useful to scientists in understanding climate processes. CDRs are gridded level-3 products which include all cases passing AIRS Climate QC. SRT has made significant further improvements to AIRS Version-6. At the last Science Team Meeting, we described results using SRT AIRS Version-6.22. SRT Version-6.22 is now an official build at JPL called 6.2.4. Version-6.22 results are significantly improved compared to Version-6, especially with regard to water vapor and ozone profiles. We have adapted AIRS Version-6.22 to run with CrIS/ATMS, at the Sounder SIPS which processed CrIS/ATMS data for August 2014. JPL AIRS Version-6.22 uses the Version-6 AIRS tuning coefficients. AIRS Version-6.22 has at least two limitations which must be improved before finalization of Version-7: Version-6.22 total O3 has spurious high values in the presence of Saharan dust over the ocean; and Version-6.22 retrieved upper stratospheric temperatures are very poor in polar winter. SRT Version-6.28 addresses the first concern. John Blaisdell ran the analog of AIRS Version-6.28 in his own sandbox at JPL for the 14th and 15th of every month in 2014 and all of July and October for 2014. AIRS Version-6.28a is hot off the presses and addresses the second concern.

  9. Detailed analysis of the Japanese version of the Rapid Dementia Screening Test, revised version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Yasushi; Yoshino, Aihide; Muramatsu, Taro; Mimura, Masaru

    2017-11-01

    The number-transcoding task on the Japanese version of the Rapid Dementia Screening Test (RDST-J) requires mutual conversion between Arabic and Chinese numerals (209 to , 4054 to , to 681, to 2027). In this task, question and answer styles of Chinese numerals are written horizontally. We investigated the impact of changing the task so that Chinese numerals are written vertically. Subjects were 211 patients with very mild to severe Alzheimer's disease and 42 normal controls. Mini-Mental State Examination scores ranged from 26 to 12, and Clinical Dementia Rating scores ranged from 0.5 to 3. Scores of all four subtasks of the transcoding task significantly improved in the revised version compared with the original version. The sensitivity and specificity of total scores ≥9 on the RDST-J original and revised versions for discriminating between controls and subjects with Clinical Dementia Rating scores of 0.5 were 63.8% and 76.6% on the original and 60.1% and 85.8% on revised version. The revised RDST-J total score had low sensitivity and high specificity compared with the original RDST-J for discriminating subjects with Clinical Dementia Rating scores of 0.5 from controls. © 2017 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  10. CLIPS 6.0 - C LANGUAGE INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEM, VERSION 6.0 (IBM PC VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnell, B.

    1994-01-01

    COOL (that is, a rule can pattern match on objects created using COOL). CLIPS 6.0 provides the capability to define functions, overloaded functions, and global variables interactively. In addition, CLIPS can be embedded within procedural code, called as a subroutine, and integrated with languages such as C, FORTRAN and Ada. CLIPS can be easily extended by a user through the use of several well-defined protocols. CLIPS provides several delivery options for programs including the ability to generate stand alone executables or to load programs from text or binary files. CLIPS 6.0 provides support for the modular development and execution of knowledge bases with the defmodule construct. CLIPS modules allow a set of constructs to be grouped together such that explicit control can be maintained over restricting the access of the constructs by other modules. This type of control is similar to global and local scoping used in languages such as C or Ada. By restricting access to deftemplate and defclass constructs, modules can function as blackboards, permitting only certain facts and instances to be seen by other modules. Modules are also used by rules to provide execution control. The CRSV (Cross-Reference, Style, and Verification) utility included with previous version of CLIPS is no longer supported. The capabilities provided by this tool are now available directly within CLIPS 6.0 to aid in the development, debugging, and verification of large rule bases. COSMIC offers four distribution versions of CLIPS 6.0: UNIX (MSC-22433), VMS (MSC-22434), MACINTOSH (MSC-22429), and IBM PC (MSC-22430). Executable files, source code, utilities, documentation, and examples are included on the program media. All distribution versions include identical source code for the command line version of CLIPS 6.0. This source code should compile on any platform with an ANSI C compiler. Each distribution version of CLIPS 6.0, except that for the Macintosh platform, includes an executable for the

  11. CLIPS 6.0 - C LANGUAGE INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEM, VERSION 6.0 (UNIX VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnell, B.

    1994-01-01

    COOL (that is, a rule can pattern match on objects created using COOL). CLIPS 6.0 provides the capability to define functions, overloaded functions, and global variables interactively. In addition, CLIPS can be embedded within procedural code, called as a subroutine, and integrated with languages such as C, FORTRAN and Ada. CLIPS can be easily extended by a user through the use of several well-defined protocols. CLIPS provides several delivery options for programs including the ability to generate stand alone executables or to load programs from text or binary files. CLIPS 6.0 provides support for the modular development and execution of knowledge bases with the defmodule construct. CLIPS modules allow a set of constructs to be grouped together such that explicit control can be maintained over restricting the access of the constructs by other modules. This type of control is similar to global and local scoping used in languages such as C or Ada. By restricting access to deftemplate and defclass constructs, modules can function as blackboards, permitting only certain facts and instances to be seen by other modules. Modules are also used by rules to provide execution control. The CRSV (Cross-Reference, Style, and Verification) utility included with previous version of CLIPS is no longer supported. The capabilities provided by this tool are now available directly within CLIPS 6.0 to aid in the development, debugging, and verification of large rule bases. COSMIC offers four distribution versions of CLIPS 6.0: UNIX (MSC-22433), VMS (MSC-22434), MACINTOSH (MSC-22429), and IBM PC (MSC-22430). Executable files, source code, utilities, documentation, and examples are included on the program media. All distribution versions include identical source code for the command line version of CLIPS 6.0. This source code should compile on any platform with an ANSI C compiler. Each distribution version of CLIPS 6.0, except that for the Macintosh platform, includes an executable for the

  12. CLIPS 6.0 - C LANGUAGE INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEM, VERSION 6.0 (MACINTOSH VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, G.

    1994-01-01

    COOL (that is, a rule can pattern match on objects created using COOL). CLIPS 6.0 provides the capability to define functions, overloaded functions, and global variables interactively. In addition, CLIPS can be embedded within procedural code, called as a subroutine, and integrated with languages such as C, FORTRAN and Ada. CLIPS can be easily extended by a user through the use of several well-defined protocols. CLIPS provides several delivery options for programs including the ability to generate stand alone executables or to load programs from text or binary files. CLIPS 6.0 provides support for the modular development and execution of knowledge bases with the defmodule construct. CLIPS modules allow a set of constructs to be grouped together such that explicit control can be maintained over restricting the access of the constructs by other modules. This type of control is similar to global and local scoping used in languages such as C or Ada. By restricting access to deftemplate and defclass constructs, modules can function as blackboards, permitting only certain facts and instances to be seen by other modules. Modules are also used by rules to provide execution control. The CRSV (Cross-Reference, Style, and Verification) utility included with previous version of CLIPS is no longer supported. The capabilities provided by this tool are now available directly within CLIPS 6.0 to aid in the development, debugging, and verification of large rule bases. COSMIC offers four distribution versions of CLIPS 6.0: UNIX (MSC-22433), VMS (MSC-22434), MACINTOSH (MSC-22429), and IBM PC (MSC-22430). Executable files, source code, utilities, documentation, and examples are included on the program media. All distribution versions include identical source code for the command line version of CLIPS 6.0. This source code should compile on any platform with an ANSI C compiler. Each distribution version of CLIPS 6.0, except that for the Macintosh platform, includes an executable for the

  13. [External cephalic version of breech presentation at term].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrechtsen, Susanne; Berge, Lillian N; Børdahl, Per E; Egeland, Thore; Henriksen, Tore; Håheim, Lise Lund; Øian, Pål

    2005-03-03

    External cephalic version could be an alternative to either vaginal delivery or caesarean section in breech presentation at term. A systematic literature review about external cephalic version in breech presentation. The numbers of breech presentation delivered by caesarean section could probably be reduced in Norway by offering version, but this would not affect perinatal mortality.

  14. Toward a microrealistic version of quantum mechanics. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, N.

    1976-01-01

    Possible objections to the propensity microrealistic version of quantum mechanics proposed previously are answered. This version of quantum mechanics is compared with the statistical, particle, microrealistic viewpoint, and a crucial experiment is proposed designed to distinguish between these two microrealistic versions of quantum mechanics

  15. Evaluation of Psychometric Properties of the Malay Version ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Psychometric Properties of the Malay Version Perceived Stress Scale in Two Occupational Settings In Malaysia. ... Statistical analysis was carried out using statistical package for the social sciences version 16 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA) software. Results: Analysis yielded two factor structure of the Malay version ...

  16. Fuzzy Versions of Epistemic and Deontic Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gounder, Ramasamy S.; Esterline, Albert C.

    1998-01-01

    Epistemic and deontic logics are modal logics, respectively, of knowledge and of the normative concepts of obligation, permission, and prohibition. Epistemic logic is useful in formalizing systems of communicating processes and knowledge and belief in AI (Artificial Intelligence). Deontic logic is useful in computer science wherever we must distinguish between actual and ideal behavior, as in fault tolerance and database integrity constraints. We here discuss fuzzy versions of these logics. In the crisp versions, various axioms correspond to various properties of the structures used in defining the semantics of the logics. Thus, any axiomatic theory will be characterized not only by its axioms but also by the set of properties holding of the corresponding semantic structures. Fuzzy logic does not proceed with axiomatic systems, but fuzzy versions of the semantic properties exist and can be shown to correspond to some of the axioms for the crisp systems in special ways that support dependency networks among assertions in a modal domain. This in turn allows one to implement truth maintenance systems. For the technical development of epistemic logic, and for that of deontic logic. To our knowledge, we are the first to address fuzzy epistemic and fuzzy deontic logic explicitly and to consider the different systems and semantic properties available. We give the syntax and semantics of epistemic logic and discuss the correspondence between axioms of epistemic logic and properties of semantic structures. The same topics are covered for deontic logic. Fuzzy epistemic and fuzzy deontic logic discusses the relationship between axioms and semantic properties for these logics. Our results can be exploited in truth maintenance systems.

  17. TOUGH2 User's Guide Version 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruess, K.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Moridis, G.J.

    1999-01-01

    TOUGH2 is a numerical simulator for nonisothermal flows of multicomponent, multiphase fluids in one, two, and three-dimensional porous and fractured media. The chief applications for which TOUGH2 is designed are in geothermal reservoir engineering, nuclear waste disposal, environmental assessment and remediation, and unsaturated and saturated zone hydrology. TOUGH2 was first released to the public in 1991; the 1991 code was updated in 1994 when a set of preconditioned conjugate gradient solvers was added to allow a more efficient solution of large problems. The current Version 2.0 features several new fluid property modules and offers enhanced process modeling capabilities, such as coupled reservoir-wellbore flow, precipitation and dissolution effects, and multiphase diffusion. Numerous improvements in previously released modules have been made and new user features have been added, such as enhanced linear equation solvers, and writing of graphics files. The T2VOC module for three-phase flows of water, air and a volatile organic chemical (VOC), and the T2DM module for hydrodynamic dispersion in 2-D flow systems have been integrated into the overall structure of the code and are included in the Version 2.0 package. Data inputs are upwardly compatible with the previous version. Coding changes were generally kept to a minimum, and were only made as needed to achieve the additional functionalities desired. TOUGH2 is written in standard FORTRAN77 and can be run on any platform, such as workstations, PCs, Macintosh, mainframe and supercomputers, for which appropriate FORTRAN compilers are available. This report is a self-contained guide to application of TOUGH2 to subsurface flow problems. It gives a technical description of the TOUGH2 code, including a discussion of the physical processes modeled, and the mathematical and numerical methods used. Illustrative sample problems are presented along with detailed instructions for preparing input data

  18. Practice Bulletin No. 161: External Cephalic Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    In the United States, there is a widespread belief that the overall cesarean delivery rate is higher than necessary. Efforts are being directed toward decreasing the number of these procedures, in part by encouraging physicians to make changes in their management practices. Because breech presentations are associated with a high rate of cesarean delivery, there is renewed interest in techniques such as external cephalic version (ECV) and vaginal breech delivery. The purpose of this document is to provide information about ECV by summarizing the relevant evidence presented in published studies and to make recommendations regarding its use in obstetric practice.

  19. External RNA Controls Consortium Beta Version Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hangnoh; Pine, P Scott; McDaniel, Jennifer; Salit, Marc; Oliver, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Spike-in RNAs are valuable controls for a variety of gene expression measurements. The External RNA Controls Consortium developed test sets that were used in a number of published reports. Here we provide an authoritative table that summarizes, updates, and corrects errors in the test version that ultimately resulted in the certified Standard Reference Material 2374. We have noted existence of anti-sense RNA controls in the material, corrected sub-pool memberships, and commented on control RNAs that displayed inconsistent behavior.

  20. Python pocket reference, version 2.4

    CERN Document Server

    Lutz, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Python is optimized for quality, productivity, portability, and integration. Hundreds of thousands of Python developers around the world rely on Python for general-purpose tasks, Internet scripting, systems programming, user interfaces, and product customization. Available on all major computing platforms, including commercial versions of Unix, Linux, Windows, and Mac OS X, Python is portable, powerful and remarkable easy to use. With its convenient, quick-reference format, Python Pocket Reference, 3rd Edition is the perfect on-the-job reference. More importantly, it's now been refreshed

  1. UQTk version 2.0 user manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debusschere, Bert J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sargsyan, Khachik [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Safta, Cosmin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The UQ Toolkit (UQTk) is a collection of libraries and tools for the quantification of uncertainty in numerical model predictions. Version 2.0 ffers intrusive and non-intrusive methods for propagating input uncertainties through computational models, tools for sensitivity analysis, methods for sparse surrogate construction, and Bayesian inference tools for inferring parameters from experimental data. This manual discusses the download and installation process for UQTk, provides pointers to the UQ methods used in the toolkit, and describes some of the examples provided with the toolkit.

  2. The EPICS process variable Gateway Version 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, K.

    2005-01-01

    The EPICS Process Variable Gateway is both a Channel Access Server and Channel Access Client that provides a means for many clients, typically on different subnets, to access a process variable while making only one connection to the server that owns the process variable. It also provides additional access security beyond that implemented on the server. It thus protects critical servers while providing suitably restricted access to needed process variables. The original version of the Gateway worked with EPICS Base 3.13 but required a special version, since the changes necessary for its operation were never incorporated into EPICS Base. Version 2 works with any standard EPICS Base 3.14.6 or later and has many improvements in both performance and features over the older version. The Gateway is now used at many institutions and has become a stable, high-performance application. It is capable of handling tens of thousands of process variables with hundreds of thousands of events per second. It has run for over three months in a production environment without having to be restarted. It has many internal process variables that can be used to monitor its state using standard EPICS client tools, such as MEDM and StripTool. Other internal process variables can be used to stop the Gateway, make several kinds of reports, or change the access security without stopping the Gateway. It can even be started on remote workstations from MEDM by using a Secure Shell script. This paper will describe the new Gateway and how it is used. The Gateway is both a server (like an EPICS Input/Output Controller (IOC)) and a client (like the EPICS Motif Editor and Display Manager (MEDM), StripTool, and others). Clients connect to the server side, and the client side connects to IOCs and other servers, possibly other Gateways. See Fig. 1. There are perhaps three principal reasons for using the Gateway: (1) it allows many clients to access a process variable while making only one connection to

  3. Procedure guideline for thyroid scintigraphy (version 3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietlein, M.; Schicha, H.; Eschner, W.; Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Medizinische Physik; Koeln Univ.; Leisner, B.; Allgemeines Krankenhaus St. Georg, Hamburg; Reiners, C.; Wuerzburg Univ.

    2007-01-01

    The version 3 of the procedure guideline for thyroid scintigraphy is an update of the procedure guideline previously published in 2003. The interpretation of the scintigraphy requires the knowledge of the patients' history, the palpation of the neck, the laboratory parameters and of the sonography. The interpretation of the technetium-99m uptake requires the knowledge of the TSH-level. As a consequence of the improved alimentary iodine supply the 99m Tc-uptake has decreased; 100 000 counts per scintigraphy should be acquired. For this, an imaging time of 10 minutes is generally needed using a high resolution collimator for thyroid imaging. (orig.)

  4. FBR metallic materials test manual (English version)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odaka, Susumu; Kato, Shoichi; Yoshida, Eiichi

    2003-06-01

    For the development of the fast breeder reactor, this manual describes the method of in-air and in-sodium material tests and the method of organization the data. This previous manual has revised in accordance with the revision of Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS) and the conversion to the international unit. The test methods of domestic committees such as the VAMAS (Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards) workshop were also refereed. The material test technologies accumulated in this group until now were also incorporated. This English version was prepared in order to provide more engineers with the FBR metallic materials test manual. (author)

  5. Reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the Resilience Scale and its short version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Daisuke; Uehara, Ritei; Kondo, Maki; Matsuoka, Yutaka

    2010-11-17

    The clinical relevance of resilience has received considerable attention in recent years. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the Resilience Scale (RS) and short version of the RS (RS-14). The original English version of RS was translated to Japanese and the Japanese version was confirmed by back-translation. Participants were 430 nursing and university psychology students. The RS, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), Social Support Questionnaire (SSQ), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) were administered. Internal consistency, convergent validity and factor loadings were assessed at initial assessment. Test-retest reliability was assessed using data collected from 107 students at 3 months after baseline. Mean score on the RS was 111.19. Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the RS and RS-14 were 0.90 and 0.88, respectively. The test-retest correlation coefficients for the RS and RS-14 were 0.83 and 0.84, respectively. Both the RS and RS-14 were negatively correlated with the CES-D and SDS, and positively correlated with the RSES, SSQ and PSS (all p reliability, and relatively low concurrent validity. RS-14 was equivalent to the RS in internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity. Low scores on the RS, a positive correlation between the RS and perceived stress, and a relatively low correlation between the RS and depressive symptoms in this study suggest that validity of the Japanese version of the RS might be relatively low compared with the original English version.

  6. Analgesia/anesthesia for external cephalic version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiniger, Carolyn F

    2013-06-01

    Professional society guidelines recommend that women with breech presentation be delivered surgically due to a higher incidence of fetal risks compared with vaginal delivery. An alternative is attempted external cephalic version, which if successful, enables attempted vaginal delivery. Attitudes towards external cephalic version (ECV) will be considered in this review, along with pain relief methods and their impact on ECV success rates. Articles suggest that ECV is infrequently offered, due to both physician and patient factors. Success of ECV is higher in multiparous women, complete breech, posterior placenta, or smaller fetus. Preterm ECV performance does not increase vaginal delivery rates. Neuraxial techniques (spinal or epidural) significantly increase ECV success rates, as do moxibustion and hypnosis. Four reviews summarized studies considering ECV and neuraxial techniques. These reviews suggest that neuraxial techniques using high (surgical) doses of local anesthetic are efficacious compared with control groups not using anesthesia, whereas techniques using low-doses are not. Low-dose versus high-dose neuraxial analgesia/anesthesia has not been directly compared in a single study. Based on currently available data, the rate of cephalic presentation is not increased using neuraxial techniques, but vaginal delivery rates are higher. ECV appears to be a low-risk procedure. The logistics of routine ECV and provision of optimal neuraxial techniques for successful ECV require additional research. Safety aspects of neuraxial anesthesia for ECV require further investigation.

  7. Recent development of BOA version 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshon, J.; Hussey, D.; Westacott, J.; Young, M.; Secker, J.; Epperson, K.; McGurk, J.; Henshaw, J.

    2010-01-01

    BOA is the EPRI code developed to help understand material transport issues in PWR systems. In particular, BOA was developed to investigate the problem of crud induced power shifts (CIPS) or axial offset anomalies (AOA) that are related to crud accumulation on fuel clad and the subsequent uptake of boron within this crud. Over the last few years significant developments of BOA have taken place; these include new models for release and deposition of soluble and particulate material as well as new models for boron capture in the crud. The new version of BOA (version 3), as well as predicting the extent of AOA a plant might expect during a cycle, also predicts soluble and particulate Ni/Fe levels in the coolant, end of cycle Ni shut-down releases and the relative amounts of Ni/Fe within the fuel crud. The model is being validated against plant data and this paper briefly discusses the recent developments, the fundamental scientific basis for these changes and some of the validation studies. (author)

  8. Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale: the portuguese version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Monteiro Amaral

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale is one of the most world widely used measures of perfectionism. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale. METHODS: Two hundred and seventeen (178 females students from two Portuguese Universities filled in the scale, and a subgroup (n = 166 completed a retest with a four weeks interval. RESULTS: The scale reliability was good (Cronbach alpha = .857. Corrected item-total correlations ranged from .019 to .548. The scale test-retest reliability suggested a good temporal stability with a test-retest correlation of .765. A principal component analysis with Varimax rotation was performed and based on the Scree plot, two robust factorial structures were found (four and six factors. The principal component analyses, using Monte Carlo PCA for parallel analyses confirmed the six factor solution. The concurrent validity with Hewitt and Flett MPS was high, as well as the discriminant validity of positive and negative affect (Profile of Mood Stats-POMS. DISCUSSION: The two factorial structures (of four and six dimensions of the Portuguese version of Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale replicate the results from different authors, with different samples and cultures. This suggests this scale is a robust instrument to assess perfectionism, in several clinical and research settings as well as in transcultural studies.

  9. Modeling report of DYMOND code (DUPIC version)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Joo Hwan; Yacout, Abdellatif M.

    2003-04-01

    The DYMOND code employs the ITHINK dynamic modeling platform to assess the 100-year dynamic evolution scenarios for postulated global nuclear energy parks. Firstly, DYMOND code has been developed by ANL(Argonne National Laboratory) to perform the fuel cycle analysis of LWR once-through and LWR-FBR mixed plant. Since the extensive application of DYMOND code has been requested, the first version of DYMOND has been modified to adapt the DUPIC, MSR and RTF fuel cycle. DYMOND code is composed of three parts; the source language platform, input supply and output. But those platforms are not clearly distinguished. This report described all the equations which were modeled in the modified DYMOND code (which is called as DYMOND-DUPIC version). It divided into five parts;Part A deals model in reactor history which is included amount of the requested fuels and spent fuels. Part B aims to describe model of fuel cycle about fuel flow from the beginning to the end of fuel cycle. Part C is for model in re-processing which is included recovery of burned uranium, plutonium, minor actinide and fission product as well as the amount of spent fuels in storage and disposal. Part D is for model in other fuel cycle which is considered the thorium fuel cycle for MSR and RTF reactor. Part E is for model in economics. This part gives all the information of cost such as uranium mining cost, reactor operating cost, fuel cost etc

  10. Modeling report of DYMOND code (DUPIC version)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Joo Hwan [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Yacout, Abdellatif M [Argonne National Laboratory, Ilinois (United States)

    2003-04-01

    The DYMOND code employs the ITHINK dynamic modeling platform to assess the 100-year dynamic evolution scenarios for postulated global nuclear energy parks. Firstly, DYMOND code has been developed by ANL(Argonne National Laboratory) to perform the fuel cycle analysis of LWR once-through and LWR-FBR mixed plant. Since the extensive application of DYMOND code has been requested, the first version of DYMOND has been modified to adapt the DUPIC, MSR and RTF fuel cycle. DYMOND code is composed of three parts; the source language platform, input supply and output. But those platforms are not clearly distinguished. This report described all the equations which were modeled in the modified DYMOND code (which is called as DYMOND-DUPIC version). It divided into five parts;Part A deals model in reactor history which is included amount of the requested fuels and spent fuels. Part B aims to describe model of fuel cycle about fuel flow from the beginning to the end of fuel cycle. Part C is for model in re-processing which is included recovery of burned uranium, plutonium, minor actinide and fission product as well as the amount of spent fuels in storage and disposal. Part D is for model in other fuel cycle which is considered the thorium fuel cycle for MSR and RTF reactor. Part E is for model in economics. This part gives all the information of cost such as uranium mining cost, reactor operating cost, fuel cost etc.

  11. Development of a Chinese version of the Oswestry Disability Index version 2.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lue, Yi-Jing; Hsieh, Ching-Lin; Huang, Mao-Hsiung; Lin, Gau-Tyan; Lu, Yen-Mou

    2008-10-01

    Cross-cultural adaptation and cross-sectional psychometric testing in a convenience sample of patients with low back pain. To translate and culturally adapt the Oswestry Disability Index version 2.1 (ODI 2.1) into a Mandarin Chinese version and to assess its reliability and validity. The Chinese ODI 2.1 has not been developed and validated. The ODI 2.1 was translated and culturally adapted to the Chinese version. The validity of the translated Chinese version was assessed by examining the relationship between the ODI and other well-known measures. Test-retest reliability was examined in 52 of these patients, who completed a second questionnaire within 1 week. Internal consistency of the ODI 2.1 was excellent with Cronbach's alpha = 0.903. The intraclass correlation coefficient of test-retest reliability was 0.89. The minimal detectable change was 12.8. The convergent validity of the Chinese ODI is supported by its high correlation with other physical functional status measures (Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire and SF-36 physical functioning subscale, r = 0.76 and -0.75, respectively), and moderate correlation with other measures (Visual Analogue Scale, r = 0.68) and certain SF-36 subscales (role-physical, bodily pain, and social functioning, r range: -0.49 to -0.57). As expected, the ODI was least correlated with nonfunctional measures (SF-36 mental subscale and role-emotional subscale, r = -0.25 and -0.33, respectively). The results of this study indicate that the Chinese version of the ODI 2.1 is a reliable and valid instrument for the measurement of functional status in patients with low back pain.

  12. PAV ontology: provenance, authoring and versioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarese, Paolo; Soiland-Reyes, Stian; Belhajjame, Khalid; Gray, Alasdair Jg; Goble, Carole; Clark, Tim

    2013-11-22

    Provenance is a critical ingredient for establishing trust of published scientific content. This is true whether we are considering a data set, a computational workflow, a peer-reviewed publication or a simple scientific claim with supportive evidence. Existing vocabularies such as Dublin Core Terms (DC Terms) and the W3C Provenance Ontology (PROV-O) are domain-independent and general-purpose and they allow and encourage for extensions to cover more specific needs. In particular, to track authoring and versioning information of web resources, PROV-O provides a basic methodology but not any specific classes and properties for identifying or distinguishing between the various roles assumed by agents manipulating digital artifacts, such as author, contributor and curator. We present the Provenance, Authoring and Versioning ontology (PAV, namespace http://purl.org/pav/): a lightweight ontology for capturing "just enough" descriptions essential for tracking the provenance, authoring and versioning of web resources. We argue that such descriptions are essential for digital scientific content. PAV distinguishes between contributors, authors and curators of content and creators of representations in addition to the provenance of originating resources that have been accessed, transformed and consumed. We explore five projects (and communities) that have adopted PAV illustrating their usage through concrete examples. Moreover, we present mappings that show how PAV extends the W3C PROV-O ontology to support broader interoperability. The initial design of the PAV ontology was driven by requirements from the AlzSWAN project with further requirements incorporated later from other projects detailed in this paper. The authors strived to keep PAV lightweight and compact by including only those terms that have demonstrated to be pragmatically useful in existing applications, and by recommending terms from existing ontologies when plausible. We analyze and compare PAV with related

  13. A COMETHE version with transient capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vliet, J. van; Lebon, G.; Mathieu, P.

    1980-01-01

    A version of the COMETHE code is under development to simulate transient situations. This paper focuses on some aspects of the transient heat transfer models. Initially the coupling between transient heat transfer and other thermomechanical models is discussed. An estimation of the thermal characteristic times shows that the cladding temperatures are often in quasi-steady state. In order to reduce the computing time, calculations are therefore switched from a transient to a quasi-static numerical procedure as soon as such a quasi-equilibrium is detected. The temperature calculation is performed by use of the Lebon-Lambermont restricted variational principle, with piecewise polynoms as trial functions. The method has been checked by comparison with some exact results and yields good agreement for transient as well as for quasi-static situations. This method therefore provides a valuable tool for the simulation of the transient behaviour of nuclear reactor fuel rods. (orig.)

  14. Fast reactor versions: elements of choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassart, J.; Zerbib, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    This paper has the objective of explaining in detail the economical, political, social and technical elements on which the CFDT (French Trade Union) bases its opposition to the commercial development of the version of fast reactors. An examination of the different choices which were investigated does not point to any legitimate grounds for this choice. What has to be done is to present the facts which enable the greatest possible number of workers or civilians to take up a position on the choices concerning them. A technical comparison of the fast neutron reactor with those operating at present is put forward (France and United Kingdom). It covers the different radioactive waste products and the results of the individual and collective monitoring of the workmen [fr

  15. TOUGH2-GRS version 1. User manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, Martin; Eckel, Jens

    2016-07-15

    TOUGH2 is a code for the simulation of multi-phase flow processes in porous media that has been developed by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, California, USA. Since 1991, GRS has been using the code for process analyses and safety assessments for deep geological repositories and has extended the code by several processes that are relevant for repository systems. The TOUGH2 source code that has been developed further by GRS is referred to as TOUGH2-GRS. The present report presents code version 1.1.g, which was developed in project UM13 A 03400 sponsored by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB).

  16. An improved version of the HULLAC code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busquet, M.; Bar-Shalom, A.; Klapisch, M.; Oreg, J. [ARTEPARTEP is a contractor to the Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Accurate and detailed atomic structure codes are needed for simulation of spectrally resolved X-ray output of laser driven target. As such, the HULLAC code has already been presented several times. First of all, an overhaul was performed, modernizing many parts to make them easier to understand and adding many comments. The source, in Fortran-77, was compiled and checked on many different systems with different compilers. In the new version, we have added the possibility to directly compute the relativistic configuration averages, skipping the fine structure. However in this case configuration interactions can be accounted for only within each non-relativistic configuration. Therefore we added the possibility of a mixed description, where not all configurations are described at the fine structure level. Recently, cooperation was proposed to anyone interested in extending or developing the code. HULLAC is now ready to be distributed on a basis of collaboration.

  17. A New And Improved Version Of HULLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klapisch, M.; Busquet, M.; Bar-Shalom, A.

    2007-01-01

    We present a new version of the collisional radiative model (CRM) generator code HULLAC. The main features are: (i) input considerably simplified and flexible, (ii) capacity of 'post-averaging' configurations and superconfigurations in mixed mode, (iii) a new fitting formula for cross sections, completely correcting the problems of the classical Sampson and Golden formula, (iv) a new algorithm for solving the rate equations of the CRM, more robust and giving more insight in the quality of the model than the biconjugate gradient method, (v) thanks to thorough comparisons with the LANL code, some errors were corrected, and very good agreement has been obtained on all types of transitions, (vi) finally, most of the code has been re-written according to up-to-date standards. This code is now ready for distribution

  18. An improved version of the HULLAC code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busquet, M.; Bar-Shalom, A.; Klapisch, M.; Oreg, J.

    2006-01-01

    Accurate and detailed atomic structure codes are needed for simulation of spectrally resolved X-ray output of laser driven target. As such, the HULLAC code has already been presented several times. First of all, an overhaul was performed, modernizing many parts to make them easier to understand and adding many comments. The source, in Fortran-77, was compiled and checked on many different systems with different compilers. In the new version, we have added the possibility to directly compute the relativistic configuration averages, skipping the fine structure. However in this case configuration interactions can be accounted for only within each non-relativistic configuration. Therefore we added the possibility of a mixed description, where not all configurations are described at the fine structure level. Recently, cooperation was proposed to anyone interested in extending or developing the code. HULLAC is now ready to be distributed on a basis of collaboration

  19. The Classical Version of Stokes' Theorem Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen

    2005-01-01

    Using only fairly simple and elementary considerations - essentially from first year undergraduate mathematics - we prove that the classical Stokes' theorem for any given surface and vector field in $\\mathbb{R}^{3}$ follows from an application of Gauss' divergence theorem to a suitable modification...... of the vector field in a tubular shell around the given surface. The intuitive appeal of the divergence theorem is thus applied to bootstrap a corresponding intuition for Stokes' theorem. The two stated classical theorems are (like the fundamental theorem of calculus) nothing but shadows of the general version...... to above. Our proof that Stokes' theorem follows from Gauss' divergence theorem goes via a well known and often used exercise, which simply relates the concepts of divergence and curl on the local differential level. The rest of the paper uses only integration in $1$, $2$, and $3$ variables together...

  20. Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library, version-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Keiichi; Nakagawa, Tsuneo; Asami, Tetsuo

    1990-06-01

    The general purpose file of the third version of Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library, JENDL-3, has been compiled by the JAERI Nuclear Data Center in cooperation with the Japanese Nuclear Data Committee. It contains neutron nuclear data for 171 nuclides which are needed for design of fission and fusion reactors and for shielding calculation. In the JENDL-3 evaluation, much effort was devoted to improve reliability of high-energy data for fusion application and to include gamma-ray production data. Theoretical calculations played an important role in achieving these purposes. A special method called simultaneous evaluation was adopted to determine important cross sections of fissile and fertile nuclides. This report presents a general description for the evaluation of light, medium-heavy and heavy nuclide data. Also given are the descriptive data for each nuclide contained in the File 1 part of JENDL-3. (author)

  1. Procedure guideline for radioiodine test (version 3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietlein, M.; Schicha, H.; Eschner, W.; Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Medizinische Physik; Koeln Univ.; Lassmann, M.; Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Medizinische Physik; Wuerzburg Univ.; Leisner, B.; Allgemeines Krankenhaus St. Georg, Hamburg; Reiners, C.; Wuerzburg Univ.

    2007-01-01

    The version 3 of the procedure guideline for radioiodine test is an update of the guideline previously published in 2003. The procedure guideline discusses the pros and cons of a single measurement or of repeated measurements of the iodine-131 uptake and their optimal timing. Different formulas are described when one, two or three values of the radioiodine kinetic are available. The probe with a sodium-iodine crystal, alternatively or additionally the gamma camera using the ROI-technique are instrumentations for the measurement of iodine-131 uptake. A possible source of error is an inappropriate measurement (sonography) of the target volume. The patients' preparation includes the withdrawal of antithyroid drugs 2-3 days before radioiodine administration. The patient has to avoid iodine-containing medication and the possibility of additives of iodine in vitamin- and electrolyte-supplementation has to be considered. (orig.)

  2. Zgoubi user`s guide. Version 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meot, F. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics; Valero, S. [CEA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1997-10-15

    The computer code Zgoubi calculates trajectories of charged particles in magnetic and electric fields. At the origin specially adapted to the definition and adjustment of beam lines and magnetic spectrometers, it has so-evolved that it allows the study of systems including complex sequences of optical elements such as dipoles, quadrupoles, arbitrary multipoles and other magnetic or electric devices, and is able as well to handle periodic structures. Compared to other codes, it presents several peculiarities: (1) a numerical method for integrating the Lorentz equation, based on Taylor series, which optimizes computing time and provides high accuracy and strong symplecticity, (2) spin tracking, using the same numerical method as for the Lorentz equation, (3) calculation of the synchrotron radiation electric field and spectra in arbitrary magnetic fields, from the ray-tracing outcomes, (4) the possibility of using a mesh, which allows ray-tracing from simulated or measured (1-D, 2-D or 3-D) field maps, (5) Monte Carlo procedures: unlimited number of trajectories, in-flight decay, etc. (6) built-in fitting procedure, (7) multiturn tracking in circular accelerators including many features proper to machine parameter calculation and survey, and also the simulation of time-varying power supplies. The initial version of the Code, dedicated to the ray-tracing in magnetic fields, was developed by D. Garreta and J.C. Faivre at CEN-Saclay in the early 1970`s. It was perfected for the purpose of studying the four spectrometers (SPES I, II, III, IV) at the Laboratoire National Saturne (CEA-Saclay, France), and SPEG at Ganil (Caen, France). It is now in use in several national and foreign laboratories. This manual is intended only to describe the details of the most recent version of Zogoubi, which is far from being a {open_quotes}finished product{close_quotes}.

  3. SPARK Version 1.1 user manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissenburger, D.W.

    1988-01-01

    This manual describes the input required to use Version 1.1 of the SPARK computer code. SPARK 1.1 is a library of FORTRAN main programs and subprograms designed to calculate eddy currents on conducting surfaces where current flow is assumed zero in the direction normal to the surface. Surfaces are modeled with triangular and/or quadrilateral elements. Lorentz forces produced by the interaction of eddy currents with background magnetic fields can be output at element nodes in a form compatible with most structural analysis codes. In addition, magnetic fields due to eddy currents can be determined at points off the surface. Version 1.1 features eddy current streamline plotting with optional hidden-surface-removal graphics and topological enhancements that allow essentially any orientable surface to be modeled. SPARK also has extensive symmetry specification options. In order to make the manual as self-contained as possible, six appendices are included that present summaries of the symmetry options, topological options, coil options and code algorithms, with input and output examples. An edition of SPARK 1.1 is available on the Cray computers at the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center at Livermore, California. Another more generic edition is operational on the VAX computers at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and is available on magnetic tape by request. The generic edition requires either the GKS or PLOT10 graphics package and the IMSL or NAG mathematical package. Requests from outside the United States will be subject to applicable federal regulations regarding dissemination of computer programs. 22 refs

  4. SPARK Version 1. 1 user manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissenburger, D.W.

    1988-01-01

    This manual describes the input required to use Version 1.1 of the SPARK computer code. SPARK 1.1 is a library of FORTRAN main programs and subprograms designed to calculate eddy currents on conducting surfaces where current flow is assumed zero in the direction normal to the surface. Surfaces are modeled with triangular and/or quadrilateral elements. Lorentz forces produced by the interaction of eddy currents with background magnetic fields can be output at element nodes in a form compatible with most structural analysis codes. In addition, magnetic fields due to eddy currents can be determined at points off the surface. Version 1.1 features eddy current streamline plotting with optional hidden-surface-removal graphics and topological enhancements that allow essentially any orientable surface to be modeled. SPARK also has extensive symmetry specification options. In order to make the manual as self-contained as possible, six appendices are included that present summaries of the symmetry options, topological options, coil options and code algorithms, with input and output examples. An edition of SPARK 1.1 is available on the Cray computers at the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center at Livermore, California. Another more generic edition is operational on the VAX computers at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and is available on magnetic tape by request. The generic edition requires either the GKS or PLOT10 graphics package and the IMSL or NAG mathematical package. Requests from outside the United States will be subject to applicable federal regulations regarding dissemination of computer programs. 22 refs.

  5. FEAT - FAILURE ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS TOOL (UNIX VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pack, G.

    1994-01-01

    saved as a library file which represents a generic digraph structure for a class of components. The Generate Model feature can then use library files to generate digraphs for every component listed in the modeling tables, and these individual digraph files can be used in a variety of ways to speed generation of complete digraph models. FEAT contains a preprocessor which performs transitive closure on the digraph. This multi-step algorithm builds a series of phantom bridges, or gates, that allow accurate bi-directional processing of digraphs. This preprocessing can be time-consuming, but once preprocessing is complete, queries can be answered and displayed within seconds. A UNIX X-Windows port of version 3.5 of FEAT, XFEAT, is also available to speed the processing of digraph models created on the Macintosh. FEAT v3.6, which is only available for the Macintosh, has some report generation capabilities which are not available in XFEAT. For very large integrated systems, FEAT can be a real cost saver in terms of design evaluation, training, and knowledge capture. The capability of loading multiple digraphs and schematics into FEAT allows modelers to build smaller, more focused digraphs. Typically, each digraph file will represent only a portion of a larger failure scenario. FEAT will combine these files and digraphs from other modelers to form a continuous mathematical model of the system's failure logic. Since multiple digraphs can be cumbersome to use, FEAT ties propagation results to schematic drawings produced using MacDraw II (v1.1v2 or later) or MacDraw Pro. This makes it easier to identify single and double point failures that may have to cross several system boundaries and multiple engineering disciplines before creating a hazardous condition. FEAT v3.6 for the Macintosh is written in C-language using Macintosh Programmer's Workshop C v3.2. It requires at least a Mac II series computer running System 7 or System 6.0.8 and 32 Bit QuickDraw. It also requires a math

  6. Forsmark - site descriptive model version 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    During 2002, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is starting investigations at two potential sites for a deep repository in the Precambrian basement of the Fennoscandian Shield. The present report concerns one of those sites, Forsmark, which lies in the municipality of Oesthammar, on the east coast of Sweden, about 150 kilometres north of Stockholm. The site description should present all collected data and interpreted parameters of importance for the overall scientific understanding of the site, for the technical design and environmental impact assessment of the deep repository, and for the assessment of long-term safety. The site description will have two main components: a written synthesis of the site, summarising the current state of knowledge, as documented in the databases containing the primary data from the site investigations, and one or several site descriptive models, in which the collected information is interpreted and presented in a form which can be used in numerical models for rock engineering, environmental impact and long-term safety assessments. The site descriptive models are devised and stepwise updated as the site investigations proceed. The point of departure for this process is the regional site descriptive model, version 0, which is the subject of the present report. Version 0 is developed out of the information available at the start of the site investigation. This information, with the exception of data from tunnels and drill holes at the sites of the Forsmark nuclear reactors and the underground low-middle active radioactive waste storage facility, SFR, is mainly 2D in nature (surface data), and is general and regional, rather than site-specific, in content. For this reason, the Forsmark site descriptive model, version 0, as detailed in the present report, has been developed at a regional scale. It covers a rectangular area, 15 km in a southwest-northeast and 11 km in a northwest-southeast direction, around the

  7. Introducing external cephalic version in a Malaysian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Stephen P Y

    2007-02-01

    To assess the outcome of external cephalic version for routine management of malpresenting foetuses at term. Prospective observational study. Tertiary teaching hospital, Malaysia. From September 2003 to June 2004, a study involving 41 pregnant women with malpresentation at term was undertaken. An external cephalic version protocol was implemented. Data were collected for identifying characteristics associated with success or failure of external cephalic version. Maternal and foetal outcome measures including success rate of external cephalic version, maternal and foetal complications, and characteristics associated with success or failure; engagement of presenting part, placental location, direction of version, attempts at version, use of intravenous tocolytic agent, eventual mode of delivery, Apgar scores, birth weights, and maternal satisfaction with the procedure. Data were available for 38 women. External cephalic version was successful in 63% of patients; the majority (75%) of whom achieved a vaginal delivery. Multiparity (odds ratio=34.0; 95% confidence interval, 0.67-1730) and high amniotic fluid index (4.9; 1.3-18.2) were associated with successful external cephalic version. Engagement of presenting part (odds ratio=0.0001; 95% confidence interval, 0.00001-0.001) and a need to resort to backward somersault (0.02; 0.00001-0.916) were associated with poor success rates. Emergency caesarean section rate for foetal distress directly resulting from external cephalic version was 8%, but there was no perinatal or maternal adverse outcome. The majority (74%) of women were satisfied with external cephalic version. External cephalic version has acceptable success rates. Multiparity, liquor volume, engagement of presenting part, and the need for backward somersault were strong predictors of outcome. External cephalic version is relatively safe, simple to learn and perform, and associated with maternal satisfaction. Modern obstetric units should routinely offer the

  8. ENDF-6 formats manual. Version of Oct. 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, P.F.; Dunford, C.L.

    1992-01-01

    ENDF-6 is the international computer file format for evaluated nuclear data. In contrast to the earlier versions (ENDF-4 and ENDF-5) the new version ENDF-6 has been designed not only for neutron reaction data but also for photo-nuclear and charged-particle nuclear reaction data. This document gives a detailed description of the formats and procedures adopted for ENDF-6. The present version includes update pages dated Oct. 1991. (author). Refs, figs, and tabs

  9. Vietnamese validation of the short version of Internet Addiction Test

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Bach Xuan; Mai, Hue Thi; Nguyen, Long Hoang; Nguyen, Cuong Tat; Latkin, Carl A.; Zhang, Melvyn W.B.; Ho, Roger C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims: The main goal of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of a Vietnamese version of the short-version of Internet Addiction Test (s-IAT) and to assess the relationship between s-IAT scores and demographics, health related qualify of life and perceived stress scores in young Vietnamese. Methods: The Vietnamese version of s-IAT was administered to a sample of 589 participants. Exploratory factor and reliability analyses were performed. Regression analys...

  10. The Oswestry Disability Index (version 2.1a): validation of a Dutch language version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hooff, Miranda L; Spruit, Maarten; Fairbank, Jeremy C T; van Limbeek, Jacques; Jacobs, Wilco C H

    2015-01-15

    A cross-sectional study on baseline data. To translate the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) version 2.1a into the Dutch language and to validate its use in a cohort of patients with chronic low back pain in secondary spine care. Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are commonly accepted to evaluate the outcome of spine interventions. Functional status is an important outcome in spine research. The ODI is a recommended condition-specific patient-reported outcome measure used to evaluate functional status in patients with back pain. As yet, no formal translated Dutch version exists. The ODI was translated according to established guidelines. The final version was built into the electronic web-based system in addition with the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire, the numeric rating scale for pain severity, 36-Item Short Form Health Survey Questionnaire for quality of life, and the hospital anxiety and depression scale. Baseline data were used of 244 patients with chronic low back pain who participated in a combined physical and psychological program. Floor and ceiling effects, internal consistency, and the construct validity were evaluated using quality criteria. The mean ODI (standard deviation) was 39.6 (12.3); minimum 6, maximum 70. Most of the participants (88%) were moderately to severely disabled. Factor analysis determined a 1-factor structure (36% explained variance) and the homogeneity of ODI items is shown (Cronbach α = 0.79). The construct validity is supported as all (6:6) the a priori hypotheses were confirmed. Moreover, the ODI and Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire, showed a strong significant correlation (r = 0.68, P disability among Dutch patients with chronic low back pain. This translated condition-specific patient-reported outcome measure version is recommended for use in future back pain research and to evaluate outcome of back care in the Netherlands.

  11. Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1: Nitrogen Fertilizer Application

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nitrogen Fertilizer Application dataset of the Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Data Collection represents the amount of nitrogen fertilizer nutrients...

  12. Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1: Phosphorus Fertilizer Application

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phosphorus Fertilizer Application dataset of the Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Data Collection represents the amount of phosphorus fertilizer nutrients...

  13. Verification of RESRAD-RDD. (Version 2.01)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Jing-Jy [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Flood, Paul E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); LePoire, David [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kamboj, Sunita [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yu, Charley [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    In this report, the results generated by RESRAD-RDD version 2.01 are compared with those produced by RESRAD-RDD version 1.7 for different scenarios with different sets of input parameters. RESRAD-RDD version 1.7 is spreadsheet-driven, performing calculations with Microsoft Excel spreadsheets. RESRAD-RDD version 2.01 revamped version 1.7 by using command-driven programs designed with Visual Basic.NET to direct calculations with data saved in Microsoft Access database, and re-facing the graphical user interface (GUI) to provide more flexibility and choices in guideline derivation. Because version 1.7 and version 2.01 perform the same calculations, the comparison of their results serves as verification of both versions. The verification covered calculation results for 11 radionuclides included in both versions: Am-241, Cf-252, Cm-244, Co-60, Cs-137, Ir-192, Po-210, Pu-238, Pu-239, Ra-226, and Sr-90. At first, all nuclidespecific data used in both versions were compared to ensure that they are identical. Then generic operational guidelines and measurement-based radiation doses or stay times associated with a specific operational guideline group were calculated with both versions using different sets of input parameters, and the results obtained with the same set of input parameters were compared. A total of 12 sets of input parameters were used for the verification, and the comparison was performed for each operational guideline group, from A to G, sequentially. The verification shows that RESRAD-RDD version 1.7 and RESRAD-RDD version 2.01 generate almost identical results; the slight differences could be attributed to differences in numerical precision with Microsoft Excel and Visual Basic.NET. RESRAD-RDD version 2.01 allows the selection of different units for use in reporting calculation results. The results of SI units were obtained and compared with the base results (in traditional units) used for comparison with version 1.7. The comparison shows that RESRAD

  14. Anthropogenic Biomes of the World, Version 2: 1700

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Anthropogenic Biomes of the World, Version 2: 1700 data set describes anthropogenic transformations within the terrestrial biosphere caused by sustained direct...

  15. Anthropogenic Biomes of the World, Version 2: 1900

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Anthropogenic Biomes of the World, Version 2: 1900 data set describes anthropogenic transformations within the terrestrial biosphere caused by sustained direct...

  16. Anthropogenic Biomes of the World, Version 2: 1800

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Anthropogenic Biomes of the World, Version 2: 1800 data set describes anthropogenic transformations within the terrestrial biosphere caused by sustained direct...

  17. Anthropogenic Biomes of the World, Version 2: 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Anthropogenic Biomes of the World, Version 2: 2000 data set describes anthropogenic transformations within the terrestrial biosphere caused by sustained direct...

  18. Cephalic version by moxibustion for breech presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Meaghan E; Smith, Caroline A; Peat, Brian

    2012-05-16

    Moxibustion (a type of Chinese medicine which involves burning a herb close to the skin) to the acupuncture point Bladder 67 (BL67) (Chinese name Zhiyin), located at the tip of the fifth toe, has been proposed as a way of correcting breech presentation. To examine the effectiveness and safety of moxibustion on changing the presentation of an unborn baby in the breech position, the need for external cephalic version (ECV), mode of birth, and perinatal morbidity and mortality for breech presentation. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (26 March 2012), MEDLINE (1966 to 1 August 2011), EMBASE (1980 to August 2011), CINAHL (1982 to 1 August 2011), MIDIRS (1982 to 1 August 2011) and AMED (1985 to 1 August 2011) and searched bibliographies of relevant papers. The inclusion criteria were published and unpublished randomised controlled trials comparing moxibustion (either alone or in combination with acupuncture or postural techniques) with a control group (no moxibustion), or other methods (e.g. external cephalic version, acupuncture, postural techniques) in women with a singleton breech presentation. Two review authors independently assessed eligibility and trial quality and extracted data. The outcome measures were baby's presentation at birth, need for external cephalic version, mode of birth, perinatal morbidity and mortality, maternal complications and maternal satisfaction, and adverse events. Six new trials have been added to this updated review. One trial has been moved to studies awaiting classification while further data are being requested. This updated review now includes a total of eight trials (involving 1346 women). Meta-analyses were undertaken (where possible) for the main and secondary outcomes. Moxibustion was not found to reduce the number of non-cephalic presentations at birth compared with no treatment (P = 0.45). Moxibustion resulted in decreased use of oxytocin before or during labour for women who had vaginal

  19. A Statistical Review of CALIOP Version 3 and Version 4 Cloud Aerosol Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, S.

    2016-12-01

    The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) on board the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) mission has now delivered a 10-year record of high-resolution profiles of backscatter at 532 nm and 1064 nm and linear depolarization at 532 nm. These long-term active sensor measurements at global scale have led to significant advances in our understanding of the vertical distribution of clouds and aerosols in the atmosphere. In the fall of 2016, the CALIPSO science team is scheduled to release a new version of their cloud and aerosol data products. The new cloud and aerosol discrimination products are derived using updated probability density functions that account for numerous improvements to the CALIOP calibration and the use of the GMAO MERRA-2 meteorological data. Moreover, the CAD algorithm is now applied to all layers detected, thus greatly improving the identification of such features as overshooting convective clouds, stratospheric aerosol layers, and high intensity dust storms. Post-processing modules are added to the standard CAD algorithm to ensure proper identification of (for example) the tenuous edges of cirrus clouds and water clouds lying beneath optically dense smoke layers. This work presents statistical comparisons between the CALIOP version 3 and version 4 data sets. Areas of improvement are highlighted, sources of continuing uncertainty are discussed and a list of best practices for data users is provided.

  20. NETS - A NEURAL NETWORK DEVELOPMENT TOOL, VERSION 3.0 (MACHINE INDEPENDENT VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baffes, P. T.

    1994-01-01

    allows the user to generate C code to implement the network loaded into the system. This permits the placement of networks as components, or subroutines, in other systems. In short, once a network performs satisfactorily, the Generate C Code option provides the means for creating a program separate from NETS to run the network. Other features: files may be stored in binary or ASCII format; multiple input propagation is permitted; bias values may be included; capability to scale data without writing scaling code; quick interactive testing of network from the main menu; and several options that allow the user to manipulate learning efficiency. NETS is written in ANSI standard C language to be machine independent. The Macintosh version (MSC-22108) includes code for both a graphical user interface version and a command line interface version. The machine independent version (MSC-21588) only includes code for the command line interface version of NETS 3.0. The Macintosh version requires a Macintosh II series computer and has been successfully implemented under System 7. Four executables are included on these diskettes, two for floating point operations and two for integer arithmetic. It requires Think C 5.0 to compile. A minimum of 1Mb of RAM is required for execution. Sample input files and executables for both the command line version and the Macintosh user interface version are provided on the distribution medium. The Macintosh version is available on a set of three 3.5 inch 800K Macintosh format diskettes. The machine independent version has been successfully implemented on an IBM PC series compatible running MS-DOS, a DEC VAX running VMS, a SunIPC running SunOS, and a CRAY Y-MP running UNICOS. Two executables for the IBM PC version are included on the MS-DOS distribution media, one compiled for floating point operations and one for integer arithmetic. The machine independent version is available on a set of three 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskettes (standard

  1. NETS - A NEURAL NETWORK DEVELOPMENT TOOL, VERSION 3.0 (MACINTOSH VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, T. A.

    1994-01-01

    allows the user to generate C code to implement the network loaded into the system. This permits the placement of networks as components, or subroutines, in other systems. In short, once a network performs satisfactorily, the Generate C Code option provides the means for creating a program separate from NETS to run the network. Other features: files may be stored in binary or ASCII format; multiple input propagation is permitted; bias values may be included; capability to scale data without writing scaling code; quick interactive testing of network from the main menu; and several options that allow the user to manipulate learning efficiency. NETS is written in ANSI standard C language to be machine independent. The Macintosh version (MSC-22108) includes code for both a graphical user interface version and a command line interface version. The machine independent version (MSC-21588) only includes code for the command line interface version of NETS 3.0. The Macintosh version requires a Macintosh II series computer and has been successfully implemented under System 7. Four executables are included on these diskettes, two for floating point operations and two for integer arithmetic. It requires Think C 5.0 to compile. A minimum of 1Mb of RAM is required for execution. Sample input files and executables for both the command line version and the Macintosh user interface version are provided on the distribution medium. The Macintosh version is available on a set of three 3.5 inch 800K Macintosh format diskettes. The machine independent version has been successfully implemented on an IBM PC series compatible running MS-DOS, a DEC VAX running VMS, a SunIPC running SunOS, and a CRAY Y-MP running UNICOS. Two executables for the IBM PC version are included on the MS-DOS distribution media, one compiled for floating point operations and one for integer arithmetic. The machine independent version is available on a set of three 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskettes (standard

  2. SPAM- SPECTRAL ANALYSIS MANAGER (UNIX VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    machine environments. There is a DEC VAX/VMS version with a central memory requirement of approximately 242K of 8 bit bytes and a machine independent UNIX 4.2 version. The display device currently supported is the Raster Technologies display processor. Other 512 x 512 resolution color display devices, such as De Anza, may be added with minor code modifications. This program was developed in 1986.

  3. Eletrodos modificados por hidróxido de níquel: um estudo de revisão sobre suas propriedades estruturais e eletroquímicas visando suas aplicações em eletrocatálise, eletrocromismo e baterias secundárias Nickel hydroxide modified electrodes: a review study concerning its structural and electrochemical properties aiming the application in electrocatalysis, electrochromism and secondary batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Vidotti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present review paper describes the main features of nickel hydroxide modified electrodes covering its structural and electrochemical behavior and the newest advances promoted by nanostructured architectures. Important aspects such as synthetic procedures and characterization techniques such as X-Ray diffraction, Raman and Infrared spectroscopy, Electronic Microscopy and many others are detailed herein. The most important aspect concerning nickel hydroxide is related to its great versatility covering different fields in electrochemical-based devices such as batteries, electrocatalytic systems and electrochromic electrodes, the fundamental issues of these devices are also commented. Finally, some of the newest advances achieved in each field by the incorporation of nanomaterials will be shown.

  4. TAE+ 5.2 - TRANSPORTABLE APPLICATIONS ENVIRONMENT PLUS, VERSION 5.2 (DEC RISC ULTRIX VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    TAE SUPPORT OFFICE

    1994-01-01

    programs to display and control the user interfaces. Since the WPTs access the workbench-generated resource files during each execution, details such as color, font, location, and object type remain independent from the application code, allowing changes to the user interface without recompiling and relinking. In addition to WPTs, TAE Plus can control interaction of objects from the interpreted TAE Command Language. TCL provides a means for the more experienced developer to quickly prototype an application's use of TAE Plus interaction objects and add programming logic without the overhead of compiling or linking. TAE Plus requires MIT's X Window System and the Open Software Foundation's Motif. The HP 9000 Series 700/800 version of TAE 5.2 requires Version 11 Release 5 of the X Window System. All other machine versions of TAE 5.2 require Version 11, Release 4 of the X Window System. The Workbench and WPTs are written in C++ and the remaining code is written in C. TAE Plus is available by license for an unlimited time period. The licensed program product includes the TAE Plus source code and one set of supporting documentation. Additional documentation may be purchased separately at the price indicated below. The amount of disk space required to load the TAE Plus tar format tape is between 35Mb and 67Mb depending on the machine version. The recommended minimum memory is 12Mb. Each TAE Plus platform delivery tape includes pre-built libraries and executable binary code for that particular machine, as well as source code, so users do not have to do an installation. Users wishing to recompile the source will need both a C compiler and either GNU's C++ Version 1.39 or later, or a C++ compiler based on AT&T 2.0 cfront. TAE Plus was developed in 1989 and version 5.2 was released in 1993. TAE Plus 5.2 is available on media suitable for five different machine platforms: (1) IBM RS/6000 series workstations running AIX (.25 inch tape cartridge in UNIX tar format), (2) DEC RISC

  5. External cephalic version experiences in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Young; Park, Min-Young; Kim, Gwang Jun

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate obstetric outcomes of external cephalic version (ECV) performed at or near term. Single pregnant woman with breech presentation at or near term (n=145), who experienced ECV by one obstetrician from November 2009 to July 2014 in our institution were included in the study. Maternal baseline characteristic and fetal ultrasonographic variables were checked before the procedure. After ECV, the delivery outcomes of the women were gathered. Variables affecting the success or failure of ECV were evaluated. Success rate of ECV was 71.0% (n=103). Four variables (parity, amniotic fluid index, fetal spine position and rotational direction) were observed to be in correlation with success or failure of ECV. In contactable 83 individuals experienced successful ECV, cesarean delivery rates were 18.1%, 28.9%, and 5.3% in total, nulliparas, and multiparas, respectively. Based on the results, ECV is proposed to be safe for both mother and her fetus. In addition, it is a valuable procedure that increases probability of vaginal delivery for women with breech presentation.

  6. External cephalic version experiences in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Young; Park, Min-Young

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate obstetric outcomes of external cephalic version (ECV) performed at or near term. Methods Single pregnant woman with breech presentation at or near term (n=145), who experienced ECV by one obstetrician from November 2009 to July 2014 in our institution were included in the study. Maternal baseline characteristic and fetal ultrasonographic variables were checked before the procedure. After ECV, the delivery outcomes of the women were gathered. Variables affecting the success or failure of ECV were evaluated. Results Success rate of ECV was 71.0% (n=103). Four variables (parity, amniotic fluid index, fetal spine position and rotational direction) were observed to be in correlation with success or failure of ECV. In contactable 83 individuals experienced successful ECV, cesarean delivery rates were 18.1%, 28.9%, and 5.3% in total, nulliparas, and multiparas, respectively. Conclusion Based on the results, ECV is proposed to be safe for both mother and her fetus. In addition, it is a valuable procedure that increases probability of vaginal delivery for women with breech presentation. PMID:27004197

  7. Nuclear data library table (Version November 1998)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baard, J.H.

    1998-11-01

    This report presents the edition of the Nuclear Data Library Table, valid from 1998-11-01. This library contains data for conversion of activity values to fluence rate and fluence values. The revised table is a modified version of the older library coded 1990-12-12. The older library has been extended with 23 reaction; the special 'background' reaction has been deleted. A table has been incorporated in this report which indicates the changes in this revised library data in comparison to previously used data. The data has been incorporated in this report which indicates the changes in this revised library data in comparison to previously used data. The data are presented as obtained as output from the program SAPNDLT. A table with half-lives of product nuclides is presented; in Appendix 2 these values have been calculated using the decay constants from this library. Surveys of thermal and fast cross sections are given for the various reactions in Appendix 3 and 4 respectively. Also a table with activities per mg mass for a fluence rate of 10 1 8 m -2 .s -1 is presented in Appendix 3 and 4 respectively. Also a table with activities per mg mass for a fluence rate of 10 1 8 m -1 is presented in Appendix 5 for various irradiation intervals. Appendix 6 gives for the various reactions the Kerma rate value. 8 refs

  8. The three versions of distributional chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balibrea, F.; Smital, J.; Stefankova, M.

    2005-01-01

    The notion of distributional chaos was introduced by Schweizer and Smital [Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. 344 (1994) 737] for continuous maps of the interval. However, it turns out that, for continuous maps of a compact metric space three mutually nonequivalent versions of distributional chaos, DC1-DC3, can be considered. In this paper we consider the weakest one, DC3. We show that DC3 does not imply chaos in the sense of Li and Yorke. We also show that DC3 is not invariant with respect to topological conjugacy. In other words, there are lower and upper distribution functions Φ xy and Φxy* generated by a continuous map f of a compact metric space (M, ρ) such that Φxy*(t)>Φxy(t) for all t in an interval. However, f on the same space M, but with a metric ρ' generating the same topology as ρ is no more DC3.Recall that, contrary to this, either DC1 or DC2 is topological conjugacy invariant and implies Li and Yorke chaos (cf. [Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 21 (2004) 1125])

  9. Forsmark - site descriptive model version 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    During 2002, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is starting investigations at two potential sites for a deep repository in the Precambrian basement of the Fennoscandian Shield. The present report concerns one of those sites, Forsmark, which lies in the municipality of Oesthammar, on the east coast of Sweden, about 150 kilometres north of Stockholm. The site description should present all collected data and interpreted parameters of importance for the overall scientific understanding of the site, for the technical design and environmental impact assessment of the deep repository, and for the assessment of long-term safety. The site description will have two main components: a written synthesis of the site, summarising the current state of knowledge, as documented in the databases containing the primary data from the site investigations, and one or several site descriptive models, in which the collected information is interpreted and presented in a form which can be used in numerical models for rock engineering, environmental impact and long-term safety assessments. The site descriptive models are devised and stepwise updated as the site investigations proceed. The point of departure for this process is the regional site descriptive model, version 0, which is the subject of the present report. Version 0 is developed out of the information available at the start of the site investigation. This information, with the exception of data from tunnels and drill holes at the sites of the Forsmark nuclear reactors and the underground low-middle active radioactive waste storage facility, SFR, is mainly 2D in nature (surface data), and is general and regional, rather than site-specific, in content. For this reason, the Forsmark site descriptive model, version 0, as detailed in the present report, has been developed at a regional scale. It covers a rectangular area, 15 km in a southwest-northeast and 11 km in a northwest-southeast direction, around the

  10. IMPACTS-BRC, Version 2.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neal, B.L.; Lee, C.E.

    1990-04-01

    This manual describes the procedures for implementing IMPACT-BRC Version 2.0. IMPACTS-BRC is a generic, radiological assessment code intended to be used by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to evaluate petitions to classify specific waste streams as below regulatory concern (BRC). The code is designed to demonstrate compliance to BRC standards by modeling and calculating annual radiological impacts to the maximal individual, critical groups, and the general population as the result of transportation treatment, disposal, and post-disposal activities involving low-level radioactive waste. Impacts are calculated for multiple nuclides and pathways depending on data input and treatment and disposal options specified by the code user. The treatment and disposal options include onsite incineration, offsite incineration at municipal and hazardous waste landfills. Included within the disposal options is the ability to calculate impacts from the sorting and/or recycling of metal containers and metal and glass materials. Nuclide-specific accounting is provided to facilitate identification of the critical nuclides and pathways contributing to the impacts. Default environmental and facility parameters are developed from reference treatment/disposal sites. The user has the option to replace default parameters with site-specific parameters to provide more realistic estimation of impacts. 8 refs., 10 figs., 44 tabs

  11. Curiosity rover LEGO® version could land soon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-09-01

    Now that NASA's Curiosity rover has landed on Mars, a smaller LEGO® plastic brick construction version could be landing in toy stores. Less than 2 weeks after Curiosity set down on 5 August, a LEGO® set concept model designed by a mechanical and aerospace engineer who worked on the real rover garnered its 10,000th supporter on the Web site of CUUSOO, a Japanese partner of the LEGO® group. That milestone triggered a company review that began in September 2012 to test the model's “playability, safety, and ft with the LEGO® brand,” according to a congratulatory statement from the company to designer Stephen Pakbaz. Pakbaz told Eos that he has been an avid LEGO® and space exploration fan for most of his life. “For me, creating a LEGO® model of Curiosity using my firsthand knowledge of the rover was inevitable. What I enjoyed most was being able to faithfully replicate and subsequently demonstrate the rocker-bogie suspension system to friends, family, and coworkers,” he noted, referring to the suspension system that allows the rover to climb over obstacles while keeping its wheels on the ground. Pakbaz, who is currently with Orbital Sciences Corporation, was involved with aspects of the rover while working at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory from 2007 to 2011 as a mechanical engineer.

  12. Turkish version of the Academic Motivation Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Gürhan

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to adapt the college version of the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) into Turkish. The participants were 797 college students (437 men, 360 women) with a mean age of 20.1 yr. A seven-factor model of the scale, as well as alternative models (five-, three-, two-, and one-factor models) were investigated and compared through confirmatory factor analysis. The seven-factor model demonstrated adequate fit to the data. The fit indices obtained from the five-factor model were acceptable also. Hancock's coefficient H values and test-retest correlation coefficients of the subscales indicated that reliability of the scale was adequate except for the identified regulation subscale. The CFA conducted for the groups of men and women produced more acceptable fit indices values for men than women, but women obtained significantly higher scores from the AMS subscales. Correlations among the seven subscales partially supported the simplex pattern which claims that the neighboring subscales should have stronger positive correlations than the non-neighboring subscales and that the subscales which are the farthest apart should have the strongest negative relationships.

  13. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of AVHRR Daily and Monthly Aerosol Optical Thickness over Global Oceans, Version 1.0 (Version Superseded)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Version 1 of the dataset has been superseded by a newer version. Users should not use version 1 except in rare cases (e.g., when reproducing previous studies that...

  14. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of AVHRR Daily and Monthly Aerosol Optical Thickness over Global Oceans, Version 2.0 (Version Superseded)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Version 2 of the dataset has been superseded by a newer version. Users should not use version 2 except in rare cases (e.g., when reproducing previous studies that...

  15. External Cephalic Version-Related Risks A Meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootscholten, Kim; Kok, Marjolein; Oei, S. Guid; Mol, Ben W. J.; van der Post, Joris A.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the literature on external cephalic version-related complications and to assess if the outcome of a version attempt is related to complications. DATA SOURCES: In March 2007 we searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials.

  16. External cephalic version-related risks: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grootscholten, Kim; Kok, Marjolein; Oei, S Guid; Mol, Ben W J; van der Post, Joris A

    2008-11-01

    To systematically review the literature on external cephalic version-related complications and to assess if the outcome of a version attempt is related to complications. In March 2007 we searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Studies reporting on complications from an external cephalic version attempt for singleton breech pregnancies after 36 weeks of pregnancy were selected. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) from studies that reported both on complications as well as on the position of the fetus immediately after the procedure. We found 84 studies, reporting on 12,955 version attempts that reported on external cephalic version-related complications. The pooled complication rate was 6.1% (95% CI 4.7-7.8), 0.24% for serious complications (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.17-0.34) and 0.35% for emergency cesarean deliveries (95% CI 0.26-0.47). Complications were not related to external cephalic version outcome (OR 1.2 (95% CI 0.93-1.7). External cephalic version is a safe procedure. Complications are not related to the fetal position after external cephalic version.

  17. New Open-Source Version of FLORIS Released | News | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Open-Source Version of FLORIS Released New Open-Source Version of FLORIS Released January 26 , 2018 National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers recently released an updated open-source simplified and documented. Because of the living, open-source nature of the newly updated utility, NREL

  18. Trace contaminant control simulation computer program, version 8.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Trace Contaminant Control Simulation computer program is a tool for assessing the performance of various process technologies for removing trace chemical contamination from a spacecraft cabin atmosphere. Included in the simulation are chemical and physical adsorption by activated charcoal, chemical adsorption by lithium hydroxide, absorption by humidity condensate, and low- and high-temperature catalytic oxidation. Means are provided for simulating regenerable as well as nonregenerable systems. The program provides an overall mass balance of chemical contaminants in a spacecraft cabin given specified generation rates. Removal rates are based on device flow rates specified by the user and calculated removal efficiencies based on cabin concentration and removal technology experimental data. Versions 1.0 through 8.0 are documented in NASA TM-108409. TM-108409 also contains a source file listing for version 8.0. Changes to version 8.0 are documented in this technical memorandum and a source file listing for the modified version, version 8.1, is provided. Detailed descriptions for the computer program subprograms are extracted from TM-108409 and modified as necessary to reflect version 8.1. Version 8.1 supersedes version 8.0. Information on a separate user's guide is available from the author.

  19. Using Bacteria to Store Renewable Energy (Text Version) | News | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using Bacteria to Store Renewable Energy (Text Version) Using Bacteria to Store Renewable Energy is a text version of the video entitled "Using Bacteria to Store Renewable Energy." ; Bacteria from some of the Earth's harshest environments now have a new home at NREL. [A natural spring has

  20. Validation of a Portuguese Version of the Children's Hope Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Susana C.; Pais-Ribeiro, J. L.; Lopez, Shane J.

    2009-01-01

    The article describes the development of the Portuguese version of the Children's Hope Scale and the examination of its psychometric properties. A sample of 367 Portuguese students completed the Portuguese-language versions of the Children's Hope Scale (CHS; Snyder et al., 1997), Students' Life Satisfaction Scale (SLSS; Huebner, 1991), Global…