WorldWideScience

Sample records for principles types construction

  1. Methodical ecologization principles in construction management

    OpenAIRE

    Nuzhina Irina Pavlovna; Yudakhina Olga Borisovna

    2015-01-01

    In the article the subject of ecologization of construction sector is presented, the necessity of ecologization technology and technological processes is proved. The article also presents principles of ecologically friendly management of construction and investment activities and describes these principles in detail.

  2. ABCDEFG IS - the principle of constructive feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, M

    2007-01-01

    Feedback is an integral part of any learning experience. Constructive feedback is a powerful instrument and facilitates the learner's professional and personal development. "ABCDEFG IS", a mnemonic for the principles of constructive feedback, stands for Amount of the information, Benefit of the trainees, Change behaviour, Descriptive language, Environment, Focused, Group check, Interpretation check, and Sharing information. The eight important steps of feedback are: Ensure prior information, Collect data, Make appropriate meeting arrangement, Begin by encouraging self assessment by the trainee, Highlight areas where the trainee is doing well, Give feedback, Handle reaction maintaining the dignity and Plan actions. Communication and reflection also share many of the principles and steps of constructive feedback and giving regular feedback, thus, helps to improve communication and reflection. The feedback provider would be able to provide genuine feedback by following the appropriate steps and principles of constructive feedback and realize how important and rewarding its role is in teaching learning activities.

  3. Constructing Ethical Principles for Synthetic Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dige, Morten

    2010-01-01

    The ethical discussion over synbio naturally raises metaquestions or questions of methodology: Which ethical principles and values could or should function as orientation or guidelines in discussing these issues?...

  4. Construction principles of prevention programs for adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Bochaver

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present the basic principles for the development of effective programs for prevention of substance abuse among young people employed in the United States. They are based on the model of “risk factors and protective factors” and suggest a consistent, systematic, coordinated deployment of preventive interventions for children of different ages and in different social contexts (individually, in family, at school, in community. These principles can be useful for transfer of foreign experience on the Russian reality and for development of a new generation of programs for the prevention of substance abuse in Russia. Also, these principles and ideas may be partly extrapolated to develop prevention programs for other social risks.

  5. Construction quality management principles and good practice

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Quality management is essential for facilitating the competitiveness of modern day commercial organizations. Excellence in quality management is a requisite for construction organizations who seek to remain competitive and successful. The challenges presented by competitive construction markets and large projects that are dynamic and complex necessitate the adoption and application of quality management approaches. This textbook is written in line with the ISO 9001:2008 standard and provides a comprehensive evaluation of quality management systems and tools. Their effectiveness in achieving project objectives is explored, as well as applications in corporate performance enhancement. Both the strategic and operational dimensions of quality assurance are addressed by focusing on providing models of best practice. The reader is supported throughout by concise and clear explanations and with self-assessment questions. Practical case study examples show how various evaluative-based quality management systems and t...

  6. PRINCIPLES OF ECOLOGICAL CONSTRUCTION IN FACHWERK ARCHITECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubina Elena Vasil'evna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the ecological aspects of application of Fachwerk, a traditional structural system, in the present-day construction. The authors have identified the potential and defined the principal development and modernization trends of the Fachwerk architecture. The author provides arguments of outstanding contemporary architects in support of the statement that the Fachwerk architecture is friendly to humans and it does not deliver any damage to the environment. Fachwerk complies with the criteria of sustainable development; therefore, it may be retained in the future architecture.

  7. Construction principles and design rules in the case of circular design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romme, A.G.L.; Endenburg, G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes science-based organization design that uses construction principles and design rules to guide practitioner-academic projects. Organization science implies construction principles for creating and implementing designs. These principles serve to construct design rules that are

  8. Y-12 Sustainable Design Principles for Building Design and Construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, J. G.

    2008-11-01

    B&W Y-12 is committed to modernizing the Y-12 complex to meet future needs with a sustainable and responsive infrastructure and to integrating sustainability principles and practices into Y-12 work (Y72-001, B&W Y-12 Environmental, Safety and Health Policy). This commitment to sustainability and specifically sustainable design of buildings is also incorporated into Presidential Executive Orders (EO), DOE Orders (DOE O), and goals. Sustainable building design is an approach to design, construct, and operate facilities in an efficient and environmentally sound manner that will produce a healthful, resource-efficient and productive working environment that is inherently protective of the environment. The DOE has established the following 5 Guiding Principles for High Performance Sustainable Building (HPSB), and has issued directives that require Y-12 to incorporate the principles and a number of supporting specific practices and techniques into building design, construction and renovation projects: (1) Employ Integrated Design Principles; (2) Optimize Energy Performance; (3) Protect and Conserve Water; (4) Enhance Indoor Environmental Quality; and (5) Reduce Environmental Impact of Materials. The purpose of this document is to present the required sustainable building principles, practices and techniques, summarize the key drivers for incorporating them into Y-12 projects, and present additional recommendations and resources that can be used to support sustainable buildings to enhance the environmental and economic performance of the Y-12 Complex.

  9. Molecular automata assembly: principles and simulation of bacterial membrane construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahoz-Beltra, R

    1997-01-01

    The motivation to understand the basic rules and principles governing molecular self-assembly may be relevant to explain in the context of molecular biology the self-organization and biological functions exhibited within cells. This paper presents a molecular automata model to simulate molecular self-assembly introducing the concept of molecular programming to simulate the biological function or operation performed by an assembled molecular state machine. The method is illustrated modelling Escherichia coli membrane construction including the assembly and operation of ATP synthase as well as the assembly of the bacterial flagellar motor. Flagellar motor operation was simulated using a different approach based on state machine definition used in virtual reality systems. The proposed methodology provides a modelling framework for simulation of biological functions performed by cellular components and other biological systems suitable to be modelled as molecular state machines.

  10. Windchill-201 - Custom Soft-Type Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Corey; LaPha, Steven

    2013-01-01

    This presentation will explain Windchill soft-types-what they are, how they work, and how to construct custom ones, configured specifically for your system. The process and particulars of creating and implementing a WTDocument soft-type will be discussed, and the interaction between soft-types and Windchill objects will be shown.

  11. The Independence of Markov's Principle in Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coquand, Thierry; Mannaa, Bassel

    2017-01-01

    for the generic point of this model. Instead we design an extension of type theory, which intuitively extends type theory by the addition of a generic point of Cantor space. We then show the consistency of this extension by a normalization argument. Markov's principle does not hold in this extension......In this paper, we show that Markov's principle is not derivable in dependent type theory with natural numbers and one universe. One way to prove this would be to remark that Markov's principle does not hold in a sheaf model of type theory over Cantor space, since Markov's principle does not hold......, and it follows that it cannot be proved in type theory....

  12. PRINCIPLE ROCK TYPES FOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE REPOSITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibila Borojević Šostarić

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Underground geological storage of high- and intermediate/low radioactive waste is aimed to represent a barrier between the surface environment and potentially hazardous radioactive elements. Permeability, behavior against external stresses, chemical reacatibility and absorption are the key geological parameters for the geological storage of radioactive waste. Three principal rock types were discussed and applied to the Dinarides: (1 evaporites in general, (2 shale, and (3 crystalline basement rocks. (1 Within the Dinarides, evaporite formations are located within the central part of a Carbonate platform and are inappropriate for storage. Offshore evaporites are located within diapiric structures of the central and southern part of the Adriatic Sea and are covered by thick Mesozoic to Cenozoic clastic sediment. Under very specific circumstances they can be considered as potential site locations for further investigation for the storage of low/intermediate level radioactive wast e. (2 Thick flysch type formation of shale to phyllite rocks are exposed at the basement units of the Petrova and Trgovska gora regions whereas (3 crystalline magmatic to metamorphic basement is exposed at the Moslavačka Gora and Slavonian Mts. regions. For high-level radioactive waste, basement phyllites and granites may represent the only realistic potential option in the NW Dinarides.

  13. Construction techniques and operation principles of Geiger-Mueller counters using external cathode (Mazetype)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevegnani, F.X.

    1988-01-01

    The construction techniques for external cathode (Maze) and internal cathode Geiger-Muller counters are described, showing the operation principles and the used material nature. More than 200 counter types were evaluated analysing their characteristics. The influence of several types of guard-rings was studied, for optimizing counter operation conditions. Plateaus of the order of 700 V with slope of 0,3%/100 V for the net counting rate, and 1400 V with a slope of 0,8/100 V for total counts using total pressure of 10 cmHg, were obtained. A counter for β detection, using blown glass window in one of the edges of the cylinder was constructed. Counters of long life using materials such as, mica, adhesive glues, etc., were obtained. The results shown that the best counter operation occurs when it is empty in a vacuum of 10 -5 mmHg. (M.C.K.) [pt

  14. Principle-theoretic approach of kondo and construction-theoretic formalism of gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, L.C.

    1986-01-01

    Einstein classified various theories in physics as principle-theories and constructive-theories. In this lecture Kondo's approach to microscopic and macroscopic phenomena is analysed for its principle theoretic pursuit as followed by construction. The fundamentals of his theory may be recalled as Tristimulus principle, Observation principle, Kawaguchi spaces, empirical information, epistemological point of view, unitarity, intrinsicality, and dimensional analysis subject to logical and geometrical achievement. On the other hand, various physicists have evolved constructive gauge theories through the phenomenological point of view, often a collective one. Their synthetic method involves fibre bundles and connections, path integrals as well as other hypothetical structures. They lead towards clarity, completeness and adaptability

  15. 10 CFR 435.6 - Sustainable principles for siting, design and construction. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sustainable principles for siting, design and construction. [Reserved] 435.6 Section 435.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS...-Rise Residential Buildings. § 435.6 Sustainable principles for siting, design and construction...

  16. 10 CFR 433.6 - Sustainable principles for siting, design and construction. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sustainable principles for siting, design and construction. [Reserved] 433.6 Section 433.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS... BUILDINGS § 433.6 Sustainable principles for siting, design and construction. [Reserved] ...

  17. Deductive Sensemaking Principles Using Personal Constructs of the Field Commanders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ntuen, Celestine A; Leedom, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    .... It is assumed that the expert commander constructs diverse and asynchronous sensemaking models when confronted with asymmetric situations-evolving and changing dynamics of the battlefield information...

  18. Constructal Law and the Unifying Principle of Design

    CERN Document Server

    Lorente, Sylvie; Bejan, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Design happens everywhere, whether in animate objects (e.g., dendritic lung structures, bacterial colonies, and corals), inanimate patterns (river basins, beach slope, and dendritic crystals), social dynamics (pedestrian traffic flows), or engineered systems (heat dissipation in electronic circuitry). This “design in nature” often takes on remarkably similar patterns, which can be explained under one unifying Constructal Law. This book explores the unifying power of the Constructal Law and its applications in all domains of design generation and evolution, ranging from biology and geophysics to globalization, energy, sustainability, and security.  The Constructal Law accounts for the universal tendency of flow systems to morph into evolving configurations that provide greater and easier access over time. The Constructal Law resolves the many and contradictory ad hoc statements of “optimality”, end design, and destiny in nature, such as minimum and maximum entropy production and minimum and maximum fl...

  19. On the Controllability Principles and the Construction of Uncontrollability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ivar; Gevoll, Linn; Hansen, Allan

    A key challenge when it comes to coping with the controllability principle is to understand why and how uncontrollability occurs. In this paper we draw on the Actor-Network Theory to provide more insight to why and how uncontrollability emerges in organizations. By means of an in-depth case study...... of a wide range of heterogeneous actors that connects in multiple ways and that in combination forms a complex network of relations which affect delivery time performance. Our study adds to research on the controllability principle. Whereas prior research has characterized uncontrollability as determined...... uncontrollability more specifically is about. Thus, our study adds to as well as elaborates on prior research. We illustrate how uncontrollability arise in the intersects of several heterogeneous elements such as the product information systems, quality management, incentive systems, outsourcing and customers. We...

  20. Construction sustainability with adobe bricks type elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Hegyi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is a criterion defined in the 80, which is essential in all fields of current activity. At the moment, it can not talk about development without being taken into account sustainability criteria. It presents the ensuring for an harmonious development, in line with current needs, without to endanger the possibility to develop and satisfy the needs of future generations. The buildings of adobe bricks-type elements ensure successfully the conditions imposed by this criterion. This type of construction ensures the responsible use of renewable natural resources, the possibility of reuse and recycling of materials, contributes to environmental protection and to pollution reduction, to energy saving and it provides a cleaner and healthier living environment. Not least, the buildings of this type are accessible in terms of cost and can contribute to the development of other fields such as eco-tourism.

  1. Scanning tunneling microscopy - STM: history, principle, construction, and related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostadal, I.; Sobotik, P.

    1998-01-01

    The method of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) is discussed. The principle of STM and some other related methods is highlighted, and spectroscopy using STM is dealt with. A brief summary is given of problems to be solved in microscope design, and the influence of these on the resolution obtained is presented. A comparison of STM with other methods used at present in the physics of thin films and surfaces confirms its irreplaceability

  2. A Maximum Principle for SDEs of Mean-Field Type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Daniel, E-mail: danieand@math.kth.se; Djehiche, Boualem, E-mail: boualem@math.kth.se [Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematics (Sweden)

    2011-06-15

    We study the optimal control of a stochastic differential equation (SDE) of mean-field type, where the coefficients are allowed to depend on some functional of the law as well as the state of the process. Moreover the cost functional is also of mean-field type, which makes the control problem time inconsistent in the sense that the Bellman optimality principle does not hold. Under the assumption of a convex action space a maximum principle of local form is derived, specifying the necessary conditions for optimality. These are also shown to be sufficient under additional assumptions. This maximum principle differs from the classical one, where the adjoint equation is a linear backward SDE, since here the adjoint equation turns out to be a linear mean-field backward SDE. As an illustration, we apply the result to the mean-variance portfolio selection problem.

  3. A Maximum Principle for SDEs of Mean-Field Type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Daniel; Djehiche, Boualem

    2011-01-01

    We study the optimal control of a stochastic differential equation (SDE) of mean-field type, where the coefficients are allowed to depend on some functional of the law as well as the state of the process. Moreover the cost functional is also of mean-field type, which makes the control problem time inconsistent in the sense that the Bellman optimality principle does not hold. Under the assumption of a convex action space a maximum principle of local form is derived, specifying the necessary conditions for optimality. These are also shown to be sufficient under additional assumptions. This maximum principle differs from the classical one, where the adjoint equation is a linear backward SDE, since here the adjoint equation turns out to be a linear mean-field backward SDE. As an illustration, we apply the result to the mean-variance portfolio selection problem.

  4. Design and construction of a basic principle simulator: an experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, O.; Galdoz, E.; Flury, C.; Fontanini, H.; Maciel, F.; Rovere, L.; Carpio, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes activities developed over design and building of a Basic Principle Simulator for nuclear power plants. This simulator has been developed in Process Control Division of Bariloche Atomic Center, Argentina. This project was sponsored jointly by CNEA and Atomic Energy International Organization, through the United Nations Program for Development. The paper specially emphasizes aspects like: architecture design methodology of real time simulators; graphic environment and interfaces design for users and instructor interaction, and for display information; test and validation of the used models; and human resources formation. Finally describes the actual implementation of the simulator to be used in Embalse Nuclear Power Plant. (author)

  5. Principles for the formation of an effective concept of multifunctional high-rise construction investment projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beliakov Sergei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Investment projects of high-rise construction have a number of features that determine specific risks and additional opportunities that require analysis and accounting in the formation of an effective project concept. The most significant features of high-rise construction include long construction time, complexity of technical and technological solutions, complexity of decisions on the organization of construction and operation, high cost of construction and operation, complexity in determining the ratio of areas designed to accommodate different functional areas, when organizing and coordinating the operation of the facility, with internal zoning. Taking into account the specificity of high-rise construction, among the factors determining the effectiveness of projects, it is advisable to consider as key factors: organizational, technological and investment factors. Within the framework of the article, the author singled out key particular functions for each group of factors under consideration, and also developed a system of principles for the formation of an effective concept of multifunctional high-rise construction investment projects, including the principle of logistic efficiency, the principle of optimal functional zoning, the principle of efficiency of equipment use, the principle of optimizing technological processes, the principle maximization of income, the principle of fund management, the principle of risk management . The model of formation of an effective concept of investment projects of multifunctional high-rise construction developed by the author can contribute to the development of methodological tools in the field of managing the implementation of high-rise construction projects, taking into account their specificity in the current economic conditions.

  6. Principles for the formation of an effective concept of multifunctional high-rise construction investment projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beliakov, Sergei

    2018-03-01

    Investment projects of high-rise construction have a number of features that determine specific risks and additional opportunities that require analysis and accounting in the formation of an effective project concept. The most significant features of high-rise construction include long construction time, complexity of technical and technological solutions, complexity of decisions on the organization of construction and operation, high cost of construction and operation, complexity in determining the ratio of areas designed to accommodate different functional areas, when organizing and coordinating the operation of the facility, with internal zoning. Taking into account the specificity of high-rise construction, among the factors determining the effectiveness of projects, it is advisable to consider as key factors: organizational, technological and investment factors. Within the framework of the article, the author singled out key particular functions for each group of factors under consideration, and also developed a system of principles for the formation of an effective concept of multifunctional high-rise construction investment projects, including the principle of logistic efficiency, the principle of optimal functional zoning, the principle of efficiency of equipment use, the principle of optimizing technological processes, the principle maximization of income, the principle of fund management, the principle of risk management . The model of formation of an effective concept of investment projects of multifunctional high-rise construction developed by the author can contribute to the development of methodological tools in the field of managing the implementation of high-rise construction projects, taking into account their specificity in the current economic conditions.

  7. 27 CFR 555.207 - Construction of type 1 magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... constructed of, or covered with, a nonsparking material. (3) Wood frame wall construction. The exterior of... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Construction of type 1... Construction of type 1 magazines. A type 1 magazine is a permanent structure: a building, an igloo or “Army...

  8. [Principles and methodology for ecological rehabilitation and security pattern design in key project construction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Ding; Lu, Yi-He; Tian, Hui-Ying; Shi, Qian

    2007-03-01

    Global ecological security becomes increasingly important with the intensive human activities. The function of ecological security is influenced by human activities, and in return, the efficiency of human activities will also be affected by the patterns of regional ecological security. Since the 1990s, China has initiated the construction of key projects "Yangtze Three Gorges Dam", "Qinghai-Tibet Railway", "West-to-East Gas Pipeline", "West-to-East Electricity Transmission" and "South-to-North Water Transfer" , etc. The interaction between these projects and regional ecological security has particularly attracted the attention of Chinese government. It is not only important for the regional environmental protection, but also of significance for the smoothly implementation of various projects aimed to develop an ecological rehabilitation system and to design a regional ecological security pattern. This paper made a systematic analysis on the types and characteristics of key project construction and their effects on the environment, and on the basis of this, brought forward the basic principles and methodology for ecological rehabilitation and security pattern design in this construction. It was considered that the following issues should be addressed in the implementation of a key project: 1) analysis and evaluation of current regional ecological environment, 2) evaluation of anthropogenic disturbances and their ecological risk, 3) regional ecological rehabilitation and security pattern design, 4) scenario analysis of environmental benefits of regional ecological security pattern, 5) re-optimization of regional ecological system framework, and 6) establishment of regional ecosystem management plan.

  9. Construction of Interval Wavelet Based on Restricted Variational Principle and Its Application for Solving Differential Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Mei, Shu-Li; Lv, Hong-Liang; Ma, Qin

    2008-01-01

    Based on restricted variational principle, a novel method for interval wavelet construction is proposed. For the excellent local property of quasi-Shannon wavelet, its interval wavelet is constructed, and then applied to solve ordinary differential equations. Parameter choices for the interval wavelet method are discussed and its numerical performance is demonstrated.

  10. Construction and Validation of a Holistic Education School Evaluation Tool Using Montessori Erdkinder Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setari, Anthony Philip

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to construct a holistic education school evaluation tool using Montessori Erdkinder principles, and begin the validation process of examining the proposed tool. This study addresses a vital need in the holistic education community for a school evaluation tool. The tool construction process included using Erdkinder…

  11. Foregrounding awareness of sentence construction-types in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... a grasp of the principles of phrase and sentence formation and the kinds of structure ... In this article, I have demonstrated through the content analysis of the ... within sentences whose construction typifies the desirative and instrumental ...

  12. Research principles and the construction of mnemonic diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venda, V. F.; Mitkin, A. A.

    1973-01-01

    Mnemonic diagrams are defined as a variety of information display devices, the essential element of which is conventional graphical presentation of technological or functional-operational links in a controlled system or object. Graphically displaying the operational structure of an object, the interd dependence between different parameters, and the interdependence between indicators and control organs, the mneomonic diagram reduces the load on the operator's memory and facilitates perception and reprocessing of information and decision making, while at the same time playing the role of visual support to the information activity of the operator. The types of mnemonic diagrams are listed.

  13. Toward Principles of Construct Clarity: Exploring the Usefulness of Facet Theory in Guiding Conceptualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Conceptualization in theory development has received limited consideration despite its frequently stressed importance in Information Systems research. This paper focuses on the role of construct clarity in conceptualization, arguing that construct clarity should be considered an essential criterion for evaluating conceptualization and that a focus on construct clarity can advance conceptualization methodology. Drawing from Facet Theory literature, we formulate a set of principles for assessing construct clarity, particularly regarding a construct’s relationships to its extant related constructs. Conscious and targeted attention to this criterion can promote a research ecosystem more supportive of knowledge accumulation.

  14. Principles of sustainable development of the territory and priorities of architectural and urban construction activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dontsov, Dmitry; Yushkova, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    The paper is aimed at detecting conceptual conflicts within the architectural and urban construction activity (AUCA), defining their reasons and substantiating ways to decrease adverse effects they caused. Methods of causes and effects analyses are used, as well as evolutional and comparative analyses. They allow defining the laws to form activity model in modern environment, whose elements are ranked. Relevance of the paper is based on defining scientific and theoretical grounds of necessity to improve methodology of AUCA via its adaption to the imperatives of state management. System analyses enabled to prove practicability of considering factors of institution environment for reorganization of the model of AUCA, which provide the fullest implementation of sustainable development principles. It was proved that territorial planning is not only the leading type of AUCA, but also integrator for functioning structures of state management within planning of social and economic development. As main result of the paper consist in detection of the perspective ways for evolution of modern methodology due to increasing interdisciplinary aspect leading to the qualitative renewal of territorial management principles.

  15. A Principled-Normative Construction of Transgender Protection in Labor Market

    OpenAIRE

    Americano, Nathalia Martins

    2015-01-01

    Considering the various difficulties faced by transgender people who want a professional placement in the formal labor market, the issues discussed in the sphere of principled- normative construction suggest alternatives to resolve them fairly and effectively. This study is developed through theory analysis of the fundamental principles and guarantees prevailing in the current constitutional order and the international community. Notwithstanding the labor market being an environment where it ...

  16. Construction of a class of Daubechies type wavelet bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dengfeng; Wu Guochang

    2009-01-01

    Extensive work has been done in the theory and the construction of compactly supported orthonormal wavelet bases of L 2 (R). Some of the most distinguished work was done by Daubechies, who constructed a whole family of such wavelet bases. In this paper, we construct a class of orthonormal wavelet bases by using the principle of Daubechies, and investigate the length of support and the regularity of these wavelet bases.

  17. Principles for Management of Intraoperative Acute Type A Aortic Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gukop, Philemon; Chandrasekaran, Vankatachalam

    2015-12-01

    Intraoperative Type A aortic dissection is a rare pathology with incidence of 0.06-0.32%. It is associated with a high mortality between 30-50%. Some associated risk factors, including hypertension, enlarged aorta, peripheral vascular disease, advanced age, atheroma, and high arterial pressure on cardiopulmonary bypass, have been identified. Modification of these risk factors could reduce the incidence of this event. Prompt diagnosis and management, with the aid of intraoperative trans-esophageal echocardiography and/or epi-aortic ultrasound has been shown to reduce the mortality to 17%. We illustrate the principles of management of this pathology with the case of a 62-year-old female who developed acute Type A aortic dissection while undergoing minimally invasive mitral valve repair.

  18. Some principles of automated control systems construction with project organizational structure

    OpenAIRE

    Kovalenko, Ihor I.; Puhachenko, Kateryna S.

    2013-01-01

    The main principles of automated control systems construction with project organizational structures have been considered and the process flow sheet  for organizational systems control has been proposed. The architectural elements of the organizational system have been introduced and described. The instrumental tools of the graphodynamic systems theory have been used for the simulation modeling of hierarchical structures.

  19. 27 CFR 555.209 - Construction of type 3 magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... magazines. 555.209 Section 555.209 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO... Construction of type 3 magazines. A type 3 magazine is a “day-box” or other portable magazine. It must be fire-resistant, weather-resistant, and theft-resistant. A type 3 magazine is to be constructed of not less than...

  20. Outline of principle of design construction of demolished concrete from electric power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Tomohiko; Sakagami, Takeharu; Inagaki, Hirokazu; Morozumi, Hironori; Muranaka, Kenji

    2005-01-01

    'The principle of design construction of recycled demolished concrete from electric power plant' (a plan) is going to be published by TSCE Concrete Committee in 2005. The abstract of the above principle is described. A large amount of demolished concrete is generated by decommissioning of atomic power plant. About 450,000 to 500,000t of concrete with small radiation level per an atomic power plant will be generated. This report included decommissioning of Tokai power plant, characteristics of subject of demolished concrete, the recycled demolished concrete, fresh conditions of the recycled demolished concrete, the strength, deformation properties, durability, alkali silica reactivity of them and control measurement. (S.Y.)

  1. First-principles atomistic Wulff constructions for an equilibrium rutile TiO2 shape modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fengzhou; Yang, Lei; Zhou, Dali; He, Gang; Zhou, Jiabei; Wang, Fanhou; Chen, Zhi-Gang

    2018-04-01

    Identifying the exposed surfaces of rutile TiO2 crystal is crucial for its industry application and surface engineering. In this study, the shape of the rutile TiO2 was constructed by applying equilibrium thermodynamics of TiO2 crystals via first-principles density functional theory (DFT) and Wulff principles. From the DFT calculations, the surface energies of six low-index stoichiometric facets of TiO2 are determined after the calibrations of crystal structure. And then, combined surface energy calculations and Wulff principles, a geometric model of equilibrium rutile TiO2 is built up, which is coherent with the typical morphology of fully-developed equilibrium TiO2 crystal. This study provides fundamental theoretical guidance for the surface analysis and surface modification of the rutile TiO2-based materials from experimental research to industry manufacturing.

  2. First-principle optimal local pseudopotentials construction via optimized effective potential method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mi, Wenhui; Zhang, Shoutao; Wang, Yanchao; Ma, Yanming; Miao, Maosheng

    2016-01-01

    The local pseudopotential (LPP) is an important component of orbital-free density functional theory, a promising large-scale simulation method that can maintain information on a material’s electron state. The LPP is usually extracted from solid-state density functional theory calculations, thereby it is difficult to assess its transferability to cases involving very different chemical environments. Here, we reveal a fundamental relation between the first-principles norm-conserving pseudopotential (NCPP) and the LPP. On the basis of this relationship, we demonstrate that the LPP can be constructed optimally from the NCPP for a large number of elements using the optimized effective potential method. Specially, our method provides a unified scheme for constructing and assessing the LPP within the framework of first-principles pseudopotentials. Our practice reveals that the existence of a valid LPP with high transferability may strongly depend on the element.

  3. PRINCIPLES, STAGES AND OBJECTIVES OF FORMATION OF INNOVATIVE DEVELOPMENT PATTERNS AT CONSTRUCTION ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhaylov Valeriy Yurevich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the results of the research performed in the field of innovative development of enterprises are provided, and the main principles and the content of each stage of innovative development of construction enterprises in the new economic environment are developed on the basis of the research. Actions, proposed in the article, will ensure the implementation of the strategy of innovative development with a view to effective attainment of objectives of case management and successful adaptation of construction enterprises to altering factors of the media.

  4. THE ORGANIZATIONAL PRINCIPLES OF CONSTRUCTION THE SYSTEM OF STATISTICAL INDICATORS OF SECONDARY EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Haniukova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article deals the structure and content of the statistical analysis secondary education. Particular attention is paid the organization principles of constructing a system of statistical indicators of the status and trends of the phenomenon. Courtesy a system of indicators, that containing existing indicators and proposed by the author. The analysis of which will increase the efficiency of public administration in the area.

  5. The Implementation of Justice Principle Within the Land Procurement for Public Utilities Construction

    OpenAIRE

    SH, Sahnan,

    2015-01-01

    The Indonesia€™s population growth and development increasing makes all parties, in the reality, need more land, especially for government. Land procurement for public utilities construction usually have a problem, because on the process we rarely meet easy process or easy getting deal between landowner and government, or other parties who needs the land. This occurs because is difficult getting deal between government and landowner about compensation. Justice principle implementation someti...

  6. A Stochastic Maximum Principle for a Stochastic Differential Game of a Mean-Field Type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosking, John Joseph Absalom, E-mail: j.j.a.hosking@cma.uio.no [University of Oslo, Centre of Mathematics for Applications (CMA) (Norway)

    2012-12-15

    We construct a stochastic maximum principle (SMP) which provides necessary conditions for the existence of Nash equilibria in a certain form of N-agent stochastic differential game (SDG) of a mean-field type. The information structure considered for the SDG is of a possible asymmetric and partial type. To prove our SMP we take an approach based on spike-variations and adjoint representation techniques, analogous to that of S. Peng (SIAM J. Control Optim. 28(4):966-979, 1990) in the optimal stochastic control context. In our proof we apply adjoint representation procedures at three points. The first-order adjoint processes are defined as solutions to certain mean-field backward stochastic differential equations, and second-order adjoint processes of a first type are defined as solutions to certain backward stochastic differential equations. Second-order adjoint processes of a second type are defined as solutions of certain backward stochastic equations of a type that we introduce in this paper, and which we term conditional mean-field backward stochastic differential equations. From the resulting representations, we show that the terms relating to these second-order adjoint processes of the second type are of an order such that they do not appear in our final SMP equations. A comparable situation exists in an article by R. Buckdahn, B. Djehiche, and J. Li (Appl. Math. Optim. 64(2):197-216, 2011) that constructs a SMP for a mean-field type optimal stochastic control problem; however, the approach we take of using these second-order adjoint processes of a second type to deal with the type of terms that we refer to as the second form of quadratic-type terms represents an alternative to a development, to our setting, of the approach used in their article for their analogous type of term.

  7. A Stochastic Maximum Principle for a Stochastic Differential Game of a Mean-Field Type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosking, John Joseph Absalom

    2012-01-01

    We construct a stochastic maximum principle (SMP) which provides necessary conditions for the existence of Nash equilibria in a certain form of N-agent stochastic differential game (SDG) of a mean-field type. The information structure considered for the SDG is of a possible asymmetric and partial type. To prove our SMP we take an approach based on spike-variations and adjoint representation techniques, analogous to that of S. Peng (SIAM J. Control Optim. 28(4):966–979, 1990) in the optimal stochastic control context. In our proof we apply adjoint representation procedures at three points. The first-order adjoint processes are defined as solutions to certain mean-field backward stochastic differential equations, and second-order adjoint processes of a first type are defined as solutions to certain backward stochastic differential equations. Second-order adjoint processes of a second type are defined as solutions of certain backward stochastic equations of a type that we introduce in this paper, and which we term conditional mean-field backward stochastic differential equations. From the resulting representations, we show that the terms relating to these second-order adjoint processes of the second type are of an order such that they do not appear in our final SMP equations. A comparable situation exists in an article by R. Buckdahn, B. Djehiche, and J. Li (Appl. Math. Optim. 64(2):197–216, 2011) that constructs a SMP for a mean-field type optimal stochastic control problem; however, the approach we take of using these second-order adjoint processes of a second type to deal with the type of terms that we refer to as the second form of quadratic-type terms represents an alternative to a development, to our setting, of the approach used in their article for their analogous type of term.

  8. Nanoparticle shapes by using Wulff constructions and first-principles calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios D. Barmparis

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The majority of complex and advanced materials contain nanoparticles. The properties of these materials depend crucially on the size and shape of these nanoparticles. Wulff construction offers a simple method of predicting the equilibrium shape of nanoparticles given the surface energies of the material.Results: We review the mathematical formulation and the main applications of Wulff construction during the last two decades. We then focus to three recent extensions: active sites of metal nanoparticles for heterogeneous catalysis, ligand-protected nanoparticles generated as colloidal suspensions and nanoparticles of complex metal hydrides for hydrogen storage.Conclusion: Wulff construction, in particular when linked to first-principles calculations, is a powerful tool for the analysis and prediction of the shapes of nanoparticles and tailor the properties of shape-inducing species.

  9. 27 CFR 555.211 - Construction of type 5 magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... magazines. 555.211 Section 555.211 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO... Construction of type 5 magazines. A type 5 magazine is a building, igloo or “Army-type structure”, tunnel, dugout, bin, box, trailer, or a semitrailer or other mobile facility. (a) Outdoor magazines—(1) General...

  10. 27 CFR 555.210 - Construction of type 4 magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... magazines. 555.210 Section 555.210 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO... Construction of type 4 magazines. A type 4 magazine is a building, igloo or “Army-type structure”, tunnel, dugout, box, trailer, or a semitrailer or other mobile magazine. (a) Outdoor magazines—(1) General...

  11. Construction techniques and working principles of external cathode Geiger-Mueller counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevegnani, Francisco Xavier

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, the construction technique and working principles of the external cathode Geiger-Mueller counter are described in detail. During the analysis of the behavior of these counters a new phenomena was observed, related to an increase int he background rate with the applied voltage. The experiments have also shown that the pulse amplitude of those counters decreases exponentially with the counting rate. The counters built with the techniques described in this paper has shown plateaus of about 1400 V with slope of 0,8%/100 V. (author)

  12. 27 CFR 555.208 - Construction of type 2 magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... magazines. 555.208 Section 555.208 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO... Construction of type 2 magazines. A type 2 magazine is a box, trailer, semitrailer, or other mobile facility. (a) Outdoor magazines—(1) General. Outdoor magazines are to be bullet-resistant, fire-resistant...

  13. Variable type framing in Spanish constructions of directed motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Johan

    2014-01-01

    demonstrate in this article that this construction type tends to be acceptable whenever the lexical meaning of the verb implies an element of directed motion. Drawing on Goldberg (2006) and Pedersen (2009, 2013), I suggest that schematicity is a typological parameter, and, more specifically, that the term...... variable type framing may accommodate the case of variation under scrutiny here....

  14. Assessment of Lean Construction Principles: A Case Study at Semarang Medical Centre Hospital Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias Roy Adi Wijaya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The lean construction frameworks have been developed for years to enhance the poor performance of Indonesian project delivery system which influenced by the waste of non-value adding activities. Never the less most of the developments were limited on working process and lack in people empowerment. Toyota Way which integrate working process optimization and people empowerment, was developed as a lean construction frame works. This paper aimed to assess the implementation of Toyota Way principles in project delivery system by observing project’s delivery current state (status quo. The assessment began by conducting a questionnaire survey about Toyota Way implementation which then validated by interview with involved stakeholders and field observation. The assessment showed that project’s stakeholders were still unfamiliar with Toyota Way concept. Although some Toyota Way guidelines have been used in projects completion process such as visual management and training program, it found that those guidelines had not fully implemented. The project delivery system was lack of process focus and concerns more on relationship inter-parties. It also found thatToyota Way implementation will constrained by the difficulties to change the status quo of project delivery. Moreover, it seems that construction projects need practical guidelines to simplify the Toyota Way implementation in project delivery system such as project flow evaluation and system of reflection.

  15. Principles of a new type of great acceptance mass separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabert, A.; Ricaud, C.; Bru, B.

    1993-01-01

    Principles of a new method for performing selection of given charge/mass ratio ions among a stream of contaminating ions with very close charge/mass ratios, are presented. The mass spectrometer is basically composed of a series of three element sets carrying out the following functions: in a first section, a mass defect is transformed in a phase shift; a HF cavity (de-buncher) then transforms the phase shift in an energy variation; and an energy analysis magnetic system which transforms the energy difference in a radial separation. The transverse movement of the beam is thus controlled all along the course, and an excellent longitudinal capture of the ions is obtained thus ensuring a good global transmission

  16. A first principle approach for encapsulated type composite detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kshetri, R

    2012-01-01

    A first principle approach is presented for modeling a composite detector consisting of several high-purity germanium detector modules. Without making assumptions, if we consider the full energy peak counts from single and multiple detector module interactions, and the decomposition of background counts to counts corresponding to the escaping γ-rays and counts for γ-rays which could be recovered in addback mode, it is observed that the addback mode of a composite detector could be described in terms of four probability amplitudes only. Expressions for peak-to-total and peak-to-background ratios are obtained. Considering details of the scattering and absorption processes in a composite detector, a formalism is introduced for understanding the probability amplitudes. Detailed investigation has been performed on the effect of shape and size of composite detectors on peak-to-total and peak-to-background ratios. In accordance with isoperimetric inequality for hexagonal shapes, we have discussed about the optimal design of detector layout for extremely large values of detector modules. Using experimental data on relative single crystal efficiency, addback factor and peak-to-total ratio at 1332 keV for cluster detector, the peak-to-total and peak-to-background ratios have been calculated for several composite detectors.

  17. Data approximation using a blending type spline construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalmo, Rune; Bratlie, Jostein

    2014-01-01

    Generalized expo-rational B-splines (GERBS) is a blending type spline construction where local functions at each knot are blended together by C k -smooth basis functions. One way of approximating discrete regular data using GERBS is by partitioning the data set into subsets and fit a local function to each subset. Partitioning and fitting strategies can be devised such that important or interesting data points are interpolated in order to preserve certain features. We present a method for fitting discrete data using a tensor product GERBS construction. The method is based on detection of feature points using differential geometry. Derivatives, which are necessary for feature point detection and used to construct local surface patches, are approximated from the discrete data using finite differences

  18. Wood construction and magnetic characteristics of impregnated type magnetic wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Hideo; Hojo, Atsushi; Seki, Kyoushiro; Takashiba, Toshio

    2002-01-01

    The results of experiments involving the AC and DC magnetic characteristics of impregnated type magnetic wood were studied by taking into consideration the wood construction and fiber direction. The experimental results show that the sufficient amount of impregnated magnetic fluid varies depending on the fiber direction and length, and the grain face of the wood material. The impregnated type magnetic wood sample that is fully impregnated by magnetic fluid has a 60% saturation magnetization compared to the saturation magnetization of magnetic fluid. Samples for which the wood fiber direction was the same as the direction of the magnetic path had a higher magnetization intensity and permeability

  19. A General Stochastic Maximum Principle for SDEs of Mean-field Type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckdahn, Rainer; Djehiche, Boualem; Li Juan

    2011-01-01

    We study the optimal control for stochastic differential equations (SDEs) of mean-field type, in which the coefficients depend on the state of the solution process as well as of its expected value. Moreover, the cost functional is also of mean-field type. This makes the control problem time inconsistent in the sense that the Bellman optimality principle does not hold. For a general action space a Peng’s-type stochastic maximum principle (Peng, S.: SIAM J. Control Optim. 2(4), 966–979, 1990) is derived, specifying the necessary conditions for optimality. This maximum principle differs from the classical one in the sense that here the first order adjoint equation turns out to be a linear mean-field backward SDE, while the second order adjoint equation remains the same as in Peng’s stochastic maximum principle.

  20. Application of variational principles and adjoint integrating factors for constructing numerical GFD models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penenko, Vladimir; Tsvetova, Elena; Penenko, Alexey

    2015-04-01

    The proposed method is considered on an example of hydrothermodynamics and atmospheric chemistry models [1,2]. In the development of the existing methods for constructing numerical schemes possessing the properties of total approximation for operators of multiscale process models, we have developed a new variational technique, which uses the concept of adjoint integrating factors. The technique is as follows. First, a basic functional of the variational principle (the integral identity that unites the model equations, initial and boundary conditions) is transformed using Lagrange's identity and the second Green's formula. As a result, the action of the operators of main problem in the space of state functions is transferred to the adjoint operators defined in the space of sufficiently smooth adjoint functions. By the choice of adjoint functions the order of the derivatives becomes lower by one than those in the original equations. We obtain a set of new balance relationships that take into account the sources and boundary conditions. Next, we introduce the decomposition of the model domain into a set of finite volumes. For multi-dimensional non-stationary problems, this technique is applied in the framework of the variational principle and schemes of decomposition and splitting on the set of physical processes for each coordinate directions successively at each time step. For each direction within the finite volume, the analytical solutions of one-dimensional homogeneous adjoint equations are constructed. In this case, the solutions of adjoint equations serve as integrating factors. The results are the hybrid discrete-analytical schemes. They have the properties of stability, approximation and unconditional monotony for convection-diffusion operators. These schemes are discrete in time and analytic in the spatial variables. They are exact in case of piecewise-constant coefficients within the finite volume and along the coordinate lines of the grid area in each

  1. Regulatory principles, criteria and guidelines for site selection, design, construction and operation of uranium tailings retention systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coady, J.R.; Henry, L.C.

    1978-01-01

    Principles, criteria and guidelines developed by the Atomic Energy Control Board for the management of uranium mill tailings are discussed. The application of these concepts is considered in relation to site selection, design and construction, operation and decommissioning of tailings retention facilities

  2. Constructing an indicator of consumption for the analysis of poverty : principles and illustrations with reference to Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hentschel, J; Lanjouw, P.

    1996-01-01

    With reference to data from Ecuador this paper examines several of the steps involved in constructing consumption aggregates and highlights some of the principles which should guide the analysis. The paper emphasizes that specific care is warranted where access is characterized by rationing. Simple

  3. Heating of roads. Heat consumption and heat output as a function of climate, construction, demands on surface conditions and principle of heat supply. Uppvaermning av vaegar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnusson, R

    1977-01-01

    In this work analytical formulas for calculation of temperatures in a heated roadbed are given. The heat flux from a heated surface has been studied. The methods for snowclearence on different types of roads have been investigated. The construction work has been studied. The analytical formulas have been evaluated by comparison between calculated temperatures and temperatures measured in field and laboratory. The heat transfer coefficients in those formulas have been developed empirically by tests in laboratory and field. Surfaces with different types of traffic are divided into three classes according to the demands for snow removal. The construction work has been divided into cost elements. This has given a basis for calculating the economic effects of alternative designs. By this work has been developed a method useful on one hand for calculation of the optimum principle of regulation of the supply of heat and on the other hand for the design of the heat installations in the road.

  4. The circular loxodromic lines of the torus – Brunelleschi's constructive principle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevena Radojevic

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The umbrella vault of Pazzi Chapel in Santa Croce church in Florence has been the subject of many, 3d survey based researches, but it’s shape has never been described in satisfactory manner. The descriptions given so far, verified through three-dimensional models, despite whether drew near to geometry, did not give any explanation of building process, that as we know, often guides design choises and principles. In the current research, attempts are made to formulate new hypotheses on the logic and form-finding processes that could have determined the choosen shape of the sail. The existing technical literature and treatises on masonry do not give any information about the building processes in the sources, which is a core issue for explaining the peculiar shape of vaults. The analyses are done by correlating detailed surveys and geometric analyses of the vault, comprising the curves, surfaces and the possible masonry texture with the hypothesized form. The form of the inner sail is obtained by a three-dimensional transformation of a toric surface, with respect to the fixed point (dome’s oculus and constant lenght (torus radius, like the Nicomedes concoid in 2d. The vault is made by the inner sail (the concoid surface and the outer sail that is not visible in this moment (the hypothesized toric surface. In this research, and especially in the verification steps, we could recognize as very useful certain measures that, at first, seemed to have no meaning. The inner sail of the umbrella vault of the Pazzi Chapel is built on the basis of a regular dodecagon, with sides of about 4.90 Florentine braccia, while the diameter of the circumscribed circle is about 8.67 braccia, the measures that could seem a bit unusual for Brunelleschian architecture practice. Even the width of the ribs has a not expected measure of 0.38 braccia.When, on the other hand, we go on to describe the genesis of this sail (the inner sail, which is given by a three

  5. Construction of an infectious clone of human adenovirus type 41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Duo-Ling; Dong, Liu-Xin; Li, Meng; Guo, Xiao-Juan; Wang, Min; Liu, Xin-Feng; Lu, Zhuo-Zhuang; Hung, Tao

    2012-07-01

    Human adenovirus type 41 (HAdV-41) is well known for its fastidiousness in cell culture. To construct an infectious clone of HAdV-41, a DNA fragment containing the left and right ends of HAdV-41 as well as a kanamycin resistance gene and a pBR322 replication origin was excised from the previously constructed plasmid pAd41-GFP. Using homologous recombination, the plasmid pKAd41 was generated by co-transformation of the E. coli BJ5183 strain with this fragment and HAdV-41 genomic DNA. Virus was rescued from pKAd41-transfected 293TE7 cells, a HAdV-41 E1B55K-expressing cell line. The genomic integrity of the rescued virus was verified by restriction analysis and sequencing. Two fibers on the virion were confirmed by western blot. Immunofluorescence showed that more expression of the hexon protein could be found in 293TE7 cells than in 293 cells after HAdV-41 infection. The feature of non-lytic replication was preserved in 293TE7 cells, since very few progeny HAdV-41 viruses were released to the culture medium. These results show that pKAd41 is an effective infectious clone and suggest that the combination of pKAd41 and 293TE7 cells is an ideal system for virological study of HAdV-41.

  6. Limitations of implementing sustainable construction principles in the conventional South African design approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sebake, TN

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available professionals, particularly by architects, in the implementation of sustainability principles in the development of building projects. The aim of the paper is to highlight the limitations of introducing sustainability aspects into the existing South African...

  7. Study and construction of a new type of gaseous scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoury, H.J.

    1978-01-01

    The characteristics and constructional details of a new type of gas scintillation counter is presented. It is shown that using an electric field in a cylindrical geometry and operating the counter in a proportional region, the number of photons due to the excitation of rare gas (argon) during the passage of an ionising primary particle, is considerably increased. The effect of the intensity of applied eletric field is discussed and it is shown that the use of suitable electric field improves the resolution of scintillation counter. The use of several Waveshifters for shifting the ultraviolet component of photon spectrum into the sensitive region of the photomultiplier tube is discussed and the experimental results are presented. A source of Am 241 was used to verify the influence of electric field on alpha spectra. (Author) [pt

  8. A software complex intended for constructing applied models and meta-models on the basis of mathematical programming principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Михаил Юрьевич Чернышов

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A software complex (SC elaborated by the authors on the basis of the language LMPL and representing a software tool intended for synthesis of applied software models and meta-models constructed on the basis of mathematical programming (MP principles is described. LMPL provides for an explicit form of declarative representation of MP-models, presumes automatic constructing and transformation of models and the capability of adding external software packages. The following software versions of the SC have been implemented: 1 a SC intended for representing the process of choosing an optimal hydroelectric power plant model (on the principles of meta-modeling and 2 a SC intended for representing the logic-sense relations between the models of a set of discourse formations in the discourse meta-model.

  9. Morozov-type discrepancy principle for nonlinear ill-posed problems ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For proving the existence of a regularization parameter under a Morozov-type discrepancy principle for Tikhonov regularization of nonlinear ill-posed problems, it is required to impose additional nonlinearity assumptions on the forward operator. Lipschitz continuity of the Freéchet derivative and requirement of the Lipschitz ...

  10. Morozov-type discrepancy principle for nonlinear ill-posed problems ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... For proving the existence of a regularization parameter under a Morozov-type discrepancy principle for Tikhonov regularization of nonlinear ill-posed problems, it is required to impose additional nonlinearity assumptions on the forward operator. Lipschitz continuity of the Freéchet derivative and requirement ...

  11. Student Performance in Principles of Macroeconomics: the Importance of Gender and Personality Type

    OpenAIRE

    Leiv Opstad; Lars Fallan

    2010-01-01

    Several studies indicate that females perform more poorly in economic courses than their male counterparts. Other studies reveal that students' personality types affect their performance in economic courses, as well. The present study explores this issue by testing a number of interactions between gender and the Kersey-Bates temperament types in an ordered probit model explaining students' grades in Principles of Macroeconomics. The results confirm that the interaction of gender and temperame...

  12. A tomographic test of cosmological principle using the JLA compilation of type Ia supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhe; Lin, Hai-Nan; Sang, Yu; Wang, Sai

    2018-05-01

    We test the cosmological principle by fitting a dipolar modulation of distance modulus and searching for an evolution of this modulation with respect to cosmological redshift. Based on a redshift tomographic method, we divide the Joint Light-curve Analysis compilation of supernovae of type Ia into different redshift bins, and employ a Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo method to infer the anisotropic amplitude and direction in each redshift bin. However, we do not find any significant deviations from the cosmological principle, and the anisotropic amplitude is stringently constrained to be less than a few thousandths at 95% confidence level.

  13. The financial implications of certain types of cross-border pollution: The polluter-pays principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montmayeul, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Favorable Paris Convention regulations: absolute liability, exclusive liability, channeling of liability to the operator in case of nuclear damage, financial security, limited maximum liability, single legal forum, ten-year time limit. Difficulties of application for certain types of cross-border pollution not covered by the Paris Convention: so-called orphan sources (stolen, lost, or abandoned sealed sources or confiscated contaminated metallurgical scrap). Benefits of the polluter-pays principle: identification of the polluter, identification of the holder of the polluted materials, responsible parties held accountable, financial reparations. Analysis of the polluter-pays principle already recognized in numerous international texts on environmental law. (author)

  14. Requirements and principles for the implementation and construction of large-scale geographic information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Terence R.; Menon, Sudhakar; Star, Jeffrey L.; Estes, John E.

    1987-01-01

    This paper provides a brief survey of the history, structure and functions of 'traditional' geographic information systems (GIS), and then suggests a set of requirements that large-scale GIS should satisfy, together with a set of principles for their satisfaction. These principles, which include the systematic application of techniques from several subfields of computer science to the design and implementation of GIS and the integration of techniques from computer vision and image processing into standard GIS technology, are discussed in some detail. In particular, the paper provides a detailed discussion of questions relating to appropriate data models, data structures and computational procedures for the efficient storage, retrieval and analysis of spatially-indexed data.

  15. Constructing the principles: Method and metaphysics in the progress of theoretical physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Lawrence C.

    This thesis presents a new framework for the philosophy of physics focused on methodological differences found in the practice of modern theoretical physics. The starting point for this investigation is the longstanding debate over scientific realism. Some philosophers have argued that it is the aim of science to produce an accurate description of the world including explanations for observable phenomena. These scientific realists hold that our best confirmed theories are approximately true and that the entities they propose actually populate the world, whether or not they have been observed. Others have argued that science achieves only frameworks for the prediction and manipulation of observable phenomena. These anti-realists argue that truth is a misleading concept when applied to empirical knowledge. Instead, focus should be on the empirical adequacy of scientific theories. This thesis argues that the fundamental distinction at issue, a division between true scientific theories and ones which are empirically adequate, is best explored in terms of methodological differences. In analogy with the realism debate, there are at least two methodological strategies. Rather than focusing on scientific theories as wholes, this thesis takes as units of analysis physical principles which are systematic empirical generalizations. The first possible strategy, the conservative, takes the assumption that the empirical adequacy of a theory in one domain serves as good evidence for such adequacy in other domains. This then motivates the application of the principle to new domains. The second strategy, the innovative, assumes that empirical adequacy in one domain does not justify the expectation of adequacy in other domains. New principles are offered as explanations in the new domain. The final part of the thesis is the application of this framework to two examples. On the first, Lorentz's use of the aether is reconstructed in terms of the conservative strategy with respect to

  16. Principles of Curriculum Design and Construction Based on the Concepts of Educational Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watagodakumbura, Chandana

    2017-01-01

    With the emergence of a wealth of research-based information in the field of educational neuroscience, educators are now able to make more evidence-based decisions in the important area of curriculum design and construction. By viewing from the perspective of educational neuroscience, we can give a more meaningful and lasting purpose of leading to…

  17. A Stochastic Maximum Principle for Risk-Sensitive Mean-Field Type Control

    KAUST Repository

    Djehiche, Boualem; Tembine, Hamidou; Tempone, Raul

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we study mean-field type control problems with risk-sensitive performance functionals. We establish a stochastic maximum principle (SMP) for optimal control of stochastic differential equations (SDEs) of mean-field type, in which the drift and the diffusion coefficients as well as the performance functional depend not only on the state and the control but also on the mean of the distribution of the state. Our result extends the risk-sensitive SMP (without mean-field coupling) of Lim and Zhou (2005), derived for feedback (or Markov) type optimal controls, to optimal control problems for non-Markovian dynamics which may be time-inconsistent in the sense that the Bellman optimality principle does not hold. In our approach to the risk-sensitive SMP, the smoothness assumption on the value-function imposed in Lim and Zhou (2005) needs not be satisfied. For a general action space a Peng's type SMP is derived, specifying the necessary conditions for optimality. Two examples are carried out to illustrate the proposed risk-sensitive mean-field type SMP under linear stochastic dynamics with exponential quadratic cost function. Explicit solutions are given for both mean-field free and mean-field models.

  18. A Stochastic Maximum Principle for Risk-Sensitive Mean-Field Type Control

    KAUST Repository

    Djehiche, Boualem

    2015-02-24

    In this paper we study mean-field type control problems with risk-sensitive performance functionals. We establish a stochastic maximum principle (SMP) for optimal control of stochastic differential equations (SDEs) of mean-field type, in which the drift and the diffusion coefficients as well as the performance functional depend not only on the state and the control but also on the mean of the distribution of the state. Our result extends the risk-sensitive SMP (without mean-field coupling) of Lim and Zhou (2005), derived for feedback (or Markov) type optimal controls, to optimal control problems for non-Markovian dynamics which may be time-inconsistent in the sense that the Bellman optimality principle does not hold. In our approach to the risk-sensitive SMP, the smoothness assumption on the value-function imposed in Lim and Zhou (2005) needs not be satisfied. For a general action space a Peng\\'s type SMP is derived, specifying the necessary conditions for optimality. Two examples are carried out to illustrate the proposed risk-sensitive mean-field type SMP under linear stochastic dynamics with exponential quadratic cost function. Explicit solutions are given for both mean-field free and mean-field models.

  19. Food-Bridging: A New Network Construction to Unveil the Principles of Cooking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Simas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this manuscript, we propose, analyze, and discuss a possible new principle behind traditional cuisine: the Food-bridging hypothesis and its comparison with the food-pairing hypothesis using the same dataset and graphical models employed in the food-pairing study by Ahn et al. (2011. The Food-bridging hypothesis assumes that if two ingredients do not share a strong molecular or empirical affinity, they may become affine through a chain of pairwise affinities. That is, in a graphical model as employed by Ahn et al., a chain represents a path that joints the two ingredients, the shortest path represents the strongest pairwise chain of affinities between the two ingredients. Food-pairing and Food-bridging are different hypotheses that may describe possible mechanisms behind the recipes of traditional cuisines. Food-pairing intensifies flavor by mixing ingredients in a recipe with similar chemical compounds, and food-bridging smoothes contrast between ingredients. Both food-pairing and food-bridging are observed in traditional cuisines, as shown in this work. We observed four classes of cuisines according to food-pairing and food-bridging: (1 East Asian cuisines, at one extreme, tend to avoid food-pairing as well as food-bridging; and (4 Latin American cuisines, at the other extreme, follow both principles. For the two middle classes: (2 Southeastern Asian cuisines, avoid food-pairing and follow food-bridging; and (3 Western cuisines, follow food-pairing and avoid food-bridging.

  20. Principles of design and construction for the top caps of prestressed concrete reactor pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, A.N.; Bellwood, G.N.; Paton, A.A.

    1976-01-01

    The building of the top cap poses problems because of the number of penetrations to be cast therein. The fuel and control system routes need to be tightly specified and controlled so that during station life misalignments do not occur which interfere with the fuelling and control operations. The paper outlines the route requirements and illustrates how these affect the tolerances and movements which can be allowed at various stages of construction. Development work is discussed to show the necessity of resolving the different priorities of design, programme and overall pressure vessel construction requirements, so that the reactor build is not inhibited by the special demands of the top cap, and the integration of the monitoring and survey systems during the top cap build are explained. (author)

  1. Principles for construction of control and stabilization systems for pulse energy sources on the base of compression generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdukaev, I.Kh.; Kuchinskij, V.G.; Titov, V.I.

    1984-01-01

    Principles of construction of control and stabilization systems for a compression-generator (CG)-sources of power energy pulses- are considered. CG is an electromechanical energy converter, the principle of its operation is based on magnetic flux compression with periodic change of mutual inductance of two rotating windings. In each period, with the decrease of intrinsic inductance the generator forms in the load the pulse leading edge, and in the phase rise a pulse decay. To obtain the same pulse in the following period it is neccessary that the magnetic flux initial value should be restored in the generator winding. Problems of attaining pule shaper amplitude stability are considered. The method of pulse amplitude control in the load at the expense of the change in switch moment of capacitive storage to CG windings is suggested. The block-diagram of stabilization system is presented and its operation principle is described. The control system is assembled using K 155 and K 511 microcircuits and it was tested with CG at the pulse energy to 10 kJ. The tests have shown, that already to the third pulse the system provided quite shaped series of pulses

  2. Testing two principles of the Health Action Process Approach in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippke, Sonia; Plotnikoff, Ronald C

    2014-01-01

    The Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) proposes principles that can be translated into testable hypotheses. This is one of the first studies to have explicitly tested HAPA's first 2 principles, which are (1) health behavior change process can be subdivided into motivation and volition, and (2) volition can be grouped into intentional and action stages. The 3 stage groups are labeled preintenders, intenders, and actors. The hypotheses of the HAPA model were investigated in a sample of 1,193 individuals with Type 2 diabetes. Study participants completed a questionnaire assessing the HAPA variables. The hypotheses were evaluated by examining mean differences of test variables and by the use of multigroup structural equation modeling (MSEM). Findings support the HAPA's 2 principles and 3 distinct stages. The 3 HAPA stages were significantly different in several stage-specific variables, and discontinuity patterns were found in terms of nonlinear trends across means. In terms of predicting goals, action planning, and behavior, differences transpired between the 2 motivational stages (preintenders and intenders), and between the 2 volitional stages (intenders and actors). Results indicate implications for supporting behavior change processes, depending on in which stage a person is at: All individuals should be helped to increase self-efficacy. Preintenders and intenders require interventions targeting outcome expectancies. Actors benefit from an improvement in action planning to maintain and increase their previous behavior. Overall, the first 2 principles of the HAPA were supported and some evidence for the other principles was found. Future research should experimentally test these conclusions. 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  3. Application of Strategic Management Principles as Tool to Improve Quality of Construction Technological Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluchnikova, O.; Pobegaylov, O.

    2017-11-01

    The article focuses on the basic theory and practical aspects of the strategic management improving in terms of enhancing the quality of a technological process: these aspects have been proven experimentally by their introduction in company operations. The authors have worked out some proposals aimed at the selection of an optimal supplier for building companies as well as the algorithm for the analysis and optimization of a construction company basing on scientific and practical research as well as on the experimental data obtained in the experiment.

  4. Principles of structural physics in building construction in the Egyptian desert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awady El Wakil, Shafak El

    1981-12-01

    Building construction in accordance with the climate in oases of the Egyptian desert is discussed. Climatic conditions and the resulting consequences for structural physics play a major role. With the aid of Olgay's comfort diagram, requirements to be made on buildings in various oases are derived from the climatic data of these oases. To optimize the indoor climate, shading, heat storage and ventilation measures are discussed, and suggestions are made on how to make use of this knowledge in consideration of traditional Egyptian architecture.

  5. Penalising Model Component Complexity: A Principled, Practical Approach to Constructing Priors

    KAUST Repository

    Simpson, Daniel

    2017-04-06

    In this paper, we introduce a new concept for constructing prior distributions. We exploit the natural nested structure inherent to many model components, which defines the model component to be a flexible extension of a base model. Proper priors are defined to penalise the complexity induced by deviating from the simpler base model and are formulated after the input of a user-defined scaling parameter for that model component, both in the univariate and the multivariate case. These priors are invariant to repa-rameterisations, have a natural connection to Jeffreys\\' priors, are designed to support Occam\\'s razor and seem to have excellent robustness properties, all which are highly desirable and allow us to use this approach to define default prior distributions. Through examples and theoretical results, we demonstrate the appropriateness of this approach and how it can be applied in various situations.

  6. Penalising Model Component Complexity: A Principled, Practical Approach to Constructing Priors

    KAUST Repository

    Simpson, Daniel; Rue, Haavard; Riebler, Andrea; Martins, Thiago G.; Sø rbye, Sigrunn H.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new concept for constructing prior distributions. We exploit the natural nested structure inherent to many model components, which defines the model component to be a flexible extension of a base model. Proper priors are defined to penalise the complexity induced by deviating from the simpler base model and are formulated after the input of a user-defined scaling parameter for that model component, both in the univariate and the multivariate case. These priors are invariant to repa-rameterisations, have a natural connection to Jeffreys' priors, are designed to support Occam's razor and seem to have excellent robustness properties, all which are highly desirable and allow us to use this approach to define default prior distributions. Through examples and theoretical results, we demonstrate the appropriateness of this approach and how it can be applied in various situations.

  7. [Effects of road construction on regional vegetation types].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shi-Liang; Liu, Qi; Wang, Cong; Yang, Jue-Jie; Deng, Li

    2013-05-01

    As a regional artificial disturbance component, road exerts great effects on vegetation types, and plays a substantial role in defining vegetation distribution to a certain extent. Aiming at the tropical rainforest degradation and artificial forest expansion in Yunnan Province of Southwest China, this paper analyzed the effects of road network extension on regional vegetation types. In the Province, different classes of roads had different effects on the vegetation types, but no obvious regularity was observed in the effects on the patch areas of different vegetation types due to the great variations of road length and affected distance. However, the vegetation patch number was more affected by lower class roads because of their wide distribution. As for different vegetation types, the vegetations on cultivated land were most affected by roads, followed by Castanopsis hystrix and Schima wallichii forests. Road network formation contributed most to the vegetation fragmentation, and there existed significant correlations between the human disturbance factors including village- and road distributions.

  8. Balance equations for a viscous fluid from a Hamilton type variational principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fierros Palacios, A.

    1992-01-01

    The partial differential field equations for any viscous fluid are obtained from the Lagrangian formalism as in classical field theory. An action functional is introduced as a space-time integral over a region of three-dimensional Euclidean space, of a Lagrangian density function of certain field variables. A Hamilton type extremum action principle is postulated with adequate boundary conditions, and a set of differential field equations is derived. With an appropriate Lagrangian density of the T-V type, the equation of motion for any viscous fluid is reproduced. A theorem referring to the invariance of the action under time variations lead to the generalized energy balance equation for the viscous fluid and to the energy balance equation proper. The same theoretical approach can be used to solve the problem of potential flow. (Author)

  9. Field differential equations for a potential flow from a Hamilton type variational principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fierros Palacios, A.

    1992-01-01

    The same theoretical frame that was used to solve the problem of the field equations for a viscous fluid is utilized in this work. The purpose is to obtain the differential field equations for a potential flow from the Lagrangian formalism as in classical field theory. An action functional is introduced as a space-time integral over a region of three-dimensional Euclidean space, of a Lagrangian density as a function of certain field variables. A Hamilton type extremum action principle is postulated with adequate boundary conditions, and a set of differential field equations is derived. A particular Lagrangian density of the T-V type leads to the wave equation for the velocity potential. (Author)

  10. Construction of stable explicit finite-difference schemes for Schroedinger type differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickens, Ronald E.

    1989-01-01

    A family of conditionally stable, forward Euler finite difference equations can be constructed for the simplest equation of Schroedinger type, namely u sub t - iu sub xx. Generalization of this result to physically realistic Schroedinger type equations is presented.

  11. Einstein's Elevator in Class: A Self-Construction by Students for the Study of the Equivalence Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapotis, Efstratios; Kalkanis, George

    2016-10-01

    According to the principle of equivalence, it is impossible to distinguish between gravity and inertial forces that a noninertial observer experiences in his own frame of reference. For example, let's consider an elevator in space that is being accelerated in one direction. An observer inside it would feel as if there was gravity force pulling him toward the opposite direction. The same holds for a person in a stationary elevator located in Earth's gravitational field. No experiment enables us to distinguish between the accelerating elevator in space and the motionless elevator near Earth's surface. Strictly speaking, when the gravitational field is non-uniform (like Earth's), the equivalence principle holds only for experiments in elevators that are small enough and that take place over a short enough period of time (Fig. 1). However, performing an experiment in an elevator in space is impractical. On the other hand, it is easy to combine both forces on the same observer, i.e., gravity and a fictitious inertial force due to acceleration. Imagine an observer in an elevator that falls freely within Earth's gravitational field. The observer experiences gravity pulling him down while it might be said that the inertial force due to gravity acceleration g pulls him up. Gravity and inertial force cancel each other, (mis)leading the observer to believe there is no gravitational field. This study outlines our implementation of a self-construction idea that we have found useful in teaching introductory physics students (undergraduate, non-majors).

  12. Doping process of p-type GaN nanowires: A first principle study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Sihao; Liu, Lei; Diao, Yu; Feng, Shu

    2017-10-01

    The process of p-type doping for GaN nanowires is investigated using calculations starting from first principles. The influence of different doping elements, sites, types, and concentrations is discussed. Results suggest that Mg is an optimal dopant when compared to Be and Zn due to its stronger stability, whereas Be atoms are more inclined to exist in the interspace of a nanowire. Interstitially-doped GaN nanowires show notable n-type conductivity, and thus, Be is not a suitable dopant, which is to be expected since systems with inner substitutional dopants are more favorable than those with surface substitutions. Both interstitial and substitutional doping affect the atomic structure near dopants and induce charge transfer between the dopants and adjacent atoms. By altering doping sites and concentrations, nanowire atomic structures remain nearly constant. Substitutional doping models show p-type conductivity, and Mg-doped nanowires with doping concentrations of 4% showing the strongest p-type conductivity. All doping configurations are direct bandgap semiconductors. This study is expected to direct the preparation of high-quality GaN nanowires.

  13. The Construct Validity of an Instrument for Measuring Type 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Purpose: To develop an instrument (DSCKQ-30) for measuring type 2 diabetic patients' knowledge of self-care practices. Methods: A 30-item questionnaire (DSCKQ-30) consisting of close ended questions was developed for this study. DSCKQ-30 was self administered to a cross-section of randomly selected 400 ...

  14. Wartime Construction Project Outcomes as a Function of Contract Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    contract types has been well established. The theory of contractual incentives promulgated by Sherer (1964) established expected contractor...behaviors using a max- imization problem. The theory focuses on expected contractor behaviors in incentive contracts (cf. Federal Acquisition Regulation...Scherer, F. M. (1964). The theory of contractual incentives for cost reduction. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 78, 257–280. Tawazuh Commercial and

  15. Validating the Type D personality construct in Chinese patients with coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Doris S F; Thompson, David R; Yu, Cheuk Man

    2010-01-01

    Type D personality predicts poor prognosis in coronary heart disease (CHD) but little is known about Type D in non-Western cultures. We examined the (a) validity of the Type D construct and its assessment with the DS14 scale in the Chinese culture, (b) prevalence of Type D, and (c) gender vs. Typ...

  16. Heterotic string construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schellekens, A.N.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper an elementary introduction to the principles of four-dimensional string construction will be given. Although the emphasis is on lattice constructions, almost all results have further, and often quite straightforward generalizations to other constructions. Since heterotic strings look phenomenologically more promising than type-II theories the authors only consider the former, although everything can easily be generalized to type-II theories. Some additional aspects of lattice constructions are discussed, and an extensive review can be found

  17. Principles of formation of mobile dwelling of cluster type with application of additive technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panfilov Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most acute problems of modern society are issues related to the globalization of mankind caused by the next small scientific and technological revolution that is taking place and the emerging transition to a post-industrial society. Some of their characteristic features of this society are: deterritoriality, weakening of functional-spatial ties between places of residence, the application of labor and recreation rights. The peculiarity of the emerging new architecture with the arrival of the postindustrial information society is becoming completely new approaches to the formation of cities and the human dwelling itself. The article deals with the application of additive technologies in the production of mobile residential objects of high factory readiness. The article describes the concept of the formation of a mobile dwelling cluster type based on the principles of the organization of intelligent self-adapting systems (Smart Development, gives examples of author’s developments in the field of cluster housing, with a description of the fundamental principles necessary for the possibility of further development and technical implementation.

  18. Monomiality principle, Sheffer-type polynomials and the normal ordering problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penson, K A; Blasiak, P; Dattoli, G; Duchamp, G H E; Horzela, A; Solomon, A I

    2006-01-01

    We solve the boson normal ordering problem for (q(a † )a + v(a † )) n with arbitrary functions q(x) and v(x) and integer n, where a and a † are boson annihilation and creation operators, satisfying [a, a † ] = 1. This consequently provides the solution for the exponential e λ(q(a † )a+v(a † )) generalizing the shift operator. In the course of these considerations we define and explore the monomiality principle and find its representations. We exploit the properties of Sheffer-type polynomials which constitute the inherent structure of this problem. In the end we give some examples illustrating the utility of the method and point out the relation to combinatorial structures

  19. Core construction in a pressure tube type heavy water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Makoto; Aoki, Katsutada.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To replace a centrally positioned fuel assembly of a fuel assembly unit with a reactor controlling machinery to decrease a distance between the fuel assemblies thereby saving use of heavy water and enhancing economy. Structure: A centrally positioned fuel assembly of a fuel assembly unit, which is composed of a plurality of fuel assemblies orderly arranged in lattice fashion, is replaced with a reactor controlling members such as control rods, poison tubes and the like to provide an arrangement of lattice-free type fuel assembly, thus reducing the pitch as small as possible. (Kamimura, M.)

  20. Construction and testing of a 'fork' type central rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guicherd, R.; Meunier, C.

    1964-01-01

    Aim of the control rod: - Reduction of the flux peaks - Increase of the efficiency - simplification of the mechanics - without modification of the grid nor of the standard fuel plates. Results of the tests: - Reduction of the flux peaks by 29 per cent - Increase of the efficiency by 20 per cent - The suppleness of the plates and the decrease in the number of parts results in greater safety during operation. Conclusions: Study of a generalized adaptation of this type of rod which presents definite advantages. (authors) [fr

  1. On the construction of SL(2,Z) type IIB 5-branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, J.X.; Roy, S.

    1999-01-01

    This talk reviews our recent work on the construction of SL(2,Z) multiplets of type lIB superfivebranes. We here pay particular attention to the methods employed and some salient features of the solutions. (author)

  2. Validity of the Type D personality construct in Danish post-MI patients and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; Denollet, Johan

    2004-01-01

    Type D personality has been associated with increased risk of depression, vital exhaustion, social alienation, a higher number of reinfarctions, and higher mortality rates in patients with established coronary artery disease (CAD) independent of traditional biomedical risk factors. The construct ...

  3. Study of the Riemann problem and construction of multidimensional Godunov-type schemes for two-phase flow models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toumi, I.

    1990-04-01

    This thesis is devoted to the study of the Riemann problem and the construction of Godunov type numerical schemes for one or two dimensional two-phase flow models. In the first part, we study the Riemann problem for the well-known Drift-Flux, model which has been widely used for the analysis of thermal hydraulics transients. Then we use this study to construct approximate Riemann solvers and we describe the corresponding Godunov type schemes for simplified equation of state. For computation of complex two-phase flows, a weak formulation of Roe's approximate Riemann solver, which gives a method to construct a Roe-averaged jacobian matrix with a general equation of state, is proposed. For two-dimensional flows, the developed methods are based upon an approximate solver for a two-dimensional Riemann problem, according to Harten-Lax-Van Leer principles. The numerical results for standard test problems show the good behaviour of these numerical schemes for a wide range of flow conditions [fr

  4. Complex heterogeneous tissue constructs containing multiple cell types prepared by inkjet printing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Zhao, Weixin; Zhu, Jian-Ming; Albanna, Mohammad Z; Yoo, James J; Atala, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to develop a versatile method for fabricating complex and heterogeneous three-dimensional (3D) tissue constructs using simultaneous ink-jetting of multiple cell types. Human amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (hAFSCs), canine smooth muscle cells (dSMCs), and bovine aortic endothelial cells (bECs), were separately mixed with ionic cross-linker calcium chloride (CaCl(2)), loaded into separate ink cartridges and printed using a modified thermal inkjet printer. The three cell types were delivered layer-by-layer to pre-determined locations in a sodium alginate-collagen composite located in a chamber under the printer. The reaction between CaCl(2) and sodium alginate resulted in a rapid formation of a solid composite gel and the printed cells were anchored in designated areas within the gel. The printing process was repeated for several cycles leading to a complex 3D multi-cell hybrid construct. The biological functions of the 3D printed constructs were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Each of the printed cell types maintained their viability and normal proliferation rates, phenotypic expression, and physiological functions within the heterogeneous constructs. The bioprinted constructs were able to survive and mature into functional tissues with adequate vascularization in vivo. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating complex heterogeneous tissue constructs containing multiple cell types using inkjet printing technology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Modern principles of prevention of anophthalmic syndrome: formation of the locomotor stump, the types of orbital implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Zapuskalov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the current state of the problem of the correction of anophthalmic syndrome. Evaluated various methods of formation of the locomotor stump after removal of the eyeball, gave a detailed description of different types of materials for the fabrication of orbital implant, as well as reflect the basic principles of prevention of complications.

  6. Types of conflict, types of relationships and preferred conflict resolution strategies: Implications for constructive conflict resolution programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Danijela S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Constructive conflict resolution programmes are based on the idea that children and youth do no have sufficient knowledge of the procedures and skills for conflict resolution, which is why the conflicts they take part in soon become destructive. Notwithstanding the indubitable practical significance of the constructive conflict resolution programmes, it can be objected that they are not sufficiently based on empirical findings about the characteristics of conflicts in childhood and adolescence. Hence, this paper explores different types of conflict with peers and friends with the aim of determining the preferred conflict resolution strategies and using the obtained results to consider the implications for the improvement of constructive conflict resolution programmes. The research was conducted on the sample of 286 adolescents. The method of hypothetical conflict situations was used for studying the preferred conflict resolution strategies. The key results, which should be taken into account when developing constructive conflict resolution programmes, indicate that the preference for a conflict resolution strategy varies depending on conflict type (problem solving is mostly used in conflicts occurring due to opinion differences and disrespect of agreement, unlike the conflicts arising due to provocations, stubbornness and dishonesty and relationship types (in conflicts with friends, adolescents prefer problem solving, while in peer conflicts they more frequently opt for competition. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179018: Identifikacija, merenje i razvoj kognitivnih i emocionalnih kompetencija važnih društvu orijentisanom na evropske integracije

  7. Functional or constructive attitudes: Which type drives consumers' evaluation of meat products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Consumer attitudes towards meat can be divided up into two types: Functional attitudes which are stable and exist over long periods of time, and constructive attitudes which are ephemeral and usually constructed at the point of sale. This research investigated the temporal and situational stability of meat consumers' attitudes by using the same established functional, multidimensional attitude instrument to generate attitude profiles for the four meat types: chicken/beef/lamb/poultry both as an abstracted construct and as a cue on a range of meat and meat-based products. The results showed that strong attitude profile was generated by the meat types as abstracted constructs, but that this profile broke down completely when the food products carrying the same meat types were evaluated. This result indicates that consumer attitudes may not be temporally or situationally stable, which in turn suggests that consumers' evaluation and choice of meat products may be driven to a greater or lesser extent by constructive rather than functional attitudes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Least-entropy generation: Variational principle of Onsager's type for transient hyperbolic heat and mass transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sieniutycz, S.; Berry, R.S.

    1992-01-01

    For coupled transfer of the energy and mass in a multicomponent system at mechanical equilibrium a simple thermodynamic theory is developed, and the damped wave equations of change are derived. We show that under nonstationary conditions, where relaxation of diffusive fluxes is essential, the evolution of the distributed coupled transfer of the energy and mass follows the path that minimizes the difference between the total entropy generated within the system and that exchanged by the system. The principle is also valid in the limit in which flux relaxation effects are negligible and the heat and mass transfer, whether steady or not, obeys Onsager's generalization of the Fourier and Fick laws. For coupled steady-state processes the principle goes into that of Onsager, yielding his phenomenological equations. In contrast to the local steady-state nature of Onsager's principle the new principle is global, valid for both stationary and transient situations, and requires no frozen fields. For an isolated, distributed system, in which transient relaxation to equilibrium is the only possible process, the principle implies the least possible increase of the system entropy between any two successive configurations

  9. Validating the Type D personality construct in Chinese patients with coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Doris S F; Thompson, David R; Yu, Cheuk Man; Pedersen, Susanne S; Denollet, Johan

    2010-08-01

    Type D personality predicts poor prognosis in coronary heart disease (CHD) but little is known about Type D in non-Western cultures. We examined the (a) validity of the Type D construct and its assessment with the DS14 scale in the Chinese culture, (b) prevalence of Type D, and (c) gender vs. Type D discrepancies in depression/anxiety, among Chinese patients with CHD. Patients with CHD (N=326) completed the Chinese version of the DS14. The NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and Stress Symptom Checklist (SSC) were administered to subsamples to establish construct and discriminant validity. Administration of the DS14, HADS, and SSC was repeated at 1 month after hospital discharge in 66 patients, and stability of the DS14 was examined in another subsample of 100 patients. The theoretical structure of the Type D construct in the Chinese culture was supported (chi(2)/df=2.89, root mean square error of approximation=0.08, normal fit index=0.91, non-normal fit index=0.91, comparative fit index=0.93). The Negative Affectivity (NA) and Social Inhibition (SI) subscales of the DS14 in the entire sample were internally consistent (Cronbach's alpha=0.89/0.81), measured stable traits (3-month test-retest ICC=0.76/0.74), and correlated significantly with the neuroticism (NA/neuroticism, r=0.78, Ppersonality was 31%. Type D was not related to transient emotional states. However, Chinese patients with a Type D personality were at increased concurrent risk of anxiety (P=.002) and depression (P=.016). Type D personality is a cross-culturally valid construct, is associated with an increased risk of anxiety and depression, and deserves prompt attention in estimating the prognostic risk of Chinese CHD patients. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation on construction quality of pit filler material of cavern type radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takechi, Shin-ichi; Yokozeki, Kosuke; Shimbo, Hiroshi; Terada, Kenji; Akiyama, Yoshihiro; Yada, Tsutomu; Tsuji, Yukikazu

    2014-01-01

    The pit filler material of the underground cavern-type radioactive waste disposal facility, which is poured directly around the radioactive waste packages where high temperature environment is assumed by their decay heat, is concerned to be adversely affected on the filling behavior and its hardened properties. There also are specific issues that required quality of construction must be achieved by unmanned construction with remote operation, because the pit filler construction shall be done under radiation environment. In this paper, the mix proportion of filler material is deliberated with filling experiments simulating high temperature environment, and also the effect of temperature on hardened properties are confirmed with high temperature curing test. Subsequently, the feasibility of unmanned construction method of filler material by pumping, and by movable bucket, are comparatively discussed through a real size demonstration. (author)

  11. Construction and use of an applicator of the afterloading type for treatment of the uterine cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miola, U.J.; Vizeu, D.M.; Moura, A.M.S.; Petito, J.W.

    The construction of an afterloading type applicator for treatment of cancer of the uterine cervix is described. The technique of intercavitary treatment of cancer of the uterine cervix used in the Osvaldo Cruz Institute of Radiotherapy (Brazil) is also discribed [pt

  12. The validity of the Type D construct and its assessment in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Chia-Ying; Denollet, Johan; Lin, Chin-Lon; Lin, Tin-Kwang; Wang, Wen-Chung; Lin, Jyun-Ji; Wong, Shu-Shu; Mols, Floortje

    2013-02-04

    Type D (distressed) personality, defined by negative affectivity and social inhibition, is related to cardiovascular outcomes. Little is known about Type D in non-Western cultures. We examined the validity of this construct and its assessment in Taiwanese patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and adults from the general population. CAD patients (N = 87) and adults from the general population (N = 421) completed the 14-item Type D Scale- Taiwanese version (DS14-T), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory-II, and Chinese Hostility Inventory Short-Form. Based on the psychometric examination, item #3 of the original DS14, "I often talk to strangers" was replaced by "I don't like to have a lot of people around me" which comes from the "Withdrawal" facet of social inhibition of DS-24. The reliability of Type D assessment in Taiwan was good, with Cronbach's α for negative affectivity and social inhibition of .86 and .79. Factor analyses confirmed the two-factor model of the Type D construct. The prevalence rate of Type D personality in Taiwan was 20% in CAD patients and 16% in the general population. Negative affectivity was positively associated with anxiety, depression and hostility, and social inhibition was positively associated with suppressive hostility and negatively associated with expressive hostility after controlling for the total hostility. Furthermore, Taiwanese individuals with a Type D personality displayed elevated levels of anxiety, depression and hostility. The Type D construct and its assessment with the DS14-T is generalizable to an Asian setting, Taiwan. The DS14-T showed good psychometric properties, and the prevalence of Type D personality in Taiwan was similar to the prevalence rates in Western countries and Mainland China, and Type D was associated with anxiety, depression and hostility.

  13. Demonstrating Principles of Spectrophotometry by Constructing a Simple, Low-Cost, Functional Spectrophotometer Utilizing the Light Sensor on a Smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosker, Bill S.

    2018-01-01

    A highly simplified variation on the do-it-yourself spectrophotometer using a smartphone's light sensor as a detector and an app to calculate and display absorbance values was constructed and tested. This simple version requires no need for electronic components or postmeasurement spectral analysis. Calibration graphs constructed from two…

  14. Accounting and analysis of the real labour input for objects and types of works during NPP construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuvaev, P.P.

    1983-01-01

    A technique for determining the actual labour input for PP construction according to types of works, construction units and objects is considered. The data are presented on specific expenditures on civil engineering, heat and electric installation, insulation and anticorrosion works for construction of the Chernobylsk and Kursk NPPs. A conclusion is drawn about the necessity of computer utilization in calculating the labour input for different types of works, number of workers and planning works during the NPP construction

  15. Buffer Construction Methodology in Demonstration Test For Cavern Type Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshihiro, Akiyama; Takahiro, Nakajima; Katsuhide, Matsumura; Kenji, Terada; Takao, Tsuboya; Kazuhiro, Onuma; Tadafumi, Fujiwara

    2009-01-01

    A number of studies concerning a cavern type disposal facility have been carried out for disposal of low level radioactive waste mainly generated by power plant decommissioning in Japan. The disposal facility is composed of an engineered barrier system with concrete pit and bentonite buffer, and planed to be constructed in sub-surface 50 - 100 meters depth. Though the previous studies have mainly used laboratory and mock-up tests, we conducted a demonstration test in a full-size cavern. The main objectives of the test were to study the construction methodology and to confirm the quality of the engineered barrier system. The demonstration test was planned as the construction of full scale mock-up. It was focused on a buffer construction test to evaluate the construction methodology and quality control in this paper. Bentonite material was compacted to 1.6 Mg/m 3 in-site by large vibrating roller in this test. Through the construction of the buffer part, a 1.6 Mg/m 3 of the density was accomplished, and the data of workability and quality is collected. (authors)

  16. Engineering zonal cartilage through bioprinting collagen type II hydrogel constructs with biomimetic chondrocyte density gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiang; Wang, Fuyou; Chen, Cheng; Gong, Xiaoyuan; Yin, Li; Yang, Liu

    2016-07-20

    Cartilage tissue engineering is a promising approach for repairing and regenerating cartilage tissue. To date, attempts have been made to construct zonal cartilage that mimics the cartilaginous matrix in different zones. However, little attention has been paid to the chondrocyte density gradient within the articular cartilage. We hypothesized that the chondrocyte density gradient plays an important role in forming the zonal distribution of extracellular matrix (ECM). In this study, collagen type II hydrogel/chondrocyte constructs were fabricated using a bioprinter. Three groups were created according to the total cell seeding density in collagen type II pre-gel: Group A, 2 × 10(7) cells/mL; Group B, 1 × 10(7) cells/mL; and Group C, 0.5 × 10(7) cells/mL. Each group included two types of construct: one with a biomimetic chondrocyte density gradient and the other with a single cell density. The constructs were cultured in vitro and harvested at 0, 1, 2, and 3 weeks for cell viability testing, reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), biochemical assays, and histological analysis. We found that total ECM production was positively correlated with the total cell density in the early culture stage, that the cell density gradient distribution resulted in a gradient distribution of ECM, and that the chondrocytes' biosynthetic ability was affected by both the total cell density and the cell distribution pattern. Our results suggested that zonal engineered cartilage could be fabricated by bioprinting collagen type II hydrogel constructs with a biomimetic cell density gradient. Both the total cell density and the cell distribution pattern should be optimized to achieve synergistic biological effects.

  17. Existence principles for inclusions of Hammerstein type involving noncompact acyclic multivalued maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Francois Couchouron

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We apply Monch type fixed point theorems for acyclic multivalued maps to the solvability of inclusions of Hammerstein type in Banach spaces. Our approach makes possible to unify and improve the existence theories for nonlinear evolution problems and abstract integral inclusions of Volterra and Fredholm type.

  18. Construction of a bacterial artificial chromosome library of S-type CMS maize mitochondria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In order to isolate mitochondrial genes easily, we have developed a new method to construct S-type CMS maize mitochondrial gene library by means of embedding mitochondria and enzymatic digesting mitochondria in situ, preparing mtDNA by electrophoresis, digesting LMP agarose with β-agarase, using BAC vector and electroporation. About 2 500 white clones of Mo17 CMS-J mitochondrial gene library were obtained with the average size of 18.24 kb, ranging from 5 to 40 kb, 63.6% inserts came from mitochondrial genome and represented 48 ′ mitochondrial genome equivalents. All the probes had detected the positive clones in the gene library. It is helpful to elucidating the maize mitochondrial genome structure and mechanism of S-type CMS, and may give some valuable reference to the construction of other plant mitochondrial genome library.

  19. Application of some ideas from the axiomatic design principles for construction of a learning management system in Romanian higher engineering education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliescu Dragoş

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In education, the communication processes are critical. The result of education process depends on a significant manner by the quality of the incurred communication. To enhance learning in higher engineering education, an application of axiomatic design for the construction of a Learning Management System is proposed. The clients of such a system are identified, and their expectations were gathered as well. Functional requirements and design parameters to be designed are compiled regarding the two principles of axiomatic design. Finally, we investigate four design options to select the optimal design solution.

  20. Gene Expression of Type VI Secretion System Associated with Environmental Survival in Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae by Principle Component Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Zhouqi; Jin, Guoqiang; Li, Bin; Kakar, Kaleem; Ojaghian, Mohammad; Wang, Yangli; Xie, Guanlin; Sun, Guochang

    2015-01-01

    Valine glycine repeat G (VgrG) proteins are regarded as one of two effectors of Type VI secretion system (T6SS) which is a complex multi-component secretion system. In this study, potential biological roles of T6SS structural and VgrG genes in a rice bacterial pathogen, Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (Aaa) RS-1, were evaluated under seven stress conditions using principle component analysis of gene expression. The results showed that growth of the pathogen was reduced by H2O2 and paraquat-i...

  1. Phonon-limited mobility in n-type single-layer MoS2 from first principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaasbjerg, Kristen; Thygesen, Kristian S.; Jacobsen, Karsten W.

    2012-01-01

    We study the phonon-limited mobility in intrinsic n-type single-layer MoS2 for temperatures T > 100 K. The materials properties including the electron-phonon interaction are calculated from first principles and the deformation potentials and Frohlich interaction in single-layer MoS2 are established...... to recent experimental findings for the mobility in single-layer MoS2 (similar to 200 cm(2)V(-1)s(-1)), our results indicate that mobilities close to the intrinsic phonon-limited mobility can be achieved in two-dimensional materials via dielectric engineering that effectively screens static Coulomb...

  2. Lévy matters VI Lévy-type processes moments, construction and heat kernel estimates

    CERN Document Server

    Kühn, Franziska

    2017-01-01

    Presenting some recent results on the construction and the moments of Lévy-type processes, the focus of this volume is on a new existence theorem, which is proved using a parametrix construction. Applications range from heat kernel estimates for a class of Lévy-type processes to existence and uniqueness theorems for Lévy-driven stochastic differential equations with Hölder continuous coefficients. Moreover, necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of moments of Lévy-type processes are studied and some estimates on moments are derived. Lévy-type processes behave locally like Lévy processes but, in contrast to Lévy processes, they are not homogeneous in space. Typical examples are processes with varying index of stability and solutions of Lévy-driven stochastic differential equations. This is the sixth volume in a subseries of the Lecture Notes in Mathematics called Lévy Matters. Each volume describes a number of important topics in the theory or applicati ons of Lévy processes and pays ...

  3. Statistical Study of Corrosion Types in Constructions in South Region of Rio De Janeiro – Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Lacerda da Cruz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Some of the most difficult and troubling problems encountered in construction are those caused by corrosive processes. The corrosion processes are constituted by some material degradation, generally metallic material, by means of chemical or electrochemical actions of environment in which the material are and can or cannot be combined with mechanical stress. Corrosion is present in the materials in general. Their deterioration is caused by such physical-chemical interaction between the material and the corrosive environment where it causes major problems in several activities. In order to prevent material losses, anticorrosive techniques are used which include coatings, medium modification techniques, anodic and cathodic protection, and corrosion inhibitors such as the organic compounds use. This article analyses the statistical study of corrosion types in construction in south region of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  4. Principles of project management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The basic principles of project management as practiced by NASA management personnel are presented. These principles are given as ground rules and guidelines to be used in the performance of research, development, construction or operational assignments.

  5. Modeling of a ring rosen-type piezoelectric transformer by Hamilton's principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Clément; Pigache, Francois; Erhart, Jiří

    2015-04-01

    This paper deals with the analytical modeling of a ring Rosen-type piezoelectric transformer. The developed model is based on a Hamiltonian approach, enabling to obtain main parameters and performance evaluation for the first radial vibratory modes. Methodology is detailed, and final results, both the input admittance and the electric potential distribution on the surface of the secondary part, are compared with numerical and experimental ones for discussion and validation.

  6. Energy and Environmental Performance of Multi-Story Apartment Buildings Built in Timber Construction Using Passive House Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Wall

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents energy and environmental performance analyses, a study of summer indoor temperatures and occupant behavior for an eight story apartment building, with the goal to combine high energy efficiency with low environmental impact, at a reasonable cost. Southern Portvakten building is built with prefabricated timber elements using passive house principles in the North European climate. Energy performance was analyzed through parametric studies, as well as monitored energy data, and complemented with analysis of occupant behavior during one year. Results show that airtight, low-energy apartment buildings can be successfully built with prefabricated timber elements in a cold climate. The monitored total energy use was 47.6 kWh/m2, excluding household electricity (revised to a normal year, which is considerably lower than of a standard building built today in Sweden—90 kWh/m2. However, the occupancy level was low during the analyzed year, which affects the energy use compared to if the building had been fully occupied. Environmental analysis shows that the future challenges lie in lowering the household and common electricity use, as well as in improving the choices of materials. More focus should also lie on improving occupant behavior and finding smart solar shading solutions for apartment buildings.

  7. Evaluation on applicability of construction methods and construction quality of low-diffusion layer of cavern type radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takechi, Shin-ichi; Yokozeki, Kosuke; Terada, Kenji; Akiyama, Yoshihiro; Yada, Tsutomu; Tsuji, Yukikazu

    2014-01-01

    A performance verification experiment of cavern type radioactive waste disposal facility with a real scale construction is being conducted to evaluate the applicability of proposed construction methods and construction quality of the facility. In this paper, we confirmed that the low-diffusion layer, which is one of the cementitious materials based members, could be filled with mortar from end to end of the member; cracks of low-diffusion layer would not affect the long-term safety evaluation of the facility. And also we figured out the relationship between the material strength and the accumulated temperature, relationship between diffusion coefficient and porosity of low-diffusion layer. (author)

  8. On the construction of elliptic Chudnovsky-type algorithms for multiplication in large extensions of finite fields

    OpenAIRE

    Ballet, Stéphane; Bonnecaze, Alexis; Tukumuli, Mila

    2013-01-01

    International audience; We indicate a strategy in order to construct bilinear multiplication algorithms of type Chudnovsky in large extensions of any finite field. In particular, using the symmetric version of the generalization of Randriambololona specialized on the elliptic curves, we show that it is possible to construct such algorithms with low bilinear complexity. More precisely, if we only consider the Chudnovsky-type algorithms of type symmetric elliptic, we show that the symmetric bil...

  9. Design of butterfly type organic dye sensitizers with double electron donors: The first principle study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenqing; Shao, Di; Li, Juan; Tang, Lian; Shao, Changjin

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we designed a series of butterfly type organic dyes, named ME07-ME13 by introducing such as triphenylamine, phenothiazine, coumarin groups etc. as electron donors and further investigated their absorption spectra using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT). All designed dyes cover the entire visible absorption spectrum from 300 to 800 nm. It's fascinating that ME13 molecule has two absorption peak and the molar coefficient of two absorption peaks are above 4.645 × 104 M-1·cm-1. The light absorption area of ME13 exhibits an increment of 16.5-19.1% compared to ME07-ME12. Furthermore, we performed a detailed analysis on their geometrical and electronic properties, including molecular structures, energy levels, light harvesting efficiency (LHE), driving force (ΔGinject), regeneration (ΔGregen),electron dipole moments (μnormal), intermolecular electron transfer and dye/(TiO2)38 system electron transitions. The results of calculation reveal that double coumarin donors in ME13 are promising functional groups for butterfly type organic dye sensitizers. It is expected that the design of double donors can provide a new strategy and guidance for the investigation in high efficiency dye-sensitized devices.

  10. Construction of type-II Bäcklund transformation for the mKdV hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, J F; Retore, A L; Zimerman, A H

    2015-01-01

    From an algebraic construction of the mKdV hierarchy we observe that the space component of the Lax operator plays the role of a universal algebraic object. This fact induces the universality of a gauge transformation that relates two field configurations of a given member of the hierarchy. Such gauge transformation generates the Bäcklund transformation (BT). In this paper we propose a systematic construction of BT for the entire mKdV hierarchy from the known type-II BT of the sinh-Gordon theory. We explicitly construct the BT of the first few integrable models associated to positive and negative grade-time evolutions. Solutions of these transformations for several cases describing the transition from vacuum–vacuum and the vacuum to one-soliton solutions which determines the value for the auxiliary field and the Bäcklund parameter respectively, independently of the model. The same follows for the scattering of two one-soliton solutions. The resultant delay is determined by a condition independent of the model considered. (paper)

  11. Construction and Analysis of Functional Networks in the Gut Microbiome of Type 2 Diabetes Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lianshuo; Wang, Zicheng; He, Peng; Ma, Shining; Du, Jie; Jiang, Rui

    2016-10-01

    Although networks of microbial species have been widely used in the analysis of 16S rRNA sequencing data of a microbiome, the construction and analysis of a complete microbial gene network are in general problematic because of the large number of microbial genes in metagenomics studies. To overcome this limitation, we propose to map microbial genes to functional units, including KEGG orthologous groups and the evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups (eggNOG) orthologous groups, to enable the construction and analysis of a microbial functional network. We devised two statistical methods to infer pairwise relationships between microbial functional units based on a deep sequencing dataset of gut microbiome from type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients as well as healthy controls. Networks containing such functional units and their significant interactions were constructed subsequently. We conducted a variety of analyses of global properties, local properties, and functional modules in the resulting functional networks. Our data indicate that besides the observations consistent with the current knowledge, this study provides novel biological insights into the gut microbiome associated with T2D. Copyright © 2016. Production and hosting by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Library construction and biological evaluation of enmein-type diterpenoid analogues as potential anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dahong; Xu, Shengtao; Cai, Hao; Pei, Lingling; Wang, Lei; Wu, Xiaoming; Yao, Hequan; Jiang, Jieyun; Sun, Yijun; Xu, Jinyi

    2013-05-01

    A library of promising enmein-type 14-O-diterpenoid derivatives was constructed from a commercially available kaurene-type oridonin by practical and efficient synthetic methods. These synthetic derivatives were evaluated for their antiproliferative activities against a set of four human cancer cell lines. The IC50 values are similar to or improved over those of the parent molecule and paclitaxel, the latter of which was used as a positive control. Compound 29 was further investigated for its apoptotic properties against human hepatocarcinoma Bel-7402 cells to better understand its mode of action. Moreover, compound 29 was shown to have potent antitumor activity in vivo in studies with a murine model of gastric cancer (MGC-803 mice). These results warrant further preclinical investigations of these diterpenoid-based analogues as potential novel anticancer chemotherapeutics. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Optical properties of chalcopyrite-type intermediate transition metal band materials from first principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera, I.; Palacios, P.; Wahnon, P.

    2008-01-01

    The optical properties of a novel potential high-efficiency photovoltaic material have been studied. This material is based on a chalcopyrite-type semiconductor (CuGaS 2 ) with some Ga atom substituted by Ti and is characterized by the formation of an isolated transition-metal band between the valence band and the conduction band. We present a study in which ab-initio density functional theory calculations within the generalized gradient approximation are carried out to determine the optical reflectivity and absorption coefficient of the materials of interest. Calculations for the host semiconductor are in good agreement with experimental results within the limitations of the approach. We find, as desired, that because of the intermediate band, the new Ti-substituted material would be able to absorb photons of energy lower than the band-gap of the host chalcopyrite. We also analyze the partial contributions to the main peaks of its spectrum

  14. Pontryagin-Thom-Szucs type construction for non-positive codimensional singular maps with prescribed singular fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Kalmar, Boldizsar

    2006-01-01

    We give a Pontryagin-Thom-Szucs type construction for non-positive codimensional singular maps, and obtain results about cobordism and bordism groups of -1 codimensional stable maps with prescribed singular fibers.

  15. Circuit engineering principles for construction of bipolar large-scale integrated circuit storage devices and very large-scale main memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neklyudov, A. A.; Savenkov, V. N.; Sergeyez, A. G.

    1984-06-01

    Memories are improved by increasing speed or the memory volume on a single chip. The most effective means for increasing speeds in bipolar memories are current control circuits with the lowest extraction times for a specific power consumption (1/4 pJ/bit). The control current circuitry involves multistage current switches and circuits accelerating transient processes in storage elements and links. Circuit principles for the design of bipolar memories with maximum speeds for an assigned minimum of circuit topology are analyzed. Two main classes of storage with current control are considered: the ECL type and super-integrated injection type storage with data capacities of N = 1/4 and N 4/16, respectively. The circuits reduce logic voltage differentials and the volumes of lexical and discharge buses and control circuit buses. The limiting speed is determined by the antiinterference requirements of the memory in storage and extraction modes.

  16. Principled Scavenging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Monnier, Stefan; Saha, Bratin; Shao, Zhong

    2000-01-01

    .... Unfortunately, these systems cannot get rid of the dependency on a trusted garbage collector. Indeed, constructing a provably type-safe garbage collector is one of the major open problems in the area of certifying compilation...

  17. Construction Claim Types and Causes for a Large-Scale Hydropower Project in Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonaventura H.W. Hadikusumo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydropower construction projects are complex and uncertain, have long gestational periods and involve several parties. Furthermore, they require the integration of different components (Civil, Mechanical and Electrical to work together as a single unit. These projects require highly specialised designs, detailed plans and specifications, high-risk construction methods, effective management, skilful supervision and close coordination. Thus, claims are common in such projects. These claims are undesirable because they require significant time and resources to resolve and cause adversarial relationships among the parties involved. Therefore, it is in the common interest of all involved parties to prevent, minimise, or resolve claims as amicably as possible. Identifying common claim types and their causes is essential in devising techniques to minimise and avoid them in future projects. This report details a case study performed on a large-scale hydropower project in Bhutan. The findings of this case study indicate that differing site conditions are the major contributor of impact and change claims and 95% of total claims can be settled by negotiation, whereas 5% of claims can be settled by arbitration.

  18. Construction of normal-regular decisions of Bessel typed special system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasmambetov, Zhaksylyk N.; Talipova, Meiramgul Zh.

    2017-09-01

    Studying a special system of differential equations in the separate production of the second order is solved by the degenerate hypergeometric function reducing to the Bessel functions of two variables. To construct a solution of this system near regular and irregular singularities, we use the method of Frobenius-Latysheva applying the concepts of rank and antirank. There is proved the basic theorem that establishes the existence of four linearly independent solutions of studying system type of Bessel. To prove the existence of normal-regular solutions we establish necessary conditions for the existence of such solutions. The existence and convergence of a normally regular solution are shown using the notion of rank and antirank.

  19. PROSPECTS OF APPLICATION OF TISSUE-ENGINEERED PANCREATIC CONSTRUCTS IN THE TREATMENT OF TYPE 1 DIABETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Skaletskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Allotransplantation of pancreatic islets remains the most effective method of treatment of diabetes mellitus type 1 being capable under combination of favorable conditions (suffi cient number of isolated islets, effective combination of immunosuppressive drugs to reach the recipients’ insulin independence for several years. However, the overwhelming shortage of donor pancreas and limited post-transplantation islet survival do not allow increasing the number of such transplants and their effectiveness. This review presents a critical analysis of the work done by Russian and foreign authors onto creation of tissue-engineered pancreatic constructs that may lead to the resolution of the three main pancreatic islet transplantation issues: 1 lack of donor material; 2 necessity of immunosuppressive therapy; 3 limited survival and functional activity of the islet.

  20. First-principles density functional calculation of electrochemical stability of fast Li ion conducting garnet-type oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Masanobu; Kotobuki, Masashi; Munakata, Hirokazu; Nogami, Masayuki; Kanamura, Kiyoshi

    2012-07-28

    The research and development of rechargeable all-ceramic lithium batteries are vital to realize their considerable advantages over existing commercial lithium ion batteries in terms of size, energy density, and safety. A key part of such effort is the development of solid-state electrolyte materials with high Li(+) conductivity and good electrochemical stability; lithium-containing oxides with a garnet-type structure are known to satisfy the requirements to achieve both features. Using first-principles density functional theory (DFT), we investigated the electrochemical stability of garnet-type Li(x)La(3)M(2)O(12) (M = Ti, Zr, Nb, Ta, Sb, Bi; x = 5 or 7) materials against Li metal. We found that the electrochemical stability of such materials depends on their composition and structure. The electrochemical stability against Li metal was improved when a cation M was chosen with a low effective nuclear charge, that is, with a high screening constant for an unoccupied orbital. In fact, both our computational and experimental results show that Li(7)La(3)Zr(2)O(12) and Li(5)La(3)Ta(2)O(12) are inert to Li metal. In addition, the linkage of MO(6) octahedra in the crystal structure affects the electrochemical stability. For example, perovskite-type La(1/3)TaO(3) was found, both experimentally and computationally, to react with Li metal owing to the corner-sharing MO(6) octahedral network of La(1/3)TaO(3), even though it has the same constituent elements as garnet-type Li(5)La(3)Ta(2)O(12) (which is inert to Li metal and features isolated TaO(6) octahedra).

  1. On Weak Markov's Principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlenbach, Ulrich Wilhelm

    2002-01-01

    We show that the so-called weak Markov's principle (WMP) which states that every pseudo-positive real number is positive is underivable in E-HA + AC. Since allows one to formalize (atl eastl arge parts of) Bishop's constructive mathematics, this makes it unlikely that WMP can be proved within...... the framework of Bishop-style mathematics (which has been open for about 20 years). The underivability even holds if the ine.ective schema of full comprehension (in all types) for negated formulas (in particular for -free formulas) is added, which allows one to derive the law of excluded middle...

  2. Search for Pauli exclusion principle violating atomic transitions and electron decay with a p-type point contact germanium detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abgrall, N.; Bradley, A.W.; Chan, Y.D.; Mertens, S.; Poon, A.W.P. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Arnquist, I.J.; Hoppe, E.W.; Kouzes, R.T.; LaFerriere, B.D.; Orrell, J.L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Avignone, F.T. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); University of South Carolina, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Columbia, SC (United States); Barabash, A.S.; Konovalov, S.I.; Yumatov, V. [National Research Center ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bertrand, F.E.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Radford, D.C.; Varner, R.L.; White, B.R.; Yu, C.H. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brudanin, V.; Shirchenko, M.; Vasilyev, S.; Yakushev, E.; Zhitnikov, I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Busch, M. [Duke University, Department of Physics, Durham, NC (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC (United States); Buuck, M.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J.A.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I.S.; Leon, J.; Robertson, R.G.H. [University of Washington, Department of Physics, Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, Seattle, WA (United States); Caldwell, A.S.; Christofferson, C.D.; Dunagan, C.; Howard, S.; Suriano, A.M. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States); Chu, P.H.; Elliott, S.R.; Goett, J.; Massarczyk, R.; Rielage, K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Efremenko, Yu. [University of Tennessee, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Knoxville, TN (United States); Ejiri, H. [Osaka University, Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Ibaraki, Osaka (Japan); Finnerty, P.S.; Gilliss, T.; Giovanetti, G.K.; Henning, R.; Howe, M.A.; MacMullin, J.; Meijer, S.J.; O' Shaughnessy, C.; Rager, J.; Shanks, B.; Trimble, J.E.; Vorren, K.; Xu, W. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC (United States); University of North Carolina, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Green, M.P. [North Carolina State University, Department of Physics, Raleigh, NC (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC (United States); Guiseppe, V.E.; Tedeschi, D.; Wiseman, C. [University of South Carolina, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Columbia, SC (United States); Jasinski, B.R. [University of South Dakota, Department of Physics, Vermillion, SD (United States); Keeter, K.J. [Black Hills State University, Department of Physics, Spearfish, SD (United States); Kidd, M.F. [Tennessee Tech University, Cookeville, TN (United States); Martin, R.D. [Queen' s University, Department of Physics, Engineering Physics and Astronomy, Kingston, ON (Canada); Romero-Romero, E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); University of Tennessee, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Knoxville, TN (United States); Vetter, K. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); University of California, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Berkeley, CA (United States); Wilkerson, J.F. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC (United States); University of North Carolina, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2016-11-15

    A search for Pauli-exclusion-principle-violating K{sub α} electron transitions was performed using 89.5 kg-d of data collected with a p-type point contact high-purity germanium detector operated at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility. A lower limit on the transition lifetime of 5.8 x 10{sup 30} s at 90% C.L. was set by looking for a peak at 10.6 keV resulting from the X-ray and Auger electrons present following the transition. A similar analysis was done to look for the decay of atomic K-shell electrons into neutrinos, resulting in a lower limit of 6.8 x 10{sup 30} s at 90% C.L. It is estimated that the Majorana Demonstrator, a 44 kg array of p-type point contact detectors that will search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of {sup 76}Ge, could improve upon these exclusion limits by an order of magnitude after three years of operation. (orig.)

  3. The Classification of Types of Business-to-Business Electronic Commerce: A Framework Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-min Choe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the degree of information sharing between buyers and suppliers as well as the level of supplier power, we suggested a framework that can be useful for classifying types of business to business (B2B electronic commerce (EC in the manufacturing firms. According to this framework, four kinds of B2B EC were theoretically proposed, classified, and empirically confirmed. These four are: an electronic marketplace, electronic procurement, electronic partnerships, and electronic distribution. Many prior studies have investigated and proposed some kinds of B2B EC. However, these studies focused mostly on one or two types of B2B EC, and did not develop or suggest a framework for the classification of forms of B2B EC. The framework constructed in this research can be utilized variously. Specifically, when a firm wants to initiate B2B EC with its suppliers, this framework can help a firm to decide and select an appropriate kind of B2B EC. This framework can also be applied to evaluate whether the proper form of B2B EC has been adopted or not.

  4. Model construction and superconductivity analysis of organic conductors β-(BDA-TTP)2MF6 (M = P, As, Sb and Ta) based on first-principles band calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, H.; Kuroki, K.; Yasuzuka, S.; Yamada, J.

    2012-11-01

    We perform a first-principles band calculation for a group of quasi-two-dimensional organic conductors β-(BDA-TTP)2MF6 (M = P, As, Sb and Ta). The ab-initio calculation shows that the density of states is correlated with the bandwidth of the singly occupied (highest) molecular orbital, while it is not necessarily correlated with the unit-cell volume. The direction of the major axis of the cross section of the Fermi surface lies in the Γ-B-direction, which differs from that obtained by the extended Hückel calculation. Then, we construct a tight-binding model which accurately reproduces the ab-initio band structure. The obtained transfer energies give a smaller dimerization than in the extended Hückel band. As to the difference in the anisotropy of the Fermi surface, the transfer energies along the inter-stacking direction are smaller than those obtained in the extended Hückel calculation. Assuming spin-fluctuation-mediated superconductivity, we apply random phase approximation to a two-band Hubbard model. This two-band Hubbard model is composed of the tight-binding model derived from the first-principles band structure and an on-site (intra-molecule) repulsive interaction taken as a variable parameter. The obtained superconducting gap changes sign four times along the Fermi surface like in a d-wave gap, and the nodal direction is different from that obtained in the extended Hückel model. Anion dependence of Tc is qualitatively consistent with the experimental observation.

  5. Model construction and superconductivity analysis of organic conductors β-(BDA-TTP)2MF6 (M = P, As, Sb and Ta) based on first-principles band calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, H; Kuroki, K; Yasuzuka, S; Yamada, J

    2012-01-01

    We perform a first-principles band calculation for a group of quasi-two-dimensional organic conductors β-(BDA-TTP) 2 MF 6 (M = P, As, Sb and Ta). The ab-initio calculation shows that the density of states is correlated with the bandwidth of the singly occupied (highest) molecular orbital, while it is not necessarily correlated with the unit-cell volume. The direction of the major axis of the cross section of the Fermi surface lies in the Γ–B-direction, which differs from that obtained by the extended Hückel calculation. Then, we construct a tight-binding model which accurately reproduces the ab-initio band structure. The obtained transfer energies give a smaller dimerization than in the extended Hückel band. As to the difference in the anisotropy of the Fermi surface, the transfer energies along the inter-stacking direction are smaller than those obtained in the extended Hückel calculation. Assuming spin-fluctuation-mediated superconductivity, we apply random phase approximation to a two-band Hubbard model. This two-band Hubbard model is composed of the tight-binding model derived from the first-principles band structure and an on-site (intra-molecule) repulsive interaction taken as a variable parameter. The obtained superconducting gap changes sign four times along the Fermi surface like in a d-wave gap, and the nodal direction is different from that obtained in the extended Hückel model. Anion dependence of T c is qualitatively consistent with the experimental observation. (paper)

  6. Gene Expression of Type VI Secretion System Associated with Environmental Survival in Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae by Principle Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhouqi Cui

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Valine glycine repeat G (VgrG proteins are regarded as one of two effectors of Type VI secretion system (T6SS which is a complex multi-component secretion system. In this study, potential biological roles of T6SS structural and VgrG genes in a rice bacterial pathogen, Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (Aaa RS-1, were evaluated under seven stress conditions using principle component analysis of gene expression. The results showed that growth of the pathogen was reduced by H2O2 and paraquat-induced oxidative stress, high salt, low temperature, and vgrG mutation, compared to the control. However, pathogen growth was unaffected by co-culture with a rice rhizobacterium Burkholderia seminalis R456. In addition, expression of 14 T6SS structural and eight vgrG genes was significantly changed under seven conditions. Among different stress conditions, high salt, and low temperature showed a higher effect on the expression of T6SS gene compared with host infection and other environmental conditions. As a first report, this study revealed an association of T6SS gene expression of the pathogen with the host infection, gene mutation, and some common environmental stresses. The results of this research can increase understanding of the biological function of T6SS in this economically-important pathogen of rice.

  7. Gene Expression of Type VI Secretion System Associated with Environmental Survival in Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae by Principle Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhouqi; Jin, Guoqiang; Li, Bin; Kakar, Kaleem Ullah; Ojaghian, Mohammad Reza; Wang, Yangli; Xie, Guanlin; Sun, Guochang

    2015-09-11

    Valine glycine repeat G (VgrG) proteins are regarded as one of two effectors of Type VI secretion system (T6SS) which is a complex multi-component secretion system. In this study, potential biological roles of T6SS structural and VgrG genes in a rice bacterial pathogen, Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (Aaa) RS-1, were evaluated under seven stress conditions using principle component analysis of gene expression. The results showed that growth of the pathogen was reduced by H₂O₂ and paraquat-induced oxidative stress, high salt, low temperature, and vgrG mutation, compared to the control. However, pathogen growth was unaffected by co-culture with a rice rhizobacterium Burkholderia seminalis R456. In addition, expression of 14 T6SS structural and eight vgrG genes was significantly changed under seven conditions. Among different stress conditions, high salt, and low temperature showed a higher effect on the expression of T6SS gene compared with host infection and other environmental conditions. As a first report, this study revealed an association of T6SS gene expression of the pathogen with the host infection, gene mutation, and some common environmental stresses. The results of this research can increase understanding of the biological function of T6SS in this economically-important pathogen of rice.

  8. Types of conflict, types of relationships and preferred conflict resolution strategies: Implications for constructive conflict resolution programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Petrović Danijela S.; Vučetić Milica

    2012-01-01

    Constructive conflict resolution programmes are based on the idea that children and youth do no have sufficient knowledge of the procedures and skills for conflict resolution, which is why the conflicts they take part in soon become destructive. Notwithstanding the indubitable practical significance of the constructive conflict resolution programmes, it can be objected that they are not sufficiently based on empirical findings about the characteristics of conflicts in childhood and adol...

  9. Measures against concrete cracking in underground type light oil tank pit construction work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Takeo; Kadowaki, Kazuhiko; Date, Masanao

    2017-01-01

    The underground type light oil tank pit set at Onagawa Nuclear Power Station is a tripartite underground pit structure made of reinforced concrete. This is a mass concrete made of deck slab / outer wall of 1.5 m in thickness and inner wall / top slab of 1.0 m in thickness. Since concrete placement season was July for the deck slab and October for the walls, the occurrence of thermal cracking was highly conceivable. As a result of investigating crack suppression measures based on the crack width of 0.2 mm or less as a guide, the application of fly ash cement and the addition of expansion material to the walls were judged effective and adopted. Thanks to these preliminary studies and careful construction control, it was possible to minimize the occurrence of cracks, but several through cracks of 0.2 mm or less were confirmed on part of the outer walls. As a countermeasure, repair by means of surface impregnation method was adopted, and quality and schedule could be secured. This paper outlines crack suppression measures and repair of the cracks that occurred after the implementation. (A.O.)

  10. Tissue-engineered cartilaginous constructs for the treatment of caprine cartilage defects, including distribution of laminin and type IV collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Lily; Hsu, Hu-Ping; Spector, Myron

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was the immunohistochemical evaluation of (1) cartilage tissue-engineered constructs; and (2) the tissue filling cartilage defects in a goat model into which the constructs were implanted, particularly for the presence of the basement membrane molecules, laminin and type IV collagen. Basement membrane molecules are localized to the pericellular matrix in normal adult articular cartilage, but have not been examined in tissue-engineered constructs cultured in vitro or in tissue filling cartilage defects into which the constructs were implanted. Cartilaginous constructs were engineered in vitro using caprine chondrocyte-seeded type II collagen scaffolds. Autologous constructs were implanted into 4-mm-diameter defects created to the tidemark in the trochlear groove in the knee joints of skeletally mature goats. Eight weeks after implantation, the animals were sacrificed. Constructs underwent immunohistochemical and histomorphometric evaluation. Widespread staining for the two basement membrane molecules was observed throughout the extracellular matrix of in vitro and in vivo samples in a distribution unlike that previously reported for cartilage. At sacrifice, 70% of the defect site was filled with reparative tissue, which consisted largely of fibrous tissue and some fibrocartilage, with over 70% of the reparative tissue bonded to the adjacent host tissue. A novel finding of this study was the observation of laminin and type IV collagen in in vitro engineered cartilaginous constructs and in vivo cartilage repair samples from defects into which the constructs were implanted, as well as in normal caprine articular cartilage. Future work is needed to elucidate the role of basement membrane molecules during cartilage repair and regeneration.

  11. Construction Time of Three Wall Types Made of Locally Sourced Materials: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wojciech Drozd; Agnieszka Leśniak; Sebastian Zaworski

    2018-01-01

    Similarly to any other industry, the construction sector puts emphasis on innovativeness, unconventional thinking, and alternative ideas. At present, when sustainable development, ecology, and awareness of people’s impact on the environment grow in importance, low impact buildings can become an innovative alternative construction technology for the highly industrialized construction sector. The paper presents a comparative study of three walls made of available materials used locally, which c...

  12. "Can-Do-Tude": An Online Intervention Using Principles of Motivational Interviewing and Tailored Diabetes Self-Management Education for Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Linda Louise

    2017-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is one of the most common chronic diseases in youth and it has been shown that adolescents have the worst glycemic control of any age group. The objective of this study was to develop, test and evaluate the feasibility of an online intervention ("Can-Do-Tude") that uses the principles of motivational interviewing…

  13. Understanding Constructions of Danish-ness using Heterogeneous Types of Sources across Historical Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øland, Trine; Ydesen, Christian

    -state construct ‘disturbing/disquieting behavior’, delinquency, and misbehavior and how these constructions are made into a category that activates educational and other interventions. Using a comparative outlook between the two historical settings the purpose is to understand 1) the boundaries of legitimate...

  14. Principles of Activity Theory in analysing the process of construction of pedagogic activities with the use of mobile devices in the Chemistry learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane da Silva Coelho Jacon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile devices emerge as the major players to ensure a favorable resource to connect, minimizing the limitation space-time constraints among people and enabling the use of emerging mobile learning (m-learning. The use of mobile devices in pedagogic praxis implies in a closer link between teachers in their initial development and their teacher educator in order to enable the incorporation of this mobile technology in undergraduate courses. This “approach” means the facilitation of meeting to discuss, reflect and talk about the incorporation of this technology in the teaching learning process. In this research, two professors had meetings to discuss and reflect about the employment of this mobile technology in the undergraduate course. One of them, a Chemistry teacher educator and the other is a computer and education teacher-research. The methodological approach is based on a qualitative method with some elements of action-research based on theoretical assumptions of the Activity Theory (ENGESTRÖM, 1999. Therefore, the study based on the debates over the use of mobile devices in the teaching of chemistry was developed as part of the undergraduate course in Chemistry at the Federal University of Rondonia. Among a set of activities, in which students and professors were present with their objects of specific activities, was presented the Activity system related to the construction of those activities. The analysis of SA from the perspective of the 5 principles of Activity Theory points out that the process of collaborative participation in the meetings, the implementation of activities with the students of the degree course and the preparation of scientific papers demonstrated the qualitative evolution of the chemistry teacher educator

  15. Construction and characterization of a glycoprotein E deletion mutant of bovine herpesvirus type 1.2 strain isolated in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franco, A.C.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Flores, E.F.; Weiblen, R.; Roehe, P.M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the construction and characterization of a Brazilian strain of bovine herpesvirus type 1.2a (BoHV-1.2a) with a deletion of the glycoprotein E (gE) gene. The deletion was introduced by co-transfection of a deletion fragment containing the 5´and 3´gE flanking regions and genomic

  16. Construction of rat cell lines that contain potential morphologically transforming regions of the herpes simplex virus type 2 genome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, F. M.; van Amstel, P. J.; Walboomers, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Hybrid recombinant plasmids were constructed; they were composed of the herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV2) thymidine kinase (tk) gene and DNA sequences of HSV2 that have been reported to induce morphological and/or oncogenic transformation of rodent cells in culture. Several plasmids were made in

  17. The construction and evaluation of a high pressure manifold and vessels for a Calvet type microcalorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.E.G.; Turcotte, A.-M.; Fouchard, R.C.

    2003-01-01

    A Setaram C-80 calorimeter has been modified in order to measure the heat flow of energetic materials at pressures up to 69 MPa. A manifold and sample cells capable of operating at high pressure were designed, constructed and evaluated. This paper will describe, in detail, the high pressure manifold construction, safety assessment and calibration. As well, the results for initial trials with ammonium nitrate (AN), and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) at various pressures and heating rates will be discussed

  18. Cosmological principles. II. Physical principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, E.R.

    1974-01-01

    The discussion of cosmological principle covers the uniformity principle of the laws of physics, the gravitation and cognizability principles, and the Dirac creation, chaos, and bootstrap principles. (U.S.)

  19. A Decision Support Concept for a construction design project – selecting the type of glass façade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franjo Šimić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes research into the possibility of developing a concept for supporting decisions in planning construction projects (one of the most important stages of construction project management. The focus is on supporting decisions in selecting the type of and solution for the glass façade in the main design. Materials and types of soluteons for a glass façade were analyzed and alternative solutions were obtained. The concept was developed in that it included relevant stakeholders in the decision-making process during the construction design. These stakeholders were the investor, architect, and construction contractor. The analysis was carried out and a hierarchical structure of objectives was formed as a goal tree. The criteria at the last hierarchical level were used to evaluate alternative solutions for the glass façade, and their weights were determined by all stakeholders using the AHP method (Analytic Hierarchy Process. Using PROMETHEE (Preference Ranking Method for Enrichment Evaluation, a comparison of alternative solutions for the glass façade was conducted and the alternatives were ranked according to the priorities for inclusion into the main design. The concept was tested by selecting a type of glass façade on a residential-commercial building in the city of Rijeka, Croatia.

  20. An Estimation of Construction and Demolition Debris in Seoul, Korea: Waste Amount, Type, and Estimating Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seongwon; Hwang, Yongwoo

    1999-08-01

    Construction and demolition (C&D) debris is generated at the site of various construction activities. However, the amount of the debris is usually so large that it is necessary to estimate the amount of C&D debris as accurately as possible for effective waste management and control in urban areas. In this paper, an effective estimation method using a statistical model was proposed. The estimation process was composed of five steps: estimation of the life span of buildings; estimation of the floor area of buildings to be constructed and demolished; calculation of individual intensity units of C&D debris; and estimation of the future C&D debris production. This method was also applied in the city of Seoul as an actual case, and the estimated amount of C&D debris in Seoul in 2021 was approximately 24 million tons. Of this total amount, 98% was generated by demolition, and the main components of debris were concrete and brick.

  1. Construction and evaluation of a hollow cone type nozzle with ceramic nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Amirshaghaghi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In order to improve the use of pesticides and pesticide consumption and prevent environmental pollution, manufactures and scientists have considered two major trends. The first major trend is improving techniques that are practical and effective use of small quantities of chemicals to reduce the negative effect of residues of pesticides. The use of new methods usually requires investment and cost. The second major trend is changing the parts that are more important to reform the sprayer components in order to reduce pollution, mainly by including engineering controls, and design and construction of appropriate nozzles. The optimization can be done with the least expensive pesticide. Nozzle is a device for spraying the solution in the form of particles with a certain pattern. Tip of a nozzle is placed in the nozzle’s body and has many different types. The main factors in choosing tips include: material, pattern of distribution, spray angle and the amount of the solution. The spray tip may be made of aluminum, brass, nylon, stainless steel, ceramic or other materials. Nanocomposites are composites that contain at least one component with dimensions in the nanometer range between 1 to 100 nm. This material is suitable as an alternative to overcome the limitations that exist with integrated microcomposites. The aim of this study was the construction and evaluation of a sprayer nozzle with ceramic nanocomposites with good shelf life and optimum performance. Materials and methods: This research was supported by the Agricultural Engineering Research Institute and Nanotechnology Committee of the Ministry of Agriculture. The operations of this study were as follows: 1- Preparing of materials, including alumina powder and stabilized zirconia powder with yttrium. 2- Design and manufacture of molds. 3- Preparation of the samples pressing operations. 4- Zintering of samples to achieve high density. 5- Tests to determine the quality of the

  2. Effects from different types of construction refuse in the soil on electrodialytic remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Eriksson, Thomas; Hansen, Henrik K.

    2002-01-01

    At abandoned industrial sites some of the previous buildings are often left behind. If the soil at such site is polluted with heavy metals and is to be remediated by an electrochemical method, the construction refuse within the soil matrix will influence the remediation action. The influence of d...

  3. The Identification of Financing Strategy for the Construction of NPP Type Opr-1000 at Muria Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moch-Djoko Birmano

    2006-01-01

    The study for identification of financing strategy for the construction of OPR-1000 at Muria Peninsula have been done. This study is continuation of previous study with title T he Economic and Financing Viability of the OPR-1000 Construction at Muria Peninsula . In the previous study have been the economic and financing viability of OPR-1000 construction. The economic viability was known by obtained the generation cost, electricity tariff and construction cost. The meanwhile, the financing viability was known by obtained Net Present Value (NPV), Internal Rate of Return (IRR) and Payback Period (P) by using KEPCO Spread Sheet. From the calculation of economic and financing viability in base case, have been obtained the result of electricity tariff, IRR, FNPV and Payback Period for total investment is 6.640 cent/kWh (after Value Added Tax), 10.37%, US$ 90.52 million and 12.11 years, respectively. From this result of economic and financing viability in base case, have been carried out sensitivity analysis to technical parameter (capacity factor) and economic parameter (discount rate). The result of sensitivity analysis to be used for identifying financing strategy in order to obtain the best and optimal economic and financing viability. (author)

  4. Ising-type anisotropy and spin state transitions in GdBaCo2O5.5 from first-principles calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo, V.; Baldomir, D.; Castro, J.; Iglesias, M.; Arias, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Ising-type behaviour of GdBaCo 2 O 5.5 is analyzed from first principles calculations of the electronic structure of the material. The variations in its magnetic anisotropy properties in the different possible magnetic configurations is analyzed. A possible metallic phase is studied and an analysis of the electronic structure of the Co 3+ ions in that phase is presented

  5. Constructing first-principles phase diagrams of amorphous LixSi using machine-learning-assisted sampling with an evolutionary algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artrith, Nongnuch; Urban, Alexander; Ceder, Gerbrand

    2018-06-01

    The atomistic modeling of amorphous materials requires structure sizes and sampling statistics that are challenging to achieve with first-principles methods. Here, we propose a methodology to speed up the sampling of amorphous and disordered materials using a combination of a genetic algorithm and a specialized machine-learning potential based on artificial neural networks (ANNs). We show for the example of the amorphous LiSi alloy that around 1000 first-principles calculations are sufficient for the ANN-potential assisted sampling of low-energy atomic configurations in the entire amorphous LixSi phase space. The obtained phase diagram is validated by comparison with the results from an extensive sampling of LixSi configurations using molecular dynamics simulations and a general ANN potential trained to ˜45 000 first-principles calculations. This demonstrates the utility of the approach for the first-principles modeling of amorphous materials.

  6. Liberal Entity Extraction: Rapid Construction of Fine-Grained Entity Typing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lifu; May, Jonathan; Pan, Xiaoman; Ji, Heng; Ren, Xiang; Han, Jiawei; Zhao, Lin; Hendler, James A

    2017-03-01

    The ability of automatically recognizing and typing entities in natural language without prior knowledge (e.g., predefined entity types) is a major challenge in processing such data. Most existing entity typing systems are limited to certain domains, genres, and languages. In this article, we propose a novel unsupervised entity-typing framework by combining symbolic and distributional semantics. We start from learning three types of representations for each entity mention: general semantic representation, specific context representation, and knowledge representation based on knowledge bases. Then we develop a novel joint hierarchical clustering and linking algorithm to type all mentions using these representations. This framework does not rely on any annotated data, predefined typing schema, or handcrafted features; therefore, it can be quickly adapted to a new domain, genre, and/or language. Experiments on genres (news and discussion forum) show comparable performance with state-of-the-art supervised typing systems trained from a large amount of labeled data. Results on various languages (English, Chinese, Japanese, Hausa, and Yoruba) and domains (general and biomedical) demonstrate the portability of our framework.

  7. Statistical Study of Corrosion Types in Constructions in South Region of Rio De Janeiro -Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Lacerda Da Cruz , Carolina; Gonçalves De Lima , Thalita; S Sampaio , Nilo Antônio; Jesus Silva , José Wilson de

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Some of the most difficult and troubling problems encountered in construction are those caused by corrosive processes. The corrosion processes are constituted by some material degradation, generally metallic material, by means of chemical or electrochemical actions of environment in which the material are and can or cannot be combined with mechanical stress. Corrosion is present in the materials in general. Their deterioration is caused by such physical-chemical intera...

  8. Assessment of the type D personality construct in the Korean population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, Hong Euy; Lee, Moon-Soo; Ko, Young-Hoon

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a Korean version of the Type D Personality Scale-14 (DS14) and evaluate the psychiatric symptomatology of Korean cardiac patients with Type D personality. Healthy control (n = 954), patients with a coronary heart disease (n = 111) and patients with hypertension...... and no heart disease (n = 292) were recruited. All three groups completed DS14, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), the state subscale of Spielberger State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CESD), and the General Health Questionnaire...... for identifying Type D personality. The general population and cardiovascular patients with Type D personality showed higher rate of depression, anxiety and psychological distress regarding their health. Therefore, identifying Type D personality is important in clinical research and practice in chronic medical...

  9. Construction and characterisation of a complete reverse genetics system of dengue virus type 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Jose da Silva Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virulence and fitness are important factors that determine disease outcome. However, dengue virus (DENV molecular biology and pathogenesis are not completely elucidated. New insights on those mechanisms have been facilitated by the development of reverse genetic systems in the past decades. Unfortunately, instability of flavivirus genomes cloned in Escherichia coli has been a major problem in these systems. Here, we describe the development of a complete reverse genetics system, based on the construction of an infectious clone and replicon for a low passage DENV-3 genotype III of a clinical isolate. Both constructs were assembled into a newly designed yeast- E. coli shuttle vector by homologous recombination technique and propagated in yeast to prevent any possible genome instability in E. coli . RNA transcripts derived from the infectious clone are infectious upon transfection into BHK-21 cells even after repeated passages of the plasmid in yeast. Transcript-derived DENV-3 exhibited growth kinetics, focus formation size comparable to original DENV-3 in mosquito C6/36 cell culture. In vitro characterisation of DENV-3 replicon confirmed its identity and ability to replicate transiently in BHK-21 cells. The reverse genetics system reported here is a valuable tool that will facilitate further molecular studies in DENV replication, virus attenuation and pathogenesis.

  10. Construction of risk prediction model of type 2 diabetes mellitus based on logistic regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to construct multi factor prediction model for the individual risk of T2DM, and to explore new ideas for early warning, prevention and personalized health services for T2DM. Methods: using logistic regression techniques to screen the risk factors for T2DM and construct the risk prediction model of T2DM. Results: Male’s risk prediction model logistic regression equation: logit(P=BMI × 0.735+ vegetables × (−0.671 + age × 0.838+ diastolic pressure × 0.296+ physical activity× (−2.287 + sleep ×(−0.009 +smoking ×0.214; Female’s risk prediction model logistic regression equation: logit(P=BMI ×1.979+ vegetables× (−0.292 + age × 1.355+ diastolic pressure× 0.522+ physical activity × (−2.287 + sleep × (−0.010.The area under the ROC curve of male was 0.83, the sensitivity was 0.72, the specificity was 0.86, the area under the ROC curve of female was 0.84, the sensitivity was 0.75, the specificity was 0.90. Conclusion: This study model data is from a compared study of nested case, the risk prediction model has been established by using the more mature logistic regression techniques, and the model is higher predictive sensitivity, specificity and stability.

  11. Bernoulli's Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Paul G.

    2004-01-01

    Some teachers have difficulty understanding Bernoulli's principle particularly when the principle is applied to the aerodynamic lift. Some teachers favor using Newton's laws instead of Bernoulli's principle to explain the physics behind lift. Some also consider Bernoulli's principle too difficult to explain to students and avoid teaching it…

  12. Constructing New Biorthogonal Wavelet Type which Matched for Extracting the Iris Image Features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isnanto, R Rizal; Suhardjo; Susanto, Adhi

    2013-01-01

    Some former research have been made for obtaining a new type of wavelet. In case of iris recognition using orthogonal or biorthogonal wavelets, it had been obtained that Haar filter is most suitable to recognize the iris image. However, designing the new wavelet should be done to find a most matched wavelet to extract the iris image features, for which we can easily apply it for identification, recognition, or authentication purposes. In this research, a new biorthogonal wavelet was designed based on Haar filter properties and Haar's orthogonality conditions. As result, it can be obtained a new biorthogonal 5/7 filter type wavelet which has a better than other types of wavelets, including Haar, to extract the iris image features based on its mean-squared error (MSE) and Euclidean distance parameters.

  13. Environmental impact assessment of a package type IFAS reactor during construction and operational phases: a life cycle approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nitin Kumar; Singh, Rana Pratap; Kazmi, Absar Ahmad

    2017-05-01

    In the present study, a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach was used to analyse the environmental impacts associated with the construction and operational phases of an integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) reactor treating municipal wastewater. This study was conducted within the boundaries of a research project that aimed to investigate the implementation related challenges of a package type IFAS reactor from an environmental perspective. Along with the LCA results of the construction phase, a comparison of the LCA results of seven operational phases is also presented in this study. The results showed that among all the inputs, the use of stainless steel in the construction phase caused the highest impact on environment, followed by electricity consumption in raw materials production. The impact of the construction phase on toxicity impact indicators was found to be significant compared to all operational phases. Among the seven operational phases of this study, the dissolved oxygen phase III, having a concentration of ∼4.5 mg/L, showed the highest impact on abiotic depletion, acidification, global warming, ozone layer depletion, human toxicity, fresh water eco-toxicity, marine aquatic eco-toxicity, terrestrial eco-toxicity, and photochemical oxidation. However, better effluent quality in this phase reduced the eutrophication load on environment.

  14. Design of combination biofilter and subsurface constructed wetland-multilayer filtration with vertical flow type using Vetiveria zizanioides (akar wangi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuti, A. D.; Lindu, M.; Yanidar, R.; Faruq, M.

    2018-01-01

    As environmental regulation has become stricter in recent years, there is an increasing concern about the issue of wastewater treatment in urban areas. Senior High School as center of student activity has a potential source to generated domestic wastewater from toilet, bathroom and canteen. Canteen wastewater contains high-organic content that to be treated before discharged. Based on previous research the subsurface constructed wetland-multilayer filtration with vertical flow is an attractive alternative to provide efficient treatment of canteen wastewater. The effluent concentration complied with regulation according to [9]. Due to limited land, addition of preliminary treatment such as the presence of biofilter was found to improve the performance. The aim of this study was to design combination biofilter and subsurface constructed wetland-multilayer filtration with vertical flow type using vetiveria zizanioides (akar wangi) treating canteen wastewater. Vetiveria zizanioides (akar wangi) is used because from previous research, subsurface constructed wetland-multilayer filtration (SCW-MLF) with vertical flow type using vetiveria zizanioides (akar wangi) can be an alternative canteen wastewater treatment that is uncomplicated in technology, low cost in operational and have a beautiful landscape view, besides no odors or insects were presented during the operation.

  15. Social inhibition and emotional distress in patients with coronary artery disease : The type D personality construct

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, I.A.L.; Versteeg, H.; Duijndam, S.N.C.; Graafmans, C.; Polak, P.; Denollet, J.K.

    2018-01-01

    We examined the validity of the social inhibition component of Type D, its distinctiveness from negative affectivity, and value regarding emotional distress as measured with the DS14 in 173 coronary artery disease patients. In dimensional analysis, social inhibition and negative affectivity emerged

  16. THE COMPLEX USE OF LOCAL TYPES OF FUEL IN THE POROUS CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Voronova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a comprehensive low-waste technology is the use of local fuels, which can be used in the technology of some porous building materials. Also provides new methods of preparation of porous building materials based on aggloporite using local fuels and waste energy on the basis of milled peat, fuel briquettes and wood chips allow to replace expensive imported components that comprise the raw mixtures (coal, anthracite.On the basis of mathematical modeling of cooling in reheat furnaces pusher drive developed a method of engineering calculation mode batch hardening in agglomeration. Submitted constructive solution for the development of the cooling charge with thermophysical rational justification cooling modes. A study of the temperature distribution within the charge depending on the different speeds of the belt sintering machine, and hence on the cooling time.The characteristics of the raw material deposits "Fanipol" and the optimal composition of the charge which includes loam, coal, milled peat. In industrial research obtained aggloporite this formulation has shown positive results in strength and density. Established that by decreasing the particle size of the fuel increases the redox potential of the combustion products, which reduces the height of the oxidizing zone and the speed of the sintering raw mix. These processes increase the productivity of sinter machine.Technology is implemented on the "Minsk factory of building materials". The tests analyzed production technology porous construction materials using milled peat with the addition of sawdust. The study results recommend further use of sapropel, which cost significantly lower raw material mixture of submissions and in their physical and mechanical properties much closer to the properties of milled peat.

  17. The principle of general tovariance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heunen, C.; Landsman, N.P.; Spitters, B.A.W.; Loja Fernandes, R.; Picken, R.

    2008-01-01

    We tentatively propose two guiding principles for the construction of theories of physics, which should be satisfied by a possible future theory of quantum gravity. These principles are inspired by those that led Einstein to his theory of general relativity, viz. his principle of general covariance

  18. Evaluation of MRI and cannabinoid type 1 receptor PET templates constructed using DARTEL for spatial normalization of rat brains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronfeld, Andrea; Müller-Forell, Wibke; Buchholz, Hans-Georg; Maus, Stephan; Reuss, Stefan; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Miederer, Isabelle; Lutz, Beat

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Image registration is one prerequisite for the analysis of brain regions in magnetic-resonance-imaging (MRI) or positron-emission-tomography (PET) studies. Diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) is a nonlinear, diffeomorphic algorithm for image registration and construction of image templates. The goal of this small animal study was (1) the evaluation of a MRI and calculation of several cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor PET templates constructed using DARTEL and (2) the analysis of the image registration accuracy of MR and PET images to their DARTEL templates with reference to analytical and iterative PET reconstruction algorithms. Methods: Five male Sprague Dawley rats were investigated for template construction using MRI and [ 18 F]MK-9470 PET for CB1 receptor representation. PET images were reconstructed using the algorithms filtered back-projection, ordered subset expectation maximization in 2D, and maximum a posteriori in 3D. Landmarks were defined on each MR image, and templates were constructed under different settings, i.e., based on different tissue class images [gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and GM + WM] and regularization forms (“linear elastic energy,” “membrane energy,” and “bending energy”). Registration accuracy for MRI and PET templates was evaluated by means of the distance between landmark coordinates. Results: The best MRI template was constructed based on gray and white matter images and the regularization form linear elastic energy. In this case, most distances between landmark coordinates were <1 mm. Accordingly, MRI-based spatial normalization was most accurate, but results of the PET-based spatial normalization were quite comparable. Conclusions: Image registration using DARTEL provides a standardized and automatic framework for small animal brain data analysis. The authors were able to show that this method works with high reliability and validity. Using DARTEL templates

  19. Evaluation of MRI and cannabinoid type 1 receptor PET templates constructed using DARTEL for spatial normalization of rat brains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronfeld, Andrea; Müller-Forell, Wibke [Institute of Neuroradiology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Langenbeckstraße 1, Mainz 55131 (Germany); Buchholz, Hans-Georg; Maus, Stephan; Reuss, Stefan; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Miederer, Isabelle, E-mail: isabelle.miederer@unimedizin-mainz.de [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Langenbeckstraße 1, Mainz 55131 (Germany); Lutz, Beat [Institute of Physiological Chemistry, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Duesbergweg 6, Mainz 55128 (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Image registration is one prerequisite for the analysis of brain regions in magnetic-resonance-imaging (MRI) or positron-emission-tomography (PET) studies. Diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) is a nonlinear, diffeomorphic algorithm for image registration and construction of image templates. The goal of this small animal study was (1) the evaluation of a MRI and calculation of several cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor PET templates constructed using DARTEL and (2) the analysis of the image registration accuracy of MR and PET images to their DARTEL templates with reference to analytical and iterative PET reconstruction algorithms. Methods: Five male Sprague Dawley rats were investigated for template construction using MRI and [{sup 18}F]MK-9470 PET for CB1 receptor representation. PET images were reconstructed using the algorithms filtered back-projection, ordered subset expectation maximization in 2D, and maximum a posteriori in 3D. Landmarks were defined on each MR image, and templates were constructed under different settings, i.e., based on different tissue class images [gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and GM + WM] and regularization forms (“linear elastic energy,” “membrane energy,” and “bending energy”). Registration accuracy for MRI and PET templates was evaluated by means of the distance between landmark coordinates. Results: The best MRI template was constructed based on gray and white matter images and the regularization form linear elastic energy. In this case, most distances between landmark coordinates were <1 mm. Accordingly, MRI-based spatial normalization was most accurate, but results of the PET-based spatial normalization were quite comparable. Conclusions: Image registration using DARTEL provides a standardized and automatic framework for small animal brain data analysis. The authors were able to show that this method works with high reliability and validity. Using DARTEL

  20. Types and Characteristics of Performing Concretes Used in the Constructions Processes Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Corobceanu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The light concrete industry has a great development at present, due to some technical characteristics that make them highly appreciated. These characteristics are: the reduced apparent density, the capacity of high thermal insulation and high resistance at fire, compared to heavy concretes. These features have a result a type concrete elements (simple, reinforced of prestressed with reduced weight, which are good thermo-insulators and easy to manufacture, etc.

  1. Two approaches, one problem: Cultural constructions of type II diabetes in an indigenous community in Yucatán, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Sarah M; Durden, T Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    The emerging epidemic of obesity and type II diabetes in Mexico has recently propelled the nation into the public health spotlight. In the state of Yucatán, the experience of diabetes is greatly impacted by two cultural constructions of disease. In this setting, elements of Yucatec Mayan health practices as well as the biomedical model affect the approach to type II diabetes. Both frameworks offer unique understandings of the etiology of diabetes and recommend different ways to manage the condition. Based on in-depth and semi-structured interviews with both community members and clinicians, the present study seeks to understand how diabetes is understood and treated in indigenous settings in rural Yucatán. We explore the context in which community members navigate between locally available healthcare options, choose one over the other, or incorporate strategies from both into their diabetes care regimens. The tension between indigenous community members and their biomedical healthcare providers, the changing food environment of this community, and the persistence of traditional gender constructions affect the management of type II diabetes and its associated symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the Use of Virtual Environments - Task 5 Report: Generation IV Reactor Virtual Mockup Proof-of-Principle Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timothy Shaw; Anthony Baratta; Vaughn Whisker

    2005-01-01

    Task 5 report is part of a 3 year DOE NERI-sponsored effort evaluating immersive virtual reality (CAVE) technology for design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning and training for next generation nuclear power plants. Program covers development of full-scale virtual mockups generated from 3D CAD data presented in a CAVE visualization facility. Created a virtual mockup of PBMR reactor cavity and discussed applications of virtual mockup technology to improve Gen IV design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning

  3. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the Use of Virtual Environments - Task 5 Report: Generation IV Reactor Virtual Mockup Proof-of-Principle Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Shaw; Anthony Baratta; Vaughn Whisker

    2005-02-28

    Task 5 report is part of a 3 year DOE NERI-sponsored effort evaluating immersive virtual reality (CAVE) technology for design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning and training for next generation nuclear power plants. Program covers development of full-scale virtual mockups generated from 3D CAD data presented in a CAVE visualization facility. Created a virtual mockup of PBMR reactor cavity and discussed applications of virtual mockup technology to improve Gen IV design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning.

  4. The use of typed lambda calculus for comprehension and construction of simulation models in the domain of ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uschold, Michael

    1992-01-01

    We are concerned with two important issues in simulation modelling: model comprehension and model construction. Model comprehension is limited because many important choices taken during the modelling process are not documented. This makes it difficult for models to be modified or used by others. A key factor hindering model construction is the vast modelling search space which must be navigated. This is exacerbated by the fact that many modellers are unfamiliar with the terms and concepts catered to by current tools. The root of both problems is the lack of facilities for representing or reasoning about domain concepts in current simulation technology. The basis for our achievements in both of these areas is the development of a language with two distinct levels; one for representing domain information, and the other for representing the simulation model. Of equal importance, is the fact that we make formal connections between these two levels. The domain we are concerned with is ecological modelling. This language, called Elklogic, is based on the typed lambda calculus. Important features include a rich type structure, the use of various higher order functions, and semantics. This enables complex expressions to be constructed from relatively few primitives. The meaning of each expression can be determined in terms of the domain, the simulation model, or the relationship between the two. We describe a novel representation for sets and substructure, and a variety of other general concepts that are especially useful in the ecological domain. We use the type structure in a novel way: for controlling the modelling search space, rather than a proof search space. We facilitate model comprehension by representing modelling decisions that are embodied in the simulation model. We represent the simulation model separately from, but in terms of a domain mode. The explicit links between the two models constitute the modelling decisions. The semantics of Elklogic enables

  5. Construction and design defects in the residential buildings and observed earthquake damage types in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogurcu, M. T.

    2015-04-01

    Turkey is situated in a very active earthquake region. In the last century, several earthquakes resulted in thousands of deaths and enormous economic losses. In 1999, the Kocaeli earthquake had an approximate death toll of more than 20 000, and in 2011 the Van earthquake killed 604 people. In general, Turkish residential buildings have reinforced concrete structural systems. These reinforced concrete structures have several deficiencies, such as low concrete quality, non-seismic steel detailing and inappropriate structural systems including several architectural irregularities. In this study, the general characteristics of Turkish building stock and the deficiencies observed in structural systems are explained, and illustrative figures are given with reference to the Turkish Earthquake Code 2007. The poor concrete quality, lack of lateral or transverse reinforcement in beam-column joints and column confinement zones, high stirrup spacings, under-reinforced columns and over-reinforced beams are the primary causes of failures. Other deficiencies include weak-column-stronger-beam formations, insufficient seismic joint separations, soft-story or weak-story irregularities and short columns. Similar construction and design mistakes are also observed in other countries situated on active earthquake belts. Existing buildings still have these undesirable characteristics, and so to prepare for future earthquakes they must be rehabilitated.

  6. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 18. Facility construction feasibility and costs by rock type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    The results of a study that compared the general engineering feasibility and unit costs associated with sinking shafts and mining storage rooms in the four rock types (salt, granite, shale, basalt) are presented in this volume. The report includes a discussion of the general effects of rock characteristics on shaft and mine design, the application of these design considerations to the specific designs developed for the Draft GEIS, shaft and mine construction techniques, and the unit cost comparison. The repository designs upon which this comparison was based are presented in other volumes of this series

  7. Construction of Urban Design Support System using Cloud Computing Type Virtual Reality and Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenhan, Lei; Shunta, Shimizu; Natuska, Ota; Yuji, Ito; Yuesong, Zhang

    2017-01-01

    This paper contributes a design support system based on cloud-computing type virtual reality (cloud-based VR) for urban planning and urban design. A platform for Cloud-based VR technology, i.e. a VR-Cloud server, is used to open a VR dataset to public collaboration over the Internet. The digital attributes representing the design scheme of design concepts includes the land use zone, building regulations, urban design style, and other design details of architectural design, landscape, and traf...

  8. Construction of adiponectin-encoding plasmid DNA and gene therapy of non-obese type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Mei Hua; Park, Jeong-Sook; Myung, Chang-Seon

    2010-01-01

    Adiponectin (ADN), an insulin-sensitizing adipokine, stimulates glucose uptake, inhibits gluconeogenesis, and plays an important role in improving insulin sensitivity. Since blood levels of ADN are low in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), this study was designed to investigate the therapeutic effectiveness of increasing the ADN level through injection of plasmid DNA encoding ADN in type 2 DM. A non-obese type 2 DM mouse model was established via combined administration of streptozotocin with nicotinamide and exhibited significantly higher plasma glucose concentration and insulin resistance compared with normal controls according to oral glucose tolerance and insulin challenge tests. Plasmid DNA encoding mouse ADN from differentiated NIH3T3 adipocytes was constructed in pVAX1 (pVAX/ADN). Transfection of pVAX/ADN into various cell lines including HeLa, HT22, HEK293, HepG2, and SK-Hep1 cells, increased ADN mRNA expression levels in a dose-dependent manner. The administration of pVAX/ADN into non-obese type 2 DM mice via tail vein significantly increased the blood level of ADN and decreased the plasma glucose concentration. Moreover, the parameters related to insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and insulin sensitivity (QUICKI) were significantly improved. These results suggest that ADN gene therapy could be a clinically effective tool for the treatment of type 2 DM.

  9. Principle of a liquid nitrogen irradiation device and its realization for use in a swimming-pool type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochirol, L.; Doulat, J.; Weil, L.

    1961-01-01

    The problem of pile irradiation of samples immersed in liquid nitrogen has been solved with total elimination of explosion hazards and high reliability (no moving parts). The principle of the device is that of a double bath: one of high purity nitrogen cools the samples at the level of the core; a second of commercial nitrogen is located above the first one, outside the high radiation field, and works as a continuous condenser for the pure nitrogen, the flow-back of which is provided simply by gravity. The apparatus described in detail here has been designed for a swimming-pool pile. It was so designed as to provide absolute protection against radiations and to allow the irradiated samples to be easily removed in the cold condition. This apparatus has been in operation for several months. In a fast flux greater than 10 13 neutrons/cm 2 .s and a γ-flux of the order of 10 8 roentgens/h, the consumption of liquid nitrogen is of the order of 100 liters a day. (author) [fr

  10. Construct validation of SF-36 Malay version among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Bee Wah; Jannoo, Zeinab; Razali, Nornadiah Mohd; Ghani, Nor Azura Md.; Lazim, Mohamad Alias

    2015-02-01

    The Short Form 36 (SF-36) is one of the most widely used generic health status measure. This study used the SF-36 Health Survey instrument to investigate the functional health and well-being of Malay Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients in Malaysia. The survey was carried out in three local hospitals in Selangor. The method of questionnaire administration was both self-administered and interviewer administered. A total of 354 questionnaires was returned, but only 295 questionnaires with no missing data were analyzed. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was used to confirm the first-order and third-order CFA models. The higher order analyses included a third-order CFA models with two second-order factors (physical and mental component) and three second-order factors (physical, general well-being and mental health) and both showed satisfactory model fit indices. This study confirmed the multidimensional factor structure of the SF-36.

  11. Cell-type specific oxytocin gene expression from AAV delivered promoter deletion constructs into the rat supraoptic nucleus in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond L Fields

    Full Text Available The magnocellular neurons (MCNs in the hypothalamus selectively express either oxytocin (OXT or vasopressin (AVP neuropeptide genes, a property that defines their phenotypes. Here we examine the molecular basis of this selectivity in the OXT MCNs by stereotaxic microinjections of adeno-associated virus (AAV vectors that contain various OXT gene promoter deletion constructs using EGFP as the reporter into the rat supraoptic nucleus (SON. Two weeks following injection of the AAVs, immunohistochemical assays of EGFP expression from these constructs were done to determine whether the EGFP reporter co-localizes with either the OXT- or AVP-immunoreactivity in the MCNs. The results show that the key elements in the OT gene promoter that regulate the cell-type specific expression the SON are located -216 to -100 bp upstream of the transcription start site. We hypothesize that within this 116 bp domain a repressor exists that inhibits expression specifically in AVP MCNs, thereby leading to the cell-type specific expression of the OXT gene only in the OXT MCNs.

  12. SENSE IT: Teaching STEM Principles to Middle and High School Students through the Design, Construction and Deployment of Water Quality Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotaling, Liesl; Lowes, Susan; Stolkin, Rustam; Lin, Peiyi; Bonner, James; Kirkey, William; Ojo, Temitope

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the structure and impact of an NSF-funded ITEST project designed to enrich science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education using educational modules that teach students to construct, program, and test a series of sensors used to monitor water quality. During the two years of the SENSE IT project, over 30…

  13. Discontinuous spring magnet-type magnetostrictive Terfecohan/YFeCo multilayers: A novel nanostructured material principle for excellent magnetic softness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duc, N.H.; Huong Giang, D.T.

    2007-01-01

    Novel physics and reversal mechanisms of the whole system switching (WS) and individual switching (IS) type are reported for hard/soft TbFeCo/YFeCo exchange-spring multilayers. The WS type usually occurs in multilayered systems, in which the magnetic anisotropy of hard TbFeCo layers is neglectable. For such a system, the ferrimagnetically coupled hard/soft multilayered state is recovered after removing applied fields from the magnetized state. At low negative fields, the magnetization switching occurs collectively for all magnetic moments in the whole system. In this case, the low-coercivity mechanism is discussed on the basis of a hard/soft interfacial point contact. This configuration is realized for TbFeCo/YFeCo discontinuous exchange-spring multilayers, in which the magnetic (Fe,Co) nanograins coexist with non-magnetic amorphous phase in the soft layers. In this state, a magnetic coercivity as small as 0.4 mT is achieved. It is considered as an excellent magnetic softness of rare-earth-based systems. Enhancing the magnetic anisotropy in the hard TbFeCo layers, the magnetization switching follows the IS type at low temperatures. Starting to decrease the applied magnetic field from the high-field state, one observes the first reversal of the magnetic moments in the soft high-magnetization YFeCo-layers in positive magnetic fields. This is the reason for the observation of the negative coercivity as well as negative-biasing phenomena

  14. Superhigh-power of Regotron-type generator for linear accelerator with high mean currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murin, B.P.; Durkin, A.P.; Shlygin, O.Yu.; Shumakov, I.V.

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical principles and construction scheme of new-type super-power microwave relativistic electron-beam (REB) generator (Regotron) are discussed. Unlike other types of REB-generator, Regotron includes distributed power take-off system. To increase device efficiency the autophasing-principle is used. Such principles of device construction eliminate output power generator limitations. Theoretical basis of general generator construction principles is proposed; the results of mathematical simulations are presented; the different versions of construction scheme are discussed. It is shown that Regotron efficiency can reach 70-80% at output power levels up to 10 MW CW

  15. Preliminary approach to the construction of a Scale of Adherence to the Principles of Criminal Law (SAPCL. A pilot study in the Greater Metropolitan area of Concepción, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Javier Fuentealba Carrasco

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the psychometric properties of the “Scale of adherence to the principles of Criminal Law” of a pilot study applied to a consecutive sample of 369 cases in the Greater Metropolitan Area of Concepción, Chile. The logic behind the construction of the instrument and its structure is described, focusing on exposing the properties of construct validity through EFA and convergent validity through an inverse correlation with a scale of perceived insecurity. In terms of reliability, we present Cronbach’s Alpha for the General Scale and for each subscale generated. It concludes with the scope, limitations and projections of the scale, as well as suggestions for its expansion and potential for application in other contexts.

  16. Construction of the Al-Ni-Si phase diagram over the whole composition and temperature ranges: thermodynamic modeling supported by key experiments and first-principles calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong Wei; Du Yong; Wang Jiong; Zhang Wei-Wei [State Key Lab. of Powder Metallurgy, Central South Univ., Changsha (China); Hu Rong-Xiang; Nash, P. [Thermal Processing Technology Center, Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago (United States); Lu Xiao-Gang [Thermo-Calc AB, Stockholm Technology Park, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2008-06-15

    An extensive thermodynamic investigation of the Al-Ni-Si system is carried out via an integrated approach of calculation of phase diagrams, first-principles calculations, and key experiments. Eighteen decisive alloys are prepared in order to verify the existence of the previously reported ternary compounds and to provide new phase equilibrium data. Phase compositions, microstructure, and phase transition temperatures are determined using the combined techniques of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersion X-ray analysis, and differential thermal analysis. The order/disorder transition between disordered bccA2 and ordered bccB2 phases as well as that between disordered fccA1 and ordered L1{sub 2} phase are described using a two-sublattice model. A self-consistent parameter set is finally obtained by considering the huge amount of experimental data including 13 vertical sections and 5 isothermal sections from both the literature and the present experiments. Almost all of the reliable phase diagram data can be well described by the present modeling. The reliability of the calculated thermodynamic properties for ternary phases is verified through enthalpy measurement employing drop calorimetry and first-principles calculations. The thermodynamic parameters obtained can also successfully predict most of the thermodynamic properties and describe the solidification path for the selected as-cast alloy Al{sub 6}Ni{sub 55}Si{sub 39}. (orig.)

  17. Construction and expression of secreting type human TRAIL gene vector mediated by hypoxia/radiation double sensitive promoter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yanming; Jia Xiaojing; Qu Yaqin; Li Yanbo

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To construct secreting type human TRAIL (shTRAIL) gene vector pcDNA3.1-HRE/Egr1-shTRAIL mediated by hypoxia/radiation double sensitive promoter, and observe the effect of hypoxia and radiation on shTRAIL. Methods: HRE upper and lower strands were gotten by chemical synthesis, double strands HRE was gotten by PCR; pMD19T-Egr1 was digested by Sac I and Hind III, then Egr1 was obtained, pshuttle-shTRAIL was digested by Kpn I and BamH I, then shTRAIL was obtained; HRE/Egr1 double sensitive promoter mediated shTRAIL expression vector pcDNA3.1-HRE/Egr1-shTRAIL was constructed by gene recombination technique, it was identified correctly by enzyme digestion, PCR and sequencing. A549 cells were divided into normal, hypoxia (0.1%), irradiation (6 Gy) and hypoxia + irradiation groups. Results: After enzyme digestion by BamH I and Sma I, the fragments which lengths were 1284 bp and 4 998 bp, 2 292 bp and 3 990 bp were obtained; the vector was amplified by PCR with Egr1 and shTRAIL primer, the products which lengthens were 469 bp and 820 bp were obtained; pcDNA3.1-HRE/Egr1-shTRAIL was sequenced, the result was same to designed, this demonstrated that the construction was right. The vectors were transfected into A549 cells of adenocarcinoma of lung, the expression levels of shTRAIL mRNA and protein were increased after treated with hypoxia and radiation, it had statistically significant differences compared with normal group (P<0.05), and when they were combinated, the effect was more obvious. Conclusion: Secreting type human TRAIL gene vector pcDNA3.1-HRE/Egr1-shTRAIL mediated by hypoxia/radiation double sensitive promoter is constructed successfully, and hypoxia and radiation could increase the expression of TRAIL, and they have synergetic effect. (authors)

  18. Insurance requirements and practices of Ethiopia's construction sector

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The principles of insurance and types of insurance policies in construCtion industry in general is discussed. The status of consultants and contractors in Ethiopian construction sector is briefly reviewed. Questionnaires were designed to preliminary assess whether relevant insurance policies are bought by contracting and ...

  19. Construction of type-II QC-LDPC codes with fast encoding based on perfect cyclic difference sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling-xiang; Li, Hai-bing; Li, Ji-bi; Jiang, Hua

    2017-09-01

    In view of the problems that the encoding complexity of quasi-cyclic low-density parity-check (QC-LDPC) codes is high and the minimum distance is not large enough which leads to the degradation of the error-correction performance, the new irregular type-II QC-LDPC codes based on perfect cyclic difference sets (CDSs) are constructed. The parity check matrices of these type-II QC-LDPC codes consist of the zero matrices with weight of 0, the circulant permutation matrices (CPMs) with weight of 1 and the circulant matrices with weight of 2 (W2CMs). The introduction of W2CMs in parity check matrices makes it possible to achieve the larger minimum distance which can improve the error- correction performance of the codes. The Tanner graphs of these codes have no girth-4, thus they have the excellent decoding convergence characteristics. In addition, because the parity check matrices have the quasi-dual diagonal structure, the fast encoding algorithm can reduce the encoding complexity effectively. Simulation results show that the new type-II QC-LDPC codes can achieve a more excellent error-correction performance and have no error floor phenomenon over the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel with sum-product algorithm (SPA) iterative decoding.

  20. CALCULATION OF FOUNDATIONS-COVERS FOR CONSTRUCTIONS OF TOWER TYPE ON THE IMPACT OF UNEVEN SUBSIDENCE OF BASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TIMCHENKO R. A.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. Among the constructions of the tower type there are the foundations are made as round or circular plate and a truncated conical coverleans on it being a continuation of kernel hardness. The round in plan and circular annular reinforced concrete foundations are mainly used in engineering structures, such as chimneys, silos, water towers, tanks. Buildings and structures built on the unfavorable areas are exposed with deformation influence from the foundation. The degree of weakening of the foundation depends on the size of the horizontal deformations and change of the structure and state of the soil. Purpose. Reduced the characteristics of weak bases are defined differently, depending on the nature, type and size of deformation. Not for all cases, there are specific recommendations as for their definition. The work of round, circular, polygonal shape of the foundation plates is not studied enough in these conditions and requires consideration. Conclusion. One of the actual problems of the foundation structures design is to define the limits of deformation effects for a certain type of foundation for a given force loading in hard soil conditions. This task can be solved with a gradual increase of deformation impacts on foundation (increasing of curvature, slope, subsidence, dimensions of the ledge, the diameter of the failures. Foundation structures should be designed with such dimensions that the ratio of the stiffness of the plate and the foundation will be conformed to the highest capacity of plate, then supporting capacity of the elements of the system are used most fully.

  1. Evaluation of the polarization properties of a Philips-type prism for the construction of imaging polarimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Borda, R.; Waluschka, E.; Pellicori, S.; Martins, J. V.; Ramos-Izquierdo, L.; Cieslak, J. D.; Thompson, P.

    2009-08-01

    The design and construction of wide FOV imaging polarimeters for use in atmospheric remote sensing requires significant attention to the prevention of artificial polarization induced by the optical elements. Surface, coatings, and angles of incidence throughout the system must be carefully designed in order to minimize these artifacts because the remaining instrumental bias polarization is the main factor which drives the final polarimetric accuracy of the system. In this work, we present a detailed evaluation and analysis to explore the possibility of retrieving the initial polarization state of the light traveling through a generic system that has inherent instrumental polarization. Our case is a wide FOV lens and a splitter device. In particular, we chose as splitter device a Philips-type prism, because it is able to divide the signal in 3 independent channels that could be simultaneously analyze to retrieve the three first elements of the Stoke vector (in atmospheric applications the elliptical polarization can be neglected [1]). The Philips-type configuration is a versatile, compact and robust prism device that is typically used in three color camera systems. It has been used in some commercial polarimetric cameras which do not claim high accuracy polarization measurements [2]. With this work, we address the accuracy of our polarization inversion and measurements made with the Philips-type beam divider.

  2. A new procedure to adapt any type of soil for the consolidation and construction of earthen structures: projected earth system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuentes-García, R.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The “projected earth system” is put forward as an alternative construction method. The soil from each site is adapted following a specific protocol to make it suitable for spraying. The type of construction and the receiving surface determine the machinery and spraying system used (dry or wet mix. The result will be similar in texture and colour to the original material (in the case of earth walls or to the surrounding material.Se plantea la “tierra proyectada” como nuevo sistema constructivo. Se adecuará la tierra de cada intervención con un protocolo para poder ser proyectada. El tipo de intervención y el soporte sobre el que se proyectará determinarán la maquinaria y el sistema de proyección (vía seca o húmeda. El resultado tendrá similar textura y color que el soporte restaurado (en muros de tierra o que el material del entorno (en taludes carreteros u obras de tierra de nueva construcción.

  3. Construction and validation of the Self-care Assessment Instrument for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonize Cunha Barreto de Mendonça

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to construct and validate the contents of the Self-care Assessment instrument for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Method: methodological study, based on Orem's General Theory of Nursing. The empirical categories and the items of the instrument were elucidated through a focus group. The content validation process was performed by seven specialists and the semantic analysis by 14 patients. The Content Validity Indices of the items, ≥0.78, and of the scale, ≥0.90, were considered excellent. Results: the instrument contains 131 items in six dimensions corresponding to the health deviation self-care requisites. Regarding the maintenance, a Content Validity Index of 0.98 was obtained for the full set of items, and, regarding the relevance, Content Validity Indices ≥0.80 were obtained for the majority of the assessed psychometric criteria. Conclusion: the instrument showed evidence of content validity.

  4. Construction of the landscape for multi-stable systems: Potential landscape, quasi-potential, A-type integral and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peijie; Li, Tiejun

    2016-03-01

    Motivated by the famous Waddington's epigenetic landscape metaphor in developmental biology, biophysicists and applied mathematicians made different proposals to construct the landscape for multi-stable complex systems. We aim to summarize and elucidate the relationships among these theories from a mathematical point of view. We systematically investigate and compare three different but closely related realizations in the recent literature: the Wang's potential landscape theory from steady state distribution of stochastic differential equations (SDEs), the Freidlin-Wentzell quasi-potential from the large deviation theory, and the construction through SDE decomposition and A-type integral. We revisit that the quasi-potential is the zero noise limit of the potential landscape, and the potential function in the third proposal coincides with the quasi-potential. We compare the difference between local and global quasi-potential through the viewpoint of exchange of limit order for time and noise amplitude. We argue that local quasi-potentials are responsible for getting transition rates between neighboring stable states, while the global quasi-potential mainly characterizes the residence time of the states as the system reaches stationarity. The difference between these two is prominent when the transitivity property is broken. The most probable transition path by minimizing the Onsager-Machlup or Freidlin-Wentzell action functional is also discussed. As a consequence of the established connections among different proposals, we arrive at the novel result which guarantees the existence of SDE decomposition while denies its uniqueness in general cases. It is, therefore, clarified that the A-type integral is more appropriate to be applied to the decomposed SDEs rather than its primitive form as believed by previous researchers. Our results contribute to a deeper understanding of landscape theories for biological systems.

  5. Construction of the landscape for multi-stable systems: Potential landscape, quasi-potential, A-type integral and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Peijie; Li, Tiejun

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the famous Waddington’s epigenetic landscape metaphor in developmental biology, biophysicists and applied mathematicians made different proposals to construct the landscape for multi-stable complex systems. We aim to summarize and elucidate the relationships among these theories from a mathematical point of view. We systematically investigate and compare three different but closely related realizations in the recent literature: the Wang’s potential landscape theory from steady state distribution of stochastic differential equations (SDEs), the Freidlin-Wentzell quasi-potential from the large deviation theory, and the construction through SDE decomposition and A-type integral. We revisit that the quasi-potential is the zero noise limit of the potential landscape, and the potential function in the third proposal coincides with the quasi-potential. We compare the difference between local and global quasi-potential through the viewpoint of exchange of limit order for time and noise amplitude. We argue that local quasi-potentials are responsible for getting transition rates between neighboring stable states, while the global quasi-potential mainly characterizes the residence time of the states as the system reaches stationarity. The difference between these two is prominent when the transitivity property is broken. The most probable transition path by minimizing the Onsager-Machlup or Freidlin-Wentzell action functional is also discussed. As a consequence of the established connections among different proposals, we arrive at the novel result which guarantees the existence of SDE decomposition while denies its uniqueness in general cases. It is, therefore, clarified that the A-type integral is more appropriate to be applied to the decomposed SDEs rather than its primitive form as believed by previous researchers. Our results contribute to a deeper understanding of landscape theories for biological systems.

  6. Construction of the landscape for multi-stable systems: Potential landscape, quasi-potential, A-type integral and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Peijie, E-mail: cliffzhou@pku.edu.cn; Li, Tiejun, E-mail: tieli@pku.edu.cn [LMAM and School of Mathematical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2016-03-07

    Motivated by the famous Waddington’s epigenetic landscape metaphor in developmental biology, biophysicists and applied mathematicians made different proposals to construct the landscape for multi-stable complex systems. We aim to summarize and elucidate the relationships among these theories from a mathematical point of view. We systematically investigate and compare three different but closely related realizations in the recent literature: the Wang’s potential landscape theory from steady state distribution of stochastic differential equations (SDEs), the Freidlin-Wentzell quasi-potential from the large deviation theory, and the construction through SDE decomposition and A-type integral. We revisit that the quasi-potential is the zero noise limit of the potential landscape, and the potential function in the third proposal coincides with the quasi-potential. We compare the difference between local and global quasi-potential through the viewpoint of exchange of limit order for time and noise amplitude. We argue that local quasi-potentials are responsible for getting transition rates between neighboring stable states, while the global quasi-potential mainly characterizes the residence time of the states as the system reaches stationarity. The difference between these two is prominent when the transitivity property is broken. The most probable transition path by minimizing the Onsager-Machlup or Freidlin-Wentzell action functional is also discussed. As a consequence of the established connections among different proposals, we arrive at the novel result which guarantees the existence of SDE decomposition while denies its uniqueness in general cases. It is, therefore, clarified that the A-type integral is more appropriate to be applied to the decomposed SDEs rather than its primitive form as believed by previous researchers. Our results contribute to a deeper understanding of landscape theories for biological systems.

  7. Anchorage of equipment - requirements and verification methods with emphasis on equipment of existing and constructed VVER-type nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masopust, R.

    1999-01-01

    Criteria and verification methods which are recommended for use in the capacity evaluation of anchorage of safety-related equipment at WWER-type nuclear power plants are presented. Developed in compliance with the relevant basic standards documents specifically for anchorage of WWER-type equipment components, the criteria and methods cover different types of anchor bolts and other anchorage elements which are typical of existing, constructed, or reconstructed WWER-type nuclear power plants

  8. Principle and construction of a cell for the dosing of low quantities of oxygen in gases; Principe et construction d'une cellule de dosage des faibles quantites d'oxygene dans les gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaub, Bernard; Nolin, Jean- Paul [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, Departement de Metallurgie, Service de Recherches de Metallurgie Physique et Chimique (France)

    1964-02-15

    This note presents a cell which is mainly a pile and is aimed at analysing a gas absorbed on the cathode surface and passed through a membrane by means of hydroxyl ions. The objective of this analysis is to dose low quantities of oxygen contained in gases. The pile construction is briefly described, as well as its regeneration, its calibration, its performance (sensitivity, flow rate influence, resistance influence, temperature influence), and its electric circuits.

  9. A calculation method of the optimal distance of the long-drawn short-pressure type localfan in minebased on the principle of the jet and Suction volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shaotong

    2018-01-01

    In order to dilute the harmful smoke and dust of the working surface in the production of the roadway in the mine shaft, the combination of mine local ventilation is often considered when conditions permitting. However there is no definite method to determine the distance between fan and working surface. Considering the concentration of smoke, the size of working face, the ventilation time, the wind speed of the working face and the principle of suction volume, this paper analyzes the long - drawn short - pressure type of the ventilation scheme, and presents an optimal algorithm for the distance between the exhaust ventilator and the working face:{{L}}{{o}}=\\frac{{({{{v}}}{{f}}{{t}})}{{Z}}{{{S}}}{{o}}\\frac{\\exists }{{{z}}{{β }}}}{3.398{{{S}}}W\\frac{1}{{{z}}{{A}}}}. Then this paperpresentsa reference distance for different wind speed requirements of a project.

  10. Variational principles for the projected breakup amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, Y.

    1976-01-01

    Two alternate forms of variational principles for the breakup amplitude describing the two- to three-cluster transition are derived such that all the integrals involved in the intermediate stages are well defined. The first form contains a trial Green's function with which both the initial and final state trial wave functions are constructed. The earlier form of the Kohn-type variational principle derived by Lieber, Rosenberg, and Spruch is recovered, however, when this connection between the trial functions is removed. The second form of the variational principle is derived by projecting out from the trial functions all the open channel components which correspond to the two-cluster structures including the rearrangement channels. The remaining part of the wave functions describes the channels with three-cluster structures, and the integrals involving this part are then mathematically well defined

  11. Principles of Protocol Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin

    This is a new and updated edition of a book first published in 1994. The book introduces the reader to the principles used in the construction of a large range of modern data communication protocols, as used in distributed computer systems of all kinds. The approach taken is rather a formal one...

  12. Design, construction, establishment of proof of principle, and testing of a spectrometer to permit spectroelectrochemical investigations of actinides in a confined system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, P.K.; Li, J.

    1999-02-01

    This study examines the design, construction, and performance of a spectrometer that was designed and built for UV-visible absorption spectroscopic studies in molten salt media. Contrary to previous designs in the literature, the authors found that furnace and chemical components can be located away from the instrument and electronics. In studying the performance of the spectrometer, they used a potassium chloride eutectic mixture as the molten salt medium. They found that UV-visible absorption spectroscopic studies can be conveniently created in a molten alkali halide media with inexpensive equipment coupled with good sensitivity and precision. Further research will focus on designing a suitable fiber optic probe that will allow the authors to monitor the molten salt process on-line

  13. The axiom of multiple choice and models for constructive set theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, B.; Moerdijk, I.

    2014-01-01

    We propose an extension of Aczel's constructive set theory CZF by an axiom for inductive types and a choice principle, and show that this extension has the following properties: it is interpretable in Martin-Löf's type theory (hence acceptable from a constructive and generalized-predicative

  14. Spatial Variation of Phosphorous Retention Capacity in Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands: Effect of Wetland Type and Inflow Loading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwei Yu

    Full Text Available For verification of spatial distribution of phosphorous retention capacity in constructed wetlands systems(CWs, two horizontal subsurface flow(HSSF CWs and two vertical subsurface flow(VSSF CWs, using sand as substrate and Typha latifolia as wetland plants, were constructed and put into use for synthetic wastewater treatment. Five months later, significant spatial variations of TP and inorganic phosphorus(Ca-P, Fe-P and Al-P were observed, which were found to be greatly affected by CWs type and hydraulic loading. The results revealed that though spatial distribution of Fe-P and Al-P displayed a similar order of substrate content as "rhizosphere" > "near-rhizosphere" > "non-rhizosphere" and "inflow section" > "outflow section" regardless of types and loading, the distribution of Ca-P was positively correlated to that of Fe-P and Al-P in HSSF CWs, while negative correlation was shown in VSSF CWs. As a result, TP spatial distribution in HSSF CWs demonstrated a greater dissimilarity than that in VSSF CWs. For HSSF CWs with low hydraulic loading, the lowest TP content was found in non-rhizosphere substrate of outflow section, while the highest one was discovered in rhizonsphere substrate of inflow section. The values in 6 parts of areas ranged from 0.138 g·kg-1 to 2.710 g·kg-1, which also were from -33.5% to 1209% compared to the control value. On contrast, spatial difference of TP content in substrates of VSSF CWs was insignificant, with a variation ranging from 0.776 g·kg-1 to 1.080 g·kg-1, that was 275% to 421% higher than the control value. In addition, when hydraulic loading was increased, TP content in VSSF CWs sharply decreased, ranging from 0.210 g·kg-1 to 0.634 g·kg-1. Meanwhile, dissimilarity of TP spatial distribution in HSSF CWs was reduced, with TP content ranging from 0.258 g·kg-1 to 2.237 g·kg-1. The results suggested that P spatial distribution should be taken into account for CWs design and operation.

  15. A Principle of Intentionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Charles K

    2017-01-01

    The mainstream theories and models of the physical sciences, including neuroscience, are all consistent with the principle of causality. Wholly causal explanations make sense of how things go, but are inherently value-neutral, providing no objective basis for true beliefs being better than false beliefs, nor for it being better to intend wisely than foolishly. Dennett (1987) makes a related point in calling the brain a syntactic (procedure-based) engine. He says that you cannot get to a semantic (meaning-based) engine from there. He suggests that folk psychology revolves around an intentional stance that is independent of the causal theories of the brain, and accounts for constructs such as meanings, agency, true belief, and wise desire. Dennett proposes that the intentional stance is so powerful that it can be developed into a valid intentional theory. This article expands Dennett's model into a principle of intentionality that revolves around the construct of objective wisdom. This principle provides a structure that can account for all mental processes, and for the scientific understanding of objective value. It is suggested that science can develop a far more complete worldview with a combination of the principles of causality and intentionality than would be possible with scientific theories that are consistent with the principle of causality alone.

  16. Superstring construction

    CERN Document Server

    1989-01-01

    The book includes a selection of papers on the construction of superstring theories, mainly written during the years 1984-1987. It covers ten-dimensional supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric strings, four-dimensional heterotic strings and four-dimensional type-II strings. An introduction to more recent developments in conformal field theory in relation to string construction is provided.

  17. Safety in construction industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.M.

    1979-01-01

    Causative factors of accidents in construction industry in the context of experience of construction work of the Rajasthan Atomic Power Project are enumerated. The aspect of accident cost - direct and indirect - is discussed briefly. Setting up of a safety set-up at construction sites is emphasized and principles which should guide the accident prevention programme are spelt out. (M.G.B.)

  18. Construction and characterization of HIV type 1 CRF07_BC infectious molecular clone from men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan-Ling; Bai, Wen-Wei; Qu, Fan-Wei; Ma, Hua; Jiang, Run-Sheng; Shen, Bao-Sheng

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the biological characterization of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) CRF07_BC infection among men who have sex with men (MSM). From November 2011 to November 2013, a total of 66 blood samples were collected from MSM with acute HIV-1 infection with CRF07_BC subgroup strains. Deletion in the gag p6 region was detected by sequence alignment and comparative analysis. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of HNXX1301-1307 samples were separated by density gradient centrifugation. Nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) was used to amplify the viral DNA. The near full-length HIV-1 DNA products were ligated to the long terminal repeat (LTR) vector plasmid (07BCLTR) to construct a full-length HIV clone. The molecular clone was transfected into HEK-293T cells, TZM-b1 cells and patients' PBMCs. The pregenome of an infectious molecular clone of HIV-1 (pNL4-3) was amplified, and a subclone with CRF07_BC was developed to construct the full-length chimeric molecular clone pNL4-3/07BCLTR. Detection of p24 antigen and luciferase activity was used to measure the in vitro infectivity of pNL4-3/07BCLTR. Among the 66 MSM patients infected with CRF07_BC strains, deletion mutations of the Gag P6 proteins were found in 7 of 18CRF07_BC strains; deletion mutations of 2-13 amino acids in different regions were discovered in 6 strains; and the remaining 42 strains did not show deletions. Seven strains with amino acids deficiency in the P6 protein accounted for 27% of all strains and 75% of all deletion genotype strains. A total of 186 full-length molecular clones of CRF07_BC were constructed. There were 5, 9, 10 and 11 clones of HNXX1302, HNXX1304, HNXX1305 and HNXX1306 that resulted in p24-positive supernatant when transfected into HEK-293T cells. Full-length clones of HNXX1302, HNXX1304, HNXX1305 and HNXX1306 showed slight infection in the transfected TZM-b1 cells, as judged by the fluorescence values of TZM-b1 cells 48h post-transfection. However, we were unable to

  19. Magnetism by interfacial hybridization and p-type doping of MoS2 in Fe4N/MoS2 superlattices: A first-principles study

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Nan

    2014-03-26

    Magnetic and electronic properties of Fe4N(111)/MoS 2(√3 × √3) superlattices are investigated by first-principles calculations, considering two models: (I) FeIFe II-S and (II) N-S interfaces, each with six stacking configurations. In model I, strong interfacial hybridization between FeI/Fe II and S results in magnetism of monolayer MoS2, with a magnetic moment of 0.33 μB for Mo located on top of Fe I. For model II, no magnetism is induced due to weak N-S interfacial bonding, and the semiconducting nature of monolayer MoS2 is preserved. Charge transfer between MoS2 and N results in p-type MoS2 with Schottky barrier heights of 0.5-0.6 eV. Our results demonstrate that the interfacial geometry and hybridization can be used to tune the magnetism and doping in Fe4N(111)/MoS2(√3 × √3) superlattices. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  20. Magnetism by interfacial hybridization and p-type doping of MoS2 in Fe4N/MoS2 superlattices: A first-principles study

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Nan; Mi, Wenbo; Cheng, Yingchun; Guo, Zaibing; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Bai, Haili

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic and electronic properties of Fe4N(111)/MoS 2(√3 × √3) superlattices are investigated by first-principles calculations, considering two models: (I) FeIFe II-S and (II) N-S interfaces, each with six stacking configurations. In model I, strong interfacial hybridization between FeI/Fe II and S results in magnetism of monolayer MoS2, with a magnetic moment of 0.33 μB for Mo located on top of Fe I. For model II, no magnetism is induced due to weak N-S interfacial bonding, and the semiconducting nature of monolayer MoS2 is preserved. Charge transfer between MoS2 and N results in p-type MoS2 with Schottky barrier heights of 0.5-0.6 eV. Our results demonstrate that the interfacial geometry and hybridization can be used to tune the magnetism and doping in Fe4N(111)/MoS2(√3 × √3) superlattices. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  1. Magnetism by interfacial hybridization and p-type doping of MoS(2) in Fe(4)N/MoS(2) superlattices: a first-principles study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Nan; Mi, Wenbo; Cheng, Yingchun; Guo, Zaibing; Schwingenschlögl, Udo; Bai, Haili

    2014-03-26

    Magnetic and electronic properties of Fe4N(111)/MoS2(√3 × √3) superlattices are investigated by first-principles calculations, considering two models: (I) Fe(I)Fe(II)-S and (II) N-S interfaces, each with six stacking configurations. In model I, strong interfacial hybridization between Fe(I)/Fe(II) and S results in magnetism of monolayer MoS2, with a magnetic moment of 0.33 μB for Mo located on top of Fe(I). For model II, no magnetism is induced due to weak N-S interfacial bonding, and the semiconducting nature of monolayer MoS2 is preserved. Charge transfer between MoS2 and N results in p-type MoS2 with Schottky barrier heights of 0.5-0.6 eV. Our results demonstrate that the interfacial geometry and hybridization can be used to tune the magnetism and doping in Fe4N(111)/MoS2(√3 × √3) superlattices.

  2. Fundamental principles of quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugajski, S.

    1980-01-01

    After introducing general versions of three fundamental quantum postulates - the superposition principle, the uncertainty principle and the complementarity principle - the question of whether the three principles are sufficiently strong to restrict the general Mackey description of quantum systems to the standard Hilbert-space quantum theory is discussed. An example which shows that the answer must be negative is constructed. An abstract version of the projection postulate is introduced and it is demonstrated that it could serve as the missing physical link between the general Mackey description and the standard quantum theory. (author)

  3. Effect of organizational structures and types of construction on perceptions of factors contributing to project failure in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazder, U.; Khan, R.A.

    2018-01-01

    The construction industry is viewed as the regulator of national economy globally. Its importance in Pakistan has increased greatly because of the involvement of international funding agencies in infrastructure projects. The feasibility of such projects is largely dependent upon the satisfaction of multiple stakeholders. Hence, it is important to explore the factors considered by different construction organizations in evaluating the failure of their projects. This study focuses on providing a rating of factors affecting construction project failures in the construction industry of Karachi. In addition to that, difference in perception between professionals belonging to different construction projects and organizational structures has also been evaluated. The results of this study show that factors related to project planning and management are rated higher by professionals in general. Secondly, it was also observed that client satisfaction and its related factors were rated higher by organizations with project based management structures. (author)

  4. Geometrical modified nesbit corporoplasty to correct different types of penile curvature: description of the surgical procedure based on geometrical principles and long-term results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicini, P; Di Nicola, S; Antonini, G; De Berardinis, E; Gentile, V; De Marco, F

    2016-11-01

    We present the use of a modified corporoplasty, based on geometrical principles, to determine the exact site for the incision in the tunica or plaque and the exact amount of albuginea for overlaying to correct with extreme precision the different types of congenital or acquired penile curvature due to Peyronie's disease. To describe our experience with a new surgical procedure for the enhancement of penile curvature avoiding any overcorrection or undercorrection. Between March 2004 and April 2013, a total of 74 patients underwent the geometrical modified corporoplasty. All patients had congenital curvature until 90° or acquired stable penile curvature 'less' than 60°, that made sexual intercourse very difficult or impossible, normal erectile function, absence of hourglass or hinge effect. Preoperative testing included a physical examination, 3 photographs (frontal, dorsal and lateral) of penis during erection, a 10 mcg PGE1-induced erection and Doppler ultrasound, administration of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-15) questionnaire. A follow-up with postoperative evaluation at 12 weeks, 12 and 24 months, included the same preoperative testing. Satisfaction rates were better assessed with the use of validated questionnaire such as the International Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of the Treatment Satisfaction (EDITS). Statistical analysis with Student's t-test was performed using commercially available, personal computer software. A total of 25 patients had congenital penile curvature with a mean deviation of 46.8° (range 40-90), another 49 patients had Peyronie's disease with a mean deviation of 58.4 (range 45-60). No major complications were reported. Postoperative correction of the curvature was achieved in all patients (100%). Neither undercorrection nor overcorrection were recorded. No significant relapse (curvature>15°) occurred in our patients. Shortening of the penis was reported by 74% but did not influence the high overall

  5. Variational principles

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseiwitsch, B L

    2004-01-01

    This graduate-level text's primary objective is to demonstrate the expression of the equations of the various branches of mathematical physics in the succinct and elegant form of variational principles (and thereby illuminate their interrelationship). Its related intentions are to show how variational principles may be employed to determine the discrete eigenvalues for stationary state problems and to illustrate how to find the values of quantities (such as the phase shifts) that arise in the theory of scattering. Chapter-by-chapter treatment consists of analytical dynamics; optics, wave mecha

  6. The Principle of General Tovariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heunen, C.; Landsman, N. P.; Spitters, B.

    2008-06-01

    We tentatively propose two guiding principles for the construction of theories of physics, which should be satisfied by a possible future theory of quantum gravity. These principles are inspired by those that led Einstein to his theory of general relativity, viz. his principle of general covariance and his equivalence principle, as well as by the two mysterious dogmas of Bohr's interpretation of quantum mechanics, i.e. his doctrine of classical concepts and his principle of complementarity. An appropriate mathematical language for combining these ideas is topos theory, a framework earlier proposed for physics by Isham and collaborators. Our principle of general tovariance states that any mathematical structure appearing in the laws of physics must be definable in an arbitrary topos (with natural numbers object) and must be preserved under so-called geometric morphisms. This principle identifies geometric logic as the mathematical language of physics and restricts the constructions and theorems to those valid in intuitionism: neither Aristotle's principle of the excluded third nor Zermelo's Axiom of Choice may be invoked. Subsequently, our equivalence principle states that any algebra of observables (initially defined in the topos Sets) is empirically equivalent to a commutative one in some other topos.

  7. The principle of general covariance and the principle of equivalence: two distinct concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagundes, H.V.

    It is shown how to construct a theory with general covariance but without the equivalence principle. Such a theory is in disagreement with experiment, but it serves to illustrate the independence of the former principle from the latter one [pt

  8. Safety Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Grinenko

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The offered material in the article is picked up so that the reader could have a complete representation about concept “safety”, intrinsic characteristics and formalization possibilities. Principles and possible strategy of safety are considered. A material of the article is destined for the experts who are taking up the problems of safety.

  9. Maquet principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, R.B.; Stassi, J.; Karasick, D.

    1985-04-01

    Anterior displacement of the tibial tubercle is a well-accepted orthopedic procedure in the treatment of certain patellofemoral disorders. The radiologic appearance of surgical procedures utilizing the Maquet principle has not been described in the radiologic literature. Familiarity with the physiologic and biochemical basis for the procedure and its postoperative appearance is necessary for appropriate roentgenographic evaluation and the radiographic recognition of complications.

  10. Cosmological principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesson, P.S.

    1979-01-01

    The Cosmological Principle states: the universe looks the same to all observers regardless of where they are located. To most astronomers today the Cosmological Principle means the universe looks the same to all observers because density of the galaxies is the same in all places. A new Cosmological Principle is proposed. It is called the Dimensional Cosmological Principle. It uses the properties of matter in the universe: density (rho), pressure (p), and mass (m) within some region of space of length (l). The laws of physics require incorporation of constants for gravity (G) and the speed of light (C). After combining the six parameters into dimensionless numbers, the best choices are: 8πGl 2 rho/c 2 , 8πGl 2 rho/c 4 , and 2 Gm/c 2 l (the Schwarzchild factor). The Dimensional Cosmological Principal came about because old ideas conflicted with the rapidly-growing body of observational evidence indicating that galaxies in the universe have a clumpy rather than uniform distribution

  11. Construct Validation of a Program to Increase Use of Self-Regulation for Physical Activity among Overweight and Obese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petosa, R. Lingyak; Silfee, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies have revealed that overweight adults with type 2 diabetes have low rates of physical activity and are resistant to change. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to use construct validation of intervention methods to examine the impact of a 4-week behavioral intervention on the use of self-regulation skills for physical…

  12. The principles and construction of linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, J.

    1986-09-01

    The problems posed to the designers and builders of high-energy linear colliders are discussed. Scaling laws of linear colliders are considered. The problem of attainment of small interaction areas is addressed. The physics of damping rings, which are designed to condense beam bunches in phase space, is discussed. The effect of wake fields on a particle bunch in a linac, particularly the conventional disk-loaded microwave linac structures, are discussed, as well as ways of dealing with those effects. Finally, the SLAC Linear Collider is described. 18 refs., 17 figs

  13. Principles and frequency of self-adjustment of insulin dose in people with diabetes mellitus type 1 and correlation with markers of metabolic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Guido; Kuniss, Nadine; Kloos, Christof; Lehmann, Thomas; Müller, Nicolle; Wolf, Gunter; Lorkowski, Stefan; Müller, Ulrich A

    2016-06-01

    Insulin dose self-adjustment (ISA) to different blood glucose levels, carbohydrate intake, exercise or illness is a core element of structured education programmes for people with diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1). The aim of this study was to register the patients' current principles and frequency of ISA and to check the ability for correct adjustments. 117 people with DM1 (mean HbA1c 7.1%, diabetes duration 24y) were interviewed in a tertiary care centre. The number of ISA was drawn from the last 28days of the patients' diary. The ability to find the correct insulin dose was assessed using five different calculation examples. All patients had participated in a structured education programme. Mean frequency of ISA was 72.1±29.4 per 28days. ISA by adjustment rules was used in 48% (56/117) and by personal experience or feeling in 44% (52/117). Patients adjusting by feeling were older, did less ISA and had lower social status. There were no differences in HbA1c (feeling 7.2±0.8 vs. rules 7.0±0.9, p=0.403), non severe hypoglycaemia (feeling 1.7±1.8 vs. rules 1.9±1.9, p=0.132) and comprehensibility of ISA between both groups. Overall, the participants answered on average 2.8±2.3 of the five calculation examples correctly. Although all people were trained to use a factor for correction for ISA in case of high premeal blood glucose levels, only half of the patients adjusted their insulin dosage using the complex rules from the treatment and education programme. Patients, who performed their ISA based upon feeling, did not show worse metabolic control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Perspectives of construction robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, M. A.; Gridchin, A. M.

    2018-03-01

    This article is an overview of construction robots features, based on formulating the list of requirements for different types of construction robots in relation to different types of construction works.. It describes a variety of construction works and ways to construct new or to adapt existing robot designs for a construction process. Also, it shows the prospects of AI-controlled machines, implementation of automated control systems and networks on construction sites. In the end, different ways to develop and improve, including ecological aspect, the construction process through the wide robotization, creating of data communication networks and, in perspective, establishing of fully AI-controlled construction complex are formulated.

  15. Principles of lake sedimentology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janasson, L.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive outline on the basic sedimentological principles for lakes, and focuses on environmental aspects and matters related to lake management and control-on lake ecology rather than lake geology. This is a guide for those who plan, perform and evaluate lake sedimentological investigations. Contents abridged: Lake types and sediment types. Sedimentation in lakes and water dynamics. Lake bottom dynamics. Sediment dynamics and sediment age. Sediments in aquatic pollution control programmes. Subject index

  16. Economic uncertainty principle?

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Harin

    2006-01-01

    The economic principle of (hidden) uncertainty is presented. New probability formulas are offered. Examples of solutions of three types of fundamental problems are reviewed.; Principe d'incertitude économique? Le principe économique d'incertitude (cachée) est présenté. De nouvelles formules de chances sont offertes. Les exemples de solutions des trois types de problèmes fondamentaux sont reconsidérés.

  17. Preliminary evidence for the cross-cultural utility of the type D personality construct in the Ukraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; Yagensky, Andriy; Smith, Otto R F

    2009-01-01

    Type D personality is a risk indicator in cardiac patients. The validity and reliability of the Type D Scale (DS14) have been confirmed in Western Europe but not outside this context.......Type D personality is a risk indicator in cardiac patients. The validity and reliability of the Type D Scale (DS14) have been confirmed in Western Europe but not outside this context....

  18. Transformer design principles with applications to core-form power transformers

    CERN Document Server

    Del Vecchio, Robert M; Feeney, Mary-Ellen F

    2001-01-01

    Transformer Design Principles presents the theory of transformer operation and the methods and techniques of designing them. It emphasizes the physical principles and mathematical tools for simulating transformer behavior, including modern computer techniques. The scope of the book includes types of construction, circuit analysis, mechanical aspects of design, high voltage insulation requirements, and cooling design. The authors also address test procedures and reliability methods to assure successful design and discuss the economic analysis of designs. Summarizing material currently scattered

  19. Construction and validation of the Self-care Assessment Instrument for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Simonize Cunha Barreto de; Zanetti, Maria Lúcia; Sawada, Namie Okino; Barreto, Ikaro Daniel de Carvalho; Andrade, Joseilze Santos de; Otero, Liudmila Miyar

    2017-06-05

    to construct and validate the contents of the Self-care Assessment instrument for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. methodological study, based on Orem's General Theory of Nursing. The empirical categories and the items of the instrument were elucidated through a focus group. The content validation process was performed by seven specialists and the semantic analysis by 14 patients. The Content Validity Indices of the items, ≥0.78, and of the scale, ≥0.90, were considered excellent. the instrument contains 131 items in six dimensions corresponding to the health deviation self-care requisites. Regarding the maintenance, a Content Validity Index of 0.98 was obtained for the full set of items, and, regarding the relevance, Content Validity Indices ≥0.80 were obtained for the majority of the assessed psychometric criteria. the instrument showed evidence of content validity. construir e validar o conteúdo do instrumento Avaliação do Autocuidado para pacientes com diabetes mellitus tipo 2. estudo metodológico, fundamentado na Teoria Geral de Enfermagem de Orem. As categorias empíricas e os itens do instrumento foram elucidados por meio de grupo focal. O processo de validação de conteúdo foi realizado por sete especialistas e a análise semântica por 14 pacientes. Foram considerados como excelente Índice de Validade de Conteúdo dos itens ≥ 0,78 e da escala ≥ 0,90. o instrumento contém seis dimensões correspondentes aos requisitos de autocuidado para o desvio da saúde, desmembradas em 131 itens. Quanto à permanência, obteve-se para o conjunto total de itens Índice de Validade de Conteúdo de 0,98, e quanto à adequação Índice de Validade de Conteúdo ≥ 0,80 para maioria dos critérios psicométricos avaliados. o instrumento mostrou evidências de validade de conteúdo. construir y validar el contenido del instrumento Evaluación del Autocuidado para pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2. estudio metodológico, fundamentado en la Teor

  20. Design and construction techniques for one-meter position sensitive proportional counters of the helical delay line type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orbesen, S.D.; Sherman, J.D.; Flynn, E.R.

    1976-03-01

    A description is given of the techniques involved in the construction of a one-meter long helical proportional counter which produces excellent position accuracy of 1 mm while yielding particle identification through a measurement of energy loss and total energy

  1. Core principles of evolutionary medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunspan, Daniel Z; Nesse, Randolph M; Barnes, M Elizabeth; Brownell, Sara E

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background and objectives Evolutionary medicine is a rapidly growing field that uses the principles of evolutionary biology to better understand, prevent and treat disease, and that uses studies of disease to advance basic knowledge in evolutionary biology. Over-arching principles of evolutionary medicine have been described in publications, but our study is the first to systematically elicit core principles from a diverse panel of experts in evolutionary medicine. These principles should be useful to advance recent recommendations made by The Association of American Medical Colleges and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute to make evolutionary thinking a core competency for pre-medical education. Methodology The Delphi method was used to elicit and validate a list of core principles for evolutionary medicine. The study included four surveys administered in sequence to 56 expert panelists. The initial open-ended survey created a list of possible core principles; the three subsequent surveys winnowed the list and assessed the accuracy and importance of each principle. Results Fourteen core principles elicited at least 80% of the panelists to agree or strongly agree that they were important core principles for evolutionary medicine. These principles over-lapped with concepts discussed in other articles discussing key concepts in evolutionary medicine. Conclusions and implications This set of core principles will be helpful for researchers and instructors in evolutionary medicine. We recommend that evolutionary medicine instructors use the list of core principles to construct learning goals. Evolutionary medicine is a young field, so this list of core principles will likely change as the field develops further. PMID:29493660

  2. Zymography Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkesman, Jeff; Kurz, Liliana

    2017-01-01

    Zymography, the detection, identification, and even quantification of enzyme activity fractionated by gel electrophoresis, has received increasing attention in the last years, as revealed by the number of articles published. A number of enzymes are routinely detected by zymography, especially with clinical interest. This introductory chapter reviews the major principles behind zymography. New advances of this method are basically focused towards two-dimensional zymography and transfer zymography as will be explained in the rest of the chapters. Some general considerations when performing the experiments are outlined as well as the major troubleshooting and safety issues necessary for correct development of the electrophoresis.

  3. Basic principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.D.

    1996-01-01

    Some basic explanations are given of the principles underlying the nuclear fuel cycle, starting with the physics of atomic and nuclear structure and continuing with nuclear energy and reactors, fuel and waste management and finally a discussion of economics and the future. An important aspect of the fuel cycle concerns the possibility of ''closing the back end'' i.e. reprocessing the waste or unused fuel in order to re-use it in reactors of various kinds. The alternative, the ''oncethrough'' cycle, discards the discharged fuel completely. An interim measure involves the prolonged storage of highly radioactive waste fuel. (UK)

  4. Assessment of the type D personality construct in the Korean population: a validation study of the Korean DS14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hong Euy; Lee, Moon-Soo; Ko, Young-Hoon; Park, Young-Min; Joe, Sook-Haeng; Kim, Yong-Ku; Han, Changsu; Lee, Hwa-Young; Pedersen, Susanne S; Denollet, Johan

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a Korean version of the Type D Personality Scale-14 (DS14) and evaluate the psychiatric symptomatology of Korean cardiac patients with Type D personality. Healthy control (n = 954), patients with a coronary heart disease (n = 111) and patients with hypertension and no heart disease (n = 292) were recruited. All three groups completed DS14, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), the state subscale of Spielberger State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CESD), and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). The Korean DS14 was internally consistent and stable over time. 27% of the subjects were classified as Type D. Type D individuals had significantly higher mean scores on the STAI-S, CESD, and GHQ compared to non-Type D subjects in each group. The Korean DS14 was a valid and reliable tool for identifying Type D personality. The general population and cardiovascular patients with Type D personality showed higher rate of depression, anxiety and psychological distress regarding their health. Therefore, identifying Type D personality is important in clinical research and practice in chronic medical disorders, especially cardiovascular disease, in Korea.

  5. NPP Prevlaka - Preparation of construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojic, K.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of study 'Optimal electricity generation structure till the year 2000' production of 3 x 500 MWe in nuclear power plants has been anticipated. Second Croatian-Slovenian NPP project will be based on the same principles the first one (NPP Krsko) was based on. Preconstruction investigation studies are performed at site Prevlaka on river Sava downstream of Zagreb. Licensing procedure has started with republic Urban countryside planning activities. Preconstruction activities are planned to be finished by the end of 1986. while the construction is expected to start during 1987. Parallel to investigation studies for NPP Prevlaka, evaluation of nuclear technology and reactor type is planned to be made. (author)

  6. General principles of radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easson, E.C.

    1985-01-01

    The daily practice of any established branch of medicine should be based on some acceptable principles. This chapter is concerned with the general principles on which the radiotherapy of the Manchester school is based. Though many radiotherapists in other centres would doubtless accept these principles, there are sufficiently wide differences in practice throughout the world to suggest that some therapists adhere to a fundamentally different philosophy. The authors believe it is important, especially for those beginning their formal training in radiotherapy, to subscribe to an internally consistent school of thought, employing methods of treatment for each type of lesion in each anatomical site that are based on accepted principles and subjected to continuous rigorous scrutiny to test their effectiveness. Not only must each therapeutic technique be evaluated, but the underlying principles too must be questioned if and when this seems indicated. It is a feature of this hospital that similar lesions are all treated by the same technique, so long as statistical evidence justifies such a policy. All members of the staff adhere to the accepted policy until or unless reliable reasons are adduced to change this policy

  7. Rational construction of an ssa-type of MOF through pre-organizing the ligand's conformation and its exceptional gas adsorption properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao; He, Minghui; Tian, Zhi; Zhong, Haoyan; Zhu, Lisha; Zhang, Yingying; Zhang, Xiaoping; Chen, De-Li; He, Yabing

    2018-02-13

    Ssa-type MOFs constructed from dicopper paddlewheels and bent diisophthalate ligands exhibit a promising potential for gas adsorption which benefits from their rich open copper sites and polyhedron-based cages with suitable sizes. However, the rational construction of such types of MOFs is exceedingly challenging because the bent diisophthalate ligands employed are inclined to exhibit various conformations and thus are prone to form MOFs with varied topologies. In this work, by pre-organizing the ligand's conformation, we successfully targeted an ssa-type MOF ZJNU-57 from a bent diisophthalate ligand. More significantly, ZJNU-57 exhibits excellent hydrolytic stability and high C 2 H 2 and CO 2 uptake capacities as well as impressive C 2 H 2 /CH 4 and CO 2 /CH 4 adsorption selectivities, indicating its promising potential for C 2 H 2 /CH 4 and CO 2 /CH 4 separation, which are relevant to acetylene production and natural gas purification. This work not only provides a rare water-stable MOF based on the Cu 2 (COO) 4 cluster for highly selective adsorption of C 2 H 2 and CO 2 from CH 4 , but also demonstrates that the ligand conformation-controlled assembly strategy may be an efficient approach toward the construction of MOF materials with definite topologies for specific applications.

  8. Problems of development and putting into education process an electronic textbook on special discipline 'General theory and construction of heat-and-power engineering facilities'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karitskaya, S.G.; Ruzanov, K.A.; Davletov, V.S.

    2005-01-01

    The results of work of making the electronic textbook of special discipline ('General theory and construction of heat-and-power engineering facilities' are brought. The principles and requirements, presented towards literature of such type, are outlined. (author)

  9. Industrialization for sustainable construction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egmond - de Wilde De Ligny, van E.L.C.; Barrett, P; Amaratunga, D.; Haigh, R; Keraminiyage, K.; Pathirage, C

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable construction (SuCo), which genesis dates in the early 1990’s, advocates the creation and operation of a quality and healthy built environment based on resource efficiency, life cycle economics and ecological principles. (Kibert, 2003). Currently the Construction Industry does not meet

  10. Gesture & Principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvejsel, Marie Frier

    2017-01-01

    The development of architecture is governed by an increasing gap between the experienced quality of architectural space, manifest as a sense of interiority on behalf of the user, and the means applied in its realization. Between means and ends, one could say, which calls for a continuous...... and critical development of architectural method. By method, I mean a systematic series of steps taken to acquire knowledge about an architectural problem. As the building industry and the actual construction of architecture is becoming ever more complex moving from craft over industrialization through...... to integration of digital technologies, the mentioned gap is becoming present in the processes and models of collaborations between the multiple parties involved in the realization of architecture, as well as in the work itself. This, as an increase of construction layers, installations and equipment tending...

  11. EXPERIMENTAL REPAIR OF DEEP CORNEAL DEFECTS USING A BIO-CONSTRUCT COMPRISING A COLLAGEN TYPE I MATRIX LOADED WITH BUCCAL EPITHELIAL CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Egorova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The  research  objective was  to study the  reparative effects of  the  collagen  type  I bio-construct loaded  with buccal epithelial cells, on the rabbit cornea after experimental keratectomy at various stages of treatment (on the 3rd, 7th, 14th, 3 0th days.Material  and methods.  The  experiments were  conducted on 20 rabbits  of  the  Chinchilla breed that  were  operated on cornea of both eyes aiming to inflict epithelial and stromal cornea defects. The collagen-based bio-construct bearing buccal epithelial cells was placed  over the cornea of the experimental eyes. The  cornea of the control  eyes was covered with smooth contact lens. After the surgery, a temporal blepharorrhaphy was performed and kept for 3 days. We studied macroand microscopic pattern of corneal regeneration at 3, 7, 14, and 30 days of experiment.Results. When  using the collaged-based bio-construct containing buccal epithelial cells, the complete epithelialization of the corneal defect occurred at mean 7 days earlier compared to that in the control eyes. Thus, the offered bio-construct stimulated the cell migration and proliferation at early stages of treatment (3–7 days reducing the inflammation activity.Conclusion. The bio-construct comprising a collagen type  I matrix loaded with buccal epithelial cells can provide an effective treatment option for corneal defects.

  12. Principles of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Nils J

    1980-01-01

    A classic introduction to artificial intelligence intended to bridge the gap between theory and practice, Principles of Artificial Intelligence describes fundamental AI ideas that underlie applications such as natural language processing, automatic programming, robotics, machine vision, automatic theorem proving, and intelligent data retrieval. Rather than focusing on the subject matter of the applications, the book is organized around general computational concepts involving the kinds of data structures used, the types of operations performed on the data structures, and the properties of th

  13. Reusing of types wastes in way construction. First part; Reutilizacion de neumaticos usados en la construccion de carreteras 1 parte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomas Raz, R.

    2001-07-01

    Used vehicle tyres involve an ecological problem, regarding waste products. Both Spanish and European Environmental Standards promote waste recycling instead of waste incineration, which is specifically applicable to waste tyres. The Engineering Group, Elsamex, has developed, through its research centre CIESM, a researching line completely feasible, offering a recycling option based on the addition, by means of three different techniques, of the refused tyres rubber powder to the asphalt mixes for road construction. This is the refused tyre treatment, which contributes, to a greater extent, to a sustainable development, mostly thanks to the great capacity of roads for using this product as raw materials. Added to this, there is an environmental benefit derived from the ecological treatment used with refused tyres, and its efficacy. Moreover, the treatment helps to the production of asphalt mixes with longer durability with a wet process. This allows long term money saving in road maintenance. (Author)

  14. The Principle of Structural Reciprocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pugnale, Alberto; Parigi, Dario; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the principle of structural reciprocity, considering its origins in both Occidental and Orient culture and aiming to highlight the definition, main peculiarities and interesting aspects of such concept referring to its application to the world of construction. Issues spannin...

  15. Construction Of An Optimized Lentiviral Vector Containing Pdx-1 Gene For Transduction Of Stem Cells Towards Gene Therapy Diabetes Type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rahmati

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Nowadays, most of gene therapy protocols are performed by lentiviral vectors. One of the most important factors which is involved in pancreas development and transcription of insulin gene is pancreatic & duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX-1 transcription factor. The goal of this study was to optimize a lentiviral construct, containing pdx-1 gene, to transfect stem cells towards gene therapy of type-1 diabetes. Methods: In this experimental study, first, the pdx-1 gene was multiplied by PCR from pcDNA3.1-pdx-1 and cloned into pTG19-T vector. Then, pdx-1 was subcloned on upstream of IRES-EGFP gene into IRES2-EGFP vector. At the next step, the cloned parts of IRES-EGFP and pdx-1 were isolated and cloned into the lentiviral expression vector pSINTREM in upstream of TRE-CMV gene. After sequencing, final construct was transfected into HEK 293 cells and gene expression of pdx-1 was evaluated using flow cytometry analysis and reverse fluorescent microscopy. Results: Flow cytometry results and inverted fluorescent microscopy observing showed that pdx-1 and GFP genes are expressed in cells transfected with final recombinant construct. Conclusion: Regarding the design of this construct, to ensure long time expression with higher in vivo and in vitro expression efficiency for stem cells and also use of Tet on induced optimized system, it seems that the current construct can be among the best ones to transfect stem cells. Key words: Gene therapy, Diabetes, Stem cells

  16. Use of the Hage framework for theory construction: Factors affecting glucose control in the college-aged student with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Rebecca A; Fish, Anne F; Lou, Qinqing

    2017-10-01

    This article describes the Hage framework for theory construction and its application to the clinical problem of glycemic control in college-aged students with type 1 diabetes. College-aged students with type 1 diabetes struggle to self-manage their condition. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), if controlled within acceptable limits (6-8%), is associated with the prevention or delay of serious diabetic complications such as kidney and cardiovascular disease. Diabetes educators provide knowledge and skills, but young adults must self-manage their condition on a daily basis, independent of parents. The Hage framework includes five tasks of theory construction: narrowing and naming the concepts, specifying the definitions, creating the theoretical statements, specifying the linkages, and ordering components in preparation for model building. During the process, concepts within the theory were revised as the literature was reviewed, and measures and hypotheses, foundational to research, were generated. We were successful in applying the framework and creating a model of factors affecting glycemic control, emphasizing that physical activity, thought of as a normal part of wellness, can be a two-edged sword producing positive effect but also serious negative effects in some college-aged students with type 1 diabetes. Contextual factors important to self-management in college-aged students are emphasized. The Hage framework, already used to a small extent in nursing curricula, deserves more attention and, because of its generic nature, may be used as a template for theory construction to examine a wide variety of nursing topics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Bioreactor principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Cells cultured on Earth (left) typically settle quickly on the bottom of culture vessels due to gravity. In microgravity (right), cells remain suspended and aggregate to form three-dimensional tissue. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  18. [Construction and characterization of an epitope-mutated Asia 1 type foot-and-mouth disease virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Hu, Yonghao; Yang, Fan; Yang, Bo; Wang, Songhao; Zhu, Zixiang; Zheng, Haixue

    2015-01-01

    To generate an epitope-mutated foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) as a marker vaccine, the infectious clone pAsia 1-FMDV containing the complete genomic cDNA of Asia 1 type FMDV was used as backbone, the residues at positions 27 and 31 in the 3D gene were mutated (H27Y and N31R). The resulting plasmid pAsia 1-FMDV-3DM encoding a mutated epitope was transfected into BHK-21 cells and the recombinant virus rAsia 1-3DM was rescued. The recombinant virus showed similar biological characteristics comparable with the parental virus. In serological neutralization test the antisera against recombine virus have a good reactivity with parental virus. The antisera against the mutant virus were shown to be reactive with the mutated epitope but not the wild-type one. The results indicated that the two virus strains could be distinguished by western blotting using synthetic peptides. This epitope-mutated FMDV strain will be evaluated as a potential marker vaccine against FMDV infections.

  19. Construction of semi-underground type power plant in close vicinity of existing structures. Kisetsu kozobutsu ni kinsetsu shita han chika shiki hatsudensho no seko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, K [Toshiba Ceramics Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Suda, H [Nippon Koei CO. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kanazawa, S [Hazama-Gumi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-01-30

    The second Akashiba power station is of a semi-underground type and located on a steep slope between the Arakawa River and a national road. Therefore, there were many such problems to be solved for its construction as safety precaution for steep slope ground including the closely located national road, underwater work for the intake and outlet works, construction of tunnel below the present water level of the river in which deluges can be expected. Very severe conditions were imposed for the plan of the retaining walls, which are required for the prevention of landslide on the national road side, because of the problems of boundaries of the site, proprietary right, etc. The plan and design were studied for 3 cases, i.e. during drilling, at regular time and at the time of earthquake occurrence. Outlines of the drilling of the power plant shaft, mucking, timbering, spraying and spring water treatment are given. In connection with the control of measurement, subjects for measurement and the result of measurement are reported. Although this construction work was carried out under very severe conditions, it was completed in August, 1990 with no serious disaster. 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Design and construction of a Type B overpack container for the safe transportation of enriched uranium hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gablin, K.A.

    1976-01-01

    The Paducah Tiger is an overpack designed for the international shipment of ten-ton cylinders of uranium hexafluoride in enriched form above the level of low specific acitivity. This container is designed as a Type B Package and has undergone all the tests and analyses required for a U.S. Department of Transportation Permit No. 6553. The Paducah Tiger is currently being used to ship fuel material in the USA on both truck and rail modes of transportation. In many ways, the design resembles the Super Tigersup(R), but incorporates features such as ISO corners, quick opening fasteners, and interior shock isolators that provide a system approach to the high volume of fuel shipment required in the last half of the 20th century. (author)

  1. Optimal construction and delivery of dual-functioning lentiviral vectors for type I collagen-suppressed chondrogenesis in synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Yao, Yongchang; Zhou, Ruijie; Su, Kai; Citra, Fudiman; Wang, Dong-An

    2011-06-01

    This study aims to deliver both transforming growth factor β3 (TGF-β3) and shRNA targeting type I collagen (Col I) by optimal construction and application of various dual-functioning lentiviral vectors to induce Col I-suppressed chondrogenesis in synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cells (SMSCs). We constructed four lentiviral vectors (LV-1, LV-2, LV-3 and LV-4) with various arrangements of the two expression cassettes in different positions and orientations. Col I inhibition efficiency and chondrogenic markers were assessed with qPCR, ELISA and staining techniques. Among the four vectors, LV-1 has two distant and reversely oriented cassettes, LV-2 has two distant and same-oriented cassettes, LV-3 has two proximal and reversely oriented cassettes, and LV-4 has two proximal and same-oriented cassettes. Col I and chondrogenic markers, including type II collagen (Col II), aggrecan and glycosaminoglycan (GAG), were examined in SMSCs cultured in 3-D alginate hydrogel. All of the four vectors showed distinct effects in Col I level as well as diverse inductive efficiencies in upregulation of the cartilaginous markers. Based on real-time PCR results, LV-1 was optimal towards Col I-suppressed chondrogenesis. LV-1 vector is competent to promote Col I-suppressed chondrogenesis in SMSCs.

  2. Design, construction and performance evaluation of aBox type solar cooker with a glazing wiper mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeleke Ademe

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research work describes the performance evaluation of a double-glazed box-type solar oven with three reflectors and with a vapor wiper mechanism fabricated using locally available materials. The box cooker has external box dimensions of 600 mm × 600 mm × 250 mm and pyramidal internal box dimensions of 460 mm × 460 mm top face and 300 mm × 300 mm bottom face with depth of 150 mm. The thermal performance was tested as per the ASAE International Test procedure and Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS for testing the thermal performance of a box-type solar cooker. The obtained test results after employing required calculations were figures of merit F1 = 0.123 Km2/W, F2 = 0.540, the standard cooking power P50 = 36 W and the cumulative efficiency to be 22%, whereas with the application of the wiper mechanism, it was found that F1 = 0.123, F2 = 0.827, the standard cooking power (P50 = 51 W, and the cumulative efficiency to be 31.4%. The standard boiling time of 1.43 kg of water was calculated to be 53.54 and 88.84 minutes for the cooker with and without the application of wiper mechanism respectively. The thermal distribution of the cooker was modeled using interior box geometry as a boundary condition with ANSYS 15.0. The temperature distribution inside the box was simulated and the maximum wall temperature was found to be 139 ℃. This was lower than the experimental results by 22 ℃. The method of modeling and simulation of the cooker with and without a wiper mechanism is similar except for the variation of the transmittance of the glass due to shading of vapor which can be deducted from the cumulative efficiency for the latter case. The results show that using the vapor wiper mechanism increases the cumulative efficiency by 9.4% and reduces the boiling time by 35.3 minutes. Finally, the techno-economic analysis shows that the cooker with a vapor wiper mechanism has a good reliability for outdoor cooking of food and is economically feasible.

  3. Difference Principle and Black-hole Thermodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Pete

    2009-01-01

    The heuristic principle that constructive dynamics may arise wherever there exists a difference, or gradient, is discussed. Consideration of black-hole entropy appears to provide a clue for setting a lower bound on any extensive measure of such collective system difference, or potential to give rise to constructive dynamics. It is seen that the second-power dependence of black-hole entropy on mass is consistent with the difference principle, while consideration of Hawking radiation forces one...

  4. Cost-benefit analysis of the construction of different flexible pavement structures considering the axle load and type of binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Dotto Bueno

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The status of Brazilian highways reflects a deficient pavement performance when they are subjected to loadings imposed by heavy traffic. Current legislation, as enacted by Contran (National Traffic Council, has increased the axle weight limit for cargo vehicles by up to 10%. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine a cost-benefit ratio by using different types of structures, asphalt binders and load intensities. Typical pavements were determined and then analyzed by the software AEMC (SisPav to obtain the horizontal tensile strain (εt values at the bottom of the asphalt concrete layer and, later, the NFATIGUE value. It was found that the increase in weight, within values covered by legislation, might result in a reduction of approximately 50% in the NFATIGUE value for the pavement structures analyzed. As for economic impact, the same weight increase caused a mean increase of 120% in the cost of repeated loading on pavement structures (R$ NFATIGUE-1. It was also observed that structures with more robust asphalt concrete layers can provide the best R$ NFATIGUE-1 ratios. The best results for granular materials were found with thinner layers, associated with a thicker coating. The benefits of modified binders were shown by the analyses of the best structural options: both the polymer-modified binder and the rubber asphalt binder offer significant structural and economic improvements to the structure.

  5. Management for Construction Materials and Control of Construction Waste in Construction Industry: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Gulghane; Prof P. V. Khandve

    2015-01-01

    In recent treads a wide range of building materials is available for the construction of civil engineering structures. The total cost of materials may be up to 60% or more of the total cost incurred in construction project dependent upon the type of project. Effective construction materials management is a key to success for a construction project. Construction waste is another serious problem in construction industry. A large and various types of construction waste with different...

  6. The gauge principle vs. the equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, S.J. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Within the context of field theory, it is argued that the role of the equivalence principle may be replaced by the principle of gauge invariance to provide a logical framework for theories of gravitation

  7. Design, construction, and implementation of an online platform for patients with type 1 diabetes: EncoDiab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Martel, Dácil; Cañas, Francesca; Velasco, Rebeca; Alcubierre, Nuria; López-Ríos, Laura; Rius, Ferran; Nóvoa, Francisco Javier; Carrillo, Armando; Hernández, Marta; Wägner, Ana María; Mauricio, Dídac

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to develop, build, and implement a virtual platform equipped with practical tools, relevant contents, and communication rooms, with the aim of facilitating patients’ self-management of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Materials and methods The design of the platform was based on the suggestions of T1DM patients who were being managed at two reference hospitals. Patients’ needs and preferences were identified in group discussion sessions. Before having access to the platform, patients underwent a baseline assessment, which included physical examination and the administration of validated questionnaires for evaluation of clinical background, quality of life, treatment satisfaction, and well-being. Results A total of 33 patients were included in the study; 54.5% of them were men, their median age was 34 (18–50) years, the median duration of diabetes was 15 (1–38) years, and the median A1C was 7.4% (6%–12.6%). Based on their suggestions and requests, the online platform EncoDiab was built and organized into four domains: a personal domain, two domains shared by the patients and the staff of each of the two participating hospitals, and one domain that was accessible to all participants. The platform included practical tools (a body mass index calculator, a carbohydrate counting tool, and an insulin-dose calculator), a library with relevant information (documents on prevention and treatment of acute complications, nutrition, exercise, etc), and a chat room. Conclusion Although the study is still ongoing, our current results demonstrate the feasibility of building and implementing an online platform for helping T1DM patients in the self-management of their disease in the public health setting. PMID:26124644

  8. Equivalence principles and electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, W.-T.

    1977-01-01

    The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.

  9. Constructing inverse V-type TiO{sub 2}-based photocatalyst via bio-template approach to enhance the photosynthetic water oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Jinghui; Zhou, Han; Ding, Jian; Zhang, Fan; Fan, Tongxiang, E-mail: txfan@sjtu.edu.cn; Zhang, Di

    2015-08-30

    Graphical abstract: Inverse V-type TiO{sub 2}-based photocatalyst was synthesized by using cross-linked titanium precursor to duplicate bio-template. - Highlights: • Cross-linked titanium precursor can facilitate an accurate duplication of templates. • In situ deposition of Ag{sup 0} from AgBr can maintain the completeness of surface structure. • Perfect inverse V-type Ag{sup 0}/TiO{sub 2} can achieve efficient water oxidation. - Abstract: Bio-template approach was employed to construct inverse V-type TiO{sub 2}-based photocatalyst with well distributed AgBr in TiO{sub 2} matrix by making dead Troides Helena wings with inverse V-type scales as the template. A cross-linked titanium precursor with homogenous hydrolytic rate, good liquidity, and low viscosity was employed to facilitate a perfect duplication of the template and the dispersion of AgBr based on appropriate pretreatment of the template by alkali and acid. The as-synthesized inverse V-type TiO{sub 2}/AgBr can be turned into inverse V-type TiO{sub 2}/Ag{sup 0} from AgBr photolysis during photocatalysis to achieve in situ deposition of Ag{sup 0} in TiO{sub 2} matrix, by this approach, to avoid the deformation of surface microstructure inherited from the template. The result showed that the cooperation of perfect inverse V-type structure and the well distributed TiO{sub 2}/Ag{sup 0} microstructures can efficiently boost the photosynthetic water oxidation compared to non-inverse V-type TiO{sub 2}/Ag{sup 0} and TiO{sub 2}/Ag{sup 0} without using template. The anti-reflection function of inverse V-type structure and the plasmatic effect of Ag{sup 0} might be able to account for the enhanced photon capture and efficient photoelectric conversion.

  10. Design, construction, and implementation of an online platform for patients with type 1 diabetes: EncoDiab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarado-Martel D

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dácil Alvarado-Martel,1,2,* Francesca Cañas,3,* Rebeca Velasco,1 Nuria Alcubierre,3 Laura López-Ríos,1,2 Ferran Rius,4 Francisco Javier Nóvoa,1,2 Armando Carrillo,1,2 Marta Hernández,3,4 Ana María Wägner,1,2,* Dídac Mauricio5,6,* 1Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario Insular Materno-Infantil de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas, Spain; 2Instituto Universitario de Investigaciones Biomédicas y Sanitarias, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas, Spain; 3Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Institut de Recerca Biomèdica de Lleida (IRBLleida, Lleida, Spain; 4Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Universitari Arnau de Vilanova, Lleida, Spain; 5Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol, Badalona, Spain; 6Health Sciences Research Institute Germans Trias i Pujol, Badalona, Spain *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop, build, and implement a virtual platform equipped with practical tools, relevant contents, and communication rooms, with the aim of facilitating patients’ self-management of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM.Materials and methods: The design of the platform was based on the suggestions of T1DM patients who were being managed at two reference hospitals. Patients’ needs and preferences were identified in group discussion sessions. Before having access to the platform, patients underwent a baseline assessment, which included physical examination and the administration of validated questionnaires for evaluation of clinical background, quality of life, treatment satisfaction, and well-being.Results: A total of 33 patients were included in the study; 54.5% of them were men, their median age was 34 (18–50 years, the median duration of diabetes was 15 (1–38 years, and the median A1C was 7.4% (6%–12.6%. Based on their suggestions and requests, the online platform EncoDiab was built and organized into

  11. No-Hypersignaling Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Arno, Michele; Brandsen, Sarah; Tosini, Alessandro; Buscemi, Francesco; Vedral, Vlatko

    2017-07-01

    A paramount topic in quantum foundations, rooted in the study of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox and Bell inequalities, is that of characterizing quantum theory in terms of the spacelike correlations it allows. Here, we show that to focus only on spacelike correlations is not enough: we explicitly construct a toy model theory that, while not contradicting classical and quantum theories at the level of spacelike correlations, still displays an anomalous behavior in its timelike correlations. We call this anomaly, quantified in terms of a specific communication game, the "hypersignaling" phenomena. We hence conclude that the "principle of quantumness," if it exists, cannot be found in spacelike correlations alone: nontrivial constraints need to be imposed also on timelike correlations, in order to exclude hypersignaling theories.

  12. Lexical and constructional organization of argument structure: a contrastive analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Johan

    2009-01-01

    Abstract. In this chapter I outline some principles for a contrastive analysis of basic clausal expressions in English and Spanish. They are formulated within a general framework of Cognitive Linguistics. The proposed principles for cross-linguistic variation are a challenge to the principles...... of parametric variation in syntax as envisioned in Chomsky (1981) and defended by Snyder (2001). From a theory-internal point of view, they lead to a reinterpretation of Talmy's descriptive typology of macro-events (Talmy 1991, 2000). Particularly, they solve a serious flaw in Talmy's typology due to his......) lexical constructions (e.g. Croft 2001; Fillmore 1988; Goldberg 1995, 2006). In addition, clausal expressions are, according to some CXG-frameworks (e.g. Croft 2001), supposed to be built on language-specific construction types. I hypothesize that languages may differ according to the level...

  13. Principles of Mechanical Excavation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lislerud, A.

    1997-12-01

    Mechanical excavation of rock today includes several methods such as tunnel boring, raiseboring, roadheading and various continuous mining systems. Of these raiseboring is one potential technique for excavating shafts in the repository for spent nuclear fuel and dry blind boring is promising technique for excavation of deposition holes, as demonstrated in the Research Tunnel at Olkiluoto. In addition, there is potential for use of other mechanical excavation techniques in different parts of the repository. One of the main objectives of this study was to analyze the factors which affect the feasibility of mechanical rock excavation in hard rock conditions and to enhance the understanding of factors which affect rock cutting so as to provide an improved basis for excavator performance prediction modeling. The study included the following four main topics: (a) phenomenological model based on similarity analysis for roller disk cutting, (b) rock mass properties which affect rock cuttability and tool life, (c) principles for linear and field cutting tests and performance prediction modeling and (d) cutter head lacing design procedures and principles. As a conclusion of this study, a test rig was constructed, field tests were planned and started up. The results of the study can be used to improve the performance prediction models used to assess the feasibility of different mechanical excavation techniques at various repository investigation sites. (orig.)

  14. Principles of Mechanical Excavation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lislerud, A. [Tamrock Corp., Tampere (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Mechanical excavation of rock today includes several methods such as tunnel boring, raiseboring, roadheading and various continuous mining systems. Of these raiseboring is one potential technique for excavating shafts in the repository for spent nuclear fuel and dry blind boring is promising technique for excavation of deposition holes, as demonstrated in the Research Tunnel at Olkiluoto. In addition, there is potential for use of other mechanical excavation techniques in different parts of the repository. One of the main objectives of this study was to analyze the factors which affect the feasibility of mechanical rock excavation in hard rock conditions and to enhance the understanding of factors which affect rock cutting so as to provide an improved basis for excavator performance prediction modeling. The study included the following four main topics: (a) phenomenological model based on similarity analysis for roller disk cutting, (b) rock mass properties which affect rock cuttability and tool life, (c) principles for linear and field cutting tests and performance prediction modeling and (d) cutter head lacing design procedures and principles. As a conclusion of this study, a test rig was constructed, field tests were planned and started up. The results of the study can be used to improve the performance prediction models used to assess the feasibility of different mechanical excavation techniques at various repository investigation sites. (orig.). 21 refs.

  15. Systematic strain construction and process development: Xylitol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing Candida tenuis xylose reductase in wild-type or mutant form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratter, S M; Eixelsberger, T; Nidetzky, B

    2015-12-01

    A novel Saccharomyces cerevisiae whole-cell biocatalyst for xylitol production based on Candida tenuis xylose reductase (CtXR) is presented. Six recombinant strains expressing wild-type CtXR or an NADH-specific mutant were constructed and evaluated regarding effects of expression mode, promoter strength, biocatalyst concentration and medium composition. Intracellular XR activities ranged from 0.09 U mgProt(-1) to 1.05 U mgProt(-1) but did not correlate with the strains' xylitol productivities, indicating that other factors limited xylose conversion in the high-activity strains. The CtXR mutant decreased the biocatalyst's performance, suggesting use of the NADPH-preferring wild-type enzyme when (semi-)aerobic conditions are applied. In a bioreactor process, the best-performing strain converted 40 g L(-1) xylose with an initial productivity of 1.16 g L(-1)h(-1) and a xylitol yield of 100%. The obtained results underline the potential of CtXR wild-type for xylose reduction and point out parameters to improve "green" xylitol production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Retroviral gene transfer of an antisense construct against membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase reduces the invasiveness of rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkauskaite, Edita; Volkmer, Dagmar; Shigeyama, Yukio; Schedel, Jörg; Pap, Geza; Müller-Ladner, Ulf; Meinecke, Ingmar; Alexander, Dorothea; Gay, Renate E; Drynda, Susanne; Neumann, Wolfram; Michel, Beat A; Aicher, Wilhelm K; Gay, Steffen; Pap, Thomas

    2005-07-01

    Membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is expressed prominently in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts (RASFs), but the specific contribution of MT1-MMP to fibroblast-mediated destruction of articular cartilage is incompletely understood. This study used gene transfer of an antisense expression construct to assess the effects of MT1-MMP inhibition on the invasiveness of RASFs. Retroviral gene transfer of a pLXIN vector-based antisense RNA expression construct (MT1-MMPalphaS) to MT1-MMP was used to stably transduce RASFs. Levels of MT1-MMP RNA and protein were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunocytochemistry in MT1-MMPalphaS-transduced RASFs as well as in control cells, with monitoring for 60 days. The effects of MT1-MMPalphaS on the invasiveness of RASFs were analyzed in the SCID mouse co-implantation model of RA. MT1-MMPalphaS-transduced RASFs produced high levels of antisense RNA that exceeded endogenous levels of MT1-MMP messenger RNA by 15-fold and resulted in a down-regulation of MT1-MMP at the protein level. Inhibition of MT1-MMP production was maintained for 60 days and significantly reduced the invasiveness of RASFs in the SCID mouse model. Whereas prominent invasion into cartilage by non-transduced and mock-transduced RASFs was observed (mean invasion scores 3.0 and 3.1, respectively), MT1-MMPalphaS-transduced cells showed only moderate invasiveness (mean invasion score 1.8; P < 0.05). The data demonstrate that an antisense RNA expression construct against MT1-MMP can be generated and expressed in RASFs for at least 60 days. Inhibition of MT1-MMP significantly reduces the cartilage degradation by RASFs.

  17. Construction of Various γ34.5 Deleted Fluorescent-Expressing Oncolytic herpes Simplex type 1 (oHSV) for Generation and Isolation of HSV-Based Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoli, Shahriyar; Roohvand, Farzin; Teimoori-Toolabi, Ladan; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Bahrololoumi, Mina; Azadmanesh, Kayhan

    2017-07-01

    Oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV)-based vectors lacking γ34.5 gene, are considered as ideal templates to construct efficient vectors for (targeted) cancer gene therapy. Herein, we reported the construction of three single/dually-flourescence labeled and γ34.5-deleted, recombinant HSV-1 vectors for rapid generation and easy selection/isolation of different HSV-Based vectors. Generation of recombinant viruses was performed with conventional homologous recombination methods using green fluorescent protein (GFP) and BleCherry harboring shuttle vectors. Viruses were isolated by direct fluorescence observation and standard plaque purifying methods and confirmed by PCR and sequencing and flow cytometry. XTT and plaque assay titration were performed on Vero, U87MG, and T98 GBM cell lines. We generated three recombinant viruses, HSV-GFP, HSV-GR (Green-Red), and HSV-Red. The HSV-GFP showed two log higher titer (1010 PFU) than wild type (108 PFU). In contrast, HSV-GR and HSV-Red showed one log lower titer (107 PFU) than parental HSV. Cytotoxicity analysis showed that HSV-GR and HSV-Red can lyse target tumor cells at multiplicity of infection of 10 and 1 (Pidentification via fluorescence activated cell sorting. These vectors can also be used for tracing the efficacy of therapeutic agents on target cells, imaging of neural or tumoral cells in vitro/in vivo and as oncolytic agents in cancer therapy.

  18. Principles of neural information processing

    CERN Document Server

    Seelen, Werner v

    2016-01-01

    In this fundamental book the authors devise a framework that describes the working of the brain as a whole. It presents a comprehensive introduction to the principles of Neural Information Processing as well as recent and authoritative research. The books´ guiding principles are the main purpose of neural activity, namely, to organize behavior to ensure survival, as well as the understanding of the evolutionary genesis of the brain. Among the developed principles and strategies belong self-organization of neural systems, flexibility, the active interpretation of the world by means of construction and prediction as well as their embedding into the world, all of which form the framework of the presented description. Since, in brains, their partial self-organization, the lifelong adaptation and their use of various methods of processing incoming information are all interconnected, the authors have chosen not only neurobiology and evolution theory as a basis for the elaboration of such a framework, but also syst...

  19. Constructing Regional advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asheim, Bjørn T.; Boschma, Ron; Cooke, Phil

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a regional innovation policy model based on the idea of constructing regional advantage. This policy model brings together concepts like related variety, knowledge bases and policy platforms. Related variety attaches importance to knowledge spillovers across complementary...... economic development within and between regions in action lines appropriate to incorporate the basic principles behind related variety and differentiated knowledge bases....

  20. Applying lean thinking in construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remon Fayek Aziz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The productivity of the construction industry worldwide has been declining over the past 40 years. One approach for improving the situation is using lean construction. Lean construction results from the application of a new form of production management to construction. Essential features of lean construction include a clear set of objectives for the delivery process, aimed at maximizing performance for the customer at the project level, concurrent design, construction, and the application of project control throughout the life cycle of the project from design to delivery. An increasing number of construction academics and professionals have been storming the ramparts of conventional construction management in an effort to deliver better value to owners while making real profits. As a result, lean-based tools have emerged and have been successfully applied to simple and complex construction projects. In general, lean construction projects are easier to manage, safer, completed sooner, and cost less and are of better quality. Significant research remains to complete the translation to construction of lean thinking in Egypt. This research will discuss principles, methods, and implementation phases of lean construction showing the waste in construction and how it could be minimized. The Last Planner System technique, which is an important application of the lean construction concepts and methodologies and is more prevalent, proved that it could enhance the construction management practices in various aspects. Also, it is intended to develop methodology for process evaluation and define areas for improvement based on lean approach principles.

  1. Fermat principle for a nonstationary medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronovich, A G; Godin, O A

    2003-07-25

    One possible formulation of a variational principle of the Fermat type for systems with time-dependent parameters is suggested. In a stationary case, it reduces to the Mopertui-Lagrange least-action principle. A class of Hamiltonians (dispersion relations) is indicated, for which the variational principle reduces to the Fermat principle in a general nonstationary case. Hamiltonians that are homogeneous functions of momenta are in this category. For the important case of nondispersive waves (corresponding to Hamiltonians being homogeneous function of momenta order 1) the Fermat principle fully determines the geometry of the rays. Equations relating the variation of signal frequency with the rate of change of propagation time are established.

  2. Genetic characterization of UCS region of Pneumocystis jirovecii and construction of allelic profiles of Indian isolates based on sequence typing at three regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rashmi; Mirdha, Bijay Ranjan; Guleria, Randeep; Kumar, Lalit; Luthra, Kalpana; Agarwal, Sanjay Kumar; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla

    2013-01-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii is an opportunistic pathogen that causes severe pneumonia in immunocompromised patients. To study the genetic diversity of P. jirovecii in India the upstream conserved sequence (UCS) region of Pneumocystis genome was amplified, sequenced and genotyped from a set of respiratory specimens obtained from 50 patients with a positive result for nested mitochondrial large subunit ribosomal RNA (mtLSU rRNA) PCR during the years 2005-2008. Of these 50 cases, 45 showed a positive PCR for UCS region. Variations in the tandem repeats in UCS region were characterized by sequencing all the positive cases. Of the 45 cases, one case showed five repeats, 11 cases showed four repeats, 29 cases showed three repeats and four cases showed two repeats. By running amplified DNA from all these cases on a high-resolution gel, mixed infection was observed in 12 cases (26.7%, 12/45). Forty three of 45 cases included in this study had previously been typed at mtLSU rRNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region by our group. In the present study, the genotypes at those two regions were combined with UCS repeat patterns to construct allelic profiles of 43 cases. A total of 36 allelic profiles were observed in 43 isolates indicating high genetic variability. A statistically significant association was observed between mtLSU rRNA genotype 1, ITS type Ea and UCS repeat pattern 4. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Electronic structures and optical properties of wurtzite type LiBSe2 (B=Al, Ga, In): A first-principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Longhua; Li Junqian; Wu Liming

    2008-01-01

    The electronic structures of three wurtzite type isostructural compounds LiBSe 2 (B=Al, Ga, In) are studied by the density functional theory (DFT). The results reveal that the presence of Li cations has direct influence on neither the band gaps (Eg) nor the bonding levels, but plays an important role in the stabilization of the structures. The band structures and densities of states (DOS) are analyzed in detail, and the band gaps of LiBSe 2 adhere to the following trend Eg (LiAlSe2) >Eg (LiGaSe2) >Eg (LiInSe2) , which is in agreement with the decrease of the bond energy of the corresponding Se 4p-B s antibonding orbitals. The role of the active s electrons of B element on the band gaps is also discussed. Finally, the optical properties are predicted, and the results would be a guide to understand the experiments. - Graphical abstract: The electronic structures and optical properties of wurtzite type LiBSe 2 (B=Al, Ga, In) have been studied by the DFT calculations. And the correlation of the electronegative of B element and the band gap decrease-trend are discussed. The comparison between different calculation methods and the experimental results is presented

  4. First-principles study of structural phase transition, electronic, elastic and thermodynamic properties of C15-type Laves phase TiCr2 under pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li-Zhi; Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Lin

    2018-02-01

    Phase transition of TiCr2 in C15 (MgCu2), C36 (MgNi2), C14 (MgZn2) structures have been studied by using the projector augmented wave method. It is found that C15-type is the most stable structure, which agrees with the results of Chen et al. At 0 K, the phase boundary of C15 to C36 is 207.79 GPa, and the phase transition from C36 to C14 is 265.61 GPa. Both the transition pressures decrease with increasing temperature. Phonon dispersion and elastic constants are calculated and found that C15-type TiCr2 is mechanically stable according to the elastic stability criteria and phonon dispersion analysis. Moreover, the pressure and temperature dependence of the specific heat, Debye temperature and thermal expansion coefficient are discussed, among them our calculated Debye temperature is consistent with the report of A. sari et al., however, it is far from the results of B. Mayer et al. and Chen et al.

  5. New type of in-gap states at a spinel/perovskite interface: combined resonant soft x-ray photoemission spectroscopy and first-principles study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, Vladislav; Schuetz, Philipp; Pfaff, Florian; Scheiderer, Philipp; Dudy, Lenart; Zapf, Michael; Gabel, Judith; Christensen, Dennis Valbjorn; Chen, Yunzhong; Pryds, Nini; Strocov, Vladimir; Rogalev, Victor; Schlueter, Christoph; Lee, Tien-Lin; Jeschke, Harald O.; Valenti, Roser; Sing, Michael; Claessen, Ralph

    Oxygen vacancies in oxide heterostructures create a plethora of electronic phenomena not observed in the stoichiometric systems. In this talk we will discuss the presence of a new type of in-gap states at the spinel/perovskite γ-Al2O3/SrTiO3 interface, as observed in soft x-ray resonant photoemission spectroscopy. Based on ab initio calculations and crystal-field analysis of different atomic environments, we identify the origin of this behavior and we argue on the possible origin of the extraordinarily high electron mobility measured in this heterostructure. This work was financially supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft SFB/TR 49 and SFB 1170.

  6. The Hot-gas screw-type engine - Simulation as a basis for construction. Pt. 3; Die Heissgasschraubenmaschine - simulationsgestuetzte Auslegung. T. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauder, K.; Unwerth, T. von [Dortmund Univ. (Germany). FG Fluidenergiemaschinen

    1998-12-31

    In this paper new results of the research regarding the design of the first experimental plant for a hot-gas screw-type machine are reported. Target of the development is the verification of operating behaviour as well as the thermal and mechanical behaviour of the screw-type motor parts. The selection and dimensioning of the plant components is described with a main focus on the construction of the thermally high-loaded hot-gas screw-type engine. Its manufacturing tolerances are based on simulations, with which the mechanical deformations of the rotors and the casing respective the resulting clearance-heights can be calculated. With inclusion of an efficient cooling method for the motor parts, for the, in the article documented, projected nominal working condition with a material-depending limit for the entrance temperature at {theta}{sub E,} {sub M}=600 C, a pressure ratio {pi}=6 and a male rotor peripheral speed u{sub HR}=120 ms{sup -1}, each rotor should be decreased by 0.07 mm. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wird ueber neue Forschungsergebnisse im Hinblick auf die konstruktive Realisierung der ersten Versuchsanlage einer Heissgasschraubenmaschine berichtet. Ziel der daran durchgefuehrten Untersuchungen ist die Verifikation des Betriebsverhaltens sowie des thermischen und mechanischen Bauteilverhaltens des Heissgasschraubenmotors. Nachzulesen ist die Auswahl und Dimensionierung der Anlagenkomponenten, wobei ein Hauptaugenmerk auf der Auslegung des thermisch hoch belasteten Schraubenmotors liegt. Dessen Dimensionierung liegen Simulationsrechnungen zugrunde, mit deren Hilfe die mechanischen Verformungen der Rotoren und des Gehaeuses respektive der daraus resultierenden Spalthoehen a priori angegeben werden koennen. Fuer den hier dokumentierten, angestrebten Nennbetriebszustand mit einer werkstoffbedingt begrenzten Motoreintrittstemperatur von {theta}{sub E,} {sub M}=600 C, einem Druckverhaeltnis von {pi}=6 und einer Hauptrotorumfangsgeschwindigkeit von u{sub HR}=120 ms

  7. Unifying principles in homodimeric type I photosynthetic reaction centers: properties of PscB and the FA, FB and FX iron-sulfur clusters in green sulfur bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannathan, Bharat; Golbeck, John H

    2008-12-01

    The photosynthetic reaction center from the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum (CbRC) was solubilized from membranes using Triton X-100 and isolated by sucrose density ultra-centrifugation. The CbRC complexes were subsequently treated with 0.5 M NaCl and ultrafiltered over a 100 kDa cutoff membrane. The resulting CbRC cores did not exhibit the low-temperature EPR resonances from FA- and FB- and were unable to reduce NADP+. SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometric analysis showed that the PscB subunit, which harbors the FA and FB clusters, had become dissociated, and was now present in the filtrate. Attempts to rebind PscB onto CbRC cores were unsuccessful. Mössbauer spectroscopy showed that recombinant PscB contains a heterogeneous mixture of [4Fe-4S]2+,1+ and other types of Fe/S clusters tentatively identified as [2Fe-2S]2+,1+ clusters and rubredoxin-like Fe3+,2+ centers, and that the [4Fe-4S]2+,1+ clusters which were present were degraded at high ionic strength. Quantitative analysis confirmed that the amount of iron and sulfide in the recombinant protein was sub-stoichiometric. A heme-staining assay indicated that cytochrome c551 remained firmly attached to the CbRC cores. Low-temperature EPR spectroscopy of photoaccumulated CbRC complexes and CbRC cores showed resonances between g=5.4 and 4.4 assigned to a S=3/2 ground spin state [4Fe-4S]1+ cluster and at g=1.77 assigned to a S=1/2 ground spin state [4Fe-4S]1+ cluster, both from FX-. These results unify the properties of the acceptor side of the Type I homodimeric reaction centers found in green sulfur bacteria and heliobacteria: in both, the FA and FB iron-sulfur clusters are present on a salt-dissociable subunit, and FX is present as an interpolypeptide [4Fe-4S]2+,1+ cluster with a significant population in a S=3/2 ground spin state.

  8. Design Principles for Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    For many years mechanical and natural ventilation systems have developed separately. Naturally, the next step in this development is the development of ventilation concepts that utilize and combine the best features from each system to create a new type of ventilation system -Hybrid Ventilation. ....... The hybrid ventilation concepts, design challenges and - principles are discussed and illustrated by four building examples....

  9. Principles of modern radar systems

    CERN Document Server

    Carpentier, Michel H

    1988-01-01

    Introduction to random functions ; signal and noise : the ideal receiver ; performance of radar systems equipped with ideal receivers ; analysis of the operating principles of some types of radar ; behavior of real targets, fluctuation of targets ; angle measurement using radar ; data processing of radar information, radar coverage ; applications to electronic scanning antennas to radar ; introduction to Hilbert spaces.

  10. Detection and characterization of recombinant DNA expressing vip3A-type insecticidal gene in GMOs--standard single, multiplex and construct-specific PCR assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Chandra K; Ojha, Abhishek; Bhatanagar, Raj K; Kachru, Devendra N

    2008-01-01

    Vegetative insecticidal protein (Vip), a unique class of insecticidal protein, is now part of transgenic plants for conferring resistance against lepidopteron pests. In order to address the imminent regulatory need for detection and labeling of vip3A carrying genetically modified (GM) products, we have developed a standard single PCR and a multiplex PCR assay. As far as we are aware, this is the first report on PCR-based detection of a vip3A-type gene (vip-s) in transgenic cotton and tobacco. Our assay involves amplification of a 284-bp region of the vip-s gene. This assay can possibly detect as many as 20 natural wild-type isolates bearing a vip3A-like gene and two synthetic genes of vip3A in transgenic plants. The limit of detection as established by our assay for GM trait (vip-s) is 0.1%. Spiking with nontarget DNA originating from diverse plant sources had no inhibitory effect on vip-s detection. Since autoclaving of vip-s bearing GM leaf samples showed no deterioration/interference in detection efficacy, the assay seems to be suitable for processed food products as well. The vip-s amplicon identity was reconfirmed by restriction endonuclease assay. The primer set for vip-s was equally effective in a multiplex PCR assay format (duplex, triplex and quadruplex), used in conjunction with the primer sets for the npt-II selectable marker gene, Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and nopaline synthetase terminator, enabling concurrent detection of the transgene, regulatory sequences and marker gene. Further, the entire transgene construct was amplified using the forward primer of the promoter and the reverse primer of the terminator. The resultant amplicon served as a template for nested PCR to confirm the construct integrity. The method is suitable for screening any vip3A-carrying GM plant and food. The availability of a reliable PCR assay method prior to commercial release of vip3A-based transgenic crops and food would facilitate rapid and efficient regulatory

  11. Energy principle with global invariants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharjee, A.; Dewar, R.L.

    1981-04-01

    A variational principle is proposed for constructing equilibria with minimum energy in a toroidal plasma. The total energy is minimized subject to global invariants which act as constraints during relaxation of the plasma. These global integrals of motion are preserved exactly for all idea motions and approximately for a wide class of resistive motions. We assume, specifically, that relaxation of the plasma is dominated by a tearing mode of single helicity. Equilibria with realistic current density and pressure profiles may be constructed in this theory, which is also used here to study current penetration in tokamaks. The second variation of the free energy functional is computed. It is shown that if the second variation of any equilibrium constructed in this theory is positive, the equilibrium satisfies the necessary and sufficient conditions for ideal stability

  12. Principles of asymmetric synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Gawley, Robert E; Aube, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    The world is chiral. Most of the molecules in it are chiral, and asymmetric synthesis is an important means by which enantiopure chiral molecules may be obtained for study and sale. Using examples from the literature of asymmetric synthesis, this book presents a detailed analysis of the factors that govern stereoselectivity in organic reactions. After an explanation of the basic physical-organic principles governing stereoselective reactions, the authors provide a detailed, annotated glossary of stereochemical terms. A chapter on "Practical Aspects of Asymmetric Synthesis" provides a critical overview of the most common methods for the preparation of enantiomerically pure compounds, techniques for analysis of stereoisomers using chromatographic, spectroscopic, and chiroptical methods. The authors then present an overview of the most important methods in contemporary asymmetric synthesis organized by reaction type. Thus, there are four chapters on carbon-carbon bond forming reactions, one chapter on reductions...

  13. Construction and growth properties of bovine herpesvirus type 5 recombinants defective in the glycoprotein E or thymidine kinase gene or both

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C.S. Brum

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5 is an important pathogen of cattle in South America. We describe here the construction and characterization of deletion mutants defective in the glycoprotein E (gE or thymidine kinase (TK gene or both (gE/TK from a highly neurovirulent and well-characterized Brazilian BoHV-5 strain (SV507/99. A gE-deleted recombinant virus (BoHV-5 gE∆ was first generated in which the entire gE open reading frame was replaced with a chimeric green fluorescent protein gene. A TK-deleted recombinant virus (BoHV-5 TK∆ was then generated in which most of the TK open reading frame sequences were deleted and replaced with a chimeric β-galactosidase gene. Subsequently, using the BoHV-5 gE∆ virus as backbone, a double gene-deleted (TK plus gE BoHV-5 recombinant (BoHV-5 gE/TK∆ was generated. The deletion of the gE and TK genes was confirmed by immunoblotting and PCR, respectively. In Madin Darby bovine kidney (MDBK cells, the mutants lacking gE (BoHV-5 gE∆ and TK + gE (BoHV-5 gE/TK∆ produced small plaques while the TK-deleted BoHV-5 produced wild-type-sized plaques. The growth kinetics and virus yields in MDBK cells for all three recombinants (BoHV-5 gE∆, BoHV-5 TK∆ and BoHV-5 gE/TK∆ were similar to those of the parental virus. It is our belief that the dual gene-deleted recombinant (BoHV-5 gE/TK∆ produced on the background of a highly neurovirulent Brazilian BoHV-5 strain may have potential application in a vaccine against BoHV-5.

  14. Constructed Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    these systems can improve water quality, engineers and scientists construct systems that replicate the functions of natural wetlands. Constructed wetlands are treatment systems that use natural processes

  15. Construction of a dead-end type micro- to R.O. membrane test cell and performance test with the laboratory- made and commercial membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darunee Bhongsuwan

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available A dead-end type membrane stirred cell for an RO filtration test has been designed and constructed. Magnetic stirring system is applied to overcome a pressure-induced concentration polarization occurred over a membrane surface in the test cell. A high pressure N2 tank is used as a pressure source.Feed container is designed for 2.5 l feed solution and a stirred cell volume is 0.5 l . The test cell holds a magnetic stirrer freely moved over the membrane surface. All units are made of stainless steel. A porous SS316L disc is used as a membrane support. The dead-end stirred cell is tested to work properly in an operating pressure ranged 0 - 400 psi. It means that the dead-end cell can be used to test a membrane of different filtration modes, from micro- to Reverse Osmosis filtration. Tests performed at 400 psi for 3 hours are safe but tests at a 500 psi increase leakage possibility. The cell is used to test the performance of both commercial and laboratory-made membranes. It shows that the salt rejection efficiency of the nano- and RO membranes, NTR759HR and LES90, determined by using the new test cell, is closely similar to those reported from the manufacture. Result of the tests for our own laboratory-made membrane shows a similar performance to the nanofiltration membrane LES90.

  16. Hybrid structure in civil engineering construction. Composite types of steel and concrete; Doboku bun`ya ni okeru fukugo kozo. Kozai to concrete no ittai keishiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, T. [JR Railway Technical Research Inst. Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-03-30

    In connection with hybrid structures in civil engineering construction, classification and application of composite types of steel and concrete are discussed. H steel embedded beam is a composite beam in which the H shape steel of the main beam is connected to rolled or welded H shape steel using cross beams. Composite structure columns are grouped into the composite column and the steel pipe concrete column. SRC piers are often adopted from the viewpoints of constraints for execution of works and vibration proof. Steel and concrete hybrid structure is a kind of structural system in which various kinds of materials such as steel, RC, or PC members are connected. The cable stayed bridge utilizes characteristics of steel and concrete effectively. For the piers of municipal expressway viaducts, there are executed cases of mixed structures which have RC, SRC columns for T shape piers and S structure for the bridges. SRC structure and composite columns are adopted often for structures of subway stations. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Principles and applications of tribology

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Desmond F

    1975-01-01

    Principles and Applications of Tribology provides a mechanical engineering perspective of the fundamental understanding and applications of tribology. This book is organized into two parts encompassing 16 chapters that cover the principles of friction and different types of lubrication. Chapter 1 deals with the immense scope of tribology and the range of applications in the existing technology, and Chapter 2 is devoted entirely to the evaluation and measurement of surface texture. Chapters 3 to 5 present the fundamental concepts underlying the friction of metals, elastomers, and other material

  18. Principlism and its alleged competitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Tom L

    1995-09-01

    Principles that provide general normative frameworks in bioethics have been criticized since the late 1980s, when several different methods and types of moral philosophy began to be proposed as alternatives or substitutes. Several accounts have emerged in recent years, including: (1) Impartial Rule Theory (supported in this issue by K. Danner Clouser), (2) Casuistry (supported in this issue by Albert Jonsen), and (3) Virtue Ethics (supported in this issue by Edmund D. Pellegrino). Although often presented as rival methods or theories, these approaches are consistent with and should not be considered adversaries of a principle-based account.

  19. HITACHI construction CAE system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, M.

    1994-01-01

    Construction and maintenance of nuclear power plants have important problems such as shortening the construction period and reducing the construction cost. Recently, the problem of insufficient construction labor has arisen, and as drastic strategic development has become a necessary counter-measure. The following four principles are included in the measures to be taken for efficient execution of the construction work within the short construction period: (1) reduction of on-site work and expansion of module block making, (2)improvement of the accuracy of the on-site work process, adjustment and expansion of the work in parallel with the construction process, (3)improvement of efficiency of the on-site work and mechanization and automation of the work, (4)improvement of the accuracy of the management of the construction. A three dimensional simulation system plant construction plan CAE, comprising five modules has been developed. A project management system was also developed to improve the accuracy and efficiency of management work in the field

  20. Radiation protection principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail Bahari

    2007-01-01

    The presentation outlines the aspects of radiation protection principles. It discussed the following subjects; radiation hazards and risk, the objectives of radiation protection, three principles of the system - justification of practice, optimization of protection and safety, dose limit

  1. The certainty principle (review)

    OpenAIRE

    Arbatsky, D. A.

    2006-01-01

    The certainty principle (2005) allowed to conceptualize from the more fundamental grounds both the Heisenberg uncertainty principle (1927) and the Mandelshtam-Tamm relation (1945). In this review I give detailed explanation and discussion of the certainty principle, oriented to all physicists, both theorists and experimenters.

  2. Quantum Action Principle with Generalized Uncertainty Principle

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Jie

    2013-01-01

    One of the common features in all promising candidates of quantum gravity is the existence of a minimal length scale, which naturally emerges with a generalized uncertainty principle, or equivalently a modified commutation relation. Schwinger's quantum action principle was modified to incorporate this modification, and was applied to the calculation of the kernel of a free particle, partly recovering the result previously studied using path integral.

  3. Construction management

    CERN Document Server

    Pellicer, Eugenio; Teixeira, José C; Moura, Helder P; Catalá, Joaquín

    2014-01-01

    The management of construction projects is a wide ranging and challenging discipline in an increasingly international industry, facing continual challenges and demands for improvements in safety, in quality and cost control, and in the avoidance of contractual disputes. Construction Management grew out of a Leonardo da Vinci project to develop a series of Common Learning Outcomes for European Managers in Construction. Financed by the European Union, the project aimed to develop a library of basic materials for developing construction management skills for use in a pan-European context. Focused exclusively on the management of the construction phase of a building project from the contractor's point of view, Construction Management covers the complete range of topics of which mastery is required by the construction management professional for the effective delivery of new construction projects. With the continued internationalisation of the construction industry, Construction Management will be required rea...

  4. Synthesis and first-principle calculations of the structural and electronic properties of Ge-substituted type-VIII Ba{sub 8}Ga{sub 16}Sn{sub 30} clathrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Lanxian [Education Ministry Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy Advanced Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Yunnan Provincial Renewable Energy Engineering Key Lab, Solar Energy Research Institution, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650500 (China); Li, Decong [College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Yunnan Open University, Kunming 650500 (China); Liu, Hongxia; Liu, Zuming [Education Ministry Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy Advanced Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Yunnan Provincial Renewable Energy Engineering Key Lab, Solar Energy Research Institution, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650500 (China); Deng, Shukang, E-mail: skdeng@126.com [Education Ministry Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy Advanced Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Yunnan Provincial Renewable Energy Engineering Key Lab, Solar Energy Research Institution, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650500 (China)

    2016-12-01

    In this study, the structural and electronic structural properties of Ba{sub 8}Ga{sub 16}Sn{sub 30−x}Ge{sub x} (0≤x≤30) are determined by the first-principle method on the basis of density functional theory. Consistent with experimental findings, calculated results reveal that Ge atoms preferentially occupy the 2a and 24g sites in these compounds. As the content of Ge in Ge-substituted clathrate is increased, the lattice parameter is decreased, and the structural stability is enhanced. The bandgaps of the compound at 1≤x≤10 are smaller than those of Ba{sub 8}Ga{sub 16}Sn{sub 30}. By contrast, the bandgaps of the compound at x>10 are larger than those of Ba{sub 8}Ga{sub 16}Sn{sub 30}. The substitution of Ge for Sn affects p-type conductivity but not n-type conductivity. As Ge content increases, the whole conduction band moves to the direction of high energy, and the density of states of valence-band top decreases. The calculated potential energy versus displacement of Ba indicates that the vibration energy of this atom increases as cage size decreases. Because Ge substitution also affects clathrate structural symmetry, the distance of Ba atom deviation from the center of the cage initially increases and subsequently decreases as the Ge content increases.

  5. On Parseval Wavelet Frames with Two or Three Generators via the Unitary Extension Principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Kim, Hong Oh; Kim, Rae Young

    2014-01-01

    The unitary extension principle (UEP) by A. Ron and Z. Shen yields a sufficient condition for the construction of Parseval wavelet frames with multiple generators. In this paper we characterize the UEP-type wavelet systems that can be extended to a Parseval wavelet frame by adding just one UEP......-type wavelet system. We derive a condition that is necessary for the extension of a UEP-type wavelet system to any Parseval wavelet frame with any number of generators and prove that this condition is also sufficient to ensure that an extension with just two generators is possible....

  6. Dimensional cosmological principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, L.K.

    1985-01-01

    The dimensional cosmological principles proposed by Wesson require that the density, pressure, and mass of cosmological models be functions of the dimensionless variables which are themselves combinations of the gravitational constant, the speed of light, and the spacetime coordinates. The space coordinate is not the comoving coordinate. In this paper, the dimensional cosmological principle and the dimensional perfect cosmological principle are reformulated by using the comoving coordinate. The dimensional perfect cosmological principle is further modified to allow the possibility that mass creation may occur. Self-similar spacetimes are found to be models obeying the new dimensional cosmological principle

  7. Derivation of GFDM Based on OFDM Principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussein Moradi; Behrouz Farhang-Boroujeny

    2015-06-01

    This paper starts with discussing the principle based on which the celebrated orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signals are constructed. It then extends the same principle to construct the newly introduced generalized frequency division multiplexing (GFDM) signals. This novel derivation sheds light on some interesting properties of GFDM. In particular, our derivation seamlessly leads to an implementation of GFDM transmitter which has significantly lower complexity than what has been reported so far. Our derivation also facilitates a trivial understanding of how GFDM (similar to OFDM) can be applied in MIMO channels.

  8. Application of the Double-Tangent Construction of Coexisting Phases to Any Type of Phase Equilibrium for Binary Systems Modeled with the Gamma-Phi Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaubert, Jean-Noël; Privat, Romain

    2014-01-01

    The double-tangent construction of coexisting phases is an elegant approach to visualize all the multiphase binary systems that satisfy the equality of chemical potentials and to select the stable state. In this paper, we show how to perform the double-tangent construction of coexisting phases for binary systems modeled with the gamma-phi…

  9. Cognitive Principles in Metonymic Headlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena S. Milkevich

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on metonymy as a linguistic device. Traditionally metonymy is considered within the domain of stylistics. However, methods of cognitive linguistics help to penetrate into the essence of language phenomena and explain their nature as part f more general process of human cognition. Cognitive linguistics puts forward the hypothesis that the use of metonymy is governed by cognitive principles. They are based on our experience, perception and culture. The article presents a study of metonymy in political headlines and analyses the application of cognitive principles to metonymy. We analyse the cases of metonymy presented by proper nouns geographical names such as names of countries, capital, continents. We come to the conclusion that the concept «COUNTRY» is the metonymic vehicle in three types of models: most frequent types of metonymy are: «COUNTRY FOR ITS GOVERNMENT», «COUNTRY FOR EVENT» and «COUNTRY FOR ACTION». The concept «COUNTRY» can also be the target in metonymy types «CAPITAL FOR COUNTRY» and «CONTINENT FOR COUNTRIES». The leading cognitive principles in such types of metonymic relationships are: based on human experience «CONCRETE OVER ABSTRACT», «INERACTIONAL OVER NON-INTERACTIONAL»; based on perceptual selectivity «DOMINANT OVER LESS DOMINANT», «MORE OVER LESS»; based on cultural preference «CENTRAL OVER PERIPHERAL», «MORE IMPORTANT OVER LESS IMPORTANT».

  10. The nonholonomic variational principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupkova, Olga [Department of Algebra and Geometry, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, Tomkova 40, 779 00 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Department of Mathematics, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria 3086 (Australia)], E-mail: krupkova@inf.upol.cz

    2009-05-08

    A variational principle for mechanical systems and fields subject to nonholonomic constraints is found, providing Chetaev-reduced equations as equations for extremals. Investigating nonholonomic variations of the Chetaev type and their properties, we develop foundations of the calculus of variations on constraint manifolds, modelled as fibred submanifolds in jet bundles. This setting is appropriate to study general first-order 'nonlinear nonitegrable constraints' that locally are given by a system of first-order ordinary or partial differential equations. We obtain an invariant constrained first variation formula and constrained Euler-Lagrange equations both in intrinsic and coordinate forms, and show that the equations are the same as Chetaev equations 'without Lagrange multipliers', introduced recently by other methods. We pay attention to two possible settings: first, when the constrained system arises from an unconstrained Lagrangian system defined in a neighbourhood of the constraint, and second, more generally, when an 'internal' constrained system on the constraint manifold is given. In the latter case a corresponding unconstrained system need not be a Lagrangian, nor even exist. We also study in detail an important particular case: nonholonomic constraints that can be alternatively modelled by means of (co)distributions in the total space of the fibred manifold; in nonholonomic mechanics this happens whenever constraints affine in velocities are considered. It becomes clear that (and why) if the distribution is completely integrable (= the constraints are semiholonomic), the principle of virtual displacements holds and can be used to obtain the constrained first variational formula by a more or less standard procedure, traditionally used when unconstrained or holonomic systems are concerned. If, however, the constraint is nonintegrable, no significant simplifications are available. Among others, some properties of nonholonomic

  11. Fault Management Guiding Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Marilyn E.; Friberg, Kenneth H.; Fesq, Lorraine; Barley, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    Regardless of the mission type: deep space or low Earth orbit, robotic or human spaceflight, Fault Management (FM) is a critical aspect of NASA space missions. As the complexity of space missions grows, the complexity of supporting FM systems increase in turn. Data on recent NASA missions show that development of FM capabilities is a common driver for significant cost overruns late in the project development cycle. Efforts to understand the drivers behind these cost overruns, spearheaded by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD), indicate that they are primarily caused by the growing complexity of FM systems and the lack of maturity of FM as an engineering discipline. NASA can and does develop FM systems that effectively protect mission functionality and assets. The cost growth results from a lack of FM planning and emphasis by project management, as well the maturity of FM as an engineering discipline, which lags behind the maturity of other engineering disciplines. As a step towards controlling the cost growth associated with FM development, SMD has commissioned a multi-institution team to develop a practitioner's handbook representing best practices for the end-to-end processes involved in engineering FM systems. While currently concentrating primarily on FM for science missions, the expectation is that this handbook will grow into a NASA-wide handbook, serving as a companion to the NASA Systems Engineering Handbook. This paper presents a snapshot of the principles that have been identified to guide FM development from cradle to grave. The principles range from considerations for integrating FM into the project and SE organizational structure, the relationship between FM designs and mission risk, and the use of the various tools of FM (e.g., redundancy) to meet the FM goal of protecting mission functionality and assets.

  12. System principles, mathematical models and methods to ensure high reliability of safety systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslavskyi, V.

    2017-04-01

    Modern safety and security systems are composed of a large number of various components designed for detection, localization, tracking, collecting, and processing of information from the systems of monitoring, telemetry, control, etc. They are required to be highly reliable in a view to correctly perform data aggregation, processing and analysis for subsequent decision making support. On design and construction phases of the manufacturing of such systems a various types of components (elements, devices, and subsystems) are considered and used to ensure high reliability of signals detection, noise isolation, and erroneous commands reduction. When generating design solutions for highly reliable systems a number of restrictions and conditions such as types of components and various constrains on resources should be considered. Various types of components perform identical functions; however, they are implemented using diverse principles, approaches and have distinct technical and economic indicators such as cost or power consumption. The systematic use of different component types increases the probability of tasks performing and eliminates the common cause failure. We consider type-variety principle as an engineering principle of system analysis, mathematical models based on this principle, and algorithms for solving optimization problems of highly reliable safety and security systems design. Mathematical models are formalized in a class of two-level discrete optimization problems of large dimension. The proposed approach, mathematical models, algorithms can be used for problem solving of optimal redundancy on the basis of a variety of methods and control devices for fault and defects detection in technical systems, telecommunication networks, and energy systems.

  13. EL PRINCIPIO DE CAPACIDAD ECONÓMICA COMO PRINCIPIO JURÍDICO MATERIAL DE LA TRIBUTACIÓN: SU ELABORACIÓN DOCTRINAL Y JURISPRUDENCIAL EN ESPAÑA The Principle of Ability to Pay as Juridical Tax Principle: Doctrinal and Jurisprudential Construction in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Masbernat Muñoz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo comunica acerca de la configuración normativa y la elaboración doctrinaria y jurisprudencial del principio de capacidad económica en España. El autor persigue dar a conocer en Chile una institución jurídica que es reconocida en los ordenamientos europeos y que constituye la base esencial sobre la cual se construyen sus sistemas tributarios, a objeto de que sea incorporada en Chile a través de una elaboración eórica propia a partir de los materiales normativos nacionales. Por lo anterior, el autor entrega fundamentos para justificar dicha incorporación y suministra elementos para adaptar este principio en el ordenamiento jurídico chileno. Las cuestiones contenidas en esta comunicación son amplias y complejas, propiamente se insertan en la teoría de los principios materiales de la tributación, y es la razón por la cual el autor construye su discurso a través de varios pasos independientes en una serie de artículos.The present paper communicates about the normative configuration and the doctrinal and jurisprudential elaboration of the principle of capacity to pay in Spain. The author seeks to make known in Chile a legal institution that is recognized in the European legal systems and which constitutes the essential basis of their tax systems, in order to be incorporated in Chile through an own theoretical elaboration on the basis of the national normative materials. By the previous thing, the author gives reasons to justify this incorporation and provides elements to adapt this principle in the Chilean legal order. The issues contained in this communication are vast and complex, they are inserted in the theory of the principles of tax justice, and is the reason for which the author builds his speech through several independent steps in a series of papers.

  14. The four variational principles of mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, C.G.; Karl, G.; Novikov, V.A.

    1996-01-01

    We argue that there are four basic forms of the variational principles of mechanics: Hamilton close-quote s least action principle (HP), the generalized Maupertuis principle (MP), and their two reciprocal principles, RHP and RMP. This set is invariant under reciprocity and Legendre transformations. One of these forms (HP) is in the literature: only special cases of the other three are known. The generalized MP has a weaker constraint compared to the traditional formulation, only the mean energy bar E is kept fixed between virtual paths. This reformulation of MP alleviates several weaknesses of the old version. The reciprocal Maupertuis principle (RMP) is the classical limit of Schroedinger close-quote s variational principle of quantum mechanics, and this connection emphasizes the importance of the reciprocity transformation for variational principles. Two unconstrained formulations (UHP and UMP) of these four principles are also proposed, with completely specified Lagrange multipliers Percival close-quote s variational principle for invariant tori and variational principles for scattering orbits are derived from the RMP. The RMP is very convenient for approximate variational solutions to problems in mechanics using Ritz type methods Examples are provided. Copyright copyright 1996 Academic Press, Inc

  15. Principle of accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki

    2007-01-01

    The principle of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is described mainly on technical aspects: hardware construction of AMS, measurement of isotope ratio, sensitivity of measurement (measuring limit), measuring accuracy, and application of data. The content may be summarized as follows: rare isotope (often long-lived radioactive isotope) can be detected by various use of the ion energy obtained by the acceleration of ions, a measurable isotope ratio is one of rare isotope to abundant isotopes, and a measured value of isotope ratio is uncertainty to true one. Such a fact must be kept in mind on the use of AMS data to application research. (M.H.)

  16. Evaluando el logro de los principios de la gestión de la calidad en empresas constructoras certificadas según ISO 9001:2000 Evaluating the attainment of quality management principles in construction companies certified by ISO 9001:2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Romero

    2007-12-01

    has been done in order to increase the level of satisfaction of their customers through the improvement of the quality of their constructive processes and the quality of the houses they build. Then, it is very important to construction companies to know if this investment has been as profitable as they hoped. A study was performed to determine the impact of QMSs on the performance of ISO 9001:2000 certified housing construction companies regarding the level of application of quality management's principles without considering the impact that can generate the implementation of other standards such as environmental management and risk prevention. The measuring instrument consisted of a survey applied as a personal interview, which was answered by 118 individuals from 11 Chilean housing construction companies; out of a total universe of 34 ISO 9001:2000 certified housing construction companies. These people gave their perceptions over the accomplishment of quality management's principles in their companies. The main conclusion of this study indicates that people perceive that quality management's principles are applied in an unsatisfactory way

  17. Principle and use of dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genet, S.; Ribaud, I.

    1997-01-01

    The institute of nuclear physics of Orsay is accepted by the Ministry of Labour to insure the surveillance of workers individual external exposure against the danger of ionizing radiations and to execute monitoring of radiation protection. The dosemeters studied in this report are the photographic film dosemeters ( for x rays, gamma rays and beta - rays), the trace detectors (fast neutrons) and the radio thermo luminescent dosemeters. For each type, the principle and how to use it are given. (N.C.)

  18. Site investigation SFR. Rock type coding, overview geological mapping and identification of rock units and possible deformation zones in drill cores from the construction of SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersson, Jesper (Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Stockholm (Sweden)); Curtis, Philip; Bockgaard, Niclas (Golder Associates AB (Sweden)); Mattsson, Haakan (GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden))

    2011-01-15

    This report presents the rock type coding, overview lithological mapping and identification of rock units and possible deformation zones in drill cores from 32 boreholes associated with the construction of SFR. This work can be seen as complementary to single-hole interpretations of other older SFR boreholes earlier reported in /Petersson and Andersson 2010/: KFR04, KFR08, KFR09, KFR13, KFR35, KFR36, KFR54, KFR55, KFR7A, KFR7B and KFR7C. Due to deficiencies in the available material, the necessary activities have deviated somewhat from the established methodologies used during the recent Forsmark site investigations for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The aim of the current work has been, wherever possible, to allow the incorporation of all relevant material from older boreholes in the ongoing SFR geological modelling work in spite of the deficiencies. The activities include: - Rock type coding of the original geological mapping according to the nomenclature used during the preceding Forsmark site investigation. As part of the Forsmark site investigation such rock type coding has already been performed on most of the old SFR boreholes if the original geological mapping results were available. This earlier work has been complemented by rock type coding on two further boreholes: KFR01 and KFR02. - Lithological overview mapping, including documentation of (1) rock types, (2) ductile and brittle-ductile deformation and (3) alteration for drill cores from eleven of the boreholes for which no original geological borehole mapping was available (KFR31, KFR32, KFR34, KFR37,KFR38, KFR51, KFR69, KFR70, KFR71, KFR72 and KFR89). - Identification of possible deformation zones and merging of similar rock types into rock units. This follows SKB's established criteria and methodology of the geological Single-hole interpretation (SHI) process wherever possible. Deviations from the standard SHI process are associated with the lack of data, for example BIPS images

  19. Site investigation SFR. Rock type coding, overview geological mapping and identification of rock units and possible deformation zones in drill cores from the construction of SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersson, Jesper; Curtis, Philip; Bockgaard, Niclas; Mattsson, Haakan

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the rock type coding, overview lithological mapping and identification of rock units and possible deformation zones in drill cores from 32 boreholes associated with the construction of SFR. This work can be seen as complementary to single-hole interpretations of other older SFR boreholes earlier reported in /Petersson and Andersson 2010/: KFR04, KFR08, KFR09, KFR13, KFR35, KFR36, KFR54, KFR55, KFR7A, KFR7B and KFR7C. Due to deficiencies in the available material, the necessary activities have deviated somewhat from the established methodologies used during the recent Forsmark site investigations for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The aim of the current work has been, wherever possible, to allow the incorporation of all relevant material from older boreholes in the ongoing SFR geological modelling work in spite of the deficiencies. The activities include: - Rock type coding of the original geological mapping according to the nomenclature used during the preceding Forsmark site investigation. As part of the Forsmark site investigation such rock type coding has already been performed on most of the old SFR boreholes if the original geological mapping results were available. This earlier work has been complemented by rock type coding on two further boreholes: KFR01 and KFR02. - Lithological overview mapping, including documentation of (1) rock types, (2) ductile and brittle-ductile deformation and (3) alteration for drill cores from eleven of the boreholes for which no original geological borehole mapping was available (KFR31, KFR32, KFR34, KFR37,KFR38, KFR51, KFR69, KFR70, KFR71, KFR72 and KFR89). - Identification of possible deformation zones and merging of similar rock types into rock units. This follows SKB's established criteria and methodology of the geological Single-hole interpretation (SHI) process wherever possible. Deviations from the standard SHI process are associated with the lack of data, for example BIPS images, or a

  20. Constructability and maintainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    A set of principles for minimizing the construction schedule was established at the outset of the CANDU 300 programme. Consideration of these principles and other factors led to the development of the unique CANDU 300 station layout. The paper discusses the CANDU 300 station layout and construction methods. In summary, the station layout provides 360 deg. construction access to all buildings, separation of nuclear and non-nuclear systems, precise and minimal physical interfaces between buildings, accommodation of many contractors and construction activities without interference, and maximum flexibility in terms of constructional, financial and supply arrangements. The CANDU 300 further employs modularization, shop fabrication and advanced instrumentation (multiplexers, remote processors, data highways) to minimize construction time. Many of the CANDU 300 features that enhance constructability also contribute to maintainability. These include the 360 deg. access to all principal buildings, the uncluttered and spacious building layouts, the simplification of systems and the high level of modularization. The CANDU 300 has also been designed to facilitate the replacement of all key components, thereby offering an essentially unlimited station life. A prime example is a reduction in the fuel channel inlet end-fitting diameter such that the fuel channels can be shop assembled and easily replaced after the initial 40 years of operation, without an extended unit outage. Maintainability within the reactor building has been given particular attention in the CANDU 300 design; key features of other CANDU reactors (the ability to replace a heat transport system pump motor at power, for example) have been incorporated, while accessibility and maintainability of all systems and components have been enhanced. These and other aspects of maintainability are discussed. (author)

  1. Electrochemical construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Harry; Grimes, Patrick G.

    1983-08-23

    An electrochemical cell construction features a novel co-extruded plastic electrode in an interleaved construction with a novel integral separator-spacer. Also featured is a leak and impact resistant construction for preventing the spill of corrosive materials in the event of rupture.

  2. Usability Constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Clemmesen, Torkil; Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren

    2007-01-01

    Whereas research on usability predominantly employs universal definitions of the aspects that comprise usability, people experience their use of information systems through personal constructs. Based on 48 repertory-grid interviews, this study investigates how such personal constructs are affected...... use of constructs traditionally associated with usability (e.g., easy-to-use, intuitive, and liked). Further analysis of the data is ongoing...

  3. Biomechanics principles and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, Donald R

    2014-01-01

    Presents Current Principles and ApplicationsBiomedical engineering is considered to be the most expansive of all the engineering sciences. Its function involves the direct combination of core engineering sciences as well as knowledge of nonengineering disciplines such as biology and medicine. Drawing on material from the biomechanics section of The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition and utilizing the expert knowledge of respected published scientists in the application and research of biomechanics, Biomechanics: Principles and Practices discusses the latest principles and applicat

  4. Fusion research principles

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Thomas James

    2013-01-01

    Fusion Research, Volume I: Principles provides a general description of the methods and problems of fusion research. The book contains three main parts: Principles, Experiments, and Technology. The Principles part describes the conditions necessary for a fusion reaction, as well as the fundamentals of plasma confinement, heating, and diagnostics. The Experiments part details about forty plasma confinement schemes and experiments. The last part explores various engineering problems associated with reactor design, vacuum and magnet systems, materials, plasma purity, fueling, blankets, neutronics

  5. First-principle investigations of K{sub 2}NiF{sub 4}-type double perovskite oxides La{sub 4}B′B″O{sub 8} (B′B″ = Fe, Co, Ni)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Hejie; Wei, Yingfen; Gui, Hong; Li, Xin; Zhao, Zhenjie, E-mail: zjzhao@phy.ecnu.edu.cn; Xie, Wenhui, E-mail: whxie@phy.ecnu.edu.cn [Engineering Research Center for Nanophotonics and Advanced Instrument, Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)

    2014-06-07

    The K{sub 2}NiF{sub 4}-type structure La{sub 4}CoNiO{sub 8} (LCNO), La{sub 4}FeCoO{sub 8} (LFCO), and La{sub 4}FeNiO{sub 8} (LFNO) are studied by using the first-principle electronic structure calculations. Our results indicate that the ground state of LCNO is a ferrimagnetism (FiM) with a large energy gap about 1.9 eV, LFCO and LFNO are antiferromagnetism with energy gaps about 1.3 and 1.4 eV, respectively. Their orthorhombic distortions, out-of-plane elongation, and tilting of octahedron are discussed. It is indicated that LFCO and LFNO have stronger crystal distortion than LCNO. Our calculations indicate that the in-plane magnetic exchange interaction of LCNO is much stronger than LFCO and LFNO, thus LCNO should have much higher magnetic ordering temperature than LFCO and LFNO.

  6. Database principles programming performance

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neil, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Database: Principles Programming Performance provides an introduction to the fundamental principles of database systems. This book focuses on database programming and the relationships between principles, programming, and performance.Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of database design principles and presents a comprehensive introduction to the concepts used by a DBA. This text then provides grounding in many abstract concepts of the relational model. Other chapters introduce SQL, describing its capabilities and covering the statements and functions of the programmi

  7. Principles of ecotoxicology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walker, C. H

    2012-01-01

    "Now in its fourth edition, this exceptionally accessible text provides students with a multidisciplinary perspective and a grounding in the fundamental principles required for research in toxicology today...

  8. APPLYING THE PRINCIPLES OF ACCOUNTING IN

    OpenAIRE

    NAGY CRISTINA MIHAELA; SABĂU CRĂCIUN; ”Tibiscus” University of Timişoara, Faculty of Economic Science

    2015-01-01

    The application of accounting principles (accounting principle on accrual basis; principle of business continuity; method consistency principle; prudence principle; independence principle; the principle of separate valuation of assets and liabilities; intangibility principle; non-compensation principle; the principle of substance over form; the principle of threshold significance) to companies that are in bankruptcy procedure has a number of particularities. Thus, some principl...

  9. Passive solar construction handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

    1981-08-01

    Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. The unique design constraints presented in passive homes are introduced and many of the salient issues influencing design decisions are described briefly. Passive solar construction is described for each passive system type: direct gain, thermal storage wall, attached sunspace, thermal storage roof, and convective loop. For each system type, important design and construction issues are discussed and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type are presented. Construction details are given and construction and thermal performance information is given for the materials used in collector components, storage components, and control components. Included are glazing materials, framing systems, caulking and sealants, concrete masonry, concrete, brick, shading, reflectors, and insulators. The Load Collector Ratio method for estimating passive system performance is appended, and other analysis methods are briefly summarized. (LEW)

  10. The genetic difference principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, Colin

    2004-01-01

    In the newly emerging debates about genetics and justice three distinct principles have begun to emerge concerning what the distributive aim of genetic interventions should be. These principles are: genetic equality, a genetic decent minimum, and the genetic difference principle. In this paper, I examine the rationale of each of these principles and argue that genetic equality and a genetic decent minimum are ill-equipped to tackle what I call the currency problem and the problem of weight. The genetic difference principle is the most promising of the three principles and I develop this principle so that it takes seriously the concerns of just health care and distributive justice in general. Given the strains on public funds for other important social programmes, the costs of pursuing genetic interventions and the nature of genetic interventions, I conclude that a more lax interpretation of the genetic difference principle is appropriate. This interpretation stipulates that genetic inequalities should be arranged so that they are to the greatest reasonable benefit of the least advantaged. Such a proposal is consistent with prioritarianism and provides some practical guidance for non-ideal societies--that is, societies that do not have the endless amount of resources needed to satisfy every requirement of justice.

  11. The principle of equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unnikrishnan, C.S.

    1994-01-01

    Principle of equivalence was the fundamental guiding principle in the formulation of the general theory of relativity. What are its key elements? What are the empirical observations which establish it? What is its relevance to some new experiments? These questions are discussed in this article. (author). 11 refs., 5 figs

  12. The Dutch premium principle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heerwaarden, A.E.; Kaas, R.

    1992-01-01

    A premium principle is derived, in which the loading for a risk is the reinsurance loading for an excess-of-loss cover. It is shown that the principle is well-behaved in the sense that it results in larger premiums for risks that are larger in stop-loss order or in stochastic dominance.

  13. A new computing principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatmi, H.A.; Resconi, G.

    1988-01-01

    In 1954 while reviewing the theory of communication and cybernetics the late Professor Dennis Gabor presented a new mathematical principle for the design of advanced computers. During our work on these computers it was found that the Gabor formulation can be further advanced to include more recent developments in Lie algebras and geometric probability, giving rise to a new computing principle

  14. The anthropic principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    The anthropic principle (the conjecture that certain features of the world are determined by the existence of Man) is discussed with the listing of the objections, and is stated that nearly all the constants of nature may be determined by the anthropic principle which does not give exact values for the constants but only their orders of magnitude. (J.T.)

  15. Mach's holographic principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoury, Justin; Parikh, Maulik

    2009-01-01

    Mach's principle is the proposition that inertial frames are determined by matter. We put forth and implement a precise correspondence between matter and geometry that realizes Mach's principle. Einstein's equations are not modified and no selection principle is applied to their solutions; Mach's principle is realized wholly within Einstein's general theory of relativity. The key insight is the observation that, in addition to bulk matter, one can also add boundary matter. Given a space-time, and thus the inertial frames, we can read off both boundary and bulk stress tensors, thereby relating matter and geometry. We consider some global conditions that are necessary for the space-time to be reconstructible, in principle, from bulk and boundary matter. Our framework is similar to that of the black hole membrane paradigm and, in asymptotically anti-de Sitter space-times, is consistent with holographic duality.

  16. Variational principles in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Basdevant, Jean-Louis

    2007-01-01

    Optimization under constraints is an essential part of everyday life. Indeed, we routinely solve problems by striking a balance between contradictory interests, individual desires and material contingencies. This notion of equilibrium was dear to thinkers of the enlightenment, as illustrated by Montesquieu’s famous formulation: "In all magistracies, the greatness of the power must be compensated by the brevity of the duration." Astonishingly, natural laws are guided by a similar principle. Variational principles have proven to be surprisingly fertile. For example, Fermat used variational methods to demonstrate that light follows the fastest route from one point to another, an idea which came to be known as Fermat’s principle, a cornerstone of geometrical optics. Variational Principles in Physics explains variational principles and charts their use throughout modern physics. The heart of the book is devoted to the analytical mechanics of Lagrange and Hamilton, the basic tools of any physicist. Prof. Basdev...

  17. Construction mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Virdi, Surinder; Virdi, Narinder Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Construction Mathematics is an introductory level mathematics text, written specifically for students of construction and related disciplines. Learn by tackling exercises based on real-life construction maths. Examples include: costing calculations, labour costs, cost of materials and setting out of building components. Suitable for beginners and easy to follow throughout. Learn the essential basic theory along with the practical necessities. The second edition of this popular textbook is fully updated to match new curricula, and expanded to include even more learning exercises. End of chapter exercises cover a range of theoretical as well as practical problems commonly found in construction practice, and three detailed assignments based on practical tasks give students the opportunity to apply all the knowledge they have gained. Construction Mathematics addresses all the mathematical requirements of Level 2 construction NVQs from City & Guilds/CITB and Edexcel courses, including the BTEC First Diploma in...

  18. Principle of least action; some possible generalizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broucke, R.

    1982-01-01

    In this article we draw the attention to an important variational principle in dynamics: the Maupertuis-Jacobi Least Action Principle (MJLAP). This principle compares varied paths with the same energy h. We give two new proofs of the MJLAP (Sections 3 and 8) as well as a new unified variational principle which contains both Hamilton's Principle (HP) and the MJLAP as particular cases (Sections 4 and 9). The article also shows several new methods for the construction of a Lagrangian for a conservative dynamical system. As an example, we illustrate the theory with the classical Harmonic Oscillator Problem (Section 10). Our method is based on the theory of changes of independent variables in a dynamical system. It indirectly shows how a change of independent variable affects the self-adjointness of a dynamical system (Sections 5, 6, 7). Our new Lagrangians contain an arbitrary constant α, whose meaning needs to be studied, eventually in relation to the concepts of quantification or gauge transformations. The two important values of the constant α are 1 (Hamilton's principle) and 1/2 (Maupertuis-Jacobi Least Action Principle)

  19. FFTF constructibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, S.A.; Hulbert, D.I.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of the design criteria on the constructibility of the Fast Flux Test Facility is described. Specifically, the effects of requirements due to maintenance accessibility, inerting of cells, seismicity, codes, and standards are addressed. The design and construction techniques developed to minimize the impact of the design criteria on cost and schedule are presented with particular emphasis on the cleanliness and humidity controls imposed during construction of the sodium systems. (U.S.)

  20. Air Force Construction Contract Disputes: An Analysis of Armed Services Board of Contract Appeals Cases to Identify Dispute Types and Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    IDirecting Work 7. DifrngSt 19. Laspector Improperly Conditions StpigWr 8. Changes in Zecs . -l 20. Fraud, Latent Defects, -I or Gross Errors 9. Challenges...1979. 346 11. Doyle, Peter G. "What the Contractor Expects of the Architect," Building Design and Construction, May 1978, pp. 94-9d. 12. "Exam Required

  1. Track formation. Principles and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnin, M.

    1978-01-01

    The principles and technical aspects of track formation in insulating solids are first described. The characteristics of dialectic track detection are discussed from the technical point of view: the nature of the detectors, the chemical treatment, the sensitivity and the environmental conditions of use. The applications are reviewed. The principle of each type of applied research is described and then the applications are listed. When used as a detector, nuclear tracks can provide valuable information in a number of fields: element content determination and wrapping, imaging, radiation dosimetry, environmental studies, technological uses and miscellaneous other applications. The track-formation process can also be used for making well-defined holes; this method allows other applications which are also described. Finally, some possible future applications are mentioned. (author)

  2. Prospective analysis of principles and frequency of self-adjustment of insulin dose in people with diabetes type 1 before and after participation in a diabetes treatment and teaching programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Guido; Kuniss, Nadine; Jörgens, Viktor; Lehmann, Thomas; Müller, Nicolle; Lorkowski, Stefan; Wolf, Gunter; Müller, Ulrich A; Kloos, Christof

    2016-09-01

    Insulin dose self-adjustment is an essential part of intensified insulin therapy - nowadays the routine treatment of type 1 diabetes (DM1). The aim of this study was to evaluate principles and frequency of insulin dose self-adjustments in people with DM1 before and one year after participating in a structured diabetes treatment and teaching programme (DTTP) and to determine to which extent the patients followed the way they had been trained. 72 people with DM1 were interviewed before participation in our inpatient (32/72) or outpatient (40/72) DTTP. Sixty-six participants (91.7%) were followed up after one year. The number of adaptations of the insulin dose by the patients was recorded from 28days of the patients' diary. The ability to find the correct dose was tested using five different examples. Metabolic control improved significantly after one year (7.9±1.0 to 7.5±0.8%, p=0.004). The participants performed 86.0±37.1 insulin dosage adaptations per 28days before the DTTP. After one year the frequency increased significantly to 99.1±30.7 per 28days (p=0.011). Before the DTTP, 42 of 72 patients (58.3%) adjusted their insulin dose to correct high blood glucose levels by adjustment rules (factor for correction or correction scheme) and 20 of 72 people (27.8%) by personal experience/feeling. One year after the DTTP, 73% (48/66) used adjustment rules. After participating in an structured education programme, patients adjusted their insulin dosage more frequently. Metabolic control improved despite the fact that many patients did not strictly apply the rules they had been trained for. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The underlying principles of relativistic theory of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logunov, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    The paper deals with the main statements of relativistic theory of gravitation, constructed in result of critical analysis of the general theory of relativity. The principle of geometrization is formulated

  4. Core principles of evolutionary medicine: A Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunspan, Daniel Z; Nesse, Randolph M; Barnes, M Elizabeth; Brownell, Sara E

    2018-01-01

    Evolutionary medicine is a rapidly growing field that uses the principles of evolutionary biology to better understand, prevent and treat disease, and that uses studies of disease to advance basic knowledge in evolutionary biology. Over-arching principles of evolutionary medicine have been described in publications, but our study is the first to systematically elicit core principles from a diverse panel of experts in evolutionary medicine. These principles should be useful to advance recent recommendations made by The Association of American Medical Colleges and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute to make evolutionary thinking a core competency for pre-medical education. The Delphi method was used to elicit and validate a list of core principles for evolutionary medicine. The study included four surveys administered in sequence to 56 expert panelists. The initial open-ended survey created a list of possible core principles; the three subsequent surveys winnowed the list and assessed the accuracy and importance of each principle. Fourteen core principles elicited at least 80% of the panelists to agree or strongly agree that they were important core principles for evolutionary medicine. These principles over-lapped with concepts discussed in other articles discussing key concepts in evolutionary medicine. This set of core principles will be helpful for researchers and instructors in evolutionary medicine. We recommend that evolutionary medicine instructors use the list of core principles to construct learning goals. Evolutionary medicine is a young field, so this list of core principles will likely change as the field develops further.

  5. Limitations of Boltzmann's principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavenda, B.H.

    1995-01-01

    The usual form of Boltzmann's principle assures that maximum entropy, or entropy reduction, occurs with maximum probability, implying a unimodal distribution. Boltzmann's principle cannot be applied to nonunimodal distributions, like the arcsine law, because the entropy may be concave only over a limited portion of the interval. The method of subordination shows that the arcsine distribution corresponds to a process with a single degree of freedom, thereby confirming the invalidation of Boltzmann's principle. The fractalization of time leads to a new distribution in which arcsine and Cauchy distributions can coexist simultaneously for nonintegral degrees of freedom between √2 and 2

  6. Biomedical engineering principles

    CERN Document Server

    Ritter, Arthur B; Valdevit, Antonio; Ascione, Alfred N

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Modeling of Physiological ProcessesCell Physiology and TransportPrinciples and Biomedical Applications of HemodynamicsA Systems Approach to PhysiologyThe Cardiovascular SystemBiomedical Signal ProcessingSignal Acquisition and ProcessingTechniques for Physiological Signal ProcessingExamples of Physiological Signal ProcessingPrinciples of BiomechanicsPractical Applications of BiomechanicsBiomaterialsPrinciples of Biomedical Capstone DesignUnmet Clinical NeedsEntrepreneurship: Reasons why Most Good Designs Never Get to MarketAn Engineering Solution in Search of a Biomedical Problem

  7. Modern electronic maintenance principles

    CERN Document Server

    Garland, DJ

    2013-01-01

    Modern Electronic Maintenance Principles reviews the principles of maintaining modern, complex electronic equipment, with emphasis on preventive and corrective maintenance. Unfamiliar subjects such as the half-split method of fault location, functional diagrams, and fault finding guides are explained. This book consists of 12 chapters and begins by stressing the need for maintenance principles and discussing the problem of complexity as well as the requirements for a maintenance technician. The next chapter deals with the connection between reliability and maintenance and defines the terms fai

  8. [Bioethics of principles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Soba Díez del Corral, Juan José

    2008-01-01

    Bioethics emerges about the tecnological problems of acting in human life. Emerges also the problem of the moral limits determination, because they seem exterior of this practice. The Bioethics of Principles, take his rationality of the teleological thinking, and the autonomism. These divergence manifest the epistemological fragility and the great difficulty of hmoralñ thinking. This is evident in the determination of autonomy's principle, it has not the ethical content of Kant's propose. We need a new ethic rationality with a new refelxion of new Principles whose emerges of the basic ethic experiences.

  9. Principles of dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, Rodney

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Dynamics presents classical dynamics primarily as an exemplar of scientific theory and method. This book is divided into three major parts concerned with gravitational theory of planetary systems; general principles of the foundations of mechanics; and general motion of a rigid body. Some of the specific topics covered are Keplerian Laws of Planetary Motion; gravitational potential and potential energy; and fields of axisymmetric bodies. The principles of work and energy, fictitious body-forces, and inertial mass are also looked into. Other specific topics examined are kinematics

  10. Hamilton's principle for beginners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, J L

    2007-01-01

    I find that students have difficulty with Hamilton's principle, at least the first time they come into contact with it, and therefore it is worth designing some examples to help students grasp its complex meaning. This paper supplies the simplest example to consolidate the learning of the quoted principle: that of a free particle moving along a line. Next, students are challenged to add gravity to reinforce the argument and, finally, a two-dimensional motion in a vertical plane is considered. Furthermore these examples force us to be very clear about such an abstract principle

  11. Developing principles of growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Fleck, Emma

    of the principles of growth among women-owned firms. Using an in-depth case study methodology, data was collected from women-owned firms in Denmark and Ireland, as these countries are similar in contextual terms, e.g. population and business composition, dominated by micro, small and medium-sized enterprises....... Extending on principles put forward in effectuation theory, we propose that women grow their firms according to five principles which enable women’s enterprises to survive in the face of crises such as the current financial world crisis....

  12. A cyclic symmetry principle in physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, H.S.; Adelaide Univ., SA

    1994-01-01

    Many areas of modern physics are illuminated by the application of a symmetry principle, requiring the invariance of the relevant laws of physics under a group of transformations. This paper examines the implications and some of the applications of the principle of cyclic symmetry, especially in the areas of statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics, including quantized field theory. This principle requires invariance under the transformations of a finite group, which may be a Sylow π-group, a group of Lie type, or a symmetric group. The utility of the principle of cyclic invariance is demonstrated in finding solutions of the Yang-Baxter equation that include and generalize known solutions. It is shown that the Sylow π-groups have other uses, in providing a basis for a type of generalized quantum statistics, and in parametrising a new generalization of Lie groups, with associated algebras that include quantized algebras. 31 refs

  13. Construction Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, James F.

    This article provides a detailed discussion of a team approach to building that involves a construction manager, an architect, and a contractor. Bidding methods are outlined; the major components in construction management -- value engineering and fast track scheduling -- and the use of performance specifications are discussed. The construction…

  14. Construction fraud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, J.J.; Liedekerke, L.; Dubbink, W.; van Liedekerke, L.; van Luijk, H.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the actions of a whistleblower The Netherlands was confronted with a massive case of construction fraud involving almost the entire construction sector. Price fixing, prior consulting, duplicate accounts, fictitious invoices and active corruption of civil servants were rampant practices. This

  15. Fundamental quadratic variational principle underlying general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkins, W.K.

    1983-01-01

    The fundamental result of Lanczos is used in a new type of quadratic variational principle whose field equations are the Einstein field equations together with the Yang-Mills type equations for the Riemann curvature. Additionally, a spin-2 theory of gravity for the special case of the Einstein vacuum is discussed

  16. Moderate deviations principles for the kernel estimator of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The aim of this paper is to provide pointwise and uniform moderate deviations principles for the kernel estimator of a nonrandom regression function. Moreover, we give an application of these moderate deviations principles to the construction of condence regions for the regression function. Resume. L'objectif de ...

  17. Principles of animal extrapolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calabrese, E.J.

    1991-01-01

    Animal Extrapolation presents a comprehensive examination of the scientific issues involved in extrapolating results of animal experiments to human response. This text attempts to present a comprehensive synthesis and analysis of the host of biomedical and toxicological studies of interspecies extrapolation. Calabrese's work presents not only the conceptual basis of interspecies extrapolation, but also illustrates how these principles may be better used in selection of animal experimentation models and in the interpretation of animal experimental results. The book's theme centers around four types of extrapolation: (1) from average animal model to the average human; (2) from small animals to large ones; (3) from high-risk animal to the high risk human; and (4) from high doses of exposure to lower, more realistic, doses. Calabrese attacks the issues of interspecies extrapolation by dealing individually with the factors which contribute to interspecies variability: differences in absorption, intestinal flora, tissue distribution, metabolism, repair mechanisms, and excretion. From this foundation, Calabrese then discusses the heterogeneticity of these same factors in the human population in an attempt to evaluate the representativeness of various animal models in light of interindividual variations. In addition to discussing the question of suitable animal models for specific high-risk groups and specific toxicological endpoints, the author also examines extrapolation questions related to the use of short-term tests to predict long-term human carcinogenicity and birth defects. The book is comprehensive in scope and specific in detail; for those environmental health professions seeking to understand the toxicological models which underlay health risk assessments, Animal Extrapolation is a valuable information source.

  18. "We Are a Chinese School": Constructing School Identity from the Lived Experiences of Expatriate and Chinese Teaching Faculty in a Type C International School in Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Adam

    2018-01-01

    This study explores school identity by analysing the perceptions of Chinese and expatriate teachers in a Type C, non-traditional international school in Shanghai, China. The purpose of this study was to build on Hayden's (2016) work by offering a detailed description of this type of school which continues to be under researched. A mixed-methods…

  19. Lean Construction Supply Chain : A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Jiamei

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to enhance the management of supply systems in construction industry using lean principles. This study is an attempt to identify what kind of activities causes’ construction process delay and how to perform lean concept into supply chain in practice. The objective is to assure on-time delivery of information and materials to construction sites at lowest cost and maximum value for the customer. These study problems have been analysed from a lean construction supply ch...

  20. Vaccinology: principles and practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrow, John

    2012-01-01

    ... principles to implementation. This is an authoritative textbook that details a comprehensive and systematic approach to the science of vaccinology focusing on not only basic science, but the many stages required to commercialize...

  1. On the invariance principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moller-Nielsen, Thomas [University of Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Physicists and philosophers have long claimed that the symmetries of our physical theories - roughly speaking, those transformations which map solutions of the theory into solutions - can provide us with genuine insight into what the world is really like. According to this 'Invariance Principle', only those quantities which are invariant under a theory's symmetries should be taken to be physically real, while those quantities which vary under its symmetries should not. Physicists and philosophers, however, are generally divided (or, indeed, silent) when it comes to explaining how such a principle is to be justified. In this paper, I spell out some of the problems inherent in other theorists' attempts to justify this principle, and sketch my own proposed general schema for explaining how - and when - the Invariance Principle can indeed be used as a legitimate tool of metaphysical inference.

  2. Principles of applied statistics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cox, D. R; Donnelly, Christl A

    2011-01-01

    .... David Cox and Christl Donnelly distil decades of scientific experience into usable principles for the successful application of statistics, showing how good statistical strategy shapes every stage of an investigation...

  3. Minimum entropy production principle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maes, C.; Netočný, Karel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 7 (2013), s. 9664-9677 ISSN 1941-6016 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : MINEP Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Minimum_entropy_production_principle

  4. Global ethics and principlism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John-Stewart

    2011-09-01

    This article examines the special relation between common morality and particular moralities in the four-principles approach and its use for global ethics. It is argued that the special dialectical relation between common morality and particular moralities is the key to bridging the gap between ethical universalism and relativism. The four-principles approach is a good model for a global bioethics by virtue of its ability to mediate successfully between universal demands and cultural diversity. The principle of autonomy (i.e., the idea of individual informed consent), however, does need to be revised so as to make it compatible with alternatives such as family- or community-informed consent. The upshot is that the contribution of the four-principles approach to global ethics lies in the so-called dialectical process and its power to deal with cross-cultural issues against the background of universal demands by joining them together.

  5. Ship construction and welding

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, Nisith R

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses various aspects of ship construction, from ship types and construction materials, to welding technologies and accuracy control. The contents of the book are logically organized and divided into twenty-one chapters. The book covers structural arrangement with longitudinal and transverse framing systems based on the service load, and explains basic structural elements like hatch side girders, hatch end beams, stringers, etc. along with structural subassemblies like floors, bulkheads, inner bottom, decks and shells. It presents in detail double bottom construction, wing tanks & duct keels, fore & aft end structures, etc., together with necessary illustrations. The midship sections of various ship types are introduced, together with structural continuity and alignment in ship structures. With regard to construction materials, the book discusses steel, aluminum alloys and fiber reinforced composites. Various methods of steel material preparation are discussed, and plate cutting and form...

  6. Microprocessors principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Debenham, Michael J

    1979-01-01

    Microprocessors: Principles and Applications deals with the principles and applications of microprocessors and covers topics ranging from computer architecture and programmed machines to microprocessor programming, support systems and software, and system design. A number of microprocessor applications are considered, including data processing, process control, and telephone switching. This book is comprised of 10 chapters and begins with a historical overview of computers and computing, followed by a discussion on computer architecture and programmed machines, paying particular attention to t

  7. Electrical and electronic principles

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, S A

    1991-01-01

    Electrical and Electronic Principles, 2, Second Edition covers the syllabus requirements of BTEC Unit U86/329, including the principles of control systems and elements of data transmission. The book first tackles series and parallel circuits, electrical networks, and capacitors and capacitance. Discussions focus on flux density, electric force, permittivity, Kirchhoff's laws, superposition theorem, arrangement of resistors, internal resistance, and powers in a circuit. The text then takes a look at capacitors in circuit, magnetism and magnetization, electromagnetic induction, and alternating v

  8. Microwave system engineering principles

    CERN Document Server

    Raff, Samuel J

    1977-01-01

    Microwave System Engineering Principles focuses on the calculus, differential equations, and transforms of microwave systems. This book discusses the basic nature and principles that can be derived from thermal noise; statistical concepts and binomial distribution; incoherent signal processing; basic properties of antennas; and beam widths and useful approximations. The fundamentals of propagation; LaPlace's Equation and Transmission Line (TEM) waves; interfaces between homogeneous media; modulation, bandwidth, and noise; and communications satellites are also deliberated in this text. This bo

  9. Electrical and electronic principles

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, SA

    1988-01-01

    Electrical and Electronic Principles, 3 focuses on the principles involved in electrical and electronic circuits, including impedance, inductance, capacitance, and resistance.The book first deals with circuit elements and theorems, D.C. transients, and the series circuits of alternating current. Discussions focus on inductance and resistance in series, resistance and capacitance in series, power factor, impedance, circuit magnification, equation of charge, discharge of a capacitor, transfer of power, and decibels and attenuation. The manuscript then examines the parallel circuits of alternatin

  10. Remark on Heisenberg's principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguez, G.

    1988-01-01

    Application of Heisenberg's principle to inertial frame transformations allows a distinction between three commutative groups of reciprocal transformations along one direction: Galilean transformations, dual transformations, and Lorentz transformations. These are three conjugate groups and for a given direction, the related commutators are all proportional to one single conjugation transformation which compensates for uniform and rectilinear motions. The three transformation groups correspond to three complementary ways of measuring space-time as a whole. Heisenberg's Principle then gets another explanation [fr

  11. Enhancing Teaching through Constructive Alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, John

    1996-01-01

    An approach to college-level instructional design that incorporates the principles of constructivism, termed "constructive alignment," is described. The process is then illustrated with reference to a professional development unit in educational psychology for teachers, but the model is viewed as generalizable to most units or programs in higher…

  12. Hamilton principle for the dual electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Silva, Saulo Carneiro de

    1995-01-01

    The present work discusses the classical electromagnetic theory in the presence of magnetic monopoles. We review the connection between such objects and the long standing problem of charge quantization and the main theoretical difficulties in formulating the classical dual electromagnetic theory in terms of an action principle. We show that a deeper understanding of the source of such difficulties leads naturally to the construction of a variational principle for a non-local Lagrangian from which all the (local) dynamical equations for electric, magnetic charges and fields can be obtained. (author)

  13. Physical acoustics principles and methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, Warren P

    1964-01-01

    Physical Acoustics: Principles and Methods, Volume l-Part A focuses on high frequency sound waves in gases, liquids, and solids that have been proven as powerful tools in analyzing the molecular, defect, domain wall, and other types of motions. The selection first tackles wave propagation in fluids and normal solids and guided wave propagation in elongated cylinders and plates. Discussions focus on fundamentals of continuum mechanics; small-amplitude waves in a linear viscoelastic medium; representation of oscillations and waves; and special effects associated with guided elastic waves in plat

  14. Communications receivers principles and design

    CERN Document Server

    Rohde, Ulrich L; Zahnd, Hans

    2017-01-01

    This thoroughly updated guide offers comprehensive explanations of the science behind today’s radio receivers along with practical guidance on designing, constructing, and maintaining real-world communications systems. You will explore system planning, antennas and antenna coupling, amplifiers and gain control, filters, mixers, demodulation, digital communication, and the latest software defined radio (SDR) technology. Written by a team of telecommunication experts, Communications Receivers: Principles and Design, Fourth Edition, features technical illustrations, schematic diagrams, and detailed examples. Coverage includes: • Basic radio considerations • Radio receiver characteristics • Receiver system planning • Receiver implementation considerations • RF and baseband techniques for Software-Defined Radios • Transceiver SDR considerations • Antennas and antenna coupling • Mixers • Frequency sources and control • Ancillary receiver circuits • Performance measurement

  15. Innovations in nuclear concrete constructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatum, C.B.

    1983-01-01

    The technical requirements and scope of concrete work on nuclear projects present significant engineering and construction challenges. These demands represent the extremes in many areas of construction operations. In meeting these challenges, engineering and construction forces have developed several innovations which can be beneficially applied to other types of construction. Innovative approaches in the general categories of engineering scope, construction input to engineering, work planning, special methods and techniques, and satisfaction of quality assurance requirements are given in this paper. The transfer of this technology to other segments of the construction industry will improve overall performance by avoiding the problem areas encountered on nuclear projects

  16. Worldwide construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, M.

    1994-01-01

    The paper lists major construction projects in worldwide processing and pipelining, showing capacities, contractors, estimated costs, and time of construction. The lists are divided into refineries, petrochemical plants, sulfur recovery units, gas processing plants, pipelines, and related fuel facilities. This last classification includes cogeneration plants, coal liquefaction and gasification plants, biomass power plants, geothermal power plants, integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plants, and a coal briquetting plant

  17. Geometric principles in additive systems for construction of vaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Thomas Arvid

    2015-01-01

    della Fiore. The Barouque style followed with the domes of Borromini; Bernini and Guarini. The Period of Enlightenment had iconic tunnel- and dome vault projects by Etienne l. Boulée. All these stone vaults were made by additive systems in bricks and mortar. In the 20.th century concrete was introduced...

  18. Design and construction principles in nature and architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knippers, Jan; Speck, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This paper will focus on how the emerging scientific discipline of biomimetics can bring new insights into the field of architecture. An analysis of both architectural and biological methodologies will show important aspects connecting these two. The foundation of this paper is a case study of convertible structures based on elastic plant movements.

  19. Design and construction principles in nature and architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knippers, Jan; Speck, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    This paper will focus on how the emerging scientific discipline of biomimetics can bring new insights into the field of architecture. An analysis of both architectural and biological methodologies will show important aspects connecting these two. The foundation of this paper is a case study of convertible structures based on elastic plant movements.

  20. Construction history and construction management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agh, S.

    1999-01-01

    The process of pre-design and design preparation of the Mochovce NPP as well as the construction history of the plant is highlighted, including the financing aspect and problems arising from changes in the technological and other conditions of start-up of the reactor units. The results of international audits performed to improve the level of nuclear safety and implementation of the measures suggested are also described. The milestones of the whole construction process and start-up process, the control and quality system, and the methods of control and management of the complex construction project are outlined. (author)

  1. The traveltime holographic principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yunsong; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2015-01-01

    Fermat's interferometric principle is used to compute interior transmission traveltimes τpq from exterior transmission traveltimes τsp and τsq. Here, the exterior traveltimes are computed for sources s on a boundary B that encloses a volume V of interior points p and q. Once the exterior traveltimes are computed, no further ray tracing is needed to calculate the interior times τpq. Therefore this interferometric approach can be more efficient than explicitly computing interior traveltimes τpq by ray tracing. Moreover, the memory requirement of the traveltimes is reduced by one dimension, because the boundary B is of one fewer dimension than the volume V. An application of this approach is demonstrated with interbed multiple (IM) elimination. Here, the IMs in the observed data are predicted from the migration image and are subsequently removed by adaptive subtraction. This prediction is enabled by the knowledge of interior transmission traveltimes τpq computed according to Fermat's interferometric principle. We denote this principle as the `traveltime holographic principle', by analogy with the holographic principle in cosmology where information in a volume is encoded on the region's boundary.

  2. Ethical principles of scientific communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranov G. V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available the article presents the principles of ethical management of scientific communication. The author approves the priority of ethical principle of social responsibility of the scientist.

  3. 46 CFR 151.15-3 - Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction. 151.15-3 Section 151.15-3 Shipping COAST... LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Tanks § 151.15-3 Construction. This section lists the requirements for construction of the types of cargo tanks defined in § 151.15-1. (a) Gravity type tanks. Gravity type cargo...

  4. On the surprising rigidity of the Pauli exclusion principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, O.W.

    1989-01-01

    I review recent attempts to construct a local quantum field theory of small violations of the Pauli exclusion principle and suggest a qualitative reason for the surprising rigidity of the Pauli principle. I suggest that small violations can occur in our four-dimensional world as a consequence of the compactification of a higher-dimensional theory in which the exclusion principle is exactly valid. I briefly mention a recent experiment which places a severe limit on possible violations of the exclusion principle. (orig.)

  5. Is weak violation of the Pauli principle possible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignat'ev, A.Yu.; Kuz'min, V.A.

    1987-01-01

    The question considered in the work is whether there are models which can account for small violation of the Pauli principle. A simple algebra is constructed for the creation-annihilation operators, which contains a parameter β and describe small violation of the Pauli principle (the Pauli principle is valid exactly for β=0). The commutation relations in this algebra are trilinear. A model is presented, basing upon this commutator algebra, which allows transitions violating the Pauli principle, their probability being suppressed by a factor of β 2 (even though the Hamiltonian does not contain small parameters)

  6. Is a weak violation of the Pauli principle possible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignat'ev, A.Y.; Kuz'min, V.A.

    1987-01-01

    We examine models in which there is a weak violation of the Pauli principle. A simple algebra of creation and annihilation operators is constructed which contains a parameter β and describes a weak violation of the Pauli principle (when β = 0 the Pauli principle is satisfied exactly). The commutation relations in this algebra turn out to be trilinear. A model based on this algebra is described. It allows transitions in which the Pauli principle is violated, but the probability of these transitions is suppressed by the quantity β 2 (even though the interaction Hamiltonian does not contain small parameters)

  7. Ethical principles and theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, R C

    1993-01-01

    Ethical theory about what is right and good in human conduct lies behind the issues practitioners face and the codes they turn to for guidance; it also provides guidance for actions, practices, and policies. Principles of obligation, such as egoism, utilitarianism, and deontology, offer general answers to the question, "Which acts/practices are morally right?" A re-emerging alternative to using such principles to assess individual conduct is to center normative theory on personal virtues. For structuring society's institutions, principles of social justice offer alternative answers to the question, "How should social benefits and burdens be distributed?" But human concerns about right and good call for more than just theoretical responses. Some critics (eg, the postmodernists and the feminists) charge that normative ethical theorizing is a misguided enterprise. However, that charge should be taken as a caution and not as a refutation of normative ethical theorizing.

  8. Principles of musical acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Hartmann, William M

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Musical Acoustics focuses on the basic principles in the science and technology of music. Musical examples and specific musical instruments demonstrate the principles. The book begins with a study of vibrations and waves, in that order. These topics constitute the basic physical properties of sound, one of two pillars supporting the science of musical acoustics. The second pillar is the human element, the physiological and psychological aspects of acoustical science. The perceptual topics include loudness, pitch, tone color, and localization of sound. With these two pillars in place, it is possible to go in a variety of directions. The book treats in turn, the topics of room acoustics, audio both analog and digital, broadcasting, and speech. It ends with chapters on the traditional musical instruments, organized by family. The mathematical level of this book assumes that the reader is familiar with elementary algebra. Trigonometric functions, logarithms and powers also appear in the book, but co...

  9. Mechanical engineering principles

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, John

    2014-01-01

    A student-friendly introduction to core engineering topicsThis book introduces mechanical principles and technology through examples and applications, enabling students to develop a sound understanding of both engineering principles and their use in practice. These theoretical concepts are supported by 400 fully worked problems, 700 further problems with answers, and 300 multiple-choice questions, all of which add up to give the reader a firm grounding on each topic.The new edition is up to date with the latest BTEC National specifications and can also be used on undergraduate courses in mecha

  10. Itch Management: General Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misery, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Like pain, itch is a challenging condition that needs to be managed. Within this setting, the first principle of itch management is to get an appropriate diagnosis to perform an etiology-oriented therapy. In several cases it is not possible to treat the cause, the etiology is undetermined, there are several causes, or the etiological treatment is not effective enough to alleviate itch completely. This is also why there is need for symptomatic treatment. In all patients, psychological support and associated pragmatic measures might be helpful. General principles and guidelines are required, yet patient-centered individual care remains fundamental. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Principles of Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Max; Wolf, Emil

    1999-10-01

    Principles of Optics is one of the classic science books of the twentieth century, and probably the most influential book in optics published in the past forty years. This edition has been thoroughly revised and updated, with new material covering the CAT scan, interference with broad-band light and the so-called Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction theory. This edition also details scattering from inhomogeneous media and presents an account of the principles of diffraction tomography to which Emil Wolf has made a basic contribution. Several new appendices are also included. This new edition will be invaluable to advanced undergraduates, graduate students and researchers working in most areas of optics.

  12. Electrical principles 3 checkbook

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, J O

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Principles 3 Checkbook aims to introduce students to the basic electrical principles needed by technicians in electrical engineering, electronics, and telecommunications.The book first tackles circuit theorems, single-phase series A.C. circuits, and single-phase parallel A.C. circuits. Discussions focus on worked problems on parallel A.C. circuits, worked problems on series A.C. circuits, main points concerned with D.C. circuit analysis, worked problems on circuit theorems, and further problems on circuit theorems. The manuscript then examines three-phase systems and D.C. transients

  13. Principles of statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Bulmer, M G

    1979-01-01

    There are many textbooks which describe current methods of statistical analysis, while neglecting related theory. There are equally many advanced textbooks which delve into the far reaches of statistical theory, while bypassing practical applications. But between these two approaches is an unfilled gap, in which theory and practice merge at an intermediate level. Professor M. G. Bulmer's Principles of Statistics, originally published in 1965, was created to fill that need. The new, corrected Dover edition of Principles of Statistics makes this invaluable mid-level text available once again fo

  14. Passive-solar construction handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

    1981-02-01

    Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. Passive solar construction is covered according to system type, each system type discussion including a general discussion of the important design and construction issues which apply to the particular system and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type. The three basic types of passive solar systems discussed are direct gain, thermal storage wall, and attached sunspace. Thermal performance and construction information is presented for typical materials used in passive solar collector components, storage components, and control components. Appended are an overview of analysis methods and a technique for estimating performance. (LEW)

  15. Construction safety

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Rita Yi Man

    2013-01-01

    A close-to-ideal blend of suburb and city, speedy construction of towers of Babylon, the sparkling proportion of glass and steel buildings’ facade at night showcase the wisdom of humans. They also witness the footsteps, sweats and tears of architects and engineers. Unfortunately, these signatures of human civilizations are swathed in towering figures of construction accidents. Fretting about these on sites, different countries adopt different measures on sites. This book firstly sketches the construction accidents on sites, followed by a review on safety measures in some of the developing countries such as Bermuda, Egypt, Kuwait and China; as well as developed countries, for example, the United States, France and Singapore. It also highlights the enormous compensation costs with the courts’ experiences in the United Kingdom and Hong Kong.

  16. Construction technique for a chemical plant (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-08-01

    This book deals with design and construction for a chemical plant which includes design and building of steel structure for a chemical plant with types, basic regulation, plan, shop fabrication for steel structure and field construction. It explains design and construction of making building for a chemical construction with measurement, types of building and basic rule of the building, design of the building, constructing plumbing for a chemical plant with plan, management of material, checking for construction, construction of electrical installation on plan, know-how to construction and maintenance.

  17. Sustainable Construction Risk Perceptions in the Kuwaiti Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalya Ismael

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable construction is fundamentally different than traditional construction because it requires whole systems thinking, early collaboration across stakeholders, and core principles like reducing resource consumption, eliminating toxins, and applying life cycle costing. Construction professionals unfamiliar with this mindset and approach may perceive sustainable construction as risky. One of the global regions in need of more sustainable construction is the Middle Eastern and North African (MENA region. The MENA region is one of the fastest developing in the world. However, it is the slowest one in implementing sustainable construction practices. Kuwait, in particular, contributes 53% more carbon emissions per capita than the United States. To understand how the Kuwaiti construction industry perceives risks associated with more sustainable construction, a survey was developed with 52 risk elements in which 131 industry professionals responded. The results indicate that industry professionals perceive a lack of public awareness as the risk element with the highest probability of occurrence. The risk element with the highest possible negative impact on future projects is designers’ and contractors’ inexperience with sustainable construction. Other risks were found to include a high initial cost for materials and overall project costs. Educational interventions, changes in risk allocation, and behavioral science to reframe upfront costs as long-term savings are offered as possible solutions.

  18. Constructing sanctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Mark Daniel

    2016-01-01

    such an effect. This paper explores sanctions conflicts as social constructs. It purports that rally-around-the-flag is all but one part of the discursive dimension of sanctions conflicts. Sanctions are intricately connected with the conflict setting they occur in. The study suggests a dialectical relation...... between how opponents perceive conflicts and the meaning of sanctions therein. This nexus of different constructions of sanctions moreover extends to “targeted” sanctions as well: As restrictive measures against Zimbabwe demonstrate, they are not the kind of minimally-invasive operations with clinical...

  19. EDUCATION IN SEARCH OF THE ADEQUACY PRINCIPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Larin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the acute methodology problem: elicitation of the fundamental principle of modern education. In the course of retrospective analysis, the author attempts to trace the essence and comparative historical specificity of the principle in question, and find out whether the currently declared one actually corresponds with the society demands and time requirements.Consequently, the author singles out three successive historical types of education, each of them based on the respective ideological and methodological assumptions. The first one (the 17th – mid-19th century, based on the ontological system of the «Man and Nature», regards the man as a natural creature and proclaims a fundamental educational principle of adequacy to nature. The second type, formed by the end of the 19th century and based on the ontological system of the «Man and Society», takes the man as a social creature and puts forward a fundamental educational principle of adequacy to society. And finally, the multi-dimensional ontological system of the «ManNature-Culture-Society», developed in the mid-20th century, defines the man as a bio-socio-cultural creature and forms a basis for a new fundamental educational principle of adequacy to culture.The paper maintains that the principle of adequacy to nature corresponds with the classical period of education history; orientation on the social adequacy represents its non-classical stage; and consequently, the principle of cultural adequacy signifies the post-non-classical phase. In conclusion, the author argues that resumption of the initial educational principle of adequacy to nature can be regarded as moving backward.

  20. EDUCATION IN SEARCH OF THE ADEQUACY PRINCIPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Larin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the acute methodology problem: elicitation of the fundamental principle of modern education. In the course of retrospective analysis, the author attempts to trace the essence and comparative historical specificity of the principle in question, and find out whether the currently declared one actually corresponds with the society demands and time requirements.Consequently, the author singles out three successive historical types of education, each of them based on the respective ideological and methodological assumptions. The first one (the 17th – mid-19th century, based on the ontological system of the «Man and Nature», regards the man as a natural creature and proclaims a fundamental educational principle of adequacy to nature. The second type, formed by the end of the 19th century and based on the ontological system of the «Man and Society», takes the man as a social creature and puts forward a fundamental educational principle of adequacy to society. And finally, the multi-dimensional ontological system of the «ManNature-Culture-Society», developed in the mid-20th century, defines the man as a bio-socio-cultural creature and forms a basis for a new fundamental educational principle of adequacy to culture.The paper maintains that the principle of adequacy to nature corresponds with the classical period of education history; orientation on the social adequacy represents its non-classical stage; and consequently, the principle of cultural adequacy signifies the post-non-classical phase. In conclusion, the author argues that resumption of the initial educational principle of adequacy to nature can be regarded as moving backward.

  1. Vectorial Ekeland Variational Principles and Inclusion Problems in Cone Quasi-Uniform Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Zhu

    2012-01-01

    principle, vectorial quasiequilibrium principle are obtained. Also, several other important principles in nonlinear analysis are extended to cone quasi-uniform spaces. The results of this paper extend, generalize, and improve the corresponding results for Ekeland's variational principles of the directed vectorial perturbation type and other generalizations of Ekeland's variational principles in the setting of F-type topological space and quasi-metric spaces in the literatures. Even in usual real metric spaces, some of our results are new.

  2. A constructive version of AIP revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barros, A.; Hou, T.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we review a constructive version of the Approximation Induction Principle. This version states that bisimilarity of regular processes can be decided by observing only a part of their behaviour. We use this constructive version to formulate a complete inference system for the Algebra

  3. Construction of an external electrode for determination of electrochemical corrosion potential in normal operational conditions of an BWR type reactor for hot cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar T, J.A.; Rivera M, H.; Hernandez C, R.

    2001-01-01

    The behavior of the corrosion processes at high temperature requires of external devices that being capable to resist a temperature of 288 Centigrade and a pressure of 80 Kg/cm 2 , to give stable and reproducible results of some variable and resisting physically and chemically the radiation. The external electrode of Ag/AgCl fulfils all the requirements in the determination of the electrochemical corrosion potential under normal operational conditions of a BWR type reactor in hot cells. (Author)

  4. The Principles of Readability

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBay, William H.

    2004-01-01

    The principles of readability are in every style manual. Readability formulas are in every writing aid. What is missing is the research and theory on which they stand. This short review of readability research spans 100 years. The first part covers the history of adult literacy studies in the U.S., establishing the stratified nature of the adult…

  5. Principles of electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Melvin

    1972-01-01

    This advanced undergraduate- and graduate-level text by the 1988 Nobel Prize winner establishes the subject's mathematical background, reviews the principles of electrostatics, then introduces Einstein's special theory of relativity and applies it throughout the book in topics ranging from Gauss' theorem and Coulomb's law to electric and magnetic susceptibility.

  6. Principles of Bridge Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Nowak, Andrzej S.

    The paper gives a brief introduction to the basic principles of structural reliability theory and its application to bridge engineering. Fundamental concepts like failure probability and reliability index are introduced. Ultimate as well as serviceability limit states for bridges are formulated......, and as an example the reliability profile and a sensitivity analyses for a corroded reinforced concrete bridge is shown....

  7. The Idiom Principle Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siyanova-Chanturia, Anna; Martinez, Ron

    2015-01-01

    John Sinclair's Idiom Principle famously posited that most texts are largely composed of multi-word expressions that "constitute single choices" in the mental lexicon. At the time that assertion was made, little actual psycholinguistic evidence existed in support of that holistic, "single choice," view of formulaic language. In…

  8. The Pauli Exclusion Principle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    his exclusion principle, the quantum theory was a mess. Moreover, it could ... This is a function of all the coordinates and 'internal variables' such as spin, of all the ... must remain basically the same (ie change by a phase factor at most) if we ...

  9. The traveltime holographic principle

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Y.; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2014-01-01

    Fermat's interferometric principle is used to compute interior transmission traveltimes τpq from exterior transmission traveltimes τsp and τsq. Here, the exterior traveltimes are computed for sources s on a boundary B that encloses a volume V of interior points p and q. Once the exterior traveltimes are computed, no further ray tracing is needed to calculate the interior times τpq. Therefore this interferometric approach can be more efficient than explicitly computing interior traveltimes τpq by ray tracing. Moreover, the memory requirement of the traveltimes is reduced by one dimension, because the boundary B is of one fewer dimension than the volume V. An application of this approach is demonstrated with interbed multiple (IM) elimination. Here, the IMs in the observed data are predicted from the migration image and are subsequently removed by adaptive subtraction. This prediction is enabled by the knowledge of interior transmission traveltimes τpq computed according to Fermat's interferometric principle. We denote this principle as the ‘traveltime holographic principle’, by analogy with the holographic principle in cosmology where information in a volume is encoded on the region's boundary.

  10. The Bohr Correspondence Principle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Deepak Dhar. Keywords. Correspondence principle, hy- drogen atom, Kepler orbit. Deepak Dhar works at the. Tata Institute of Funda- mental Research,. Mumbai. His research interests are mainly in the area of statistical physics. We consider the quantum-mechanical non-relati- vistic hydrogen atom. We show that for bound.

  11. Fundamental Safety Principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelmalik, W.E.Y.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a summary of the IAEA Safety Standards Series publication No. SF-1 entitled F UDAMENTAL Safety PRINCIPLES p ublished on 2006. This publication states the fundamental safety objective and ten associated safety principles, and briefly describes their intent and purposes. Safety measures and security measures have in common the aim of protecting human life and health and the environment. These safety principles are: 1) Responsibility for safety, 2) Role of the government, 3) Leadership and management for safety, 4) Justification of facilities and activities, 5) Optimization of protection, 6) Limitation of risks to individuals, 7) Protection of present and future generations, 8) Prevention of accidents, 9)Emergency preparedness and response and 10) Protective action to reduce existing or unregulated radiation risks. The safety principles concern the security of facilities and activities to the extent that they apply to measures that contribute to both safety and security. Safety measures and security measures must be designed and implemented in an integrated manner so that security measures do not compromise safety and safety measures do not compromise security.

  12. The traveltime holographic principle

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Y.

    2014-11-06

    Fermat\\'s interferometric principle is used to compute interior transmission traveltimes τpq from exterior transmission traveltimes τsp and τsq. Here, the exterior traveltimes are computed for sources s on a boundary B that encloses a volume V of interior points p and q. Once the exterior traveltimes are computed, no further ray tracing is needed to calculate the interior times τpq. Therefore this interferometric approach can be more efficient than explicitly computing interior traveltimes τpq by ray tracing. Moreover, the memory requirement of the traveltimes is reduced by one dimension, because the boundary B is of one fewer dimension than the volume V. An application of this approach is demonstrated with interbed multiple (IM) elimination. Here, the IMs in the observed data are predicted from the migration image and are subsequently removed by adaptive subtraction. This prediction is enabled by the knowledge of interior transmission traveltimes τpq computed according to Fermat\\'s interferometric principle. We denote this principle as the ‘traveltime holographic principle’, by analogy with the holographic principle in cosmology where information in a volume is encoded on the region\\'s boundary.

  13. Fermat's Principle Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, R. V.

    1991-01-01

    A principle is presented to show that, if the time of passage of light is expressible as a function of discrete variables, one may dispense with the more general method of the calculus of variations. The calculus of variations and the alternative are described. The phenomenon of mirage is discussed. (Author/KR)

  14. Principles of economics textbooks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Poul Thøis

    2012-01-01

    Has the financial crisis already changed US principles of economics textbooks? Rather little has changed in individual textbooks, but taken as a whole ten of the best-selling textbooks suggest rather encompassing changes of core curriculum. A critical analysis of these changes shows how individual...

  15. PRINCIPLES, BASES, AND LAWS OF FUNDAMENTAL INFORMATICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady N. Zverev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper defines the goals and problems of fundamental informatics, formulates principal laws of information universe and constructive bases of information objects and processes. The classification of semantics types of knowledge and skills is presented. 

  16. Provability Calculus of Constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyblad, Kasten

    This thesis presents a type system, Provability Calculus of Constructions (PCoC) that can be used for the formalization of logic. In a theorem prover based on the system, the user can extend the prover with new inference rules in a logically consistent manner. This is done by representing PCo...

  17. Construction work

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Construction work on building 179 will start on the 16th February 2004 and continue until November 2004. The road between buildings 179 and 158 will temporarily become a one way street from Route Democrite towards building 7. The parking places between buildings 179 and 7 will become obsolete. The ISOLDE collaboration would like to apologize for any inconveniences.

  18. Potential of Progressive Construction Systems in Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlovska, Maria; Spisakova, Marcela; Mackova, Daniela

    2017-10-01

    Construction industry is a sector with rapid development. Progressive technologies of construction and new construction materials also called modern methods of construction (MMC) are developed constantly. MMC represent the adoption of construction industrialisation and the use of prefabrication of components in building construction. One of these modern methods is also system Varianthaus, which is based on, insulated concrete forms principle and provides complete production plant for wall, ceiling and roof elements for a high thermal insulation house construction. Another progressive construction system is EcoB, which represents an insulated precast concrete panel based on combination of two layers, insulation and concrete, produced in a factory as a whole. Both modern methods of construction are not yet known and wide-spread in the Slovak construction market. The aim of this paper is focused on demonstration of MMC using potential in Slovakia. MMC potential is proved based on comparison of the selected parameters of construction process - construction costs and construction time. The subject of this study is family house modelled in three material variants - masonry construction (as a representative of traditional methods of construction), Varianthaus and EcoB (as the representatives of modern methods of construction). The results of this study provide the useful information in decision-making process for potential investors of construction.

  19. Reader and reading: considerations about text types and meaning construction / Leitor e leituras: considerações sobre gêneros textuais e construção de sentidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Patrícia Ataíde Ferreira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper emphasizes reading as an activity of meaning construction which implies the dynamic relationship between reader and text. First we present the idea that reading varies accord to the reader and his aims. The reader can concept it as a cognitive- affective activity and a social practice. Later we discuss the text concepts, context and textual types, with the focus in the idea the meaning is constituted in the dialectic relationship among author/text/reader/context. This relationship is which offers many meaning and at the same time, gives limits to the possibilities of the variations and also determines the game of the implicit and the explicit.

  20. [Changes in the energy indices of Escherichia coli during exhaustion and renewal of glucose and ammonia supply as a factor responsible for the coupling of energy and constructive types of metabolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, A G

    1990-01-01

    The shift down of glucose in the growth medium lowered the energetic status of cells whereas that of ammonium elevated it, which was indicative of their specific effect on metabolism. The shift up of glucose within the first four seconds promptly increased the intracellular ATP pool, the energy charge and the ATP/ADP ratio up to values characteristic of growth, while the addition of ammonium after its exhaustion resulted in the opposite effect. The described changes are typical of an incomplete coupling between energetic and constructive metabolic types in E. coli.

  1. The Principle of Ability to Pay as Juridical Tax Principle: Doctrinal and Jurisprudential Construction in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Masbernat Muñoz, Patricio

    2010-01-01

    El presente artículo comunica acerca de la configuración normativa y la elaboración doctrinaria y jurisprudencial del principio de capacidad económica en España. El autor persigue dar a conocer en Chile una institución jurídica que es reconocida en los ordenamientos europeos y que constituye la base esencial sobre la cual se construyen sus sistemas tributarios, a objeto de que sea incorporada en Chile a través de una elaboración eórica propia a partir de los materiales normativos nacionales. ...

  2. Experimental studies of Steel Corrugated Constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarev Yuriy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this particular article is to assess existing calculations of steel corrugated constructions. Steel Corrugated Construction is a perspective type of constructions, which is exhibiting numerous advantages in comparison with one that currently applied in automobile and railroad networks (reinforced concrete water-throughput pipes, reinforced concrete frame bridges. The evaluation of experimental data on models of constructions of this particular type has been carried out in order to improve calculations of Steel Corrugated Constructions.

  3. THE PRINCIPLES OF LAW. PHILOSOPHICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIUS ANDREESCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Any scientific intercession that has as objective, the understanding of the significances of the “principle of law” needs to have an interdisciplinary character, the basis for the approach being the philosophy of the law. In this study we fulfill such an analysis with the purpose to underline the multiple theoretical significances due to this concept, but also the relationship between the juridical principles and norms, respectively the normative value of the principle of the law. Thus are being materialized extensive references to the philosophical and juridical doctrine in the matter. This study is a pleading to refer to the principles, in the work for the law’s creation and applying. Starting with the difference between “given” and ‘constructed” we propose the distinction between the “metaphysical principles” outside the law, which by their contents have philosophical significances, and the “constructed principles” elaborated inside the law. We emphasize the obligation of the law maker, but also of the expert to refer to the principles in the work of legislation, interpretation and applying of the law. Arguments are brought for the updating, in certain limits, the justice – naturalistic concepts in the law.

  4. Extremum principles for irreversible processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillert, M.; Agren, J.

    2006-01-01

    Hamilton's extremum principle is a powerful mathematical tool in classical mechanics. Onsager's extremum principle may play a similar role in irreversible thermodynamics and may also become a valuable tool. His principle may formally be regarded as a principle of maximum rate of entropy production but does not have a clear physical interpretation. Prigogine's principle of minimum rate of entropy production has a physical interpretation when it applies, but is not strictly valid except for a very special case

  5. Useful variational principle for the scattering length for the target ground-state wave function imprecisely known

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blau, R.; Rosenberg, L.; Spruch, L.

    1977-01-01

    A minimum principle for the calculation of the scattering length, applicable when the ground-state wave function of the target system is known precisely, has been available for some time. When, as is almost always the case, the target wave function is imprecisely known, a minimum principle is available but the simple minimum principle noted above is not applicable. Further, as recent calculations show, numerical instabilities usually arise which severely limit the utility of even an ordinary variational approach. The difficulty, which can be traced to the appearance of singularities in the variational construction, is here removed through the introduction of a minimum principle, not for the true scattering length, but for one associated with a closely connected problem. This guarantees that no instability difficulties can arise as the trial scattering wave function and the trial target wave function are improved. The calculations are little different from those required when the target ground-state wave function is known, and, in fact, the original version of the minimum principle is recovered as the trial target wave function becomes exact. A careful discussion is given of the types of problems to which the method can be applied. In particular, the effects of the Pauli principle, and the existence of a finite number of composite bound states, can be accounted for

  6. Construction and biological characterization of artificial recombinants between a wild type flavivirus (Kunjin) and a live chimeric flavivirus vaccine (ChimeriVax-JE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugachev, Konstantin V; Schwaiger, Julia; Brown, Nathan; Zhang, Zhen-xi; Catalan, John; Mitchell, Frederick S; Ocran, Simeon W; Rumyantsev, Alexander A; Khromykh, Alexander A; Monath, Thomas P; Guirakhoo, Farshad

    2007-09-17

    Although the theoretical concern of genetic recombination has been raised related to the use of live attenuated flavivirus vaccines [Seligman, Gould, Lancet 2004;363:2073-5], it has little foundation [e.g., Monath TP, Kanesa-Thasan N, Guirakhoo F, Pugachev K, Almond J, Lang J, et al. Vaccine 2005;23:2956-8]. To investigate biological effects of recombination between a chimeric yellow fever (YF) 17D/Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine virus (ChimeriVax-JE) and a wild-type flavivirus Kunjin (KUN-cDNA), the prM-E envelope protein genes were swapped between the two viruses, resulting in new YF 17D/KUN(prM-E) and KUN/JE(prM-E) chimeras. The prM-E genes are easily exchangeable between flavivirues, and thus the exchange was expected to yield the most replication-competent chimeras, while other rationally designed recombinants would be more likely to be crippled or non-viable. The new chimeras proved highly attenuated in comparison with the KUN-cDNA parent, as judged by plaque size and growth kinetics in cell culture, low viremia in hamsters, and reduced neurovirulence/neuroinvasiveness in mice. These data provide strong experimental evidence that the potential of recombinants, should they ever emerge, to cause disease or spread (compete in nature with wild-type flaviviruses) would be indeed extremely low.

  7. Construction of an Aptamer-SiRNA Chimera-Modified Tissue-Engineered Blood Vessel for Cell-Type-Specific Capture and Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen; Zeng, Wen; Sun, Jiansen; Yang, Mingcan; Li, Li; Zhou, Jingting; Wu, Yangxiao; Sun, Jun; Liu, Ge; Tang, Rui; Tan, Ju; Zhu, Chuhong

    2015-06-23

    The application of tissue-engineered blood vessels (TEBVs) is the main developmental direction of vascular replacement therapy. Due to few and/or dysfunctional endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), it is difficult to successfully construct EPC capture TEBVs in diabetes. RNA has a potential application in cell protection and diabetes treatment, but poor specificity and low efficiency of RNA transfection in vivo limit the application of RNA. On the basis of an acellular vascular matrix, we propose an aptamer-siRNA chimera-modified TEBV that can maintain a satisfactory patency in diabetes. This TEBV consists of two parts, CD133-adenosine kinase (ADK) chimeras and a TEBV scaffold. Our results showed that CD133-ADK chimeras could selectively capture the CD133-positive cells in vivo, and then captured cells can internalize the bound chimeras to achieve RNA self-transfection. Subsequently, CD133-ADK chimeras were cut into ADK siRNA by a dicer, resulting in depletion of ADK. An ADK-deficient cell may act as a bioreactor that sustainably releases adenosine. To reduce nonspecific RNA transfection, we increased the proportion of HAuCl4 during the material preparation, through which the transfection capacity of polyethylenimine (PEI)/polyethylene glycol (PEG)-capped gold nanoparticles (PEI/PEG-AuNPs) was significantly decreased and the ability of TEBV to resist tensile and liquid shear stress was greatly enhanced. PEG and 2'-O-methyl modification was used to enhance the in vivo stability of RNA chimeras. At day 30 postgrafting, the patency rate of CD133-ADK chimera-modified TEBVs reached 90% in diabetic rats and good endothelialization was observed.

  8. Vaccinology: principles and practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrow, John

    2012-01-01

    "This book addresses a profound deficiency in the field of vaccine research and development, namely the lack of a single volume describing the design and construction of vaccine strategies from first...

  9. Construction technique for a chemical plant (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-08-01

    This book mentions the order of plant construction, building plant and related regulations, basic engineering design data, provide of equipment, plan and management on building plant, quality control, the budget and contract for building plant, public works for building chemical plant like road construction, basic plan and building for a chemical plant, introduction and principle on foundation improvement method, including pile foundation and design for footing, construction and installation for a chemical plant and a rotary machine for a chemical plant.

  10. Design Principles for Natural and Hybrid Ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    Heiselberg, Per

    2000-01-01

    For many years mechanical and natural ventilation systems have developed separately. Naturally, the next step in this development is the development of ventilation concepts that utilize and combine the best features from each system to create a new type of ventilation system- Hybrid Ventilation. The hybrid ventilation concepts, design challenges and principles are discussed and illustrated by four building examples.

  11. Lasers: principles, applications and energetic measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subran, C.; Sagaut, J.; Lapointe, S.

    2009-01-01

    After having recalled the principles of a laser and the properties of the laser beam, the authors describe the following different types of lasers: solid state lasers, fiber lasers, semiconductor lasers, dye lasers and gas lasers. Then, their applications are given. Very high energy lasers can reproduce the phenomenon of nuclear fusion of hydrogen atoms. (O.M.)

  12. A note on weighted premium calculation principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaluszka, M.; Laeven, R.J.A.; Okolewski, A.

    2012-01-01

    A prominent problem in actuarial science is to determine premium calculation principles that satisfy certain criteria. Goovaerts et al. [Goovaerts, M. J., De Vylder, F., Haezendonck, J., 1984. Insurance Premiums: Theory and Applications. North-Holland, Amsterdam, p. 84] establish an optimality-type

  13. Modelling Constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart

    2009-01-01

    , these notations have been extended in order to increase expressiveness and to be more competitive. This resulted in an increasing number of notations and formalisms for modelling business processes and in an increase of the different modelling constructs provided by modelling notations, which makes it difficult......There are many different notations and formalisms for modelling business processes and workflows. These notations and formalisms have been introduced with different purposes and objectives. Later, influenced by other notations, comparisons with other tools, or by standardization efforts...... to compare modelling notations and to make transformations between them. One of the reasons is that, in each notation, the new concepts are introduced in a different way by extending the already existing constructs. In this chapter, we go the opposite direction: We show that it is possible to add most...

  14. Camelid nanobodies used as crystallization chaperones for different constructs of PorM, a component of the type IX secretion system from Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhoo, Yoan; Roche, Jennifer; Trinh, Thi Trang Nhung; Desmyter, Aline; Gaubert, Anaïs; Kellenberger, Christine; Cambillau, Christian; Roussel, Alain; Leone, Philippe

    2017-05-01

    PorM is a membrane protein that is involved in the assembly of the type IX secretion system (T9SS) in Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major bacterial pathogen that is responsible for periodontal disease in humans. In the context of structural studies of PorM to better understand T9SS assembly, four camelid nanobodies were selected, produced and purified, and their specific interaction with the N-terminal or C-terminal part of the periplasmic domain of PorM was investigated. Diffracting crystals were also obtained, and the structures of the four nanobodies were solved by molecular replacement. Furthermore, two nanobodies were used as crystallization chaperones and turned out to be valuable tools in the structure-determination process of the periplasmic domain of PorM.

  15. Elucidation of the structure-property relationship of p-type organic semiconductors through rapid library construction via a one-pot, Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuse, Shinichiro; Matsumura, Keisuke; Wakamiya, Atsushi; Masui, Hisashi; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa, Susumu; Takahashi, Takashi

    2014-09-08

    The elucidation of the structure-property relationship is an important issue in the development of organic electronics. Combinatorial synthesis and the evaluation of systematically modified compounds is a powerful tool in the work of elucidating structure-property relationships. In this manuscript, D-π-A structure, 32 p-type organic semiconductors were rapidly synthesized via a one-pot, Suzuki-Miyaura coupling with subsequent Knoevenagel condensation. Evaluation of the solubility and photovoltaic properties of the prepared compounds revealed that the measured solubility was strongly correlated with the solubility parameter (SP), as reported by Fedors. In addition, the SPs were correlated with the Jsc of thin-film organic solar cells prepared using synthesized compounds. Among the evaluated photovoltaic properties of the solar cells, Jsc and Voc had strong correlations with the photoconversion efficiency (PCE).

  16. Le Chatelier's principle in replicator dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdyan, Armen E.; Galstyan, Aram

    2011-10-01

    The Le Chatelier principle states that physical equilibria are not only stable, but they also resist external perturbations via short-time negative-feedback mechanisms: a perturbation induces processes tending to diminish its results. The principle has deep roots, e.g., in thermodynamics it is closely related to the second law and the positivity of the entropy production. Here we study the applicability of the Le Chatelier principle to evolutionary game theory, i.e., to perturbations of a Nash equilibrium within the replicator dynamics. We show that the principle can be reformulated as a majorization relation. This defines a stability notion that generalizes the concept of evolutionary stability. We determine criteria for a Nash equilibrium to satisfy the Le Chatelier principle and relate them to mutualistic interactions (game-theoretical anticoordination) showing in which sense mutualistic replicators can be more stable than (say) competing ones. There are globally stable Nash equilibria, where the Le Chatelier principle is violated even locally: in contrast to the thermodynamic equilibrium a Nash equilibrium can amplify small perturbations, though both types of equilibria satisfy the detailed balance condition.

  17. Principles of geodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Scheidegger, Adrian E

    1982-01-01

    Geodynamics is commonly thought to be one of the subjects which provide the basis for understanding the origin of the visible surface features of the Earth: the latter are usually assumed as having been built up by geodynamic forces originating inside the Earth ("endogenetic" processes) and then as having been degrad­ ed by geomorphological agents originating in the atmosphere and ocean ("exogenetic" agents). The modem view holds that the sequence of events is not as neat as it was once thought to be, and that, in effect, both geodynamic and geomorphological processes act simultaneously ("Principle of Antagonism"); however, the division of theoretical geology into the principles of geodynamics and those of theoretical geomorphology seems to be useful for didactic purposes. It has therefore been maintained in the present writer's works. This present treatise on geodynamics is the first part of the author's treatment of theoretical geology, the treatise on Theoretical Geomorphology (also published by the Sprin...

  18. Principles of systems science

    CERN Document Server

    Mobus, George E

    2015-01-01

    This pioneering text provides a comprehensive introduction to systems structure, function, and modeling as applied in all fields of science and engineering. Systems understanding is increasingly recognized as a key to a more holistic education and greater problem solving skills, and is also reflected in the trend toward interdisciplinary approaches to research on complex phenomena. The subject of systems science, as a basis for understanding the components and drivers of phenomena at all scales, should be viewed with the same importance as a traditional liberal arts education. Principles of Systems Science contains many graphs, illustrations, side bars, examples, and problems to enhance understanding. From basic principles of organization, complexity, abstract representations, and behavior (dynamics) to deeper aspects such as the relations between information, knowledge, computation, and system control, to higher order aspects such as auto-organization, emergence and evolution, the book provides an integrated...

  19. Common principles and multiculturalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, Farzaneh; Larijani, Bagher

    2009-01-01

    Judgment on rightness and wrongness of beliefs and behaviors is a main issue in bioethics. Over centuries, big philosophers and ethicists have been discussing the suitable tools to determine which act is morally sound and which one is not. Emerging the contemporary bioethics in the West has resulted in a misconception that absolute westernized principles would be appropriate tools for ethical decision making in different cultures. We will discuss this issue by introducing a clinical case. Considering various cultural beliefs around the world, though it is not logical to consider all of them ethically acceptable, we can gather on some general fundamental principles instead of going to the extremes of relativism and absolutism. Islamic teachings, according to the presented evidence in this paper, fall in with this idea.

  20. Principles of Mobile Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Stüber, Gordon L

    2012-01-01

    This mathematically rigorous overview of physical layer wireless communications is now in a third, fully revised and updated edition. Along with coverage of basic principles sufficient for novice students, the volume includes plenty of finer details that will satisfy the requirements of graduate students aiming to research the topic in depth. It also has a role as a handy reference for wireless engineers. The content stresses core principles that are applicable to a broad range of wireless standards. Beginning with a survey of the field that introduces an array of issues relevant to wireless communications and which traces the historical development of today’s accepted wireless standards, the book moves on to cover all the relevant discrete subjects, from radio propagation to error probability performance and cellular radio resource management. A valuable appendix provides a succinct and focused tutorial on probability and random processes, concepts widely used throughout the book. This new edition, revised...

  1. Principles of mathematical modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Dym, Clive

    2004-01-01

    Science and engineering students depend heavily on concepts of mathematical modeling. In an age where almost everything is done on a computer, author Clive Dym believes that students need to understand and "own" the underlying mathematics that computers are doing on their behalf. His goal for Principles of Mathematical Modeling, Second Edition, is to engage the student reader in developing a foundational understanding of the subject that will serve them well into their careers. The first half of the book begins with a clearly defined set of modeling principles, and then introduces a set of foundational tools including dimensional analysis, scaling techniques, and approximation and validation techniques. The second half demonstrates the latest applications for these tools to a broad variety of subjects, including exponential growth and decay in fields ranging from biology to economics, traffic flow, free and forced vibration of mechanical and other systems, and optimization problems in biology, structures, an...

  2. Principles of Stellar Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Glindemann, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, stellar interferometry has developed from a specialist tool to a mainstream observing technique, attracting scientists whose research benefits from milliarcsecond angular resolution. Stellar interferometry has become part of the astronomer’s toolbox, complementing single-telescope observations by providing unique capabilities that will advance astronomical research. This carefully written book is intended to provide a solid understanding of the principles of stellar interferometry to students starting an astronomical research project in this field or to develop instruments and to astronomers using interferometry but who are not interferometrists per se. Illustrated by excellent drawings and calculated graphs the imaging process in stellar interferometers is explained starting from first principles on light propagation and diffraction wave propagation through turbulence is described in detail using Kolmogorov statistics the impact of turbulence on the imaging process is discussed both f...

  3. Principles of Fourier analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Howell, Kenneth B

    2001-01-01

    Fourier analysis is one of the most useful and widely employed sets of tools for the engineer, the scientist, and the applied mathematician. As such, students and practitioners in these disciplines need a practical and mathematically solid introduction to its principles. They need straightforward verifications of its results and formulas, and they need clear indications of the limitations of those results and formulas.Principles of Fourier Analysis furnishes all this and more. It provides a comprehensive overview of the mathematical theory of Fourier analysis, including the development of Fourier series, "classical" Fourier transforms, generalized Fourier transforms and analysis, and the discrete theory. Much of the author''s development is strikingly different from typical presentations. His approach to defining the classical Fourier transform results in a much cleaner, more coherent theory that leads naturally to a starting point for the generalized theory. He also introduces a new generalized theory based ...

  4. Principles of mobile communication

    CERN Document Server

    Stüber, Gordon L

    2017-01-01

    This mathematically rigorous overview of physical layer wireless communications is now in a 4th, fully revised and updated edition. The new edition features new content on 4G cellular systems, 5G cellular outlook, bandpass signals and systems, and polarization, among many other topics, in addition to a new chapters on channel assignment techniques. Along with coverage of fundamentals and basic principles sufficient for novice students, the volume includes finer details that satisfy the requirements of graduate students aiming to conduct in-depth research. The book begins with a survey of the field, introducing issues relevant to wireless communications. The book moves on to cover relevant discrete subjects, from radio propagation, to error probability performance, and cellular radio resource management. An appendix provides a tutorial on probability and random processes. The content stresses core principles that are applicable to a broad range of wireless standards. New examples are provided throughout the bo...

  5. Principles of photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jia-Ming

    2016-01-01

    With this self-contained and comprehensive text, students will gain a detailed understanding of the fundamental concepts and major principles of photonics. Assuming only a basic background in optics, readers are guided through key topics such as the nature of optical fields, the properties of optical materials, and the principles of major photonic functions regarding the generation, propagation, coupling, interference, amplification, modulation, and detection of optical waves or signals. Numerous examples and problems are provided throughout to enhance understanding, and a solutions manual containing detailed solutions and explanations is available online for instructors. This is the ideal resource for electrical engineering and physics undergraduates taking introductory, single-semester or single-quarter courses in photonics, providing them with the knowledge and skills needed to progress to more advanced courses on photonic devices, systems and applications.

  6. Common Principles and Multiculturalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, Farzaneh; Larijani, Bagher

    2009-01-01

    Judgment on rightness and wrongness of beliefs and behaviors is a main issue in bioethics. Over centuries, big philosophers and ethicists have been discussing the suitable tools to determine which act is morally sound and which one is not. Emerging the contemporary bioethics in the West has resulted in a misconception that absolute westernized principles would be appropriate tools for ethical decision making in different cultures. We will discuss this issue by introducing a clinical case. Considering various cultural beliefs around the world, though it is not logical to consider all of them ethically acceptable, we can gather on some general fundamental principles instead of going to the extremes of relativism and absolutism. Islamic teachings, according to the presented evidence in this paper, fall in with this idea. PMID:23908720

  7. Principles of (Behavioral) Economics

    OpenAIRE

    David Laibson; John A. List

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral economics has become an important and integrated component of modern economics. Behavioral economists embrace the core principles of economics—optimization and equilibrium—and seek to develop and extend those ideas to make them more empirically accurate. Behavioral models assume that economic actors try to pick the best feasible option and those actors sometimes make mistakes. Behavioral ideas should be incorporated throughout the first-year undergraduate course. Instructors should...

  8. Principles of fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreider, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    This book is an introduction on fluid mechanics incorporating computer applications. Topics covered are as follows: brief history; what is a fluid; two classes of fluids: liquids and gases; the continuum model of a fluid; methods of analyzing fluid flows; important characteristics of fluids; fundamentals and equations of motion; fluid statics; dimensional analysis and the similarity principle; laminar internal flows; ideal flow; external laminar and channel flows; turbulent flow; compressible flow; fluid flow measurements

  9. Principles of electrical safety

    CERN Document Server

    Sutherland, Peter E

    2015-01-01

    Principles of Electrical Safety discusses current issues in electrical safety, which are accompanied by series' of practical applications that can be used by practicing professionals, graduate students, and researchers. .  Provides extensive introductions to important topics in electrical safety Comprehensive overview of inductance, resistance, and capacitance as applied to the human body Serves as a preparatory guide for today's practicing engineers

  10. The uncertainty principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, Hans.

    1991-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the uncertainty principle (UP). The UP is one of the most characteristic points of differences between quantum and classical mechanics. The starting point of this thesis is the work of Niels Bohr. Besides the discussion the work is also analyzed. For the discussion of the different aspects of the UP the formalism of Davies and Ludwig is used instead of the more commonly used formalism of Neumann and Dirac. (author). 214 refs.; 23 figs

  11. PREFERENCE, PRINCIPLE AND PRACTICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsgaard, Morten; Bro, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Legitimacy has become a central issue in journalism, since the understanding of what journalism is and who journalists are has been challenged by developments both within and outside the newsrooms. Nonetheless, little scholarly work has been conducted to aid conceptual clarification as to how jou...... distinct, but interconnected categories*preference, principle, and practice. Through this framework, historical attempts to justify journalism and journalists are described and discussed in the light of the present challenges for the profession....

  12. Advertisement without Ethical Principles?

    OpenAIRE

    Wojciech Słomski

    2007-01-01

    The article replies to the question, whether the advertisement can exist without ethical principles or ethics should be the basis of the advertisement. One can say that the ethical opinion of the advertisement does not depend on content and the form of advertising content exclusively, but also on recipientís consciousness. The advertisement appeals to the emotions more than to the intellect, thus restricting the area of conscious and based on rational premises choice, so it is morally bad. It...

  13. General Principles Governing Liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper contains a brief review of the basic principles which govern the special regime of liability and compensation for nuclear damage originating on nuclear installations, in particular the strict and exclusive liability of the nuclear operator, the provision of a financial security to cover this liability and the limits applicable both in amount and in time. The paper also reviews the most important international agreements currently in force which constitute the foundation of this special regime. (author)

  14. The Principle of Proportionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Morten; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    2005-01-01

    Recent policy initiatives within the harmonization of European company laws have promoted a so-called "principle of proportionality" through proposals that regulate mechanisms opposing a proportional distribution of ownership and control. We scrutinize the foundation for these initiatives...... in relationship to the process of harmonization of the European capital markets.JEL classifications: G30, G32, G34 and G38Keywords: Ownership Structure, Dual Class Shares, Pyramids, EU companylaws....

  15. Common Principles and Multiculturalism

    OpenAIRE

    Zahedi, Farzaneh; Larijani, Bagher

    2009-01-01

    Judgment on rightness and wrongness of beliefs and behaviors is a main issue in bioethics. Over centuries, big philosophers and ethicists have been discussing the suitable tools to determine which act is morally sound and which one is not. Emerging the contemporary bioethics in the West has resulted in a misconception that absolute westernized principles would be appropriate tools for ethical decision making in different cultures. We will discuss this issue by introducing a clinical case. Con...

  16. The Maquet principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, R.B.; Stassi, J.; Karasick, D.

    1985-01-01

    Anterior displacement of the tibial tubercle is a well-accepted orthopedic procedure in the treatment of certain patellofemoral disorders. The radiologic appearance of surgical procedures utilizing the Maquet principle has not been described in the radiologic literature. Familiarity with the physiologic and biochemical basis for the procedure and its postoperative appearance is necessary for appropriate roentgenographic evaluation and the radiographic recognition of complications. (orig.)

  17. Principled Missing Data Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Kyle M; Little, Todd D

    2018-04-01

    We review a number of issues regarding missing data treatments for intervention and prevention researchers. Many of the common missing data practices in prevention research are still, unfortunately, ill-advised (e.g., use of listwise and pairwise deletion, insufficient use of auxiliary variables). Our goal is to promote better practice in the handling of missing data. We review the current state of missing data methodology and recent missing data reporting in prevention research. We describe antiquated, ad hoc missing data treatments and discuss their limitations. We discuss two modern, principled missing data treatments: multiple imputation and full information maximum likelihood, and we offer practical tips on how to best employ these methods in prevention research. The principled missing data treatments that we discuss are couched in terms of how they improve causal and statistical inference in the prevention sciences. Our recommendations are firmly grounded in missing data theory and well-validated statistical principles for handling the missing data issues that are ubiquitous in biosocial and prevention research. We augment our broad survey of missing data analysis with references to more exhaustive resources.

  18. Spicing up your advice for South Asian and Anglo-Australians with type 2 diabetes and CVD: Do cultural constructions of diet matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sabrina S; Teede, Helena; Aroni, Rosalie

    2018-01-01

    South Asians are a growing migrant population, both globally and in Australia. This group are at higher risk for both cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this qualitative study was to compare dietary practices of South Asians, n = 41 (Indian, n = 25; Sri Lankan, n = 16) and Anglo-Australians, n = 16, with these conditions, using semi-structured in-depth interviews. Findings suggest that both groups had a high level of awareness of dietary practices necessary for optimum disease management, both prior to and post diagnosis. Bi-directional effects of migration were noted in the dietary practices of both groups suggesting hybrid diets are evident in Australia. A key barrier to implementing dietary changes highlighted by both groups of participants was a lack of specific, timely and detailed dietary advice from clinicians. Both groups expressed that advice should be repeated and reinforced throughout the course of their disease. In addition, South Asian participants wanted more culturally relevant advice. Clinicians providing dietary advice need to recognise that preferences for staple food items are resistant to change and may affect adherence. Acculturation was evident in the dietary practices of the South Asian participants. Nevertheless, many maintained traditional food practices which were tied to their cultural identity. It is recommended that clinicians consider these factors when offering advice. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Constructal theory of social dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bejan, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    Combines for the first time theories of general physics and applies them to social sciencesOffers a new way to look at social phenomena as part of natural phenomenaA new domain of application of engineering such as thermodynamic optimization, thermoeconomics and "design as science"Discusses how the "flow architectures" of natural sciences are also found in social situationsBoth classes are covered by the same principle (the constructal law)First work to show that the concept of "efficiency" of engineering has a home in physics and social sciencesThe constructal law theory puts a scientific principle behind the major challenges of today and the future: sustainable development, energy sufficiency, equilibria between human settlements and environmental ecosystems, optimal allocation, optimal distribution of finite resources, etc.

  20. The Impact of the Choice of Evaluation Criteria and the Type of Tender on the Awarding Public Contracts (in the Case of Construction Contracts at the Local Level in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Ochrana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Public procurement may be examined from different perspectives. Using the Czech Republic as an example, this study is devoted to examining the impact of decisions made by the contracting authority regarding a public tender on the tender process itself and on the outcomes of the tender. The contracting authority addresses a number of decision-making issues regarding public procurements. For example, it needs to decide between two types of criteria (choosing between a single-criterion evaluation or rather opting for several evaluation criteria. At the same time, the authority is free to choose among different types of award procedures while adhering to certain restrictions imposed by the Act on Public Contracts. Using a sample of 1,027 construction work contracts awarded in the Czech Republic, the study examines, in more detail, the impacts of individual choices made by the contracting authority (namely the type of evaluation criteria chosen and the type of procedure for awarding contracts on the estimated and final price of public contracts. Recommendations on how to streamline the process of public procurement can be drawn from conclusions from the empirical analysis.

  1. Building constructions: architecture and nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayatskaya Irina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of optimization of building structures is considered in architectural bionic modeling on the bionic principle basis. It is possible to get a reliable and durable constructions by studying the structure and the laws of organization of natural objects. Modern architects have created unique buildings using the bionic approach. There are such properties as symmetry, asymmetry, self-similarity and fractality used in the modern architecture. Using the methods of fractal geometry in the design of architectural forms allows finding a variety of constructive solutions.

  2. The hologram principles and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Martin J

    2018-01-01

    Written by Martin Richardson (an acclaimed leader and pioneer in the field) and John Wiltshire, The Hologram: Principles and Techniques is an important book that explores the various types of hologram in their multiple forms and explains how to create and apply the technology. The authors offer an insightful overview of the currently available recording materials, chemical formulas, and laser technology that includes the history of phase imaging and laser science. Accessible and comprehensive, the text contains a step-by-step guide to the production of holograms. In addition, The Hologram outlines the most common problems encountered in producing satisfactory images in the laboratory, as well as dealing with the wide range of optical and chemical techniques used in commercial holography. The Hologram is a well-designed instructive tool, involving three distinct disciplines: physics, chemistry, and graphic arts. This vital resource offers a guide to the development and understanding of the recording of mater...

  3. Leak detection : Principles and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rama Rao, V.V.K.

    1981-01-01

    Principles of leak detection are explained and various aspects of leak detection techniques and leak detectors are reviewed. The review covers: units for leaks and leak tightness, classification of leaks, timing of leak testing, designing for ease of leak testing of any job, methods of leak detection, their ranges of application and limitations, leak detectors, response time of leak test, minimum detectable concentration of search gas during leak tests, and validity of leak tests. Helium mass spectrometer type leak detector and technique are described in detail. Recent improvements in leak detectors and techniques, particularly mass spectrometer leak detectors using gases other than helium (e.g. hydrogen, argon) are also covered in the review. (M.G.B.)

  4. Integration of open metal sites and Lewis basic sites for construction of a Cu MOF with rare chiral Oh type of cage for high performance of methane purification

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Zhan; Meng, Lingkun; Niu, Ziyuan; Liang, Chen; Dong, Xinglong; Liu, Kang; Li, Guanghua; Li, Chunguang; Han, Yu; Feng, Shouhua

    2018-01-01

    A Cu MOF [Cu4(PMTD)2(H2O)3]·20H2O, 1, (Where PMTD is (1,4-phenylenebis(5-methyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3,4-diyl)bis(5-carboxylato-3,1-phenylene)bis(hydroperoxymethanide) with rare chiral Oh type of cage and dual functionalities of open metal sites and Lewis basic sites based on a designed U-shaped ligand was synthesized by hydrothermal method. It exhibits high-capacity of CO2, C2 and C3 hydrocarbon storage capacity under atmospheric pressure as well as high H2 (1.96% wt) adsorption capacity at 77K. Methane purification capacity was tested and verified step by step. Isosteric heats (Qst) study reveals that CH4 has the weakest van der Waals host- guest interactions among the seven gases at 298K. Ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) calculation reveals that compound 1 is more selective toward CO2, C2H6 and C3H8 over CH4 in further calculating its separation capacity, as exemplified for CO2/CH4 (50:50, 5:95), C2H6/CH4 (50:50, 5:95) or C3H8/CH4 (50:50, 5:95) binary gas mixtures. Breakthrough experiments show that 1 has a significantly higher adsorption capacity for CO2, C2H6 and C3H8 than CH4. The selective adsorption properties of 1 make it a promising candidate for methane purification.

  5. Integration of open metal sites and Lewis basic sites for construction of a Cu MOF with rare chiral Oh type of cage for high performance of methane purification

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Zhan

    2018-01-18

    A Cu MOF [Cu4(PMTD)2(H2O)3]·20H2O, 1, (Where PMTD is (1,4-phenylenebis(5-methyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3,4-diyl)bis(5-carboxylato-3,1-phenylene)bis(hydroperoxymethanide) with rare chiral Oh type of cage and dual functionalities of open metal sites and Lewis basic sites based on a designed U-shaped ligand was synthesized by hydrothermal method. It exhibits high-capacity of CO2, C2 and C3 hydrocarbon storage capacity under atmospheric pressure as well as high H2 (1.96% wt) adsorption capacity at 77K. Methane purification capacity was tested and verified step by step. Isosteric heats (Qst) study reveals that CH4 has the weakest van der Waals host- guest interactions among the seven gases at 298K. Ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) calculation reveals that compound 1 is more selective toward CO2, C2H6 and C3H8 over CH4 in further calculating its separation capacity, as exemplified for CO2/CH4 (50:50, 5:95), C2H6/CH4 (50:50, 5:95) or C3H8/CH4 (50:50, 5:95) binary gas mixtures. Breakthrough experiments show that 1 has a significantly higher adsorption capacity for CO2, C2H6 and C3H8 than CH4. The selective adsorption properties of 1 make it a promising candidate for methane purification.

  6. Constructing Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Philips

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Catalonia, in common with other nations, has long been concerned with the question of identity and difference. Its problematic relationship with Spain has led to an emphasis on differentiating itself from its larger neighbour (if we are to accept, as most Spaniards do not, that Catalonia is not Spain, a situation complicated by the loss of the Spanish colonies of Cuba and The Philippines in 1898, and the Spanish Civil War and subsequent dictatorship from 1936 to 1976. Beginning in the late nineteenth century, the construction of a Catalan identity followed a similar route to that taken by other European nations such as England, Ireland and, indeed, Spain, including an emphasis on rural values, activities and the countryside, and the conversion of specifically local traditions into national past times. It is only in the last ten years or so that this model of Catalan identity has been recognised for what it is – a model constructed and encouraged for and by specific nationalist political interests. Ironically, Catalonia’s identity abroad has also been constructed and manipulated for political purposes, but from quite a different perspective. Orwell’s /Homage to Catalonia/ (1938 narrates an extremely blinkered version of the Spanish Civil War which has achieved iconic status as a result of cold war politics. Subsequent portrayals of the Spanish Civil War – Valentine Cunningham’s /The Penguin Book of Spanish Civil War Verse/ (ed., Penguin, 1980, or Ken Loach’s 1995 film /Land and Freedom/ base their arguments unquestioningly on /Homage to Catalonia/, perpetuating a view of the nation’s recent history that is both reductive and inaccurate

  7. Layout Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Palsberg, Jens; Schmidt, Erik Meineche

    We design a system for generating newspaper layout proposals. The input to the system consists of editorial information (text, pictures, etc) and style information (non-editorial information that specifies the aesthetic appearance of a layout). We consider the automation of layout construction...... to pose two main problems. One problem consists in optimizing the layout with respect to the constraints and preferences specified in the style information. Another problem consists in finding a representation of the style information that both supports its use in the combinatorial optimization...

  8. The action uncertainty principle and quantum gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensky, Michael B.

    1992-02-01

    Results of the path-integral approach to the quantum theory of continuous measurements have been formulated in a preceding paper in the form of an inequality of the type of the uncertainty principle. The new inequality was called the action uncertainty principle, AUP. It was shown that the AUP allows one to find in a simple what outputs of the continuous measurements will occur with high probability. Here a more simple form of the AUP will be formulated, δ S≳ħ. When applied to quantum gravity, it leads in a very simple way to the Rosenfeld inequality for measurability of the average curvature.

  9. Construction of ideas and practice for 'nuclear geology featured database'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Guanglin; Feng Kai

    2010-01-01

    East China Institute of Technology is engaged in training person in areas of Nuclear Resource exploration. It is Nuclear Featured multi-Institute of Technology. At present, our library was done several collections system, which were focusing on Uranium and Geology. The library decide to be organizational force to construct Nuclear and Geology Featured database and put into use as soon as possible. 'Nuclear Geology Featured Database' put forward for construction principles of uniqueness, standardization, completeness, practicality, security and respecting knowledge property rights. The database contains 'Map and Table', 'periodical thesis', 'dissertations', 'conference papers', newspapers', 'books', ect. The types of literatures mainly includes monographs, periodicals, dissertations, conference papers, newspapers, as well as videos. The database can get information by ways of searching titles, authors and texts, and gradually become a more authoritative Nuclear Geology Database for study. (authors)

  10. Balzac peint les français: social satire and construction of ideal types in Les français peints par eux-mêmes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilisa Moccia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Tra il 1840 e il 1842, negli stessi anni in cui prendeva forma quella che sarà di lì a poco la Comédie Humaine, furono dati alle stampe nove volumi dell’opera Les Français peints par eux-mêmes, pubblicata da Léon Curmer. L’opera vide la collaborazione di disegnatori e scrittori fra i quali Honoré de Balzac che contribuì al progetto scrivendo due voci l’épicier e la femme comme il faut. Les Français peints par eux-mêmes, definito nel sottotitolo Encyclopédie morale du XIXe siècle, è uno dei maggiori esempi di «letteratura panoramica», come ebbe a definirla Walter Benjamin (Benjamin 1979, e vi si mescolano caricatura e determinismo fisiologico impiegati per ritrarre, e non semplicemente descrivere, i tipi umani e sociali che popolano Parigi e la Provincia. L’introduzione di Léon Curmer e Jules Janin colloca il progetto globale dell’opera sotto l’etichetta di «tableau», già utilizzata da Louis-Sébastien Mercier (Mercier 1782, della società contemporanea messa al servizio della storia dei costumi. Da un lato, il dispositivo umoristico dell’opera scatena dall’idea di classificare gli uomini, svuotati della loro soggettività e degradati a tipi sociali, al pari delle specie animali e vegetali, ricalcando e “scoronando”, dunque, l’intento normalizzante dell’Enciclopedia dei lumi. Per questo motivo, la mise en page (ogni voce dell’opera è strutturata in type, tête de page, cul de lampe, contribuisce a creare un transtesto (Genette 1997, che stringe l’occhio al lettore del tempo, nutrito dalle opere di Buffon e Cuvier.  Dall’altro, però, l’intento dichiaratamente “serio” dell’opera che deve occuparsi di spiegare, con intento pedagogico e attraverso l’escamotage dell’autoritratto, i francesi ai Francesi, suggerisce una seconda ipotesi: la società tutta è risibile perché ridicola è la borghesia del regno di Luigi Filippo. Il contributo si propone di indagare il tipo di satira che

  11. Performance Analysis for Cooperative Communication System with QC-LDPC Codes Constructed with Integer Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents four different integer sequences to construct quasi-cyclic low-density parity-check (QC-LDPC codes with mathematical theory. The paper introduces the procedure of the coding principle and coding. Four different integer sequences constructing QC-LDPC code are compared with LDPC codes by using PEG algorithm, array codes, and the Mackey codes, respectively. Then, the integer sequence QC-LDPC codes are used in coded cooperative communication. Simulation results show that the integer sequence constructed QC-LDPC codes are effective, and overall performance is better than that of other types of LDPC codes in the coded cooperative communication. The performance of Dayan integer sequence constructed QC-LDPC is the most excellent performance.

  12. Design Principles for Serious Video Games in Mathematics Education: From Theory to Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Chorianopoulos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in the employment of serious video games in science education, but there are no clear design principles. After surveying previous work in serious video game design, we highlighted the following design principles: 1 engage the students with narrative (hero, story, 2 employ familiar gameplay mechanics from popular video games, 3 engage students into constructive trial and error game-play and 4 situate collaborative learning. As illustrated examples we designed two math video games targeted to primary education students. The gameplay of the math video games embeds addition operations in a seamless way, which has been inspired by that of classic platform games. In this way, the students are adding numbers as part of popular gameplay mechanics and as a means to reach the video game objective, rather than as an end in itself. The employment of well-defined principles in the design of math video games should facilitate the evaluation of learning effectiveness by researchers. Moreover, educators can deploy alternative versions of the games in order to engage students with diverse learning styles. For example, some students might be motived and benefited by narrative, while others by collaboration, because it is unlikely that one type of serious video game might fit all learning styles. The proposed principles are not meant to be an exhaustive list, but a starting point for extending the list and applying them in other cases of serious video games beyond mathematics and learning.

  13. Labor construction trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCall, H.W.

    1976-01-01

    The increasing costs and schedule delays being experienced in construction projects have led companies to look for alternatives to their present methods of expansion. One of the facets being evaluated is the construction labor posture. As a result, more companies are employing open shop contractors. Certain benefits can be realized by open shop construction. Productivity, in terms of the time required and overall costs, is definitely improved at no sacrifice in quality. Before an owner decides to build a project open shop, however, he must be fully aware of the pro's and con's of both types of labor posture. He must know to select a capable open shop contractor and he must realize his obligations for a successful open shop program

  14. Efficiency principles of consulting entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Moroz Yustina S.; Drozdov Igor N.

    2015-01-01

    The article reviews the primary goals and problems of consulting entrepreneurship. The principles defining efficiency of entrepreneurship in the field of consulting are generalized. The special attention is given to the importance of ethical principles of conducting consulting entrepreneurship activity.

  15. Algorithmic Principles of Mathematical Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faigle, Ulrich; Kern, Walter; Still, Georg

    2002-01-01

    Algorithmic Principles of Mathematical Programming investigates the mathematical structures and principles underlying the design of efficient algorithms for optimization problems. Recent advances in algorithmic theory have shown that the traditionally separate areas of discrete optimization, linear

  16. The Playtime Principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sifa, Rafet; Bauckhage, Christian; Drachen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    be derived from this large-scale analysis, notably that playtime as a function of time, across the thousands of games in the dataset, and irrespective of local differences in the playtime frequency distribution, can be modeled using the same model: the Wei bull distribution. This suggests...... that there are fundamental properties governing player engagement as it evolves over time, which we here refer to as the Playtime Principle. Additionally, the analysis shows that there are distinct clusters, or archetypes, in the playtime frequency distributions of the investigated games. These archetypal groups correspond...

  17. Complex Correspondence Principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, Carl M.; Meisinger, Peter N.; Hook, Daniel W.; Wang Qinghai

    2010-01-01

    Quantum mechanics and classical mechanics are distinctly different theories, but the correspondence principle states that quantum particles behave classically in the limit of high quantum number. In recent years much research has been done on extending both quantum and classical mechanics into the complex domain. These complex extensions continue to exhibit a correspondence, and this correspondence becomes more pronounced in the complex domain. The association between complex quantum mechanics and complex classical mechanics is subtle and demonstrating this relationship requires the use of asymptotics beyond all orders.

  18. Principles of chemical kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    House, James E

    2007-01-01

    James House's revised Principles of Chemical Kinetics provides a clear and logical description of chemical kinetics in a manner unlike any other book of its kind. Clearly written with detailed derivations, the text allows students to move rapidly from theoretical concepts of rates of reaction to concrete applications. Unlike other texts, House presents a balanced treatment of kinetic reactions in gas, solution, and solid states. The entire text has been revised and includes many new sections and an additional chapter on applications of kinetics. The topics covered include quantitative rela

  19. RFID design principles

    CERN Document Server

    Lehpamer, Harvey

    2012-01-01

    This revised edition of the Artech House bestseller, RFID Design Principles, serves as an up-to-date and comprehensive introduction to the subject. The second edition features numerous updates and brand new and expanded material on emerging topics such as the medical applications of RFID and new ethical challenges in the field. This practical book offers you a detailed understanding of RFID design essentials, key applications, and important management issues. The book explores the role of RFID technology in supply chain management, intelligent building design, transportation systems, military

  20. Principles of meteoritics

    CERN Document Server

    Krinov, E L

    1960-01-01

    Principles of Meteoritics examines the significance of meteorites in relation to cosmogony and to the origin of the planetary system. The book discusses the science of meteoritics and the sources of meteorites. Scientists study the morphology of meteorites to determine their motion in the atmosphere. The scope of such study includes all forms of meteorites, the circumstances of their fall to earth, their motion in the atmosphere, and their orbits in space. Meteoric bodies vary in sizes; in calculating their motion in interplanetary space, astronomers apply the laws of Kepler. In the region of

  1. Principles of Uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Kadane, Joseph B

    2011-01-01

    An intuitive and mathematical introduction to subjective probability and Bayesian statistics. An accessible, comprehensive guide to the theory of Bayesian statistics, Principles of Uncertainty presents the subjective Bayesian approach, which has played a pivotal role in game theory, economics, and the recent boom in Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. Both rigorous and friendly, the book contains: Introductory chapters examining each new concept or assumption Just-in-time mathematics -- the presentation of ideas just before they are applied Summary and exercises at the end of each chapter Discus

  2. Principles of speech coding

    CERN Document Server

    Ogunfunmi, Tokunbo

    2010-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that all forms of communication-including voice-will be transmitted through packet-switched networks based on the Internet Protocol (IP). Therefore, the design of modern devices that rely on speech interfaces, such as cell phones and PDAs, requires a complete and up-to-date understanding of the basics of speech coding. Outlines key signal processing algorithms used to mitigate impairments to speech quality in VoIP networksOffering a detailed yet easily accessible introduction to the field, Principles of Speech Coding provides an in-depth examination of the

  3. Principles of quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    George, David V

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Quantum Chemistry focuses on the application of quantum mechanics in physical models and experiments of chemical systems.This book describes chemical bonding and its two specific problems - bonding in complexes and in conjugated organic molecules. The very basic theory of spectroscopy is also considered. Other topics include the early development of quantum theory; particle-in-a-box; general formulation of the theory of quantum mechanics; and treatment of angular momentum in quantum mechanics. The examples of solutions of Schroedinger equations; approximation methods in quantum c

  4. Principles of thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufman, Myron

    2002-01-01

    Ideal for one- or two-semester courses that assume elementary knowledge of calculus, This text presents the fundamental concepts of thermodynamics and applies these to problems dealing with properties of materials, phase transformations, chemical reactions, solutions and surfaces. The author utilizes principles of statistical mechanics to illustrate key concepts from a microscopic perspective, as well as develop equations of kinetic theory. The book provides end-of-chapter question and problem sets, some using Mathcad™ and Mathematica™; a useful glossary containing important symbols, definitions, and units; and appendices covering multivariable calculus and valuable numerical methods.

  5. Principles of fluorescence techniques

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence techniques are being used and applied increasingly in academics and industry. The Principles of Fluorescence Techniques course will outline the basic concepts of fluorescence techniques and the successful utilization of the currently available commercial instrumentation. The course is designed for students who utilize fluorescence techniques and instrumentation and for researchers and industrial scientists who wish to deepen their knowledge of fluorescence applications. Key scientists in the field will deliver theoretical lectures. The lectures will be complemented by the direct utilization of steady-state and lifetime fluorescence instrumentation and confocal microscopy for FLIM and FRET applications provided by leading companies.

  6. Safety principles and design criteria for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazit, M.

    1982-01-01

    The criteria and safety principles for the design of nuclear power stations are presented from the viewpoint of a nuclear engineer. The design, construction and operation of nuclear power stations should be carried out according to these criteria and safety principles to ensure, to a reasonable degree, that the likelihood of release of radioactivity as a result of component failure or human error should be minimized. (author)

  7. Design principles for riboswitch function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chase L Beisel

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Scientific and technological advances that enable the tuning of integrated regulatory components to match network and system requirements are critical to reliably control the function of biological systems. RNA provides a promising building block for the construction of tunable regulatory components based on its rich regulatory capacity and our current understanding of the sequence-function relationship. One prominent example of RNA-based regulatory components is riboswitches, genetic elements that mediate ligand control of gene expression through diverse regulatory mechanisms. While characterization of natural and synthetic riboswitches has revealed that riboswitch function can be modulated through sequence alteration, no quantitative frameworks exist to investigate or guide riboswitch tuning. Here, we combined mathematical modeling and experimental approaches to investigate the relationship between riboswitch function and performance. Model results demonstrated that the competition between reversible and irreversible rate constants dictates performance for different regulatory mechanisms. We also found that practical system restrictions, such as an upper limit on ligand concentration, can significantly alter the requirements for riboswitch performance, necessitating alternative tuning strategies. Previous experimental data for natural and synthetic riboswitches as well as experiments conducted in this work support model predictions. From our results, we developed a set of general design principles for synthetic riboswitches. Our results also provide a foundation from which to investigate how natural riboswitches are tuned to meet systems-level regulatory demands.

  8. A Behavioral Science Assessment of Selected Principles of Consumer Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Monroe; Rees, Jennifer

    1988-01-01

    This study examined the bahavioral science support for a set of 20 food-buying principles. Three types of principles are found; they differ in the consumer behaviors they recommend and in the nature and strength of support they receive in the behavioral science literature. (Author/JOW)

  9. Variational principles for locally variational forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brajercik, J.; Krupka, D.

    2005-01-01

    We present the theory of higher order local variational principles in fibered manifolds, in which the fundamental global concept is a locally variational dynamical form. Any two Lepage forms, defining a local variational principle for this form, differ on intersection of their domains, by a variationally trivial form. In this sense, but in a different geometric setting, the local variational principles satisfy analogous properties as the variational functionals of the Chern-Simons type. The resulting theory of extremals and symmetries extends the first order theories of the Lagrange-Souriau form, presented by Grigore and Popp, and closed equivalents of the first order Euler-Lagrange forms of Hakova and Krupkova. Conceptually, our approach differs from Prieto, who uses the Poincare-Cartan forms, which do not have higher order global analogues

  10. The principle of the Fermionic projector

    CERN Document Server

    Finster, Felix

    2006-01-01

    The "principle of the fermionic projector" provides a new mathematical framework for the formulation of physical theories and is a promising approach for physics beyond the standard model. This book begins with a brief review of relativity, relativistic quantum mechanics, and classical gauge theories, emphasizing the basic physical concepts and mathematical foundations. The external field problem and Klein's paradox are discussed and then resolved by introducing the fermionic projector, a global object in space-time that generalizes the notion of the Dirac sea. At the mathematical core of the book is a precise definition of the fermionic projector and the use of methods of hyperbolic differential equations for detailed analysis. The fermionic projector makes it possible to formulate a new type of variational principle in space-time. The mathematical tools are developed for the analysis of the corresponding Euler-Lagrange equations. A particular variational principle is proposed that gives rise to an effective...

  11. Fermat and the Minimum Principle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arguably, least action and minimum principles were offered or applied much earlier. This (or these) principle(s) is/are among the fundamental, basic, unifying or organizing ones used to describe a variety of natural phenomena. It considers the amount of energy expended in performing a given action to be the least required ...

  12. Fundamental Principle for Quantum Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2002-01-01

    We propose the principle, the law of statistical balance for basic physical observables, which specifies quantum statistical theory among all other statistical theories of measurements. It seems that this principle might play in quantum theory the role that is similar to the role of Einstein's relativity principle.

  13. Principles for School Drug Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Lois

    2004-01-01

    This document presents a revised set of principles for school drug education. The principles for drug education in schools comprise an evolving framework that has proved useful over a number of decades in guiding the development of effective drug education. The first edition of "Principles for Drug Education in Schools" (Ballard et al.…

  14. THE RESPONSIBILITY PRINCIPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ANGHEL

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available "I'm wishing Law this: all legal obligations sholud be executed with the scrupulosity with which moral obligations are being performed by those people who feel bound by them ...", so beautifully portraited by Nicolae Titulescu`s words1. Life in the society means more than a simple coexistence of human beings, it actually means living together, collaborating and cooperating; that is why I always have to relate to other people and to be aware that only by limiting my freedom of action, the others freedom is feasible. Neminem laedere should be a principle of life for each of us. The individual is a responsible being. But responsibility exceeds legal prescriptions. Romanian Constitution underlines that I have to exercise my rights and freedoms in good faith, without infringing the rights and freedoms of others. The legal norm, developer of the constitutional principles, is endowed with sanction, which grants it exigibility. But I wonder: If I choose to obey the law, is my decision essentially determined only due of the fear of punishment? Is it not because I am a rational being, who developed during its life a conscience towards values, and thus I understand that I have to respect the law and I choose to comply with it?

  15. Is small violation of the Pauli principle possible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatiev, A.Yu.; Kuzmin, V.A.

    1987-02-01

    The Pauli exclusion principle is one of the most fundamental laws of nature. Yet the experiment shows that many fundamental laws are in fact not absolute, but only approximate, i.e. are valid only to a certain accuracy. At present, however, there are no answers to the question: ''To what accuracy is the Pauli principle valid?'' This is so because there are no models capable of describing small deviations from the exclusion principle. In the present paper we consider the problem of constructing such models. We have constructed the simplest algebra of the creation and annihilation operators with a parameter β which incorporates the small violations of the Pauli principle (for β=0 the Pauli principle holds absolutely true). The commutation relations in this model prove to be trilinear. We then present a model Hamiltonian based on the constructed algebra which describes the Pauli principle violating transitions i.e. transitions of two identical particles into the same state with the probability suppressed by a factor of β 2 (notwithstanding the fact that the Hamiltonian itself does not contain any small parameters). (author). 8 refs

  16. The power of projectomes: genetic mosaic labeling in the larval zebrafish brain reveals organizing principles of sensory circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Estuardo

    2017-09-01

    In no vertebrate species do we possess an accurate, comprehensive tally of neuron types in the brain. This is in no small part due to the vast diversity of neuronal types that comprise complex vertebrate nervous systems. A fundamental goal of neuroscience is to construct comprehensive catalogs of cell types defined by structure, connectivity, and physiological response properties. This type of information will be invaluable for generating models of how assemblies of neurons encode and distribute sensory information and correspondingly alter behavior. This review summarizes recent efforts in the larval zebrafish to construct sensory projectomes, comprehensive analyses of axonal morphologies in sensory axon tracts. Focusing on the olfactory and optic tract, these studies revealed principles of sensory information processing in the olfactory and visual systems that could not have been directly quantified by other methods. In essence, these studies reconstructed the optic and olfactory tract in a virtual manner, providing insights into patterns of neuronal growth that underlie the formation of sensory axon tracts. Quantitative analysis of neuronal diversity revealed organizing principles that determine information flow through sensory systems in the zebrafish that are likely to be conserved across vertebrate species. The generation of comprehensive cell type classifications based on structural, physiological, and molecular features will lead to testable hypotheses on the functional role of individual sensory neuron subtypes in controlling specific sensory-evoked behaviors.

  17. The meaning of the EPSRC principles of robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, Joanna J.

    2017-04-01

    In revisiting the Principles of Robotics (as we do in this special issue), it is important to carefully consider their full meaning - their history, the intentions behind them, and their actual societal impact to date. Here I address first the meaning of the document as a whole, then of its constituent parts. Further, I describe the nature of policy, and use the Principles as a case study to discuss how government and academia can interact in constructing policy. I defend the Principles and their main themes: that commercially manufactured robots should not be responsible parties under the law, and that users should not be deceived about robots' capacities or moral status. This perspective allows for the incorporation of robots immediately into UK society and law - the objective of the Principles. The Principles were not designed for every conceivable robot, but rather serve in part as design specifications for robots to be incorporated as legal products into British society.

  18. Construction materials and Radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine Nicolosi; Loriane, Fior; Schelin, Hugo R.; Pottker, Fabiana; Paula Melo, Vicente de

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Current studies have been performed with the aim to find the correlation of radon concentration in the air and used construction materials. At the first stage of the measurements different samples of materials used in civil construction were studied as a source of radon in the air and at the second step it was studied the radon infiltration insulation using different samples of finishing materials. For 222 Rn concentration measurements related to different construction materials as well as for the studies of radon emanation and its reduction, the sealed cell chambers, of approximately 60 x 60cm 2 , have been built using the ceramic and concrete blocks. This construction has been performed within protected and isolated laboratory environment to maintain the air humidity and temperature stable. These long term measurements have been performed using polycarbonate alpha track passive detectors. The exposure time was set about 15 days considering previous calibration performed at the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD/CNEN), where the efficiency of 70% was obtained for the density of alpha particle tracks about 13.8 cm -2 per exposure day and per kBq/m 3 of radon activity concentration. The chemical development of alpha tracks has been achieved by electrochemical etching. The track identification and counting have been done using a code based on the MATLAB Image Processing Toolbox. The cell chambers have been built following four principle steps: 1) Assembling the walls using the blocks and mortar; 2) Plaster installation; 3) Wall surface finishing using the lime; 4) Wall surface insulation by paint. Making the comparison between three layers installed at the masonry walls from concrete and ceramic blocks, it could be concluded that only wall painting with acrylic varnish attended the expectation and reduced the radon emanation flow by the factor of 2.5 approximately. Studied construction materials have been submitted the instant

  19. Stochastic control theory dynamic programming principle

    CERN Document Server

    Nisio, Makiko

    2015-01-01

    This book offers a systematic introduction to the optimal stochastic control theory via the dynamic programming principle, which is a powerful tool to analyze control problems. First we consider completely observable control problems with finite horizons. Using a time discretization we construct a nonlinear semigroup related to the dynamic programming principle (DPP), whose generator provides the Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman (HJB) equation, and we characterize the value function via the nonlinear semigroup, besides the viscosity solution theory. When we control not only the dynamics of a system but also the terminal time of its evolution, control-stopping problems arise. This problem is treated in the same frameworks, via the nonlinear semigroup. Its results are applicable to the American option price problem. Zero-sum two-player time-homogeneous stochastic differential games and viscosity solutions of the Isaacs equations arising from such games are studied via a nonlinear semigroup related to DPP (the min-ma...

  20. Mechatronics design principles for biotechnology product development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandenius, Carl-Fredrik; Björkman, Mats

    2010-05-01

    Traditionally, biotechnology design has focused on the manufacture of chemicals and biologics. Still, a majority of biotechnology products that appear on the market today is the result of mechanical-electric (mechatronic) construction. For these, the biological components play decisive roles in the design solution; the biological entities are either integral parts of the design, or are transformed by the mechatronic system. This article explains how the development and production engineering design principles used for typical mechanical products can be adapted to the demands of biotechnology products, and how electronics, mechanics and biology can be integrated more successfully. We discuss three emerging areas of biotechnology in which mechatronic design principles can apply: stem cell manufacture, artificial organs, and bioreactors. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.