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Sample records for primitive existence based

  1. Primitive Based Action Representation and Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baby, Sanmohan; Krüger, Volker

    2009-01-01

    a sequential and statistical     learning algorithm for   automatic detection of the action primitives and the action grammar   based on these primitives.  We model a set of actions using a   single HMM whose structure is learned incrementally as we observe   new types.   Actions are modeled with sufficient...

  2. Primitive Based Action Representation and recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baby, Sanmohan

    The presented work is aimed at designing a system that will model and recognize actions and its interaction with objects. Such a system is aimed at facilitating robot task learning. Activity modeling and recognition is very important for its potential applications in surveillance, human-machine i......The presented work is aimed at designing a system that will model and recognize actions and its interaction with objects. Such a system is aimed at facilitating robot task learning. Activity modeling and recognition is very important for its potential applications in surveillance, human......-machine interface, entertainment, biomechanics etc. Recent developments in neuroscience suggest that all actions are a compositions of smaller units called primitives. Current works based on primitives for action recognition uses a supervised framework for specifying the primitives. We propose a method to extract...... primitives automatically. These primitives are to be used to generate actions based on certain rules for combining. These rules are expressed as a stochastic context free grammar. A model merging approach is adopted to learn a Hidden Markov Model to t the observed data sequences. The states of the HMM...

  3. An Overview of DRAM-Based Security Primitives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Athanasios Anagnostopoulos

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments have increased the demand for adequate security solutions, based on primitives that cannot be easily manipulated or altered, such as hardware-based primitives. Security primitives based on Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM can provide cost-efficient and practical security solutions, especially for resource-constrained devices, such as hardware used in the Internet of Things (IoT, as DRAMs are an intrinsic part of most contemporary computer systems. In this work, we present a comprehensive overview of the literature regarding DRAM-based security primitives and an extended classification of it, based on a number of different criteria. In particular, first, we demonstrate the way in which DRAMs work and present the characteristics being exploited for the implementation of security primitives. Then, we introduce the primitives that can be implemented using DRAM, namely Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs and True Random Number Generators (TRNGs, and present the applications of each of the two types of DRAM-based security primitives. We additionally proceed to assess the security such primitives can provide, by discussing potential attacks and defences, as well as the proposed security metrics. Subsequently, we also compare these primitives to other hardware-based security primitives, noting their advantages and shortcomings, and proceed to demonstrate their potential for commercial adoption. Finally, we analyse our classification methodology, by reviewing the criteria employed in our classification and examining their significance.

  4. CAD-based Monte Carlo automatic modeling method based on primitive solid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dong; Song, Jing; Yu, Shengpeng; Long, Pengcheng; Wang, Yongliang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We develop a method which bi-convert between CAD model and primitive solid. • This method was improved from convert method between CAD model and half space. • This method was test by ITER model and validated the correctness and efficiency. • This method was integrated in SuperMC which could model for SuperMC and Geant4. - Abstract: Monte Carlo method has been widely used in nuclear design and analysis, where geometries are described with primitive solids. However, it is time consuming and error prone to describe a primitive solid geometry, especially for a complicated model. To reuse the abundant existed CAD models and conveniently model with CAD modeling tools, an automatic modeling method for accurate prompt modeling between CAD model and primitive solid is needed. An automatic modeling method for Monte Carlo geometry described by primitive solid was developed which could bi-convert between CAD model and Monte Carlo geometry represented by primitive solids. While converting from CAD model to primitive solid model, the CAD model was decomposed into several convex solid sets, and then corresponding primitive solids were generated and exported. While converting from primitive solid model to the CAD model, the basic primitive solids were created and related operation was done. This method was integrated in the SuperMC and was benchmarked with ITER benchmark model. The correctness and efficiency of this method were demonstrated.

  5. Exploring Hardware-Based Primitives to Enhance Parallel Security Monitoring in a Novel Computing Architecture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mott, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    This research explores how hardware-based primitives can be implemented to perform security-related monitoring in real-time, offer better security, and increase performance compared to software-based approaches...

  6. Global existence and regularity for the 3D stochastic primitive equations of the ocean and atmosphere with multiplicative white noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debussche, A.; Glatt-Holtz, N.; Temam, R.; Ziane, M.

    2012-07-01

    The primitive equations (PEs) are a basic model in the study of large scale oceanic and atmospheric dynamics. These systems form the analytical core of the most advanced general circulation models. For this reason and due to their challenging nonlinear and anisotropic structure, the PEs have recently received considerable attention from the mathematical community. On the other hand, in view of the complex multi-scale nature of the earth's climate system, many uncertainties appear that should be accounted for in the basic dynamical models of atmospheric and oceanic processes. In the climate community stochastic methods have come into extensive use in this connection. For this reason there has appeared a need to further develop the foundations of nonlinear stochastic partial differential equations in connection with the PEs and more generally. In this work we study a stochastic version of the PEs. We establish the global existence and uniqueness of strong, pathwise solutions for these equations in dimension 3 for the case of a nonlinear multiplicative noise. The proof makes use of anisotropic estimates, L^{p}_{t}L^{q}_{x} estimates on the pressure and stopping time arguments.

  7. Global existence and regularity for the 3D stochastic primitive equations of the ocean and atmosphere with multiplicative white noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debussche, A; Glatt-Holtz, N; Temam, R; Ziane, M

    2012-01-01

    The primitive equations (PEs) are a basic model in the study of large scale oceanic and atmospheric dynamics. These systems form the analytical core of the most advanced general circulation models. For this reason and due to their challenging nonlinear and anisotropic structure, the PEs have recently received considerable attention from the mathematical community. On the other hand, in view of the complex multi-scale nature of the earth's climate system, many uncertainties appear that should be accounted for in the basic dynamical models of atmospheric and oceanic processes. In the climate community stochastic methods have come into extensive use in this connection. For this reason there has appeared a need to further develop the foundations of nonlinear stochastic partial differential equations in connection with the PEs and more generally. In this work we study a stochastic version of the PEs. We establish the global existence and uniqueness of strong, pathwise solutions for these equations in dimension 3 for the case of a nonlinear multiplicative noise. The proof makes use of anisotropic estimates, L p t L q x estimates on the pressure and stopping time arguments

  8. Efficient conservative ADER schemes based on WENO reconstruction and space-time predictor in primitive variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanotti, Olindo; Dumbser, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We present a new version of conservative ADER-WENO finite volume schemes, in which both the high order spatial reconstruction as well as the time evolution of the reconstruction polynomials in the local space-time predictor stage are performed in primitive variables, rather than in conserved ones. To obtain a conservative method, the underlying finite volume scheme is still written in terms of the cell averages of the conserved quantities. Therefore, our new approach performs the spatial WENO reconstruction twice: the first WENO reconstruction is carried out on the known cell averages of the conservative variables. The WENO polynomials are then used at the cell centers to compute point values of the conserved variables, which are subsequently converted into point values of the primitive variables. This is the only place where the conversion from conservative to primitive variables is needed in the new scheme. Then, a second WENO reconstruction is performed on the point values of the primitive variables to obtain piecewise high order reconstruction polynomials of the primitive variables. The reconstruction polynomials are subsequently evolved in time with a novel space-time finite element predictor that is directly applied to the governing PDE written in primitive form. The resulting space-time polynomials of the primitive variables can then be directly used as input for the numerical fluxes at the cell boundaries in the underlying conservative finite volume scheme. Hence, the number of necessary conversions from the conserved to the primitive variables is reduced to just one single conversion at each cell center. We have verified the validity of the new approach over a wide range of hyperbolic systems, including the classical Euler equations of gas dynamics, the special relativistic hydrodynamics (RHD) and ideal magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD) equations, as well as the Baer-Nunziato model for compressible two-phase flows. In all cases we have noticed that the new ADER

  9. An Efficient Primitive-Based Method to Recognize Online Sketched Symbols with Autocompletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Deng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new structural method of sketched symbol recognition, which aims to recognize a hand-drawn symbol before it is fully completed. It is invariant to scale, stroke number, and order. We also present two novel descriptors to represent the spatial distribution between two primitives. One is invariant to rotation and the other is not. Then a symbol is represented as a set of descriptors. The distance between the input symbol and the template one is calculated based on the assignment problem. Moreover, a fast nearest neighbor (NN search algorithm is proposed for recognition. The method achieves a satisfactory recognition rate in real time.

  10. QCAPUF: QCA-based physically unclonable function as a hardware security primitive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abutaleb, M. M.

    2018-04-01

    Physically unclonable functions (PUFs) are increasingly used as innovative security primitives to provide the hardware authentication and identification as well as the secret key generation based on unique and random variations in identically fabricated devices. Security and low power have appeared to become two crucial necessities to modern designs. As an emerging nanoelectronic technology, a quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) can achieve ultra-low power consumption as well as an extremely small area for implementing digital designs. However, there are various classes of permanent defects that can happen during the manufacture of QCA devices. The recent extensive research has been focused on how to eliminate errors in QCA structures resulting from fabrication variances. By a completely different vision, to turn this disadvantage into an advantage, this paper presents a novel QCA-based PUF (QCAPUF) architecture to exploit the unique physical characteristics of fabricated QCA cells in order to produce different hardware fingerprint instances. This architecture is composed of proposed logic and interconnect blocks that have critical vulnerabilities and perform unexpected logical operations. The behaviour of QCAPUF is thoroughly analysed through physical relations and simulations. Results confirm that the proposed QCAPUF has state of the art PUF characteristics in the QCA technology. This paper will serve as a basis for further research into QCA-based hardware security primitives and applications.

  11. Hierarchical HMM based learning of navigation primitives for cooperative robotic endovascular catheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafii-Tari, Hedyeh; Liu, Jindong; Payne, Christopher J; Bicknell, Colin; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Despite increased use of remote-controlled steerable catheter navigation systems for endovascular intervention, most current designs are based on master configurations which tend to alter natural operator tool interactions. This introduces problems to both ergonomics and shared human-robot control. This paper proposes a novel cooperative robotic catheterization system based on learning-from-demonstration. By encoding the higher-level structure of a catheterization task as a sequence of primitive motions, we demonstrate how to achieve prospective learning for complex tasks whilst incorporating subject-specific variations. A hierarchical Hidden Markov Model is used to model each movement primitive as well as their sequential relationship. This model is applied to generation of motion sequences, recognition of operator input, and prediction of future movements for the robot. The framework is validated by comparing catheter tip motions against the manual approach, showing significant improvements in the quality of catheterization. The results motivate the design of collaborative robotic systems that are intuitive to use, while reducing the cognitive workload of the operator.

  12. Calculation Scheme Based on a Weighted Primitive: Application to Image Processing Transforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio de Miguel Casado

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method to improve the calculation of functions which specially demand a great amount of computing resources. The method is based on the choice of a weighted primitive which enables the calculation of function values under the scope of a recursive operation. When tackling the design level, the method shows suitable for developing a processor which achieves a satisfying trade-off between time delay, area costs, and stability. The method is particularly suitable for the mathematical transforms used in signal processing applications. A generic calculation scheme is developed for the discrete fast Fourier transform (DFT and then applied to other integral transforms such as the discrete Hartley transform (DHT, the discrete cosine transform (DCT, and the discrete sine transform (DST. Some comparisons with other well-known proposals are also provided.

  13. Spectrum Analysis of Inertial and Subinertial Motions Based on Analyzed Winds and Wind-Driven Currents from a Primitive Equation General Ocean Circulation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    1Muter.Te Motions Based on Ana lyzed Winds and wind-driven December 1982 Currents from. a Primitive Squat ion General a.OW -love"*..* Oean Circulation...mew se"$ (comeS.... do oISN..u am ae~ 00do OWaor NUN Fourier and Rotary Spc , Analysis Modeled Inertial and Subinrtial Motion 4 Primitive Equation

  14. A Synoptic of Software Implementation for Shift Registers Based on 16th Degree Primitive Polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirella Amelia Mioc

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Almost all of the major applications in the specific Fields of Communication used a well-known device called Linear Feedback Shift Register. Usually LFSR functions in a Galois Field GF(2n, meaning that all the operations are done with arithmetic modulo n degree Irreducible  and especially  Primitive Polynomials. Storing data in Galois Fields allows effective and manageable manipulation, mainly in computer cryptographic applications. The analysis of functioning for Primitive Polynomials of 16th degree shows that almost all the obtained results are in the same time distribution.

  15. Images from the Mind: BCI image reconstruction based on Rapid Serial Visual Presentations of polygon primitives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís F Seoane

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We provide a proof of concept for an EEG-based reconstruction of a visual image which is on a user's mind. Our approach is based on the Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP of polygon primitives and Brain-Computer Interface (BCI technology. In an experimental setup, subjects were presented bursts of polygons: some of them contributed to building a target image (because they matched the shape and/or color of the target while some of them did not. The presentation of the contributing polygons triggered attention-related EEG patterns. These Event Related Potentials (ERPs could be determined using BCI classification and could be matched to the stimuli that elicited them. These stimuli (i.e. the ERP-correlated polygons were accumulated in the display until a satisfactory reconstruction of the target image was reached. As more polygons were accumulated, finer visual details were attained resulting in more challenging classification tasks. In our experiments, we observe an average classification accuracy of around 75%. An in-depth investigation suggests that many of the misclassifications were not misinterpretations of the BCI concerning the users' intent, but rather caused by ambiguous polygons that could contribute to reconstruct several different images. When we put our BCI-image reconstruction in perspective with other RSVP BCI paradigms, there is large room for improvement both in speed and accuracy. These results invite us to be optimistic. They open a plethora of possibilities to explore non-invasive BCIs for image reconstruction both in healthy and impaired subjects and, accordingly, suggest interesting recreational and clinical applications.

  16. On Synchronization Primitive Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report studies the question: what synchronization primitive should be used to handle inter-process communication. A formal model is presented...between these synchronization primitives. Although only four synchronization primitives are compared, the general methods can be used to compare other... synchronization primitives. Moreover, in the definitions of these synchronization primitives, conditional branches are explicitly allowed. In addition

  17. Effective convergence to complete orbital bases and to the atomic Hartree--Fock limit through systematic sequences of Gaussian primitives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, M.W.; Ruedenberg, K.

    1979-01-01

    Optimal starting points for expanding molecular orbitals in terms of atomic orbitals are the self-consistent-field orbitals of the free atoms and accurate information about the latter is essential for the construction of effective AO bases for molecular calculations. For expansions of atomic SCF orbitals in terms of Gaussian primitives, which are of particular interest for applications in polyatomic quantum chemistry, previous information has been limited in accuracy. In the present investigation a simple procedure is given for finding expansions of atomic self-consistent-field orbitals in terms of Gaussian primitives to arbitrarily high accuracy. The method furthermore opens the first avenue so far for approaching complete basis sets through systematic sequences of atomic orbitals

  18. Fast concurrent array-based stacks, queues and deques using fetch-and-increment-bounded, fetch-and-decrement-bounded and store-on-twin synchronization primitives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Gara, Alana; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Ohmacht, Martin; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard; Wisniewski, Robert

    2014-09-16

    Implementation primitives for concurrent array-based stacks, queues, double-ended queues (deques) and wrapped deques are provided. In one aspect, each element of the stack, queue, deque or wrapped deque data structure has its own ticket lock, allowing multiple threads to concurrently use multiple elements of the data structure and thus achieving high performance. In another aspect, new synchronization primitives FetchAndIncrementBounded (Counter, Bound) and FetchAndDecrementBounded (Counter, Bound) are implemented. These primitives can be implemented in hardware and thus promise a very fast throughput for queues, stacks and double-ended queues.

  19. Abelian primitive words

    OpenAIRE

    Domaratzki, Michael; Rampersad, Narad

    2011-01-01

    We investigate Abelian primitive words, which are words that are not Abelian powers. We show that unlike classical primitive words, the set of Abelian primitive words is not context-free. We can determine whether a word is Abelian primitive in linear time. Also different from classical primitive words, we find that a word may have more than one Abelian root. We also consider enumeration problems and the relation to the theory of codes. Peer reviewed

  20. Motion Primitives for Action Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben; Holte, Michael Boelstoft; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2007-01-01

    the actions as a sequence of temporal isolated instances, denoted primitives. These primitives are each defined by four features extracted from motion images. The primitives are recognized in each frame based on a trained classifier resulting in a sequence of primitives. From this sequence we recognize......The number of potential applications has made automatic recognition of human actions a very active research area. Different approaches have been followed based on trajectories through some state space. In this paper we also model an action as a trajectory through a state space, but we represent...... different temporal actions using a probabilistic Edit Distance method. The method is tested on different actions with and without noise and the results show recognition rates of 88.7% and 85.5%, respectively....

  1. Action Recognition using Motion Primitives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeslund, Thomas B.; Fihl, Preben; Holte, Michael Boelstoft

    the actions as a sequence of temporal isolated instances, denoted primitives. These primitives are each defined by four features extracted from motion images. The primitives are recognized in each frame based on a trained classifier resulting in a sequence of primitives. From this sequence we recognize......The number of potential applications has made automatic recognition of human actions a very active research area. Different approaches have been followed based on trajectories through some state space. In this paper we also model an action as a trajectory through a state space, but we represent...... different temporal actions using a probabilistic Edit Distance method. The method is tested on different actions with and without noise and the results show recognizing rates of 88.7% and 85.5%, respectively....

  2. Two-Step System Identification and Primitive-Based Motion Planning for Control of Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grymin, David J.

    This dissertation addresses motion planning, modeling, and feedback control for autonomous vehicle systems. A hierarchical approach for motion planning and control of nonlinear systems operating in obstacle environments is presented. To reduce computation time during the motion planning process, dynamically feasible trajectories are generated in real-time through concatenation of pre-specified motion primitives. The motion planning task is posed as a search over a directed graph, and the applicability of informed graph search techniques is investigated. Specifically, a locally greedy algorithm with effective backtracking ability is developed and compared to weighted A* search. The greedy algorithm shows an advantage with respect to solution cost and computation time when larger motion primitive libraries that do not operate on a regular state lattice are utilized. Linearization of the nonlinear system equations about the motion primitive library results in a hybrid linear time-varying model, and an optimal control algorithm using the l 2-induced norm as the performance measure is applied to ensure that the system tracks the desired trajectory. The ability of the resulting controller to closely track the trajectory obtained from the motion planner, despite various disturbances and uncertainties, is demonstrated through simulation. Additionally, an approach for obtaining dynamically feasible reference trajectories and feedback controllers for a small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) based on an aerodynamic model derived from flight tests is presented. The modeling approach utilizes the two step method (TSM) with stepwise multiple regression to determine relevant explanatory terms for the aerodynamic models. Dynamically feasible trajectories are then obtained through the solution of an optimal control problem using pseudospectral optimal control software. Discretetime feedback controllers are then obtained to regulate the vehicle along the desired reference trajectory

  3. AGUA TIBIA PRIMITIVE AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, William P.; Thurber, Horace K.

    1984-01-01

    The Agua Tibia Primitive Area in southwestern California is underlain by igneous and metamorphic rocks that are siilar to those widely exposed throughout much of the Peninsular Ranges. To detect the presence of any concealed mineral deposits, samples of stream sediments were collected along the various creeks that head in the mountain. As an additional aid in evaluating the mineral potential, an aeromagnetic survey was made and interpreted. A search for records of past or existing mining claims within the primitive area was made but none was found. Evidence of deposits of metallic or nonmetallic minerals was not seen during the study.

  4. Drawbacks of the ancient RNA-based life-like system under primitive earth conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Kunio

    2012-07-01

    Following the discovery of ribozymes, the "RNA world" hypothesis has become the most accepted hypothesis concerning the origin of life and genetic information. However, this hypothesis has several drawbacks. Verification of the hypothesis from different viewpoints led us to proposals from the viewpoint of the hydrothermal origin of life, solubility of RNA and related biopolymers, and the possibility of creating an evolutionary system comparable to the in vitro selection technique for functional RNA molecules based on molecular biology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. High resolution array-based comparative genomic hybridisation of medulloblastomas and supra-tentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Martin Gerard; Ichimura, Koichi; Liu, Lu; Plant, Karen; Bäcklund, L Magnus; Pearson, Danita M; Collins, Vincent Peter

    2010-01-01

    Medulloblastomas and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumours are aggressive childhood tumours. We report our findings using array comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH) on a whole-genome BAC/PAC/cosmid array with a median clone separation of 0.97Mb to study 34 medulloblastomas and 7 supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumours. Array CGH allowed identification and mapping of numerous novel small regions of copy number change to genomic sequence, in addition to the large regions already known from previous studies. Novel amplifications were identified, some encompassing oncogenes, MYCL1, PDGFRA, KIT and MYB, not previously reported to show amplification in these tumours. In addition, one supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumour had lost both copies of the tumour suppressor genes CDKN2A & CDKN2B. Ten medulloblastomas had findings suggestive of isochromosome 17q. In contrast to previous reports using conventional CGH, array CGH identified three distinct breakpoints in these cases: Ch 17: 17940393-19251679 (17p11.2, n=6), Ch 17: 20111990-23308272 (17p11.2-17q11.2, n=4) and Ch 17: 38425359-39091575 (17q21.31, n=1). Significant differences were found in the patterns of copy number change between medulloblastomas and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumours, providing further evidence that these tumours are genetically distinct despite their morphological and behavioural similarities. PMID:16783165

  6. Constraining the Volatile Regime of Primitive Somma-Vesuvius Magmas Based on the Compositions of Phenocrysts and Melt Inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danyushevsky, L. V.; Esposito, R.; De Vivo, B.; Redi, D.; Lima, A.; Bodnar, R. J.; Gurenko, A.

    2017-12-01

    The volcanic complex of Mt. Somma-Vesuvius is located in the Campanian Plain on east of Naples. We present the results of a mineralogical and melt inclusion studies of primitive volcanic products erupted during the last 2 magmatic cycles of Soma-Vesuvius, aimed at better understanding the volatile fluxes and eruptive behaviour of the volcano. Our results suggest that despite large differences in the compositions of the erupted magmas (from olivine-bearing basaltic lavas to leucite-bearing phonolites) and the eruption style (from plinian to strombolian), there was very little change in the nature of the parental magmas. Melt inclusions in olivine phenocrysts in all volcanic products and styles reveal the highest volatile contents in the most magnesian, early formed crystals (Fo90; H2O 4-5 wt%; CO2 3,000-4,000 ppm), decreasing to near 0 levels of concentrations in olivine Fo70. Major and trace element compositions of the clinopyroxene phenocrysts (Mg#92-70) also suggest a similar parental magma composition and similar liquid lines of decent for all Somma-Vesuvius eruptions. Our results are best explained by a model which relates the eruption style to the intensity of melt supply under the volcano. High intensity plinian eruptions occur after a prolonged repose time, whereas strombolian eruptions occur during periods of more frequent volcanic activity [1]. We will also discuss possible implications for the role of carbonate assimilation during magma evolution of Somma-Vesuvius and for total volatile budget of the SOmma-Vesuvius eruptions. [1] [42] Lima, A., Danyushevsky, L.V., De Vivo, B. and Fedele, L. 2003: A model for the evolution of the Mt. Somma-Vesuvius magmatic system based on fluid and melt inclusion investigations. In: Melt Inclusions in volcanic systems: Methods, applications and Problems (B. De Vivo & R.J. Bodnar, Eds), Series: Developments in Volcanology. No. 5 Elsevier, Amsterdam, 227-251

  7. The Flemish Primitives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, De Dirk

    2003-01-01

    Intensely realistic, piercingly beautiful, the art of the Flemish Primitives inspires powerful emotional responses. Painted during the fifteenth century in the southern Netherlands, these influential and enduring works helped establish the foundations of modern European painting.Sumptuously

  8. Achieving Performance Speed-up in FPGA Based Bit-Parallel Multipliers using Embedded Primitive and Macro support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burhan Khurshid

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA are fast moving into the consumer market and their domain has expanded from prototype designing to low and medium volume productions. FPGAs are proving to be an attractive replacement for Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC primarily because of the low Non-recurring Engineering (NRE costs associated with FPGA platforms. This has prompted FPGA vendors to improve the capacity and flexibility of the underlying primitive fabric and include specialized macro support and intellectual property (IP cores in their offerings. However, most of the work related to FPGA implementations does not take full advantage of these offerings. This is primarily because designers rely mainly on the technology-independent optimization to enhance the performance of the system and completely neglect the speed-up that is achievable using these embedded primitives and macro support. In this paper, we consider the technology-dependent optimization of fixed-point bit-parallel multipliers by carrying out their implementations using embedded primitives and macro support that are inherent in modern day FPGAs. Our implementation targets three different FPGA families viz. Spartan-6, Virtex-4 and Virtex-5. The implementation results indicate that a considerable speed up in performance is achievable using these embedded FPGA resources.

  9. ATHENA: A Personalized Platform to Promote an Active Lifestyle and Wellbeing Based on Physical, Mental and Social Health Primitives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Fahim

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Technology provides ample opportunities for the acquisition and processing of physical, mental and social health primitives. However, several challenges remain for researchers as how to define the relationship between reported physical activities, mood and social interaction to define an active lifestyle. We are conducting a project, ATHENA(activity-awareness for human-engaged wellness applications to design and integrate the relationship between these basic health primitives to approximate the human lifestyle and real-time recommendations for wellbeing services. Our goal is to develop a system to promote an active lifestyle for individuals and to recommend to them valuable interventions by making comparisons to their past habits. The proposed system processes sensory data through our developed machine learning algorithms inside smart devices and utilizes cloud infrastructure to reduce the cost. We exploit big data infrastructure for massive sensory data storage and fast retrieval for recommendations. Our contributions include the development of a prototype system to promote an active lifestyle and a visual design capable of engaging users in the goal of increasing self-motivation. We believe that our study will impact the design of future ubiquitous wellness applications.

  10. ATHENA: A Personalized Platform to Promote an Active Lifestyle and Wellbeing Based on Physical, Mental and Social Health Primitives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahim, Muhammad; Idris, Muhammad; Ali, Rahman; Nugent, Christopher; Kang, Byeong; Huh, Eui-Nam; Lee, Sungyoung

    2014-01-01

    Technology provides ample opportunities for the acquisition and processing of physical, mental and social health primitives. However, several challenges remain for researchers as how to define the relationship between reported physical activities, mood and social interaction to define an active lifestyle. We are conducting a project, ATHENA(activity-awareness for human-engaged wellness applications) to design and integrate the relationship between these basic health primitives to approximate the human lifestyle and real-time recommendations for wellbeing services. Our goal is to develop a system to promote an active lifestyle for individuals and to recommend to them valuable interventions by making comparisons to their past habits. The proposed system processes sensory data through our developed machine learning algorithms inside smart devices and utilizes cloud infrastructure to reduce the cost. We exploit big data infrastructure for massive sensory data storage and fast retrieval for recommendations. Our contributions include the development of a prototype system to promote an active lifestyle and a visual design capable of engaging users in the goal of increasing self-motivation. We believe that our study will impact the design of future ubiquitous wellness applications. PMID:24859031

  11. Compositional studies of primitive asteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilas, F.

    1988-01-01

    The composition of primitive asteroids and their relationship to satellites in the solar system will be studied by analyzing existing narrowband charge coupled device (CCD) reflectance spectra, acquiring additional spectra of asteroids and small satellites in the 0.5 to 1.0 micrometer spectral range, and exploring possibilities for obtaining compositional information in the blue-UV spectral region. Comparison with laboratory spectra of terrestrial chlorites and serpentines (phyllosilicates) and the clay minerals found in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites will continue. During 1987, narrowband CCD reflectance spectra of 17 additional asteroids were acquired. These spectra and spectra of 34 other asteroids have been used primarily for two studies: weak absorption features similar to those due to Fe2(+) and Fe2(+) - Fe3(+) transitions in iron oxides f ound in terrestrial chlorites and serpentines and carbonaceous chondrites have been identified in some primitive asteroid spectra. There is a first indication that asteroids grouped by heliocentric distance show similar weak absorption features. Nonparametric statistics are being applied to test the hypothesis of discrete remnants of a gradation in composition of outer-belt asteroids

  12. Ins-Robust Primitive Words

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Kapoor, Kalpesh

    2017-01-01

    Let Q be the set of primitive words over a finite alphabet with at least two symbols. We characterize a class of primitive words, Q_I, referred to as ins-robust primitive words, which remain primitive on insertion of any letter from the alphabet and present some properties that characterizes words in the set Q_I. It is shown that the language Q_I is dense. We prove that the language of primitive words that are not ins-robust is not context-free. We also present a linear time algorithm to reco...

  13. Primitive and definitive erythropoiesis in mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James ePalis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Red blood cells (RBCs, which constitute the most abundant cell type in the body, come in two distinct flavors- primitive and definitive. Definitive RBCs in mammals circulate as smaller, anucleate cells during fetal and postnatal life, while primitive RBCs circulate transiently in the early embryo as large, nucleated cells before ultimately enucleating. Both cell types are formed from lineage-committed progenitors that generate a series of morphologically identifiable precursors that enucleate to form mature RBCs. While definitive erythroid precursors mature extravascularly in the fetal liver and postnatal marrow in association with macrophage cells, primitive erythroid precursors mature as a semi-synchronous cohort in the embryonic bloodstream. While the cytoskeletal network is critical for the maintenance of cell shape and the deformability of definitive RBCs, little is known about the components and function of the cytoskeleton in primitive erythroblasts. Erythropoietin (EPO is a critical regulator of late-stage definitive, but not primitive, erythroid progenitor survival. However, recent studies indicate that EPO regulates multiple aspects of terminal maturation of primitive murine and human erythroid precursors, including cell survival, proliferation, and the rate of terminal maturation. Primitive and definitive erythropoiesis share central transcriptional regulators, including Gata1 and Klf1, but are also characterized by the differential expression and function of other regulators, including myb, Sox6, and Bcl11A. Flow cytometry-based methodologies, developed to purify murine and human stage-specific erythroid precursors, have enabled comparative global gene expression studies and are providing new insights into the biology of erythroid maturation.

  14. Optimal primitive reference frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, David

    2011-01-01

    We consider the smallest possible directional reference frames allowed and determine the best one can ever do in preserving quantum information in various scenarios. We find that for the preservation of a single spin state, two orthogonal spins are optimal primitive reference frames; and in a product state, they do approximately 22% as well as an infinite-sized classical frame. By adding a small amount of entanglement to the reference frame, this can be raised to 2(2/3) 5 =26%. Under the different criterion of entanglement preservation, a very similar optimal reference frame is found; however, this time it is for spins aligned at an optimal angle of 87 deg. In this case 24% of the negativity is preserved. The classical limit is considered numerically, and indicates under the criterion of entanglement preservation, that 90 deg. is selected out nonmonotonically, with a peak optimal angle of 96.5 deg. for L=3 spins.

  15. Prebiotic Synthesis of Methionine and Other Sulfur-Containing Organic Compounds on the Primitive Earth: A Contemporary Reassessment Based on an Unpublished 1958 Stanley Miller Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Eric T.; Cleaves, H. James; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Lazcano, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Original extracts from an unpublished 1958 experiment conducted by the late Stanley L. Miller were recently found and analyzed using modern state-of-the-art analytical methods. The extracts were produced by the action of an electric discharge on a mixture of methane (CH4), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3), and carbon dioxide (CO2). Racemic methionine was farmed in significant yields, together with other sulfur-bearing organic compounds. The formation of methionine and other compounds from a model prebiotic atmosphere that contained H2S suggests that this type of synthesis is robust under reducing conditions, which may have existed either in the global primitive atmosphere or in localized volcanic environments on the early Earth. The presence of a wide array of sulfur-containing organic compounds produced by the decomposition of methionine and cysteine indicates that in addition to abiotic synthetic processes, degradation of organic compounds on the primordial Earth could have been important in diversifying the inventory of molecules of biochemical significance not readily formed from other abiotic reactions, or derived from extraterrestrial delivery.

  16. INFORMATION SECURITY RISK ASSESSMENT USING EXISTING LEGAL AND METHODOLOGICAL BASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Trubei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a survey of the existing regulatory framework for information security riskmanagement. Practical methods for information security risk and vulnerability assessment are proposed.

  17. Action Recognition Using Motion Primitives and Probabilistic Edit Distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben; Holte, Michael Boelstoft; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we describe a recognition approach based on the notion of primitives. As opposed to recognizing actions based on temporal trajectories or temporal volumes, primitive-based recognition is based on representing a temporal sequence containing an action by only a few characteristic time...... into a string containing a sequence of symbols, each representing a primitives. After pruning the string a probabilistic Edit Distance classifier is applied to identify which action best describes the pruned string. The approach is evaluated on five one-arm gestures and the recognition rate is 91...

  18. Action Recognition in Semi-synthetic Images using Motion Primitives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben; Holte, Michael Boelstoft; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    This technical report describes an action recognition approach based on motion primitives. A few characteristic time instances are found in a sequence containing an action and the action is classified from these instances. The characteristic instances are defined solely on the human motion, hence...... motion primitives. The motion primitives are extracted by double difference images and represented by four features. In each frame the primitive, if any, that best explains the observed data is identified. This leads to a discrete recognition problem since a video sequence will be converted into a string...... containing a sequence of symbols, each representing a primitive. After pruning the string a probabilistic Edit Distance classifier is applied to identify which action best describes the pruned string. The method is evaluated on five one-arm gestures. A test is performed with semi-synthetic input data...

  19. On the Reduced Testing of a Primitive Element in ${\\\\mathbb Z}_n^\\\\times$

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Hideo; スズキ, ヒデオ; Hideo, Suzuki

    2015-01-01

    The primitive roots in ${\\mathbb Z}_n^\\times$ are defined and exist iff $n = 2, 4, p^{\\alpha}, 2p^{\\alpha}$. Knuth gave the definition of the primitive roots in ${\\mathbb Z}_{p^\\alpha}^\\times$, and showed the necessary and sufficient condition for testing a primitive root in ${\\mathbb Z}_{p^\\alpha}^\\times$. In this paper we define the primitive elements in ${\\mathbb Z}_n^\\times$, which is a generalization of primitive roots, as elements that take the maximum multiplicative order.And we give t...

  20. Unsupervised Learning of Action Primitives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baby, Sanmohan; Krüger, Volker; Kragic, Danica

    2010-01-01

    and scale, the use of the object can provide a strong invariant for the detection of motion primitives. In this paper we propose an unsupervised learning approach for action primitives that makes use of the human movements as well as the object state changes. We group actions according to the changes......Action representation is a key issue in imitation learning for humanoids. With the recent finding of mirror neurons there has been a growing interest in expressing actions as a combination meaningful subparts called primitives. Primitives could be thought of as an alphabet for the human actions....... In this paper we observe that human actions and objects can be seen as being intertwined: we can interpret actions from the way the body parts are moving, but as well from how their effect on the involved object. While human movements can look vastly different even under minor changes in location, orientation...

  1. Motion Primitives and Probabilistic Edit Distance for Action Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben; Holte, Michael Boelstoft; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2009-01-01

    the actions as a sequence of temporal isolated instances, denoted primitives. These primitives are each defined by four features extracted from motion images. The primitives are recognized in each frame based on a trained classifier resulting in a sequence of primitives. From this sequence we recognize......The number of potential applications has made automatic recognition of human actions a very active research area. Different approaches have been followed based on trajectories through some state space. In this paper we also model an action as a trajectory through a state space, but we represent...... different temporal actions using a probabilistic Edit Distance method. The method is tested on different actions with and without noise and the results show recognition rates of 88.7% and 85.5%, respectively....

  2. Cometary dust: the diversity of primitive refractory grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooden, D H; Ishii, H A; Zolensky, M E

    2017-07-13

    Comet dust is primitive and shows significant diversity. Our knowledge of the properties of primitive cometary particles has expanded significantly through microscale investigations of cosmic dust samples (anhydrous interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), chondritic porous (CP) IDPs and UltraCarbonaceous Antarctic micrometeorites, Stardust and Rosetta ), as well as through remote sensing ( Spitzer IR spectroscopy). Comet dust are aggregate particles of materials unequilibrated at submicrometre scales. We discuss the properties and processes experienced by primitive matter in comets. Primitive particles exhibit a diverse range of: structure and typology; distribution of constituents; concentration and form of carbonaceous and refractory organic matter; Mg- and Fe-contents of the silicate minerals; sulfides; existence/abundance of type II chondrule fragments; high-temperature calcium-aluminium inclusions and ameboid-olivine aggregates; and rarely occurring Mg-carbonates and magnetite, whose explanation requires aqueous alteration on parent bodies. The properties of refractory materials imply there were disc processes that resulted in different comets having particular selections of primitive materials. The diversity of primitive particles has implications for the diversity of materials in the protoplanetary disc present at the time and in the region where the comets formed.This article is part of the themed issue 'Cometary science after Rosetta'. © 2017 The Authors.

  3. Radioisotope power system based on derivative of existing Stirling engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schock, A.; Or, C.T.; Kumar, V.

    1995-01-01

    In a recent paper, the authors presented the results of a system design study of a 75-watt(c) RSG (Radioisotope Stirling Generator) for possible application to the Pluto Fast Flyby mission. That study was based on a Stirling engine design generated by MTI (Mechanical Technology, Inc.). The MTI design was a derivative of a much larger (13 kwe) engine that they had developed and tested for NASA's LERC. Clearly, such a derivative would be a major extrapolation (downsizing) from what has actually been built and tested. To avoid that, the present paper describes a design for a 75-watt RSG system based on derivatives of a small (11-watt) engine and linear alternator system that has been under development by STC (Stirling Technology Company) for over three years and that has operated successfully for over 15,000 hours as of March 1995. Thus, the STC engines would require much less extrapolation from proven designs. The design employs a heat source consisting of two standard General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules, coupled to four Stirling engines with linear alternators, any three of which could deliver the desired 75-watt(e) output if the fourth should fail. The four engines are coupled to four common radiators with redundant heatpipes for rejecting the engines' waste heat to space. The above engine and radiator redundancies promote system reliability. The paper describes detailed analyses to determine the effect of radiator geometry on system mass and performance, before and after an engine or heatpipe failure

  4. Survival of the primitive mantle reservoir?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S.; Jacobsen, S. B.; Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2010-12-01

    The high-3He lavas are thought to originate from a deep primitive mantle source that has not been much modified since the formation of Earth’s core. Comparison of 4He/3He in MORBs and plume lavas indicate that the plume sources must be a lower mantle feature, in agreement with most geophysical inferences. However, the lithophile element isotope systems of plume lavas are not primitive. The idea that the high-3He source is significantly less processed and more primitive than MORB source is clearly supported by mixing trends in plots of 4He/3He versus Sr, Nd and Pb isotope ratios, which have been extrapolated to an inferred 4He/3He of ~17,000 (~43x the atmospheric ratio), a mantle reservoir named PHEM (Primitive HElium Mantle). Slightly lower 4He/3He, ~15,000, were reported for Baffin Island picrites. Recently, Jackson et al. (2010) claimed that some Baffin Island and Greenland picrites with single-stage Pb model ages of ~4.5 Ga have low 4He/3He, and argued that “their source is the most ancient accessible reservoir in the Earth’s mantle, and it may be parental to all mantle reservoirs”. However, the available data are insufficient to make such a claim, and we suggest an alternative interpretation. Specially: 1. Four out of ten Baffin Island and Greenland picrites used by Jackson et al. (2010) have 4He/3He higher than average MORB value and all are far removed from the lowest measured value of 15,000. 2. Five Greenland picrites which cluster around the 4.50 Gyr geochron (Jackson et al., 2010) form a curved 207Pb*/206Pb*-4He/3He trend. This trend is best explained as a mixing line, implying that the single-stage Pb ages of these lavas are meaningless. 3. In a 207Pb*/206Pb*-4He/3He plot, Koolau lavas from Hawaii overlap with Baffin Island and Greenland picrites. If Baffin Island and Greenland picrites represent melts from the primitive mantle based on their Pb and He isotopes (Jackson et al., 2010), a similar argument can be applied to Koolau lavas. However, it

  5. Chemistry of primitive solar material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barshay, S.S.; Lewis, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    The chemical processes that occurred in the cooler, outer regions of the primitive solar nebula at the time of intimate chemical contact between preplanetary condensate and nebular gas constitute the subject matter of this review. Condensation models are described and tested against the observed properties of the planets, their satellites, and the asteroids. 6 figs., 2 tables, 48 refs

  6. Cryptographic Primitives with Quasigroup Transformations

    OpenAIRE

    Mileva, Aleksandra

    2010-01-01

    Cryptology is the science of secret communication, which consists of two complementary disciplines: cryptography and cryptanalysis. Cryptography is dealing with design and development of new primitives, algorithms and schemas for data enciphering and deciphering. For many centuries cryptographic technics have been applied in protection of secrecy and authentication in diplomatic, political and military correspondences and communications. Cryptanalysis is dealing with different attacks on c...

  7. Primitive polynomials selection method for pseudo-random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anikin, I. V.; Alnajjar, Kh

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we suggested the method for primitive polynomials selection of special type. This kind of polynomials can be efficiently used as a characteristic polynomials for linear feedback shift registers in pseudo-random number generators. The proposed method consists of two basic steps: finding minimum-cost irreducible polynomials of the desired degree and applying primitivity tests to get the primitive ones. Finally two primitive polynomials, which was found by the proposed method, used in pseudorandom number generator based on fuzzy logic (FRNG) which had been suggested before by the authors. The sequences generated by new version of FRNG have low correlation magnitude, high linear complexity, less power consumption, is more balanced and have better statistical properties.

  8. Modelling 3D spatial objects in a geo-DBMS using a 3D primitive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, Călin; Stoter, Jantien; van Oosterom, Peter

    2005-03-01

    There is a growing interest in modelling the world in three dimensions, both in applications and in science. At the same time, geographical information systems are changing into integrated architecture in which administrative and spatial data are maintained in one environment. It is for this reason that mainstream Data Base Management Systems (DBMSs) have implemented spatial data types according to the 'Simple Feature Specifications for SQL', described by the OpenGeospatial Consortium. However, these specifications are 2D, as indeed are the implementations in DBMSs. At the Section GIS Technology of TU Delft, research has been carried out in which a 3D primitive was implemented in a DBMS (Oracle Spatial). To explore the possibilities and complications, a fairly simple 3D primitive was chosen to start with: a polyhedron. In the future the study will be extended with more complex primitives, the ultimate aim being to build 3D models with features closer to the real world. Besides the data structure, a validation function was developed to check the geometric accuracy of the data. Rules for validation were established and translated into prototype implementations with the aid of literature. In order to manipulate the data, a list of useful 3D functions was specified. Most of these were translated into algorithms, which were implemented in the DBMS. The algorithms for these functions were obtained from the relevant literature. The research also comprised a comparative performance test on spatial indexing in 2D and 3D, using an R-tree. Finally, existing software was used to visualize 3D objects structured with the implemented 3D primitive. This research is a first attempt to implement a true 3D primitive in a DBMS. Future research will focus on extending and improving the implementations and on optimizing maintenance and query of 3D objects in DBMSs.

  9. From Realistic to Primitive Models: A Primitive Model of Methanol

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlček, Lukáš; Nezbeda, Ivo

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 101, č. 19 (2003), s. 2987-2996 ISSN 0026-8976 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4072303; GA AV ČR IAA4072309 Grant - others:NATO(XX) PST.CLG 978178/6343 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : primitive model * methanol Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.591, year: 2003

  10. A Proof-Theoretic Account of Primitive Recursion and Primitive Iteration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherabini, Luca; Danvy, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    We revisit both the usual ``going-up'' induction principle and Manna and Waldinger's ``going-down'' induction principle for primitive recursion,`a la Goedel, and primitive iteration, `a la Church. We use 'Kleene's trick' to show that primitive recursion and primitive iiteration are as expressive...

  11. [The cultural history of palliative care in primitive societies: an integrative review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siles González, José; Solano Ruiz, Maria Del Carmen

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the evolution of palliative care in order to reflect on the possibility of its origin in primitive cultures and their relationship with the beginnings of the cult of the dead. It describes the change in the symbolic structures and social interactions involved in palliative care during prehistory: functional unit, functional framework and functional element. The theoretical framework is based on cultural history, the dialectical structural model and symbolic interactionism. Categorization techniques, cultural history and dialectic structuralism analyses were performed. Palliative care existed in primitive societies, mostly associated with the rites of passage with a high symbolic content. The social structures - functional unit, functional framework and functional element - are the pillars that supported palliative care in prehistory societies.

  12. SPANISH PEAKS PRIMITIVE AREA, MONTANA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, James A.; Pattee, Eldon C.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Spanish Peaks Primitive Area, Montana, disclosed a small low-grade deposit of demonstrated chromite and asbestos resources. The chances for discovery of additional chrome resources are uncertain and the area has little promise for the occurrence of other mineral or energy resources. A reevaluation, sampling at depth, and testing for possible extensions of the Table Mountain asbestos and chromium deposit should be undertaken in the light of recent interpretations regarding its geologic setting.

  13. Efficient Synchronization Primitives for GPUs

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart, Jeff A.; Owens, John D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we revisit the design of synchronization primitives---specifically barriers, mutexes, and semaphores---and how they apply to the GPU. Previous implementations are insufficient due to the discrepancies in hardware and programming model of the GPU and CPU. We create new implementations in CUDA and analyze the performance of spinning on the GPU, as well as a method of sleeping on the GPU, by running a set of memory-system benchmarks on two of the most common GPUs in use, the Tesla...

  14. [Cranial trepanation in primitive cultures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Darder, José Manuel

    A review is presented on cranial trepanations performed by primitive cultures. The scientific interest in this topic began after the discovery in 1965 by Ephraim G. Squier of a pre-Columbian trepanated skull, and studied by Paul Broca in Paris. Pseudotrepanation and other types of cranial manipulation are reviewed. The techniques, technology, and instruments for every type of trepanation are well known. There are a surprisingly high percentage of cases showing signs of post-trepanation survival. Indications for trepanation are speculative, perhaps magic. Although trepanation in primitive cultures is widespread around the world, and throughout time, the main fields of interest are the Neolithic Period in Europe, the pre-Columbian Period in Andean South America, and some contemporaneous Pacific and African tribes. This particular trepanation procedure has no relationship with modern Neurosurgery, or with trepanations with therapeutic purposes performed since the Greco-Roman period in Europe, and afterwards around the world. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Breast metastases primitive extra mammary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terzieff, V.; Vázquez, A.; Alonso, I.; Sabini, G.

    2004-01-01

    Less than 3% of all breast cancers originate from a primitive extra mammary. In 40% of cases it is the first manifestation of the primitive properly studied but 80% are associated with widely disseminated disease. It typically presents as a nodule on external quadrant s painful in half the cases. The majority (60%) of metastases derived from breast contralateral breast tumors are believed to via the lymphatic system. of the ; extra mammary the most common tumors are melanoma; hematologic and neuroendocrine. Although some imaging characteristics can guide diagnosis is histological. Cytology has good performance in experienced hands; but up to 25% of cases there may be difficulty in establishing diagnosis. Treatment depends on the type of tumor. Mastectomy should not be practiced or axillary clearance routine as is generally the context of disease disseminated. Radiation therapy may be useful for local control. It has been proposed laser ablation but no experience with it. The overall prognosis is bad. For a man of 45 with a breast metastasis occurs only a clear cell carcinoma of the kidney

  16. Globfit: Consistently fitting primitives by discovering global relations

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yangyan; Wu, Xiaokun; Chrysathou, Yiorgos; Sharf, Andrei Sharf; Cohen-Or, Daniel; Mitra, Niloy J.

    2011-01-01

    Given a noisy and incomplete point set, we introduce a method that simultaneously recovers a set of locally fitted primitives along with their global mutual relations. We operate under the assumption that the data corresponds to a man-made engineering object consisting of basic primitives, possibly repeated and globally aligned under common relations. We introduce an algorithm to directly couple the local and global aspects of the problem. The local fit of the model is determined by how well the inferred model agrees to the observed data, while the global relations are iteratively learned and enforced through a constrained optimization. Starting with a set of initial RANSAC based locally fitted primitives, relations across the primitives such as orientation, placement, and equality are progressively learned and conformed to. In each stage, a set of feasible relations are extracted among the candidate relations, and then aligned to, while best fitting to the input data. The global coupling corrects the primitives obtained in the local RANSAC stage, and brings them to precise global alignment. We test the robustness of our algorithm on a range of synthesized and scanned data, with varying amounts of noise, outliers, and non-uniform sampling, and validate the results against ground truth, where available. © 2011 ACM.

  17. Globfit: Consistently fitting primitives by discovering global relations

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yangyan

    2011-07-01

    Given a noisy and incomplete point set, we introduce a method that simultaneously recovers a set of locally fitted primitives along with their global mutual relations. We operate under the assumption that the data corresponds to a man-made engineering object consisting of basic primitives, possibly repeated and globally aligned under common relations. We introduce an algorithm to directly couple the local and global aspects of the problem. The local fit of the model is determined by how well the inferred model agrees to the observed data, while the global relations are iteratively learned and enforced through a constrained optimization. Starting with a set of initial RANSAC based locally fitted primitives, relations across the primitives such as orientation, placement, and equality are progressively learned and conformed to. In each stage, a set of feasible relations are extracted among the candidate relations, and then aligned to, while best fitting to the input data. The global coupling corrects the primitives obtained in the local RANSAC stage, and brings them to precise global alignment. We test the robustness of our algorithm on a range of synthesized and scanned data, with varying amounts of noise, outliers, and non-uniform sampling, and validate the results against ground truth, where available. © 2011 ACM.

  18. Context of culture: Critique of the primitive mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božilović Nikola

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The author of this paper has the intention to reach the new meaning and sense of the primitive mentality by analyzing it in early social communities. He also wants to point out the possible reflections of the spirit and consciousness of our ancestors on us, here and now. The first part of the paper is dedicated to a critical deliberation on anthropological conflicts which have arisen concerning the reasoning power of the so-called primitives. The crucial question lies in the following: Is the difference between the “primitive” and the “civilized” mentality fundamental or is it possible only to a certain degree. The author takes the notion of primitive mentality through time and points to the medieval understandings, which are occupied by teratological themes, then to the renaissance comprehension, which relies on the first experiential observations, and, finally, to the enlightenment ideas of exotic peoples out of which the myth of “the good savage” is born. The nineteenth and twentieth centuries introduce the notions of “people’s character” and “national spirit”. The opinions are polarized, on the one hand of ethnocentrism, carried by the prejudice of people and ethnic groups and, on the other hand, of cultural relativism, based on the understanding and appreciation of cultural differences. In the end, the author also recognizes the modern primitive man, one who is not ready to deal with the challenges of his age. The modern primitive recalls the spirits of the past, the surviving and anachronic models of behavior, unaware of the fact that these are the same models that he has ascribed to “savages”. However, while such thinking and acting was justified by the cultural level at which our ancestors had lived, the mental frame of the contemporary primitives is significantly in contrast with the high level of civilization development.

  19. Primitive recursive realizability and basic propositional logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plisko, Valery

    2007-01-01

    Two notions of primitive recursive realizability for arithmetic sentences are considered. The first one is strictly primitive recursive realizability introduced by Z. Damnjanovic in 1994. We prove that intuitionistic predicate logic is not sound with this kind of realizability. Namely there

  20. Global and exponential attractors of the three dimensional viscous primitive equations of large-scale moist atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    You, Bo; Li, Fang

    2016-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the long-time behavior of solutions for the three dimensional viscous primitive equations of large-scale moist atmosphere. We prove the existence of a global attractor for the three dimensional viscous primitive equations of large-scale moist atmosphere by asymptotic a priori estimate and construct an exponential attractor by using the smoothing property of the semigroup generated by the three dimensional viscous primitive equations of large-scale moist atmosphere...

  1. Primary intraspinal extradural primitive neuroectodermal tumor: A rare case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rege, Shrikant V; Tadghare, Jitendra; Patil, Harshad; Narayan, Sharadendu

    2016-01-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) are aggressive childhood malignancies and are difficult to treat. Primary intraspinal PNETs are rare. These patients have poor prognosis with short survival time even after surgery and chemoradiation. As there are no standard guidelines exist for the management of these tumors, a multidisciplinary approach has been employed with varying success. According to the review of literature, only few cases of primary intraspinal extradural PNETs have been reported. Herein, author has described a case of intraspinal, extradural PNET.

  2. Dynamic Primitives in the Control of Locomotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neville eHogan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Humans achieve locomotor dexterity that far exceeds the capability of modern robots, yet this is achieved despite slower actuators, imprecise sensors and vastly slower communication. We propose that this spectacular performance arises from encoding motor commands in terms of dynamic primitives. We propose three primitives as a foundation for a comprehensive theoretical framework that can embrace a wide range of upper- and lower-limb behaviors. Building on previous work that suggested discrete and rhythmic movements as elementary dynamic behaviors, we define submovements and oscillations: As discrete movements cannot be combined with sufficient flexibility, we argue that suitably-defined submovements are primitives. As the term rhythmic may be ambiguous, we define oscillations as the corresponding class of primitives. We further propose mechanical impedances as a third class of dynamic primitives, necessary for interaction with the physical environment. Combination of these three classes of primitive requires care. One approach is through a generalized equivalent network: a virtual trajectory composed of simultaneous and/or sequential submovements and/or oscillations that interacts with mechanical impedances to produce observable forces and motions. Reliable experimental identification of these dynamic primitives presents challenges: Identification of mechanical impedances is exquisitely sensitive to assumptions about their dynamic structure; identification of submovements and oscillations is sensitive to their assumed form and to details of the algorithm used to extract them. Some methods to address these challenges are presented. Some implications of this theoretical framework for locomotor rehabilitation are considered.

  3. Dynamic primitives in the control of locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Neville; Sternad, Dagmar

    2013-01-01

    Humans achieve locomotor dexterity that far exceeds the capability of modern robots, yet this is achieved despite slower actuators, imprecise sensors, and vastly slower communication. We propose that this spectacular performance arises from encoding motor commands in terms of dynamic primitives. We propose three primitives as a foundation for a comprehensive theoretical framework that can embrace a wide range of upper- and lower-limb behaviors. Building on previous work that suggested discrete and rhythmic movements as elementary dynamic behaviors, we define submovements and oscillations: as discrete movements cannot be combined with sufficient flexibility, we argue that suitably-defined submovements are primitives. As the term "rhythmic" may be ambiguous, we define oscillations as the corresponding class of primitives. We further propose mechanical impedances as a third class of dynamic primitives, necessary for interaction with the physical environment. Combination of these three classes of primitive requires care. One approach is through a generalized equivalent network: a virtual trajectory composed of simultaneous and/or sequential submovements and/or oscillations that interacts with mechanical impedances to produce observable forces and motions. Reliable experimental identification of these dynamic primitives presents challenges: identification of mechanical impedances is exquisitely sensitive to assumptions about their dynamic structure; identification of submovements and oscillations is sensitive to their assumed form and to details of the algorithm used to extract them. Some methods to address these challenges are presented. Some implications of this theoretical framework for locomotor rehabilitation are considered.

  4. Discovery of Intrinsic Primitives on Triangle Meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Solomon, Justin; Ben-Chen, Mirela; Butscher, Adrian; Guibas, Leonidas

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of meaningful parts of a shape is required for many geometry processing applications, such as parameterization, shape correspondence, and animation. It is natural to consider primitives such as spheres, cylinders and cones

  5. Discovery of Intrinsic Primitives on Triangle Meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Solomon, Justin

    2011-04-01

    The discovery of meaningful parts of a shape is required for many geometry processing applications, such as parameterization, shape correspondence, and animation. It is natural to consider primitives such as spheres, cylinders and cones as the building blocks of shapes, and thus to discover parts by fitting such primitives to a given surface. This approach, however, will break down if primitive parts have undergone almost-isometric deformations, as is the case, for example, for articulated human models. We suggest that parts can be discovered instead by finding intrinsic primitives, which we define as parts that posses an approximate intrinsic symmetry. We employ the recently-developed method of computing discrete approximate Killing vector fields (AKVFs) to discover intrinsic primitives by investigating the relationship between the AKVFs of a composite object and the AKVFs of its parts. We show how to leverage this relationship with a standard clustering method to extract k intrinsic primitives and remaining asymmetric parts of a shape for a given k. We demonstrate the value of this approach for identifying the prominent symmetry generators of the parts of a given shape. Additionally, we show how our method can be modified slightly to segment an entire surface without marking asymmetric connecting regions and compare this approach to state-of-the-art methods using the Princeton Segmentation Benchmark. © 2011 The Author(s).

  6. The shareholding similarity of the shareholders of the worldwide listed energy companies based on a two-mode primitive network and a one-mode derivative holding-based network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huajiao; Fang, Wei; An, Haizhong; Yan, LiLi

    2014-12-01

    Two-mode and multi-mode networks represent new directions of simulating a complex network that can simulate the relationships among the entities more precisely. In this paper, we constructed two different levels of networks: one is the two-mode primitive networks of the energy listed companies and their shareholders on the basis of the two-mode method of complex theory, and the other is the derivative one-mode holding-based network based on the equivalence network theory. We calculated two different topological characteristics of the two networks, that is, the out-degree of the actor nodes of the two-mode network (9003 nodes) and the weights of the edges of the one-mode network (619,766 edges), and we analyzed the distribution features of both of the two topological characteristics. In this paper, we define both the weighted and un-weighted Shareholding Similarity Coefficient, and using the data of the worldwide listed energy companies and their shareholders as empirical study subjects, we calculated and compared both the weighted and un-weighted shareholding similarity coefficient of the worldwide listed energy companies. The result of the analysis indicates that (1) both the out-degree of the actor nodes of the two-mode network and the weights of the edges of the one-mode network follow a power-law distribution; (2) there are significant differences between the weighted and un-weighted shareholding similarity coefficient of the worldwide listed energy companies, and the weighted shareholding similarity coefficient is of greater regularity than the un-weighted one; (3) there are a vast majority of shareholders who hold stock in only one or a few of the listed energy companies; and (4) the shareholders hold stock in the same listed energy companies when the value of the un-weighted shareholding similarity coefficient is between 0.4 and 0.8. The study will be a helpful tool to analyze the relationships of the nodes of the one-mode network, which is constructed based

  7. A requirement for FGF signalling in the formation of primitive streak-like intermediates from primitive ectoderm in culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Zheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Embryonic stem (ES cells hold considerable promise as a source of cells with therapeutic potential, including cells that can be used for drug screening and in cell replacement therapies. Differentiation of ES cells into the somatic lineages is a regulated process; before the promise of these cells can be realised robust and rational methods for directing differentiation into normal, functional and safe cells need to be developed. Previous in vivo studies have implicated fibroblast growth factor (FGF signalling in lineage specification from pluripotent cells. Although FGF signalling has been suggested as essential for specification of mesoderm and endoderm in vivo and in culture, the exact role of this pathway remains unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a culture model based on early primitive ectoderm-like (EPL cells we have investigated the role of FGF signalling in the specification of mesoderm. We were unable to demonstrate any mesoderm inductive capability associated with FGF1, 4 or 8 signalling, even when the factors were present at high concentrations, nor any enhancement in mesoderm formation induced by exogenous BMP4. Furthermore, there was no evidence of alteration of mesoderm sub-type formed with addition of FGF1, 4 or 8. Inhibition of endogenous FGF signalling, however, prevented mesoderm and favoured neural differentiation, suggesting FGF signalling was required but not sufficient for the differentiation of primitive ectoderm into primitive streak-like intermediates. The maintenance of ES cell/early epiblast pluripotent marker expression was also observed in cultures when FGF signalling was inhibited. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: FGF signalling has been shown to be required for the differentiation of primitive ectoderm to neurectoderm. This, coupled with our observations, suggest FGF signalling is required for differentiation of the primitive ectoderm into the germ lineages at gastrulation.

  8. Using Mathematical Modeling and Set-Based Design Principles to Recommend an Existing CVL Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    MATHEMATICAL MODELING AND SET-BASED DESIGN PRINCIPLES TO RECOMMEND AN EXISTING CVL DESIGN by William H. Ehlies September 2017 Thesis Advisor...Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington, DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE...September 2017 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE USING MATHEMATICAL MODELING AND SET-BASED DESIGN PRINCIPLES

  9. Leveraging Existing Mission Tools in a Re-Usable, Component-Based Software Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Kevin; Grenander, Sven; Kurien, James; z,s (fshir. z[orttr); z,scer; O'Reilly, Taifun

    2006-01-01

    Emerging methods in component-based software development offer significant advantages but may seem incompatible with existing mission operations applications. In this paper we relate our positive experiences integrating existing mission applications into component-based tools we are delivering to three missions. In most operations environments, a number of software applications have been integrated together to form the mission operations software. In contrast, with component-based software development chunks of related functionality and data structures, referred to as components, can be individually delivered, integrated and re-used. With the advent of powerful tools for managing component-based development, complex software systems can potentially see significant benefits in ease of integration, testability and reusability from these techniques. These benefits motivate us to ask how component-based development techniques can be relevant in a mission operations environment, where there is significant investment in software tools that are not component-based and may not be written in languages for which component-based tools even exist. Trusted and complex software tools for sequencing, validation, navigation, and other vital functions cannot simply be re-written or abandoned in order to gain the advantages offered by emerging component-based software techniques. Thus some middle ground must be found. We have faced exactly this issue, and have found several solutions. Ensemble is an open platform for development, integration, and deployment of mission operations software that we are developing. Ensemble itself is an extension of an open source, component-based software development platform called Eclipse. Due to the advantages of component-based development, we have been able to vary rapidly develop mission operations tools for three surface missions by mixing and matching from a common set of mission operation components. We have also had to determine how to

  10. Status of existing federal environmental risk-based standards applicable to Department of Energy operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilyard, G.R.

    1991-09-01

    When conducting its environmental restoration, waste management, and decontamination and decommissioning activities, the US Department of Energy (DOE) must comply with a myriad of regulatory procedures and environmental standards. This paper assesses the status of existing federal risk-based standards that may be applied to chemical and radioactive substances on DOE sites. Gaps and inconsistencies among the existing standards and the technical issues associated with the application of those standards are identified. Finally, the implications of the gaps, inconsistencies, and technical issues on DOE operations are discussed, and approaches to resolving the gaps, inconsistencies, and technical issues are identified. 6 refs

  11. Integrating existing radiation monitors into a microprocessor-based display system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalita, R, S.; Bartucci, C.M.; Mason, R.G.; Greaves, C.

    1992-01-01

    Plantwide digital radiation monitoring systems (RMSs) have been generally installed as part of the original design for newer nuclear reactors. For older plants, area and process radiation monitors were either analog or a combination of analog and digital but were not part of an integrated system design. At some plants, individual monitors have been replaced or modified, resulting in a rainbow of different monitors and vendors being represented at the plant. Usually at some point, consideration is given to replacing these monitors with a state-of-the-art RMS to improve overall reliability and achieve the benefits of sound human factors engineering. This can be a very costly project in terms of expenditures for engineering, equipment, construction, startup, and time. When human engineering deficiencies (HEDs) became an issue at Zion station, Commonwealth Edison elected to install a computer-based radiation monitoring display system (RMDS) that would interface existing raidation monitors. After reviewing the existing as-built RMS configuration and internal circuits of the various monitors, it was concluded that a microprocessor-based RMDS could be successfully designed and installed that would solve the HEDs and would tie the older analog channels into a system configuration. Although in many cases, internal modifications were made to existing RMS monitors, the RMDS upgrade allowed the existing RMS monitors to retain their original functionality and location

  12. Simple microprocessor-based system for upgrading existing X-ray equipment for analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, A.M. de

    1986-01-01

    A data acquisition and processing device appropriate for X-ray analysis and goniometer control was built. A conventional Z-80 based systems was used, and the interfacing architeture and the applicable soft-ware are described. The advantages and new possibilities of the automated instrument as compared to previous ones are listed. It is shown that the X-ray diffraction and fluorescence techniques can take advantage of the automation using existing instruments. (Author) [pt

  13. Detection of SYT and EWS gene rearrangements by dual-color break-apart CISH in liquid-based cytology samples of synovial sarcoma and Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Arisa; Motoi, Toru; Tsuji, Kaori; Imamura, Tetsuo; Fukusato, Toshio

    2010-08-01

    To improve cytologic diagnostic accuracy for translocation-associated sarcomas, we explored dual-color break-apart (dc) chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) on liquid-based cytology (LBC) samples of 2 prototypic sarcomas: synovial sarcoma (SS) and Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES/PNET). LBC samples of 10 cases of SS and 9 cases of ES/PNET were subjected to dc-CISH using probes for the specifically rearranged genes in each tumor entity: SYT in SS and EWS in ES/PNET. Rearranged SYT was successfully detected in all SSs but not in any ES/PNETs. In contrast, EWS rearrangement was identified in all ES/PNETs but not in any SSs. These results were validated by dc-fluorescence in situ hybridization and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. dc-CISH on LBC samples is a reliable modality to detect gene rearrangements in sarcomas. This system has a clear advantage over other methods, enabling simultaneous visualization of the genetic abnormality and well-preserved, nonoverlapping cytomorphologic features with clear background under bright-field microscope.

  14. Quantum Security of Cryptographic Primitives

    OpenAIRE

    Gagliardoni, Tommaso

    2017-01-01

    We call quantum security the area of IT security dealing with scenarios where one or more parties have access to quantum hardware. This encompasses both the fields of post-quantum cryptography (that is, traditional cryptography engineered to be resistant against quantum adversaries), and quantum cryptography (that is, security protocols designed to be natively run on a quantum infrastructure, such as quantum key distribution). Moreover, there exist also hybrid models, where traditional crypto...

  15. MR imaging of persistent primitive trigeminal artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashikaga, Ryuichiro; Araki, Yutaka; Ono, Yukihiko; Ishida, Osamu; Mabuchi, Nobuhisa.

    1997-01-01

    The persistent trigeminal artery is the most common anomaly of the primitive carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses. We reviewed MR images and MR angiographies of 11 patients with primitive trigeminal artery. In 8 of the 11 cases, PTA were identified with conventional long TR spin-echo images. In 8 of 11 cases, a hypoplastic basilar trunk associated with PTA was seen on both MR images and MR angiographies. In 7 of 11 cases, a hypoplasia or agenesis of the ipsilateral posterior communicating artery was seen on MR angiographies. (author)

  16. Method for investigating the applicability of thorium-based fuels in existing BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerk, Klara Insulander; Fhager, Valentin; Demaziere, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a methodology for investigating the applicability of thorium based fuels in existing Boiling Water Reactors is described. The same tools and methods as those used in this study are also used for design of new fuel batches for existing reactors. As an illustration of the proposed methodology and for the purpose of comparing different fissile components for thorium-based fuel, three different thorium-based fuel designs were developed, and a low enriched uranium fuel design was created in parallel as a reference. The different fuel assemblies, which are based on the mechanical fuel design GE14, were analyzed with the Studsvik Scandpower CASMO-4E code. The linear reactivity model was used to decide a suitable initial fissile content for meeting the burnup goal of 55 MWd/kgHM and the designs were optimized for attaining an even power distribution and for keeping boiling transition factors low. Such optimizations facilitate core designs that would meet prevalent demands on Linear Heat Generation Rate (LHGR) and Critical Power Ratio (CPR). The hence created fuel designs were then analyzed with regards to thermal performance, reactivity coefficients, delayed neutron fractions and control rod worths. An equilibrium core loading pattern was also developed with each one of the thus created fuel designs and analyzed with the three dimensional reactor analysis code SIMULATE-3, also developed by Studsvik Scandpower. The results of the two simulations were compared and found to be coherent, and no major obstacles were met using the given tools and methods. The analysis of the performances of the fuel assemblies and the corresponding loaded cores is reported in a companion paper (K. Insulander Bjoerk, V. Fhager, and C. Demaziere, 'Comparison of Thorium-Based Fuels with Different Fissile Components in Existing BWRs'). (author)

  17. In search of a primitive ontology for relativistic quantum field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, Vincent [University of Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2014-07-01

    There is a recently much discussed approach to the ontology of quantum mechanics according to which the theory is ultimately about entities in 3-dimensional space and their temporal evolution. Such an ontology postulating from the start matter localized in usual physical space or spacetime, by contrast to an abstract high-dimensional space such as the configuration space of wave function realism, is called primitive ontology in the recent literature on the topic and finds its roots in Bell's notion of local beables. The main motivation for a primitive ontology lies in its explanatory power: the primitive ontology allows for a direct account of the behaviour and properties of familiar macroscopic objects. In this context, it is natural to look for a primitive ontology for relativistic quantum field theory (RQFT). The aim of this talk is to critically discuss this interpretative move within RQFT, in particular with respect to the foundational issue of the existence of unitarily inequivalent representations. Indeed the proposed primitive ontologies for RQFT rely either on a Fock space representation or a wave functional representation, which are strictly speaking only unambiguously available for free systems in flat spacetime. As a consequence, it is argued that these primitive ontologies constitute only effective ontologies and are hardly satisfying as a fundamental ontology for RQFT.

  18. Estimating clinical chemistry reference values based on an existing data set of unselected animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimauro, Corrado; Bonelli, Piero; Nicolussi, Paola; Rassu, Salvatore P G; Cappio-Borlino, Aldo; Pulina, Giuseppe

    2008-11-01

    In an attempt to standardise the determination of biological reference values, the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) has published a series of recommendations on developing reference intervals. The IFCC recommends the use of an a priori sampling of at least 120 healthy individuals. However, such a high number of samples and laboratory analysis is expensive, time-consuming and not always feasible, especially in veterinary medicine. In this paper, an alternative (a posteriori) method is described and is used to determine reference intervals for biochemical parameters of farm animals using an existing laboratory data set. The method used was based on the detection and removal of outliers to obtain a large sample of animals likely to be healthy from the existing data set. This allowed the estimation of reliable reference intervals for biochemical parameters in Sarda dairy sheep. This method may also be useful for the determination of reference intervals for different species, ages and gender.

  19. Predicted carbonation of existing concrete building based on the Indonesian tropical micro-climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilmy, M.; Prabowo, H.

    2018-03-01

    This paper is aimed to predict the carbonation progress based on the previous mathematical model. It shortly explains the nature of carbonation including the processes and effects. Environmental humidity and temperature of the existing concrete building are measured and compared to data from local Meteorological, Climatological, and Geophysical Agency. The data gained are expressed in the form of annual hygrothermal values which will use as the input parameter in carbonation model. The physical properties of the observed building such as its location, dimensions, and structural material used are quantified. These data then utilized as an important input parameter for carbonation coefficients. The relationships between relative humidity and the rate of carbonation established. The results can provide a basis for repair and maintenance of existing concrete buildings and the sake of service life analysis of them.

  20. Driving Style Analysis Using Primitive Driving Patterns With Bayesian Nonparametric Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wenshuo; Xi, Junqiang; Zhao, Ding

    2017-01-01

    Analysis and recognition of driving styles are profoundly important to intelligent transportation and vehicle calibration. This paper presents a novel driving style analysis framework using the primitive driving patterns learned from naturalistic driving data. In order to achieve this, first, a Bayesian nonparametric learning method based on a hidden semi-Markov model (HSMM) is introduced to extract primitive driving patterns from time series driving data without prior knowledge of the number...

  1. Transitions between discrete and rhythmic primitives in a unimanual task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternad, Dagmar; Marino, Hamal; Charles, Steven K.; Duarte, Marcos; Dipietro, Laura; Hogan, Neville

    2013-01-01

    Given the vast complexity of human actions and interactions with objects, we proposed that control of sensorimotor behavior may utilize dynamic primitives. However, greater computational simplicity may come at the cost of reduced versatility. Evidence for primitives may be garnered by revealing such limitations. This study tested subjects performing a sequence of progressively faster discrete movements in order to “stress” the system. We hypothesized that the increasing pace would elicit a transition to rhythmic movements, assumed to be computationally and neurally more efficient. Abrupt transitions between the two types of movements would support the hypothesis that rhythmic and discrete movements are distinct primitives. Ten subjects performed planar point-to-point arm movements paced by a metronome: starting at 2 s, the metronome intervals decreased by 36 ms per cycle to 200 ms, stayed at 200 ms for several cycles, then increased by similar increments. Instructions emphasized to insert explicit stops between each movement with a duration that equaled the movement time. The experiment was performed with eyes open and closed, and with short and long metronome sounds, the latter explicitly specifying the dwell duration. Results showed that subjects matched instructed movement times but did not preserve the dwell times. Rather, they progressively reduced dwell time to zero, transitioning to continuous rhythmic movements before movement times reached their minimum. The acceleration profiles showed an abrupt change between discrete and rhythmic profiles. The loss of dwell time occurred earlier with long auditory specification, when subjects also showed evidence of predictive control. While evidence for hysteresis was weak, taken together, the results clearly indicated a transition between discrete and rhythmic movements, supporting the proposal that representation is based on primitives rather than on veridical internal models. PMID:23888139

  2. Transitions between Discrete and Rhythmic Primitives in a Unimanual Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar eSternad

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Given the vast complexity of human actions and interactions with objects, we proposed that control of sensorimotor behavior may utilize dynamic primitives. However, greater computational simplicity may come at the cost of reduced versatility. Evidence for primitives may be garnered by revealing such limitations. This study tested subjects performing a sequence of progressively faster discrete movements, in order to stress the system. We hypothesized that the increasing pace would elicit a transition to rhythmic movements, assumed to be computationally and neurally more efficient. Abrupt transitions between the two types of movements would support the hypothesis that rhythmic and discrete movements are distinct primitives. Ten subjects performed planar point-to-point arm movements paced by a metronome: Starting at 2s the metronome intervals decreased by 36ms per cycle to 200ms, stayed at 200ms for several cycles, then increased by similar increments. Instructions emphasized to insert explicit stops between each movement with a duration that equaled the movement time. The experiment was performed with eyes open and closed, and with short and long metronome sounds, the latter explicitly specifying the dwell duration. Results showed that subjects matched instructed movement times but did not preserve the dwell times. Rather, they progressively reduced dwell time to zero, transitioning to continuous rhythmic movements before movement times reached their minimum. The acceleration profiles showed an abrupt change between discrete and rhythmic profiles. The loss of dwell time occurred earlier with long auditory specification, when subjects also showed evidence of predictive control. While evidence for hysteresis was weak, taken together, the results clearly indicated a transition between discrete and rhythmic movements, supporting the proposal that representation is based on primitives rather than on veridical internal models.

  3. PRIMITIVE MATRICES AND GENERATORS OF PSEUDO RANDOM SEQUENCES OF GALOIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Beletsky

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In theory and practice of information cryptographic protection one of the key problems is the forming a binary pseudo-random sequences (PRS with a maximum length with acceptable statistical characteristics. PRS generators are usually implemented by linear shift register (LSR of maximum period with linear feedback [1]. In this paper we extend the concept of LSR, assuming that each of its rank (memory cell can be in one of the following condition. Let’s call such registers “generalized linear shift register.” The research goal is to develop algorithms for constructing Galois and Fibonacci generalized matrix of n-order over the field , which uniquely determined both the structure of corresponding generalized of n-order LSR maximal period, and formed on their basis Galois PRS generators of maximum length. Thus the article presents the questions of formation the primitive generalized Fibonacci and Galois arbitrary order matrix over the prime field . The synthesis of matrices is based on the use of irreducible polynomials of degree and primitive elements of the extended field generated by polynomial. The constructing methods of Galois and Fibonacci conjugated primitive matrices are suggested. The using possibilities of such matrices in solving the problem of constructing generalized generators of Galois pseudo-random sequences are discussed.

  4. Non-pineal supratentorial primitive neuro-ectodermal tumors (sPNET) in teenagers and young adults: Time to reconsider cisplatin based chemotherapy after cranio-spinal irradiation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Swethajit; Burke, Amos; Cherian, Sheen; Williams, Denise; Nicholson, James; Horan, Gail; Jefferies, Sarah; Williams, Michael; Earl, Helena M; Burnet, Neil G; Hatcher, Helen

    2009-07-01

    Supratentorial PNET (sPNET) are rare CNS tumors of embryonal origin arising in children and adults. The treatment of sPNET for all age groups at our cancer center has been based on the management of medulloblastoma (MB), involving neurosurgical debulking followed by cranio-spinal irradiation (CSI) and systemic chemotherapy. Medical records were reviewed to gather demographic and clinical data about all embryonal CNS tumors in children and adults from 2001 to 2007. Tumor pathology, clinical management and survival data were also assessed, particularly as regards those patients who received the Packer chemotherapy regimen for either sPNET or MB. Eleven patients (five children and six adults) were identified with non-pineal sPNET, three children with pineal sPNET, and 19 patients (18 children and 1 adult) with MB. There was no difference in overall survival (OS) rates between pediatric and adult sPNET. When all sPNET were compared to all MB, 5-year OS was 14% versus 73%, respectively, but was only 9% for non-pineal sPNET. When only considering those patients treated with the Packer chemotherapy regimen, the 5-year OS was 12% for sPNET versus 79% for MB. This retrospective study demonstrates that non-pineal sPNET are clinically distinct from MB and are resistant to the Packer chemotherapy regimen. We suggest that it is time to reconsider the use of this regimen in teenage and young adult non-pineal sPNET and to investigate the utility of alternative approaches. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Evolution of Computational Toxicology-from Primitive ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presentation at the Health Canada seminar in Ottawa, ON, Canada on Nov. 15. 2016 Presentation at the Health Canada seminar in Ottawa, ON, Canada on Nov. 15. 2016 on the Evolution of Computational Toxicology-from Primitive Beginnings to Sophisticated Application

  6. Melville and the Tradition of Primitive Utopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Gorman

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the relationships among the myth of the Golden Age, the concept of the Noble Savage, and the dream of Utopia. Uses Lewis Mumford's division of utopias into two basic types, i.e., reconstruction and escape utopias, to examine Herman Melville's "Typee" as an example of the primitive escapist utopia. (Editor/DMM)

  7. From primitive identity to the non-individuality of quantum objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenhart, Jonas Becker; Krause, Décio

    2014-05-01

    We consider the claim by Dorato and Morganti (Grades of individuality. A pluralistic view of identity in quantum mechanics and in the sciences. Philosophical Studies, 163 (2013) 591-610) that primitive individuality should be attributed to the entities dealt with by non-relativistic quantum mechanics. There are two central ingredients in the proposal: (i) in the case of non-relativistic quantum mechanics, individuality should be taken as a primitive notion and (ii) primitive individuality is naturalistically acceptable. We argue that, strictly understood, naturalism faces difficulties in helping to provide a theory with a unique principle of individuation. We also hold that even when taken in a loose sense, naturalism does not provide any sense in which one could hold that quantum mechanics endorses primitive individuality over non-individuality. Rather, we argue that non-individuality should be preferred based on the grounds that such a view fits better the claims of the theory.

  8. Surrogate-based optimization of hydraulic fracturing in pre-existing fracture networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingjie; Sun, Yunwei; Fu, Pengcheng; Carrigan, Charles R.; Lu, Zhiming; Tong, Charles H.; Buscheck, Thomas A.

    2013-08-01

    Hydraulic fracturing has been used widely to stimulate production of oil, natural gas, and geothermal energy in formations with low natural permeability. Numerical optimization of fracture stimulation often requires a large number of evaluations of objective functions and constraints from forward hydraulic fracturing models, which are computationally expensive and even prohibitive in some situations. Moreover, there are a variety of uncertainties associated with the pre-existing fracture distributions and rock mechanical properties, which affect the optimized decisions for hydraulic fracturing. In this study, a surrogate-based approach is developed for efficient optimization of hydraulic fracturing well design in the presence of natural-system uncertainties. The fractal dimension is derived from the simulated fracturing network as the objective for maximizing energy recovery sweep efficiency. The surrogate model, which is constructed using training data from high-fidelity fracturing models for mapping the relationship between uncertain input parameters and the fractal dimension, provides fast approximation of the objective functions and constraints. A suite of surrogate models constructed using different fitting methods is evaluated and validated for fast predictions. Global sensitivity analysis is conducted to gain insights into the impact of the input variables on the output of interest, and further used for parameter screening. The high efficiency of the surrogate-based approach is demonstrated for three optimization scenarios with different and uncertain ambient conditions. Our results suggest the critical importance of considering uncertain pre-existing fracture networks in optimization studies of hydraulic fracturing.

  9. Comparison of thorium-based fuels with different fissile components in existing BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerk, Klara Insulander; Fhager, Valentin; Demaziere, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    Three different types of thorium based BWR fuel have been developed, in each of which thorium was combined with a different fissile component, the three components being reactor grade plutonium, uranium enriched to 20% in uranium 235 and pure uranium 233. A BWR nuclear bundle design, based on the geometrical fuel assembly design GE14, was developed for each of these fissile components. The properties and performance of the corresponding fuel assemblies were investigated via full core calculations carried out for an existing BWR and compared with the ones of an ordinary Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel, which was developed for reference. The fuel assemblies and cores were designed to meet existing fuel design criteria, and were then analyzed with regards to reactivity coefficients, delayed neutron fractions, control rod worths and shutdown margins. The results show that all three alternatives seem to be feasible, although some difficulties remain with complying with the thermal limits, and with the moderator temperature and coolant void coefficients of the U-233 containing fuel being positive under some circumstances. (author)

  10. BIM authoring for an image-based bridge maintenance system of existing cable-supported bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, N. S.; Shim, C. S.

    2018-04-01

    Infrastructure nowadays is increasingly become the main backbone for the metropolitan development in general. Along with the rise of new facilities, the demand in term of maintenance for the existing bridges is indispensable. Recently, the terminology of “preventive maintenance” is not unfamiliar with the engineer, literally is the use of a bridge maintenance system (BMS) based on a BIM-oriented model. In this paper, the process of generating a BMS based on BIM model is introduced in detail. Data management for this BMS is separated into two modules: site inspection system and information management system. The noteworthy aspect of this model lays on the closed and automatic process of “capture image, generate the technical damage report, and upload/feedback to the BMS” in real-time. A pilot BMS system for a cable-supported bridge is presented which showed a good performance and potential to further development of preventive maintenance.

  11. Deep Learning Based Cryptographic Primitive Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Gregory D.; Bellekens, Xavier J. A.

    2017-01-01

    Cryptovirological augmentations present an immediate, incomparable threat. Over the last decade, the substantial proliferation of crypto-ransomware has had widespread consequences for consumers and organisations alike. Established preventive measures perform well, however, the problem has not ceased. Reverse engineering potentially malicious software is a cumbersome task due to platform eccentricities and obfuscated transmutation mechanisms, hence requiring smarter, more efficient detection s...

  12. Endoscopic skull base training using 3D printed models with pre-existing pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Vairavan; Narayanan, Prepageran; Rajagopalan, Raman; Karuppiah, Ravindran; Rahman, Zainal Ariff Abdul; Wormald, Peter-John; Van Hasselt, Charles Andrew; Waran, Vicknes

    2015-03-01

    Endoscopic base of skull surgery has been growing in acceptance in the recent past due to improvements in visualisation and micro instrumentation as well as the surgical maturing of early endoscopic skull base practitioners. Unfortunately, these demanding procedures have a steep learning curve. A physical simulation that is able to reproduce the complex anatomy of the anterior skull base provides very useful means of learning the necessary skills in a safe and effective environment. This paper aims to assess the ease of learning endoscopic skull base exposure and drilling techniques using an anatomically accurate physical model with a pre-existing pathology (i.e., basilar invagination) created from actual patient data. Five models of a patient with platy-basia and basilar invagination were created from the original MRI and CT imaging data of a patient. The models were used as part of a training workshop for ENT surgeons with varying degrees of experience in endoscopic base of skull surgery, from trainees to experienced consultants. The surgeons were given a list of key steps to achieve in exposing and drilling the skull base using the simulation model. They were then asked to list the level of difficulty of learning these steps using the model. The participants found the models suitable for learning registration, navigation and skull base drilling techniques. All participants also found the deep structures to be accurately represented spatially as confirmed by the navigation system. These models allow structured simulation to be conducted in a workshop environment where surgeons and trainees can practice to perform complex procedures in a controlled fashion under the supervision of experts.

  13. Not so primitive: context-sensitive meta-learning about unattended sound sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Juanita; Provost, Alexander; Whitson, Lisa R; Cooper, Gavin; Heathcote, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Mismatch negativity (MMN), an evoked response potential elicited when a "deviant" sound violates a regularity in the auditory environment, is integral to auditory scene processing and has been used to demonstrate "primitive intelligence" in auditory short-term memory. Using a new multiple-context and -timescale protocol we show that MMN magnitude displays a context-sensitive modulation depending on changes in the probability of a deviant at multiple temporal scales. We demonstrate a primacy bias causing asymmetric evidence-based modulation of predictions about the environment, and we demonstrate that learning how to learn about deviant probability (meta-learning) induces context-sensitive variation in the accessibility of predictive long-term memory representations that underpin the MMN. The existence of the bias and meta-learning are consistent with automatic attributions of behavioral salience governing relevance-filtering processes operating outside of awareness.

  14. FPGA - Based Technology and Systems for I and C of Existing and Advanced Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachmach, E.; Siora, O.; Tokarev, V.; Reshetytsky, S.; Kharchenko, V.; Bezsalyi, V.

    2011-01-01

    Control systems of modern nuclear installations (including water-cooled, WCR) are based on programmable technologies. Most of control systems modernizations which are implemented at operating nuclear installations are also based on application of programmable technologies. Besides, a range of features and properties is defied for programmable technologies. These features and properties make licensing process more complicated, facilitate appearance of common cause failures, make safety evaluation procedures more complicated, etc. Also it is known that programmable technologies significantly extend the time periods for project realization of new power units construction and modernization of the existing power units, and also it involves rise of its value. Company RADIY has developed the Platform of digital equipment RADIY on FPGA-based technology. In the article there is a description of the features of FPGA-technology developed and applied by Company RADIY, features of the Platform RADIY and systems realized on its base, which allow to minimize significantly above-mentioned negative features and properties of programmable technologies. Technology which realized in Platform RADIY allows to solve the whole set of tasks of control (including regulation) and protection of nuclear installations. Platform RADIY is a combination of the best features of traditional programmable technologies and FPGA-technology. According to the opinion of the authors of this article the technology which is realized in Platform RADIY is the key factor for solving of control and protection tasks of nuclear installations in the nearest future. (author)

  15. Monitoring-based HVAC commissioning of an existing office building for energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Liping; Greenberg, Steve; Fiegel, John; Rubalcava, Alma; Earni, Shankar; Pang, Xiufeng; Yin, Rongxin; Woodworth, Spencer; Hernandez-Maldonado, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Demonstrated monitoring-based HVAC commissioning using an existing office building. ► Diagnosed various types of faulty operation in the HVAC system by trend data analyses. ► Identified a list of energy saving measures for the HVAC system. ► Quantified energy saving potential for each commissioning measure using calibrated energy simulation model. ► Achieved an actual energy saving of 10% after the implementations of cost-effective measures. -- Abstract: The performance of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems may fail to satisfy design expectations due to improper equipment installation, equipment degradation, sensor failures, or incorrect control sequences. Commissioning identifies and implements cost-effective operational and maintenance measures in buildings to bring them up to the design intent or optimum operation. An existing office building is used as a case study to demonstrate the process of commissioning. Building energy benchmarking tools are applied to evaluate the energy performance for screening opportunities at the whole building level. A large natural gas saving potential was indicated by the building benchmarking results. Faulty operations in the HVAC systems, such as improper operations of air-side economizers, simultaneous heating and cooling, and ineffective optimal start, were identified through trend data analyses and functional testing. The energy saving potential for each commissioning measure is quantified with a calibrated building simulation model. An actual energy saving of 10% was realized after the implementations of cost-effective measures.

  16. Evaluating structural pattern recognition for handwritten math via primitive label graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanibbi, Richard; Mouchère, Harold; Viard-Gaudin, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Currently, structural pattern recognizer evaluations compare graphs of detected structure to target structures (i.e. ground truth) using recognition rates, recall and precision for object segmentation, classification and relationships. In document recognition, these target objects (e.g. symbols) are frequently comprised of multiple primitives (e.g. connected components, or strokes for online handwritten data), but current metrics do not characterize errors at the primitive level, from which object-level structure is obtained. Primitive label graphs are directed graphs defined over primitives and primitive pairs. We define new metrics obtained by Hamming distances over label graphs, which allow classification, segmentation and parsing errors to be characterized separately, or using a single measure. Recall and precision for detected objects may also be computed directly from label graphs. We illustrate the new metrics by comparing a new primitive-level evaluation to the symbol-level evaluation performed for the CROHME 2012 handwritten math recognition competition. A Python-based set of utilities for evaluating, visualizing and translating label graphs is publicly available.

  17. Existing creatinine-based equations overestimate glomerular filtration rate in Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vivek; Yadav, Ashok Kumar; Yasuda, Yoshinari; Horio, Masaru; Kumar, Vinod; Sahni, Nancy; Gupta, Krishan L; Matsuo, Seiichi; Kohli, Harbir Singh; Jha, Vivekanand

    2018-02-01

    Accurate estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is important for diagnosis and risk stratification in chronic kidney disease and for selection of living donors. Ethnic differences have required correction factors in the originally developed creatinine-based GFR estimation equations for populations around the world. Existing equations have not been validated in the vegetarian Indian population. We examined the performance of creatinine and cystatin-based GFR estimating equations in Indians. GFR was measured by urinary clearance of inulin. Serum creatinine was measured using IDMS-traceable Jaffe's and enzymatic assays, and cystatin C by colloidal gold immunoassay. Dietary protein intake was calculated by measuring urinary nitrogen appearance. Bias, precision and accuracy were calculated for the eGFR equations. A total of 130 participants (63 healthy kidney donors and 67 with CKD) were studied. About 50% were vegetarians, and the remainder ate meat 3.8 times every month. The average creatinine excretion were 14.7 mg/kg/day (95% CI: 13.5 to 15.9 mg/kg/day) and 12.4 mg/kg/day (95% CI: 11.2 to 13.6 mg/kg/day) in males and females, respectively. The average daily protein intake was 46.1 g/day (95% CI: 43.2 to 48.8 g/day). The mean mGFR in the study population was 51.66 ± 31.68 ml/min/1.73m 2 . All creatinine-based eGFR equations overestimated GFR (p < 0.01 for each creatinine based eGFR equation). However, eGFR by CKD-EPI Cys was not significantly different from mGFR (p = 0.38). The CKD-EPI Cys exhibited lowest bias [mean bias: -3.53 ± 14.70 ml/min/1.73m 2 (95% CI: -0.608 to -0.98)] and highest accuracy (P 30 : 74.6%). The GFR in the healthy population was 79.44 ± 20.19 (range: 41.90-134.50) ml/min/1.73m 2 . Existing creatinine-based GFR estimating equations overestimate GFR in Indians. An appropriately powered study is needed to develop either a correction factor or a new equation for accurate assessment of kidney function in the

  18. Fine Tuning of Basic Forces through the Existence of Carbon-Based Life

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    The bulk of the carbon in our universe is produced in the triple-alpha process in helium-burning red giant stars. We calculated the change of the triple-alpha reaction rate in a microscopic twelve-nucleon model of the 12C nucleus and looked for the effects of minimal variations of the strengths of the underlying strong and Coulomb interactions. Stellar model calculations are performed using the alternative reaction rates. We show that outside a narrow window of 0.5% of the strength or range of the strong interaction the stellar production of carbon or oxygen is reduced by factors of 130 to 1000. Therefore, outside this window the existence of carbon-based life in our universe would be strongly disfavored. These anthropically allowed strengths of the strong and electromagnetic forces also constrain the sum of the light quark masses and the Higgs vacuum expectation value.

  19. Development of a plastic rotary heat exchanger for room-based ventilation in existing apartments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Kevin Michael; Svendsen, Svend

    2015-01-01

    The existing building stock will likely undergo widespread energy renovations to meet future emissions targets. Single-room ventilation may enable the process due to its simple installation, low fan power, and potential for local heat recovery. A short plastic rotary heat exchanger is developed...... for single-room ventilation based on thermal design theory. Performance is predicted from correlations of dimensionless groups for regenerative heat exchangers, and this guides the selection of a polycarbonate honeycomb with small circular channels. Experiments quantify flows and determine temperature...... efficiencies at several ventilation rates while accounting for heat gains from motors and air leakage. The measured and modelled temperature efficiencies show adequate agreement and exceed 80% for a balanced nominal ventilation rate of 28m3/h. This result meets the development criteria but cannot validate...

  20. Semantic Primitives of Time and Space in Hong Kong Cantonese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Malindy; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Semantic primitives for time and space, as proposed in Natural Semantic Metalanguage theory, are examined for lexical equivalents in Hong Kong Cantonese. Temporal primitives are all found to have clear Cantonese exponents that can be combined as predicted with other metalanguage elements, with two exceptions. Spatial primitives all appear to have…

  1. Evaluation of the performance of existing non-laboratory based cardiovascular risk assessment algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The high burden and rising incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in resource constrained countries necessitates implementation of robust and pragmatic primary and secondary prevention strategies. Many current CVD management guidelines recommend absolute cardiovascular (CV) risk assessment as a clinically sound guide to preventive and treatment strategies. Development of non-laboratory based cardiovascular risk assessment algorithms enable absolute risk assessment in resource constrained countries. The objective of this review is to evaluate the performance of existing non-laboratory based CV risk assessment algorithms using the benchmarks for clinically useful CV risk assessment algorithms outlined by Cooney and colleagues. Methods A literature search to identify non-laboratory based risk prediction algorithms was performed in MEDLINE, CINAHL, Ovid Premier Nursing Journals Plus, and PubMed databases. The identified algorithms were evaluated using the benchmarks for clinically useful cardiovascular risk assessment algorithms outlined by Cooney and colleagues. Results Five non-laboratory based CV risk assessment algorithms were identified. The Gaziano and Framingham algorithms met the criteria for appropriateness of statistical methods used to derive the algorithms and endpoints. The Swedish Consultation, Framingham and Gaziano algorithms demonstrated good discrimination in derivation datasets. Only the Gaziano algorithm was externally validated where it had optimal discrimination. The Gaziano and WHO algorithms had chart formats which made them simple and user friendly for clinical application. Conclusion Both the Gaziano and Framingham non-laboratory based algorithms met most of the criteria outlined by Cooney and colleagues. External validation of the algorithms in diverse samples is needed to ascertain their performance and applicability to different populations and to enhance clinicians’ confidence in them. PMID:24373202

  2. Hard Spheres on the Primitive Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotera, Tomonari; Takahashi, Yusuke

    2015-03-01

    Recently hierarchical structures associated with the gyroid in several soft-matter systems have been reported. One of fundamental questions is regular arrangement or tiling on minimal surfaces. We have found certain numbers of hard spheres per unit cell on the gyroid surface are entropically self-organized. Here, new results for the primitive surface are presented. 56/64/72 per unit cell on the primitive minimal surface are entropically self-organized. Numerical evidences for the fluid-solid transition as a function of hard sphere radius are obtained in terms of the acceptance ratio of Monte Carlo moves and order parameters. These arrangements, which are the extensions of the hexagonal arrangement on a flat surface, can be viewed as hyperbolic tiling on the Poincaré disk with a negative Gaussian curvature.

  3. Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Dipankar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET is a small round cell malignant tumor of neuroectodermal origin. Most of the PNETs occur in the central nervous system (CNS. PNETs recognized outside of CNS are diagnosed as peripheral PNET (pPNET. This tumor which expresses MIC-2 gene (CD99 seems to be least aggressive after complete tumor resection. We describe a rare case of PNET in a young girl.

  4. Accounting for primitive terms in mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F.M. Strauss

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The philosophical problem of unity and diversity entails a challenge to the rationalist aim to define everything. Definitions of this kind surface in various academic disciplines in formulations like uniqueness, irreducibility, and what has acquired the designation “primitive terms”. Not even the most “exact” disciplines, such as mathematics, can avoid the implications entailed in giving an account of such primitive terms. A mere look at the historical development of mathematics highlights the fact that alternative perspectives prevailed – from the arithmeticism of Pythagoreanism, the eventual geometrisation of mathematics after the discovery of incommensurability up to the revival of arithmeticism in the mathematics of Cauchy, Weierstrass, Dedekind and Cantor (with the later orientation of Frege, who completed the circle by returning to the view that mathematics essentially is geometry. An assessment of logicism and axiomatic formalism is followed by looking at the primitive meaning of wholeness (and the whole-parts relation. With reference to the views of Hilbert, Weyl and Bernays the article concludes by suggesting that in opposition to arithmeticism and geometricism an alternative option ought to be pursued – one in which both the uniqueness and mutual coherence between the aspects of number and space are acknowledged.

  5. Soil heating during wildfires and prescribed burns: a global evaluation based on existing and new data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, Stefan; Santin, Cristina; Reardon, James; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Stoof, Cathelijne; Bryant, Rob; Miesel, Jessica; Badia, David

    2017-04-01

    Heat transfer from the combustion of ground fuels and soil organic matter during vegetation fires can cause substantial changes to the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of soils. Numerous studies have investigated the effects of wildfires and prescribed burns on soil properties based either on field samples or using laboratory experiments. Critical thresholds for changes in soil properties, however, have been determined largely based on laboratory heating experimentation. These experimental approaches have been criticized for being inadequate for reflecting the actual heating patterns soil experienced in vegetation fires, which remain poorly understood. To address this research gap, this study reviews existing and evaluates new field data on key soil heating parameters determined during wildfires and prescribed burns from a wide range of environments. The results highlight the high spatial and temporal variability in soil heating patters not only between, but also within fires. Most wildfires and prescribed burns are associated with heat pulses that are much shorter than those typically applied in laboratory studies, which can lead to erroneous conclusions when results from laboratory studies are used to predict fire impacts on soils in the field.

  6. Deducing trapdoor primitives in public key encryption schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Chandra

    2005-03-01

    Semantic security of public key encryption schemes is often interchangeable with the art of building trapdoors. In the frame of reference of Random Oracle methodology, the "Key Privacy" and "Anonymity" has often been discussed. However to a certain degree the security of most public key encryption schemes is required to be analyzed with formal proofs using one-way functions. This paper evaluates the design of El Gamal and RSA based schemes and attempts to parallelize the trapdoor primitives used in the computation of the cipher text, thereby magnifying the decryption error δp in the above schemes.

  7. Microfluidic assay of the deformability of primitive erythroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sitong; Huang, Yu-Shan; Kingsley, Paul D; Cyr, Kathryn H; Palis, James; Wan, Jiandi

    2017-09-01

    Primitive erythroblasts (precursors of red blood cells) enter vascular circulation during the embryonic period and mature while circulating. As a result, primitive erythroblasts constantly experience significant hemodynamic shear stress. Shear-induced deformation of primitive erythroblasts however, is poorly studied. In this work, we examined the deformability of primitive erythroblasts at physiologically relevant flow conditions in microfluidic channels and identified the regulatory roles of the maturation stage of primitive erythroblasts and cytoskeletal protein 4.1 R in shear-induced cell deformation. The results showed that the maturation stage affected the deformability of primitive erythroblasts significantly and that primitive erythroblasts at later maturational stages exhibited a better deformability due to a matured cytoskeletal structure in the cell membrane.

  8. Effectiveness comparison of partially executed t-way test suite based generated by existing strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Rozmie R.; Ahmad, Mohd Zamri Zahir; Ali, Mohd Shaiful Aziz Rashid; Zakaria, Hasneeza Liza; Rahman, Md. Mostafijur

    2015-05-01

    Consuming 40 to 50 percent of software development cost, software testing is one of the most resource consuming activities in software development lifecycle. To ensure an acceptable level of quality and reliability of a typical software product, it is desirable to test every possible combination of input data under various configurations. Due to combinatorial explosion problem, considering all exhaustive testing is practically impossible. Resource constraints, costing factors as well as strict time-to-market deadlines are amongst the main factors that inhibit such consideration. Earlier work suggests that sampling strategy (i.e. based on t-way parameter interaction or called as t-way testing) can be effective to reduce number of test cases without effecting the fault detection capability. However, for a very large system, even t-way strategy will produce a large test suite that need to be executed. In the end, only part of the planned test suite can be executed in order to meet the aforementioned constraints. Here, there is a need for test engineers to measure the effectiveness of partially executed test suite in order for them to assess the risk they have to take. Motivated by the abovementioned problem, this paper presents the effectiveness comparison of partially executed t-way test suite generated by existing strategies using tuples coverage method. Here, test engineers can predict the effectiveness of the testing process if only part of the original test cases is executed.

  9. Transporting existing VSC-24 canisters using a risk-based licensing approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, R.; Sisley, S.E.; Hopf, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    The eventual disposition of the spent fuel assemblies loaded in canisters and casks currently designed and licensed only for on-site storage is an industry-wide issue. The canister-specific BUC evaluation approach developed by BFS can be used to license many of these storage canisters and casks for transportation. This will allow these storage canisters and casks to be transported intact to a long-term storage facility or repository, thereby minimizing fuel handling operations, impact on plant operations, and occupational exposure, as well as total infrastructure costs. Application of the proposed canister-specific BUC analysis approach to a preliminary evaluation of the 58 loaded MSBs demonstrates the benefits of this approach. The results of this preliminary evaluation show that a more rigorous analysis based on the known characteristics of the loaded spent fuel, rather than the design-basis fuel parameters, produces significantly lower maximum keff values and can be used to qualify many of the existing loaded storage canisters for transportation. Transportation certification for storage canisters having more reactive spent fuel payloads may require reliance on BUC approaches that are more aggressive than current NRC guidelines allow. Credit may be required for fission- product isotopes that do not have sufficient chemical assay data for benchmarking. In addition, reduced criticality safety margins may be required. For these more-aggressive BUC approaches, a risk assessment should be provided to support the NRC-approval basis. The risk assessment should evaluate the possibility and consequences of an accidental criticality event based upon inaccuracies in the characterization of the spent-fuel payloads

  10. Transporting existing VSC-24 canisters using a risk-based licensing approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, R.; Sisley, S.E.; Hopf, J.E. [BNFL Fuel Solutions, Campbell, CA (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The eventual disposition of the spent fuel assemblies loaded in canisters and casks currently designed and licensed only for on-site storage is an industry-wide issue. The canister-specific BUC evaluation approach developed by BFS can be used to license many of these storage canisters and casks for transportation. This will allow these storage canisters and casks to be transported intact to a long-term storage facility or repository, thereby minimizing fuel handling operations, impact on plant operations, and occupational exposure, as well as total infrastructure costs. Application of the proposed canister-specific BUC analysis approach to a preliminary evaluation of the 58 loaded MSBs demonstrates the benefits of this approach. The results of this preliminary evaluation show that a more rigorous analysis based on the known characteristics of the loaded spent fuel, rather than the design-basis fuel parameters, produces significantly lower maximum keff values and can be used to qualify many of the existing loaded storage canisters for transportation. Transportation certification for storage canisters having more reactive spent fuel payloads may require reliance on BUC approaches that are more aggressive than current NRC guidelines allow. Credit may be required for fission- product isotopes that do not have sufficient chemical assay data for benchmarking. In addition, reduced criticality safety margins may be required. For these more-aggressive BUC approaches, a risk assessment should be provided to support the NRC-approval basis. The risk assessment should evaluate the possibility and consequences of an accidental criticality event based upon inaccuracies in the characterization of the spent-fuel payloads.

  11. Effects of primitive photosynthesis on Earth's early climate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Kazumi; Tajika, Eiichi; Hong, Peng K.; Nakagawa, Yusuke; Reinhard, Christopher T.

    2018-01-01

    The evolution of different forms of photosynthetic life has profoundly altered the activity level of the biosphere, radically reshaping the composition of Earth's oceans and atmosphere over time. However, the mechanistic impacts of a primitive photosynthetic biosphere on Earth's early atmospheric chemistry and climate are poorly understood. Here, we use a global redox balance model to explore the biogeochemical and climatological effects of different forms of primitive photosynthesis. We find that a hybrid ecosystem of H2-based and Fe2+-based anoxygenic photoautotrophs—organisms that perform photosynthesis without producing oxygen—gives rise to a strong nonlinear amplification of Earth's methane (CH4) cycle, and would thus have represented a critical component of Earth's early climate system before the advent of oxygenic photosynthesis. Using a Monte Carlo approach, we find that a hybrid photosynthetic biosphere widens the range of geochemical conditions that allow for warm climate states well beyond either of these metabolic processes acting in isolation. Our results imply that the Earth's early climate was governed by a novel and poorly explored set of regulatory feedbacks linking the anoxic biosphere and the coupled H, C and Fe cycles. We suggest that similar processes should be considered when assessing the potential for sustained habitability on Earth-like planets with reducing atmospheres.

  12. Primitive Endoderm Differentiation: From Specification to Epithelialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassalert, Cécilia; Valverde-Estrella, Lorena; Chazaud, Claire

    2018-01-01

    At the time of implantation, the mouse blastocyst has developed three cell lineages: the epiblast (Epi), the primitive endoderm (PrE), and the trophectoderm (TE). The PrE and TE are extraembryonic tissues but their interactions with the Epi are critical to sustain embryonic growth, as well as to pattern the embryo. We review here the cellular and molecular events that lead to the production of PrE and Epi lineages and discuss the different hypotheses that are proposed for the induction of these cell types. In the second part, we report the current knowledge about the epithelialization of the PrE. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the cervix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Ouyang, Ling; Han, Xue; Zhou, Yang; Tong, Xin; Zhang, Shulang; Zhang, Qingfu

    2013-01-01

    Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) are rare and high-grade malignant tumors that mostly occur in children and young adults. The most common sites are the trunk, limbs, and retroperitoneum. Herein, we present a case of a PNET involving the cervix uteri in a 27-year-old woman. The lesion showed characteristic histologic features of a PNET and was positive for the immunohistochemical markers cluster of differentiation (CD) 99, vimentin, neuron-specific enolase, neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (CD56), and CD117 (c-kit), further defining the tumor while helping to confirm PNET. The clinical Stage IIIB tumor was treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. PMID:23836982

  14. Missing relationship of moyamoya and persistent primitive artery in Europeans. Another distinctive feature or artifact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenz, Holger; Wenz, Ralf; Förster, Alex; Fontana, Johann; Kerl, Hans Ulrich; Groden, Christoph; Scharf, Johann

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies found higher incidence of persistent primitive arteries in Asian moyamoya (MM) patients than in the general population, which was thought to be a characteristic trait of the MM entity in general. We analyzed incidence of persistent primitive arteries and demographics of patients with European MM treated in one single center. First, we compared our large dataset to existing literature and second, we raised the question whether European MM demonstrates similar high prevalence of persistent primitive arteries as it was previously presented within Asian MM. All European MM on whom revascularization surgery was performed from 1999 to 2013 were included. Demographics and associated diseases were obtained by retrospective chart review. Two independent readers evaluated 122 MM angiograms to determine the occurrence of persistent primitive arteries as well as the Suzuki score. We identified 112 cases with MM disease, 10 with MM syndrome. Mean age at time of diagnosis was 38.2 (range 6-64 years); a peak incidence in early childhood was not observed. Ninety (73.8%) were women, associated systemic diseases were found in four patients. Seven cases (5.7%) presented with unilaterally affected vessels. The majority of patients (71; 58.2%) were graded Suzuki Score 3. One 14-year-old boy with moyamoya presented with a primitive trigeminal artery (0.89%). We did not find a bimodal age distribution, but only a second peak during adulthood. Unlike previous studies on Asian moyamoya patients, our collective does not exhibit a higher prevalence of persistent primitive arteries than the normal population.

  15. Primitive Accumulation and Temporalities of Capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Bednarek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main thesis of the article is the statement that capitalism is composed of many different, incoherent temporalities, as well as that apprehension of capitalism from the angle of primitive accumulation enables the more accurate grasp of the modes of its functioning, including the complexity created by the interactions of the temporalities mentionned. The problem of primitive accumulation is, as Sandro Mezzadra proves, a good starting point for analysing this issue. It allows us to pose two questions: first, the question of the relation between the historical dimension and the structural logic of capitalism; second, the question of hierarchical relation between the center and the periphery of the capitalist system.Dipesh Chakrabarty’s project of ‘provincializing Europe’ proves helpful here, as it’s goal is deconstruction of the categories of progress, modernization and the capital with its abstract structure. The aim is not to negate the fact that capitalist abstraction is a real force, but to show that this force develops by means of constant assimiliation of the other – redefined as ‘backward’ or archaic. The linear scheme is in force, because it is the main mechanism of imposing the power of capital; as such, it is not politically neutral.

  16. Identifying the primitive path mesh in entangled polymer liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukumaran, Sathish K.; Kremer, Kurt; Grest, Gary Stephen; Everaers, Ralf

    2004-01-01

    Similar to entangled ropes, polymer chains cannot slide through each other. These topological constraints, the so-called entanglements, dominate the viscoelastic behavior of high-molecular-weight polymeric liquids. Tube models of polymer dynamics and rheology are based on the idea that entanglements confine a chain to small fluctuations around a primitive path which follows the coarse-grained chain contour. To establish the microscopic foundation for these highly successful phenomenological models, we have recently introduced a method for identifying the primitive path mesh that characterizes the microscopic topological state of computer-generated conformations of long-chain polymer melts and solutions. Here we give a more detailed account of the algorithm and discuss several key aspects of the analysis that are pertinent for its successful use in analyzing the topology of the polymer configurations. We also present a slight modification of the algorithm that preserves the previously neglected self-entanglements and allows us to distinguish between local self-knots and entanglements between distant sections of the same chain. Our results indicate that the latter make a negligible contribution to the tube and that the contour length between local self-knots, N 1k is significantly larger than the entanglement length N e

  17. An online gait generator for quadruped walking using motor primitives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlin Zhou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents implementation of an online gait generator on a quadruped robot. Firstly, the design of a quadruped robot is presented. The robot contains four leg modules each of which is constructed by a 2 degrees of freedom (2-DOF five-bar parallel linkage mechanism. Together with other two rotational DOF, the leg module is able to perform 4-DOF movement. The parallel mechanism of the robot allows all the servos attached on the body frame, so that the leg mass is decreased and motor load can be balanced. Secondly, an online gait generator based on dynamic movement primitives for the walking control is presented. Dynamic movement primitives provide an approach to generate periodic trajectories and they can be modulated in real time, which makes the online adjustment of walking gaits possible. This gait controller is tested by the quadruped robot in regulating walking speed, switching between forward\\backward movements and steering. The controller is easy to apply, expand and is quite effective on phase coordination and online trajectory modulation. Results of simulated experiments are presented.

  18. Status of existing federal environmental risk-based standards applicable to Department of Energy operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilyard, G.R.; Jonas, R.J.; Wallo, A. III

    1991-01-01

    When conducting its environmental restoration, waste management, and decontamination and decommissioning activities, the US Department of Energy (DOE) must comply with a myriad of regulatory procedures and environmental standards. An assessment of the status of existing federal standards that may be applied to chemical and radioactive substances on DOE sites found substantial gaps and inconsistencies among the existing standards, and technical issues associated with the application of those standards. Of 271 chemical and radioactive substances found to be important across environmental media at the Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge Sites, 96 (35%) are unregulated by federal regulations and are not covered by DOE guidelines, 48 (18%) are covered by single federal standards or DOE guidelines, and 127 (47%) are covered by multiple regulations or DOE guidelines. Inconsistencies and technical issues among standards include the promulgation of different standards under different regulations for a given substance in an environmental medium, the application of standards for purposes other than originally intended, and the inability to meet standards because of technical limitations. Given the lack of a complete, consistent set of standards or generic procedures for determining applicable standards, and given the existence of inconsistencies and technical issues among the existing set of standards, DOE may be faced with lengthy negotiations of standards on a case-by-case basis. Such negotiations could result in inconsistent cleanup levels, high costs, potential delays, and missed regulatory milestones

  19. Primitive chain network simulations of probe rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masubuchi, Yuichi; Amamoto, Yoshifumi; Pandey, Ankita; Liu, Cheng-Yang

    2017-09-27

    Probe rheology experiments, in which the dynamics of a small amount of probe chains dissolved in immobile matrix chains is discussed, have been performed for the development of molecular theories for entangled polymer dynamics. Although probe chain dynamics in probe rheology is considered hypothetically as single chain dynamics in fixed tube-shaped confinement, it has not been fully elucidated. For instance, the end-to-end relaxation of probe chains is slower than that for monodisperse melts, unlike the conventional molecular theories. In this study, the viscoelastic and dielectric relaxations of probe chains were calculated by primitive chain network simulations. The simulations semi-quantitatively reproduced the dielectric relaxation, which reflects the effect of constraint release on the end-to-end relaxation. Fair agreement was also obtained for the viscoelastic relaxation time. However, the viscoelastic relaxation intensity was underestimated, possibly due to some flaws in the model for the inter-chain cross-correlations between probe and matrix chains.

  20. Design and Analysis of Symmetric Primitives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Martin Mehl

    . In the second part, we delve into the matter of the various aspects of designing a symmetric cryptographic primitive. We start by considering generalizations of the widely acclaimed Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) block cipher. In particular, our focus is on a component operation in the cipher which permutes...... analyze and implement modes recommended by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), as well as authenticated encryption modes from the CAESAR competition, when instantiated with the AES. The data processed in our benchmarking has sizes representative to that of typical Internet traffic...... linear cryptanalysis. We apply this model to the standardized block cipher PRESENT. Finally, we present very generic attacks on two authenticated encryption schemes, AVALANCHE and RBS, by pointing out severe design flaws that can be leveraged to fully recover the secret key with very low complexity...

  1. Capture, learning, and classification of upper extremity movement primitives in healthy controls and stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Jorge; Uddin, Jasim; Nilsen, Dawn; Mclnerney, James; Fadoo, Ammarah; Omofuma, Isirame B; Hughes, Shatif; Agrawal, Sunil; Allen, Peter; Schambra, Heidi M

    2017-07-01

    There currently exist no practical tools to identify functional movements in the upper extremities (UEs). This absence has limited the precise therapeutic dosing of patients recovering from stroke. In this proof-of-principle study, we aimed to develop an accurate approach for classifying UE functional movement primitives, which comprise functional movements. Data were generated from inertial measurement units (IMUs) placed on upper body segments of older healthy individuals and chronic stroke patients. Subjects performed activities commonly trained during rehabilitation after stroke. Data processing involved the use of a sliding window to obtain statistical descriptors, and resulting features were processed by a Hidden Markov Model (HMM). The likelihoods of the states, resulting from the HMM, were segmented by a second sliding window and their averages were calculated. The final predictions were mapped to human functional movement primitives using a Logistic Regression algorithm. Algorithm performance was assessed with a leave-one-out analysis, which determined its sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for all classified primitives. In healthy control and stroke participants, our approach identified functional movement primitives embedded in training activities with, on average, 80% precision. This approach may support functional movement dosing in stroke rehabilitation.

  2. On the use of NDT Data for Reliability-Based Assessment of Existing Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sousa, Hélder S.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to address the possibilities of using non-destructive testing (NDT) data for updating information and obtaining adequate characterization of the reliability level of existing timber structures and, also, for assessing the evolution in time of performance...... of these structures when exposed to deterioration. By improving the knowledge upon the mechanical properties of timber, better and more substantiated decisions after a reliability safety assessment are aimed at. Bayesian methods are used to update the mechanical properties of timber and reliability assessment......, and information of NDT is also used to calibrate these models. The proposed approach is used for reliability assessment of different structural timber systems. Reliability of the structural system is assessed regarding the failure consequences of individual elements defined as key elements which were determined...

  3. Establishing the existence of a distance-based upper bound for a fuzzy DEA model using duality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soleimani-damaneh, M.

    2009-01-01

    In a recent paper [Soleimani-damaneh M. Fuzzy upper bounds and their applications. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2008;36:217-25.], I established the existence of a distance-based fuzzy upper bound for the objective function of a fuzzy DEA model, using the properties of a discussed signed distance, and provided an effective approach to solve that model. In this paper a new dual-based proof for the existence of the above-mentioned upper bound is provided which gives a useful insight into the theory of fuzzy DEA.

  4. NTR-Enhanced Lunar-Base Supply using Existing Launch Fleet Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John D. Bess; Emily Colvin; Paul G. Cummings

    2009-06-01

    During the summer of 2006, students at the Center for Space Nuclear Research sought to augment the current NASA lunar exploration architecture with a nuclear thermal rocket (NTR). An additional study investigated the possible use of an NTR with existing launch vehicles to provide 21 metric tons of supplies to the lunar surface in support of a lunar outpost. Current cost estimates show that the complete mission cost for an NTR-enhanced assembly of Delta-IV and Atlas V vehicles may cost 47-86% more than the estimated Ares V launch cost of $1.5B; however, development costs for the current NASA architecture have not been assessed. The additional cost of coordinating the rendezvous of four to six launch vehicles with an in-orbit assembly facility also needs more thorough analysis and review. Future trends in launch vehicle use will also significantly impact the results from this comparison. The utility of multiple launch vehicles allows for the development of a more robust and lower risk exploration architecture.

  5. NTR-Enhanced Lunar-Base Supply using Existing Launch Fleet Capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bess, John D.; Colvin, Emily; Cummings, Paul G.

    2009-01-01

    During the summer of 2006, students at the Center for Space Nuclear Research sought to augment the current NASA lunar exploration architecture with a nuclear thermal rocket (NTR). An additional study investigated the possible use of an NTR with existing launch vehicles to provide 21 metric tons of supplies to the lunar surface in support of a lunar outpost. Current cost estimates show that the complete mission cost for an NTR-enhanced assembly of Delta-IV and Atlas V vehicles may cost 47-86% more than the estimated Ares V launch cost of $1.5B; however, development costs for the current NASA architecture have not been assessed. The additional cost of coordinating the rendezvous of four to six launch vehicles with an in-orbit assembly facility also needs more thorough analysis and review. Future trends in launch vehicle use will also significantly impact the results from this comparison. The utility of multiple launch vehicles allows for the development of a more robust and lower risk exploration architecture

  6. 7 CFR 985.153 - Issuance of additional allotment base to new and existing producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... made available. (c) Issuance—(1) New producers—(i) Regions: For the purpose of issuing additional... quantities of that class of spearmint oil, shall be eligible to receive a share of the additional allotment... immediately notify each producer who is to receive additional allotment base by issuing that producer an...

  7. Transforming Existing Procedural Business Processes into a Constraint-Based Formalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Martijn Zoet; Eline de Haan; Floor Vermeer; Jeroen van Grondelle; Slinger Jansen

    2013-01-01

    Many organizations use business process management to manage and model their processes. Currently, flow-based process formalisms, such as BPMN, are considered the standard for modeling processes. However, recent literature describes several limitations of this type of formalism that can be solved by

  8. Prediction of power ramp defects - development of a physically based model and evaluation of existing criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notley, M.J.F.; Kohn, E.

    2001-01-01

    Power-ramp induced fuel failure is not a problem in the present CANDU reactors. The current empirical correlations that define probability of failure do not agree one-with-another and do not allow extrapolation outside the database. A new methodology, based on physical processes, is presented and compared to data. The methodology calculates the pre-ramp sheath stress and the incremental stress during the ramp, and whether or not there is a defect is predicted based on a failure threshold stress. The proposed model confirms the deductions made by daSilva from an empirical 'fit' to data from the 1988 PNGS power ramp failure incident. It is recommended that daSilvas' correlation be used as reference for OPG (Ontario Power Generation) power reactor fuel, and that extrapolation be performed using the new model. (author)

  9. How Well Can Existing Software Support Processes Accomplish Sustainment of a Non-Developmental Item-Based Acquisition Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    guidance to the PM regarding development and sustainment of software . The need for a strong application of software engineering principles is...on the battlefield by a government- developed network manager application . The configuration of this confluence of software will be jointly managed...How Well Can Existing Software -Support Processes Accomplish Sustainment of a Non- Developmental Item-Based Acquisition Strategy? Graciano

  10. Biomaterials based strategies for skeletal muscle tissue engineering: existing technologies and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Taimoor H; Mooney, David J; Pumberger, Matthias; Geissler, Sven; Duda, Georg N

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscles have a robust capacity to regenerate, but under compromised conditions, such as severe trauma, the loss of muscle functionality is inevitable. Research carried out in the field of skeletal muscle tissue engineering has elucidated multiple intrinsic mechanisms of skeletal muscle repair, and has thus sought to identify various types of cells and bioactive factors which play an important role during regeneration. In order to maximize the potential therapeutic effects of cells and growth factors, several biomaterial based strategies have been developed and successfully implemented in animal muscle injury models. A suitable biomaterial can be utilized as a template to guide tissue reorganization, as a matrix that provides optimum micro-environmental conditions to cells, as a delivery vehicle to carry bioactive factors which can be released in a controlled manner, and as local niches to orchestrate in situ tissue regeneration. A myriad of biomaterials, varying in geometrical structure, physical form, chemical properties, and biofunctionality have been investigated for skeletal muscle tissue engineering applications. In the current review, we present a detailed summary of studies where the use of biomaterials favorably influenced muscle repair. Biomaterials in the form of porous three-dimensional scaffolds, hydrogels, fibrous meshes, and patterned substrates with defined topographies, have each displayed unique benefits, and are discussed herein. Additionally, several biomaterial based approaches aimed specifically at stimulating vascularization, innervation, and inducing contractility in regenerating muscle tissues are also discussed. Finally, we outline promising future trends in the field of muscle regeneration involving a deeper understanding of the endogenous healing cascades and utilization of this knowledge for the development of multifunctional, hybrid, biomaterials which support and enable muscle regeneration under compromised conditions

  11. Feature-Based Approach for the Registration of Pushbroom Imagery with Existing Orthophotos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Weifeng

    Low-cost Unmanned Airborne Vehicles (UAVs) are rapidly becoming suitable platforms for acquiring remote sensing data for a wide range of applications. For example, a UAV-based mobile mapping system (MMS) is emerging as a novel phenotyping tool that delivers several advantages to alleviate the drawbacks of conventional manual plant trait measurements. Moreover, UAVs equipped with direct geo-referenced frame cameras and pushbroom scanners can acquire geospatial data for comprehensive high-throughput phenotyping. UAVs for mobile mapping platforms are low-cost and easy to use, can fly closer to the objects, and are filling an important gap between ground wheel-based and traditional manned-airborne platforms. However, consumer-grade UAVs are capable of carrying only equipment with a relatively light payload and their flying time is determined by a limited battery life. These restrictions of UAVs unfortunately force potential users to adopt lower-quality direct geo-referencing and imaging systems that may negatively impact the quality of the deliverables. Recent advances in sensor calibration and automated triangulation have made it feasible to obtain accurate mapping using low-cost camera systems equipped with consumer-grade GNSS/INS units. However, ortho-rectification of the data from a linear-array scanner is challenging for low-cost UAV systems, because the derived geo-location information from pushbroom sensors is quite sensitive to the performance of the implemented direct geo-referencing unit. This thesis presents a novel approach for improving the ortho-rectification of hyperspectral pushbroom scanner imagery with the aid of orthophotos generated from frame cameras through the identification of conjugate features while modeling the impact of residual artifacts in the direct geo-referencing information. The experimental results qualitatively and quantitatively proved the feasibility of the proposed methodology in improving the geo-referencing accuracy of real

  12. spib is required for primitive myeloid development in Xenopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ricardo M B; Soto, Ximena; Chen, Yaoyao; Zorn, Aaron M; Amaya, Enrique

    2008-09-15

    Vertebrate blood formation occurs in 2 spatially and temporally distinct waves, so-called primitive and definitive hematopoiesis. Although definitive hematopoiesis has been extensively studied, the development of primitive myeloid blood has received far less attention. In Xenopus, primitive myeloid cells originate in the anterior ventral blood islands, the equivalent of the mammalian yolk sac, and migrate out to colonize the embryo. Using fluorescence time-lapse video microscopy, we recorded the migratory behavior of primitive myeloid cells from their birth. We show that these cells are the first blood cells to differentiate in the embryo and that they are efficiently recruited to embryonic wounds, well before the establishment of a functional vasculature. Furthermore, we isolated spib, an ETS transcription factor, specifically expressed in primitive myeloid precursors. Using spib antisense morpholino knockdown experiments, we show that spib is required for myeloid specification, and, in its absence, primitive myeloid cells retain hemangioblast-like characteristics and fail to migrate. Thus, we conclude that spib sits at the top of the known genetic hierarchy that leads to the specification of primitive myeloid cells in amphibians.

  13. Renewable-based low-temperature district heating for existing buildings in various stages of refurbishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Marek; Svendsen, Svend

    2013-01-01

    Denmark is aiming for a fossil-free heating sector for buildings by 2035. Judging by the national heating plan, this will be achieved mainly by a further spread of DH (district heating) based on the renewable heat sources. To make the most cost-effective use of these sources, the DH supply...... and, for 98% of the year, to below 60 °C. However for the temperatures below 60 °C a low-temperature DH substation is required for DHW (domestic hot water) heating. This research shows that renewable sources of heat can be integrated into the DH system without problems and contribute to the fossil...... temperature should be as low as possible. We used IDA–ICE software to simulate a typical Danish single-family house from the 1970s connected to DH at three different stages of envelope and space heating system refurbishment. We wanted to investigate how low the DH supply temperature can be without reducing...

  14. Did "Kin-based societies" Exist? On the (DeConstruction of an Anthropological Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Ivanović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Concept of a ‘kin-based society’ relies on the assumption that, in stateless societies, kinship served as a fundamental and sufficient principle of social and political organization. Developed within the evolutionary paradigm, this concept has acquired different forms during the discipline’s history, depending on the theoretical orientation of various anthropologists and their understanding of the notion of ‘kinship’. Speaking from significantly different theoretical positions, anthropologists ranging from Rivers to Malinowski and Radcliffe- Brown, to Evans-Pritchard, Fortes and Levi-Strauss, all maintained that kinship formed a basis of social organization, although they did not always agree on the definition of the concept and the type of kinship relations that had this special quality of integrating and organizing the whole of society. The debates were primarily about whether it was consanguinity or affinity that served as a fundamental factor of forming and reproducing social relations. As modern anthropology rejects the idea that kinship relations can form the basis for social, economic and political integration in any type of society, including those without the state, class or caste system, this article considers the assumptions underpinning the construction of the concept witch for long played such an important role in the discipline’s knowledge but later came to be seriously challenged.

  15. 'Citizen science' recording of fossils by adapting existing computer-based biodiversity recording tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Alistair

    2014-05-01

    Biodiversity recording activities have been greatly enhanced by the emergence of online schemes and smartphone applications for recording and sharing data about a wide variety of flora and fauna. As a palaeobiologist, one of the areas of research I have been heavily involved in is the question of whether the amount of rock available to sample acts as a bias on our estimates of biodiversity through time. Although great progress has been made on this question over the past ten years by a number of researchers, I still think palaeontology has not followed the lead offered by the 'citizen science' revolution in studies of extant biodiversity. By constructing clearly structured surveys with online data collection support, it should be possible to collect field data on the occurrence of fossils at the scale of individual exposures, which are needed to test competing hypotheses about these effects at relatively small spatial scales. Such data collection would be hard to justify for universities and museums with limited personnel but a co-ordinated citizen science programme would be capable of delivering such a programme. Data collection could be based on the MacKinnon's Lists method, used in rapid conservation assessment work. It relies on observers collecting lists of a fixed length (e.g. 10 species long) but what is important is that it focuses on getting observers to ignore sightings of the same species until that list is complete. This overcomes the problem of 'common taxa being commonly recorded' and encourages observers to seek out and identify the rarer taxa. This gives a targeted but finite task. Rather than removing fossils, participants would be encouraged to take photographs to share via a recording website. The success of iSpot, which allows users to upload photos of plants and animals for other users to help with identifications, offers a model for overcoming the problems of identifying fossils, which can often look nothing like the examples illustrated in

  16. An adjoint sensitivity-based data assimilation method and its comparison with existing variational methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghan Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An adjoint sensitivity-based data assimilation (ASDA method is proposed and applied to a heavy rainfall case over the Korean Peninsula. The heavy rainfall case, which occurred on 26 July 2006, caused torrential rainfall over the central part of the Korean Peninsula. The mesoscale convective system (MCS related to the heavy rainfall was classified as training line/adjoining stratiform (TL/AS-type for the earlier period, and back building (BB-type for the later period. In the ASDA method, an adjoint model is run backwards with forecast-error gradient as input, and the adjoint sensitivity of the forecast error to the initial condition is scaled by an optimal scaling factor. The optimal scaling factor is determined by minimising the observational cost function of the four-dimensional variational (4D-Var method, and the scaled sensitivity is added to the original first guess. Finally, the observations at the analysis time are assimilated using a 3D-Var method with the improved first guess. The simulated rainfall distribution is shifted northeastward compared to the observations when no radar data are assimilated or when radar data are assimilated using the 3D-Var method. The rainfall forecasts are improved when radar data are assimilated using the 4D-Var or ASDA method. Simulated atmospheric fields such as horizontal winds, temperature, and water vapour mixing ratio are also improved via the 4D-Var or ASDA method. Due to the improvement in the analysis, subsequent forecasts appropriately simulate the observed features of the TL/AS- and BB-type MCSs and the corresponding heavy rainfall. The computational cost associated with the ASDA method is significantly lower than that of the 4D-Var method.

  17. Earthquake Protection of Existing Structures with Limited Seismic Joint: Base Isolation with Supplemental Damping versus Rotational Inertia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario De Domenico

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Existing civil engineering structures having strategic importance, such as hospitals, fire stations, and power plants, often do not comply with seismic standards in force today, as they were designed and built based on past structural guidelines. On the other hand, due to their special importance, structural integrity of such buildings is of vital importance during and after earthquakes, which puts demands on strategies for their seismic protection. In this regard, seismic base isolation has been widely employed; however, the existing limited seismic joint between adjacent buildings may hamper this application because of the large displacements concentrated at the isolation floor. In this paper, we compare two possible remedies: the former is to provide supplemental damping in conventional base isolation systems and the latter consists in a combination of base isolation with supplemental rotational inertia. For the second strategy, a mechanical device, called inerter, is arranged in series with spring and dashpot elements to form the so-called tuned-mass-damper-inerter (TMDI directly connected to an isolation floor. Several advantages of this second system as compared to the first one are outlined, especially with regard to the limitation of floor accelerations and interstory drifts, which may be an issue for nonstructural elements and equipment, in addition to disturbing occupants. Once the optimal design of the TMDI is established, possible implementation of this system into existing structures is discussed.

  18. Rapid world modeling: Fitting range data to geometric primitives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feddema, J.; Little, C.

    1996-01-01

    For the past seven years, Sandia National Laboratories has been active in the development of robotic systems to help remediate DOE's waste sites and decommissioned facilities. Some of these facilities have high levels of radioactivity which prevent manual clean-up. Tele-operated and autonomous robotic systems have been envisioned as the only suitable means of removing the radioactive elements. World modeling is defined as the process of creating a numerical geometric model of a real world environment or workspace. This model is often used in robotics to plan robot motions which perform a task while avoiding obstacles. In many applications where the world model does not exist ahead of time, structured lighting, laser range finders, and even acoustical sensors have been used to create three dimensional maps of the environment. These maps consist of thousands of range points which are difficult to handle and interpret. This paper presents a least squares technique for fitting range data to planar and quadric surfaces, including cylinders and ellipsoids. Once fit to these primitive surfaces, the amount of data associated with a surface is greatly reduced up to three orders of magnitude, thus allowing for more rapid handling and analysis of world data

  19. Live imaging of primitive endoderm precursors in the mouse blastocyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabarek, Joanna B; Plusa, Berenika

    2012-01-01

    The separation of two populations of cells-primitive endoderm and epiblast-within the inner cell mass (ICM) of the mammalian blastocyst is a crucial event during preimplantation development. However, many aspects of this process are still not very well understood. Recently, the identification of platelet derived growth factor receptor alpha (Pdgfrα) as an early-expressed protein that is also a marker of the later primitive endoderm lineage, together with the availability of the Pdgfra(H2B-GFP) mouse strain (Hamilton et al. Mol Cell Biol 23:4013-4025, 2003), has made in vivo imaging of primitive endoderm formation possible. In this chapter we present two different approaches that can be used to follow the behavior of primitive endoderm cells within the mouse blastocyst in real time.

  20. Existence and non-uniqueness of global weak solutions to inviscid primitive and Boussinesq equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chiodaroli, E.; Michálek, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 353, č. 3 (2017), s. 1201-1216 ISSN 0010-3616 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 320078 - MATHEF Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Boussinesq equations * global weak solutions Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 2.500, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00220-017-2846-5

  1. Primitive myxoid mesenchymal tumor of infancy in a preterm infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Joseph; Lara-Corrales, Irene; Cammisuli, Salvatore; Somers, Gino R; Pope, Elena

    2010-01-01

    Primitive myxoid mesenchymal tumor of infancy is a recently recognized entity that has been added to the differential diagnosis of myxoid tumors of the soft tissue. Few cases have been reported of this entity in the literature, but none presenting in a preterm infant. We present the case and clinical course of a preterm boy with a primitive myxoid mesenchymal tumor of infancy that occurred following excision of a congenital juvenile xanthogranuloma. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the Stomach: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Woon Ju; Cho, June Sik; Shin, Kyung Sook; Jeong, Hyung Yong; Noh; Seung Moo; Song, Kyu Sang

    2010-01-01

    Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors (peripheral PNETs) are very rare and highly aggressive soft tissue malignancies originating from the neural crest. To the best of our knowledge, only a few cases of peripheral PNETs of the stomach have been reported in the literature. We report a case of large peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the stomach with MDCT findings in a 22-year-old man presenting epigastric pain and vomiting

  3. New hybrid voxelized/analytical primitive in Monte Carlo simulations for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bert, Julien; Lemaréchal, Yannick; Visvikis, Dimitris

    2016-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations (MCS) applied in particle physics play a key role in medical imaging and particle therapy. In such simulations, particles are transported through voxelized phantoms derived from predominantly patient CT images. However, such voxelized object representation limits the incorporation of fine elements, such as artificial implants from CAD modeling or anatomical and functional details extracted from other imaging modalities. In this work we propose a new hYbrid Voxelized/ANalytical primitive (YVAN) that combines both voxelized and analytical object descriptions within the same MCS, without the need to simultaneously run two parallel simulations, which is the current gold standard methodology. Given that YVAN is simply a new primitive object, it does not require any modifications on the underlying MC navigation code. The new proposed primitive was assessed through a first simple MCS. Results from the YVAN primitive were compared against an MCS using a pure analytical geometry and the layer mass geometry concept. A perfect agreement was found between these simulations, leading to the conclusion that the new hybrid primitive is able to accurately and efficiently handle phantoms defined by a mixture of voxelized and analytical objects. In addition, two application-based evaluation studies in coronary angiography and intra-operative radiotherapy showed that the use of YVAN was 6.5% and 12.2% faster than the layered mass geometry method, respectively, without any associated loss of accuracy. However, the simplification advantages and differences in computational time improvements obtained with YVAN depend on the relative proportion of the analytical and voxelized structures used in the simulation as well as the size and number of triangles used in the description of the analytical object meshes. (paper)

  4. New hybrid voxelized/analytical primitive in Monte Carlo simulations for medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert, Julien; Lemaréchal, Yannick; Visvikis, Dimitris

    2016-05-07

    Monte Carlo simulations (MCS) applied in particle physics play a key role in medical imaging and particle therapy. In such simulations, particles are transported through voxelized phantoms derived from predominantly patient CT images. However, such voxelized object representation limits the incorporation of fine elements, such as artificial implants from CAD modeling or anatomical and functional details extracted from other imaging modalities. In this work we propose a new hYbrid Voxelized/ANalytical primitive (YVAN) that combines both voxelized and analytical object descriptions within the same MCS, without the need to simultaneously run two parallel simulations, which is the current gold standard methodology. Given that YVAN is simply a new primitive object, it does not require any modifications on the underlying MC navigation code. The new proposed primitive was assessed through a first simple MCS. Results from the YVAN primitive were compared against an MCS using a pure analytical geometry and the layer mass geometry concept. A perfect agreement was found between these simulations, leading to the conclusion that the new hybrid primitive is able to accurately and efficiently handle phantoms defined by a mixture of voxelized and analytical objects. In addition, two application-based evaluation studies in coronary angiography and intra-operative radiotherapy showed that the use of YVAN was 6.5% and 12.2% faster than the layered mass geometry method, respectively, without any associated loss of accuracy. However, the simplification advantages and differences in computational time improvements obtained with YVAN depend on the relative proportion of the analytical and voxelized structures used in the simulation as well as the size and number of triangles used in the description of the analytical object meshes.

  5. Existence and global exponential stability of periodic solution of memristor-based BAM neural networks with time-varying delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongfei; Jiang, Haijun; Hu, Cheng

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate a class of memristor-based BAM neural networks with time-varying delays. Under the framework of Filippov solutions, boundedness and ultimate boundedness of solutions of memristor-based BAM neural networks are guaranteed by Chain rule and inequalities technique. Moreover, a new method involving Yoshizawa-like theorem is favorably employed to acquire the existence of periodic solution. By applying the theory of set-valued maps and functional differential inclusions, an available Lyapunov functional and some new testable algebraic criteria are derived for ensuring the uniqueness and global exponential stability of periodic solution of memristor-based BAM neural networks. The obtained results expand and complement some previous work on memristor-based BAM neural networks. Finally, a numerical example is provided to show the applicability and effectiveness of our theoretical results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A remarkable finding that suggests the existence of a new groundwater biome based on chemoautotrophic resources, named

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan Negrea

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An important work of subterranean biology, signed by Francis Dov Por, Ophel: a groundwater biome based on chemoautotrophic resources. The global significance of the Ayyalon cave finds, Israel is presented and discussed in the present paper. The subject is a remarkable discovery suggesting the existence of a new aquatic subterranean biome autonomous energy based the author calls Ophel, the Hebrew word for “darkness” and “netherworld”. For F.D. Por, this biome links different marine chemosynthetic ecosystems in a global biospheric entity. Finally, F.D. POR hypothesizes on the existence of three overlapped biospheres: the bacteriosphere in the depths of the planet’s crust, which does not require light or oxygen; the aphotic, subterranean deuterobiosphere, formed of bacterial chemosynthesis based eukaryotes and limited-supplied dissolved oxygen from above-ground; the above-ground eubiosphere, based on aerobic photosynthesis. I would like to emphasize that, at my suggestion, Prof. Dr. F.D. Por participated at the 18th International Symposium of Biospeleology from Cluj-Napoca (Romania at 10th to 15th July 2006 where he mentioned for the first time orally some data on the Ayyalon Cave and the Ophel biome.

  7. Comet Dust: The Diversity of Primitive Particles and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Bradley; Zolensky, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Comet dust is primitive and shows significant diversity. Our knowledge of the properties of primitive particles has expanded significantly through microscale investigations of cosmic dust samples (IDPs and AMMs) and of comet dust samples (Stardust and Rosetta's COSIMA), as well as through remote sensing (spectroscopy and imaging) via Spitzer and via spacecraft encounters with 103P/Hartley 2 and 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Microscale investigations show that comet dust and cosmic dust are particles of unequilibrated materials, including aggregates of materials unequilibrated at submicron scales. We call unequilibrated materials "primitive" and we deduce they were incorporated into ice-­-rich (H2O-, CO2-, and CO-ice) parent bodies that remained cold, i.e., into comets, because of the lack of aqueous or thermal alteration since particle aggregation; yet some Stardust olivines suggest mild thermal metamorphism. Primitive particles exhibit a diverse range of: structure and typology; size and size distribution of constituents; concentration and form of carbonaceous and organic matter; D-, N-, and O- isotopic enhancements over solar; Mg-, Fe-contentsof thesilicate minerals; the compositions and concentrations of sulfides, and of less abundant mineral species such as chondrules, CAIs and carbonates. The unifomity within a group of samples points to: aerodynamic sorting of particles and/or particle constituents; the inclusion of a limited range of oxygen fugacities; the inclusion or exclusion of chondrules; a selection of organics. The properites of primitive particles imply there were disk processes that resulted in different comets having particular selections of primitive materials. The diversity of primitive particles has implications for the diversity of materials in the protoplanetary disk present at the time and in the region where the comets formed.

  8. Comet Dust: The Diversity of "Primitive" Particles and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooden, Diane H.; Ishii, Hope A.; Bradley, John P.; Zolensky, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Comet dust is primitive and shows significant diversity. Our knowledge of the properties of primitive particles has expanded significantly through microscale investigations of cosmic dust samples ( IDP's(Interplanetary Dust Particles) and AMM's (Antarctic Micrometeorites)) and of comet dust samples (Stardust and Rosetta's COSIMA), as well as through remote sensing (spectroscopy and imaging) via Spitzer and via spacecraft encounters with 103P/Hartley 2 and 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Microscale investigations show that comet dust and cosmic dust are particles of unequilibrated materials, including aggregates of materials unequilibrated at submicron scales. We call unequilibrated materials "primitive" and we deduce they were incorporated into ice-rich (H2O-, CO2-, and CO-ice) parent bodies that remained cold, i.e., into comets, because of the lack of aqueous or thermal alteration since particle aggregation; yet some Stardust olivines suggest mild thermal metamorphism. Primitive particles exhibit a diverse range of: structure and typology; size and size distribution of constituents; concentration and form of carbonaceous and organic matter; D-, N-, and O- isotopic enhancements over solar; Mg-, Fe-contents of the silicate minerals; the compositions and concentrations of sulfides, and of less abundant mineral species such as chondrules, CAIs and carbonates. The uniformity within a group of samples points to: aerodynamic sorting of particles and/or particle constituents; the inclusion of a limited range of oxygen fugacities; the inclusion or exclusion of chondrules; a selection of organics. The properties of primitive particles imply there were disk processes that resulted in different comets having particular selections of primitive materials. The diversity of primitive particles has implications for the diversity of materials in the protoplanetary disk present at the time and in the region where the comets formed.

  9. A study on the relevance and influence of the existing regulation and risk informed/performance based regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, B. J.; Koh, Y. J.; Kim, H. S.; Koh, S. H.; Kang, D. H.; Kang, T. W. [Cheju National Univ., Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    The goal of this study is to estimate the Relevance and Influence of the Existing Regulation and the RI-PBR to the institutionalization of the regulatory system. This study reviews the current regulatory system and the status of the RI-PBR implementation of the US NRC and Korea based upon SECY Papers, Risk Informed Regulation Implementation Plan (RIRIP) of the US NRC and other domestic studies. Also the recent trends of the individual technologies regarding the RI-PBR and RIA are summarized.

  10. Eutectic propeties of primitive Earth's magma ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Nigro, G.; Andrault, D.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Perillat, J.-P.

    2009-04-01

    It is widely accepted that the early Earth was partially molten (if not completely) due to the high energy dissipated by terrestrial accretion [1]. After core formation, subsequent cooling of the magma ocean has led to fractional crystallization of the primitive mantle. The residual liquid corresponds to what is now called the fertile mantle or pyrolite. Melting relations of silicates have been extensively investigated using the multi-anvil press, for pressures between 3 and 25 GPa [2,3]. Using the quench technique, it has been shown that the pressure affects significantly the solidus and liquidus curves, and most probably the composition of the eutectic liquid. At higher pressures, up to 65 GPa, melting studies were performed on pyrolite starting material using the laser-heated diamond anvil cell (LH-DAC) technique [4]. However, the quench technique is not ideal to define melting criteria, and furthermore these studies were limited in pressure range of investigation. Finally, the use of pyrolite may not be relevant to study the melting eutectic temperature. At the core-mantle boundary conditions, melting temperature is documented by a single data point on (Mg,Fe)2SiO4 olivine, provided by shock wave experiments at around 130-140 GPa [5]. These previous results present large uncertainties of ~1000 K. The aim of this study is to determine the eutectic melting temperature in the chemically simplified system composed of the two major lower mantle phases, the MgSiO3 perovskite and MgO periclase. We investigated melting in-situ using the laser-heated diamond anvil cell coupled with angle dispersive X-ray diffraction at the ID27 beamline of the ESRF [6]. Melting relations were investigated in an extended P-T range comparable to those found in the Earth's lower mantle, i.e. from 25 to 120 GPa and up to more than 5000 K. Melting was evidenced from (a) disappearance of one of the two phases in the diffraction pattern, (b) drastic changes of the diffraction image itself, and

  11. The first trimester human placenta is a site for terminal maturation of primitive erythroid cells

    OpenAIRE

    Van Handel, Ben; Prashad, Sacha L.; Hassanzadeh-Kiabi, Nargess; Huang, Andy; Magnusson, Mattias; Atanassova, Boriana; Chen, Angela; Hamalainen, Eija I.; Mikkola, Hanna K. A.

    2010-01-01

    Embryonic hematopoiesis starts via the generation of primitive red blood cells (RBCs) that satisfy the embryo's immediate oxygen needs. Although primitive RBCs were thought to retain their nuclei, recent studies have shown that primitive RBCs in mice enucleate in the fetal liver. It has been unknown whether human primitive RBCs enucleate, and what hematopoietic site might support this process. Our data indicate that the terminal maturation and enucleation of human primitive RBCs occurs in fir...

  12. Cyberbullying or Cyber Aggression?: A Review of Existing Definitions of Cyber-Based Peer-to-Peer Aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Corcoran

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the ongoing debate regarding the definitions and measurement of cyberbullying, the present article critically appraises the existing literature and offers direction regarding the question of how best to conceptualise peer-to-peer abuse in a cyber context. Variations across definitions are problematic as it has been argued that inconsistencies with regard to definitions result in researchers examining different phenomena, whilst the absence of an agreed conceptualisation of the behaviour(s involved hinders the development of reliable and valid measures. Existing definitions of cyberbullying often incorporate the criteria of traditional bullying such as intent to harm, repetition, and imbalance of power. However, due to the unique nature of cyber-based communication, it can be difficult to identify such criteria in relation to cyber-based abuse. Thus, for these reasons cyberbullying may not be the most appropriate term. Rather than attempting to “shoe-horn” this abusive behaviour into the preconceived conceptual framework that provides an understanding of traditional bullying, it is timely to take an alternative approach. We argue that it is now time to turn our attention to the broader issue of cyber aggression, rather than persist with the narrow focus that is cyberbullying.

  13. A study on the relevance and influence of the existing regulation and risk informed/performance based regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, B. J.; Kang, J. M.; Kim, H. S.; Koh, S. H.; Kang, D. H.; Park, C. H. [Cheju Univ., Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-02-15

    The goal of this study is to estimate the relevance and Influence of the Existing Regulation and the RI-PBR to the institutionalization of the regulatory system. This study reviews the current regulatory system and the status of the RI-PBR implementation of the US NRC and Korea based upon SECY Papers, Risk Informed Regulation Implementation Plan (RIRIP) of the US NRC and other domestic studies. In order to investigate the perceptions, knowledge level, ground for the regulatory change, a survey was performed to Korean nuclear utilities, researchers and regulators on the perception on the RIR. The questionnaire was composed of 50 questions regarding personal details on work experience, level of education and specific field of work ; level of knowledge on the risk informed performance based regulation (RI-PBR); the perception of the current regulation, the effectiveness, level of procedure, flexibility, dependency on the regulator and personal view, and the perception of the RI-PBR such as flexibility of regulation, introduction time and the effect of RI-PBR, safety improvement, public perception, parts of the existing regulatory system that should be changed, etc. 515 answered from all sectors of the nuclear field; utilities, engineering companies, research institutes, and regulatory bodies.

  14. A Method to Estimate Energy Demand in Existing Buildings Based on the Danish Building and Dwellings Register (BBR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anker; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    2013-01-01

    an energy label. The Danish Building Research Institute has described a method that can be used to estimate the energy demand in buildings specially dwellings. This is based on the information in the Danish Building and Dwelling Register (BBR) and information on building regulations at construction year......The Energy Performance Directive requires energy certifications for buildings. This is implemented in Denmark so that houses that are sold must have an energy performance label based on an evaluation from a visit to the building. The result is that only a small part of the existing houses has...... for the house. The result is an estimate for energy demand in each building with a variation. This makes it possible to make an automatic classification of all buildings. Then it is possible to find houses in need for thermal improvements. This method is tested for single family houses and flats. The paper...

  15. Modeling discrete and rhythmic movements through motor primitives: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degallier, Sarah; Ijspeert, Auke

    2010-10-01

    Rhythmic and discrete movements are frequently considered separately in motor control, probably because different techniques are commonly used to study and model them. Yet the increasing interest in finding a comprehensive model for movement generation requires bridging the different perspectives arising from the study of those two types of movements. In this article, we consider discrete and rhythmic movements within the framework of motor primitives, i.e., of modular generation of movements. In this way we hope to gain an insight into the functional relationships between discrete and rhythmic movements and thus into a suitable representation for both of them. Within this framework we can define four possible categories of modeling for discrete and rhythmic movements depending on the required command signals and on the spinal processes involved in the generation of the movements. These categories are first discussed in terms of biological concepts such as force fields and central pattern generators and then illustrated by several mathematical models based on dynamical system theory. A discussion on the plausibility of theses models concludes the work.

  16. Comparative Study on Code-based Linear Evaluation of an Existing RC Building Damaged during 1998 Adana-Ceyhan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toprak, A. Emre; Guelay, F. Guelten; Ruge, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Determination of seismic performance of existing buildings has become one of the key concepts in structural analysis topics after recent earthquakes (i.e. Izmit and Duzce Earthquakes in 1999, Kobe Earthquake in 1995 and Northridge Earthquake in 1994). Considering the need for precise assessment tools to determine seismic performance level, most of earthquake hazardous countries try to include performance based assessment in their seismic codes. Recently, Turkish Earthquake Code 2007 (TEC'07), which was put into effect in March 2007, also introduced linear and non-linear assessment procedures to be applied prior to building retrofitting. In this paper, a comparative study is performed on the code-based seismic assessment of RC buildings with linear static methods of analysis, selecting an existing RC building. The basic principles dealing the procedure of seismic performance evaluations for existing RC buildings according to Eurocode 8 and TEC'07 will be outlined and compared. Then the procedure is applied to a real case study building is selected which is exposed to 1998 Adana-Ceyhan Earthquake in Turkey, the seismic action of Ms = 6.3 with a maximum ground acceleration of 0.28 g It is a six-storey RC residential building with a total of 14.65 m height, composed of orthogonal frames, symmetrical in y direction and it does not have any significant structural irregularities. The rectangular shaped planar dimensions are 16.40 mx7.80 m = 127.90 m 2 with five spans in x and two spans in y directions. It was reported that the building had been moderately damaged during the 1998 earthquake and retrofitting process was suggested by the authorities with adding shear-walls to the system. The computations show that the performing methods of analysis with linear approaches using either Eurocode 8 or TEC'07 independently produce similar performance levels of collapse for the critical storey of the structure. The computed base shear value according to Eurocode is much higher

  17. Comparative Study on Code-based Linear Evaluation of an Existing RC Building Damaged during 1998 Adana-Ceyhan Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toprak, A. Emre; Gülay, F. Gülten; Ruge, Peter

    2008-07-01

    Determination of seismic performance of existing buildings has become one of the key concepts in structural analysis topics after recent earthquakes (i.e. Izmit and Duzce Earthquakes in 1999, Kobe Earthquake in 1995 and Northridge Earthquake in 1994). Considering the need for precise assessment tools to determine seismic performance level, most of earthquake hazardous countries try to include performance based assessment in their seismic codes. Recently, Turkish Earthquake Code 2007 (TEC'07), which was put into effect in March 2007, also introduced linear and non-linear assessment procedures to be applied prior to building retrofitting. In this paper, a comparative study is performed on the code-based seismic assessment of RC buildings with linear static methods of analysis, selecting an existing RC building. The basic principles dealing the procedure of seismic performance evaluations for existing RC buildings according to Eurocode 8 and TEC'07 will be outlined and compared. Then the procedure is applied to a real case study building is selected which is exposed to 1998 Adana-Ceyhan Earthquake in Turkey, the seismic action of Ms = 6.3 with a maximum ground acceleration of 0.28 g It is a six-storey RC residential building with a total of 14.65 m height, composed of orthogonal frames, symmetrical in y direction and it does not have any significant structural irregularities. The rectangular shaped planar dimensions are 16.40 m×7.80 m = 127.90 m2 with five spans in x and two spans in y directions. It was reported that the building had been moderately damaged during the 1998 earthquake and retrofitting process was suggested by the authorities with adding shear-walls to the system. The computations show that the performing methods of analysis with linear approaches using either Eurocode 8 or TEC'07 independently produce similar performance levels of collapse for the critical storey of the structure. The computed base shear value according to Eurocode is much higher

  18. Nucleation and condensation in the primitive solar nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, A.G.W.; Fegley, M.B.

    1982-01-01

    It is pointed out that the primitive solar nebula may be modeled using the frictionally induced transport theory of Lynden-Bell and Pringle (1974) if the principal frictional mechanism within the nebula is turbulent viscosity. The present investigation is concerned with the construction of a model of a section of the primitive solar nebula as a basis for the study of nucleation and condensation processes within this section. The construction involves a relatively simple application of the Lynden-Bell and Pringle theory subject to steady mass flow conditions. The calculations which are conducted in connection with the investigation indicate that by the time the gas in the primitive solar nebula has become sufficiently supercooled to nucleate condensation centers, several different compounds, including the magnesium silicates forsterite and enstatite (MgSiO 3 ), will probably be able to condense on the growing condensation center

  19. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the cervix: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boroujeni Parisa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the cervix uteri is extremely rare. Between 1987 and 2010, there were only nine cases reported in the English literature, with considerably different management policies. Case presentation A 45-year-old Iranian woman presented to our facility with a primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the cervix uteri. Her clinical stage IB2 tumor was treated successfully with chemotherapy. Our patient underwent radical hysterectomy. There was no trace of the tumor after four years of follow-up. Conclusions According to current knowledge, primitive neuroectodermal tumors belong to the Ewing's sarcoma family, and the improvement of treatment outcome in our patient was due to dose-intensive neoadjuvant chemotherapy, surgery and consolidation chemotherapy in accordance with the protocol for bony Ewing's sarcoma.

  20. No Place to Hide: Missing Primitive Stars Outside Milky Way Uncovered

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    , Sculptor, Sextans and Carina dwarf galaxies. Since the dwarf galaxies are typically 300 000 light years away - which is about three times the size of our Milky Way - only strong features in the spectrum could be measured, like a vague, smeared fingerprint. The team found that none of their large collection of spectral fingerprints actually seemed to belong to the class of stars they were after, the rare, extremely metal-poor stars found in the Milky Way. The team of astronomers around Starkenburg has now shed new light on the problem through careful comparison of spectra to computer-based models. They found that only subtle differences distinguish the chemical fingerprint of a normal metal-poor star from that of an extremely metal-poor star, explaining why previous methods did not succeed in making the identification. The astronomers also confirmed the almost pristine status of several extremely metal-poor stars thanks to much more detailed spectra obtained with the UVES instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope. "Compared to the vague fingerprints we had before, this would be as if we looked at the fingerprint through a microscope," explains team member Vanessa Hill. "Unfortunately, just a small number of stars can be observed this way because it is very time consuming." "Among the new extremely metal-poor stars discovered in these dwarf galaxies, three have a relative amount of heavy chemical elements between only 1/3000 and 1/10 000 of what is observed in our Sun, including the current record holder of the most primitive star found outside the Milky Way," says team member Martin Tafelmeyer. "Not only has our work revealed some of the very interesting, first stars in these galaxies, but it also provides a new, powerful technique to uncover more such stars," concludes Starkenburg. "From now on there is no place left to hide!" Notes [1] According to the definition used in astronomy, "metals" are all the elements other than hydrogen and helium. Such metals, except for a very

  1. Sensitivity analysis of the energy demand of existing buildings based on the Danish Building and Dwelling Register (BBR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anker; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor

    2014-01-01

    performance certificate. The Danish Building Research Institute has described a method that can be applied for estimating the energy demand of dwellings. This is based on the information in the Danish Building and Dwelling Register and requirements in the Danish Building Regulations from the year......The EU Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings requires that energy certification of buildings should be implemented in Denmark so that houses that are sold or let should have an energy performance certificate. The result is that only a small part of existing houses has an energy...... of construction of the house. The result is an estimate of the energy demand of each building with a variation. This makes it possible to make an automatic classification of all buildings. The paper discusses the uncertainties and makes a sensitivity analysis to find the important parameters. The variations...

  2. Sensitivity analysis of the energy demand of existing buildings based on the Danish Building and Dwelling Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anker; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor

    2014-01-01

    performance certificate. The Danish Building Research Institute has described a method that can be applied for estimating the energy demand of dwellings. This is based on the information in the Danish Building and Dwelling Register and requirements in the Danish Building Regulations from the year......The EU Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings requires that energy certification of buildings should be implemented in Denmark so that houses that are sold or let should have an energy performance certificate. The result is that only a small part of existing houses has an energy...... of construction of the house. The result is an estimate of the energy demand of each building with a variation. This makes it possible to make an automatic classification of all buildings. The paper discusses the uncertainties and makes a sensitivity analysis to find the important parameters. The variations...

  3. Patient characteristics in low back pain subgroups based on an existing classification system. A descriptive cohort study in chiropractic practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eirikstoft, Heidi; Kongsted, Alice

    2014-01-01

    reducible disc syndromes followed by facet joint pain, dysfunction and sacroiliac (SI)-joint pain. Classification was inconclusive in 5% of the patients. Differences in pain, activity limitation, and psychological factors were small across subgroups. Within 10 days, 82% were reported to belong to the same......Sub-grouping of low back pain (LBP) is believed to improve prediction of prognosis and treatment effects. The objectives of this study were: (1) to examine whether chiropractic patients could be sub-grouped according to an existing pathoanatomically-based classification system, (2) to describe...... patient characteristics within each subgroup, and (3) to determine the proportion of patients in whom clinicians considered the classification to be unchanged after approximately 10 days. A cohort of 923 LBP patients was included during their first consultation. Patients completed an extensive...

  4. Full and part load exergetic analysis of a hybrid micro gas turbine fuel cell system based on existing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakalis, Diamantis P.; Stamatis, Anastassios G.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Hybrid SOFC/GT system based on existing components. ► Exergy analysis using AspenPlus™ software. ► Greenhouse gases emission is significantly affected by SOFC stack temperature. ► Comparison with a conventional GT of similar power. ► SOFC/GT is almost twice efficient in terms of second low efficiency and CO 2 emission. - Abstract: The paper deals with the examination of a hybrid system consisting of a pre-commercially available high temperature solid oxide fuel cell and an existing recuperated microturbine. The irreversibilities and thermodynamic inefficiencies of the system are evaluated after examining the full and partial load exergetic performance and estimating the amount of exergy destruction and the efficiency of each hybrid system component. At full load operation the system achieves an exergetic efficiency of 59.8%, which increases during the partial load operation, as a variable speed control method is utilized. Furthermore, the effects of the various performance parameters such as fuel cell stack temperature and fuel utilization factor are assessed. The results showed that the components in which chemical reactions occur have the higher exergy destruction rates. The exergetic performance of the system is affected significantly by the stack temperature. Based on the exergetic analysis, suggestions are given for reducing the overall system irreversibility. Finally, the environmental impact of the operation of the hybrid system is evaluated and compared with a similarly rated conventional gas turbine plant. From the comparison it is apparent that the hybrid system obtains nearly double exergetic efficiency and about half the amount of greenhouse gas emissions compared with the conventional plant.

  5. There Are No Primitive We-Intentions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salice, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    John Searle’s account of collective intentions in action appears to have all the theoretical pros of the non-reductivist view on collective intentionality without the metaphysical cons of committing to the existence of group minds. According to Searle, when we collectively intend to do something...... together, we intend to cooperate in order to reach a collective goal. Intentions in the first-person plural form therefore have a particular psychological form or mode, for the we-intender conceives of his or her intended actions as singular contributions by means of which – or: by way of which...

  6. The logical primitives of thought: Empirical foundations for compositional cognitive models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantadosi, Steven T; Tenenbaum, Joshua B; Goodman, Noah D

    2016-07-01

    The notion of a compositional language of thought (LOT) has been central in computational accounts of cognition from earliest attempts (Boole, 1854; Fodor, 1975) to the present day (Feldman, 2000; Penn, Holyoak, & Povinelli, 2008; Fodor, 2008; Kemp, 2012; Goodman, Tenenbaum, & Gerstenberg, 2015). Recent modeling work shows how statistical inferences over compositionally structured hypothesis spaces might explain learning and development across a variety of domains. However, the primitive components of such representations are typically assumed a priori by modelers and theoreticians rather than determined empirically. We show how different sets of LOT primitives, embedded in a psychologically realistic approximate Bayesian inference framework, systematically predict distinct learning curves in rule-based concept learning experiments. We use this feature of LOT models to design a set of large-scale concept learning experiments that can determine the most likely primitives for psychological concepts involving Boolean connectives and quantification. Subjects' inferences are most consistent with a rich (nonminimal) set of Boolean operations, including first-order, but not second-order, quantification. Our results more generally show how specific LOT theories can be distinguished empirically. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Application of a primitive variable Newton's method for the calculation of an axisymmetric laminar diffusion flame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yuenong; Smooke, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we present a primitive variable Newton-based solution method with a block-line linear equation solver for the calculation of reacting flows. The present approach is compared with the stream function-vorticity Newton's method and the SIMPLER algorithm on the calculation of a system of fully elliptic equations governing an axisymmetric methane-air laminar diffusion flame. The chemical reaction is modeled by the flame sheet approximation. The numerical solution agrees well with experimental data in the major chemical species. The comparison of three sets of numerical results indicates that the stream function-vorticity solution using the approximate boundary conditions reported in the previous calculations predicts a longer flame length and a broader flame shape. With a new set of modified vorticity boundary conditions, we obtain agreement between the primitive variable and stream function-vorticity solutions. The primitive variable Newton's method converges much faster than the other two methods. Because of much less computer memory required for the block-line tridiagonal solver compared to a direct solver, the present approach makes it possible to calculate multidimensional flames with detailed reaction mechanisms. The SIMPLER algorithm shows a slow convergence rate compared to the other two methods in the present calculation

  8. Effect-based trigger values for in vitro bioassays: Reading across from existing water quality guideline values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, Beate I; Neale, Peta A; Leusch, Frederic D L

    2015-09-15

    Cell-based bioassays are becoming increasingly popular in water quality assessment. The new generations of reporter-gene assays are very sensitive and effects are often detected in very clean water types such as drinking water and recycled water. For monitoring applications it is therefore imperative to derive trigger values that differentiate between acceptable and unacceptable effect levels. In this proof-of-concept paper, we propose a statistical method to read directly across from chemical guideline values to trigger values without the need to perform in vitro to in vivo extrapolations. The derivation is based on matching effect concentrations with existing chemical guideline values and filtering out appropriate chemicals that are responsive in the given bioassays at concentrations in the range of the guideline values. To account for the mixture effects of many chemicals acting together in a complex water sample, we propose bioanalytical equivalents that integrate the effects of groups of chemicals with the same mode of action that act in a concentration-additive manner. Statistical distribution methods are proposed to derive a specific effect-based trigger bioanalytical equivalent concentration (EBT-BEQ) for each bioassay of environmental interest that targets receptor-mediated toxicity. Even bioassays that are indicative of the same mode of action have slightly different numeric trigger values due to differences in their inherent sensitivity. The algorithm was applied to 18 cell-based bioassays and 11 provisional effect-based trigger bioanalytical equivalents were derived as an illustrative example using the 349 chemical guideline values protective for human health of the Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling. We illustrate the applicability using the example of a diverse set of water samples including recycled water. Most recycled water samples were compliant with the proposed triggers while wastewater effluent would not have been compliant with a few

  9. The Syntax of Time and Space Primitives in French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Bert

    1997-01-01

    Explores the combinatorial possibilities of semantic primitives of time and space in French, as defined in the theory of Natural Semantic Metalanguage. Highlights the need for new ways to express the allolexical relationship in some combinations, particularly those expressing "when/time." (Author/MSE)

  10. Primitive neuroectodermal tumour of the kidney: radiologic-pathological correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chea, Y W; Agrawal, Rashi; Poh, Angeline C C

    2008-06-01

    A primitive neuroectodermal tumour of the kidney is a rare malignancy. We report the computed tomographic features and the histopathological correlation of such a tumour occurring in a middle-aged man. Although the radiological appearance has significant overlap with other renal tumours, this tumour should be included in the differential diagnosis of a large renal mass in younger patients.

  11. Letters of Gold: Enabling Primitive Accumulation through Neoliberal Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.E. Büscher (Bram)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: In Capital I, Marx wrote that the history of the separation of the producers from the means of production “is written in the annals of mankind in letters of blood and fire” (Marx, 1976: 875). This ‘so-called primitive accumulation’, or ‘accumulation by dispossession’ in David

  12. Addressing Nature Deficit Disorder through Primitive Camping Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kevin; Varner, Keegan; Sallee, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Today's youth suffer from Nature Deficit Disorder, a condition that has been connected to ADHD, shortage of creativity, and general lack of knowledge about the outdoors. A team of educators and specialists are addressing this issue with primitive camping. County educators were trained using experiential learning and train-the-trainer techniques.…

  13. Understanding and determining the variability of the primitive stress environment.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sellers, EJ

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The primitive stress state is an important input into the design of underground excavations. However, it is well known that the stress state varies considerably from place to place. The aim of this project was to determine the main causes...

  14. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF RTOS AND PRIMITIVE INTERRUPT IN EMBEDDED SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Purnomo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Multitasking is one of the most challenging issues in the automation industry which is highly depended on the embedded system. There are two methods to perform multitasking in embedded system: RTOS and primitive interrupt. The main purpose of this research is to compare the performance of R¬TOS with primitive method while concurrently undertaking multiple tasks. The system, which is able to perform various tasks, has been built to evaluate the performance of both methods. There are four tasks introduced in the system: servo task, sensor task, LED task, and LCD task. The performance of each method is indicated by the success rate of the sensor task detection. Sensor task detection will be compared with the true value which is calculated and measured manually during observation time. Observation time was varied after several iterations and the data of the iteration are recorded for both RTOS and primitive interrupt methods. The results of the conducted experiments have shown that, RTOS is more accurate than interrupt method. However, the data variance of the primitive interrupt method is narrower than RTOS. Therefore, to choose a better method, an optimization is needed to be done and each product has its own standard.

  15. A Test of Durkheim's Theory of Suicide in Primitive Societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    1992-01-01

    Classified primitive societies as high, moderate, or low on independent measures of social integration and social regulation to test Durkheim's theory of suicide. Estimated frequency of suicide did not differ between those societies predicted to have high, moderate, and low suicide rates. Durkheim's theory was not confirmed. (Author/NB)

  16. Primary extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor of breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Srivastava

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma (EES is a rare soft tissue tumor that is morphologically indistinguishable from skeletal ES. We report a case of a 25-year-old female with recurrent EES/primitive neuroectodermal tumor of right breast with imaging findings on mammogram, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging breast, and positron emission tomography–computed tomography.

  17. Cancer of unknown primitive metastatic. About two clinical cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawen, L; Cordoba, A.

    2010-01-01

    This work is about the two clinical cases about the unknown primitive metastatic cancer. The main techniques used for the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of different s carcinomas are: Electronic microscope, molecular biology and genetics, especially histopathological study, topographic survey, ultrasound, radiography, chemotherapy, radiotherapy

  18. Bridging existing governance gaps: five evidence-based actions that boards can take to pursue high quality care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggat, Sandra G; Balding, Cathy

    2017-11-13

    Objective To explore the impact of the organisational quality systems on quality of care in Victorian health services. Methods During 2015 a total of 55 focus groups were conducted with more than 350 managers, clinical staff and board members in eight Victorian health services to explore the effectiveness of health service quality systems. A review of the quality and safety goals and strategies outlined in the strategic and operating plans of the participating health services was also undertaken. Results This paper focuses on the data related to the leadership role of health service boards in ensuring safe, high-quality care. The findings suggest that health service boards are not fully meeting their governance accountability to ensure consistently high-quality care. The data uncovered major clinical governance gaps between stated board and executive aspirations for quality and safety and the implementation of these expectations at point of care. These gaps were further compounded by quality system confusion, over-reliance on compliance, and inadequate staff engagement. Conclusion Based on the existing evidence we propose five specific actions boards can take to close the gaps, thereby supporting improved care for all consumers. What is known about this topic? Effective governance is essential for high-quality healthcare delivery. Boards are required to play an active role in their organisation's pursuit of high quality care. What does this paper add? Recent government reports suggest that Australian health service boards are not fully meeting their governance requirements for high quality, safe care delivery, and our research pinpoints key governance gaps. What are the implications for practitioners? Based on our research findings we outline five evidence-based actions for boards to improve their governance of quality care delivery. These actions focus on an organisational strategy for high-quality care, with the chief executive officer held accountable for

  19. Enhanced Matrix Power Function for Cryptographic Primitive Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eligijus Sakalauskas

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A new enhanced matrix power function (MPF is presented for the construction of cryptographic primitives. According to the definition in previously published papers, an MPF is an action of two matrices powering some base matrix on the left and right. The MPF inversion equations, corresponding to the MPF problem, are derived and have some structural similarity with classical multivariate quadratic (MQ problem equations. Unlike the MQ problem, the MPF problem seems to be more complicated, since its equations are not defined over the field, but are represented as left–right action of two matrices defined over the infinite near-semiring on the matrix defined over the certain infinite, additive, noncommuting semigroup. The main results are the following: (1 the proposition of infinite, nonsymmetric, and noncommuting algebraic structures for the construction of the enhanced MPF, satisfying associativity conditions, which are necessary for cryptographic applications; (2 the proof that MPF inversion is polynomially equivalent to the solution of a certain kind of generalized multivariate quadratic (MQ problem which can be reckoned as hard; (3 the estimation of the effectiveness of direct MPF value computation; and (4 the presentation of preliminary security analysis, the determination of the security parameter, and specification of its secure value. These results allow us to make a conjecture that enhanced MPF can be a candidate one-way function (OWF, since the effective (polynomial-time inversion algorithm for it is not yet known. An example of the application of the proposed MPF for the Key Agreement Protocol (KAP is presented. Since the direct MPF value is computed effectively, the proposed MPF is suitable for the realization of cryptographic protocols in devices with restricted computation resources.

  20. Determining the biomass fraction of mixed waste fuels: A comparison of existing industry and {sup 14}C-based methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muir, G.K.P., E-mail: Graham.Muir@glasgow.ac.uk [SUERC Radiocarbon Laboratory, Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre (SUERC), Rankine Avenue, East Kilbride G75 0QF, Scotland (United Kingdom); Hayward, S. [Stopford Energy and Environment, The Gordon Manley Building, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, England (United Kingdom); Tripney, B.G.; Cook, G.T.; Naysmith, P. [SUERC Radiocarbon Laboratory, Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre (SUERC), Rankine Avenue, East Kilbride G75 0QF, Scotland (United Kingdom); Herbert, B.M.J. [Stopford Energy and Environment, The Gordon Manley Building, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, England (United Kingdom); Garnett, M.H [NERC Radiocarbon Facility, Scottish Enterprise Technology Park, Rankine Avenue, East Kilbride G75 0QF, Scotland (United Kingdom); Wilkinson, M. [Stopford Energy and Environment, The Gordon Manley Building, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, England (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Compares industry standard and {sup 14}C methods for determining bioenergy content of MSW. • Differences quantified through study at an operational energy from waste plant. • Manual sort and selective dissolution are unreliable measures of feedstock bioenergy. • {sup 14}C methods (esp. AMS) improve precision and reliability of bioenergy determination. • Implications for electricity generators and regulators for award of bio-incentives. - Abstract: {sup 14}C analysis of flue gas by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and liquid scintillation counting (LSC) were used to determine the biomass fraction of mixed waste at an operational energy-from-waste (EfW) plant. Results were converted to bioenergy (% total) using mathematical algorithms and assessed against existing industry methodologies which involve manual sorting and selective dissolution (SD) of feedstock. Simultaneous determinations using flue gas showed excellent agreement: 44.8 ± 2.7% for AMS and 44.6 ± 12.3% for LSC. Comparable bioenergy results were obtained using a feedstock manual sort procedure (41.4%), whilst a procedure based on selective dissolution of representative waste material is reported as 75.5% (no errors quoted). {sup 14}C techniques present significant advantages in data acquisition, precision and reliability for both electricity generator and industry regulator.

  1. Planimetric Features Generalization for the Production of Small-Scale Map by Using Base Maps and the Existing Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Modiri

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cartographic maps are representations of the Earth upon a flat surface in the smaller scale than it’s true. Large scale maps cover relatively small regions in great detail and small scale maps cover large regions such as nations, continents and the whole globe. Logical connection between the features and scale map must be maintained by changing the scale and it is important to recognize that even the most accurate maps sacrifice a certain amount of accuracy in scale to deliver a greater visual usefulness to its user. Cartographic generalization, or map generalization, is the method whereby information is selected and represented on a map in a way that adapts to the scale of the display medium of the map, not necessarily preserving all intricate geographical or other cartographic details. Due to the problems facing small-scale map production process and the need to spend time and money for surveying, today’s generalization is used as executive approach. The software is proposed in this paper that converted various data and information to certain Data Model. This software can produce generalization map according to base map using the existing algorithm. Planimetric generalization algorithms and roles are described in this article. Finally small-scale maps with 1:100,000, 1:250,000 and 1:500,000 scale are produced automatically and they are shown at the end.

  2. Deep Interior: Probing the Structure of Primitive Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asphaug, Erik; Scheeres, Daniel; Safaeinili, Ali

    radar returns, providing global interior coverage. Camera images allow for the accurate reconstruction of spacecraft position at each radar acquisition. Radar flight heritage has been demonstrated by the MARSIS radar on Mars Express (Picardi et al., Science 2005; Plaut et al., Science 2007), the SHARAD radar onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (Seu et al., JGR 2007), and the LRS radar onboard Kaguya (Ono et al, EPS 2007). The Mars radars have discovered detailed subsurface structure to km depths in a variety of terrains; early results from Kaguya demonstrate its ability to detect structure to km depths in basaltic materials on the Moon. A reflection radar deployed in orbit about a primitive body will enjoy significant simplifying benefits compared to using the same instrument for Mars or lunar radar science: (1) The proximity of operations leads to a much higher signal to noise, +30 dB or more. (2) The lack of an ionosphere makes for far simpler data modeling and analysis, compared with what is being required at Mars. (3) The body is globally illuminated during every data acquisition and since the final processing is a fully coherent focused processing based on all available observations, it will remove any "clutter" ambiguities. Laboratory measurements of dielectric properties for a suite of meteorite materials (Heggy et al., LPSC 2007) show that a 10 MHz radar can penetrate a chondritic asteroid up to 5 km diameter, and a 100 MHz radar can penetrate a chondritic asteroid up to 1 km diameter. The dielectric properties of different meteorite types can be discriminated, allowing radar to be used for interior compositional analysis. The primary trade is higher definition navigation for higher-resolution imaging, presuming that penetration requirements are met. It appears reliable that a SHARAD-type radar can image the global interior of a chondritic asteroid up to several km diameter. Radar imaging might leave a number of key questions unanswered, and to directly

  3. A Resource Based Framework for Planning and Replanning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Krogt, R.P.J.; De Weerdt, M.M.; Witteveen, C.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss a rigorous unifying framework for both planning and replanning, extending an existing logic-based approach to resource-based planning. The primitive concepts in this Action Resource Framework (ARF) are actions and resources. Actions consume and produce resources. Plans are structures

  4. Randomized Primitives for Big Data Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stöckel, Morten

    The growth in information technology during the last decade has brought a great increase in the number of users that have access to computers or mobile phones, as well as an increase in the number of data-based services offered to users. For instance, the number of web servers almost doubled from...... 70 to 135 million during 2005-2007. The growth in users, combined with the growth in services, means that the amount of total data to manage is exploding. An important query in the field of algorithms asks how much two data sets intersect, that is, the "overlap" between the pieces of data....... Such a query is fundamental in applications such as recommender systems, where the answer would be used to measure similarity over shopping patterns and, based on that, recommend items to the user. In this dissertation we examine the problem of computing intersection sizes among data sets in several...

  5. Influence of sediment recycling on the trace element composition of primitive arc lavas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinet, M.; Jagoutz, O. E.

    2017-12-01

    Primitive calc-alkaline lavas from continental arcs are, on average, enriched in incompatible elements compared to those from intra-oceanic arcs. This relative enrichment is observed in different groups of trace elements: LILE (e.g. K, Rb), LREE to MREE (La-Dy) and HFSE (e.g.Zr, Nb) and is thought to result from (1) a transfer of material from the subducting slab to the mantle wedge at higher temperature than in intra-oceanic margins and/or (2) lower average degrees of melting in the mantle wedge, as a consequence of thicker overlying crusts and higher average pressures of melting. In addition to thicker overlying crusts and generally higher slab temperatures, continental margins are characterized by larger volumes of rock exposed above sea level and enhanced erosion rates compared to intra-oceanic arcs. As several geochemical signatures of arc lavas attest to the importance of sediment recycling in subduction zones, we explore the possibility that the high concentrations of incompatible elements in primitive lavas from continental arcs directly reflect a larger input of sediment to the subduction system. Previous efforts to quantify the sediment flux to oceanic trenches focused on the thickness of pelagic and hemipelagic sediments on top of the plate entering the subduction zone (Plank and Langmuir, 1993, Nature). These estimates primarily relied on the sediment layer drilled outboard from the subduction system and likely underestimate the volume of sediment derived from the arc itself. Accordingly, we find that such estimates of sediment flux do not correlate with the concentration of incompatible elements in primitive arc lavas. To account for regional contributions of coarser detrital sediments, usually delivered to oceanic trenches by turbidity currents, we apply to arc segments a model that quantifies the sediment load of rivers based on the average relief, area, temperature and runoff of their respective drainage areas (Syvitski et al., 2003, Sediment. Geol

  6. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the orbit in a 5-year-old girl with microphthalmia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alyahya, Ghassan Ayish Jabur; Heegaard, Steffen; Fledelius, Hans C.

    2000-01-01

    ophthalmology, primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), Ewing's sarcoma, small round-cell tumors, retinoblastoma, medulloepithelioma, microphthalmia, orbitotomy......ophthalmology, primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), Ewing's sarcoma, small round-cell tumors, retinoblastoma, medulloepithelioma, microphthalmia, orbitotomy...

  7. On the existence of physiological age based on functional hierarchy: a formal definition related to time irreversibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvet, Gilbert A

    2006-09-01

    The present approach of aging and time irreversibility is a consequence of the theory of functional organization that I have developed and presented over recent years (see e.g., Ref. 11). It is based on the effect of physically small and numerous perturbations known as fluctuations, of structural units on the dynamics of the biological system during its adult life. Being a highly regulated biological system, a simple realistic hypothesis, the time-optimum regulation between the levels of organization, leads to the existence of an internal age for the biological system, and time-irreversibility associated with aging. Thus, although specific genes are controlling aging, time-irreversibility of the system may be shown to be due to the degradation of physiological functions. In other words, I suggest that for a biological system, the nature of time is specific and is an expression of the highly regulated integration. An internal physiological age reflects the irreversible course of a living organism towards death because of the irreversible course of physiological functions towards dysfunction, due to the irreversible changes in the regulatory processes. Following the works of Prigogine and his colleagues in physics, and more generally in the field of non-integrable dynamical systems (theorem of Poincaré-Misra), I have stated this problem in terms of the relationship between the macroscopic irreversibility of the functional organization and the basic mechanisms of regulation at the lowest "microscopic" level, i.e., the molecular, lowest level of organization. The neuron-neuron elementary functional interaction is proposed as an illustration of the method to define aging in the nervous system.

  8. [Application of DNA-based electrochemical biosensor in rapid detection of Escherichia coli exist in licorice decoction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu-Wen; Wang, Hai-Xia; Bie, Song-Tao; Shao, Qian; Wang, Chun-Hua; Wang, Dong-Heng; Li, Zheng

    2018-03-01

    A new method for detection of Escherichia coli exist in licorice decoction was developed by using DNA-based electrochemical biosensor. The thiolated capture probe was immobilized on a gold electrode at first. Then the aptamer for Escherichia coli was combined with the capture probe by hybridization. Due to the stronger interaction between the aptamer and the E. coli, the aptamer can dissociate from the capture probe in the presence of E. coli in licorice decoction. The biotinylated detection probe was hybridized with the single-strand capture probe. As a result, the electrochemical response to Escherichia coli can be measured by using differential pulse voltammetric in the presence of α-naphthyl phosphate. The plot of peak current vs. the logarithm of concentration in the range from 2.7×10² to 2.7×10⁸ CFU·mL⁻¹ displayed a linear relationship with a detection limit of 50 CFU·mL⁻¹. The relative standard deviation of 3 successive scans was 2.5%,2.1%,4.6% for 2×10²,2×10⁴,2×106:⁶ CFU·mL⁻¹ E. coli, respectively. The proposed procedure showed better specificity to E. coli in comparison to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. In the detection of the real extractum glycyrrhizae, the results between the proposed strategy and the GB assay showed high degree of agreement, demonstrating the designed biosensor could be utilized as a powerful tool for microbial examination for traditional Chinese medicine. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  9. G-autonomy of EEG recordings of psychotic patients undergoing the primitive expression form of dance therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventouras, E.-C.; Lardi, I.; Dimitriou, S.; Margariti, A.; Chondraki, P.; Kalatzis, I.; Economou, N.-T.; Tsekou, H.; Paparrigopoulos, T.; Ktonas, P. Y.

    2015-09-01

    Primitive expression (PE) is a form of dance therapy (DT) that involves an interaction of ethologically and socially based forms which are supplied for re-enactment. Brain connectivity has been measured in electroencephalographic (EEG) data of patients with schizophrenia undergoing PE DT, using the correlation coefficient and mutual information. These parameters do not measure the existence or absence of directionality in the connectivity. The present study investigates the use of the G-autonomy measure of EEG electrode voltages of the same group of schizophrenic patients. G-autonomy is a measure of the “autonomy” of a system. It indicates the degree by which prediction of the system's future evolution is enhanced by taking into account its own past states, in comparison to predictions based on past states of a set of external variables. In the present research, “own” past states refer to voltage values in the time series recorded at a specific electrode and “external” variables refer to the voltage values recorded at other electrodes. Indication is provided for an acute effect of early-stage PE DT expressed by the augmentation of G-autonomy in the delta rhythm and an acute effect of late- stage PE DT expressed by the reduction of G-autonomy in the theta and alpha rhythms.

  10. Indoor objects and outdoor urban scenes recognition by 3D visual primitives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Junsheng; Kämäräinen, Joni-Kristian; Buch, Anders Glent

    2014-01-01

    , we propose an alternative appearance-driven approach which rst extracts 2D primitives justi ed by Marr's primal sketch, which are \\accumulated" over multiple views and the most stable ones are \\promoted" to 3D visual primitives. The 3D promoted primitives represent both structure and appearance...

  11. Primitive Jesuit’s educational system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep María Margenat Peralta

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Among the first documents from the Jesuit universities from the middle of the 16th century (between 1551 and 1586 - and the most consolidated and disseminated version in the Ratio of Acquaviva from 1599 - there are important differences, already identified in their day by Gabriel Codina and by Miquel Batllori. This article, based on previous research by the author and also the state of play, aims to highlight the original nucleus of the Renaissance “invention” of the first Jesuit schools and universities. The methodology proposed by Luce Giard considers the lattice-like complexity of a Jesuit school and University as places of production and dissemination of knowledge and not only, or mainly, as centers of (educational transmission. It offers an approximation to the cultural achievements of a modernity began in the 16th century, inspired by a permanent and previous dialogue (here the adjectives are essential between knowledge and beliefs. The article presents this model as one of the most important achievements of the first European modernity established by the Jesuit schools.

  12. High water content in primitive continental flood basalts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qun-Ke; Bi, Yao; Li, Pei; Tian, Wei; Wei, Xun; Chen, Han-Lin

    2016-05-04

    As the main constituent of large igneous provinces, the generation of continental flood basalts (CFB) that are characterized by huge eruption volume (>10(5) km(3)) within short time span (primitive CFB in the early Permian Tarim large igneous province (NW China), using the H2O content of ten early-formed clinopyroxene (cpx) crystals that recorded the composition of the primitive Tarim basaltic melts and the partition coefficient of H2O between cpx and basaltic melt. The arc-like H2O content (4.82 ± 1.00 wt.%) provides the first clear evidence that H2O plays an important role in the generation of CFB.

  13. Primitive Path Analysis and Stress Distribution in Highly Strained Macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsiao-Ping; Kremer, Kurt

    2018-01-16

    Polymer material properties are strongly affected by entanglement effects. For long polymer chains and composite materials, they are expected to be at the origin of many technically important phenomena, such as shear thinning or the Mullins effect, which microscopically can be related to topological constraints between chains. Starting from fully equilibrated highly entangled polymer melts, we investigate the effect of isochoric elongation on the entanglement structure and force distribution of such systems. Theoretically, the related viscoelastic response usually is discussed in terms of the tube model. We relate stress relaxation in the linear and nonlinear viscoelastic regimes to a primitive path analysis (PPA) and show that tension forces both along the original paths and along primitive paths, that is, the backbone of the tube, in the stretching direction correspond to each other. Unlike homogeneous relaxation along the chain contour, the PPA reveals a so far not observed long-lived clustering of topological constraints along the chains in the deformed state.

  14. Formalizing the Relationship Between Commitment and Basic Cryptographic Primitives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sree Vivek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Signcryption is a cryptographic primitive which offers the functionality of both digital signature and encryption with lower combined computational cost. On the other hand, commitment scheme allows an entity to commit to a value, where the entity reveals the committed value later during a decommit phase. In this paper, we explore the connection between commitment schemes, public key encryption, digital signatures and signcryption. We establish formal relationship between commitment and the other primitives. Our main result is that we show signcryption can be used as a commitment scheme with appropriate security notions. We show that if the underlying signcryption scheme is IND-CCA2 secure, then the hiding property of the commitment scheme is satisfied. Similarly, we show that if the underlying signcryption scheme is unforgeable, then the relaxed biding property of the commitment scheme is satisfied. Moreover, we prove that if the underlying signcryption scheme is NM-CCA2, then the commitment scheme is non-malleable.

  15. Search for Primitive Matter in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libourel, G.; Michel, P.; Delbo, M.; Ganino, C.; Recio-Blanco, A.; de Laverny, P.; Zolensky, M. E.; Krot, A. N.

    2017-01-01

    Recent astronomical observations and theoretical modeling led to a consensus regarding the global scenario of the formation of young stellar objects (YSO) from a cold molecular cloud of interstellar dust (organics and minerals) and gas that, in some cases, leads to the formation of a planetary system. In the case of our Solar System, which has already evolved for approximately 4567 Ma, the quest is to access, through the investigation of planets, moons, cometary and asteroidal bodies, meteorites, micrometeorites, and interplanetary dust particles, the primitive material that contains the key information about the early Solar System processes and its evolution. However, laboratory analyses of extraterrestrial samples, astronomical observations and dynamical models of the Solar System evolution have not brought yet any conclusive evidence on the nature and location of primitive matter in the Solar System, preventing a clear understanding of its early stages.

  16. Morphological Study of Insoluble Organic Matter Residues from Primitive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changela, H. G.; Stroud, R. M.; Peeters, Z.; Nittler, L. R.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; DeGregorio, B. T.; Cody, G. D.

    2012-01-01

    Insoluble organic matter (IOM) constitutes a major proportion, 70-99%, of the total organic carbon found in primitive chondrites [1, 2]. One characteristic morphological component of IOM is nanoglobules [3, 4]. Some nanoglobules exhibit large N-15 and D enrichments relative to solar values, indicating that they likely originated in the ISM or the outskirts of the protoplanetary disk [3]. A recent study of samples from the Tagish Lake meteorite with varying levels of hydrothermal alteration suggest that nanoglobule abundance decreases with increasing hydrothermal alteration [5]. The aim of this study is to further document the morphologies of IOM from a range of primitive chondrites in order to determine any correlation of morphology with petrographic grade and chondrite class that could constrain the formation and/or alteration mechanisms.

  17. Post-Quantum Cryptography: Riemann Primitives and Chrysalis

    OpenAIRE

    Malloy, Ian; Hollenbeck, Dennis

    2018-01-01

    The Chrysalis project is a proposed method for post-quantum cryptography using the Riemann sphere. To this end, Riemann primitives are introduced in addition to a novel implementation of this new method. Chrysalis itself is the first cryptographic scheme to rely on Holomorphic Learning with Errors, which is a complex form of Learning with Errors relying on the Gauss Circle Problem within the Riemann sphere. The principle security reduction proposed by this novel cryptographic scheme applies c...

  18. Polycomb enables primitive endoderm lineage priming in embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illingworth, Robert S; Hölzenspies, Jurriaan J; Roske, Fabian V

    2016-01-01

    Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), like the blastocyst from which they are derived, contain precursors of the epiblast (Epi) and primitive endoderm (PrEn) lineages. While transient in vivo, these precursor populations readily interconvert in vitro. We show that altered transcription is the driver...... polycomb with dynamic changes in transcription and stalled lineage commitment, allowing cells to explore alternative choices prior to a definitive decision....

  19. Primary extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumour of breast

    OpenAIRE

    Ikhwan, S M; Kenneth, V K T; Seoparjoo, A; Zin, A A M

    2013-01-01

    Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) and extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma belongs to the Ewing's family of tumours. Primary tumours arising from breast are very rare. There are only a few case reports published on primary extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma and PNET arising from breast. We present an extremely rare case of an inoperable primary Ewing's sarcoma arising from left breast with contralateral breast, lymphatic and lung metastasis.

  20. Primary extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumour of breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikhwan, S M; Kenneth, V K T; Seoparjoo, A; Zin, A A M

    2013-06-21

    Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) and extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma belongs to the Ewing's family of tumours. Primary tumours arising from breast are very rare. There are only a few case reports published on primary extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma and PNET arising from breast. We present an extremely rare case of an inoperable primary Ewing's sarcoma arising from left breast with contralateral breast, lymphatic and lung metastasis.

  1. Interaction learning for dynamic movement primitives used in cooperative robotic tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulvicius, Tomas; Biehl, Martin; Aein, Mohamad Javad

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Since several years dynamic movement primitives (DMPs) are more and more getting into the center of interest for flexible movement control in robotics. In this study we introduce sensory feedback together with a predictive learning mechanism which allows tightly coupled dual-agent systems...... to learn an adaptive, sensor-driven interaction based on DMPs. The coupled conventional (no-sensors, no learning) DMP-system automatically equilibrates and can still be solved analytically allowing us to derive conditions for stability. When adding adaptive sensor control we can show that both agents learn...

  2. A Primitive Memory System for Attention Deployments: Some Recent Challenges and Their Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Árni Kristjánsson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past my colleagues and I have presented evidence for the existence of a primitive memory for attention deployments. This memory system orients attention to features and locations of recent behavioral importance. A large part of the proposal is that the memory system facilitates attentional selection of features in the environment such as color, orientation, etc. I will review the findings behind these proposals. The bulk of this evidence comes from studies of history effects in vision, such as priming of visual search, and implicit learning in exogenously cued attention shifts. In addition, recent challenges to this view will be discussed (in particular, arguments that the facilitation from repetition in visual search tasks occurs at a relatively late stage of perceptual processing. Our recent investigations of these proposals suggest that there is indeed evidence for higher-level priming effects in visual search under certain conditions, but those findings do not challenge the basic proposals regarding the primitive memory system, since the evidence for feature-specific facilitation is robust.

  3. The existence of positive solutions for nonlinear boundary system with $p$-Laplacian operator based on sign-changing nonlinearities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuyi Xu

    2010-12-01

    (\\phi_{p_1}(u''+a_1(tf(u,v=0, 01, i=1,2$. We obtain some sufficient conditions for the existence of two positive solutions or infinitely many positive solutions by using a fixed-point theorem in cones. Especially, the nonlinear terms $f,g $ are allowed to change sign. The conclusions essentially extend and improve the known results.

  4. Versatility of `hemorheologic fitness' according to exercise intensity: emphasis on the "healthy primitive lifestyle"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Jean-Frédéric; Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle; Chevance, Guillaume; Pollatz, Marion; Fedou, Christine; de Mauverger, Eric Raynaud

    2014-05-01

    We recently proposed a unifying hypothesis to reconcile unexpected findings in exercise hemorheology and the classical concepts of "hemorheologic fitness" and the "triphasic effects of exercise", based on the "healthy primitive lifestyle" paradigm. This paradigm assumes that evolution has selected genetic polymorphisms leading to insulin resistance as an adaptative strategy to cope with continuous low intensity physical activity and a special alimentation moderately high in protein, rich in low glycemic index carbohydrates, and poor in saturated fat. According to this protocol the true physiological picture would be that of an individual whose exercise and nutritional habits are close from this lifestyle, both sedentary subjects and trained athletes representing situations on the edge of this model. Unfortunately samples of people truly adhering to this ancestral lifestyle are hard to obtain. In order to address this picture we tried to compare databases obtained with our preceding published studies. As a model of the "healthy primitive lifestyle" we selected patients trained at low intensity (LI) and given an advice of protein intake around 1.2 g/kg/day. Results show a continuum for plasma viscosity which seems to be lower in athletes than LI-trained and even more sedentaries. When sedentary subjects become obese the most obvious characteristic is an increase in red blood cell (RBC) aggregation correlated to the size of fat stores. It is clear that 3 months of LI are not a perfect model of "healthy primitive lifestyle", but these data suggest that the most important effect of LI regular exercise is to decrease plasma viscosity and that sedentarity increases RBC aggregation mostly when it results in increased fat storage.

  5. Common data model for natural language processing based on two existing standard information models: CDA+GrAF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meystre, Stéphane M; Lee, Sanghoon; Jung, Chai Young; Chevrier, Raphaël D

    2012-08-01

    An increasing need for collaboration and resources sharing in the Natural Language Processing (NLP) research and development community motivates efforts to create and share a common data model and a common terminology for all information annotated and extracted from clinical text. We have combined two existing standards: the HL7 Clinical Document Architecture (CDA), and the ISO Graph Annotation Format (GrAF; in development), to develop such a data model entitled "CDA+GrAF". We experimented with several methods to combine these existing standards, and eventually selected a method wrapping separate CDA and GrAF parts in a common standoff annotation (i.e., separate from the annotated text) XML document. Two use cases, clinical document sections, and the 2010 i2b2/VA NLP Challenge (i.e., problems, tests, and treatments, with their assertions and relations), were used to create examples of such standoff annotation documents, and were successfully validated with the XML schemata provided with both standards. We developed a tool to automatically translate annotation documents from the 2010 i2b2/VA NLP Challenge format to GrAF, and automatically generated 50 annotation documents using this tool, all successfully validated. Finally, we adapted the XSL stylesheet provided with HL7 CDA to allow viewing annotation XML documents in a web browser, and plan to adapt existing tools for translating annotation documents between CDA+GrAF and the UIMA and GATE frameworks. This common data model may ease directly comparing NLP tools and applications, combining their output, transforming and "translating" annotations between different NLP applications, and eventually "plug-and-play" of different modules in NLP applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Primitive magmas at five Cascade volcanic fields: Melts from hot, heterogeneous sub-arc mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, C.R.; Bruggman, P.E.; Christiansen, R.L.; Clynne, M.A.; Donnelly-Nolan, J. M.; Hildreth, W.

    1997-01-01

    ; and OIB-source-like domains. Lavas with arc and intraplate (OIB) geochemical signatures were erupted close to HAOT, and many lavas are blends of two or more magma types. Pre-eruptive H2O contents of HAOT, coupled with phase-equilibrium studies, suggest that these magmas were relatively dry and last equilibrated in the mantle wedge at temperatures of ???1300??C and depths of ???40 km, virtually at the base of the crust. Arc basalt and basaltic andesite represent greater extents of melting than HAOT, presumably in the same general thermal regime but at somewhat lower mantle separation temperatures, of domains of sub-arc mantle that have been enriched by a hydrous subduction component derived from the young, relatively hot Juan de Fuca plate. The primitive magmas originated by partial melting in response to adiabatic upwelling within the mantle wedge. Tectonic extension in this part of the Cascade arc, one characterized by slow oblique convergence, contributes to mantle upwelling and facilitates eruption of primitive magmas.

  7. Mobilization for energy renovation. Innovative tools for the uptake of deep renovation of the existing building stock based on behavioural insights

    OpenAIRE

    Taranu, Victoria; Verbeeck, Griet

    2015-01-01

    Mobilization for energy renovation. Innovative tools for the uptake of deep renovation of the existing building stock based on behavioural insights. In the context of climate change it is a priority to reduce the energy demand and make a shift towards renewable sources of energy. In Flanders almost half of the existing residential building stock was built before 1970 with low levels of insulation and inefficient installations. The vast majority of Fle...

  8. The effect of cupping therapy for low back pain: A meta-analysis based on existing randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun-Ting; Qi, Yong; Tang, Fu-Yong; Li, Fei-Meng; Li, Qi-Huo; Xu, Chang-Peng; Xie, Guo-Ping; Sun, Hong-Tao

    2017-11-06

    LBP is one of the most common symptoms with high prevalence throughout the world. Conflicting conclusions exist in RCTs on cupping for LBP. To assess the effects and safety of cupping for the patients with LBP. Pubmed, Cochrane Library databases, and Embase database were electronically researched. RCTs reporting the cupping for the patients with LBP were included. The meta-analysis was conducted using Review Manager software (version 5.3, Nordic Cochrane Centre). The primary outcome was VAS scores. The secondary outcomes included ODI scores, MPPI scores and complications. Six RCTs were included in this synthesized analysis. The results showed that cupping therapy was superior to the control management with respect to VAS scores (SMD: -0.73, [95% CI: -1.42 to -0.04]; P= 0.04), and ODI scores (SMD: -3.64, [95% CI: -5.85 to -1.42]; P= 0.001). There was no statistical significant difference as regard to MPPI scores. No serious adverse event was reported in the included studies. Cupping therapy can significantly decrease the VAS scores and ODI scores for patients with LBP compared to the control management. High heterogeneity and risk of bias existing in studies limit the authenticity of the findings.

  9. Thoracoabdominal peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors in childhood: radiological features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulman, H.; Laufer, L.; Newman-Heinman, N.; Kurtzbart, E.; Maor, E.; Zirkin, H.

    2000-01-01

    Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) are extremely uncommon, malignant neoplasms affecting mostly children and young adults. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data and radiological studies of four such cases. All cases were pathologically proven. Plain films, US, and CT scans were used. The youngest child had a huge pelvic tumor and two adolescents each had a chest wall (Askin) tumor. The fourth patient had a most unusual location of the PNET in the anterior mediastinum. The CT findings are emphasized. We emphasize that the markedly abnormal CT findings are not specific for PNET. (orig.)

  10. Characterizing Digital Light Processing (DLP) 3D Printed Primitives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyge, Emil; Pallisgaard, Jens J.; Lillethorup, Morten

    2015-01-01

    The resolution and repeatability of 3D printing processes depends on a number of factors including the software, hardware, and material used. When printing parts with features that are near or below the nominal printing resolution, it is important to understand how the printer works. For example......, what is the smallest unit shape that can be produced? And what is the reproducibility of that process? This paper presents a method for automatically detecting and characterizing the height, width, and length of micro scale geometric primitives produced via a digital light processing (DLP) 3D printing...

  11. Dust formation in a galaxy with primitive abundances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, G C; Matsuura, M; Zijlstra, A A; Lagadec, E; Groenewegen, M A T; Wood, P R; Szyszka, C; Bernard-Salas, J; van Loon, J Th

    2009-01-16

    Interstellar dust plays a crucial role in the evolution of galaxies. It governs the chemistry and physics of the interstellar medium. In the local universe, dust forms primarily in the ejecta from stars, but its composition and origin in galaxies at very early times remain controversial. We report observational evidence of dust forming around a carbon star in a nearby galaxy with a low abundance of heavy elements, 25 times lower than the solar abundance. The production of dust by a carbon star in a galaxy with such primitive abundances raises the possibility that carbon stars contributed carbonaceous dust in the early universe.

  12. Cooling and quasi-static contraction of the primitive solar nebula after gas accretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Seichiro; Nakagawa, Yoshitsugu; Nakazawa, Kiyoshi

    1990-01-01

    The evolution of the primitive solar nebula in the quasi-static contraction phase where the nebula cools down toward the thermal steady state is studied. The solar irradiation onto the nebula keeps the surface temperature constant, so that the convective ozone retreats from the surface as the nebula cools. Thus if thermal convection is the only source of turbulence, convection will quiet down in an early time of the cooling. Afterward, the nebula evolves toward an isothermal structure in a time scale of 1000 yr. The cooling rates in the vicinity of the midplate at 1 AU are 0.003 K/hr at T(c) = 1000 K and 3 x 10 to the -5th K/hr at T(c) = 300 K for the standard model. If some turbulence exists irrespective of convection, convection may continue for sufficiently strong turbulent heating. 39 refs

  13. Adapting an existing visualization application for browser-based deployment: A case study from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Owen A.

    2013-02-01

    THOR, the Tool for High-resolution Observation Review, is a data viewer for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and the upcoming Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission. THOR began as a desktop application, but now it can be accessed with a web browser, making THOR one of the first online tools for visualizing TRMM satellite data (http://pps.gsfc.nasa.gov/thor). In this effort, the reuse of the existing visualization code was maximized and the complexity of new code was minimized by avoiding unnecessary functionality, frameworks, or libraries. The simplicity of this approach makes it potentially attractive to researchers wishing to adapt their visualization applications for online deployment. To enable THOR to run within a web browser, three new pieces of code are written. First, the graphical user interface (GUI) of the desktop application is translated into HTML, JavaScript, and CSS. Second, a simple communication mechanism is developed over HTTP. Third, a virtual GUI is created on the server that interfaces with the image-generating routines of the existing desktop application so that these routines do not need to be modified for online use. While the basic functionality of THOR is now available online, prototyping is ongoing for enhanced 3D imaging and other aspects of both THOR Desktop and THOR Online. Because TRMM data products are complex and periodically reprocessed with improved algorithms, having a tool such as THOR is important to analysts at the Precipitation Processing System where the algorithms are tested and the products generated, stored, and distributed. Researchers also have found THOR useful for taking a first look at individual files before writing their own software to perform specialized calculations and analyses.

  14. Changes of coat cover in primitive horses living on a reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachurska, A; Robovský, J; Bocian, K; Janczarek, I

    2015-03-01

    Changes in the coat cover are important for mammalian thermoregulation. This is especially true where variable environmental conditions exist throughout the seasons. Coat cover shedding is the replacement of old coat hair with new hair. The process differs in various equids. The aim of the study was to examine the changes in the coat of primitive Polish Konik horses living on a reserve in southeast Poland (50.6319° N). The reserve is located in a temperate climate. The mean temperature is below 0°C in winter (December 8 to March 9) and over 15°C in summer (June 8 to September 8). Five adult mares were included in the study. The study used a specific methodical approach to quantitatively assess coat cover changes. Photos were taken once every 2 wk throughout the whole year to document the state of the mares' coat. MultiScanBase software was used to analyze 260 photos. The percentage of the skin surface covered with short hair in relation to the surface of the body (without the head, neck, and limbs; short hair body [SHB]) was determined. To assess the topography of coat changes, surface parts covered with short hair within 6 regions of the body (shoulder, back, chest, loins, belly, and hindquarters; short hair part [SHP]) were considered separately. The regression coefficient was calculated for the SHB and the air temperature. Correlations in SHP and SHB between the left and right sides of the body were determined. The correlations within the right side of the body concerned particular SHP. As the results show, the coat changes take place at the same time on both sides of the horse's body. In spring, the winter hair is shed, and in the fall, the winter hair grows in longer. High regression (0.901; coat changes. The most important increase of SHB occurs in April and the first half of May, whereas the main decrease of SHB takes place in September. Changes between SHP are highly correlated (0.967-0.994; coat changes demonstrate that the shoulders, back, and loins

  15. Ionic and Wigner Glasses, Superionic Conductors, and Spinodal Electrostatic Gels: Dynamically Arrested Phases of the Primitive Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Diaz, L. E.; Juarez-Maldonado, R.; Vizcarra-Rendon, A.

    2009-01-01

    Based on the recently proposed self-consistent generalized Langevin equation theory of dynamic arrest, in this letter we show that the ergodic-nonergodic phase diagram of a classical mixture of charged hard spheres (the so-called 'primitive model' of ionic solutions and molten salts) includes arrested phases corresponding to nonconducting ionic glasses, partially arrested states that represent solid electrolytes (or 'superionic' conductors), low-density colloidal Wigner glasses, and low-density electrostatic gels associated with arrested spinodal decomposition.

  16. Stochastic Ocean Predictions with Dynamically-Orthogonal Primitive Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramani, D. N.; Haley, P., Jr.; Lermusiaux, P. F. J.

    2017-12-01

    The coastal ocean is a prime example of multiscale nonlinear fluid dynamics. Ocean fields in such regions are complex and intermittent with unstationary heterogeneous statistics. Due to the limited measurements, there are multiple sources of uncertainties, including the initial conditions, boundary conditions, forcing, parameters, and even the model parameterizations and equations themselves. For efficient and rigorous quantification and prediction of these uncertainities, the stochastic Dynamically Orthogonal (DO) PDEs for a primitive equation ocean modeling system with a nonlinear free-surface are derived and numerical schemes for their space-time integration are obtained. Detailed numerical studies with idealized-to-realistic regional ocean dynamics are completed. These include consistency checks for the numerical schemes and comparisons with ensemble realizations. As an illustrative example, we simulate the 4-d multiscale uncertainty in the Middle Atlantic/New York Bight region during the months of Jan to Mar 2017. To provide intitial conditions for the uncertainty subspace, uncertainties in the region were objectively analyzed using historical data. The DO primitive equations were subsequently integrated in space and time. The probability distribution function (pdf) of the ocean fields is compared to in-situ, remote sensing, and opportunity data collected during the coincident POSYDON experiment. Results show that our probabilistic predictions had skill and are 3- to 4- orders of magnitude faster than classic ensemble schemes.

  17. CT and MR findings of primitive neuroectodermal tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kook, Shin Ho; Kim, In One; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Moon Hee; Cho, Byung Kyu

    1991-01-01

    Cerebral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), consisting of undifferentiated primitive cells, is a neoplasm of children and young adults that occurs predominantly in the supratentorial compartment. In this report, we retrospectively reviewed and analyzed 18 CT and 6 MR findings in 18 patients with pathologically-proven PNET to discover the characteristic findings, if may. The most characteristic feature of the PNETs was a well-defined multilobular oval or round large mass with components of peripheral cystic change or calcification in the cerebral hemisphere, especially in the parietal lobe. Usually there was only minimal surrounding edema. The CT density of the tumor was iso - or slightly high density with homogeneous contrast enhancement in the solid portion and low density in the cystic area. MR findings demonstrated iso - signal intensity on both T1 - weighted (T1WI) and T2-weighted (T2WI) images and dense enhancement in the solid element. The cystic portion revealed low intensity on T1WI and high intensity on T2WI

  18. Medulloblastomas - primitive neuroectodermal tumours in the adult population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smee, R.I.; Williams, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    Medulloblastomas - primitive neuroectodermal tumours are rare in adults. This review will evaluate a single centre's experience with this malignancy. The medulloblastoma - primitive neuroectodermal tumour database was evaluated for all patients aged more than 18 years who were referred for management. Relevant information from the database was abstracted to provide a descriptive record of this malignancy. Between 1977-2004 there were 11 patients referred, 1 with persistent disease and 10 were eligible, presenting with initial diagnosis. There was increased intracranial pressure in 50% of patients. Most patients had symptoms >3 months, with three having symptoms 1-3 months before diagnosis and one patient having thoracic dural metastases at presentation. Complete resection was recorded in four patients and six had 50-90% resection. All patients completed craniospinal radiotherapy (35-36 Gy at 1.8-2.0 Gy fractions) barring one patient, who died of surgical complications during his radiotherapy. Chemotherapy was given in five of the nine patients postradiotherapy. There were two posterior fossa recurrences, with associated supratentorial and extra central nervous system disease. Of the 10 primary patients 7 are alive with no evidence of diease, 2 died because of disease, with 1 intercurrent death. One patient developed a second malignancy. The outcome for adults matches that of the more common paediatric patients. Radiotherapy could control local disease even where complete resection was not achieved.

  19. Classical and molecular cytogenetic characterization of Agonostomus monticola, a primitive species of Mugilidae (Mugiliformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirchio, Mauro; Oliveira, Claudio; Ferreira, Irani A; Martins, Cesar; Rossi, Anna Rita; Sola, Luciana

    2009-01-01

    This study reports the first description of the karyotype of Agonostomus monticola, a species belonging to a genus which is considered to be the most primitive among living mugilid fish. Specimens from Panama and Venezuela were cytogenetically analysed by conventional chromosome banding (Ag and base-specific-fluorochrome staining, C-banding) and by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Agonostomus monticola showed a chromosome complement of 2n = 48, composed of 23 acrocentric and one subtelocentric chromosome pairs and a pericentromeric distribution of the C-positive heterochromatin in all chromosomes. Major ribosomal genes were found to be located on the short arms of the subtelocentric chromosome pair number 24 and minor ribosomal genes in a paracentromeric position of a single medium-sized chromosome pair. All these observed cytogenetic features are similar to those previously described in four representatives of two genera, Liza and Chelon, which are considered to be among the most advanced in the family. Thus, this karyotypic form might represent the plesiomorphic condition for the mullets. This hypothesis regarding the plesiomorphic condition, if confirmed, would shed new light on the previously inferred cytotaxonomic relationships for the studied species of Mugilidae, because the karyotype with 48 acrocentric chromosomes, which has been so far regarded as primitive for the family, would have to be considered as derived.

  20. A Novel Non-Invasive Selection Criterion for the Preservation of Primitive Dutch Konik Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May-Davis, Sharon; Brown, Wendy Y; Shorter, Kathleen; Vermeulen, Zefanja; Butler, Raquel; Koekkoek, Marianne

    2018-02-01

    The Dutch Konik is valued from a genetic conservation perspective and also for its role in preservation of natural landscapes. The primary management objective for the captive breeding of this primitive horse is to maintain its genetic purity, whilst also maintaining the nature reserves on which they graze. Breeding selection has traditionally been based on phenotypic characteristics consistent with the breed description, and the selection of animals for removal from the breeding program is problematic at times due to high uniformity within the breed, particularly in height at the wither, colour (mouse to grey dun) and presence of primitive markings. With the objective of identifying an additional non-invasive selection criterion with potential uniqueness to the Dutch Konik, this study investigates the anatomic parameters of the distal equine limb, with a specific focus on the relative lengths of the individual splint bones. Post-mortem dissections performed on distal limbs of Dutch Konik ( n = 47) and modern domesticated horses ( n = 120) revealed significant differences in relation to the length and symmetry of the 2nd and 4th Metacarpals and Metatarsals. Distal limb characteristics with apparent uniqueness to the Dutch Konik are described which could be an important tool in the selection and preservation of the breed.

  1. Peripheral primitive neuroendocrine tumor of the chest wall—A case report with pathological correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jidi Gao, MD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Primitive neuroectodermal tumor is a high-grade malignant tumor originating from the neural crest and neuroectoderm, which can be subdivided into central and peripheral categories. Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor is thought to be identical to Ewing's sarcoma, and falls under a broader category of Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors. Very rarely, it may present without osseous involvement, known as extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma. Here we present a case of a 38-year-old woman, who presented with several-month history of a slow-growing chest wall mass, initially thought to be a breast mass. The mass was diagnosed as extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma upon tissue biopsy. The patient was started on a dose-intensified neoadjuvant therapy, based on protocol from pediatric population given rarity of this tumor in the adult population. While the patient was initially planned for surgical resection, the tumor showed excellent response to chemotherapy on follow-up imaging, and radiation therapy was elected in lieu of resection. Keywords: Chest wall tumors, Peripheral PNET, Ewing's sarcoma

  2. Bacterial whole genome-based phylogeny: construction of a new benchmarking dataset and assessment of some existing methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Johanne; Skaarup, Carina; Hasman, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    from sequencing reads. In the present study we describe a new dataset that we have created for the purpose of benchmarking such WGS-based methods for epidemiological data, and also present an analysis where we use the data to compare the performance of some current methods. Results Our aim...

  3. Comparison and Extension of Existing 3D Propagation Models with Real-World Effects Based on Ray-tracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kifle, Dereje W.; Gimenez, Lucas Chavarria; Wegmann, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    antenna beam orientation like antenna tilting or when users are distributed in the third dimension (height) in multi-floor scenarios. Ray tracing based generated propagation maps that show the realistic propagation effect are used as 3D real world reference for investigation and model approval....

  4. Market-based mechanisms for biodiversity conservation: a review of existing schemes and an outline for a global mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarado Quesada, I.; Hein, L.G.; Weikard, H.P.

    2014-01-01

    Continuous decline of biodiversity over the past decades suggests that efforts to decrease biodiversity loss have been insufficient. One option to deal with this problem is the use of market-based mechanisms for biodiversity conservation. Several studies have analysed such mechanisms individually,

  5. Controlling for Frailty in Pharmacoepidemiologic Studies of Older Adults: Validation of an Existing Medicare Claims-based Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbertson, Carmen C; Kucharska-Newton, Anna; Faurot, Keturah R; Stürmer, Til; Jonsson Funk, Michele; Palta, Priya; Windham, B Gwen; Thai, Sydney; Lund, Jennifer L

    2018-07-01

    Frailty is a geriatric syndrome characterized by weakness and weight loss and is associated with adverse health outcomes. It is often an unmeasured confounder in pharmacoepidemiologic and comparative effectiveness studies using administrative claims data. Among the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study Visit 5 participants (2011-2013; n = 3,146), we conducted a validation study to compare a Medicare claims-based algorithm of dependency in activities of daily living (or dependency) developed as a proxy for frailty with a reference standard measure of phenotypic frailty. We applied the algorithm to the ARIC participants' claims data to generate a predicted probability of dependency. Using the claims-based algorithm, we estimated the C-statistic for predicting phenotypic frailty. We further categorized participants by their predicted probability of dependency (<5%, 5% to <20%, and ≥20%) and estimated associations with difficulties in physical abilities, falls, and mortality. The claims-based algorithm showed good discrimination of phenotypic frailty (C-statistic = 0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.67, 0.74). Participants classified with a high predicted probability of dependency (≥20%) had higher prevalence of falls and difficulty in physical ability, and a greater risk of 1-year all-cause mortality (hazard ratio = 5.7 [95% CI = 2.5, 13]) than participants classified with a low predicted probability (<5%). Sensitivity and specificity varied across predicted probability of dependency thresholds. The Medicare claims-based algorithm showed good discrimination of phenotypic frailty and high predictive ability with adverse health outcomes. This algorithm can be used in future Medicare claims analyses to reduce confounding by frailty and improve study validity.

  6. Installed Base as a Facilitator for User-Driven Innovation: How Can User Innovation Challenge Existing Institutional Barriers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Synnøve Thomassen Andersen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses an ICT-based, user-driven innovation process in the health sector in rural areas in Norway. The empirical base is the introduction of a new model for psychiatric health provision. This model is supported by a technical solution based on mobile phones that is aimed to help the communication between professional health personnel and patients. This innovation was made possible through the use of standard mobile technology rather than more sophisticated systems. The users were heavily involved in the development work. Our analysis shows that by thinking simple and small-scale solutions, including to take the user’s needs and premises as a point of departure rather than focusing on advanced technology, the implementation process was made possible. We show that by combining theory on information infrastructures, user-oriented system development, and innovation in a three-layered analytical framework, we can explain the interrelationship between technical, organizational, and health professional factors that made this innovation a success.

  7. Existence and smoothness of solutions to second initial boundary value problems for Schrodinger systems in cylinders with non-smooth bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Manh Hung

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the second initial boundary value problem for strongly general Schrodinger systems in both the finite and the infinite cylinders $Q_T, 0base $Omega$. Some results on the existence, uniqueness and smoothness with respect to time variable of generalized solution of this problem are given.

  8. Web-based tool for dynamic functional outcome after acute ischemic stroke and comparison with existing models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ruijun; Du, Wanliang; Shen, Haipeng; Pan, Yuesong; Wang, Penglian; Liu, Gaifen; Wang, Yilong; Li, Hao; Zhao, Xingquan; Wang, Yongjun

    2014-11-25

    Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is one of the leading causes of death and adult disability worldwide. In the present study, we aimed to develop a web-based risk model for predicting dynamic functional status at discharge, 3-month, 6-month, and 1-year after acute ischemic stroke (Dynamic Functional Status after Acute Ischemic Stroke, DFS-AIS). The DFS-AIS was developed based on the China National Stroke Registry (CNSR), in which eligible patients were randomly divided into derivation (60%) and validation (40%) cohorts. Good functional outcome was defined as modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score ≤ 2 at discharge, 3-month, 6-month, and 1-year after AIS, respectively. Independent predictors of each outcome measure were obtained using multivariable logistic regression. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and plot of observed and predicted risk were used to assess model discrimination and calibration. A total of 12,026 patients were included and the median age was 67 (interquartile range: 57-75). The proportion of patients with good functional outcome at discharge, 3-month, 6-month, and 1-year after AIS was 67.9%, 66.5%, 66.9% and 66.9%, respectively. Age, gender, medical history of diabetes mellitus, stroke or transient ischemic attack, current smoking and atrial fibrillation, pre-stroke dependence, pre-stroke statins using, admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, admission blood glucose were identified as independent predictors of functional outcome at different time points after AIS. The DFS-AIS was developed from sets of predictors of mRS ≤ 2 at different time points following AIS. The DFS-AIS demonstrated good discrimination in the derivation and validation cohorts (AUROC range: 0.837-0.845). Plots of observed versus predicted likelihood showed excellent calibration in the derivation and validation cohorts (all r = 0.99, P discrimination for good functional outcome and mortality at discharge, 3-month, 6

  9. Bacterial whole genome-based phylogeny: construction of a new benchmarking dataset and assessment of some existing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrenfeldt, Johanne; Skaarup, Carina; Hasman, Henrik; Pedersen, Anders Gorm; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Lund, Ole

    2017-01-05

    Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is increasingly used in diagnostics and surveillance of infectious diseases. A major application for WGS is to use the data for identifying outbreak clusters, and there is therefore a need for methods that can accurately and efficiently infer phylogenies from sequencing reads. In the present study we describe a new dataset that we have created for the purpose of benchmarking such WGS-based methods for epidemiological data, and also present an analysis where we use the data to compare the performance of some current methods. Our aim was to create a benchmark data set that mimics sequencing data of the sort that might be collected during an outbreak of an infectious disease. This was achieved by letting an E. coli hypermutator strain grow in the lab for 8 consecutive days, each day splitting the culture in two while also collecting samples for sequencing. The result is a data set consisting of 101 whole genome sequences with known phylogenetic relationship. Among the sequenced samples 51 correspond to internal nodes in the phylogeny because they are ancestral, while the remaining 50 correspond to leaves. We also used the newly created data set to compare three different online available methods that infer phylogenies from whole-genome sequencing reads: NDtree, CSI Phylogeny and REALPHY. One complication when comparing the output of these methods with the known phylogeny is that phylogenetic methods typically build trees where all observed sequences are placed as leafs, even though some of them are in fact ancestral. We therefore devised a method for post processing the inferred trees by collapsing short branches (thus relocating some leafs to internal nodes), and also present two new measures of tree similarity that takes into account the identity of both internal and leaf nodes. Based on this analysis we find that, among the investigated methods, CSI Phylogeny had the best performance, correctly identifying 73% of all branches in the

  10. A study of graphene films synthesized on nickel substrates: existence and origin of small-base-area peaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahng, Yung Ho; Choe, Minhyeok; Jo, Gunho; Park, Woojin; Yoon, Jongwon; Hong, Woong-Ki; Lee, Byoung Hun; Lee, Takhee; Lee, Sangchul; Cho, Chun Hum

    2011-01-01

    Large-area graphene films, synthesized by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, have the potential to be used as electrodes. However, the electrical properties of CVD-synthesized graphene films fall short of the best results obtained for graphene films prepared by other methods. Therefore, it is important to understand the reason why these electrical properties are inferior to improve the applicability of CVD-grown graphene films. Here, we show that CVD-grown graphene films on nickel substrates contain many small-base-area (SBA) peaks that scatter conducting electrons, thereby decreasing the Hall mobility of charges in the films. These SBA peaks were induced by small peaks on the nickel surface and are likely composed of amorphous carbon. The formation of these SBA peaks on graphene films was successfully suppressed by controlling the surface morphology of the nickel substrate. These findings may be useful for the development of a CVD synthesis method that is capable of producing better quality graphene films with large areas.

  11. Evidence for existence of functional monoclinic phase in sodium niobate based solid solution by powder neutron diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, S. K.; Jauhari, Mrinal; Mittal, R.; Krishna, P. S. R.; Reddy, V. R.; Chaplot, S. L.

    2018-04-01

    We have carried out systematic temperature-dependent neutron diffraction measurements in conjunction with dielectric spectroscopy from 6 to 300 K for sodium niobate based compounds (1-x) NaNbO3-xBaTiO3 (NNBTx). The dielectric constant is measured as a function of both temperature and frequency. It shows an anomaly at different temperatures in cooling and heating cycles and exhibits a large thermal hysteresis of ˜150 K for the composition x = 0.03. The dielectric constant is found to be dispersive in nature and suggests a relaxor ferroelectric behavior. In order to explore structural changes as a function of temperature, we analyzed the powder neutron diffraction data for the compositions x = 0.03 and 0.05. Drastic changes are observed in the powder profiles near 2θ ˜ 30.6°, 32.1°, and 34.6° in the diffraction pattern below 200 K during cooling and above 190 K in heating cycles, respectively. The disappearance of superlattice reflection and splitting in main perovskite peaks provide a signature for structural phase transition. We observed stabilization of a monoclinic phase (Cc) at low temperature. This monoclinic phase is believed to provide a flexible polarization rotation and considered to be directly linked to the high performance piezoelectricity in materials. The thermal hysteresis for composition x = 0.03 is larger than that for x = 0.05. This suggests that the addition of BaTiO3 to NaNbO3 suppresses the thermal hysteresis. It is also observed that the structural phase transition temperature decreases upon increasing the dopant concentration.

  12. Evidence for extreme Ti-50 enrichments in primitive meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahey, A.; Mckeegan, K.D.; Zinner, E.; Goswami, J.N.; Physical Research Lab., Ahmedabad, India)

    1985-01-01

    The results of the first high mass resolution ion microprobe study of Ti isotopic compositions in individual refractory grains from primitive carbonaceous meteorites are reported. One hibonite from the Murray carbonaceous chondrite has a 10 percent excess of Ti-50, 25 times higher than the maximum value previously reported for bulk samples of refractory inclusions from carbonaceous chondrites. The variation of the Ti compositions between different hibonite grains, and among pyroxenes from a single Allende refractory inclusion, indicates isotopic inhomogeneities over small scale lengths in the solar nebula and emphasizes the importance of the analysis of small individual phases. This heterogeneity makes it unlikely that the isotopic anomalies were carried into the solar system in the gas phase. 20 references

  13. The CHY representation of tree-level primitive QCD amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, Leonardo de la; Kniss, Alexander; Weinzierl, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we construct a CHY representation for all tree-level primitive QCD amplitudes. The quarks may be massless or massive. We define a generalised cyclic factor Ĉ(w,z) and a generalised permutation invariant function Ê(z,p,ε). The amplitude is then given as a contour integral encircling the solutions of the scattering equations with the product ĈÊ as integrand. Equivalently, it is given as a sum over the inequivalent solutions of the scattering equations, where the summand consists of a Jacobian times the product ĈÊ. This representation separates information: The generalised cyclic factor does not depend on the helicities of the external particles, the generalised permutation invariant function does not depend on the ordering of the external particles.

  14. Evolution of lung breathing from a lungless primitive vertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, M; Taylor, B E; Harris, M B

    2016-04-01

    Air breathing was critical to the terrestrial radiation and evolution of tetrapods and arose in fish. The vertebrate lung originated from a progenitor structure present in primitive boney fish. The origin of the neural substrates, which are sensitive to metabolically produced CO2 and which rhythmically activate respiratory muscles to match lung ventilation to metabolic demand, is enigmatic. We have found that a distinct periodic centrally generated rhythm, described as "cough" and occurring in lamprey in vivo and in vitro, is modulated by central sensitivity to CO2. This suggests that elements critical for the evolution of breathing in tetrapods, were present in the most basal vertebrate ancestors prior to the evolution of the lung. We propose that the evolution of breathing in all vertebrates occurred through exaptations derived from these critical basal elements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A two-phase pressure drop calculation code based on a new method with a correlation factor obtained from an assessment of existing correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Moon Hyun; Oh, Jae Guen

    1989-01-01

    Ten methods of the total two-phase pressure drop prediction based on five existing models and correlations have been examined for their accuracy and applicability to pressurized water reactor conditions. These methods were tested against 209 experimental data of local and bulk boiling conditions: Each correlations were evaluated for different ranges of pressure, mass velocity and quality, and best performing models were identified for each data subsets. A computer code entitled 'K-TWOPD' has been developed to calculate the total two phase pressure drop using the best performing existing correlations for a specific property range and a correction factor to compensate for the predicted error of the selected correlations. Assessment of this code shows that the present method fits all the available data within ±11% at a 95% confidence level compared with ± 25% for the existing correlations. (Author)

  16. Universal Alienation, Formal and Real Subsumption of Society Under Capital, Ongoing Primitive Accumulation by Dispossession: Reflections on the Marx@200-Contributions by David Harvey and Michael Hardt/Toni Negri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This contribution presents reflections on the contributions of and the debate between David Harvey and Michael Hardt/Toni Negri that we feature as the opening part of the tripleC-special issue “Marx@200: Debating Capitalism & Perspectives for the Future of Radical Theory”. My reflection contextualises the debate by a discussing the origin and genesis of Marx’s concepts of alienation, formal/real subsumption, and primitive accumulation and b situating the arguments in earlier works by Harvey, Hardt and Negri. This paper points out differences as well as the strong commonalities between the works of Michael Hardt/Toni Negri and David Harvey. It discusses how the categories of universal alienation, formal/real subsumption of society under capital, original/ongoing primitive accumulation of capital are related. Harvey and Hardt/Negri show that Marx’s theory and politics are alive 200 years after his birth and will haunt capitalism as long as it exists. The paper concludes by arguing that Harvey’s concept of anti-value and the autonomous notion of self-valorisation point towards democratic, commons-based alternatives to capitalism.

  17. Amylose primitive médiastinale d'aspect pseudotumoral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfoudhi, Madiha; Mamlouk, Habiba; Turki, Sami; Kheder, Adel

    2015-01-01

    L'amylose primitive médiastinale isolée est rare et de diagnostic difficile. Nous rapportons l'observation d'un patient âgé de 41 ans ayant présenté une dyspnée et des crachats hémoptoïques. A l'examen physique il n'avait pas d'hypotension orthostatique. Les aires ganglionnaires périphériques étaient libres. La tomodensitométrie thoracique a objectivé un magma d'adénopathies médiastinales réalisant une masse de 45 mm x 60 mm. L'examen anatomopathologique d'une biopsie ganglionnaire guidée par médiastinoscopie a conclut a une amylose médiastinale de type AL. Il n'avait pas d'autres localisations amyloïdes. Un myélome multiple a été éliminé. Le diagnostic d'amylose primitive médiastinale de type AL a été retenu. Le traitement s'est basé sur des cures de Melphalan-prednisone. La chirurgie était évitée vu le risque hémorragique élevé. L’évolution était marquée par l'amélioration de la dyspnée, la disparition de l'hémoptysie et la diminution de la taille de la masse ganglionnaire devenant 25 mm x 20 mm. PMID:26308913

  18. The first trimester human placenta is a site for terminal maturation of primitive erythroid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Handel, Ben; Prashad, Sacha L; Hassanzadeh-Kiabi, Nargess; Huang, Andy; Magnusson, Mattias; Atanassova, Boriana; Chen, Angela; Hamalainen, Eija I; Mikkola, Hanna K A

    2010-10-28

    Embryonic hematopoiesis starts via the generation of primitive red blood cells (RBCs) that satisfy the embryo's immediate oxygen needs. Although primitive RBCs were thought to retain their nuclei, recent studies have shown that primitive RBCs in mice enucleate in the fetal liver. It has been unknown whether human primitive RBCs enucleate, and what hematopoietic site might support this process. Our data indicate that the terminal maturation and enucleation of human primitive RBCs occurs in first trimester placental villi. Extravascular ζ-globin(+) primitive erythroid cells were found in placental villi between 5-7 weeks of development, at which time the frequency of enucleated RBCs was higher in the villous stroma than in circulation. RBC enucleation was further evidenced by the presence of primitive reticulocytes and pyrenocytes (ejected RBC nuclei) in the placenta. Extravascular RBCs were found to associate with placental macrophages, which contained ingested nuclei. Clonogenic macrophage progenitors of fetal origin were present in the chorionic plate of the placenta before the onset of fetoplacental circulation, after which macrophages had migrated to the villi. These findings indicate that placental macrophages may assist the enucleation process of primitive RBCs in placental villi, implying an unexpectedly broad role for the placenta in embryonic hematopoiesis.

  19. Acumulação primitiva:  um processo atuante na sociedade contemporânea Accumulation Primitive: un processus actif dans la societé contemporaine Primitive accumulation: a process active in contemporary society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Lencioni

    2012-03-01

    acumulação primitiva e reprodução do capital na sociedade contemporânea.Dans le contexte d'hégémonie de la reproduction sociale capitaliste, l'accumulation primitive est interprétée soit comme un processus du passé, soit comme un processus qui se fait présent jusqu’aujourd’hui. Notre point de vue est que l'accumulacion primitive historique n'a pas disparu. Au contraire, elle est encore une importante composante de la société contemporaine. En ce cas, les deux processus capitalistes, d'accumulation primitive et de reproduction du capital, coexistent et s’accomplissent de façon contradictoire et dialectique. Le premier processus est attaché à la spoliation et à la production d'un capital nouveau, alors que le second est attaché à l'exploration d’un capital déjà constitué qui, en même temps, fait partie de celui là. La différence entre les deux termes, spoliation et exploration, est examinée dans la première partie du texte, et en considérant la position de Harvey à propos de cette controverse. Dans la deuxième partie on discute l'accumulation primitive qui se manifeste aujourd’hui, comme la fraude, le vol et la violence, tels qu’ils se présentaient lors de la genèse du capitalisme. Bien que le monde ait changé, à cause du progrès technique, et malgré l’existence de lois de protection des droits de l'homme, il y a encore des actions semblables à celles de cette époque là. Ces actions se manifestent vraiment comme expédientes de la production du capital à la façon primitive, à savoir: le vol de terres; la rapine des ressources naturelles y inclus la biopiraterie; l'esclavage pour dette, une forme violente de spoliation où le travailleur libre, par les mécanismes de domination auxquels il est soumis, perd sa liberté. Par conséquent, on propose la thèse suivante : toutes les formes de spoliation sont productrices d'argent et de capital en potentiel et le capital financier, à son tour,  construit particuli

  20. Phase diagram of the restricted primitive model: charge-ordering instability

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    O.V.Patsahan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the phase behaviour of the restricted primitive model (RPM using a microscopic approach based on the method of collective variables with a reference system. Starting from the Hamiltonian of the RPM we derive the functional of the grand partition function given in terms of the two collective variables: the collective variables ρk and ck describing fluctuations of the total number density and charge density, respectively. Within the framework of the Gaussian approximation we found the boundary of stability with respect to fluctuations of the charge density. It is shown that due to the approximated character of the theory the boundary of stability is very sensitive to the particular choice of the long-range part of potential inside the hard core. This point is discussed in more detail.

  1. Construction of a magnetostrictive hysteresis operator using a tripod-like primitive hopfield neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adly, A. A.; Abd-El-Hafiz, S. K.

    2018-05-01

    It is well known that accurate modeling of magnetostrictive hysteresis is crucial to different industrial applications. Although several magnetostrictive models have been developed in the past, the accuracy-efficiency balance has always been crucial. Recently, the possibility of constructing a primitive vector hysteresis operator using a tri-node Hopfield Neural Network (HNN) was demonstrated. Based upon the fact that mechanical stress along a certain direction results in dimensional deformation, this paper introduces a novel extension to the aforementioned recently developed approach. More specifically, a stress-driven evolution of a tri-node HNN hysteresis operator pair is proposed, thus yielding a tripod-like HNN pair having different input offset values. Model identification, sample simulation results and comparison with experimental measurements are given in the paper.

  2. Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumour in Young Adults - A Report of two Rare Cases and Review of Literature

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    Vidhya Lakshmi S

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Primitive Neuro Ectodermal Tumours’ (PNET are highly aggressive embryonal tumours of presumed neural crest origin. They are derived from neoplastic transformation of common progenitor cells in the sub ependymal matrix layer. They are more common in children. They are small round cell tumours affecting the central nervous system (CNS, others being Ewing’s sarcoma, medullobalstoma, lymphomas etc. They are classified based on their immune histochemical characteristics- neuronal, astrocytic, ependymal, retinal photo receptor, undifferentiated. Undifferentiated variety carries better prognosis. GFAP expression is an important prognostic factor. Presence of p53 germ line mutation indicates an increased risk for developing PNET. Spinal PNET are secondary to CSF metastasis from cranium commonly. Primary spinal PNET tumours are rare and extradural location is extremely rare. PNET needs multimodality approach but carries poor prognosis when compared to other CNS tumours.

  3. Nasal delivery of an adenovirus-based vaccine bypasses pre-existing immunity to the vaccine carrier and improves the immune response in mice.

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    Maria A Croyle

    Full Text Available Pre-existing immunity to human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5 is common in the general population. Bypassing pre-existing immunity could maximize Ad5 vaccine efficacy. Vaccination by the intramuscular (I.M., nasal (I.N. or oral (P.O. route with Ad5 expressing Ebola Zaire glycoprotein (Ad5-ZGP fully protected naïve mice against lethal challenge with Ebola. In the presence of pre-existing immunity, only mice vaccinated I.N. survived. The frequency of IFN-gamma+ CD8+ T cells was reduced by 80% and by 15% in animals vaccinated by the I.M. and P.O. routes respectively. Neutralizing antibodies could not be detected in serum from either treatment group. Pre-existing immunity did not compromise the frequency of IFN-gamma+ CD8+ T cells (3.9+/-1% naïve vs. 3.6+/-1% pre-existing immunity, PEI nor anti-Ebola neutralizing antibody (NAB, 40+/-10 reciprocal dilution, both groups. The number of INF-gamma+ CD8+ cells detected in bronchioalveolar lavage fluid (BAL after I.N. immunization was not compromised by pre-existing immunity to Ad5 (146+/-14, naïve vs. 120+/-16 SFC/million MNCs, PEI. However, pre-existing immunity reduced NAB levels in BAL by approximately 25% in this group. To improve the immune response after oral vaccination, the Ad5-based vaccine was PEGylated. Mice given the modified vaccine did not survive challenge and had reduced levels of IFN-gamma+ CD8+ T cells 10 days after administration (0.3+/-0.3% PEG vs. 1.7+/-0.5% unmodified. PEGylation did increase NAB levels 2-fold. These results provide some insight about the degree of T and B cell mediated immunity necessary for protection against Ebola virus and suggest that modification of the virus capsid can influence the type of immune response elicited by an Ad5-based vaccine.

  4. Reasonable classical concepts in human lower limb anatomy from the viewpoint of the primitive persistent sciatic artery and twisting human lower limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Tomokazu; Sasaki, Hiroshi

    2010-11-01

    The main aim of this review is (1) to introduce the two previous studies we published human lower limb anatomy based on the conventional macroscopic anatomical [corrected] criteria with hazardous recognition of this description, (2) to activate the discussion whether the limb homology exists, and (3) to contribute to future study filling the gap between the gross anatomy and embryology. One of the topics we discussed was the human persistent sciatic artery. To date, numerous human cases of persistent sciatic artery have been reported in which the anomalous artery was present in the posterior compartment of the thigh alongside the sciatic nerve. As one of the important criteria for assessing the human primitive sciatic artery, its ventral arterial position with respect to the sciatic nerve is reasonable based on the initial positional relationship between ventral arterial and dorsal nervous systems and comparative anatomical findings. We also discuss ways of considering the topography of muscles of the lower limb and their innervations compared to those of the upper limb. We propose a schema of the complex anatomical characteristics of the lower limb based on the vertebrate body plan. According to this reasonable schema, the twisted anatomy of the lower limb can be understood more easily. These two main ideas discussed in this paper will be useful for further understanding of the anatomy of the lower limb and as a first step for future. We hope that the future study in lower limb will be further developed by both viewpoints of the classical gross anatomy and recent embryology.

  5. SRAM-PUF Based on Selective Power-Up and Non-Destructive Scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Mispan, Mohd; Zwolinski, Mark; Halak, Basel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Research in hardware security, particularly on Physical Unclonable Functions (PUF) has attracted a lot of attention in recent years. PUFs provide primitives for implementing encryption/decryption and device fingerprinting. Though a wide range of solutions exists for PUF-based CMOS devices, the most investigated solutions today for weak PUF implementation are based on the use of random start-up values of SRAM, which offers the advantage of reusing memories that already exist in many ...

  6. Increased levels of NOTCH1, NF-kappaB, and other interconnected transcription factors characterize primitive sets of hematopoietic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panepucci, Rodrigo Alexandre; Oliveira, Lucila Habib B; Zanette, Dalila Luciola; Viu Carrara, Rita de Cassia; Araujo, Amélia Goes; Orellana, Maristela Delgado; Bonini de Palma, Patrícia Vianna; Menezes, Camila C B O; Covas, Dimas Tadeu; Zago, Marco Antonio

    2010-03-01

    As previously shown, higher levels of NOTCH1 and increased NF-kappaB signaling is a distinctive feature of the more primitive umbilical cord blood (UCB) CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), as compared to bone marrow (BM). Differences between BM and UCB cell composition also account for this finding. The CD133 marker defines a more primitive cell subset among CD34+ HSC with a proposed hemangioblast potential. To further evaluate the molecular basis related to the more primitive characteristics of UCB and CD133+ HSC, immunomagnetically purified human CD34+ and CD133+ cells from BM and UCB were used on gene expression microarrays studies. UCB CD34+ cells contained a significantly higher proportion of CD133+ cells than BM (70% and 40%, respectively). Cluster analysis showed that BM CD133+ cells grouped with the UCB cells (CD133+ and CD34+) rather than to BM CD34+ cells. Compared with CD34+ cells, CD133+ had a higher expression of many transcription factors (TFs). Promoter analysis on all these TF genes revealed a significantly higher frequency (than expected by chance) of NF-kappaB-binding sites (BS), including potentially novel NF-kappaB targets such as RUNX1, GATA3, and USF1. Selected transcripts of TF related to primitive hematopoiesis and self-renewal, such as RUNX1, GATA3, USF1, TAL1, HOXA9, HOXB4, NOTCH1, RELB, and NFKB2 were evaluated by real-time PCR and were all significantly positively correlated. Taken together, our data indicate the existence of an interconnected transcriptional network characterized by higher levels of NOTCH1, NF-kappaB, and other important TFs on more primitive HSC sets.

  7. Comparative analysis of the 5S rRNA and its associated proteins reveals unique primitive rather than parasitic features in Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jin-Mei; Sun, Jun; Xin, De-Dong; Wen, Jian-Fan

    2012-01-01

    5S rRNA is a highly conserved ribosomal component. Eukaryotic 5S rRNA and its associated proteins (5S rRNA system) have become very well understood. Giardia lamblia was thought by some researchers to be the most primitive extant eukaryote while others considered it a highly evolved parasite. Previous reports have indicated that some aspects of its 5S rRNA system are simpler than that of common eukaryotes. We here explore whether this is true to its entire system, and whether this simplicity is a primitive or parasitic feature. By collecting and confirming pre-existing data and identifying new data, we obtained almost complete datasets of the system of three isolates of G. lamblia, two other parasitic excavates (Trichomonas vaginalis, Trypanosoma cruzi), and one free-living one (Naegleria gruberi). After comprehensively comparing each aspect of the system among these excavates and also with those of archaea and common eukaryotes, we found all the three Giardia isolates to harbor a same simplified 5S rRNA system, which is not only much simpler than that of common eukaryotes but also the simplest one among those of these excavates, and is surprisingly very similar to that of archaea; we also found among these excavates the system in parasitic species is not necessarily simpler than that in free-living species, conversely, the system of free-living species is even simpler in some respects than those of parasitic ones. The simplicity of Giardia 5S rRNA system should be considered a primitive rather than parasitically-degenerated feature. Therefore, Giardia 5S rRNA system might be a primitive system that is intermediate between that of archaea and the common eukaryotic model system, and it may reflect the evolutionary history of the eukaryotic 5S rRNA system from the archaeal form. Our results also imply G. lamblia might be a primitive eukaryote with secondary parasitically-degenerated features.

  8. Prediction of Intention during Interaction with iCub with Probabilistic Movement Primitives

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    Oriane Dermy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes our open-source software for predicting the intention of a user physically interacting with the humanoid robot iCub. Our goal is to allow the robot to infer the intention of the human partner during collaboration, by predicting the future intended trajectory: this capability is critical to design anticipatory behaviors that are crucial in human–robot collaborative scenarios, such as in co-manipulation, cooperative assembly, or transportation. We propose an approach to endow the iCub with basic capabilities of intention recognition, based on Probabilistic Movement Primitives (ProMPs, a versatile method for representing, generalizing, and reproducing complex motor skills. The robot learns a set of motion primitives from several demonstrations, provided by the human via physical interaction. During training, we model the collaborative scenario using human demonstrations. During the reproduction of the collaborative task, we use the acquired knowledge to recognize the intention of the human partner. Using a few early observations of the state of the robot, we can not only infer the intention of the partner but also complete the movement, even if the user breaks the physical interaction with the robot. We evaluate our approach in simulation and on the real iCub. In simulation, the iCub is driven by the user using the Geomagic Touch haptic device. In the real robot experiment, we directly interact with the iCub by grabbing and manually guiding the robot’s arm. We realize two experiments on the real robot: one with simple reaching trajectories, and one inspired by collaborative object sorting. The software implementing our approach is open source and available on the GitHub platform. In addition, we provide tutorials and videos.

  9. The Central Nervous in system Rhabdoid tumor primitive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manana, G.; Bernachin, J.; Waskoff, S.; Panuncio, A.

    2004-01-01

    Primitive Rhabdoid tumors of the Central Nervous system are entities of very low frequency and since 1942 is the first event observed in a total of 16,000 cases studied in the Laboratory of Neuropathology, Clinical Hospital. Until 2003 were described 118 case in the literature. The case is about the 3 years old child with no previous medical history consulted for 3 months with headaches, repeated vomiting, irritability and non specific abnormal gait. On examination is found a physical waking depression and great hydrocephalus in V I bilateral pair so is submitted to a emergency surgery. RMI CT and MRI performed reveals large frontal tumor that reaches the oval center with cystic and calcifications areas. Three days after is operates for the intraventricular tumor without post operative complications. Receive chemotherapy and the patient died 2 years later. The neuro pathological and ultrastructural study reveals a Rhabdoid malignancy brain tumor of grade IV as well as were analyzed histopathological and ultrastructural aspects of this entity

  10. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of adrenal: Clinical presentation and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deep Dutta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET of adrenal is an extremely rare tumor of neural crest origin. A nonfunctional left adrenal mass (14.6 × 10.5 × 10.0 cm on computed tomography (CT was detected in a 40-year-old lady with abdominal pain, swelling, and left pleural effusion. She underwent left adrenalectomy and left nephrectomy with retroperitoneal resection. Histopathology revealed sheets and nest of oval tumor cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, prominent nucleoli, scanty cytoplasm, brisk mitotic activity, necrosis, lymphovascular invasion, capsular invasion, and extension to the surrounding muscles; staining positive for Mic-2 (CD-99 antigen, vimentin, synaptophysin, and Melan-A. Thoracocentesis, pleural fluid study, and pleural biopsy did not show metastasis. She responded well to vincristine, adriamycin, and cyclophosphamide followed by ifosfamide and etoposide (IE. This is the first report of adrenal peripheral PNET (pPNET from India. This report intends to highlight that pPNET should be suspected in a patient presenting with huge nonfunctional adrenal mass which may be confused with adrenocortical carcinoma.

  11. Multiple Ewing Sarcoma/Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors in the Mediastinum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sung Hwan; Hwang, Jung Hwa; Da Nam, Bo; Kim, Hyun Jo; Kim, Ki-Up; Kim, Dong Won; Choi, In Ho

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumors (ES/PNET) are high-grade malignant neoplasms. These malignancies present very rare tumors of thoracopulmonary area and even rarer in the mediastinum. In our knowledge, ES/PNET presented with multiple mediastinal masses has not been reported previously. We experienced a case of a 42-year-old man presented with gradual onset of left-side pleuritic chest pain. A contrast-enhanced chest computed tomography (CT) scan showed separate 2 large heterogeneously enhancing masses in each anterior and middle mediastinum of the left hemithorax. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) scan revealed high fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in the mediastinal masses. After surgical excision for the mediastinal masses, both of the masses were diagnosed as the ES/PNET group of tumors on the histopathologic examination. The patient refused postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy and came back with local tumor recurrence and distant metastasis on 4-month follow-up after surgical resection. We report this uncommon form of ES/PNET. We are to raise awareness that this rare malignancy should be considered as a differential diagnosis of the malignant mediastinal tumors and which can be manifested as multiple masses in a patient. Understanding this rare entity of extra-skeletal ES/PNET and characteristic imaging findings can help radiologists and clinicians to approach proper diagnosis and better management for this highly malignant tumor. PMID:26886614

  12. Primary Ewing Sarcoma/Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the Stomach

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    Safi Khuri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES/PNET is a tumor of small round cells arising in skeletal tissues. These tumors rarely arise in the stomach. We present a 31-year-old healthy female patient who was admitted to our surgical ward due to upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Upper endoscopy revealed a large ulcerated bleeding mass originating from the lesser curvature. Biopsy revealed tumor cell immunoreactivity positive for CD99, vimentin, and Ki67 (an index of proliferation. These findings were compatible with gastric ES/PNET. The fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis result for the EWSR1 gene rearrangement (11: 22 translocation was positive. The patient refused neoadjuvant treatment and thus underwent an operation during which a mass at the lesser curvature of the stomach was found. The mass was adhering to the pancreatic tail and to the mesentery of the transverse and descending colon. Total gastrectomy, distal pancreatectomy, splenectomy, and left adrenalectomy were done. The patient refused adjuvant treatment. She is free of disease 3 years after surgery.

  13. Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET) of the kidney: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomara, Giorgio; Cappello, Francesco; Cuttano, Maria G; Rappa, Francesca; Morelli, Girolamo; Mancini, Pierantonio; Selli, Cesare

    2004-01-01

    A case of Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET) of the kidney in a 27-year-old woman is presented. Few cases are reported in the literature with a variable, nonspecific presentation and an aggressive behaviour. In our case, a radical nephrectomy with lymphadenectomy was performed and there was no residual or recurrent tumour at 24-month follow-up. The surgical specimens were formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded. The sections were stained with routinary H&E. Immunohistochemistry was performed. The immunohistochemical evaluation revealed a diffuse CD99 positivity in the cytoplasm of the neoplastic cells. Pankeratin, cytokeratin AE1/AE3, vimentin, desmin, S100, cromogranin were negative. The clinical presentation and the macroscopic aspect, together with the histological pattern, the cytological characteristic and the cellular immunophenotype addressed the diagnosis towards primary PNET of kidney. Since sometimes it is difficult to discriminate between PNET and Ewing's tumour, we reviewed the difficulties in differential diagnosis. These tumors have a common precursor but the stage of differentiation in which it is blocked is probably different. This could also explain their different biological behaviour and prognosis

  14. Primitive object love in Melanie Klein's thinking; early theoretical influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likierman, M

    1993-04-01

    Melanie Klein's thinking on early object love is pivotal to her vision of development. Yet within her texts it is often enmeshed in complex formulations that obscure its full significance. A greater clarity in viewing Klein's concept of early object love is achieved through tracing some of its historical origins. The author notes that it was inspired by aspects of Ferenczi's theory, hence its similarities with the concept of 'primary love' formulated by another of Ferenczi's analysands, Michael Balint. Ferenczi's thinking on the subject formed part of a broader network of theoretical developments in the history of psychoanalytic ideas. These are shown to have origins in Freud's fluctuations between a 'passive' and a 'genital' characterisation of infantile sexuality. A dialectical tension between these two possibilities, as maintained in the Freudian texts, was partly embodied in the differing outlooks of Klein's two psychoanalysts, Abraham and Ferenczi. The author suggests that it is a mixture of their approaches that partly shaped Klein's thinking on the earliest experiences of love. After outlining these developments the author analyses the nature of early object love as it emerges from Klein's powerful, if intermittent descriptions in the texts. The analysis also tackles a textual ambiguity in Klein's formulations, showing that she explored two kinds of primitive ideal experience without explicitly differentiating them. Such differentiation is important inasmuch as it highlights negative and positive aspects of Kleinian theory at root.

  15. Linear hypergeneralization of learned dynamics across movement speeds reveals anisotropic, gain-encoding primitives for motor adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, Wilsaan M; Ajayi, Obafunso; Sing, Gary C; Smith, Maurice A

    2011-01-01

    The ability to generalize learned motor actions to new contexts is a key feature of the motor system. For example, the ability to ride a bicycle or swing a racket is often first developed at lower speeds and later applied to faster velocities. A number of previous studies have examined the generalization of motor adaptation across movement directions and found that the learned adaptation decays in a pattern consistent with the existence of motor primitives that display narrow Gaussian tuning. However, few studies have examined the generalization of motor adaptation across movement speeds. Following adaptation to linear velocity-dependent dynamics during point-to-point reaching arm movements at one speed, we tested the ability of subjects to transfer this adaptation to short-duration higher-speed movements aimed at the same target. We found near-perfect linear extrapolation of the trained adaptation with respect to both the magnitude and the time course of the velocity profiles associated with the high-speed movements: a 69% increase in movement speed corresponded to a 74% extrapolation of the trained adaptation. The close match between the increase in movement speed and the corresponding increase in adaptation beyond what was trained indicates linear hypergeneralization. Computational modeling shows that this pattern of linear hypergeneralization across movement speeds is not compatible with previous models of adaptation in which motor primitives display isotropic Gaussian tuning of motor output around their preferred velocities. Instead, we show that this generalization pattern indicates that the primitives involved in the adaptation to viscous dynamics display anisotropic tuning in velocity space and encode the gain between motor output and motion state rather than motor output itself.

  16. Primitive reflexes and cognitive function Reflexos primitivos e função cognitiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Damasceno

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Data on the prevalence of primitive reflexes (PR in adulthood, their pathological significance and relationship to age and cognition are controversial. OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between PR and cognition in 30 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD and 154 control subjects. METHOD: Diagnosis of probable AD was based on DSM-IV, NINCDS-ADRDA, and CAMDEX criteria. Primitive reflexes were quantified from zero (absent to 1 (mild or 2 (markedly present. The Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument - Short Form (CASI-S was used to evaluate registration, temporal orientation, verbal fluency and recall. A drawing test was added. RESULTS: Most frequent PR among demented and controls were suck (77% and 62%, respectively and snout (60% and 27%, followed by glabellar (30% and 19%, paratonia (37% and 5%, and palmomental (23% and 5%. None of controls had more than three PR. Frequency of PR tended to increase with age and cognitive deterioration. Grasp and Babinski responses were found only in dementia patients. Primitive reflexes were not correlated with each other, except snout with suck, and snout with glabellar reflex. CONCLUSION: The finding of grasp and Babinski sign, or the presence of more than three primitive signs, particularly the combination of paratonia, snout, suck, and palmomental reflexes strongly suggests brain dysfunction, especially when these signs are marked and accompanied by deficits in orientation, recall, verbal fluency, and constructional praxis.CONTEXTO: A prevalência e significado patológico dos reflexos primitivos (RP no adulto, bem como sua relação com a idade e a cognição, são questões controversas. OBJETIVO: Estudar a relação entre RP e cognição em 30 pacientes com doença de Alzheimer (DA e 154 sujeitos controles normais. MÉTODO: O diagnóstico de DA baseou-se nos critérios DSM-IV, NINCDS-ADRDA e CAMDEX. Os RP foram quantificados de 0 (ausente a 1 (leve ou 2 (acentuado. CASI

  17. Existence theory in optimal control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olech, C.

    1976-01-01

    This paper treats the existence problem in two main cases. One case is that of linear systems when existence is based on closedness or compactness of the reachable set and the other, non-linear case refers to a situation where for the existence of optimal solutions closedness of the set of admissible solutions is needed. Some results from convex analysis are included in the paper. (author)

  18. Development of a Symptom-Based Patient-Reported Outcome Instrument for Functional Dyspepsia: A Preliminary Conceptual Model and an Evaluation of the Adequacy of Existing Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Fiona; Reasner, David S; Carson, Robyn T; Deal, Linda S; Foley, Catherine; Iovin, Ramon; Lundy, J Jason; Pompilus, Farrah; Shields, Alan L; Silberg, Debra G

    2016-10-01

    The aim was to document, from the perspective of the empirical literature, the primary symptoms of functional dyspepsia (FD), evaluate the extent to which existing questionnaires target those symptoms, and, finally, identify any missing evidence that would impact the questionnaires' use in regulated clinical trials to assess treatment efficacy claims intended for product labeling. A literature review was conducted to identify the primary symptoms of FD and existing symptom-based FD patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments. Following a database search, abstracts were screened and articles were retrieved for review. The primary symptoms of FD were organized into a conceptual model and the PRO instruments were evaluated for conceptual coverage as well as compared against evidentiary requirements presented in the FDA's PRO Guidance for Industry. Fifty-six articles and 16 instruments assessing FD symptoms were reviewed. Concepts listed in the Rome III criteria for FD (n = 7), those assessed by existing FD instruments (n = 34), and symptoms reported by patients in published qualitative research (n = 6) were summarized in the FD conceptual model. Except for vomiting, all of the identified symptoms from the published qualitative research reports were also specified in the Rome III criteria. Only three of the 16 instruments, the Dyspepsia Symptom Severity Index (DSSI), Nepean Dyspepsia Index (NDI), and Short-Form Nepean Dyspepsia Index (SF-NDI), measure all seven FD symptoms defined by the Rome III criteria. Among these three, each utilizes a 2-week recall period and 5-point Likert-type scale, and had evidence of patient involvement in development. Despite their coverage, when these instruments were evaluated in light of regulatory expectations, several issues jeopardized their potential qualification for substantiation of a labeling claim. No existing PRO instruments that measured all seven symptoms adhered to the regulatory principles necessary to support product

  19. Requirements for existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012.......This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012....

  20. Greening Existing Tribal Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidance about improving sustainability in existing tribal casinos and manufactured homes. Many steps can be taken to make existing buildings greener and healthier. They may also reduce utility and medical costs.

  1. Isotopic and chemical variation of organic nanoglobules in primitive meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gregorio, Bradley T.; Stroud, Rhonda M.; Nittler, Larry R.; Alexander, Conel M. O'd.; Bassim, Nabil D.; Cody, George D.; Kilcoyne, A. L. David; Sandford, Scott A.; Milam, Stefanie N.; Nuevo, Michel; Zega, Thomas J.

    2013-05-01

    Organic nanoglobules are microscopic spherical carbon-rich objects present in chondritic meteorites and other astromaterials. We performed a survey of the morphology, organic functional chemistry, and isotopic composition of 184 nanoglobules in insoluble organic matter (IOM) residues from seven primitive carbonaceous chondrites. Hollow and solid nanoglobules occur in each IOM residue, as well as globules with unusual shapes and structures. Most nanoglobules have an organic functional chemistry similar to, but slightly more carboxyl-rich than, the surrounding IOM, while a subset of nanoglobules have a distinct, highly aromatic functionality. The range of nanoglobule N isotopic compositions was similar to that of nonglobular 15N-rich hotspots in each IOM residue, but nanoglobules account for only about one third of the total 15N-rich hotspots in each sample. Furthermore, many nanoglobules in each residue contained no 15N enrichment above that of bulk IOM. No morphological indicators were found to robustly distinguish the highly aromatic nanoglobules from those that have a more IOM-like functional chemistry, or to distinguish 15N-rich nanoglobules from those that are isotopically normal. The relative abundance of aromatic nanoglobules was lower, and nanoglobule diameters were greater, in more altered meteorites, suggesting the creation/modification of IOM-like nanoglobules during parent-body processing. However, 15N-rich nanoglobules, including many with highly aromatic functional chemistry, likely reflect preaccretionary isotopic fractionation in cold molecular cloud or protostellar environments. These data indicate that no single formation mechanism can explain all of the observed characteristics of nanoglobules, and their properties are likely a result of multiple processes occurring in a variety of environments.

  2. MRI diagnosis of supratentorial and intraspinal primitive neuroectodermal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Meili; Cui Shimin; Han Tong; Li Tao; Liu Li; Lei Jing; Qing Jingxi; Yan Xiaoling; Kong Fanming

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the MRI features of supratentorial and intraspinal primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) and improve the diagnostic accuracy. Methods: MRI manifestations of 9 PNET diagnosed via operation and pathological examination were analyzed. There were 6 men and 3 women, and the mean age was 32.6 years. In all 9 cases, conventional plain MR scans were performed, including spin echo (SE), fast spin echo (FSE), and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences. Diffusion weighted images (DWIs) and postcontrast MR images were obtained in 2 and 4 cases, respectively. Results: The 8 cases with supratentorial lesions included fronto-temporal lesion in 2 cases, occipital lesion in 2 cases, fronto-parietal lobe, parietal lobe, frontal lobe lesion in each 1 case, and posterior part of third ventricle in 1 case, and the lesion located in the thoracic spinal canal in 1 case. All the lesions were quite large in volume, and the largest one was 6.0 cm x 6.9 cm x 4.9 cm. Except for the round-like lesion in the posterior part of third ventricle, the other 7 supratentorial lesions were irregular in shape, well demarked, and often with solid consistency and slight peritumoral edema. The lesions demonstrated long T 1 and long or slightly long T 2 signal intensity in 4 cases, mixed signal intensity on T 1 WI, T 2 WI, and FLAIR images in 4 cases. Small cystic degeneration could be seen in 2 cases, hemorrhage in 4 cases, and flow void vessels in 3 cases. 3 cases demonstrated irregular ring-like enhancement and ependymal dissemination. The lesion in the thoracic canal demonstrated as a slightly enhanced soft tissue mass with adjacent bony destruction and muscle infiltration. Conclusion: MR findings of PNET are rather characteristic, but the final diagnosis relies on pathology

  3. Genetic heterogeneity in supratentorial and infratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumours of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inda, M M; Perot, C; Guillaud-Bataille, M; Danglot, G; Rey, J A; Bello, M J; Fan, X; Eberhart, C; Zazpe, I; Portillo, E; Tuñón, T; Martínez-Peñuela, J M; Bernheim, A; Castresana, J S

    2005-12-01

    Medulloblastoma (MB), a kind of infratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET), is the most frequent malignant brain tumour in childhood. In contrast, supratentorial PNET (sPNET) are very infrequent tumours, but they are histologically similar to MB, although they present a worse clinical outcome. We investigated the differences in genetic abnormalities between sPNET and MB. We analysed 20 central PNET (14 MB and six sPNET) by conventional comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) in order to determine whether a different genetic profile for each tumour exists. Isochromosome 17q was detected in four of the 14 MB cases, but not in any sPNET. Gains at 17q and 7 happened more frequently in MB, and those at 1q in sPNET. Losses at chromosome 10 were detected only in MB, while losses at 16p and 19p happened more frequently in sPNET. A new amplification site, on 4q12, was detected in two MB. Central PNET are a heterogeneous group of tumours from the genetic point of view. The present and previous data, together with further results from larger series, might contribute to the establishment of specific treatments for supratentorial and infratentorial PNET.

  4. Effective screening length and quasiuniversality for the restricted primitive model of an electrolyte solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecek, Jirí; Netz, Roland R

    2009-02-21

    Monte Carlo simulations for the restricted primitive model of an electrolyte solution above the critical temperature are performed at a wide range of concentrations and temperatures. Thermodynamic properties such as internal energy, osmotic coefficient, activity coefficient, as well as spatial correlation functions are determined. These observables are used to investigate whether quasiuniversality in terms of an effective screening length exists, similar to the role played by the effective electron mass in solid-state physics. To that end, an effective screening length is extracted from the asymptotic behavior of the Fourier-transformed charge-correlation function and plugged into the Debye-Huckel limiting expressions for various thermodynamic properties. Comparison with numerical results is favorable, suggesting that correlation and other effects not captured on the Debye-Huckel limiting level can be successfully incorporated by a single effective parameter while keeping the functional form of Debye-Huckel expressions. We also compare different methods to determine mean ionic activity coefficient in molecular simulations and check the internal consistency of the numerical data.

  5. The genomes of two key bumblebee species with primitive eusocial organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadd, Ben M.; Barribeau, Seth M.; Bloch, Guy

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The shift from solitary to social behavior is one of the major evolutionary transitions. Primitively eusocial bumblebees are uniquely placed to illuminate the evolution of highly eusocial insect societies. Bumblebees are also invaluable natural and agricultural pollinators, and there ...

  6. Retinoic acid signaling plays a restrictive role in zebrafish primitive myelopoiesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Liang

    Full Text Available Retinoic acid (RA is known to regulate definitive myelopoiesis but its role in vertebrate primitive myelopoiesis remains unclear. Here we report that zebrafish primitive myelopoiesis is restricted by RA in a dose dependent manner mainly before 11 hpf (hours post fertilization when anterior hemangioblasts are initiated to form. RA treatment significantly reduces expressions of anterior hemangioblast markers scl, lmo2, gata2 and etsrp in the rostral end of ALPM (anterior lateral plate mesoderm of the embryos. The result indicates that RA restricts primitive myelopoiesis by suppressing formation of anterior hemangioblasts. Analyses of ALPM formation suggest that the defective primitive myelopoiesis resulting from RA treatment before late gastrulation may be secondary to global loss of cells for ALPM fate whereas the developmental defect resulting from RA treatment during 10-11 hpf should be due to ALPM patterning shift. Overexpressions of scl and lmo2 partially rescue the block of primitive myelopoiesis in the embryos treated with 250 nM RA during 10-11 hpf, suggesting RA acts upstream of scl to control primitive myelopoiesis. However, the RA treatment blocks the increased primitive myelopoiesis caused by overexpressing gata4/6 whereas the abolished primitive myelopoiesis in gata4/5/6 depleted embryos is well rescued by 4-diethylamino-benzaldehyde, a retinal dehydrogenase inhibitor, or partially rescued by knocking down aldh1a2, the major retinal dehydrogenase gene that is responsible for RA synthesis during early development. Consistently, overexpressing gata4/6 inhibits aldh1a2 expression whereas depleting gata4/5/6 increases aldh1a2 expression. The results reveal that RA signaling acts downstream of gata4/5/6 to control primitive myelopoiesis. But, 4-diethylamino-benzaldehyde fails to rescue the defective primitive myelopoiesis in either cloche embryos or lycat morphants. Taken together, our results demonstrate that RA signaling restricts

  7. Une tumeur neuroectodermique primitive périphérique à localisation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les tumeurs neuro-ectodermiques primitives ou sarcome d'Ewing sont classiquement des néoplasmes se développant aux dépends des tissus mous et des os. Les tumeurs neuro-ectodermiques primitives gastriques (pPNETs) sont extrêmement rares. Nous nous proposons, à travers le cas d'un patient, opéré pour une ...

  8. A mutli-technique search for the most primitive CO chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Greenwood, R. C.; Bowden, R.; Gibson, J. M.; Howard, K. T.; Franchi, I. A.

    2018-01-01

    As part of a study to identify the most primitive COs and to look for weakly altered CMs amongst the COs, we have conducted a multi-technique study of 16 Antarctic meteorites that had been classified as primitive COs. For this study, we have determined: (1) the bulk H, C and N abundances and isotopes, (2) bulk O isotopic compositions, (3) bulk modal mineralogies, and (4) for some selected samples the abundances and compositions of their insoluble organic matter (IOM). Two of the 16 meteorites do appear to be CMs - BUC 10943 seems to be a fairly typical CM, while MIL 090073 has probably been heated. Of the COs, DOM 08006 appears to be the most primitive CO identified to date and is quite distinct from the other members of its pairing group. The other COs fall into two groups that are less primitive than DOM 08006 and ALH 77307, the previously most primitive CO. The first group is composed of members of the DOM 08004 pairing group, except DOM 08006. The second group is composed of meteorites belonging to the MIL 03377 and MIL 07099 pairing groups. These two pairing groups should probably be combined. There is a dichotomy in the bulk O isotopes between the primitive (all Antarctic finds) and the more metamorphosed COs (mostly falls). This dichotomy can only partly be explained by the terrestrial weathering experienced by the primitive Antarctic samples. It seems that the more equilibrated samples interacted to a greater extent with 16O-poor material, probably water, than the more primitive meteorites.

  9. TF-finder: A software package for identifying transcription factors involved in biological processes using microarray data and existing knowledge base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Xiaoqi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of transcription factors (TFs involved in a biological process is the first step towards a better understanding of the underlying regulatory mechanisms. However, due to the involvement of a large number of genes and complicated interactions in a gene regulatory network (GRN, identification of the TFs involved in a biology process remains to be very challenging. In reality, the recognition of TFs for a given a biological process can be further complicated by the fact that most eukaryotic genomes encode thousands of TFs, which are organized in gene families of various sizes and in many cases with poor sequence conservation except for small conserved domains. This poses a significant challenge for identification of the exact TFs involved or ranking the importance of a set of TFs to a process of interest. Therefore, new methods for recognizing novel TFs are desperately needed. Although a plethora of methods have been developed to infer regulatory genes using microarray data, it is still rare to find the methods that use existing knowledge base in particular the validated genes known to be involved in a process to bait/guide discovery of novel TFs. Such methods can replace the sometimes-arbitrary process of selection of candidate genes for experimental validation and significantly advance our knowledge and understanding of the regulation of a process. Results We developed an automated software package called TF-finder for recognizing TFs involved in a biological process using microarray data and existing knowledge base. TF-finder contains two components, adaptive sparse canonical correlation analysis (ASCCA and enrichment test, for TF recognition. ASCCA uses positive target genes to bait TFS from gene expression data while enrichment test examines the presence of positive TFs in the outcomes from ASCCA. Using microarray data from salt and water stress experiments, we showed TF-finder is very efficient in recognizing

  10. Large Scale Topographic Maps Generalisation and Visualization Based on New Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Dinar, Ilma; Ključanin, Slobodanka; Poslončec-Petrić, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Integrating spatial data from different sources results in visualization which is the last step in the process of digital basic topographic maps creation. Sources used for visualization are existing real estate cadastre database orthophoto plans and digital terrain models. Analogue cadastre plans were scanned and georeferenced according to existing regulations and used for toponyms. Visualization of topologically inspected geometric primitives was performed based on the ''Collection of cartog...

  11. Spatiotemporal mechanical variation reveals critical role for rho kinase during primitive streak morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkels, Julia; Oh, Jaeho; Xu, Wenwei; Owen, Drew; Sulchek, Todd; Zamir, Evan

    2013-02-01

    Large-scale morphogenetic movements during early embryo development are driven by complex changes in biochemical and biophysical factors. Current models for amniote primitive streak morphogenesis and gastrulation take into account numerous genetic pathways but largely ignore the role of mechanical forces. Here, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to obtain for the first time precise biomechanical properties of the early avian embryo. Our data reveal that the primitive streak is significantly stiffer than neighboring regions of the epiblast, and that it is stiffer than the pre-primitive streak epiblast. To test our hypothesis that these changes in mechanical properties are due to a localized increase of actomyosin contractility, we inhibited actomyosin contractility via the Rho kinase (ROCK) pathway using the small-molecule inhibitor Y-27632. Our results using several different assays show the following: (1) primitive streak formation was blocked; (2) the time-dependent increase in primitive streak stiffness was abolished; and (3) convergence of epiblast cells to the midline was inhibited. Taken together, our data suggest that actomyosin contractility is necessary for primitive streak morphogenesis, and specifically, ROCK plays a critical role. To better understand the underlying mechanisms of this fundamental process, future models should account for the findings presented in this study.

  12. Raft cultivation area extraction from high resolution remote sensing imagery by fusing multi-scale region-line primitive association features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Cui, Qi; Wang, Jie; Ming, Dongping; Lv, Guonian

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we first propose several novel concepts for object-based image analysis, which include line-based shape regularity, line density, and scale-based best feature value (SBV), based on the region-line primitive association framework (RLPAF). We then propose a raft cultivation area (RCA) extraction method for high spatial resolution (HSR) remote sensing imagery based on multi-scale feature fusion and spatial rule induction. The proposed method includes the following steps: (1) Multi-scale region primitives (segments) are obtained by image segmentation method HBC-SEG, and line primitives (straight lines) are obtained by phase-based line detection method. (2) Association relationships between regions and lines are built based on RLPAF, and then multi-scale RLPAF features are extracted and SBVs are selected. (3) Several spatial rules are designed to extract RCAs within sea waters after land and water separation. Experiments show that the proposed method can successfully extract different-shaped RCAs from HR images with good performance.

  13. Deciphering the Glacial-Interglacial Landscape History in Greenland Based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo Inversion of Existing 10Be-26Al Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strunk, Astrid; Knudsen, Mads Faurschou; Larsen, Nicolaj Krog

    the landscape history in previously glaciated terrains may be difficult, however, due to unknown erosion rates and the presence of inherited nuclides. The potential use of cosmogenic nuclides in landscapes with a complex history of exposure and erosion is therefore often quite limited. In this study, we...... investigate the landscape history in eastern and western Greenland by applying a novel Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) inversion approach to the existing 10Be-26Al data from these regions. The new MCMC approach allows us to constrain the most likely landscape history based on comparisons between simulated...... and measured cosmogenic nuclide concentrations. It is a fundamental assumption of the model approach that the exposure history at the site/location can be divided into two distinct regimes: i) interglacial periods characterized by zero shielding due to overlying ice and a uniform interglacial erosion rate...

  14. Accurate identification of RNA editing sites from primitive sequence with deep neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Zhangyi; Liu, Feng; Zhao, Chenghui; Ren, Chao; An, Gaole; Mei, Chuan; Bo, Xiaochen; Shu, Wenjie

    2018-04-16

    RNA editing is a post-transcriptional RNA sequence alteration. Current methods have identified editing sites and facilitated research but require sufficient genomic annotations and prior-knowledge-based filtering steps, resulting in a cumbersome, time-consuming identification process. Moreover, these methods have limited generalizability and applicability in species with insufficient genomic annotations or in conditions of limited prior knowledge. We developed DeepRed, a deep learning-based method that identifies RNA editing from primitive RNA sequences without prior-knowledge-based filtering steps or genomic annotations. DeepRed achieved 98.1% and 97.9% area under the curve (AUC) in training and test sets, respectively. We further validated DeepRed using experimentally verified U87 cell RNA-seq data, achieving 97.9% positive predictive value (PPV). We demonstrated that DeepRed offers better prediction accuracy and computational efficiency than current methods with large-scale, mass RNA-seq data. We used DeepRed to assess the impact of multiple factors on editing identification with RNA-seq data from the Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities and Sequencing Quality Control projects. We explored developmental RNA editing pattern changes during human early embryogenesis and evolutionary patterns in Drosophila species and the primate lineage using DeepRed. Our work illustrates DeepRed's state-of-the-art performance; it may decipher the hidden principles behind RNA editing, making editing detection convenient and effective.

  15. Integration of the Ovation Based Distributed Turbine Control System into the Existing Process Information System and Full Scope Simulator at NPP Krsko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicvaric, D.

    2010-01-01

    Programmable Digital Electro Hydraulic System (PDEH) is Turbine Control System (TCS), built on Emerson OVATION Distributed Control System (DCS) platform and installed by the Westinghouse Electric Company at the Krsko Nuclear Power Plant as the replacement for the DEH Mod II turbine control system. Core of the PDEH system consist of three pairs of redundant controllers (ETS, OA/OPC and ATC/MSR) configured for the Turbine Generator (TG) set protection, control and monitoring functions. Existing serial data link between replaced DEH Mod II and Process Information System (PIS) was removed and replaced with redundant bi-directional Ethernet TCP/IP data link via two Data Link servers in client-server architecture configuration. All hardwired signals and some of the important calculated signals are being transferred from PDEH to PIS. Main purpose of PIS data link is trending utilization at the existing PIS workstations with pre-configured trend groups and centralized data archiving. Most of the PDEH display screens (mimics) were also replicated on the PIS platform, so that TG set monitoring and operation overview can be performed over the PIS network as well as over the Process Computer Network (PCN) with PMSNT-view utility. The simulator is implemented using a stimulated Windows based Ovation platform and a SGI IRIX based Plant Model Computer (PMC) using the L-3 MAPPS simulation software platform. Two PDEH stimulated systems are installed at the Krsko Full Scope Simulator (KFSS), one for foreground and another for background simulation. Stimulated PDEH hardware is essentially identical to that installed in the plant with the exception of hardware redundancy, isolation features and interface with physical plant I/O. The Ovation control logic sheets are executed with virtual controllers hosted on a simulator specific Virtual Controller Host (VCH) Workstation. The data interface between the simulator Ovation system and the PMC is accomplished through the Ethernet

  16. Revitalising Evidence-based Policy for the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030: Lessons from Existing International Science Partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabine, Elizabeth

    2015-04-23

    The convergence of agreements on disaster risk reduction (DRR), development finance, sustainable development and climate change in 2015 presents a unique opportunity for coherence across these inter-related policy areas. At the same time, demand is growing for a more prominent and effective role for science and technology in providing evidence for policy, with the international community recognising that successful disaster risk reduction (DRR) depends on it. Reflecting this ambition, science is included as a core aspect of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, although the ways in which this will be implemented in practice is still unclear. This paper aims to inform the implementation of international science coordination for DRR by examining a number of existing international science partnerships used across other relevant areas of policy to understand best practice, options for coordination and lessons identified. In the field of DRR, the science-policy interface needs to be strengthened in line with the best practice described in this review. An enhanced UNISDR Scientific and Technical Advisory Group will be given the mandate for to enhance the evidence base for DRR and mobilise science and technical work in coordination with a broad range of stakeholders. The structure and function of an enhanced STAG must be as open, as inclusive and as participatory as possible in order to build trust in new and existing institutions at local, national, regional and global levels. The challenge for the international community is to facilitate evidence-based policy making by formally recognising the links between DRR, development finance, sustainable development and climate change in the upcoming post-2015 agreements.

  17. Using existing population-based data sets to measure the American Academy of Pediatrics definition of medical home for all children and children with special health care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethell, Christina D; Read, Debra; Brockwood, Krista

    2004-05-01

    National health goals include ensuring that all children have a medical home. Historically, medical home has been determined by the presence of a usual or primary source of care, such as a pediatrician or a family physician. More recent definitions expand on this simplistic notion of medical home. A definition of medical home set forth by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) includes 7 dimensions and 37 discrete concepts for determining the presence of a medical home for a child. Standardized methods to operationalize these definitions for purposes of national, state, health plan, or medical practice level reporting on the presence of medical homes for children are essential to assessing and improving health care system performance in this area. The objective of this study was to identify methods to measure the presence of medical homes for all children and for children with special health care needs (CSHCN) using existing population-based data sets. Methods were developed for using existing population-based data sets to assess the presence of medical homes, as defined by the AAP, for children with and without special health care needs. Data sets evaluated included the National Survey of Children With Special Health Care Needs, the National Medical Expenditures Panel Survey, the Consumer Assessment of Health Plans Study Child Survey (CAHPS), and the Consumer Assessment of Health Plans Study Child Survey--Children With Chronic Conditions (CAHPS-CCC2.0H). Alternative methods for constructing measures using existing data were compared and results used to inform the design of a new method for use in the upcoming National Survey of Children's Health. Data from CAHPS-CCC2.0H are used to illustrate measurement options and variations in the overall presence of medical homes for children across managed health care plans as well as to evaluate in which areas of the AAP definition of medical home improvements may be most needed for all CSHCN. Existing surveys vary in

  18. Generalized large-scale semigeostrophic approximations for the f-plane primitive equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Marcel; Vasylkevych, Sergiy

    2016-05-01

    We derive a family of balance models for rotating stratified flow in the primitive equation (PE) setting. By construction, the models possess conservation laws for energy and potential vorticity and are formally of the same order of accuracy as Hoskins’ semigeostrophic equations. Our construction is based on choosing a new coordinate frame for the PE variational principle in such a way that the consistently truncated Lagrangian degenerates. We show that the balance relations so obtained are elliptic when the fluid is stably stratified and certain smallness assumptions are satisfied. Moreover, the potential temperature can be recovered from the potential vorticity via inversion of a non-standard Monge-Ampère problem which is subject to the same ellipticity condition. While the present work is entirely formal, we conjecture, based on a careful rewriting of the equations of motion and a straightforward derivative count, that the Cauchy problem for the balance models is well posed subject to conditions on the initial data. Our family of models includes, in particular, the stratified analog of the L 1 balance model of Salmon.

  19. Generalized large-scale semigeostrophic approximations for the f-plane primitive equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, Marcel; Vasylkevych, Sergiy

    2016-01-01

    We derive a family of balance models for rotating stratified flow in the primitive equation (PE) setting. By construction, the models possess conservation laws for energy and potential vorticity and are formally of the same order of accuracy as Hoskins’ semigeostrophic equations. Our construction is based on choosing a new coordinate frame for the PE variational principle in such a way that the consistently truncated Lagrangian degenerates. We show that the balance relations so obtained are elliptic when the fluid is stably stratified and certain smallness assumptions are satisfied. Moreover, the potential temperature can be recovered from the potential vorticity via inversion of a non-standard Monge–Ampère problem which is subject to the same ellipticity condition. While the present work is entirely formal, we conjecture, based on a careful rewriting of the equations of motion and a straightforward derivative count, that the Cauchy problem for the balance models is well posed subject to conditions on the initial data. Our family of models includes, in particular, the stratified analog of the L 1 balance model of Salmon. (paper)

  20. Probable existence of a Gondwana transcontinental rift system in western India: Implications in hydrocarbon exploration in Kutch and Saurashtra offshore: A GIS-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, S.; Tep, Blecy; Pangtey, K. K. S.; Das, K. K.; Mitra, D. S.

    2017-08-01

    The Gondwanaland assembly rifted dominantly during Late Carboniferous-Early Permian forming several intracratonic rift basins. These rifts were subsequently filled with a thick sequence of continental clastic sediments with minor marine intercalations in early phase. In western part of India, these sediments are recorded in enclaves of Bikaner-Nagaur and Jaisalmer basins in Rajasthan. Facies correlatives of these sediments are observed in a number of basins that were earlier thought to be associated with the western part of India. The present work is a GIS based approach to reconnect those basins to their position during rifting and reconstruct the tectono-sedimentary environment at that time range. The study indicates a rift system spanning from Arabian plate in the north and extending to southern part of Africa that passes through Indus basin, western part of India and Madagascar, and existed from Late Carboniferous to Early Jurassic. Extensions related to the opening of Neo-Tethys led to the formation of a number of cross trends in the rift systems that acted as barriers to marine transgressions from the north as well as disrupted the earlier continuous longitudinal drainage systems. The axis of this rift system is envisaged to pass through present day offshore Kutch and Saurashtra and implies a thick deposit of Late Carboniferous to Early Jurassic sediments in these areas. Based on analogy with other basins associated with this rift system, these sediments may be targeted for hydrocarbon exploration.

  1. Flotillins are involved in the polarization of primitive and mature hematopoietic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Rajendran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Migration of mature and immature leukocytes in response to chemokines is not only essential during inflammation and host defense, but also during development of the hematopoietic system. Many molecules implicated in migratory polarity show uniform cellular distribution under non-activated conditions, but acquire a polarized localization upon exposure to migratory cues. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we present evidence that raft-associated endocytic proteins (flotillins are pre-assembled in lymphoid, myeloid and primitive hematopoietic cells and accumulate in the uropod during migration. Furthermore, flotillins display a polarized distribution during immunological synapse formation. Employing the membrane lipid-order sensitive probe Laurdan, we show that flotillin accumulation in the immunological synapse is concomittant with membrane ordering in these regions. CONCLUSIONS: Together with the observation that flotillin polarization does not occur in other polarized cell types such as polarized epithelial cells, our results suggest a specific role for flotillins in hematopoietic cell polarization. Based on our results, we propose that in hematopoietic cells, flotillins provide intrinsic cues that govern segregation of certain microdomain-associated molecules during immune cell polarization.

  2. A genus-level taxonomic review of primitively segmented spiders (Mesothelae, Liphistiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Xin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The spider suborder Mesothelae, containing a single extant family Liphistiidae, represents a species-poor and ancient lineage. These are conspicuous spiders that primitively retain a segmented abdomen and appendage-like spinnerets. While their classification history is nearly devoid of phylogenetic hypotheses, we here revise liphistiid genus level taxonomy based on original sampling throughout their Asian range, and on the evidence from a novel molecular phylogeny. By combining morphological and natural history evidence with phylogenetic relationships in the companion paper, we provide strong support for the monophyly of Liphistiidae, and the two subfamilies Liphistiinae and Heptathelinae. While the former only contains Liphistius Schiödte, 1849, a genus distributed in Indonesia (Sumatra, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, we recognize and diagnose seven heptatheline genera, all but three removed from the synonymy of Heptathela: i Ganthela Xu & Kuntner, gen. n. with the type species G. yundingensis Xu, sp. n. is known from Fujian and Jiangxi, China; ii a rediagnosed Heptathela Kishida, 1923 is confined to the Japanese islands (Kyushu and Okinawa; iii Qiongthela Xu & Kuntner, gen. n. with the type species Q. baishensis Xu, sp. n. is distributed disjunctly in Hainan, China and Vietnam; iv Ryuthela Haupt, 1983 is confined to the Ryukyu archipelago (Japan; v Sinothela Haupt, 2003 inhabits Chinese areas north of Yangtze; vi Songthela Ono, 2000 inhabits southwest China and northern Vietnam; and vii Vinathela Ono, 2000 (Abcathela Ono, 2000, syn. n.; Nanthela Haupt, 2003, syn. n. is known from southeast China and Vietnam.

  3. Differences in exterior conformation between primitive, Half-bred, and Thoroughbred horses: anatomic-breeding approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komosa, M; Frackowiak, H; Purzyc, H; Wojnowska, M; Gramacki, A; Gramacki, J

    2013-04-01

    The study included 249 horses belonging to 3 horse breeds. Konik horses, comprising the first group, is an example of a breed similar to the extinct Tarpan. In our study, these horses were taken to be a primitive anatomical model of the horse body. The other groups comprised the Polish Half-bred horse and Thoroughbred horse. The biometric characteristics of the horses were compared based on 24 indices. The aim of the paper was to find a reduced set of indices that can be used to determine group membership of the horses. To do this, we used statistical methods to find the most important indices that best discriminate breeds from each other. Chi-squared statistics, linear discriminant analysis, logistic regression, and 1-way ANOVA showed that the discrimination among groups of horses is connected with these 5 indices: scapula, smaller trunk (distance between tubercle of humerus and coxal tuber), greater trunk (distance between tubercle of humerus and ischial tuberosity), metacarpus circumference, and hind autopodium-smaller trunk. Thoroughbred and Half-bred horses are clearly different in exterior conformation from Konik horses. The differences between Thoroughbred and Half-bred horses are more subtle. The conformation of Thoroughbreds is jointly determined by relatively small differences in a range of features.

  4. Human primitive meninges in and around the mesencephalic flexure and particularly their topographical relation to cranial nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kwang Ho; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Jose Francisco; Han, Eui Hyeog; Verdugo-López, Samuel; Murakami, Gen; Cho, Baik Hwan

    2010-09-20

    Development of the meninges in and around the plica ventralis encephali has not been well documented. A distinct mesenchymal structure, the so-called plica ventralis encephali, is sandwiched by the fetal mesencephalic flexure. We histologically examined paraffin-embedded sections from 18 human embryos and fetuses at 6-12 weeks of gestation. In the loose tissues of the plica, the first meninx appeared as a narrow membrane along the oculomotor nerve at 7-8 weeks. Subsequently, the plica ventralis evolved into 3 parts: bilateral lateral mesenchymal condensations and a primitive membranous meninx extending between. Notably, the topographical anatomy of the oculomotor, trochlear and trigeminal nerves did not change: the oculomotor nerve ran along the rostral aspect of the membranous meninx, the trigeminal nerve ran along the caudal side of the lateral mesenchymal condensation, and the trochlear nerve remained embedded in the lateral condensation. Up to 9-10 weeks, the lateral mesenchymal condensations became tongue-like folds; i.e., the primitive form of the tentorium cerebelli, while the membranous meninx became the diaphragma sellae. The falx cerebri seemed to develop from the tongue-like folds. Overall, the final tentorium cerebelli corresponded to the regressed plica ventralis, while the parasellar area originated from the base of the plica and other tissues along the ventral aspects of the basisphenoid and basioccipital. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Management options for implementing a basic and applied research program responsive to CS technology base needs. Task VIII. Review existing CS materials R and D programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-02-28

    Possibilities for setting up a basic and applied research program that would be responsive to the Conservation and Solar energy base needs are considered with emphasis on the area of materials research. Several organizational arrangements for the implementation of this basic and applied research program are described and analyzed. The key functions of the system such as resources allocation, and program coordination and management follow from two fundamental characteristics: assignment of lead responsibility (CS and the Office of Energy Research, ER); and nature of the organizational chain-of-command. Three options are categorized in terms of these two characteristics and discussed in detail. The first option retains lead responsibility in ER, with CS personnel exercising sign-off authority and filling the coordination role. Option 2 places lead responsibility with CS program office management, and utilizes the existing chain-of-command, but adds a Basic and Applied Research Division to each program office. Option 3 also places lead responsibility with CS, but within a new Office of Basic and Applied Research, which would include a Research Coordinator to manage interactions with ER, and Research Managers for each CS program area. (MCW)

  6. A case of the persistence of the primitive hypoglossal artery with an enlarged hypoglossal canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomura, Noriaki; Inugami, Atsushi; Uemura, Kazuo; Asakura, Ken

    1987-01-01

    A case of the persistence of the primitive hypoglossal artery is reported, with a roentgenographic demonstration of the enlarged hypoglossal canal. A 63-year-old man was admitted to this hospital as a result of a malfunction of the ventriculo-peritoneal shunt. At the age of 51, the patient had been operated on in this hospital for an aneurysm of the right middle cerebral artery; at that time, the right primitive hypoglossal artery was observed on right carotid angiograms. On the day following admission, bilateral retrograde vertebral angiography was performed and the right persistent primitive hypoglossal artery was recognized again. Stenvers views of the skull demonstrated an enlargement of the hypoglossal canal, with a smooth sclerotic rim. High-resolution computed tomography with a contrast infusion delineated the right primitive hypoglossal artery through the enlarged hypoglossal canal. The diameter of the enlarged right hypoglossal canal and that of the left one were found to be 8 mm and 4 mm respectively on the CT. When an enlargement of the hypoglossal canal with a sclerotic rim is observed, the persistence of the primitive hypoglossal artery should be considered in the differential diagnosis. (author)

  7. Physically Unclonable Cryptographic Primitives by Chemical Vapor Deposition of Layered MoS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Abdullah; Armstrong, Darren; Alharbi, Somayah; Shahrjerdi, Davood

    2017-12-26

    Physically unclonable cryptographic primitives are promising for securing the rapidly growing number of electronic devices. Here, we introduce physically unclonable primitives from layered molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) by leveraging the natural randomness of their island growth during chemical vapor deposition (CVD). We synthesize a MoS 2 monolayer film covered with speckles of multilayer islands, where the growth process is engineered for an optimal speckle density. Using the Clark-Evans test, we confirm that the distribution of islands on the film exhibits complete spatial randomness, hence indicating the growth of multilayer speckles is a spatial Poisson process. Such a property is highly desirable for constructing unpredictable cryptographic primitives. The security primitive is an array of 2048 pixels fabricated from this film. The complex structure of the pixels makes the physical duplication of the array impossible (i.e., physically unclonable). A unique optical response is generated by applying an optical stimulus to the structure. The basis for this unique response is the dependence of the photoemission on the number of MoS 2 layers, which by design is random throughout the film. Using a threshold value for the photoemission, we convert the optical response into binary cryptographic keys. We show that the proper selection of this threshold is crucial for maximizing combination randomness and that the optimal value of the threshold is linked directly to the growth process. This study reveals an opportunity for generating robust and versatile security primitives from layered transition metal dichalcogenides.

  8. Intrapartum synthetic oxytocin reduce the expression of primitive reflexes associated with breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín Gabriel, Miguel A; Olza Fernández, Ibone; Malalana Martínez, Ana M; González Armengod, Carmen; Costarelli, Valeria; Millán Santos, Isabel; Fernández-Cañadas Morillo, Aurora; Pérez Riveiro, Pilar; López Sánchez, Francisco; García Murillo, Lourdes

    2015-05-01

    Several synthetic peptide manipulations during the time surrounding birth can alter the specific neurohormonal status in the newborn brain. This study is aimed at assessing whether intrapartum oxytocin administration has any effect on primitive neonatal reflexes and determining whether such an effect is dose-dependent. A cohort prospective study was conducted at a tertiary hospital. Mother-infant dyads who received intrapartum oxytocin (n=53) were compared with mother-infant dyads who did not receive intrapartum oxytocin (n=45). Primitive neonatal reflexes (endogenous, antigravity, motor, and rhythmic reflexes) were quantified by analyzing videotaped breastfeeding sessions in a biological nurturing position. Two observers blind to the group assignment and the oxytocin dose analyzed the videotapes and assesed the newborn's state of consciousness according to the Brazelton scale. The release of all rhythmic reflexes (p=0.01), the antigravity reflex (p=0.04), and total primitive neonatal reflexes (p=0.02) in the group exposed to oxytocin was lower than in the group not exposed to oxytocin. No correlations were observed between the dose of oxytocin administered and the percentage of primitive neonatal reflexes released (r=0.03; p=0.82). Intrapartum oxytocin administration might inhibit the expression of several primitive neonatal reflexes associated with breastfeeding. This correlation does not seem to be dose-dependent.

  9. Interaction à deux joueurs en informatique quantique : primitives cryptographiques et complexité en requêtes

    OpenAIRE

    Magnin , Loïck

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation studies two different aspects of two-player interaction in the model of quantum communication and quantum computation.First, we study two cryptographic primitives, that are used as basic blocks to construct sophisticated cryptographic protocols between two players, e.g. identification protocols.The first primitive is ``quantum bit commitment''. This primitive cannot be done in an unconditionally secure way. However, security can be obtained by restraining the power of the tw...

  10. Existence of both blue-shifting hydrogen bond and Lewis acid-base interaction in the complexes of carbonyls and thiocarbonyls with carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tien Trung; Nguyen, Phi Hung; Tran, Thanh Hue; Minh, Tho Nguyen

    2011-08-21

    In this study, 16 gas phase complexes of the pairs of XCHZ and CO(2) (X = F, Cl, Br; Z = O, S) have been identified. Interaction energies calculated at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ//MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ level including both BSSE and ZPE corrections range from -5.6 to -10.5 kJ mol(-1) for XCHOCO(2) and from -5.7 to -9.1 kJ mol(-1) for XCHS···CO(2). Substitution of one H atom by one halogen in formaldehyde and thioformaldehyde reduces the interaction energy of XCHZ···CO(2), while a CH(3) substitution increases the interaction energy of both CH(3)CHO···CO(2) and CH(3)CHS···CO(2). NBO and AIM analyses also point out that the strength of Lewis acid-base interactions decreases going from >C1=S3···C6 to >C1=O3C6 and to >C1-X4···C6. This result suggests the higher capacity of solubility of thiocarbonyl compounds in scCO(2), providing an enormous potential application for designing CO(2)-philic materials based on the >C=S functional group in competition with >C=O. The Lewis acid-base interaction of the types >C=S···C, >C-Cl···C and >C-Br···C is demonstrated for the first time. The contribution of the hydrogen bonding interaction to the total interaction energy is larger for XCHS···CO(2) than for XCHO···CO(2). Upon complexation, a contraction of the C1-H2 bond length and a blue shift of its stretching frequency have been observed, as compared to the isolated monomer, indicating the existence of a blue-shifting hydrogen bond in all complexes examined. Calculated results also lend further support for the viewpoint that when acting as proton donor, a C-H bond having a weaker polarization will induce a stronger distance contraction and frequency blue shift upon complexation, and vice versa.

  11. Existing Steel Railway Bridges Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vičan, Josef; Gocál, Jozef; Odrobiňák, Jaroslav; Koteš, Peter

    2016-12-01

    The article describes general principles and basis of evaluation of existing railway bridges based on the concept of load-carrying capacity determination. Compared to the design of a new bridge, the modified reliability level for existing bridges evaluation should be considered due to implementation of the additional data related to bridge condition and behaviour obtained from regular inspections. Based on those data respecting the bridge remaining lifetime, a modification of partial safety factors for actions and materials could be respected in the bridge evaluation process. A great attention is also paid to the specific problems of determination of load-caring capacity of steel railway bridges in service. Recommendation for global analysis and methodology for existing steel bridge superstructure load-carrying capacity determination are described too.

  12. Existing Steel Railway Bridges Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vičan Josef

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes general principles and basis of evaluation of existing railway bridges based on the concept of load-carrying capacity determination. Compared to the design of a new bridge, the modified reliability level for existing bridges evaluation should be considered due to implementation of the additional data related to bridge condition and behaviour obtained from regular inspections. Based on those data respecting the bridge remaining lifetime, a modification of partial safety factors for actions and materials could be respected in the bridge evaluation process. A great attention is also paid to the specific problems of determination of load-caring capacity of steel railway bridges in service. Recommendation for global analysis and methodology for existing steel bridge superstructure load-carrying capacity determination are described too.

  13. Cave men: stone tools, Victorian science, and the 'primitive mind' of deep time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettitt, Paul B; White, Mark J

    2011-03-20

    Palaeoanthropology, the study of the evolution of humanity, arose in the nineteenth century. Excavations in Europe uncovered a series of archaeological sediments which provided proof that the antiquity of human life on Earth was far longer than the biblical six thousand years, and by the 1880s authors had constructed a basic paradigm of what 'primitive' human life was like. Here we examine the development of Victorian palaeoanthropology for what it reveals of the development of notions of cognitive evolution. It seems that Victorian specialists rarely addressed cognitive evolution explicitly, although several assumptions were generally made that arose from preconceptions derived from contemporary 'primitive' peoples. We identify three main phases of development of notions of the primitive mind in the period.

  14. Caspase-9 has a nonapoptotic function in Xenopus embryonic primitive blood formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hong Thi; Fransen, Mathias; Dimitrakopoulou, Dionysia; Van Imschoot, Griet; Willemarck, Nicolas; Vleminckx, Kris

    2017-07-15

    Caspases constitute a family of cysteine proteases centrally involved in programmed cell death, which is an integral part of normal embryonic and fetal development. However, it has become clear that specific caspases also have functions independent of cell death. In order to identify novel apoptotic and nonapoptotic developmental caspase functions, we designed and transgenically integrated novel fluorescent caspase reporter constructs in developing Xenopus embryos and tadpoles. This model organism has an external development, allowing direct and continuous monitoring. These studies uncovered a nonapoptotic role for the initiator caspase-9 in primitive blood formation. Functional experiments further corroborated that caspase-9, but possibly not the executioners caspase-3 and caspase-7, are required for primitive erythropoiesis in the early embryo. These data reveal a novel nonapoptotic function for the initiator caspase-9 and, for the first time, implicate nonapoptotic caspase activity in primitive blood formation. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. A close look at the mammalian blastocyst: epiblast and primitive endoderm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artus, Jérôme; Chazaud, Claire

    2014-09-01

    During early development, the mammalian embryo undergoes a series of profound changes that lead to the formation of two extraembryonic tissues--the trophectoderm and the primitive endoderm. These tissues encapsulate the pluripotent epiblast at the time of implantation. The current model proposes that the formation of these lineages results from two consecutive binary cell fate decisions. The first controls the formation of the trophectoderm and the inner cell mass, and the second controls the formation of the primitive endoderm and the epiblast within the inner cell mass. While early mammalian embryos develop with extensive plasticity, the embryonic pattern prior to implantation is remarkably reproducible. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms driving the cell fate decision between primitive endoderm and epiblast in the mouse embryo and integrate data from recent studies into the current model of the molecular network regulating the segregation between these lineages and their subsequent differentiation.

  16. Existing Regulatory Approaches to Reducing Exposures to Chemical- and Product-Based Risk and Their Applicability to Diet-Related Chronic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Deborah A; Knopman, Debra S

    2018-04-17

    We aimed to identify and categorize the types of policies that have been adopted to protect Americans from harmful exposures that could also be relevant for addressing diet-related chronic diseases. This article examines and categorizes the rationales behind government regulation. Our interest in the historical analysis is to inform judgments about how best to address newly emergent risks involving diet-related chronic disease within existing regulatory and information-based frameworks. We assessed exemplars of regulation with respect to harmful exposures from air, water, and food, as well as regulations that are intended to modify voluntary behaviors. Following the comparative analysis, we explored how exposures that lead to diet-related chronic diseases among the general population fit within models of regulation adopted for other comparable risks. We identified five rationales and five approaches that protect people from harmful exposures. Reasons for regulation include: protection from involuntary exposure to risk, high risk of death or chronic illness, ubiquity of risk, counteraction to limit compulsive behaviors, and promotion of population health. Regulatory approaches include: mandatory limits on use, mandatory limits on exposure, mandatory controls on quality, mandatory labeling, and voluntary guidance. In contrast to the use of mandates, the prevention of diet-related chronic diseases thus far has largely relied on information-only approaches and voluntary adoption of guidelines. There is ample precedent for mandatory regulatory approaches that could address harms related to exposure to unhealthy diets, but several barriers to action would need to be overcome. © 2018 Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. A mutli-technique search for the most primitive CO chondrites

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, C.M.O'D.; Greenwood, R.C.; Bowden, R.; Gibson, J.M.; Howard, K.T.; Franchi, I.A.

    2018-01-01

    As part of a study to identify the most primitive COs and to look for weakly altered CMs amongst the COs, we have conducted a multi-technique study of 16 Antarctic meteorites that had been classified as primitive COs. For this study, we have determined: (1) the bulk H, C and N abundances and isotopes, (2) bulk O isotopic compositions, (3) bulk modal mineralogies, and (4) for some selected samples the abundances and compositions of their insoluble organic matter (IOM). Two of the 16 meteorites...

  18. Primary dorsal spine primitive neuroectodermal tumor in an adult patient: Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyashiva Munjal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary spinal primitive neuroectodermal tumor (psPNET is a rare entity with few cases reported in literature. We report a case of a 50-year-old female who presented to us with paraplegia and was diagnosed with extradural dorsal spine psPNET. The diagnosis was not suspected at presentation or on radiology but was established on histopathological examination. It is important to distinguish it from central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumors and from other spinal tumors since it follows a different clinical course and therapeutic outcome.

  19. A PICKED SAMPLE TO THE FOOTPRINT OF PRIMITIVE INDIVIDUALISM OF RECENT DATE ART: BASQUIAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur TOSUN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Through the culturel history, meaning of art and art object have been queried and these researchs have emerged thesis and antithesis. Fundamentaly, this article aim to comparison interaction and/or conflict with mathematical rationalist art and primitive/heuristical/romantic art. In this context, effects of primitive and experssive art to the nowadays’ art perception are examined to envolve out of Basquiat and neo expressionism. Entailment of expressive art in contemporary art is researched for answers for questions in terms of cultural and genetic heritage of art and instinctive origins of making art object.

  20. Why preeclampsia still exists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelbi, Sonia T; Veitia, Reiner A; Vaiman, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a deadly gestational disease affecting up to 10% of women and specific of the human species. Preeclampsia is clearly multifactorial, but the existence of a genetic basis for this disease is now clearly established by the existence of familial cases, epidemiological studies and known predisposing gene polymorphisms. PE is very common despite the fact that Darwinian pressure should have rapidly eliminated or strongly minimized the frequency of predisposing alleles. Consecutive pregnancies with the same partner decrease the risk and severity of PE. Here, we show that, due to this peculiar feature, preeclampsia predisposing-alleles can be differentially maintained according to the familial structure. Thus, we suggest that an optimal frequency of PE-predisposing alleles in human populations can be achieved as a result of a trade-off between benefits of exogamy, importance for maintaining genetic diversity and increase of the fitness owing to a stable paternal investment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Existence of Projective Planes

    OpenAIRE

    Perrott, Xander

    2016-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the history of finite projective planes and their properties before going on to outline the proof that no projective plane of order 10 exists. The report also investigates the search carried out by MacWilliams, Sloane and Thompson in 1970 [12] and confirms their result by providing independent verification that there is no vector of weight 15 in the code generated by the projective plane of order 10.

  2. Does bioethics exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, L

    2009-12-01

    Bioethicists disagree over methods, theories, decision-making guides, case analyses and public policies. Thirty years ago, the thinking of many scholars coalesced around a principlist approach to bioethics. That mid-level mode of moral reasoning is now one of many approaches to moral deliberation. Significant variation in contemporary approaches to the study of ethical issues related to medicine, biotechnology and health care raises the question of whether bioethics exists as widely shared method, theory, normative framework or mode of moral reasoning.

  3. Local Action Plans for Forest Fire Prevention in Greece: Existing situation and a Proposed Template based on the Collaboration of Academics and Public Policy Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolaou, Dimitrios; Arvanitakis, Spyridon; Papanikolaou, , Ioannis; Lozios, Stylianos; Diakakis, Michalis; Deligiannakis, Georgios; Dimitropoulou, Margarita; Georgiou, Konstantinos

    2013-04-01

    steps of operational planning and the reviewing of precaution, addressing and rehabilitation measures are analyzed. This action plan, risk analysis and maps are of decisive importance not only for prevention and operational planning purposes, but can also prove useful during the crisis and the rehabilitation processes as well. Additionally, we conducted a large questionnaire survey among the municipalities of Greece to assess the existing situation regarding forest fire prevention. Therefore, a network connecting civil protection departments of municipalities was developed, based on an Internet platform, which acted also as a communication tool. Overall, we had feedback either online or offline from 125 municipalities across the country (representing more than one/third of the total municipalities of Greece). 23% of the municipalities have not compiled an action plan yet despite the fact that the 3013/2002 Act of the Greek National Law requires one. Moreover, existing action plans are predominantly catalogues and tables of information regarding authorised personnel and equipment. They lack important information, present no spatial data and display no prevention measures. Indeed, 85% of the municipalities that have action plans do not use risk maps and spatial data, which are of decisive importance for compiling the plans. 74% of the municipalities do not keep a record of forest fires. The jurisdiction area has been modified after the new administrative plan of Kallikratis in 2010 in 74% of the municipalities, however, local action plans were not adapted accordingly in 61% of these. The daily Fire Risk Map of the General Secretariat of Civil Protection has a key role, since 77% of the municipalities take additional measures in case of increased fire risk. According to the civil protection officials, existing action plans suffer from several major problems which emerge due to the fact: that there is no assessment on the fire hazard 67%, there is lack of personnel training

  4. A new and primitive retrobursal planarian from Australian fresh waters (Platyhelminthes, Turbellaria, Tricladida)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ball, Ian R.

    1977-01-01

    A primitive freshwater planarian, Eviella hynesae gen. et sp. nov. is described from Australia. It is characterized by its lack of eyes and pigment, possession of caudally branched oviducts, and fully fused testes. Although a primary bursa is absent, its function being taken over by the modified

  5. Growth and sedimentation of dust grains in the primitive solar nebular

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglia, A.

    1987-01-01

    Formation of the planets in the solar system is envisioned to occur via a gravitational instability in a thin layer of dust located at the midplane of the primitive solar nebula. The break-up of the dust layer gives rise to seed plants (planetesimals) that, through successive collisions, eventually form the present-day planets. This thesis addresses the problem of the formation of the dust layer, beginning with a configuration in which the dust particles are uniformly mixed with the nebula's turbulent gas. To describe the properties of turbulence in the primitive solar nebula, models by Canuto et al. (1987) and by Cabot et al. (1987) are used. The available results concerning calculation of the velocity of particles embedded in a turbulent fluid were found to be unsatisfactory; therefore, a new formalism was developed to express the latter quantity in terms of the properties of the turbulence in the fluid. Following the space-time evolution of the grains, formalism was developed that simulates the simultaneous processes of collisions and sedimentation of the dust grains in the primitive solar nebula. It is concluded that, for the model of the primitive solar nebula considered, the formation of a dust layer at midplane is very unlikely

  6. A direct Primitive Variable Recovery Scheme for hyperbolic conservative equations: The case of relativistic hydrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo-Ortiz, A; Mendoza, S; Olvera, D

    2018-01-01

    In this article we develop a Primitive Variable Recovery Scheme (PVRS) to solve any system of coupled differential conservative equations. This method obtains directly the primitive variables applying the chain rule to the time term of the conservative equations. With this, a traditional finite volume method for the flux is applied in order avoid violation of both, the entropy and "Rankine-Hugoniot" jump conditions. The time evolution is then computed using a forward finite difference scheme. This numerical technique evades the recovery of the primitive vector by solving an algebraic system of equations as it is often used and so, it generalises standard techniques to solve these kind of coupled systems. The article is presented bearing in mind special relativistic hydrodynamic numerical schemes with an added pedagogical view in the appendix section in order to easily comprehend the PVRS. We present the convergence of the method for standard shock-tube problems of special relativistic hydrodynamics and a graphical visualisation of the errors using the fluctuations of the numerical values with respect to exact analytic solutions. The PVRS circumvents the sometimes arduous computation that arises from standard numerical methods techniques, which obtain the desired primitive vector solution through an algebraic polynomial of the charges.

  7. Farey Statistics in Time n^{2/3} and Counting Primitive Lattice Points in Polygons

    OpenAIRE

    Patrascu, Mihai

    2007-01-01

    We present algorithms for computing ranks and order statistics in the Farey sequence, taking time O (n^{2/3}). This improves on the recent algorithms of Pawlewicz [European Symp. Alg. 2007], running in time O (n^{3/4}). We also initiate the study of a more general algorithmic problem: counting primitive lattice points in planar shapes.

  8. Pediatric Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors of the Central Nervous System Differentially Express Granzyme Inhibitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Jeroen F; van Hecke, Wim; Spliet, Wim G M; Villacorta Hidalgo, José; Fisch, Paul; Broekhuizen, Roel; Bovenschen, Niels

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) are malignant primary brain tumors that occur in young infants. Using current standard therapy, up to 80% of the children still dies from recurrent disease. Cellular immunotherapy might be key to improve overall

  9. On the small time asymptotics of 3D stochastic primitive equations

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Zhao; Zhang, Rangrang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we establish a small time large deviation principle for the strong solution of 3D stochastic primitive equations driven by multiplicative noise. Both the small noise and the small, but highly nonlinear, unbounded nonlinear terms should be taken into consideration.

  10. Identification of novel biomarkers in pediatric primitive neuroectodermal tumors and ependymomas by proteome-wide analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bont, Judith M.; den Boer, Monique L.; Kros, Johan M.; Passier, Monique M. C. J.; Reddinglus, Roel E.; Smitt, Peter A. E. Sillevis; Luider, Theo M.; Pieters, Rob

    The aim of this study was to identify aberrantly expressed proteins in pediatric primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) and ependymornas. Tumor tissue of 29 PNET and 12 ependymoma patients was subjected to 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis. Gel analysis resulted in 79 protein spots

  11. the reception of the deuteronomic social law in the primitive church

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the Primitive Church's social and ecclesiological (self-)understanding, this study highlights ... have been written by Moses as well, the Book of Deuteronomy presents itself overall as a .... to reform society reached their limits when they became economically, socially and ..... sins of adultery and prostitution. In light of these ...

  12. Primitive Liquid Water of the Solar System in an Aqueous Altered Carbonaceous Chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiyama, A.; Miyake, A.; Kitayama, A.; Matsuno, J.; Takeuchi, A.; Uesugi, K.; Suzuki, Y.; Nakano, T.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Non-destructive 3D observations of the aqueous altered CM chondrite Sutter's Mill using scanning imaging x-ray microscopy (SIXM) showed that some of calcite and enstatite grains contain two-phase inclusion, which is most probably composed of liquid water and bubbles. This water should be primitive water responsible for aqueous alteration in an asteroid in the early solar system.

  13. Primitivity and weak distributivity in near rings and matrix near rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, S.J.

    1993-08-01

    This paper shows the structure of matrix near ring constructed over a weakly distributive and primative near ring. It is proved that a weakly distributive primitive near ring is a ring and the matrix near rings constructed over it is also a bag. (author). 14 refs

  14. Fermat’s ‘primitive solutions’ and some arithmetic of elliptic curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Top, Jaap

    1993-01-01

    In his work on Diophantine equations of the form y2=ax4+bx3+cx2+dx+e, Fermat introduced the notion of primitive solutions. In this expository note we intend to interpret this notion more geometrically, and explain what it means in terms of the arithmetic of elliptic curves. The specific equation

  15. Preferential uptake of ribose by primitive cells might explain why RNA was favored over its analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Wei, Chenyu

    perme-ation, even though it is non-negligibly populated in aqueous solution. The differences in free energy barrier between ribose and arabinose or xylose are due to stronger, highly cooperative, intramolecular interactions between consecutive exocyclic hydroxyl groups, which are stable in non-polar media, but rare in water. Most recently, we extended calculations of permeations to ribonucleosides and their anomers. We determined that, in contrast to sugars, permeation of membranes to these species is nearly identical. This is because sugars of nucleotides exist in the furanose rather than pyranose form. In this form intermolecular interactions between hydroxyl groups are not nearly as efficient for sterical reasons. Our results contribute to the discussion about autotrophic vs. heterotrophic origins of life. Chemical reactions inside protobiological vesicle required supply of organic material from the environment. What was the inventory of organics that must have been delivered to primitive cells is still being debated. According to the autotrophic hypothesis, ancestors of cells pro-duced complex organic molecules from simple substrates. In contrast, the heterotrophic model implies that protocells were able to utilize complex organics delivered from external sources. A possibility of sufficiently efficient uptake of molecules needed to build biopolymers provides an important argument supporting the heterotrophic hypothesis [3]. Viewed in the context of the "RNA world" hypothesis [4], which states that RNA molecules were the first biological poly-mers and acted as both catalysts of biochemical reactions and information storage systems, our results demonstrate that, in the absence of sophisticated mechanisms available to contemporary organisms for achieving selectivity during synthesis and transmembrane transport, preferential uptake of ribose by primitive cells might have provided a kinetic mechanism that favored its selective incorporation into nucleic acids and

  16. Cohesion between two clay lamellae: From Primitive Model to Full Molecular Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrier, Benoit; Vandamme, Matthieu; Pellenq, Roland; Van Damme, Henri

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The objective of this work is to investigate the range of validity of various models to describe accurately the cohesion between two charged clay lamellae. These models, in order of increasing complexity, are the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory, the primitive model, the explicit solvent primitive model and the full molecular model. We aim at providing a clear picture of which physical mechanisms play a significant role for various interlayer spacings, surface charges and cationic charges. The up-scaling of the mechanical properties starting from the lamellar microstructure of a smectite is usually performed within the framework of the DLVO theory. In this case, the interaction between two charged lamellae with cations between them is the sum of the repulsive double layer electrostatic interaction and of the attractive Van der Waals interaction. However, the Primitive Model shows that concentration fluctuations of counter-ions can generate a strongly attractive ionic correlation force. The Primitive Model is a Monte-Carlo simulation of hydrated counter-ions between two infinite charges surfaces and the water is implicitly modeled by scaling all electrostatic interactions by the dielectric permittivity of bulk water. Nevertheless, for very small inter-layer spacings (1 nm), molecular simulations and experiments show that water is organized in a layered structure and does not behave like bulk water. Therefore, we investigate the role of the solvent in the cohesion of clay lamellae. For this purpose, we use a modified version of the original Primitive Model in which the solvent is modeled by point-dipoles: This model is called the Explicit Solvent Primitive Model. We consider four different systems: A Na + -montmorillonite, a Ca 2+ -montmorillonite, a Na + -vermiculite, a Ca 2+ -vermiculite. The vermiculite layers are twice as charged as the montmorillonite layers. We use a full molecular model as a

  17. From imitation to meaning: circuit plasticity and the acquisition of a primitive semantics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo R Garcia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The capacity for language is arguably the most remarkable innovation of the human brain. A relatively recent interpretation prescribes that part of the language-related circuits were co-opted from circuitry involved in hand control –the mirror neuron system, involved both in the perception and in the execution of voluntary grasping actions. A less radical view is that in early humans, communication was opportunistic and multimodal, using signs, vocalizations or whatever means available to transmit social information. However, one point that is not yet clear under either perspective is how learned communication acquired a semantic property thereby allowing us to name objects and eventually describe our surrounding environment. Here we suggest a scenario involving both manual gestures and learned vocalizations that led to the development of a primitive form of conventionalized reference. This proposal is based on comparative evidence gathered from other species and on neurolinguistic evidence in humans, which points to a crucial role for vocal learning in the early development of language. Firstly, the capacity to direct the attention of others to a common object may have been crucial for developing a consensual referential system. Pointing, which is a ritualized grasping gesture, may have been crucial to this end. Vocalizations also served to generate joint attention among conversants, especially when combined with gaze direction. Another contributing element was the development of pantomimic actions resembling events or animals. In conjunction with this mimicry, the development of plastic neural circuits that support complex, learned vocalizations was probably a significant factor in the evolution of conventionalized semantics in our species. Thus, vocal imitations of sounds, as in onomatopoeias (words whose sound resembles their meaning, are possibly supported by mirror system circuits, and may have been relevant in the acquisition of early

  18. Examination of Multiple Lithologies Within the Primitive Ordinary Chondrite NWA 5717

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cato, M. J.; Simon, J. I.; Ross, D. K.; Morris, R. V.

    2017-01-01

    Northwest Africa 5717 is a primitive (subtype 3.05) ungrouped ordinary chondrite which contains two apparently distinct lithologies. In large cut meteorite slabs, the darker of these, lithology A, looks to host the second, much lighter in color, lithology B (upper left, Fig. 1). The nature of the boundary between the two is uncertain, ranging from abrupt to gradational and not always following particle boundaries. The distinction between the lithologies, beyond the obvious color differences, has been supported by a discrepancy in oxygen isotopes and an incongruity in the magnesium contents of chondrule olivine. Here, quantitative textural analysis and mineralogical methods have been used to investigate the two apparent lithologies within NWA 5717. Olivine grains contained in a thin section from NWA 7402, thought to be paired to 5717, were also measured to re-examine the distinct compositional range among the light and dark areas. Procedure: Particles from a high-resolution mosaic image of a roughly 13x15cm slice of NWA 5717 were traced in Adobe Photoshop. Due to the large size of the sample, visually representative regions of each lithology were chosen to be analyzed. The resulting layers of digitized particles were imported into ImageJ, which was used to measure their area, along with the axes, the angle from horizontal, and the centroid coordinates of ellipses fitted to each particle following the approach. Resulting 2D pixel areas were converted to spherical diameters employing the unfolding algorithm, which outputs a 3D particle size distribution based on digitized 2D size frequency data. Spatstat was used to create kernel density plots of the centroid coordinates for each region. X-ray compositional maps, microprobe analyses, and Mossbauer spectroscopy was conducted on a thin section of NWA 7402, tentatively paired to NWA 5717.

  19. O Ponto G Existe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Molina Noccioli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho busca analisar o tratamento linguístico-discursivo das informações acerca de um tópicotemático tradicionalmente visto como tabu, relacionado a questões sexuais, na notícia O ponto G existe?, publicada em 2008, na revista brasileira Superinteressante, destacando-se como o conhecimento em questão é representado socialmente ao se considerar a linha editorial da revista. A notícia caracteriza-se como um campo fértil para a análise das estratégias divulgativas, já que atrai, inclusive pelas escolhas temáticas, a curiosidade dos leitores. Imbuído de um tema excêntrico, o texto consegue angariar um público jovem interessado em discussões polêmicas relacionadas ao seu universo.

  20. Lebesgue Sets Immeasurable Existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marginean Petrovai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the notion of measure and integral were released early enough in close connection with practical problems of measuring of geometric figures. Notion of measure was outlined in the early 20th century through H. Lebesgue’s research, founder of the modern theory of measure and integral. It was developed concurrently a technique of integration of functions. Gradually it was formed a specific area todaycalled the measure and integral theory. Essential contributions to building this theory was made by a large number of mathematicians: C. Carathodory, J. Radon, O. Nikodym, S. Bochner, J. Pettis, P. Halmos and many others. In the following we present several abstract sets, classes of sets. There exists the sets which are not Lebesgue measurable and the sets which are Lebesgue measurable but are not Borel measurable. Hence B ⊂ L ⊂ P(X.

  1. Cell adhesive affinity does not dictate primitive endoderm segregation and positioning during murine embryoid body formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Robert; Cai, Kathy Q; Escudero, Diogo O; Xu, Xiang-Xi

    2009-09-01

    The classical cell sorting experiments undertaken by Townes and Holtfreter described the intrinsic propensity of dissociated embryonic cells to self-organize and reconcile into their original embryonic germ layers with characteristic histotypic positioning. Steinberg presented the differential adhesion hypothesis to explain these patterning phenomena. Here, we have reappraised these issues by implementing embryoid bodies to model the patterning of epiblast and primitive endoderm layers. We have used combinations of embryonic stem (ES) cells and their derivatives differentiated by retinoic acid treatment to model epiblast and endoderm cells, and wild-type or E-cadherin null cells to represent strongly or weakly adherent cells, respectively. One cell type was fluorescently labeled and reconstituted with another heterotypically to generate chimeric embryoid bodies, and cell sorting was tracked by time-lapse video microscopy and confirmed by immunostaining. When undifferentiated wild-type and E-cadherin null ES cells were mixed, the resulting cell aggregates consisted of a core of wild-type cells surrounded by loosely associated E-cadherin null cells, consistent with the differential adhesion hypothesis. However, when mixed with undifferentiated ES cells, the differentiated primitive endoderm-like cells sorted to the surface to form a primitive endoderm layer irrespective of cell-adhesive strength, contradicting the differential adhesion hypothesis. We propose that the primitive endoderm cells reach the surface by random movement, and subsequently the cells generate an apical/basal polarity that prevents reentry. Thus, the ability to generate epithelial polarity, rather than adhesive affinity, determines the surface positioning of the primitive endoderm cells. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Learned parametrized dynamic movement primitives with shared synergies for controlling robotic and musculoskeletal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmar eRückert

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A salient feature of human motor skill learning is the ability to exploitsimilarities across related tasks.In biological motor control, it has been hypothesized that muscle synergies,coherent activations of groups of muscles, allow for exploiting shared knowledge.Recent studies have shown that a rich set of complex motor skills can be generated bya combination of a small number of muscle synergies.In robotics, dynamic movement primitives are commonlyused for motor skill learning. This machine learning approach implements a stable attractor systemthat facilitates learning and it can be used in high-dimensional continuous spaces. However, it does not allow for reusing shared knowledge, i.e. for each task an individual set of parameters has to be learned.We propose a novel movement primitive representationthat employs parametrized basis functions, which combines the benefits of muscle synergiesand dynamic movement primitives. For each task asuperposition of synergies modulates a stable attractor system.This approach leads to a compact representation of multiple motor skills andat the same time enables efficient learning in high-dimensional continuous systems.The movement representation supports discrete and rhythmic movements andin particular includes the dynamic movement primitive approach as a special case.We demonstrate the feasibility of the movement representation in three multi-task learning simulated scenarios.First, the characteristics of the proposed representation are illustrated in a point-mass task.Second, in complex humanoid walking experiments,multiple walking patterns with different step heights are learned robustly and efficiently.Finally, in a multi-directional reaching task simulated with a musculoskeletal modelof the human arm, we show how the proposed movement primitives can be used tolearn appropriate muscle excitation patterns and to generalize effectively to new reaching skills.

  3. EXIST Perspective for SFXTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubertini, Pietro; Sidoli, L.; Sguera, V.; Bazzano, A.

    2009-12-01

    Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients (SFXTs) are one of the most interesting (and unexpected) results of the INTEGRAL mission. They are a new class of HMXBs displaying short hard X-ray outbursts (duration less tha a day) characterized by fast flares (few hours timescale) and large dinamic range (10E3-10E4). The physical mechanism driving their peculiar behaviour is still unclear and highly debated: some models involve the structure of the supergiant companion donor wind (likely clumpy, in a spherical or non spherical geometry) and the orbital properties (wide separation with eccentric or circular orbit), while others involve the properties of the neutron star compact object and invoke very low magnetic field values (B 1E14 G, magnetars). The picture is still highly unclear from the observational point of view as well: no cyclotron lines have been detected in the spectra, thus the strength of the neutron star magnetic field is unknown. Orbital periods have been measured in only 4 systems, spanning from 3.3 days to 165 days. Even the duty cycle seems to be quite different from source to source. The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST), with its hard X-ray all-sky survey and large improved limiting sensitivity, will allow us to get a clearer picture of SFXTs. A complete census of their number is essential to enlarge the sample. A long term and continuous as possible X-ray monitoring is crucial to -(1) obtain the duty cycle, -(2 )investigate their unknown orbital properties (separation, orbital period, eccentricity),- (3) to completely cover the whole outburst activity, (4)-to search for cyclotron lines in the high energy spectra. EXIST observations will provide crucial informations to test the different models and shed light on the peculiar behaviour of SFXTs.

  4. Health status of the elderly population among four primitive tribes of Orissa, India: a clinico-epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerketta, A S; Bulliyya, G; Babu, B V; Mohapatra, S S S; Nayak, R N

    2009-02-01

    Primitive tribal groups (PTGs) are the most marginalised and vulnerable communities in India. Clinico-epidemiological studies on morbidity patterns among the elderly primitive tribe members are essential to recommend special intervention programmes to improve the health of the elderly in these communities. A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out among the elderly populations of four different PTGs, namely Langia Saora (LS), Paudi Bhuiyan (PB), Kutia Kondh (KK) and Dongria Kondh (DK) living in the forests of Orissa, India. Clinical and anthropometric data were collected using standard methods and haemoglobin was estimated by the cyanomethaemoglobin method. The average number of illnesses per person was 3.0. Common disabilities like vision and hearing impairment and mobility-related problems were found in considerable numbers. Gastrointestinal problems like acid peptic disease were found among 2.6% to 20% of cases. Non-specific fever was marked in 10.2% to 24.2% of individuals. The iodine deficiency disorder, namely goitre, was found among 4.2% to 6.0% of individuals. Diseases of the respiratory tract, like upper and lower respiratory tract infection, asthma, tuberculosis and leprosy, were found in small numbers. The prevalence of hypertension among males and females was 31.8% and 42.2%, respectively. The LS had the highest prevalence of hypertension (63% among men and 68% among women). With regard to anaemia status, severe anaemia was marked in 70% of males and 76.7% of females in the LS, while in other groups the prevalence of severe anaemia ranged from 15% to 33%. Although the prevalence of severe anaemia in other tribal communities is lower than in the LS, mild to moderate anaemia was found to range from 60% to 80%. The present study revealed a high prevalence of physical disabilities with both non-communicable as well as communicable diseases among the elderly primitive tribal members. This warrants the implementation of a special health care

  5. Fuzzy difference and data primitives: a transparent approach for supporting different definitions of forest in the context of REDD+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Comber

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the use of fuzzy difference methods in order to understand the differences between forest classes. The context for this work is provided by REDD+, which seeks to reduce the net emissions of greenhouse gases by rewarding the conservation of forests in developing countries. REDD+ requires that local inventories of forest are undertaken and payments are made on the basis of the amount of forest (and associated carbon storage. At the most basic level this involves classifying land into forest and non-forest. However, the critical issues affecting the uptake, buy-in and ultimately the success of REDD+ are the lack of universally agreed definition of forest to support REDD+ mapping activities, and where such a definition is imposed, the marginalization of local community voices and local landscape conceptualizations. This tension is at the heart of REDD+. This paper addresses these issues by linking methods to quantify changes in fuzzy land cover to the concept of data primitives, which have been previously proposed as a suitable approach to move between land cover classes with different semantics. These are applied to case study that quantifies the difference in areas for two definitions of forest derived from the GLC and FAO definitions of forest. The results show how data primitives allow divergent concepts of forest to be represented and mapped from the same data and how the fuzzy sets approach can be used to quantify the differences and non-intersections of different concepts of forest. Together these methods provide for transparent translations between alternative conceptualizations of forest, allowing for plural notions of forest to be mapped and quantified. In particular, they allow for moving from an object-based notion of forest (and land cover in general to a field-based one, entirely avoiding the need for forest boundaries.

  6. Analysis of energy efficiency retrofit schemes for heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems in existing office buildings based on the modified bin method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhaoxia; Ding, Yan; Geng, Geng; Zhu, Neng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A modified bin method is adopted to propose and optimize the EER schemes. • A case study is presented to demonstrate the analysis procedures of EER schemes. • Pertinent EER schemes for HVAC systems are proposed for the object building. - Abstract: Poor thermal performance of building envelop and low efficiencies of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems can always be found in the existing office buildings with large energy consumption. This paper adopted a modified bin method to propose and optimize the energy efficiency retrofit (EER) schemes. An existing office building in Tianjin was selected as an example to demonstrate the procedures of formulating the design scheme. Pertinent retrofit schemes for HVAC system were proposed after the retrofit of building envelop. With comprehensive consideration of energy efficiency and economic benefits, the recommended scheme that could improve the overall energy efficiency by 71.20% was determined

  7. Evaluation of the Potential for the Production of Lignocellulosic Based Ethanol at Existing Corn Ethanol Facilities: Final Subcontract Report, 2 March 2000 - 30 March 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-07-01

    Subcontract report on opportunities to explore the business potential provided by converting biomass to products such as ethanol. The goals of this study were: (1) To provide the opportunity to explore the business potential provided by converting biomass to products such as ethanol. (2) To take advantage of the grain-processing infrastructure by investigating the co-location of additional biomass conversion facilities at an existing plant site.

  8. Is Marcus Gunn jaw winking a primitive reflex? Rat neuroanatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou-Cheng Liang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate a possible trigeminal proprioceptive-oculomotor neural pathway and explore possible synaptic connections between neurons in this pathway. Attempt to bring a new insight to mechanism of Marcus Gunn syndrome (MGS. METHODS: Anterograde and retrograde tract tracing was applied and combined with immunofluorescent stain in rats. After electrophysiological identifying mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus (Vme neurons, intracellular injection of tracer was performed to trace axon trajectory. RESULTS: Following injections of anterograde tracers into the Vme, labeled terminals were observed ipsilateral in oculomotor and trochlear nuclei (III/IV, as well as in their premotor neurons in interstitial nucleus of Cajal and Darkschewitsch nucleus (INC/DN. Combining with choline acetyltransferase (ChAT immunofluorescent stain, it showed that Vme projecting terminals contact upon ChAT positive III/IV motoneurons under confocal microscope. By retrograde labeling premotor neurons of the III, it showed that Vme neuronal terminals contact with retrogradely labeled pre-oculomotor neurons in the INC/DN. Axons of intracellularly labeled Vme neurons that respond to electric stimuli of the masseter nerve traveled into the ipsilateral III. CONCLUSION: There may exist a trigeminal proprioceptive- oculomotor system neural circuit in the rat, which is probably related to vertical-torsional eye movements. Possible association of this pathway with MGS etiology was discussed.

  9. View Invariant Gesture Recognition using 3D Motion Primitives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Michael Boelstoft; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a method for automatic recognition of human gestures. The method works with 3D image data from a range camera to achieve invariance to viewpoint. The recognition is based solely on motion from characteristic instances of the gestures. These instances are denoted 3D motion...

  10. Existing Sustainable Renovation Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Vanhoutteghem, Lies; Gustavsson, Leif

    The Nordic single-family house renovation market is dominated by a craftsman based approach with individual solutions, traditional warehouses ”do-it-yourself-shops” and some actors marketing single products. To speed up the implementation of sustainable renovation of single-family houses there is......The Nordic single-family house renovation market is dominated by a craftsman based approach with individual solutions, traditional warehouses ”do-it-yourself-shops” and some actors marketing single products. To speed up the implementation of sustainable renovation of single-family houses...

  11. Experimental proof of the existence of a Widom line based on peculiarities of the behavior of hydrogen in nanoporous silicate at -45°C and atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordonskii, G. S.; Gurulev, A. A.

    2017-04-01

    We have experimentally studied the thermal and microwave properties of a nanoporous medium (silica gel) with hydrogen-filled pores. On cooling down to about -45°C at atmospheric pressure, the system exhibited chemical transformations, a first-order phase transition with heat evolution, and a sharp change in the power of microwave radiation at 34 GHz transmitted through a sample. It is concluded that this point on the phase diagram corresponds to a point on the Widom line featuring sharp increase in fluctuations of the entropy and density of supercooled water formed during hydrogen interaction with the surface of pores in silica gel. These results confirm the existence of a second critical point of water, from which the Widom line originates.

  12. Extending Primitive Spatial Data Models to Include Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitsma, F.; Batcheller, J.

    2009-04-01

    Our traditional geospatial data model involves associating some measurable quality, such as temperature, or observable feature, such as a tree, with a point or region in space and time. When capturing data we implicitly subscribe to some kind of conceptualisation. If we can make this explicit in an ontology and associate it with the captured data, we can leverage formal semantics to reason with the concepts represented in our spatial data sets. To do so, we extend our fundamental representation of geospatial data in a data model by including a URI in our basic data model that links it to our ontology defining our conceptualisation, We thus extend Goodchild et al's geo-atom [1] with the addition of a URI: (x, Z, z(x), URI) . This provides us with pixel or feature level knowledge and the ability to create layers of data from a set of pixels or features that might be drawn from a database based on their semantics. Using open source tools, we present a prototype that involves simple reasoning as a proof of concept. References [1] M.F. Goodchild, M. Yuan, and T.J. Cova. Towards a general theory of geographic representation in gis. International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 21(3):239-260, 2007.

  13. New software library of geometrical primitives for modelling of solids used in Monte Carlo detector simulations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    We present our effort for the creation of a new software library of geometrical primitives, which are used for solid modelling in Monte Carlo detector simulations. We plan to replace and unify current geometrical primitive classes in the CERN software projects Geant4 and ROOT with this library. Each solid is represented by a C++ class with methods suited for measuring distances of particles from the surface of a solid and for determination as to whether the particles are located inside, outside or on the surface of the solid. We use numerical tolerance for determining whether the particles are located on the surface. The class methods also contain basic support for visualization. We use dedicated test suites for validation of the shape codes. These include also special performance and numerical value comparison tests for help with analysis of possible candidates of class methods as well as to verify that our new implementation proposals were designed and implemented properly. Currently, bridge classes are u...

  14. Listening to Quackery: Reading John Wesley's Primitive Physic in an Age of Health Care Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Daniel; Schneider, Adam

    2016-11-25

    This article uses a reading of John Wesley's Primitive Physic, or An Easy and Natural Method of Curing Most Diseases (1747) to resist the common rejection-often as "quackery"-of Wesley's treatments for common maladies. We engage Wesley not because he was right but because his approach offers useful moments of pause in light of contemporary medical epistemology. Wesley's recommendations were primarily oriented towards the categories of personal responsibility and capability, but he also sought to empower individuals-especially the poor-with the knowledge to safely and affordably treat maladies of their own. We leverage Primitive Physic to rethink contemporary medical knowledge production, especially as sanctioned by randomized clinical trials and legitimate views of experience and contemporary institutions such as the AMA. Ultimately, we suggest that the medical humanities has a key role to play in mining the discarded and dismissed for what they can tell scholars about medical knowledge.

  15. Western Imperialism Against Primitive Communism. A New Reading of Rosa Luxemburg’s Economic Writings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Löwy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The discussion on Rosa Luxemburg’s theories of imperialism hasmainly focused on the economic argument - the schemes of reproduction, theprocess of circulation, the need for “external” markets, etc. There is howeveranother dimension, at least as important : the struggle of imperialism againstpre-capitalist economies, the ruthless destruction of “natural” and peasant economies,many of them being forms of primitive communism. Luxemburg’sinterest for primitive communist societies is documented by her Introductionto Political Economy and the imperialist war against them is discussed both inthis work and in the last chapters of The Accumulation of Capital. A whollyoriginal approach to the evolution of social formations, running counter tolinear “progressive” views of bourgeois ideology, is outlined in these reflections. Present indigenous struggles e.g. in Latin America, against multinational oil or mining companies, illustrate the topicality of Rosa Luxemburg’s argument in the 21th century.

  16. Clinical and pathological characteristics of primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the cerebral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Jun; Zhou Youxin; Xu Feng; Ye Ming; Zhou Dai; Bao Yaodong; Kang Suya

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the features of the cerebral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) in the clinical manifestation and in the histogenesis, morphology. Methods: Seven cases of cerebral PNET was analyzed with their clinical manifestations, histologic and immunohistochemical results. Results: Five patients of this group were children or young adults. Seven tumors were composed of primitive cells with focal evidence of glial or neuronal differentiation. Five out seven expressed NSE, one out seven expressed Syn, two out seven expressed CD99 and only one case expressed Vimentin, None expressed GFAP and S-100. CT findings were a homogeneous high density or heterogeneous mass. MR findings were high signal intensity both on T1 and T2 images. Conclusion: To diagnose the cerebral PNET depends on pathology and cerebral PNET have poor prognosis

  17. Organic cofactors participated more frequently than transition metals in redox reactions of primitive proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hong-Fang; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Hong-Yu

    2008-08-01

    Protein redox reactions are one of the most basic and important biochemical actions. As amino acids are weak redox mediators, most protein redox functions are undertaken by protein cofactors, which include organic ligands and transition metal ions. Since both kinds of redox cofactors were available in the pre-protein RNA world, it is challenging to explore which one was more involved in redox processes of primitive proteins? In this paper, using an examination of the redox cofactor usage of putative ancient proteins, we infer that organic ligands participated more frequently than transition metals in redox reactions of primitive proteins, at least as protein cofactors. This is further supported by the relative abundance of amino acids in the primordial world. Supplementary material for this article can be found on the BioEssays website. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. John Wesley’s medical guide Primitive Physick from 1747: science, charlatanism or social medicine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Renders

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In 1747, John Wesley, spiritus rector of the Methodist movement, published the first edition of his medical guide Primitive Physic[k]. What was its purpose in a world where the Royal Academy, herbalists, healers / as, exorcists and quacks competed for the attention of the population? What is its legacy and limitation, considering the different interests of contemporary religious movements in Brazil? The article introduces the different groups who promoted or pretended to promote health in 18th century England and compares the contents of the guide Primitive Physic [k] with their proposals and therapeutic strategies. The conclusion is that a significant portion of the guide consists of guidelines of the Royal Academy of Medicine, but that it always favors homemade remedies with ingredients available to humbler classes. In relation to the socalled Spiritual Physick, prayer is mentioned as a complementary measure, but the practice of exorcism is totally ignored.

  19. Dispossessing Urbanization: Urban Marxism in the Face of the Problem of Primitive Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Juskowiak

    2015-01-01

    The article is a complex attempt to present the achievements of the broadly understood urban Marxism in the field of reinterpretation of the classic concept from the cards of Capital – “primitive accumulation”. Drawing on theories of such scholars as David Harvey (“accumulation by dispossession”) or Saskia Sassen (“expulsions”), the author points to the possible ways to operationalize the concept of “dispossessing urbanization”. Inspired by the theorizations of autonomist Marxists (Antonio Ne...

  20. Abundances of presolar silicon carbide grains in primitive meteorites determined by NanoSIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Jemma; Busemann, Henner; Nittler, Larry R.; Alexander, Conel M. O.'D.; Orthous-Daunay, François-Régis; Franchi, Ian A.; Hoppe, Peter

    2014-08-01

    It has been suggested that the matrices of all chondrites are dominated by a common material with Ivuna-like (CI) abundances of volatiles, presolar grains and insoluble organic matter (IOM) (e.g., Alexander, 2005). However, matrix-normalized abundances of presolar silicon carbide (SiC) grains estimated from their noble gas components show significant variations in even the most primitive chondrites (Huss and Lewis, 1995; Huss et al., 2003), in contradiction to there being a common chondrite matrix material. Here we report presolar SiC abundances determined by NanoSIMS raster ion imaging of IOM extracted from primitive members of different meteorite groups. We show that presolar SiC abundance determinations are comparable between NanoSIMS instruments located at three different institutes, between residues prepared by different demineralization techniques, and between microtomed and non-microtomed samples. Our derived SiC abundances in CR chondrites are comparable to those found in the CI chondrites (∼30 ppm) and are much higher than previously determined by noble gas analyses. The revised higher CR SiC abundances are consistent with the CRs being amongst the most primitive chondrites in terms of the isotopic compositions and disordered nature of their organic matter. Similar abundances between CR1, CR2, and CR3 chondrites indicate aqueous alteration on the CR chondrite parent body has not progressively destroyed SiC grains in them. A low SiC abundance for the reduced CV3 RBT 04133 can be explained by parent body thermal metamorphism at an estimated temperature of ∼440 °C. Minor differences between primitive members of other meteorite classes, which did not experience such high temperatures, may be explained by prolonged oxidation at lower temperatures under which SiC grains formed outer layers of SiO2 that were not thermodynamically stable, leading to progressive degassing/destruction of SiC.

  1. Lower Virial Coefficients of Primitive Models of Polar and Associating Fluids.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rouha, M.; Nezbeda, Ivo

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 134, 1-3 (2007) , s. 107-110 Sp. Iss. SI ISSN 0167-7322 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4072303; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1ET400720409 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : primitive models * virial coefficients * metropolis like monte-carlo integration Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.982, year: 2007

  2. Enslaved African Labour in the Americas: from primitive accumulation to manufacture with racial violence

    OpenAIRE

    Higginbottom, Andy

    2018-01-01

    This paper reconceptualises Marx’s value theory in an analysis of the enslavement of African Americans as a part of the capitalist mode of production with its own special characteristics. Synthesising from the literature, I argue that sugar plantation slavery from the sixteenth into the nineteenth century had a duel relation concerning the debate over primitive accumulation vs. capitalism from the start. The plantation did represent an early form of specifically capitalist production, in that...

  3. Primitive myxoid mesenchymal tumor of infancy: a report of a further case with locally aggressive behavior.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mulligan, Linda

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of an 8-month-old child with a primitive myxoid mesenchymal tumor of infancy arising in the thenar eminence. The lesion recurred after conservative excision and was ultimately nonresponsive to chemotherapy, necessitating partial amputation. The patient remains free of disease 5 years after this radical surgery. This is the 1st report of such a tumor since it was initially described by Alaggio and colleagues in 2006. The pathologic differential diagnosis is discussed.

  4. Node Primitives: an open end-user programming platform for social robots

    OpenAIRE

    Coronado, Enrique; Mastrogiovanni, Fulvio; Venture, Gentiane

    2017-01-01

    With the expected adoption of robots able to seamlessly and intuitively interact with people in real-world scenarios, the need arises to provide non-technically-skilled users with easy-to-understand paradigms for customising robot behaviors. In this paper, we present an interaction design robot programming platform for enabling multidisciplinary social robot research and applications. This platform is referred to Node Primitives (NEP) and consists of two main parts. On the one hand, a ZeroMQ ...

  5. Primitive myxoid mesenchymal tumor of infancy: a report of a further case with locally aggressive behavior.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mulligan, Linda

    2012-02-01

    We report a case of an 8-month-old child with a primitive myxoid mesenchymal tumor of infancy arising in the thenar eminence. The lesion recurred after conservative excision and was ultimately nonresponsive to chemotherapy, necessitating partial amputation. The patient remains free of disease 5 years after this radical surgery. This is the 1st report of such a tumor since it was initially described by Alaggio and colleagues in 2006. The pathologic differential diagnosis is discussed.

  6. Canonical Wnt signaling induces a primitive endoderm metastable state in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Feodor D; Yin, Hang; Jones, Andrew; van Ijcken, Wilfred; Grosveld, Frank; Rudnicki, Michael A

    2013-04-01

    Activation of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway synergizes with leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) to maintain pluripotency of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). However, in the absence of LIF, Wnt signaling is unable to maintain ESCs in the undifferentiated state. To investigate the role of canonical Wnt signaling in pluripotency and lineage specification, we expressed Wnt3a in mESCs and characterized them in growth and differentiation. We found that activated canonical Wnt signaling induced the formation of a reversible metastable primitive endoderm state in mESC. Upon subsequent differentiation, Wnt3a-stimulated mESCs gave rise to large quantities of visceral endoderm. Furthermore, we determined that the ability of canonical Wnt signaling to induce a metastable primitive endoderm state was mediated by Tbx3. Our data demonstrates a specific role for canonical Wnt signaling in promoting pluripotency while at the same time priming cells for subsequent differentiation into the primitive endoderm lineage. Copyright © 2013 AlphaMed Press.

  7. Rho kinase activity controls directional cell movements during primitive streak formation in the rabbit embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankova, Viktoria; Tsikolia, Nikoloz; Viebahn, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    During animal gastrulation, the specification of the embryonic axes is accompanied by epithelio-mesenchymal transition (EMT), the first major change in cell shape after fertilization. EMT takes place in disparate topographical arrangements, such as the circular blastopore of amphibians, the straight primitive streak of birds and mammals or in intermediate gastrulation forms of other amniotes such as reptiles. Planar cell movements are prime candidates to arrange specific modes of gastrulation but there is no consensus view on their role in different vertebrate classes. Here, we test the impact of interfering with Rho kinase-mediated cell movements on gastrulation topography in blastocysts of the rabbit, which has a flat embryonic disc typical for most mammals. Time-lapse video microscopy, electron microscopy, gene expression and morphometric analyses of the effect of inhibiting ROCK activity showed - besides normal specification of the organizer region - a dose-dependent disruption of primitive streak formation; this disruption resulted in circular, arc-shaped or intermediate forms, reminiscent of those found in amphibians, fishes and reptiles. Our results reveal a crucial role of ROCK-controlled directional cell movements during rabbit primitive streak formation and highlight the possibility that temporal and spatial modulation of cell movements were instrumental for the evolution of gastrulation forms. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Wnt signaling controls the specification of definitive and primitive hematopoiesis from human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgeon, Christopher M; Ditadi, Andrea; Awong, Geneve; Kennedy, Marion; Keller, Gordon

    2014-06-01

    Efforts to derive hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are complicated by the fact that embryonic hematopoiesis consists of two programs, primitive and definitive, that differ in developmental potential. As only definitive hematopoiesis generates HSCs, understanding how this program develops is essential for being able to produce this cell population in vitro. Here we show that both hematopoietic programs transition through hemogenic endothelial intermediates and develop from KDR(+)CD34(-)CD144(-) progenitors that are distinguished by CD235a expression. Generation of primitive progenitors (KDR(+)CD235a(+)) depends on stage-specific activin-nodal signaling and inhibition of the Wnt-β-catenin pathway, whereas specification of definitive progenitors (KDR(+)CD235a(-)) requires Wnt-β-catenin signaling during this same time frame. Together, these findings establish simple selective differentiation strategies for the generation of primitive or definitive hematopoietic progenitors by Wnt-β-catenin manipulation, and in doing so provide access to enriched populations for future studies on hPSC-derived hematopoietic development.

  9. Development of membrane mechanical function during terminal stages of primitive erythropoiesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Richard E; Huang, Yu-Shan; Arif, Binish J; Bauserman, Richard; Palis, James

    2013-04-01

    During murine embryogenesis, primitive erythroblasts enter the circulation as immature nucleated cells and progressively mature as a semisynchronous cohort, enucleating between E12.5 and E16.5. In this report, we examine the mechanical properties of these cells to determine how their mechanical development differs from that of definitive erythroid cells, which mature extravascularly in protected marrow microenvironments. Primitive erythroid cells acquire normal membrane deformability by E12.5 (i.e., as late stage erythroblasts) and maintain the same level of surface stiffness through E17.5. During this same period, the strength of association between the membrane bilayer and the underlying skeleton increases, as indicated by an approximate doubling of the energy required to separate bilayer from skeleton. At the same time, these cells undergo dramatic changes in surface area and volume, losing 35% of their surface area and 50% of their volume from E14.5 to E17.5. Interestingly, membrane remodeling proceeded regardless of whether the cells completed enucleation. These data suggest that in primitive erythroid cells, unlike their definitive counterparts, the critical maturational processes of membrane remodeling and enucleation are uncoupled. Copyright © 2013 ISEH - Society for Hematology and Stem Cells. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A primitive Late Pliocene cheetah, and evolution of the cheetah lineage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Per; Mazák, Ji H.

    2009-01-01

    The cheetah lineage is a group of large, slender, and long-limbed cats with a distinctive skull and dental morphology, of which only the extant cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) is present today. The lineage is characterized by having abbreviated, tall, and domed crania, and a trenchant dentition with a much reduced, posteriorly placed protocone on the upper carnassial. In this article, we report on a new discovery of a Late Pliocene specimen from China with an estimated age of ≈2.2–2.5 million years, making it one of the oldest specimens known to date. A cladistic analysis confirmed that it is the most primitive cheetah known, and it shares a number of unambiguous derived cranial traits with the Acinonyx lineage, but has more primitive dentition than previously known cheetahs, demonstrating that the many unusual skull and dental characters hitherto considered characteristic of cheetahs evolved in a gradual fashion. Isolated teeth of primitive cheetahs may not be recognizable as such, but can be confused with, for instance, those of leopards or other similar-sized pantherine cats or pumas. The age and morphology of the new specimen supports an Old World origin of the cheetah lineage, not a New World one, as has been suggested. We name the new species Acinonyx kurteni in honor of the late Björn Kurtén. PMID:19114651

  11. Looking for the most ``primitive'' organism(s) on Earth today: the state of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forterre, Patrick

    1995-02-01

    Molecular phylogenetic studies have revealed a tripartite division of the living world into two procaryotic groups, Bacteria and Archaea, and one eucaryotic group, Eucarya. Which group is the most "primitive"? Which groups are sister? The answer to these questions would help to delineate the characters of the last common ancestor to all living beings, as a first step to reconstruct the earliest periods of biological evolution on Earth. The current "Procaryotic dogma" claims that procaryotes are primitive. Since the ancestor of Archaea was most probably a hyperthermophile, and since bacteria too might have originated from hyperthermophiles, the procaryotic dogma has been recently connected to the hot origin of life hypothesis. However, the notion that present-day hyperthermophiles are primitive has been challenged by recent findings, in these unique microorganisms, of very elaborate adaptative devices for life at high temperature. Accordingly, I discuss here alternative hypotheses that challenge the procaryotic dogma, such as the idea of a universal ancestor with molecular features in between those of eucaryotes and procaryotes, or the origin of procaryotes via thermophilic adaptation. Clearly, major evolutionary questions about early cellular evolution on Earth remain to be settled before we can speculate with confidence about which kinds of life might have appeared on other planets.

  12. Primitive neuroectodermal tumour of the kidney with vena caval and atrial tumour thrombus: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ong Poh

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Renal primitive neuroectodermal tumour is an extremely rare malignancy. Case presentation A 21-year-old woman presented with microscopic haematuria, a palpable right loin mass, dyspnoea, dizziness and fatigue. Initial ultrasound scan of the kidneys revealed an 11 cm right renal mass with venous extension into the inferior vena cava. Computed tomography of the thorax and abdomen revealed an extension of the large renal mass into the right renal vein, inferior vena cava and up to the right atrium. A small paracaval lymph node was noted and three small metastatic nodules were identified within the lung parenchyma. The patient underwent a radical nephrectomy and inferior vena caval tumour (level IV thrombectomy with cardiopulmonary bypass and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. Immunohistochemical staining of the specimen showed a highly specific cluster of differentiation (CD 99, thus confirming the diagnosis of a primitive neuroectodermal tumour. Conclusion It is important that a renal primitive neuroectodermal tumour be considered, particularly in young patients with a renal mass and extensive thrombus.

  13. A primitive Late Pliocene cheetah, and evolution of the cheetah lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Per; Mazák, Ji H

    2009-01-13

    The cheetah lineage is a group of large, slender, and long-limbed cats with a distinctive skull and dental morphology, of which only the extant cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) is present today. The lineage is characterized by having abbreviated, tall, and domed crania, and a trenchant dentition with a much reduced, posteriorly placed protocone on the upper carnassial. In this article, we report on a new discovery of a Late Pliocene specimen from China with an estimated age of approximately 2.2-2.5 million years, making it one of the oldest specimens known to date. A cladistic analysis confirmed that it is the most primitive cheetah known, and it shares a number of unambiguous derived cranial traits with the Acinonyx lineage, but has more primitive dentition than previously known cheetahs, demonstrating that the many unusual skull and dental characters hitherto considered characteristic of cheetahs evolved in a gradual fashion. Isolated teeth of primitive cheetahs may not be recognizable as such, but can be confused with, for instance, those of leopards or other similar-sized pantherine cats or pumas. The age and morphology of the new specimen supports an Old World origin of the cheetah lineage, not a New World one, as has been suggested. We name the new species Acinonyx kurteni in honor of the late Björn Kurtén.

  14. Lipofectamine and related cationic lipids strongly improve adenoviral infection efficiency of primitive human hematopoietic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, T; Haddada, H; Vainchenker, W; Louache, F

    1998-11-20

    Adenoviral vectors have the potential to infect a large number of cell types including quiescent cells. Their use in hematopoietic cells is limited by the episomal form of their DNA, leading to transgene loss in the progeny cells. However, the use of this vector may be interesting for short-term in vitro modifications of primitive human hematopoietic cells. Therefore, we have investigated the ability of adenovirus to transduce cord blood CD34+ cells. Several promoters were tested using the lacZ reporter gene. The PGK and CMV promoters induced transgene expression in 18-25% of the cells, whereas the HTLV-I and especially the RSV promoter were almost inactive. To improve infection efficiency, adenovirus was complexed with cationic lipids. Lipofectamine, Cellfectin, and RPR120535b, but not Lipofectin, Lipofectace, or DOTAP, markedly improved transgene expression in CD34+ cells (from 19 to 35%). Lipofectamine strongly enhanced infection efficiency of the poorly infectable primitive CD34+CD38low cells (from 11 to 28%) whereas the more mature CD34+CD38+ cells were only slightly affected (from 24 to 31%). Lipofectamine tripled the infection of CFU-GMs and LTC-ICs derived from the CD34+CD38low cell fraction (from 4 to 12% and from 5 to 16%, respectively) and doubled that of BFU-Es (from 13 to 26%). We conclude that cationic lipids can markedly increase the efficiency of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer into primitive hematopoietic cells.

  15. The language of geometry: Fast comprehension of geometrical primitives and rules in human adults and preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalric, Marie; Wang, Liping; Figueira, Santiago; Sigman, Mariano; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2017-01-01

    During language processing, humans form complex embedded representations from sequential inputs. Here, we ask whether a “geometrical language” with recursive embedding also underlies the human ability to encode sequences of spatial locations. We introduce a novel paradigm in which subjects are exposed to a sequence of spatial locations on an octagon, and are asked to predict future locations. The sequences vary in complexity according to a well-defined language comprising elementary primitives and recursive rules. A detailed analysis of error patterns indicates that primitives of symmetry and rotation are spontaneously detected and used by adults, preschoolers, and adult members of an indigene group in the Amazon, the Munduruku, who have a restricted numerical and geometrical lexicon and limited access to schooling. Furthermore, subjects readily combine these geometrical primitives into hierarchically organized expressions. By evaluating a large set of such combinations, we obtained a first view of the language needed to account for the representation of visuospatial sequences in humans, and conclude that they encode visuospatial sequences by minimizing the complexity of the structured expressions that capture them. PMID:28125595

  16. Site response variation due to the existence of near-field cracks based on strong motion records in the Shi-Wen river valley, southern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chi-Shin; Yu, Teng-To; Peng, Wen-Fei; Yeh, Yeoin-Tein; Lin, Sih-Siao

    2014-10-01

    Site effect analysis has been applied to investigate soil classification, alluvium depth, and fracture detection, although the majority of previous studies have typically focused only on the response of large-scale single structures. In contrast, we investigated the site effect for small-scale cracks using a case study in southern Taiwan to provide a means of monitoring slope stability or foundation integrity in situ using only an accelerometer. We adopted both the reference site and horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio methods. We obtained seismographs associated with the typhoon-related development of a crack set (52 m long, 5 m deep) in a steep slope and compared the resonance frequency between two conditions (with and without cracks). Moreover, we divided the seismic waves into P, S, and coda waves and examined the seismic source effect. Our results demonstrate that frequencies of 14.5-17.5 Hz are most sensitive to these cracks, particularly for the E-W component of the P-waves, which coincides with the crack’s strike. Peak ground acceleration, which is controlled by seismic moment and attenuated distance, is another important factor determining the resonance results. Our results demonstrate that the ratio of temporal seismic waves can be used to detect the existence of nearby subsurface cracks.

  17. Site response variation due to the existence of near-field cracks based on strong motion records in the Shi-Wen river valley, southern Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chi-Shin; Yu, Teng-To; Peng, Wen-Fei; Yeh, Yeoin-Tein; Lin, Sih-Siao

    2014-01-01

    Site effect analysis has been applied to investigate soil classification, alluvium depth, and fracture detection, although the majority of previous studies have typically focused only on the response of large-scale single structures. In contrast, we investigated the site effect for small-scale cracks using a case study in southern Taiwan to provide a means of monitoring slope stability or foundation integrity in situ using only an accelerometer. We adopted both the reference site and horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio methods. We obtained seismographs associated with the typhoon-related development of a crack set (52 m long, 5 m deep) in a steep slope and compared the resonance frequency between two conditions (with and without cracks). Moreover, we divided the seismic waves into P, S, and coda waves and examined the seismic source effect. Our results demonstrate that frequencies of 14.5−17.5 Hz are most sensitive to these cracks, particularly for the E−W component of the P-waves, which coincides with the crack’s strike. Peak ground acceleration, which is controlled by seismic moment and attenuated distance, is another important factor determining the resonance results. Our results demonstrate that the ratio of temporal seismic waves can be used to detect the existence of nearby subsurface cracks. (paper)

  18. Development of a general method for detection and quantification of the P35S promoter based on assessment of existing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuhua; Wang, Yulei; Li, Jun; Li, Wei; Zhang, Li; Li, Yunjing; Li, Xiaofei; Li, Jun; Zhu, Li; Wu, Gang

    2014-01-01

    The Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter (P35S) is a commonly used target for detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). There are currently 24 reported detection methods, targeting different regions of the P35S promoter. Initial assessment revealed that due to the absence of primer binding sites in the P35S sequence, 19 of the 24 reported methods failed to detect P35S in MON88913 cotton, and the other two methods could only be applied to certain GMOs. The rest three reported methods were not suitable for measurement of P35S in some testing events, because SNPs in binding sites of the primer/probe would result in abnormal amplification plots and poor linear regression parameters. In this study, we discovered a conserved region in the P35S sequence through sequencing of P35S promoters from multiple transgenic events, and developed new qualitative and quantitative detection systems targeting this conserved region. The qualitative PCR could detect the P35S promoter in 23 unique GMO events with high specificity and sensitivity. The quantitative method was suitable for measurement of P35S promoter, exhibiting good agreement between the amount of template and Ct values for each testing event. This study provides a general P35S screening method, with greater coverage than existing methods. PMID:25483893

  19. Palliative radiotherapy for hematuria complicating the local evolution of primitive bladder cancers; Radiotherapie palliative pour hematurie compliquant l'evolution locale des cancers primitifs de vessie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saillard, S.M.; Benyoucef, A.; Dubray, B. [Centre Henri-Becquerel, 76 - Rouen (France); Smaali, C.; Albouy, B.; Pfister, C.; Grise, P. [Centre hospitalier universitaire, 76 - Rouen (France)

    2010-10-15

    As a haemostatic irradiation is often proposed to patients suffering from a primitive bladder cancer, the authors report a retrospective mono-centric analysis of the effects of an external bi-dimensional palliative radiotherapy on patients taken into care for relapsing macroscopic hematuria after failure of local urological treatments. The assessment concerns the hematuria persistence, the interval without hematuric relapse, global survival, and transfusion needs. Based on a sample of 21 patients submitted to different irradiation schemes, the authors notice that a simple pelvic irradiation technique results in a fast symptomatic improvement of hematuria among fragile patients. Short communication

  20. Assimilation of Sea Surface Temperature in a doubly, two-way nested primitive equation model of the Ligurian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, A.; Alvera-Azcarate, A.; Rixen, M.; Beckers, J.-M.; Testut, C.-E.; Brankart, J.-M.; Brasseur, P.

    2003-04-01

    The GHER 3D primitive equation model is implemented with three different resolutions: a low resolution model (1/4^o) covering the whole Mediterranean Sea, an intermediate resolution model (1/20^o) of the Liguro-Provençal basin and a high resolution model (1/60^o) simulating the fine mesoscale structures in the Ligurian Sea. Boundary conditions and the averaged fields (feedback) are exchanged between two successive nesting levels. The model of the Ligurian Sea is also coupled with the assimilation package SESAM. It allows to assimilate satellite data and in situ observations using the local adaptative SEEK (Singular Evolutive Extended Kalman) filter. Instead of evolving the error space by the numerically expensive Lyapunov equation, a simplified algebraic equation depending on the misfit between observation and model forecast is used. Starting from the 1st January 1998 the low and intermediate resolution models are spun up for 18 months. The initial conditions for the Ligurian Sea are interpolated from the intermediate resolution model. The three models are then integrated until August 1999. During this period AVHRR Sea Surface Temperature of the Ligurian Sea is assimilated. The results are validated by using CTD and XBT profiles of the SIRENA cruise from the SACLANT Center. The overall objective of this study is pre-operational. It should help to identify limitations and weaknesses of forecasting methods and to suggest improvements of existing operational models.

  1. A classical density functional theory for the asymmetric restricted primitive model of ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongduo; Nordholm, Sture; Woodward, Clifford E.; Forsman, Jan

    2018-05-01

    A new three-parameter (valency, ion size, and charge asymmetry) model, the asymmetric restricted primitive model (ARPM) of ionic liquids, has recently been proposed. Given that ionic liquids generally are composed of monovalent species, the ARPM effectively reduces to a two-parameter model. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations have demonstrated that the ARPM is able to reproduce key properties of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) in bulk and at charged surfaces. The relatively modest complexity of the model raises the possibility, which is explored here, that a classical density functional theory (DFT) could resolve its properties. This is relevant because it might generate great improvements in terms of both numerical efficiency and understanding in the continued research of RTILs and their applications. In this report, a DFT for rod-like molecules is proposed as an approximate theoretical tool for an ARPM fluid. Borrowing data on the ion pair fraction from a single bulk simulation, the ARPM is modelled as a mixture of dissociated ions and connected ion pairs. We have specifically studied an ARPM where the hard-sphere diameter is 5 Å, with the charge located 1 Å from the hard-sphere centre. We focus on fluid structure and electrochemical behaviour of this ARPM fluid, into which a model electrode is immersed. The latter is modelled as a perfect conductor, and surface polarization is handled by the method of image charges. Approximate methods, which were developed in an earlier study, to take image interactions into account, are also incorporated in the DFT. We make direct numerical comparisons between DFT predictions and corresponding simulation data. The DFT theory is implemented both in the normal mean field form with respect to the electrostatic interactions and in a correlated form based on hole formation by both steric repulsions and ion-ion Coulomb interactions. The results clearly show that ion-ion correlations play a very important role in the screening of

  2. The effect of a rotary heat exchanger in room-based ventilation on indoor humidity in existing apartments in temperate climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Kevin Michael; Svendsen, Svend

    2016-01-01

    The investigation constructed and simulated moisture balance equations for single-room ventilation with a non-hygroscopic rotary heat exchanger. Based on literature, the study assumed that all condensed moisture in the exhaust subsequently evaporated into the supply. Simulations evaluated...... the potential for moisture issues and compared results with recuperative heat recovery and whole-dwelling ventilation systems. To assess the sensitivity of results, the simulations used three moisture production schedules to represent possible conditions based on literature. The study also analyzed...... the sensitivity to influential parameters, such as infiltration rate, heat recovery, and indoor temperature. With a typical moisture production schedule, the rotary heat exchanger recovered excessive moisture from kitchens and bathrooms,which provided a mold risk. The rotary heat exchanger was only suitable...

  3. The EXIST Mission Concept Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Gerald J.; Grindlay, J.; Hong, J.

    2008-01-01

    scanning mode, interrupted for several orbits per day by GRB follow-ups, followed by a combined pointing-scanning mission phase for optical/IR spectroscopy and redshifts for the large AGN sample found in the survey as well as GRBs and LSST transients. A Team of university, NASA, and industry investigators will conduct the study to determine the full sensitivity and capabilities of this new configuration for EXIST. It will build on the extensive studies of the prior design for the mission and the HET and will incorporate the optical/IR telescope (hereafter IRT) now fully developed by our ITT partner for the NextView Commercial Remote Sensing mission (early 2008 launch) with a focal plane to be developed at GSFC based in part on JWST/NIRSPEC designs. No new technology is needed for either the IRT or HET instruments. The study will pay close attention to full mission cost and present a design for the Decadal Survey Workshop to ensure this even more capable EXIST mission is once again part of the next Decadal Survey.

  4. Noble Gases in Insoluble Organic Matter in the Very Primitive Meteorites Bells, EET 92042 and GRO 95577

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busemann, H.; Alexander, C. M. O'd.; Nittler, L. R.; Wieler, R.

    2008-03-01

    Noble gas carrier phase Q in several primitive meteorites is not attacked by Pyridine, in contrast to Orgueil, as reported previously. IOM in CR chondrites does not indicate high-temperature alteration in the nebula.

  5. De novo appearance of primitive neuroectodermal tumor in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus and moyamoya disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, D J; Kim, T J; Lee, H J; Lee, K E; Lee, S J; Seo, S R; Yoon, W; Moon, K S; Lee, K W; Lee, S S; Park, Y W

    2010-07-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumor is a rare brain tumor composed of undifferentiated or poorly differentiated neuroepithelial cells with a high malignant potential that usually occurs in children, and which is only occasionally encountered in adults. A 19-year-old female with systemic lupus erythematosus presented with right hemiparesis and a headache of 10 days duration. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a large solid mass with necrotic portions in the left frontoparietal lobe. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor was confirmed by a neuronavigator-guided brain biopsy. This is the first case report of primitive neuroectodermal tumor associated with systemic lupus erythematosus and moyamoya disease. This case demonstrates that brain tumors, such as primitive neuroectodermal tumor, should be included in the differential diagnosis of neurological manifestations in children and adolescent patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

  6. A novel approach to locomotion learning: Actor-Critic architecture using central pattern generators and dynamic motor primitives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cai; Lowe, Robert; Ziemke, Tom

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we propose an architecture of a bio-inspired controller that addresses the problem of learning different locomotion gaits for different robot morphologies. The modeling objective is split into two: baseline motion modeling and dynamics adaptation. Baseline motion modeling aims to achieve fundamental functions of a certain type of locomotion and dynamics adaptation provides a "reshaping" function for adapting the baseline motion to desired motion. Based on this assumption, a three-layer architecture is developed using central pattern generators (CPGs, a bio-inspired locomotor center for the baseline motion) and dynamic motor primitives (DMPs, a model with universal "reshaping" functions). In this article, we use this architecture with the actor-critic algorithms for finding a good "reshaping" function. In order to demonstrate the learning power of the actor-critic based architecture, we tested it on two experiments: (1) learning to crawl on a humanoid and, (2) learning to gallop on a puppy robot. Two types of actor-critic algorithms (policy search and policy gradient) are compared in order to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of different actor-critic based learning algorithms for different morphologies. Finally, based on the analysis of the experimental results, a generic view/architecture for locomotion learning is discussed in the conclusion.

  7. A Novel Approach to Locomotion Learning: Actor-Critic Architecture using Central Pattern Generators and Dynamic Motor Primitives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai eLi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we propose an architecture of a bio-inspired controller that addresses the problem of learning different locomotion gaits for different robot morphologies. The modelling objective is split into two: baseline motion modelling and dynamics adaptation. Baseline motion modelling aims to achieve fundamental functions of a certain type of locomotion and dynamics adaptation provides a ``reshaping function for adapting the baseline motion to desired motion. Based on this assumption, a three-layer architecture is developed using central pattern generators (CPGs, a bio-inspired locomotor center for the the baseline motion and dynamic motor primitives (DMPs, a model with universal ``reshaping functions. In this article, we use this architecture with the actor-critic algorithms for finding a good ``reshaping function. In order to demonstrate the learning power of the actor-critic based architecture, we tested it on two experiments: 1 learning to crawl on a humanoid and, 2 learning to gallop on a puppy robot. Two types of actor-critic algorithms (policy search and policy gradient are compared in order to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of different actor-critic based learning algorithms for different morphologies. Finally, based on the analysis of the experimental results, a generic view/architecture for locomotion learning is discussed in the conclusion.

  8. Efficient and Rapid Derivation of Primitive Neural Stem Cells and Generation of Brain Subtype Neurons From Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Yiping; Shin, Soojung; Jha, Balendu Shekhar; Liu, Qiuyue; Sheng, Jianting; Li, Fuhai; Zhan, Ming; Davis, Janine; Bharti, Kapil; Zeng, Xianmin; Rao, Mahendra; Malik, Nasir; Vemuri, Mohan C.

    2013-01-01

    This study developed a highly efficient serum-free pluripotent stem cell (PSC) neural induction medium that can induce human PSCs into primitive neural stem cells (NSCs) in 7 days, obviating the need for time-consuming, laborious embryoid body generation or rosette picking. This method of primitive NSC derivation sets the stage for the scalable production of clinically relevant neural cells for cell therapy applications in good manufacturing practice conditions.

  9. Avirulence (AVR) Gene-Based Diagnosis Complements Existing Pathogen Surveillance Tools for Effective Deployment of Resistance (R) Genes Against Rice Blast Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selisana, S M; Yanoria, M J; Quime, B; Chaipanya, C; Lu, G; Opulencia, R; Wang, G-L; Mitchell, T; Correll, J; Talbot, N J; Leung, H; Zhou, B

    2017-06-01

    Avirulence (AVR) genes in Magnaporthe oryzae, the fungal pathogen that causes the devastating rice blast disease, have been documented to be major targets subject to mutations to avoid recognition by resistance (R) genes. In this study, an AVR-gene-based diagnosis tool for determining the virulence spectrum of a rice blast pathogen population was developed and validated. A set of 77 single-spore field isolates was subjected to pathotype analysis using differential lines, each containing a single R gene, and classified into 20 virulent pathotypes, except for 4 isolates that lost pathogenicity. In all, 10 differential lines showed low frequency (95%), inferring the effectiveness of R genes present in the respective differential lines. In addition, the haplotypes of seven AVR genes were determined by polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing, if applicable. The calculated frequency of different AVR genes displayed significant variations in the population. AVRPiz-t and AVR-Pii were detected in 100 and 84.9% of the isolates, respectively. Five AVR genes such as AVR-Pik-D (20.5%) and AVR-Pik-E (1.4%), AVRPiz-t (2.7%), AVR-Pita (0%), AVR-Pia (0%), and AVR1-CO39 (0%) displayed low or even zero frequency. The frequency of AVR genes correlated almost perfectly with the resistance frequency of the cognate R genes in differential lines, except for International Rice Research Institute-bred blast-resistant lines IRBLzt-T, IRBLta-K1, and IRBLkp-K60. Both genetic analysis and molecular marker validation revealed an additional R gene, most likely Pi19 or its allele, in these three differential lines. This can explain the spuriously higher resistance frequency of each target R gene based on conventional pathotyping. This study demonstrates that AVR-gene-based diagnosis provides a precise, R-gene-specific, and differential line-free assessment method that can be used for determining the virulence spectrum of a rice blast pathogen population and for predicting the

  10. WE-AB-204-02: Molecular-Imaging Based Assessment of Liver Complications for Yttrium-90 Microsphere Treatments: Can Existing NTCP Models Explain Clinical Outcomes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, M; Choi, E; Chuong, M; Saboury, B; Moeslein, F; D’Souza, W; Guerrero, M [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate weather the current radiobiological models can predict the normal liver complications of radioactive Yttrium-90 ({sup 90}Y) selective-internal-radiation-treatment (SIRT) for metastatic liver lesions based on the post-infusion {sup 90}Y PET images. Methods: A total of 20 patients with metastatic liver tumors treated with SIRT that received a post-infusion {sup 90}Y-PET/CT scan were analyzed in this work. The 3D activity distribution of the PET images was converted into a 3D dose distribution via a kernel convolution process. The physical dose distribution was converted into the equivalent dose (EQ2) delivered at 2 Gy based on the linear-quadratic (LQ) model considering the dose rate effect. The biological endpoint of this work was radiation-induce liver disease (RILD). The NTCPs were calculated with four different repair-times (T1/2-Liver-Repair= 0,0.5,1.0,2.0 hr) and three published NTCP models (Lyman-external-RT, Lyman 90Y-HCC-SIRT, parallel model) were compared to the incidence of RILD of the recruited patients to evaluate their ability of outcome prediction. Results: The mean normal liver physical dose (avg. 51.9 Gy, range 31.9–69.8 Gy) is higher than the suggested liver dose constraint for external beam treatment (∼30 Gy). However, none of the patients in our study developed RILD after the SIRT. The estimated probability of ‘no patient developing RILD’ obtained from the two Lyman models are 46.3% to 48.3% (T1/2-Liver-Repair= 0hr) and <1% for all other repair times. For the parallel model, the estimated probability is 97.3% (0hr), 51.7% (0.5hr), 2.0% (1.0hr) and <1% (2.0hr). Conclusion: Molecular-images providing the distribution of {sup 90}Y enable the dose-volume based dose/outcome analysis for SIRT. Current NTCP models fail to predict RILD complications in our patient population, unless a very short repair-time for the liver is assumed. The discrepancy between the Lyman {sup 90}Y-HCC-SIRT model predicted and the clinically

  11. Do gender-based disparities in authorship also exist in cancer palliative care? A 15-year survey of the cancer palliative care literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Preet Paul; Jatoi, Aminah

    2008-01-01

    Women physicians in the United States publish less than men and advance academically at a slower pace. Do such gender-based disparities also occur in cancer palliative care, a field in which women appear to hold a strong interest? We undertook a detailed survey of the cancer palliative care literature. We selected 5 cancer palliative care journals on the basis of their high impact factors, and we assessed authorship for the years 1990, 1995, 2000, and 2005. We determined gender and highest educational degree for all US first and last authors. A total of 794 authors are the focus of this report. In 2005, 50% of first authors were women, but only 14% were women physicians. Similarly, 39% of senior authors were women during this year, but only 8% were women physicians. Over this 15-year period, no statistically significant trends were detected to indicate an increase in the number of women authors. These findings are sobering. Future efforts might focus on strategies to improve rates of authorship and, ultimately, improve rates of academic promotion for women interested in cancer palliative care.

  12. Identification of Fasciola species based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA reveals the co-existence of intermediate Fasciola and Fasciola gigantica in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannasan, Anchalee; Khositharattanakool, Pathamet; Chaiwong, Prasong; Piangjai, Somsak; Uparanukraw, Pichart; Morakote, Nimit

    2014-11-01

    Molecular techniques were used to identify Fasciola species collected from Chiang Mai Thailand. Morphometrically, 65 stained and 45 fresh worms collected from cattle suggested the possible occurrence of both F. gigantica and F. hepatica. Twenty-two worms comprising 15 from cattle and 7 from human patients, were identified subsequently based on three genetic markers: mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1), mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2). All of them presented the F. gigantica type in maternally inherited mitochondrial sequences (nad1 and cox1), with six types in each sequence (FgNDI-CM1 to FgNDI-CM6 and FgCOI-CM1 to FgCOI-CM6, respectively). Remarkably, the predominant nad1 type, FgNDI-CM6, was identical to that of aspermic Fasciola sp. formerly reported from Thailand, Japan, Korea, China, Vietnam, and Myanmar. ITS2 sequences were analyzed successfully in 20 worms. Fifteen worms showed the F. gigantica type and five (including one worm from a patient) had mixed ITS2 sequences of both F. gigantica and F. hepatica in the same worms, with additional heterogeneity within both ITS2 types. This study revealed the intermediate form of Fasciola coexisting with F. gigantica for the first time in Thailand.

  13. Using an Analysis of Behavior Change to Inform Effective Digital Intervention Design: How Did the PRIMIT Website Change Hand Hygiene Behavior Across 8993 Users?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, B; Steele, M; Stuart, B; Joseph, J; Miller, S; Morrison, L; Little, P; Yardley, L

    2017-06-01

    In designing digital interventions for healthcare, it is important to understand not just whether interventions work but also how and for whom-including whether individual intervention components have different effects, whether a certain usage threshold is required to change behavior in each intervention and whether usage differs across population subgroups. We investigated these questions using data from a large trial of the digital PRimary care trial of a website based Infection control intervention to Modify Influenza-like illness and respiratory tract infection Transmission) (PRIMIT) intervention, which aimed to reduce respiratory tract infections (RTIs) by increasing hand hygiene behavior. Baseline and follow-up questionnaires measured behaviors, intentions and attitudes in hand hygiene. In conjunction with objective measures of usage of the four PRIMIT sessions, we analysed these observational data to examine mechanisms of behavior change in 8993 intervention users. We found that the PRIMIT intervention changed behavior, intentions and attitudes, and this change was associated with reduced RTIs. The largest hand hygiene change occurred after the first session, with incrementally smaller changes after each subsequent session, suggesting that engagement with the core behavior change techniques included in the first session was necessary and sufficient for behavior change. The intervention was equally effective for men and women, older and younger people and was particularly effective for those with lower levels of education. Our well-powered analysis has implications for intervention development. We were able to determine a 'minimum threshold' of intervention engagement that is required for hand hygiene change, and we discuss the potential implications this (and other analyses of this type) may have for further intervention development. We also discuss the application of similar analyses to other interventions.

  14. Straightening: existence, uniqueness and stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destrade, M.; Ogden, R. W.; Sgura, I.; Vergori, L.

    2014-01-01

    One of the least studied universal deformations of incompressible nonlinear elasticity, namely the straightening of a sector of a circular cylinder into a rectangular block, is revisited here and, in particular, issues of existence and stability are addressed. Particular attention is paid to the system of forces required to sustain the large static deformation, including by the application of end couples. The influence of geometric parameters and constitutive models on the appearance of wrinkles on the compressed face of the block is also studied. Different numerical methods for solving the incremental stability problem are compared and it is found that the impedance matrix method, based on the resolution of a matrix Riccati differential equation, is the more precise. PMID:24711723

  15. A compact representation of drawing movements with sequences of parabolic primitives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Polyakov

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Some studies suggest that complex arm movements in humans and monkeys may optimize several objective functions, while others claim that arm movements satisfy geometric constraints and are composed of elementary components. However, the ability to unify different constraints has remained an open question. The criterion for a maximally smooth (minimizing jerk motion is satisfied for parabolic trajectories having constant equi-affine speed, which thus comply with the geometric constraint known as the two-thirds power law. Here we empirically test the hypothesis that parabolic segments provide a compact representation of spontaneous drawing movements. Monkey scribblings performed during a period of practice were recorded. Practiced hand paths could be approximated well by relatively long parabolic segments. Following practice, the orientations and spatial locations of the fitted parabolic segments could be drawn from only 2-4 clusters, and there was less discrepancy between the fitted parabolic segments and the executed paths. This enabled us to show that well-practiced spontaneous scribbling movements can be represented as sequences ("words" of a small number of elementary parabolic primitives ("letters". A movement primitive can be defined as a movement entity that cannot be intentionally stopped before its completion. We found that in a well-trained monkey a movement was usually decelerated after receiving a reward, but it stopped only after the completion of a sequence composed of several parabolic segments. Piece-wise parabolic segments can be generated by applying affine geometric transformations to a single parabolic template. Thus, complex movements might be constructed by applying sequences of suitable geometric transformations to a few templates. Our findings therefore suggest that the motor system aims at achieving more parsimonious internal representations through practice, that parabolas serve as geometric primitives and that non

  16. A musculoskeletal model of human locomotion driven by a low dimensional set of impulsive excitation primitives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Massimo; Gizzi, Leonardo; Lloyd, David G; Farina, Dario

    2013-01-01

    Human locomotion has been described as being generated by an impulsive (burst-like) excitation of groups of musculotendon units, with timing dependent on the biomechanical goal of the task. Despite this view being supported by many experimental observations on specific locomotion tasks, it is still unknown if the same impulsive controller (i.e., a low-dimensional set of time-delayed excitastion primitives) can be used as input drive for large musculoskeletal models across different human locomotion tasks. For this purpose, we extracted, with non-negative matrix factorization, five non-negative factors from a large sample of muscle electromyograms in two healthy subjects during four motor tasks. These included walking, running, sidestepping, and crossover cutting maneuvers. The extracted non-negative factors were then averaged and parameterized to obtain task-generic Gaussian-shaped impulsive excitation curves or primitives. These were used to drive a subject-specific musculoskeletal model of the human lower extremity. Results showed that the same set of five impulsive excitation primitives could be used to predict the dynamics of 34 musculotendon units and the resulting hip, knee and ankle joint moments (i.e., NRMSE = 0.18 ± 0.08, and R (2) = 0.73 ± 0.22 across all tasks and subjects) without substantial loss of accuracy with respect to using experimental electromyograms (i.e., NRMSE = 0.16 ± 0.07, and R (2) = 0.78 ± 0.18 across all tasks and subjects). Results support the hypothesis that biomechanically different motor tasks might share similar neuromuscular control strategies. This might have implications in neurorehabilitation technologies such as human-machine interfaces for the torque-driven, proportional control of powered prostheses and orthoses. In this, device control commands (i.e., predicted joint torque) could be derived without direct experimental data but relying on simple parameterized Gaussian-shaped curves, thus decreasing the input drive

  17. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor presenting as a presacral mass: A rare case report with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradnya S Bhadarge

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs are a group of highly malignant small round cell tumor (SRCT of neuroectodermal origin. They exhibit a great diversity in their clinical manifestations and pathologic similarities with other SRCTs. PNET commonly occurs in the central nervous system, head and neck region, paravertebral region, pelvis, and lower extremities. PNET presenting as a presacral mass is very rare. We present a case of 65-year-old female patient presented with a mass in the abdomen. Exploratory laparotomy with excision of mass was carried out. Histopathology revealed the diagnosis of PNET. The rarity of PNET at presacral region prompted the description of this case.

  18. Heavy Metal Bioaccumulation in an Atypical Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the Abdominal Wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncati, Luca; Gatti, Antonietta Morena; Capitani, Federico; Barbolini, Giuseppe; Maiorana, Antonio; Palmieri, Beniamino

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals are able to interfere with the function of vital cellular components. Besides in trace heavy metals, which are essential at low concentration for humans, there are heavy metals with a well-known toxic and oncogenic potential. In this study, for the first time in literature, we report the unique adulthood case of an atypical primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the abdominal wall, diagnosed by histology and immunohistochemistry, with the molecular hybridization support. The neoplasia occurred in a patient chronically exposed to a transdermal delivery of heavy metal salts (aluminum and bismuth), whose intracellular bioaccumulation has been revealed by elemental microanalysis.

  19. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor or small cell carcinoma of the kidney, arare neoplasm: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhi, A.; Ratnakar, K.S.; Al-Durazi, M.; Khalifa, F.

    2002-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma is a malignancy primarily recognized in thebronchopulmonary region. Extrapulmonary locations are extremely uncommon. Wereport here a case of renal tumor encountered in a 34-year-old female, withextensive metastases in liver, lung and bone. Histological examination wasmost compatible with primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) small cellcarcinoma. There were negative immunohistochemical markers for cytokeratin,any hormonal peptides and epithelial membrane antigens, which is consistentwith the designation of neoplasm as PNET. Previously reported cases have allbeen in the elderly and, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first caseof proven PNET of the kidney described in a young female. (author)

  20. Molecular analysis of childhood primitive neuroectodermal tumors defines markers associated with poor outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheurlen, W G; Schwabe, G C; Joos, S

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: The diagnostic and prognostic significance of well-defined molecular markers was investigated in childhood primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using microsatellite analysis, Southern blot analysis, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), 30 primary tumors......: In our study, amplification of c-myc was a poor-prognosis marker in PNET. LOH of chromosome 17p was associated with metastatic disease. Molecular analysis of primary tumors using these markers may be useful for stratification of children with PNET in future prospective studies. The other aberrations...... investigated were not of significant prognostic value, but may provide an entry point for future large-scale molecular studies....

  1. Amino acid codes in mitochondria as possible clues to primitive codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukes, T. H.

    1981-01-01

    Differences between mitochondrial codes and the universal code indicate that an evolutionary simplification has taken place, rather than a return to a more primitive code. However, these differences make it evident that the universal code is not the only code possible, and therefore earlier codes may have differed markedly from the previous code. The present universal code is probably a 'frozen accident.' The change in CUN codons from leucine to threonine (Neurospora vs. yeast mitochondria) indicates that neutral or near-neutral changes occurred in the corresponding proteins when this code change took place, caused presumably by a mutation in a tRNA gene.

  2. Primary Vaginal Extraosseous Ewing Sarcoma/Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor with Cranial Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Man Yip

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Extraosseous Ewing sarcoma is now regarded as a member of the Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET family. It typically involves the soft tissues of the chest wall, pelvis, paravertebral region, abdominal wall, retroperitoneal region and extremities of children, adolescents and young adults, but it seldom occurs in the female genital tract. We report an extremely rare case of retrospective diagnosis of vaginal extraosseous Ewing sarcoma/PNET which metastasized to the right frontoparietal scalp, skull, and dura. Surgical resection, followed by adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy resulted in a favourable clinical outcome. Both the vaginal and head tumors had similar light microscopic features supporting the diagnosis.

  3. Congenital Ewing's Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shu-Guang; Jiang, Xiao-Ping; Zhong, Lin

    2016-10-01

    Ewing's sarcoma (EWS) and peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (pPNET) are small round cell malignancies that develop in soft tissue and bone. They very rarely affect newborns. A diagnosis of EWS/pPNET depends mainly on immunohistochemistry and molecular/genetic assays. Since these tumors are highly aggressive, patient prognosis is typically very poor, and treatment remains a challenge. Here, we report a 13-day-old newborn diagnosed with congenital EWS/pPNET and describe its treatment. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Congenital Ewing's Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Guang Jin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ewing's sarcoma (EWS and peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (pPNET are small round cell malignancies that develop in soft tissue and bone. They very rarely affect newborns. A diagnosis of EWS/pPNET depends mainly on immunohistochemistry and molecular/genetic assays. Since these tumors are highly aggressive, patient prognosis is typically very poor, and treatment remains a challenge. Here, we report a 13-day-old newborn diagnosed with congenital EWS/pPNET and describe its treatment.

  5. Navigation Strategies for Primitive Solar System Body Rendezvous and Proximity Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getzandanner, Kenneth M.

    2011-01-01

    A wealth of scientific knowledge regarding the composition and evolution of the solar system can be gained through reconnaissance missions to primitive solar system bodies. This paper presents analysis of a baseline navigation strategy designed to address the unique challenges of primitive body navigation. Linear covariance and Monte Carlo error analysis was performed on a baseline navigation strategy using simulated data from a· design reference mission (DRM). The objective of the DRM is to approach, rendezvous, and maintain a stable orbit about the near-Earth asteroid 4660 Nereus. The outlined navigation strategy and resulting analyses, however, are not necessarily limited to this specific target asteroid as they may he applicable to a diverse range of mission scenarios. The baseline navigation strategy included simulated data from Deep Space Network (DSN) radiometric tracking and optical image processing (OpNav). Results from the linear covariance and Monte Carlo analyses suggest the DRM navigation strategy is sufficient to approach and perform proximity operations in the vicinity of the target asteroid with meter-level accuracy.

  6. Boltzmann's dynamic on the primitive earth about 3.9 billion years ago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuno, Koichiro

    1995-01-01

    An evolutionary significant event that could have happened on the primitive earth would be a process of enhancing energy concentrations locally. Once the concentrated energy be released, it could drive various molecular association and dissociation. We have examined, both theoretically and experimentally, a possibility of forming such microscopic heat engines feeding upon the then available thermal environment. Theoretically, Boltzmann's dynamics of molecules that would lose their memory of pas collisions with others is found to uphold those molecules that could feed upon thermal energy if the thermal environment would fluctuate through, for instance, a diurnal cycle. Experimentally, thermal heterocomplex molecules from amino acids, that could have been ubiquitous on the primitive earth, are shown to carry with themselves a wide variety of quasi-stable states such that they could remain in excited states for a considerable period of time even if the temperature of the thermal environment is lowered. The stored energy in these excited states, once released, can be utilized as a factor for driving various molecular association and dissociation. (author). Abstract only

  7. Retained primitive reflexes: Perceptions of parents who have used Rhythmic Movement Training with their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigg, Tessa M; Fox-Turnbull, Wendy; Culpan, Ian

    2018-01-01

    This article reports on a qualitative phenomenological research project that investigated the use of Rhythmic Movement Training (RMT) as an intervention for retained primitive reflexes. Participants were from seven families who each had a child between the ages of 7 years and 12 years. Through semi-structured interviews, parents described their reasons for seeking additional help with their child's development issues. They talked about finding RMT, using RMT within their family routine and their views on the costs and the benefits they experienced, both financial and time. While there has been a small amount of research into movement programmes targeting retained primitive reflexes, to date there appears to have been no studies completed on RMT. The data collected described searches for help, the stress and frustrations associated with the search and the range of interventions these parents tried. The families in this research found that RMT was easy to use within their daily routine and that it was a cost-effective, low-impact intervention. The families noticed a range of benefits for children who had completed the movements. The findings provide encouraging evidence to proceed with further study that will investigate the academic, social and emotional development of children using RMT.

  8. CD71(high) population represents primitive erythroblasts derived from mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ruihua; Gong, Xueping; Wang, Libo; Wang, Pengxiang; Wang, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The CD71/Ter119 combination has been widely used to reflect dynamic maturation of erythrocytes in vivo. However, because CD71 is expressed on all proliferating cells, it is unclear whether it can be utilized as an erythrocyte-specific marker during differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). In this study, we revealed that a population expressing high level of CD71 (CD71(high)) during mouse ESC differentiation represented an in vitro counterpart of yolk sac-derived primitive erythroblasts (EryPs) isolated at 8.5days post coitum. In addition, these CD71(high) cells went through "maturational globin switching" and enucleated during terminal differentiation in vitro that were similar to the yolk sac-derived EryPs in vivo. We further demonstrated that the formation of CD71(high) population was regulated differentially by key factors including Scl, HoxB4, Eaf1, and Klf1. Taken together, our study provides a technical advance that allows efficient segregation of EryPs from differentiated ESCs in vitro for further understanding molecular regulation during primitive erythropoiesis. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Neuropilin-2 genomic elements drive cre recombinase expression in primitive blood, vascular and neuronal lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiszniak, Sophie; Scherer, Michaela; Ramshaw, Hayley; Schwarz, Quenten

    2015-11-01

    We have established a novel Cre mouse line, using genomic elements encompassing the Nrp2 locus, present within a bacterial artificial chromosome clone. By crossing this Cre driver line to R26R LacZ reporter mice, we have documented the temporal expression and lineage traced tissues in which Cre is expressed. Nrp2-Cre drives expression in primitive blood cells arising from the yolk sac, venous and lymphatic endothelial cells, peripheral sensory ganglia, and the lung bud. This mouse line will provide a new tool to researchers wishing to study the development of various tissues and organs in which this Cre driver is expressed, as well as allow tissue-specific knockout of genes of interest to study protein function. This work also presents the first evidence for expression of Nrp2 protein in a mesodermal progenitor with restricted hematopoietic potential, which will significantly advance the study of primitive erythropoiesis. genesis 53:709-717, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Dispossessing Urbanization: Urban Marxism in the Face of the Problem of Primitive Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Juskowiak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is a complex attempt to present the achievements of the broadly understood urban Marxism in the field of reinterpretation of the classic concept from the cards of Capital – “primitive accumulation”. Drawing on theories of such scholars as David Harvey (“accumulation by dispossession” or Saskia Sassen (“expulsions”, the author points to the possible ways to operationalize the concept of “dispossessing urbanization”. Inspired by the theorizations of autonomist Marxists (Antonio Negri, Sandro Mezzadra, Massimo De Angelis, he proposes to see it as a relatively new and increasingly important dispostif that allows not only to improve traditional methods of enclosures and construct entirely new ones, but also to instrumentalize urban cultures which seems unlikely for the historical versions of primitive accumulation. This theoretical inspiration leads him also to highlight another gap in the accumulation by dispossession theory, namely the lack of sufficient reflection on the production of subjectivity processes which seem constitutive for the broad set of dispossessing practices.

  11. Fanconi anemia genes are highly expressed in primitive CD34+ hematopoietic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brodeur Isabelle

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fanconi anemia (FA is a complex recessive genetic disease characterized by progressive bone marrow failure (BM and a predisposition to cancer. We have previously shown using the Fancc mouse model that the progressive BM failure results from a hematopoietic stem cell defect suggesting that function of the FA genes may reside in primitive hematopoietic stem cells. Methods Since genes involved in stem cell differentiation and/or maintenance are usually regulated at the transcription level, we used a semiquantitative RT-PCR method to evaluate FA gene transcript levels in purified hematopoietic stem cells. Results We show that most FA genes are highly expressed in primitive CD34-positive and negative cells compared to lower levels in more differentiated cells. However, in CD34- stem cells the Fancc gene was found to be expressed at low levels while Fancg was undetectable in this population. Furthermore, Fancg expression is significantly decreased in Fancc -/- stem cells as compared to wild-type cells while the cancer susceptibility genes Brca1 and Fancd1/Brac2 are upregulated in Fancc-/- hematopoietic cells. Conclusions These results suggest that FA genes are regulated at the mRNA level, that increased Fancc expression in LTS-CD34+ cells correlates with a role at the CD34+ differentiation stage and that lack of Fancc affects the expression of other FA gene, more specifically Fancg and Fancd1/Brca2, through an unknown mechanism.

  12. Mid-infrared study of the molecular structure variability of insoluble organic matter from primitive chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orthous-Daunay, F.-R.; Quirico, E.; Beck, P.; Brissaud, O.; Dartois, E.; Pino, T.; Schmitt, B.

    2013-03-01

    Insoluble Organic Matter (IOM) found in primitive meteorites was formed in the Early Solar System and subsequently processed on the parent asteroids. The location, temporal sequence and processes of formation of this IOM are still a matter of debate. In particular, there is no consensus on the actual effect of post-accretional aqueous alteration processes on the chemical composition and structure of IOM. In the most primitive chondrites (types 1 and 2), these alterations have so far been either neglected or generically assigned to oxidation processes induced by fluid circulation. A series of IOM samples extracted from 14 chondrites with extensively documented post-accretional histories have been studied by infrared spectroscopy. Aqueous alteration shows no detectable effect on the chemical composition and structure of IOM within or across chondrite classes. Indeed, the most effective post-accretional process appears to be a high-temperature short-duration heating event and concerns essentially type 2 chondrites. In any case, post-accretional processes cannot account for all the chemical and structural variations of IOM. Chondrites from the CI, CR and CM classes accreted IOM precursors with moderately variable compositions, suggesting a chemical heterogeneity of the protosolar disk. The 3.4 μm band, and possibly its overtones and combinations in the near-infrared range, appear to be tracer(s) of the chemical class and possibly of surface heating processes triggered by impacts.

  13. Conservative multimodal management of a primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliette Haudebourg

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET represent 1% of sarcomas. Head and neck peripheral PNETs have an intermediate prognosis between abdominopelvic disease and extremities. We here report the case of a 40-year old male who presented with primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the thyroid and was treated by multimodal treatment, including surgery, chemotherapy and intermediate dose radiotherapy. The patient is alive and fit with a functional larynx at 27 months. Multimodal treatments yield five-year survival rates of about 60%. Major drug regimens use vincristine, doxorubicin, ifosfamide or cyclophosphamide, dactinomycin and/or etoposide. Complete surgical excision is undertaken whenever possible to improve long-term survival. However, the relative radiosensitivity of tumors of the Ewing family, suggest multimodal treatment including adjuvant conformal radiotherapy in case of positive margins or poor response to chemotherapy rather than resection with 2-3 cm margins, which would imply laryngeal sacrifice for thyroid tumors. The role of expert rare tumor networks is crucial for optimal decision-making and management of such rare tumors on a case by case basis.

  14. Oct4 is required ~E7.5 for proliferation in the primitive streak.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian DeVeale

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Oct4 is a widely recognized pluripotency factor as it maintains Embryonic Stem (ES cells in a pluripotent state, and, in vivo, prevents the inner cell mass (ICM in murine embryos from differentiating into trophectoderm. However, its function in somatic tissue after this developmental stage is not well characterized. Using a tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase and floxed alleles of Oct4, we investigated the effect of depleting Oct4 in mouse embryos between the pre-streak and headfold stages, ~E6.0-E8.0, when Oct4 is found in dynamic patterns throughout the embryonic compartment of the mouse egg cylinder. We found that depletion of Oct4 ~E7.5 resulted in a severe phenotype, comprised of craniorachischisis, random heart tube orientation, failed turning, defective somitogenesis and posterior truncation. Unlike in ES cells, depletion of the pluripotency factors Sox2 and Oct4 after E7.0 does not phenocopy, suggesting that ~E7.5 Oct4 is required within a network that is altered relative to the pluripotency network. Oct4 is not required in extraembryonic tissue for these processes, but is required to maintain cell viability in the embryo and normal proliferation within the primitive streak. Impaired expansion of the primitive streak occurs coincident with Oct4 depletion ∼E7.5 and precedes deficient convergent extension which contributes to several aspects of the phenotype.

  15. Tubulin post-translational modifications in the primitive protist Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Viscogliosi, P; Brugerolle, G; Viscogliosi, E

    1996-01-01

    Using several specific monoclonal antibodies, we investigated the occurrence and distribution of different post-translationally modified tubulin during interphase and division of the primitive flagellated protist Trichomonas vaginalis. Immunoblotting and immunofluorescence experiments revealed that interphasic microtubular structures of T. vaginalis contained acetylated and glutamylated but non-tyrosinated and non-glycylated [Brugerolle and Adoutte, 1988: Bio Systems 21: 255-268] tubulin. Immunofluorescence studies performed on dividing cells showed that the extranuclear mitotic spindle (or paradesmosis) was acetylated and glutamylated, which contrast with the ephemeral nature of this structure. Newly formed short axostyles also contained acetylated and glutamylated tubulin suggesting that both post-translational modifications might take place very early after assembly of microtubular structures. Our results indicate that acetylation and glutamylation of tubulin appeared early in the history of eukaryotes and could reflect the occurrence of post-translational modifications of tubulin in the primitive eukaryotic cells. These cells probably had a highly ordered cross-linked microtubular cytoskeleton in which microtubules showed a low level of subunit exchange dynamics.

  16. The neonatal marmoset monkey ovary is very primitive exhibiting many oogonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereydouni, B; Drummer, C; Aeckerle, N; Schlatt, S; Behr, R

    2014-01-01

    Oogonia are characterized by diploidy and mitotic proliferation. Human and mouse oogonia express several factors such as OCT4, which are characteristic of pluripotent cells. In human, almost all oogonia enter meiosis between weeks 9 and 22 of prenatal development or undergo mitotic arrest and subsequent elimination from the ovary. As a consequence, neonatal human ovaries generally lack oogonia. The same was found in neonatal ovaries of the rhesus monkey, a representative of the old world monkeys (Catarrhini). By contrast, proliferating oogonia were found in adult prosimians (now called Strepsirrhini), which is a group of ‘lower’ primates. The common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) belongs to the new world monkeys (Platyrrhini) and is increasingly used in reproductive biology and stem cell research. However, ovarian development in the marmoset monkey has not been widely investigated. Herein, we show that the neonatal marmoset ovary has an extremely immature histological appearance compared with the human ovary. It contains numerous oogonia expressing the pluripotency factors OCT4A, SALL4, and LIN28A (LIN28). The pluripotency factor-positive germ cells also express the proliferation marker MKI67 (Ki-67), which has previously been shown in the human ovary to be restricted to premeiotic germ cells. Together, the data demonstrate the primitiveness of the neonatal marmoset ovary compared with human. This study may introduce the marmoset monkey as a non-human primate model to experimentally study the aspects of primate primitive gonad development, follicle assembly, and germ cell biology in vivo. PMID:24840529

  17. EUS-FNA for the Diagnosis of Retroperitoneal Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijaz A. Sofi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET is a rare “small round blue cell tumor” that is diagnosed by open biopsy or percutaneous biopsy of the lesion under radiologic guidance. In this case report, we present a novel approach to the diagnosis of a retroperitoneal PNET by endoscopic ultrasound- (EUS- guided fine needle aspiration (FNA. A 35-year-old man presented with the history of left-sided flank pain and swelling of 3-weeks duration. Computerized tomography (CT scan of his abdomen revealed a 12.8 × 13 × 12.5 cm cystic and solid mass arising from the retroperitoneum and displacing the third and fourth portions of the duodenum. He underwent EUS which revealed a well-circumscribed heterogeneous mass abutting the inferior portion of the stomach. EUS-FNA of the mass revealed malignant cells consistent with primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET/Ewing's sarcoma. EUS-guided FNA is an appropriate technique for diagnosing retroperitoneal PNET/Ewing's sarcoma.

  18. Corroborative evidences of TV γ -scaling of the α-relaxation originating from the primitive relaxation/JG β relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, K. L.; Paluch, M.

    2017-12-01

    Successful thermodynamic scaling of the structural alpha-relaxation time or transport coefficients of glass-forming liquids determined at various temperatures T and pressures P means the data conform to a single function of the product variable TVgamma, where V is the specific volume and gamma is a material specific constant. In the past two decades we have witnessed successful TVgamma-scaling in many molecular, polymeric, and even metallic glass-formers, and gamma is related to the slope of the repulsive part of the intermolecular potential. The advances made indicate TVgamma-scaling is an important aspect of the dynamic and thermodynamic properties of glass-formers. In this paper we show the origin of TVgamma-scaling is not from the structural alpha-relaxation time. Instead it comes from its precursor, the Johari-Goldstein beta-relaxation or the primitive relaxation of the Coupling Model and their relaxation times or tau_0 respectively. It is remarkable that all relaxation times are functions of TVgamma with the same gama, as well as the fractional exponent of the Kohlrausch correlation function of the structural alpha-relaxation. We arrive at this conclusion convincingly based on corroborative evidences from a number of experiments and molecular dynamics simulations performed on a wide variety of glass-formers and in conjunction with consistency with the predictions of the Coupling Model.

  19. Ontological Proofs of Existence and Non-Existence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájek, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 2 (2008), s. 257-262 ISSN 0039-3215 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100300503 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : ontological proofs * existence * non-existence * Gödel * Caramuel Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  20. Check and evaluation system on heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit of existing residential buildings in northern heating areas of china based on multi-index comprehensive evaluation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jing; Wu Yong; Zhu Neng

    2009-01-01

    Heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit of existing residential buildings in northern heating areas of China is organized and implemented in a large scale by local government in 15 provinces of North China with the unified guidance and control of central government. Firstly, this paper introduced the target of energy-saving reformation of existing residential buildings in North China and the importance of check and evaluation on this target, then pointed out the necessity of building up an evaluation system for energy-saving retrofit. According to the analytical hierarchy process (AHP), three-grade evaluation system was built up for heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit of existing residential buildings in northern heating areas of China. Also, based on multi-index comprehensive evaluation method combined with life cycle assessment (LCA) theory, post-evaluation thought and successful degree evaluation method, a mathematical model was established. Finally, a set of scientific method for evaluating heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit of existing residential buildings in northern heating areas of China systematically, scientifically, comprehensively and objectively was created.

  1. Efficient Lattice-Based Signcryption in Standard Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Yan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Signcryption is a cryptographic primitive that can perform digital signature and public encryption simultaneously at a significantly reduced cost. This advantage makes it highly useful in many applications. However, most existing signcryption schemes are seriously challenged by the booming of quantum computations. As an interesting stepping stone in the post-quantum cryptographic community, two lattice-based signcryption schemes were proposed recently. But both of them were merely proved to be secure in the random oracle models. Therefore, the main contribution of this paper is to propose a new lattice-based signcryption scheme that can be proved to be secure in the standard model.

  2. Summary of existing uncertainty methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaeser, Horst

    2013-01-01

    A summary of existing and most used uncertainty methods is presented, and the main features are compared. One of these methods is the order statistics method based on Wilks' formula. It is applied in safety research as well as in licensing. This method has been first proposed by GRS for use in deterministic safety analysis, and is now used by many organisations world-wide. Its advantage is that the number of potential uncertain input and output parameters is not limited to a small number. Such a limitation was necessary for the first demonstration of the Code Scaling Applicability Uncertainty Method (CSAU) by the United States Regulatory Commission (USNRC). They did not apply Wilks' formula in their statistical method propagating input uncertainties to obtain the uncertainty of a single output variable, like peak cladding temperature. A Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) was set up in order to limit the number of uncertain input parameters, and consequently, the number of calculations to be performed. Another purpose of such a PIRT process is to identify the most important physical phenomena which a computer code should be suitable to calculate. The validation of the code should be focused on the identified phenomena. Response surfaces are used in some applications replacing the computer code for performing a high number of calculations. The second well known uncertainty method is the Uncertainty Methodology Based on Accuracy Extrapolation (UMAE) and the follow-up method 'Code with the Capability of Internal Assessment of Uncertainty (CIAU)' developed by the University Pisa. Unlike the statistical approaches, the CIAU does compare experimental data with calculation results. It does not consider uncertain input parameters. Therefore, the CIAU is highly dependent on the experimental database. The accuracy gained from the comparison between experimental data and calculated results are extrapolated to obtain the uncertainty of the system code predictions

  3. Transgression, Nostalgia, Order: Representation of the Primitive in Émile Zola's La Terre and Knut Hamsun's Markens grøde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riikka Rossi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the representation of the primitive in two peasant novels, Émile Zola's La Terre (1887, trans. as The Earth and Knut Hamsun's Markens grøde (1917, trans. as Growth of the Soil. The concept of the primitive crosses a wide range of issues that were central to naturalist and decadent literature at the turn of the twentieth century, from unconscious instincts to the fascination with exotic cultures. It thus offers a fruitful medium for the comparative reading of French and Nordic fiction of the era. I especially focus on analysing the diverse, representative practices of Zola's and Hamsun's works, which betray stylistic differences in their portrayal of the primitive. I suggest that by describing the primitive as a vital, transgressive force that even turns against itself - against nature - Zola's La Terre creates a decadent version of the primitive, which, instead of a "serious", naturalistic portrayal of everyday life, is drawn to the brutal, instinctive primitive and uses the primitive to create vital forces of transgression. Hamsun's neo-naturalist novel, in turn, reconfigures the naturalist themes in a new form and envisions a fusion of the Darwinian, naturalistic primitive and the Romantic cult of innocent primordiality, suggesting the primitive lifestyle as a nostalgic return to a pre-modern lifestyle and a turn away from the degeneration of modernity.

  4. Aesthetic primitivism revisited: The global diaspora of ‘primitive art’ and the rise of indigenous modernisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth B. Phillips

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the global export of the construct of primitive art which developed in Europe in the early-twentieth century and the catalytic role it played in the emergence of modernist art forms produced by Indigenous peoples. It argues for the need to distinguish between sociological primitivism grounded in cultural evolutionist theory and the aesthetic primitivism promoted by artists, ethnologists and patrons who admired and appropriated the traditional arts of non-Western peoples classified as 'primitive.' Case studies of two refugees from Nazi Europe, German ethnologist Leonhard Adam and Austrian artist George Swinton, demonstrate the tension between received understandings of primitive art and these men's growing awareness, following emigration, of Indigenous modernities. It also led to their active promotion of modern Australian Aboriginal and Inuit arts, despite the undoubted links between aesthetic primitivism and the oppressive assimilationist policies justified through sociological primitivism.

  5. Fate of the three embryonic dural sinuses in infants: the primitive tentorial sinus, occipital sinus, and falcine sinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Katsuhiro; Miwa, Tomoru; Akiyama, Takenori; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Fujiwara, Hirokazu; Yoshida, Kazunari

    2018-03-01

    The primitive tentorial, occipital, and falcine sinuses are thought to attain the adult pattern or regress between the fetal stage and adulthood. The anatomy of these three primitive dural sinuses has seldom been studied in the infant population, and it remains unclear when these dural sinuses reach the adult condition. Using computed tomography digital subtraction venography (CT-DSV), we analyzed the anatomy of these embryonic dural sinuses in infants. We included 13 infants who underwent CT-DSV prior to neurosurgery and 35 cases with unruptured cerebral aneurysms as normal adult controls. Three embryonic dural sinuses, i.e., the primitive tentorial, occipital, and falcine sinuses, were retrospectively analyzed in CT-DSV images of infants and adults. We also analyzed the drainage patterns of the superficial middle cerebral vein (SMCV), determined by the connection between the primitive tentorial sinus and the cavernous sinus. The primitive tentorial, occipital, and falcine sinuses were present in 15.4%, 46.2%, and none of the infants, respectively, and in 10.0, 8.6, and 2.9% of the adults, respectively. The difference in SMCV draining pattern between infants and adults was insignificant. The incidence of the occipital sinus was significantly higher in infants than in adults. The connection between the primitive tentorial sinus and the cavernous sinus appears to be established before birth. The occipital sinus is formed at the embryonic stage and mostly regresses after infancy. The falcine sinus is usually obliterated prenatally. Our findings form the basis for interventions by pediatric interventional neuroradiologists and neurosurgeons.

  6. EDUCATION, WORK AND THEIR RELATIONS THROUGHOUT HISTORY OF HUMANITY IN DIFFERENT MODES OF PRODUCTION OF EXISTENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denize Cristina Kaminski Ferreira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article has as objective to analyze the relation between education and work throughout the history of the humanity, for in such a way, the starting point is the conceptualization of the related categories, as well as the exposition of its variations and relation in the different ways of material production of the existence human being (primitive community, slavery society, feudal system and capitalism, aiming at to apprehend the multiple influences that both exert between itself, in order to make possible a bigger understanding of the historical and social evolution of the man

  7. Exploring Hardware-Based Primitives to Enhance Parallel Security Monitoring in a Novel Computing Architecture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mott, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    .... In doing this, we propose a novel computing architecture, derived from a contemporary shared memory architecture, that facilitates efficient security-related monitoring in real-time, while keeping...

  8. Invitation to a forum: architecting operational `next generation' earth monitoring satellites based on best modeling, existing sensor capabilities, with constellation efficiencies to secure trusted datasets for the next 20 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmuth, Douglas B.; Bell, Raymond M.; Grant, David A.; Lentz, Christopher A.

    2012-09-01

    Architecting the operational Next Generation of earth monitoring satellites based on matured climate modeling, reuse of existing sensor & satellite capabilities, attention to affordability and evolutionary improvements integrated with constellation efficiencies - becomes our collective goal for an open architectural design forum. Understanding the earth's climate and collecting requisite signatures over the next 30 years is a shared mandate by many of the world's governments. But there remains a daunting challenge to bridge scientific missions to 'operational' systems that truly support the demands of decision makers, scientific investigators and global users' requirements for trusted data. In this paper we will suggest an architectural structure that takes advantage of current earth modeling examples including cross-model verification and a first order set of critical climate parameters and metrics; that in turn, are matched up with existing space borne collection capabilities and sensors. The tools used and the frameworks offered are designed to allow collaborative overlays by other stakeholders nominating different critical parameters and their own treaded connections to existing international collection experience. These aggregate design suggestions will be held up to group review and prioritized as potential constellation solutions including incremental and spiral developments - including cost benefits and organizational opportunities. This Part IV effort is focused on being an inclusive 'Next Gen Constellation' design discussion and is the natural extension to earlier papers.

  9. Computer simulations of the restricted primitive model at very low temperature and density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeriani, Chantal; Camp, Philip J; Zwanikken, Jos W; Van Roij, Rene; Dijkstra, Marjolein

    2010-01-01

    The problem of successfully simulating ionic fluids at low temperature and low density states is well known in the simulation literature: using conventional methods, the system is not able to equilibrate rapidly due to the presence of strongly associated cation-anion pairs. In this paper we present a numerical method for speeding up computer simulations of the restricted primitive model (RPM) at low temperatures (around the critical temperature) and at very low densities (down to 10 -10 σ -3 , where σ is the ion diameter). Experimentally, this regime corresponds to typical concentrations of electrolytes in nonaqueous solvents. As far as we are aware, this is the first time that the RPM has been equilibrated at such extremely low concentrations. More generally, this method could be used to equilibrate other systems that form aggregates at low concentrations.

  10. Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI study of primary primitive neuroectodermal tumor in the thoracic spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yu; Xu Jianmin; Li Ying; Zhang Jingzhong; Zhu Jing

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging in the diagnosis and differentiation of primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) in the thoracic spine. Methods: The dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging of 2 patients (3 times) with PNET in the thoracic spine proved by surgery and pathology were prospectively studied. Results: In the curves of SI-time and CER-time, PNET in the thoracic spine showed a rapid rise to the peak between 60 s and 120 s, then the flat level was kept and no obvious decline was detected after about 3.5 minute. Conclusion: Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI can help to make the diagnosis and differential diagnosis for PNET in the thoracic spine, offer reliable information for the choice of clinical management, and predict the prognosis

  11. Chemistry of primitive solar material. [nebular hypothesis of planetary systems formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barshay, S. S.; Lewis, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    The paper reviews chemical processes that occurred in the cooler outer regions of the primitive solar nebula (PSN) at the time of intimate chemical contact between the preplanetary condensate and the nebular gas. The elemental composition of the PSN is discussed, the 15 most abundant elements in it are listed, and numerical models of it are examined. Various condensation models are described and tested against observed properties of the planets, their satellites, and the asteroids. The chemistry of abundant volatile elements in the PSN is investigated along with stability limits of graphite in a solar-composition gas, regions of dominance of the most abundant carbon-containing gas species in the same gas, and implications of the moon's composition for its origin. Some theories that have been proposed as alternatives to the condensation models are noted.

  12. A three-dimensional spectral element model for the solution of the hydrostatic primitive equations

    CERN Document Server

    Iskandarani, M; Levin, J C

    2003-01-01

    We present a spectral element model to solve the hydrostatic primitive equations governing large-scale geophysical flows. The highlights of this new model include unstructured grids, dual h-p paths to convergence, and good scalability characteristics on present day parallel computers including Beowulf-class systems. The behavior of the model is assessed on three process-oriented test problems involving wave propagation, gravitational adjustment, and nonlinear flow rectification, respectively. The first of these test problems is a study of the convergence properties of the model when simulating the linear propagation of baroclinic Kelvin waves. The second is an intercomparison of spectral element and finite-difference model solutions to the adjustment of a density front in a straight channel. Finally, the third problem considers the comparison of model results to measurements obtained from a laboratory simulation of flow around a submarine canyon. The aforementioned tests demonstrate the good performance of th...

  13. Coordinates Analyses of Hydrated Interplanetary Dust Particles: Samples of Primitive Solar System Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, L. P.; Snead, C.; McKeegan, K. D.

    2016-01-01

    Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the stratosphere fall into two major groups: an anhydrous group termed the "chondritic-porous (CP) IDPs and a hydrated group, the "chondritic-smooth (CS) IDPs, although rare IDPs with mineralogies intermediate between these two groups are known [1]. The CP-IDPs are widely believed to be derived from cometary sources [e.g. 2]. The hydrated CS-IDPs show mineralogical similarities to heavily aqueously altered carbonaceous chondrites (e.g. CI chondrites), but only a few have been directly linked to carbonaceous meteorite parent bodies [e.g. 3, 4]. Most CS-IDPs show distinct chemical [5] and oxygen isotopic composition differences [6-8] from primitive carbonaceous chondrites. Here, we report on our coordinated analyses of a suite of carbon-rich CS-IDPs focusing on their bulk compositions, mineralogy, mineral chemistry, and isotopic compositions.

  14. An analytical longitudinal dielectric function of primitive electrolyte solutions and its application in predicting thermodynamic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Tiejun

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the longitudinal dielectric function ϵ_l(k) of primitive electrolyte solutions is discussed. Starting from a modified mean spherical approximation, an analytical dielectric function in terms of two parameters is established. These two parameters can be related to the first two decay parameters k_1_,_2 of the dielectric response modes of the bulk system, and can be determined using constraints of k_1_,_2 from statistical theories. Furthermore, a combination of this dielectric function and the molecular Debye-Hückel theory[J. Chem. Phys. 135(2011)104104] leads to a self-consistent mean filed description of electrolyte solutions. Our theory reveals a relationship between the microscopic structure parameters of electrolyte solutions and the macroscopic thermodynamic properties, which is applied to concentrated electrolyte solutions.

  15. Ion Irradiation Experiments on the Murchison CM2 Carbonaceous Chondrite: Simulating Space Weathering of Primitive Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, L. P.; Christoffersen, R.; Dukes, C. A.; Baragiola, R. A.; Rahman, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Remote sensing observations show that space weathering processes affect all airless bodies in the Solar System to some degree. Sample analyses and lab experiments provide insights into the chemical, spectroscopic and mineralogic effects of space weathering and aid in the interpretation of remote- sensing data. For example, analyses of particles returned from the S-type asteroid Itokawa by the Hayabusa mission revealed that space-weathering on that body was dominated by interactions with the solar wind acting on LL ordinary chondrite-like materials [1, 2]. Understanding and predicting how the surface regoliths of primitive carbonaceous asteroids respond to space weathering processes is important for future sample return missions (Hayabusa 2 and OSIRIS-REx) that are targeting objects of this type. Here, we report the results of our preliminary ion irradiation experiments on a hydrated carbonaceous chondrite with emphasis on microstructural and infrared spectral changes.

  16. Performances of scintigraphy in the primitive hyperparathyroidism and the associated thyroid pathologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteil, J.; Mathonnet, M.; Chianea, T.; Cubertafond, P.; Piquet, L.; Rince, C.; Bournaud, E.; Verbeke, S.; Perdrisot, R.; Vandroux, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    The data from scintigraphic and echographic exploration were compared to the surgery results in 32 patients (29 F and 3 M) presenting a primitive hyperparathyroidism, biologically proved, associated to a thyroid pathology. The scintigraphies were achieved with a collimator placed anteriorly and oblique-anteriorly, 4 h after injection by iodine 123 (7 MBq) and 30 min and 2 h after injection of 99m Tc-MIBI (555 MBq). The cervical echography and scintigraphy are independently interpreted. The results are given in a table containing the sensitivity, specificity, V.P.P. and V.P.N. for scintigraphy and echography, respectively. The association of a primary hyperparathyroidism and of a thyroid pathology (with a prevalence of 70% in our region) appears to affect less the performances of scintigraphy imaging than those of morphologic imaging

  17. Postoperative Paraplegia as a Result of Undiagnosed Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor, Not Epidural Analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Ching Hung

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative paraplegia is a rare complication after epidural analgesia and often occurs with spinal hematoma or cord injury. We present the case of a 16-year-old girl who suffered from a tumor mass in the neck and abdomen who underwent gynecologic operation. Preoperatively, liver metastasis was found by computed tomography. Pathologic findings revealed that the abdominal mass was an ovarian dermoid cyst. After the operation, the patient complained of paraplegia while receiving epidural analgesia for postoperative pain control. A peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor in the thoracic and lumbar spines with spinal cord compression was later detected using magnetic resonance imaging. Learning from this case, we suggest that when a patient is preoperatively diagnosed with tumor metastasis, back pain and soreness, spinal cord compression from tumor metastasis should be excluded before epidural analgesia is implemented.

  18. Congenital peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor: A case treated successfully with multimodality treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, Sh.; Biswas, A.; Mohanti, B.K.; Gupta, R.

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal tumors comprise less than two percent of childhood malignancies. Most are solid tumors, most common histologies being teratoma and neuroblastoma. We encountered a child who was detected to have a right arm mass on antenatal sonogram, which was diagnosed to be a primitive neuroectodermal tumor involving the triceps on fine needle aspiration cytology performed in the post-natal period. The child was successfully treated with multimodality treatment consisting of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We also discuss briefly the problems associated with therapy in neonatal period. A review of all cases reported to have congenital Ewing’s sarcoma family of tumors is presented. Novel therapies are needed to improve efficacy and decrease the devastating side effects of treatment in this age group.

  19. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor arising 8 years after chemotherapy and radiotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Yuya; Toma, Yasuo; Arai, Masayuki; Higashi, Ryo; Kashihara, Kengo; Kaizaki, Yasuharu

    2005-01-01

    We report a case of primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) arising 8 years after chemotherapy and radiotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. A 15-year-old boy with a history of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, at the age of 7, underwent chemotherapy and 14 Gy of radiotherapy to the whole brain. He was admitted to our department due to the development of aphasia, right hemiparesis and generalized convulsive seizure. MRI showed an irregularly enhanced mass in the left frontal lobe. A gross total removal of the tumor was performed and histological examination showed it to be PNET. Postoperatively, the patient underwent 20 Gy of radiotherapy to the whole brain and 42 Gy of local radiotherapy. Follow-up MRI showed no evidence of recurrent tumor 4 months after the radiotherapy. This tumor was thought to be a secondary brain tumor arising in this survivor of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia and it is a rare complication of successful leukemia treatment. (author)

  20. Solitary epidural brain metastasis of Neuroepithelioma (a Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Farshidfar

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A 14 years old male was referred to Computerized tomography scan (CT of our hospital for evaluation of headache. The patient was known case of cervical soft tissue Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET which has undergone surgery and radiotherapy 4 years ago. The CT scan showed large solitary extra axial, epidural lesion in right parietal region, with mass effect and bony involvement. Then surgery was done for him and the resultant biopsy was Neuroepithelioma. After diagnosis the patient has undergone chemotherapy and radiotherapy. He has no signs or symptoms of malignancy, and also follow up CT scan of the brain, chest, and abdomen were normal after two years of surgery. This is the first reported case of epidural metastasis of a head and neck PNET in an adolescent.

  1. Ewing Sarcoma/Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the Kidney: Two Unusual Presentations of a Rare Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Castro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Only few cases of primary renal Ewing's sarcoma have been reported in the literature to date. We present here two cases of renal ES/PNET with an uncanny presentation. The first case was discovered after the patient presented clinically with irradiating flank pain, mimicking the pain related with kidney stones. The second case had clinical presentation of pulmonary thromboembolism after the patient was involved in an automobilist accident. The tumors were mainly composed of small blue cells which by immunohistochemical were positive for neural markers, and FISH revealed the translocation 22q12 for the EWSR1 gene. The diagnosis of renal primitive neuroectodermal tumor/EWING tumor is very rare and usually involves several different diagnostic techniques. The differential diagnosis is usually broad with frequent overlapping features between the entities. The cases presented in this paper illustrated the difficulties with which routine anatomical pathologist is faced when dealing with rare renal poorly differentiated neoplasm in adults.

  2. Extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma / primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the sacral nerve plexus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narula, MK; Gupta, Nishant; Anand, Rama; Kapoor, Sudhir

    2009-01-01

    We report an unusual case of Ewing's sarcoma / primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) of the sacral nerve plexus in a 9-year-old boy who presented with a soft tissue swelling and severe piercing pain in the lower back region. MRI of the lumbosacral spine showed a lobulated soft tissue mass with clubbed finger-like projections along the path of the sacral nerves, which had caused widening of the spinal canal and the sacral foramina (S2–S4 level). There was presacral extension and posterior scalloping of the sacral vertebrae. Histopathology of the lesion confirmed Ewing's sarcoma / PNET of the sacral spinal nerve plexus. The patient responded favorably to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, showing clinical and radiological improvement

  3. Regulated proliferation of primitive hematopoietic progenitor cells in long-term human marrow cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashman, J.; Eaves, A.C.; Eaves, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    We have examined the cycling status of various classes of erythroid and granulopoietic progenitor populations maintained for many weeks in standard normal long-term human marrow cultures. These were initiated with a single inoculum of marrow aspirate and were routinely fed by weekly removal of half of the nonadherent cells and replacement of half of the growth medium. Progenitors of large erythroid colonies (more than eight erythroblast clusters) present in the nonadherent fraction and progenitors of small granulocyte/macrophage colonies (fewer than 500 cells) present in both the nonadherent and adherent fractions were found to be actively cycling at all times examined (28% to 63% kill following a 20-minute exposure to 20 microCi/mL of high specific activity 3 H-thymidine). In contrast, progenitors of large granulocyte/macrophage colonies (more than 500 cells) and progenitors of large erythroid colonies (more than eight erythroblast clusters), present in the adherent layer, consistently alternated between a quiescent state at the time of each weekly medium change and a proliferating state two to three days later (0% to 13% kill and 21% to 49% kill, respectively). Additional experiments revealed that the activation of primitive progenitors in the adherent layer was not dependent on the addition of fresh glutamine or hydrocortisone, nor on the physical manipulations involved in changing the growth medium. These studies provide the first direct evidence that normal long-term human marrow cultures support the continued turnover of a variety of early hematopoietic progenitor cell types. Further, they indicate that the proliferative activity of the most primitive of these progenitors is regulated by stage-specific cell-cell interactions that are subject to manipulation

  4. Analysis of immunoglobulin transcripts in the ostrich Struthio camelus, a primitive avian species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Huang

    Full Text Available Previous studies on the immunoglobulin (Ig genes in avian species are limited (mainly to galliformes and anseriformes but have revealed several interesting features, including the absence of the IgD and Igκ encoding genes, inversion of the IgA encoding gene and the use of gene conversion as the primary mechanism to generate an antibody repertoire. To better understand the Ig genes and their evolutionary development in birds, we analyzed the Ig genes in the ostrich (Struthio camelus, which is one of the most primitive birds. Similar to the chicken and duck, the ostrich expressed only three IgH chain isotypes (IgM, IgA and IgY and λ light chains. The IgM and IgY constant domains are similar to their counterparts described in other vertebrates. Although conventional IgM, IgA and IgY cDNAs were identified in the ostrich, we also detected a transcript encoding a short membrane-bound form of IgA (lacking the last two C(H exons that was undetectable at the protein level. No IgD or κ encoding genes were identified. The presence of a single leader peptide in the expressed heavy chain and light chain V regions indicates that gene conversion also plays a major role in the generation of antibody diversity in the ostrich. Because the ostrich is one of the most primitive living aves, this study suggests that the distinct features of the bird Ig genes appeared very early during the divergence of the avian species and are thus shared by most, if not all, avian species.

  5. The ECM moves during primitive streak formation--computation of ECM versus cellular motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan A Zamir

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Galileo described the concept of motion relativity--motion with respect to a reference frame--in 1632. He noted that a person below deck would be unable to discern whether the boat was moving. Embryologists, while recognizing that embryonic tissues undergo large-scale deformations, have failed to account for relative motion when analyzing cell motility data. A century of scientific articles has advanced the concept that embryonic cells move ("migrate" in an autonomous fashion such that, as time progresses, the cells and their progeny assemble an embryo. In sharp contrast, the motion of the surrounding extracellular matrix scaffold has been largely ignored/overlooked. We developed computational/optical methods that measure the extent embryonic cells move relative to the extracellular matrix. Our time-lapse data show that epiblastic cells largely move in concert with a sub-epiblastic extracellular matrix during stages 2 and 3 in primitive streak quail embryos. In other words, there is little cellular motion relative to the extracellular matrix scaffold--both components move together as a tissue. The extracellular matrix displacements exhibit bilateral vortical motion, convergence to the midline, and extension along the presumptive vertebral axis--all patterns previously attributed solely to cellular "migration." Our time-resolved data pose new challenges for understanding how extracellular chemical (morphogen gradients, widely hypothesized to guide cellular trajectories at early gastrulation stages, are maintained in this dynamic extracellular environment. We conclude that models describing primitive streak cellular guidance mechanisms must be able to account for sub-epiblastic extracellular matrix displacements.

  6. p120 Catenin-Mediated Stabilization of E-Cadherin Is Essential for Primitive Endoderm Specification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Pieters

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion is critical for naive pluripotency of cultured mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs. E-cadherin-depleted mESC fail to downregulate their pluripotency program and are unable to initiate lineage commitment. To further explore the roles of cell adhesion molecules during mESC differentiation, we focused on p120 catenin (p120ctn. Although one key function of p120ctn is to stabilize and regulate cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion, it has many additional functions, including regulation of transcription and Rho GTPase activity. Here, we investigated the role of mouse p120ctn in early embryogenesis, mESC pluripotency and early fate determination. In contrast to the E-cadherin-null phenotype, p120ctn-null mESCs remained pluripotent, but their in vitro differentiation was incomplete. In particular, they failed to form cystic embryoid bodies and showed defects in primitive endoderm formation. To pinpoint the underlying mechanism, we undertook a structure-function approach. Rescue of p120ctn-null mESCs with different p120ctn wild-type and mutant expression constructs revealed that the long N-terminal domain of p120ctn and its regulatory domain for RhoA were dispensable, whereas its armadillo domain and interaction with E-cadherin were crucial for primitive endoderm formation. We conclude that p120ctn is not only an adaptor and regulator of E-cadherin, but is also indispensable for proper lineage commitment.

  7. Octopus arm movements under constrained conditions: adaptation, modification and plasticity of motor primitives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Jonas N; Hochner, Binyamin; Kuba, Michael J

    2015-04-01

    The motor control of the eight highly flexible arms of the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) has been the focus of several recent studies. Our study is the first to manage to introduce a physical constraint to an octopus arm and investigate the adaptability of stereotypical bend propagation in reaching movements and the pseudo-limb articulation during fetching. Subjects (N=6) were placed inside a transparent Perspex box with a hole at the center that allowed the insertion of a single arm. Animals had to reach out through the hole toward a target, to retrieve a food reward and fetch it. All subjects successfully adjusted their movements to the constraint without an adaptation phase. During reaching tasks, the animals showed two movement strategies: stereotypical bend propagation reachings, which were established at the hole of the Perspex box and variant waving-like movements that showed no bend propagations. During fetching movements, no complete pseudo-joint fetching was observed outside the box and subjects pulled their arms through the hole in a pull-in like movement. Our findings show that there is some flexibility in the octopus motor system to adapt to a novel situation. However, at present, it seems that these changes are more an effect of random choices between different alternative motor programs, without showing clear learning effects in the choice between the alternatives. Interestingly, animals were able to adapt the fetching movements to the physical constraint, or as an alternative explanation, they could switch the motor primitive fetching to a different motor primitive 'arm pulling'. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Clinical analysis of primary primitive neuroectodermal tumors in the female genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Changji; Zhao, Jing; Guo, Peng; Wang, Dan; Zhao, Dachun; Ren, Tong; Yang, Jiaxin; Shen, Keng; Lang, Jinghe; Xiang, Yang; Cui, Quancai

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) in the female genital tract. From April 2001 to May 2013, the clinicopathologic characteristics, treatments, outcomes, and prognosis of 11 patients with PNET in the female genital tract were analyzed retrospectively at our hospital. The location of PNET in the 11 patients presented here included vulva (2 patients), cervix (2 patients), uterus and its ligament (5 patients), and the ovaries (2 patients). Ages ranged from 18 to 59 years (median, 31 years).The main clinical manifestations of PNET in the female genital tract are irregular vaginal bleeding (6 patients), pelvic mass, uterine enlargement, and rapidly increasing vulvar mass (8 patients), and vulvar pain and lower abdominal pain (5 patients). The CA125 levels of 8 patients were elevated before the operations and reduced to normal when the diseases were controlled, while the levels increased as the tumor was progressive. Results for the most commonly used immunohistochemistry studies revealed CD99 in 11 of the 11 tumors, synaptophysin in 6 of the 7 positive tumors, and neuron-specific enolase in 6 of the 6 tumors. Ten patients underwent surgical resection. Nine of them underwent preoperative or/and postoperative combination chemotherapy. The follow-up of 10 patients were available and ranged from 1 to 145 months (median, 30.5 months), 3 of whom experiencing recurrence. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor is very rare and can originate from any part of the female genital tract. The tumors had different manifestations but the same pathologic features. CA125 may be an important marker for prognosis and follow-up of PNET of the female internal genital tract.

  9. Iron oxide bands in the visible and near-infrared reflectance spectra of primitive asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Kandy S.; Vilas, Faith; Gaffey, Michael J.

    1993-01-01

    High resolution reflectance spectra of primitive asteroids (C, P, and D class and associated subclasses) have commonly revealed an absorption feature centered at 0.7 microns attributed to an Fe(2+)-Fe(3+) charge transfer transition in iron oxides and/or oxidized iron in phyllosilicates. A smaller feature identified at 0.43 microns has been attributed to an Fe(3+) spin-forbidden transition in iron oxides. In the spectra of the two main-belt primitive asteroids 368 Haidea (D) and 877 Walkure (F), weak absorption features which were centered near the location of 0.60-0.65 microns and 0.80-0.90 microns prompted a search for features at these wavelengths and an attempt to identify their origin(s). The CCD reflectance spectra obtained between 1982-1992 were reviewed for similar absorption features located near these wavelengths. The spectra of asteroids in which these absorption features have been identified are shown. These spectra are plotted in order of increasing heliocentric distance. No division of the asteroids by class has been attempted here (although the absence of these features in the anhydrous S-class asteroids, many of which have presumably undergone full heating and differentiation should be noted). For this study, each spectrum was treated as a continuum with discrete absorption features superimposed on it. For each object, a linear least squares fit to the data points defined a simple linear continuum. The linear continuum was then divided into each spectrum, thus removing the sloped continuum and permitting the intercomparison of residual spectral features.

  10. A key heterogeneous structure of fractal networks based on inverse renormalization scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yanan; Huang, Ning; Sun, Lina

    2018-06-01

    Self-similarity property of complex networks was found by the application of renormalization group theory. Based on this theory, network topologies can be classified into universality classes in the space of configurations. In return, through inverse renormalization scheme, a given primitive structure can grow into a pure fractal network, then adding different types of shortcuts, it exhibits different characteristics of complex networks. However, the effect of primitive structure on networks structural property has received less attention. In this paper, we introduce a degree variance index to measure the dispersion of nodes degree in the primitive structure, and investigate the effect of the primitive structure on network structural property quantified by network efficiency. Numerical simulations and theoretical analysis show a primitive structure is a key heterogeneous structure of generated networks based on inverse renormalization scheme, whether or not adding shortcuts, and the network efficiency is positively correlated with degree variance of the primitive structure.

  11. β-Catenin Regulates Primitive Streak Induction through Collaborative Interactions with SMAD2/SMAD3 and OCT4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funa, Nina Sofi Ayumi; Schachter, Karen; Lerdrup, Mads

    2015-01-01

    Canonical Wnt and Nodal signaling are both required for induction of the primitive streak (PS), which guides organization of the early embryo. The Wnt effector b-catenin is thought to function in these early lineage specification decisions via transcriptional activation of Nodal signaling. Here, we...... specification. This study provides mechanistic insight into how Wnt signaling controls early cell lineage decisions....

  12. Development of a reliable method for determining sex for a primitive rodent, the Point Arena mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa nigra)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristine L. Pilgrim; William J. Zielinski; Fredrick V. Schlexer; Michael K. Schwartz

    2012-01-01

    The mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa) is a primitive species of rodent, often considered a living fossil. The Point Arena mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa nigra) is an endangered subspecies that occurs in a very restricted range in northern California. Efforts to recover this taxon have been limited by the lack of knowledge on their demography, particularly sex and age...

  13. A novel splice mutation in the TP53 gene associated with Leydig cell tumor and primitive neuroectodermal tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stecher, Chalotte Willemann; Grønbaek, Kirsten; Hasle, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    A 20-month-old boy presented with precocious puberty due to a Leydig cell tumor, and at the age of 6 years with a primitive neuroectodermal brain-tumor (PNET). A novel splice site mutation of the TP53-gene, likely to be associated with a nonfunctional protein, was found in the proband, his father...

  14. Radiotherapy in stereotactic conditions with CyberKnife of primitive or secondary hepatic lesions: lessons learnt by the Alexis-Vautrin Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taste-George, H.; Peiffert, D.

    2010-01-01

    The author report the experience gained on patients treated by irradiation in stereotactic conditions for primitive or secondary hepatic lesions. Thirty three patients have been treated, 22 suffering from secondary lesions and 11 from primitive lesions. The treatment technique is not much constraining for the patient, is not much toxic, and provides a high local tumour control. Short communication

  15. Application of the SRISM approach to the study of the capacitance of the double layer of a high density primitive model electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Woelki

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study the Singlet Reference Interaction Site Model (SRISM is employed to the study of the electrode charge dependence of the capacitance of a planar electric double layer using the primitive model of the double layer for a high density electrolyte that mimics an ionic liquid. The ions are represented by charged hard spheres and the electrode is a uniformly charged flat surface. The capacitance of this model fluid is calculated with the SRISM approach with closures based on the hypernetted chain (HNC and Kovalenko-Hirata (KH closures and compared with simulations. As long as the magnitude of the electrode charge is not too great, the HNC closure shows the most promise. The KH results are reasonably good for a high density electrolyte but are poor when applied at low densities.

  16. Toward better public health reporting using existing off the shelf approaches: A comparison of alternative cancer detection approaches using plaintext medical data and non-dictionary based feature selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasthurirathne, Suranga N; Dixon, Brian E; Gichoya, Judy; Xu, Huiping; Xia, Yuni; Mamlin, Burke; Grannis, Shaun J

    2016-04-01

    Increased adoption of electronic health records has resulted in increased availability of free text clinical data for secondary use. A variety of approaches to obtain actionable information from unstructured free text data exist. These approaches are resource intensive, inherently complex and rely on structured clinical data and dictionary-based approaches. We sought to evaluate the potential to obtain actionable information from free text pathology reports using routinely available tools and approaches that do not depend on dictionary-based approaches. We obtained pathology reports from a large health information exchange and evaluated the capacity to detect cancer cases from these reports using 3 non-dictionary feature selection approaches, 4 feature subset sizes, and 5 clinical decision models: simple logistic regression, naïve bayes, k-nearest neighbor, random forest, and J48 decision tree. The performance of each decision model was evaluated using sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve. Decision models parameterized using automated, informed, and manual feature selection approaches yielded similar results. Furthermore, non-dictionary classification approaches identified cancer cases present in free text reports with evaluation measures approaching and exceeding 80-90% for most metrics. Our methods are feasible and practical approaches for extracting substantial information value from free text medical data, and the results suggest that these methods can perform on par, if not better, than existing dictionary-based approaches. Given that public health agencies are often under-resourced and lack the technical capacity for more complex methodologies, these results represent potentially significant value to the public health field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Existence test for asynchronous interval iterations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Caprani, O.; Stauning, Ole

    1997-01-01

    In the search for regions that contain fixed points ofa real function of several variables, tests based on interval calculationscan be used to establish existence ornon-existence of fixed points in regions that are examined in the course ofthe search. The search can e.g. be performed...... as a synchronous (sequential) interval iteration:In each iteration step all components of the iterate are calculatedbased on the previous iterate. In this case it is straight forward to base simple interval existence and non-existencetests on the calculations done in each step of the iteration. The search can also...... on thecomponentwise calculations done in the course of the iteration. These componentwisetests are useful for parallel implementation of the search, sincethe tests can then be performed local to each processor and only when a test issuccessful do a processor communicate this result to other processors....

  18. The negative impact of Wnt signaling on megakaryocyte and primitive erythroid progenitors derived from human embryonic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasuna Paluru

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Wnt gene family consists of structurally related genes encoding secreted signaling molecules that have been implicated in many developmental processes, including regulation of cell fate and patterning during embryogenesis. Previously, we found that Wnt signaling is required for primitive or yolk sac-derived-erythropoiesis using the murine embryonic stem cell (ESC system. Here, we examine the effect of Wnt signaling on the formation of early hematopoietic progenitors derived from human ESCs. The first hematopoietic progenitor cells in the human ESC system express the pan-hematopoietic marker CD41 and the erythrocyte marker, glycophorin A or CD235. We have developed a novel serum-free, feeder-free, adherent differentiation system that can efficiently generate large numbers of CD41 + CD235+ cells. We demonstrate that this cell population contains progenitors not just for primitive erythroid and megakaryocyte cells but for the myeloid lineage as well and term this population the primitive common myeloid progenitor (CMP. Treatment of mesoderm-specified cells with Wnt3a led to a loss of hematopoietic colony-forming ability while the inhibition of canonical Wnt signaling with DKK1 led to an increase in the number of primitive CMPs. Canonical Wnt signaling also inhibits the expansion and/or survival of primitive erythrocytes and megakaryocytes, but not myeloid cells, derived from this progenitor population. These findings are in contrast to the role of Wnt signaling during mouse ESC differentiation and demonstrate the importance of the human ESC system in studying species-specific differences in development.

  19. Limitations of existing web services

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Limitations of existing web services. Uploading or downloading large data. Serving too many user from single source. Difficult to provide computer intensive job. Depend on internet and its bandwidth. Security of data in transition. Maintain confidentiality of data ...

  20. Performance of Existing Hydrogen Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprik, Samuel [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Jennifer M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ainscough, Christopher D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peters, Michael C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-01

    In this presentation, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory presented aggregated analysis results on the performance of existing hydrogen stations, including performance, operation, utilization, maintenance, safety, hydrogen quality, and cost. The U.S. Department of Energy funds technology validation work at NREL through its National Fuel Cell Technology Evaluation Center (NFCTEC).

  1. Single-beam image encryption using spatially separated ciphertexts based on interference principle in the Fresnel domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qu; Guo, Qing; Lei, Liang; Zhou, Jinyun

    2014-12-01

    A new optical security system for image encryption based on optical interference principle and translation property of Fresnel transform (FrT) has been proposed in this article. The algorithm of this proposal is specially designed for single-beam optical decryption and can thoroughly resolve the silhouette problem existing in the previous interference-based scheme. Different from earlier schemes using interference of phase-only masks (POMs), the inverse FrT of primitive image is digitally decomposed into a random POM and a complex field distribution. Information associated with the primitive images can be completely smoothed away by the modulation of this random POM. Through the translation property of FrT, two linear phase-only terms are then used to modulate the obtained random POM and the complex distribution, respectively. Two complex ciphertexts are generated by performing digital inverse FrT again. One cannot recover any visible information of secret image using only one ciphertext. Moreover, to recover the primitive image correctly, the correct ciphertexts must be placed in the certain positions of input plane of decryption system, respectively. As additional keys, position center coordinates of ciphertexts can increase the security strength of this encryption system against brute force attacks greatly. Numerical simulations have been given to verify the performance and feasibility of this proposal. To further enhance the application value of this algorithm, an alternative approach based on Fourier transform has also been discussed briefly.

  2. Development of measures to assess the safety of existing NPPs and the effectiveness of regulations and regulatory actions (including 'prescriptive' and 'performance based' approaches). Peer discussions on regulatory practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    This report arises from the fourth series of peer discussions on regulatory practices entitled D evelopment of measures to assess the safety of existing nuclear power plants and the effectiveness of regulations and regulatory actions (including 'prescriptive' and 'performance based' approaches) . Senior regulators from 23 Member States participated in four peer group discussions during 1995-1996. This report presents the outcome of these meetings and recommendations of good practices identified by these senior regulators. The purpose of this report is to disseminate the views which the senior regulators presented at the meetings relating to measures used for assessing the safety of existing nuclear power plants and evaluating the effectiveness of regulators and regulatory actions. The intention in doing this is to assist Member States in the enhancement of their regulatory practices by identifying commonly accepted good practices. This report is structured so that it covers the subject matter under the following main headings: 'Prescriptive and Performance Based' Approaches to Regulation; Common Features of Regulatory Approaches; Effectiveness of the Regulator and Regulatory Actions; Recommendations of Good Practice. It is important to note that recommendations of good practice are included if they have been identified by at least one of the groups. It does not follow that all of the groups or individual Member States would necessarily endorse all of the recommendations. However, it is considered that if a single group of senior regulators judge that a particular practice is worthy of recommendation then it should be included for serious consideration. In some cases the same recommendations arise from all of the Groups

  3. In situ characterization of organic matter in two primitive chondrites through correlated microanalytical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wende, A. M.; Nittler, L.; Steele, A.; Herd, C. D.

    2009-12-01

    Primitive meteorites contain up to 2 wt % C, much of it in the form of insoluble organic matter (IOM). Bulk analyses have revealed the IOM to be marked by large D and 15N enrichments relative to terrestrial values. Isotopic imaging studies have revealed the presence of `hotspots’, sub-μm to μm-sized regions of IOM exhibiting extreme isotope enrichments. An interesting subpopulation of organic grains, ’nanoglobules’, which have hollow, spherical morphologies, is known to account for a portion of these hot spots. Previous work has suggested that nanoglobules can be identified in situ by native UV fluorescence. The isotopic enrichments are believed to point to low-T chemical fractionations either in the interstellar medium (ISM) or the outer regions of the early Solar System. As part of a larger study investigating the origin and evolution of IOM in the Solar System, a correlated, in situ, microanalytical approach was employed to characterize local isotopic and morphological heterogeneities in IOM in the highly primitive chondrites QUE 99177 (CR3) and Tagish Lake (C-ung). Previous NanoSIMS ion imaging of a QUE 99177 section revealed the spatial and isotopic distribution of C in the matrix with a spatial resolution of 200 nm. Manual definition of >3300 C-rich regions in the NanoSIMS images indicates that grains smaller than 1 μm across, which account for 80% of the IOM area, have a size distribution that is similar to estimates of the size distribution of carbonaceous dust in the diffuse ISM, supporting an interstellar origin for the IOM. Micro-Raman spectroscopy, which is highly sensitive to the degree of disorder in carbonaceous materials, was attempted on the same regions analyzed by NanoSIMS in QUE 99177. Unfortunately, surface damage due to both the prior SIMS analyses and removal of a prior C coat precluded acquisition of useful Raman spectra. Consequently, future correlated work will entail performing Raman analyses on uncoated samples prior to SIMS

  4. Integrated bioinformatic analysis unveils significant genes and pathways in the pathogenesis of supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang G

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Guang-Yu Wang,1,* Ling Li,2,* Bo Liu,1 Xiao Han,1 Chun-Hua Wang,1 Ji-Wen Wang3 1Department of Neurosurgery, 2Department of Pediatrics, Qilu Children’s Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, 3Department of Neurology, Shanghai Children’s Medical Center, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Pudong New District, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: This study aimed to explore significant genes and pathways involved in the pathogenesis of supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor (sPNET. Materials and methods: Gene expression profile of GSE14295 was downloaded from publicly available Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs were screened out in primary sPNET samples compared with normal fetal and adult brain reference samples (sPNET vs fetal brain and sPNET vs adult brain. Pathway enrichment analysis of these DEGs was conducted, followed by protein–protein interaction (PPI network construction and significant module selection. Additionally, transcription factors (TFs regulating the common DEGs in the two comparison groups were identified, and the regulatory network was constructed. Results: In total, 526 DEGs (99 up- and 427 downregulated in sPNET vs fetal brain and 815 DEGs (200 up- and 615 downregulated in sPNET vs adult brain were identified. DEGs in sPNET vs fetal brain and sPNET vs adult brain were associated with calcium signaling pathway, cell cycle, and p53 signaling pathway. CDK1, CDC20, BUB1B, and BUB1 were hub nodes in the PPI networks of DEGs in sPNET vs fetal brain and sPNET vs adult brain. Significant modules were extracted from the PPI networks. In addition, 64 upregulated and 200 downregulated overlapping DEGs were identified in both sPNET vs fetal brain and sPNET vs adult brain. The genes involved in the regulatory network upon overlapping DEGs and the TFs were correlated with calcium signaling pathway

  5. Interspecific comparison of the effects of continuous ionizing radiation on the primitive mammalian stem germ cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, B.H.

    1978-01-01

    The response of the mammalian oocyte to radiation is characterized by wide interspecific differences, and results of preliminary assays suggest that this may be the case with the primitive stem germ cell. To test the validity of this observation and to define probable causes for the differences, prenatal mice, rats, and guinea pigs were irradiated continuously throughout gestation at rates of 1 and 3 rads per 23-hr day. Prenatal pigs were irradiated continuously for 108 days at a dose rate of 0.25 rad per 23-hr day. In all cases germ cells were enumerated in gonads excised either at birth or 6 days after birth. A dose rate of 0.25 rad/day reduced the germ-cell number in the male and female pig to 38 and 60% of control, respectively, and only 1 and 5% of the germ cells in the respective sexes survived a dose rate of 1 rad/day. Application of the single-hit multitarget model to all pig data yielded values for D 0 and n of 28 and 0.8, respectively, for the male and 27 and 3.2, respectively, for the female. Corresponding values for the male and female rat were 275 (D 0 ) and 0.3 (n) and 159 (D 0 ) and 0.8 (n), respectively. Both sexes of the pig were either sterilized or brought near sterility by a dose rate of 1 rad/day. In the case of the male rodent, however, this dose rate reduced germ-cell number to only 71% of control in the mouse, 50% of control in the rat, and 41% of control in the guinea pig. Ninety percent of the germ cells in the female rat survived a dose rate of 1 rad/day, as did 87% in the mouse and 71% in the guinea pig. When total dose was used as the basis of comparison, the pig remained the most sensitive species. Thus the differences among rodent species are not great when compared to the tremendous difference between the rodent and pig. When rodents are compared with pigs, the difference in the magnitude of the effect of continuous irradiation on the primitive stem cells of both sexes appears to be dependent on length of time at risk

  6. The Greenhouse Effect Does Exist!

    OpenAIRE

    Ebel, Jochen

    2009-01-01

    In particular, without the greenhouse effect, essential features of the atmospheric temperature profile as a function of height cannot be described, i.e., the existence of the tropopause above which we see an almost isothermal temperature curve, whereas beneath it the temperature curve is nearly adiabatic. The relationship between the greenhouse effect and observed temperature curve is explained and the paper by Gerlich and Tscheuschner [arXiv:0707.1161] critically analyzed. Gerlich and Tsche...

  7. Europe - space for transcultural existence?

    OpenAIRE

    Tamcke, Martin; Janny, de Jong; Klein, Lars; Waal, Margriet

    2013-01-01

    Europe - Space for Transcultural Existence? is the first volume of the new series, Studies in Euroculture, published by Göttingen University Press. The series derives its name from the Erasmus Mundus Master of Excellence Euroculture: Europe in the Wider World, a two year programme offered by a consortium of eight European universities in collaboration with four partner universities outside Europe. This master highlights regional, national and supranational dimensions of the European democrati...

  8. Existence of undiscovered Uranian satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boice, D.C.

    1986-04-01

    Structure in the Uranian ring system as observed in recent occultations may contain indirect evidence for the existence of undiscovered satellites. Using the Alfven and Arrhenius (1975, 1976) scenario for the formation of planetary systems, the orbital radii of up to nine hypothetical satellites interior to Miranda are computed. These calculations should provide interesting comparisons when the results from the Voyager 2 encounter with Uranus are made public. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  9. UNCITRAL: Changes to existing law

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Joakim

    2008-01-01

    The UNCITRAL Convention on Contracts for the International Carriage of Goods [wholly or partly] by Sea has an ambition of replacing current maritime regimes and expands the application of the Convention to include also multimodal transport. This thesis questions what changes to existing law, in certain areas, the new Convention will bring compared to the current regimes. In the initial part, the thesis provides for a brief background and history of international maritime regulations and focus...

  10. Existence Results for Incompressible Magnetoelasticity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kružík, Martin; Stefanelli, U.; Zeman, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 6 (2015), s. 2615-2623 ISSN 1078-0947 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-18652S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : magnetoelasticity * magnetostrictive solids * incompressibility * existence of minimizers * quasistatic evolution * energetic solution Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.127, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/MTR/kruzik-0443017.pdf

  11. The solar nebula redox state as recorded by most reduced chondrules of five primitive chondrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.C.; Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA

    1986-01-01

    Mafic minerals in the most reduced chondrules of five primitive meteorites were analyzed with an electron microprobe to determine the lower limit on their FeO contents. The accuracy obtained was +-0.01 weight percent FeO. The thermodynamic relationship between mole fraction FeSiO 3 and pO 2 of the ambient nebular gas at the time of mineral equilibration was established, and was used to infer the local O/H ratio of the nebular gas during chondrule formation. The lowest ferrosilite compositions reflected equilibration at 1500K with a gas 2-18 times more oxidizing than a gas of solar composition. Olivines in low-FeO UOC chondrules are uniformly more FeO-rich than coexisting pyroxenes. This descrepancy suggests that a significant change in the O/H ratio of the nebular gas occurred between the time of olivine and pyroxene crystallization in the region of the nebula where UOCs formed. Mineral compositions in the chondrules of two C2 chondrites studied suggest they formed in a more homogeneous region of the nebula than the UOCs. (author)

  12. Condensation time of the solar nebula from extinct I-129 in primitive meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, R. S.; Anders, E.

    1975-01-01

    Mineral separates from five carbonaceous chondrites were dated by extinct 16 million year I-129, in an attempt to establish the condensation time of the solar nebula. Two Fe3O4 or Fe3O4-FeS samples from the Murchison and Orgueil meteorites are older than any other material dated thus far, and apparently formed within 200,000 years of each other. The great age, close isochronism, and primitive nature of the samples suggest that the event recorded was the condensation stage of the solar nebula. It provides a suitable zero point for the chronology of the early solar system. The I-129/I-127 ratio during condensation of the nebula was (1.46 plus or minus 0.04) times 0.0001. The recrystallized C4 chondrite Karoonda began to retain Xe-129 1.8 plus or minus 0.5 million years after the above event. This short cooling time implies rapid accretion (not exceeding 1 million years) and a shallow origin (not exceeding 10 km) below the surface of its parent body.-

  13. Condensation time of the solar nebula from extinct 129I in primitive meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.S.; Anders, E.

    1975-01-01

    Mineral separates from five carbonaceous chondrites were dated by extinct 16 million year 129 I, in an attempt to establish the condensation time of the solar nebula. Two Fe 3 O 4 or Fe 3 O 4 --FeS samples from the Murchison and Orgueil meteorites are older than any other material dated thus far, and apparently formed within 2 x 10 5 years of each other. The great age, close isochronism, and primitive nature of the samples suggest that the event recorded was the condensation stage of the solar nebula. It provides a suitable zero point for the chronology of the early solar system. The 129 I/ 127 I ratio during condensation of the nebula was (1.46 +- 0.04) x 10 -4 . The recrystallized C4 chondrite Karoonda began to retain 129 Xe 1.8 +- 0.5 million years after the above event. This short cooling time implies rapid accretion (less than or equal to 1 million years) and a shallow origin (less than or equal to 10 km) below the surface of its parent body. (U.S.)

  14. Primitive robotic procedures: Automotions for medical liquids in 12th century Asia minor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necmettin Penbegul

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, day by day, robotic surgery applications have increase their role in our medical life. In this article, we reported the discovery of the first primitive robotic applications as automatic machines for the sensitive calculation of liquids such as blood in the literature. Al-Jazari who wrote the book “Elcâmi ‘Beyne’l - ‘ilm ve’l - ‘amel en-nâfi ‘fi es-sınaâ ‘ti’l - hiyel”, lived in Anatolian territory between 1136 and 1206. In this book that was written in the twelfth century, Al-Jazari described nearly fifty graphics of robotic machines and six of them that were designed for medical purposes. We found that some of the robots mentioned in this book are related to medical applications. This book reviews approximately 50 devices, including water clocks, candle clocks, ewers, various automata used for amusement in drink assemblies, automata used for ablution, blood collection tanks, fountains, music devices, devices for water lifting, locks, a protractor, a boat-shaped water clock, and the gate of Diyarbakir City in south-east of Turkey, actually in northern Mesopotamia. We found that automata used for ablution and blood collection tanks were related with medical applications; therefore, we will describe these robots.

  15. Comparison of regeneration potentials in tissue cultures of primitive and cultivated tomato species (Lycopersicon sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lech

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Regeneration capacities of two tomato cultivars: Potentat and Rutgers, and of three accessions of wild tomato species: Lycopersicon peruvianum PI 128650, L. peruvianum var. dentatum PI 128655 and L. glandulosum were studied using an universal medium suitable for regeneration of those plants from leaf pieces in tissue culture. Fragments of leaf blades were taken from plants raised in greenhouse conditions and placed on a modified MS medium containing 0.3 mg/l IAA and 3.0 mg/l BAP solidified with 1% agar. The explants were transferred every 4-5 weeks on fresh medium of the same composition. It was shown that all the three primitive tomato species revealed much higher multiplication coefficients than the two cultivars. Appropriate values were: 11 - for L. glandulosum, 8 - for L. peruvianum, 7 - for L. peruvianum var. dentatum, 4 - for L. esculentum cv. Potentat and 2 - cv. Rutgers. Completely regenerated plants were obtained from all the tested species, but organogenesis occurred almost two weeks earlier in wild tomatoes than in the culitivated varieties of L. esculentum.

  16. Origins of brain asymmetry: lateralization of odour memory recall in primitive Australian stingless bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasnelli, Elisa; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Rogers, Lesley J

    2011-10-10

    Left-right antennal asymmetry has been reported in honeybees. We studied primitive social bees to investigate the evolutionary origins of the asymmetry. Three species of Australian native, stingless bees (Trigona carbonaria, Trigona hockingsi and Austroplebeia australis) were trained to discriminate two odours, lemon (+)/vanilla (-), using the Proboscis Extension Reflex (PER). Recall of the olfactory memory at 1h after training was better when the odour was presented on the right than on the left side of the bee. In contrast, recall at 5h after training was better when the odour was presented on the left than on the right side of the bee. An additional experiment with T. hockingsi bees, fed with sugar 1h before recall and tested at 5h, produced similar results, showing that the shift in lateralized recall was due to the lapse of time per se and not to changes in motivation to feed. Stingless bees show the same laterality as honeybees, suggesting that asymmetry evolved prior to the evolutionary divergence of these species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Treatment Outcome and Prognostic Molecular Markers of Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo Hee Choi

    Full Text Available To identify prognostic factors and define the optimal management of patients with supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (sPNETs, we investigated treatment outcomes and explored the prognostic value of specific molecular markers.A total of 47 consecutive patients with pathologically confirmed sPNETs between May 1985 and June 2012 were included. Immunohistochemical analysis of LIN28, OLIG2, and Rad51 expression was performed and correlated with clinical outcome.With a median follow-up of 70 months, 5-year overall survival (OS and progression-free survival (PFS was 55.5% and 40%, respectively, for all patients. Age, surgical extent, and radiotherapy were significant prognostic factors for OS and PFS. Patients who received initially planned multimodal treatment without interruption (i.e., radiotherapy and surgery (≥subtotal resection, with or without chemotherapy showed significantly higher 5-year OS (71.2% and PFS (63.1%. In 29 patients with available tumor specimens, tumors with high expression of either LIN28 or OLIG2 or elevated level of Rad51 were significantly associated with poorer prognosis.We found that multimodal treatment improved outcomes for sPNET patients, especially when radiotherapy and ≥subtotal resection were part of the treatment regimen. Furthermore, we confirmed the prognostic significance of LIN28 and OLIG2 and revealed the potential role of Rad51 in sPNETs.

  18. Characterization of insoluble organic matter in primitive meteorites by microRaman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busemann, Henner; Alexander, M. O'd.; Nittler, Larry R.

    2007-08-01

    We have analyzed the chemically and isotopically well-characterized insoluble organic matter (IOM) extracted from 51 unequilibrated chondrites (8 CR, 9 CM, 1 CI, 3 ungrouped C, 9 CO, 9 CV, 10 ordinary, 1 CB and 1 E chondrites) using confocal imaging Raman spectroscopy. The average Raman properties of the IOM, as parameterized by the peak characteristics of the so-called D and G bands, which originate from aromatic C rings, show systematic trends that are correlated with meteorite (sub-) classification and IOM chemical compositions. Processes that affect the Raman and chemical properties of the IOM, such as thermal metamorphism experienced on the parent bodies, terrestrial weathering and amorphization due to irradiation in space, have been identified. We established separate sequences of metamorphism for ordinary, CO, oxidized, and reduced CV chondrites. Several spectra from the most primitive chondrites reveal the presence of organic matter that has been amorphized. This amorphization, usually the result of sputtering processes or UV or particle irradiation, could have occurred during the formation of the organic material in interstellar or protoplanetary ices or, less likely, on the surface of the parent bodies or during the transport of the meteorites to Earth. D band widths and peak metamorphic temperatures are strongly correlated, allowing for a straightforward estimation of these temperatures.

  19. A primitive endogenous lentivirus in a colugo: insights into the early evolution of lentiviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guan-Zhu; Worobey, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Lentiviruses infect a wide range of mammal species. Much remains unknown about their deep history and host distribution. Here, we report the discovery of an endogenous lentivirus within the genome of the Sunda flying lemur (Galeopterus variegatus) (which we designate "Galeopterus variegatus endogenous lentivirus" [GvaELV]). We estimate the GvaELV genome invasion to have occurred more than 14 Ma, supporting an ancient origin of the lentivirus clade and an ancient lentiviral infection in colugo. Phylogenetic analyses show that GvaELV is a sister group of all previously known lentiviruses. The GvaELV genome appears to possess some primitive genomic features of a lentivirus, encoding not only a trans-activator of transcription (tat) gene but also two additional putative accessory genes that share no discernible similarity with other lentiviral accessory genes. The discovery of GvaELV provides novel insights into the prehistory and host distribution of lentivirus. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Normalization of Complete Genome Characteristics: Application to Evolution from Primitive Organisms to Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorimachi, Kenji; Okayasu, Teiji; Ohhira, Shuji

    2015-04-01

    Normalized nucleotide and amino acid contents of complete genome sequences can be visualized as radar charts. The shapes of these charts depict the characteristics of an organism's genome. The normalized values calculated from the genome sequence theoretically exclude experimental errors. Further, because normalization is independent of both target size and kind, this procedure is applicable not only to single genes but also to whole genomes, which consist of a huge number of different genes. In this review, we discuss the applications of the normalization of the nucleotide and predicted amino acid contents of complete genomes to the investigation of genome structure and to evolutionary research from primitive organisms to Homo sapiens. Some of the results could never have been obtained from the analysis of individual nucleotide or amino acid sequences but were revealed only after the normalization of nucleotide and amino acid contents was applied to genome research. The discovery that genome structure was homogeneous was obtained only after normalization methods were applied to the nucleotide or predicted amino acid contents of genome sequences. Normalization procedures are also applicable to evolutionary research. Thus, normalization of the contents of whole genomes is a useful procedure that can help to characterize organisms.

  1. Primary Ewing's sarcoma-primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the uterus: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong-Yeol; Lee, Sun; Kang, Hyoung Jin; Kim, Hy-Sook; Park, Sang-Yoon

    2007-08-01

    Primary Ewing's sarcoma-primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES-PNET) of the uterus is an extremely rare malignancy. A 30-year-old Korean woman presented with abnormal uterine bleeding with uterine enlargement. A computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the abdomen and pelvis showed a huge uterine mass measuring 18 x 20 x 21 cm, metastasis to both pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes, and omental infiltration. The pathology report of the uterine mass described a uniformly hypercellular tumor, which was arranged in diffuse solid sheets of uniform, small, rounded, and sometimes spindle-shaped cells, with scanty cytoplasm. Immunohistochemically, the mass tested positive for vimentin, CD99, and chromogranin. The patient received several courses of combination chemotherapy and radiotherapy but died from tumor progression 16 months after the initial diagnosis. This is a rare case of primary uterine ES-PNET in a woman of reproductive age. A review of the literature indicates that primary uterine ES-PNET requires early diagnosis and multimodality treatment including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. The behavior of this tumor is potentially aggressive.

  2. PTEN and DMBT1 homozygous deletion and expression in medulloblastomas and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inda, María Mar; Mercapide, Javier; Muñoz, Jorge; Coullin, Philippe; Danglot, Giséle; Tuñon, Teresa; Martínez-Peñuela, José María; Rivera, José María; Burgos, Juan J; Bernheim, Alain; Castresana, Javier S

    2004-12-01

    Medulloblastoma, which accounts for 20-25% of all childhood brain tumors, is defined as a primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) located in the cerebellum. Supratentorial PNET are less frequent than medulloblastoma. But their clinical outcome is worse than in medulloblastomas. Chromosome 10q contains at least 2 tumor suppressor genes that might play a role in brain tumor development: PTEN and DMBT1. The aim of this study was to compare the status of homozygous deletion and expression of PTEN and DMBT1 genes in PNET primary tumor samples and cell lines. Homozygous deletions of PTEN and DMBT1 were studied in 32 paraffin-embedded PNET samples (23 medulloblastomas and 9 supratentorial PNET) and in 7 PNET cell lines, by differential PCR and by FISH. PTEN homozygous losses were demonstrated in 7 medulloblastomas (32%) and in no supratentorial PNET, while homozygous deletions of DMBT1 appeared in 1 supratentorial PNET (20%) and in 7 medulloblastomas (33%). No homozygous deletion of PTEN or DMBT1 was detected in any of the PNET cell lines either by differential PCR or by FISH. Expression study of the 2 genes was performed in the 7 PNET cell lines by RT-PCR. One PNET cell line lacked PTEN and DMBT1 expression, while 2 medulloblastoma cell lines did not express DMBT1. Our results add some positive data to the hypothesis that supratentorial PNETs and medulloblastomas might be genetically different.

  3. Data Management for the Internet of Things: Design Primitives and Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Elkheir, Mervat; Hayajneh, Mohammad; Ali, Najah Abu

    2013-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is a networking paradigm where interconnected, smart objects continuously generate data and transmit it over the Internet. Much of the IoT initiatives are geared towards manufacturing low-cost and energy-efficient hardware for these objects, as well as the communication technologies that provide objects interconnectivity. However, the solutions to manage and utilize the massive volume of data produced by these objects are yet to mature. Traditional database management solutions fall short in satisfying the sophisticated application needs of an IoT network that has a truly global-scale. Current solutions for IoT data management address partial aspects of the IoT environment with special focus on sensor networks. In this paper, we survey the data management solutions that are proposed for IoT or subsystems of the IoT. We highlight the distinctive design primitives that we believe should be addressed in an IoT data management solution, and discuss how they are approached by the proposed solutions. We finally propose a data management framework for IoT that takes into consideration the discussed design elements and acts as a seed to a comprehensive IoT data management solution. The framework we propose adapts a federated, data- and sources-centric approach to link the diverse Things with their abundance of data to the potential applications and services that are envisioned for IoT. PMID:24240599

  4. Multiple Ewing Sarcoma/Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors in the Mediastinum: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sung Hwan; Hwang, Jung Hwa; Da Nam, Bo; Kim, Hyun Jo; Kim, Ki-Up; Kim, Dong Won; Choi, In Ho

    2016-02-01

    Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumors (ES/PNET) are high-grade malignant neoplasms. These malignancies present very rare tumors of thoracopulmonary area and even rarer in the mediastinum. In our knowledge, ES/PNET presented with multiple mediastinal masses has not been reported previously. We experienced a case of a 42-year-old man presented with gradual onset of left-side pleuritic chest pain. A contrast-enhanced chest computed tomography (CT) scan showed separate 2 large heterogeneously enhancing masses in each anterior and middle mediastinum of the left hemithorax. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) scan revealed high fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in the mediastinal masses. After surgical excision for the mediastinal masses, both of the masses were diagnosed as the ES/PNET group of tumors on the histopathologic examination. The patient refused postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy and came back with local tumor recurrence and distant metastasis on 4-month follow-up after surgical resection. We report this uncommon form of ES/PNET. We are to raise awareness that this rare malignancy should be considered as a differential diagnosis of the malignant mediastinal tumors and which can be manifested as multiple masses in a patient. Understanding this rare entity of extra-skeletal ES/PNET and characteristic imaging findings can help radiologists and clinicians to approach proper diagnosis and better management for this highly malignant tumor.

  5. Isotopic and Chemical Evidence for Primitive Aqueous Alteration in the Tagish Lake Meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Keisuke; Hidaka, Hiroshi; Yoneda, Shigekazu

    2018-01-01

    Aqueous alteration is one of the primitive activities that occurred on meteorite parent bodies in the early solar system. The Tagish Lake meteorite is known to show an intense parent body aqueous alteration signature. In this study, quantitative analyses of the alkaline elements and isotopic analyses of Sr and Ba from acid leachates of TL (C2-ungrouped) were performed to investigate effects of aqueous alteration. The main purpose of this study is to search for isotopic evidence of extinct 135Cs from the Ba isotopic analyses in the chemical separates from the Tagish Lake meteorite. Barium isotopic data from the leachates show variable 135Ba isotopic anomalies (ε = ‑2.6 ∼ +3.6) which correlatewith 137Ba and 138Ba suggesting a heterogeneous distribution of s- and r-rich nucleosynthetic components in the early solar system. The 87Rb–87Sr and 135Cs–135Ba decay systems on TL in this study do not provide any chronological information. The disturbance of the TL chronometers is likely a reflection of the selective dissolution of Cs and Rb given the relatively higher mobility of Cs and Rb compared to Ba and Sr, respectively, during fluid mineral interactions.

  6. Primitive robotic procedures: automotions for medical liquids in 12th century Asia minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penbegul, Necmettin; Atar, Murat; Kendirci, Muammer; Bozkurt, Yasar; Hatipoglu, Namık Kemal; Verit, Ayhan; Kadıoglu, Ates

    2014-12-30

    In recent years, day by day, robotic surgery applications have increase their role in our medical life. In this article, we reported the discovery of the first primitive robotic applications as automatic machines for the sensitive calculation of liquids such as blood in the literature. Al-Jazari who wrote the book "Elcâmi 'Beyne'l - 'ilm ve'l - 'amel en-nâfi 'fi es-sınaâ 'ti'l - hiyel", lived in Anatolian territory between 1136 and 1206. In this book that was written in the twelfth century, Al-Jazari described nearly fifty graphics of robotic machines and six of them that were designed for medical purposes. We found that some of the robots mentioned in this book are related to medical applications. This book reviews approximately 50 devices, including water clocks, candle clocks, ewers, various automata used for amusement in drink assemblies, automata used for ablution, blood collection tanks, fountains, music devices, devices for water lifting, locks, a protractor, a boat-shaped water clock, and the gate of Diyarbakir City in south-east of Turkey, actually in northern Mesopotamia. We found that automata used for ablution and blood collection tanks were related with medical applications; therefore, we will describe these robots.

  7. BigDebug: Debugging Primitives for Interactive Big Data Processing in Spark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulzar, Muhammad Ali; Interlandi, Matteo; Yoo, Seunghyun; Tetali, Sai Deep; Condie, Tyson; Millstein, Todd; Kim, Miryung

    2016-05-01

    Developers use cloud computing platforms to process a large quantity of data in parallel when developing big data analytics. Debugging the massive parallel computations that run in today's data-centers is time consuming and error-prone. To address this challenge, we design a set of interactive, real-time debugging primitives for big data processing in Apache Spark, the next generation data-intensive scalable cloud computing platform. This requires re-thinking the notion of step-through debugging in a traditional debugger such as gdb, because pausing the entire computation across distributed worker nodes causes significant delay and naively inspecting millions of records using a watchpoint is too time consuming for an end user. First, BIGDEBUG's simulated breakpoints and on-demand watchpoints allow users to selectively examine distributed, intermediate data on the cloud with little overhead. Second, a user can also pinpoint a crash-inducing record and selectively resume relevant sub-computations after a quick fix. Third, a user can determine the root causes of errors (or delays) at the level of individual records through a fine-grained data provenance capability. Our evaluation shows that BIGDEBUG scales to terabytes and its record-level tracing incurs less than 25% overhead on average. It determines crash culprits orders of magnitude more accurately and provides up to 100% time saving compared to the baseline replay debugger. The results show that BIGDEBUG supports debugging at interactive speeds with minimal performance impact.

  8. Primitive neuroectodermal tumors of kidney: Our experience in a tertiary care center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, A; Mahapatra, S K; Nayak, B; Saini, A K; Biswas, B

    2016-01-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) are rare highly aggressive neoplasms. The diagnosis is made by histopathology with the support of immunohistochemistry (IHC) and cytogenetics. The aggressive multimodality treatment is recommended for the management of these tumors. The purpose of our study is to review our experiences in the diagnoses and treatment of PNET of the kidneys. We retrospectively reviewed the data of all the patients, who were treated for the PNET of the kidneys at our institute between April and March 2011 and compared with the available literature. A total of eight patients were treated for PNET of the kidney. Out of the eight patients, four were males and four females. Nearly 50% of our patients had inferior vena caval thrombus at the time of presentation. The diagnosis was made on histopathology supported by IHC. Out of the eight patients, one patient had intraoperative death due to massive pulmonary thromboembolism and another died on the 7th post-operative day due to disseminated intravascular coagulation and multiorgan failure. Rest six patients were treated with post-operative chemotherapy or a combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. For these six patients, overall median survival was 45 months with a 3 year disease-free survival of 66% and 5 year survival of 44%. PNET of the kidneys are rare peripheral neuroectodermal tumors with an aggressive clinical course. These tumors carry a very poor prognosis. An aggressive treatment approach using a combination of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy is recommended for a reasonable survival in these tumors.

  9. Data management for the internet of things: design primitives and solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Elkheir, Mervat; Hayajneh, Mohammad; Ali, Najah Abu

    2013-11-14

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is a networking paradigm where interconnected, smart objects continuously generate data and transmit it over the Internet. Much of the IoT initiatives are geared towards manufacturing low-cost and energy-efficient hardware for these objects, as well as the communication technologies that provide objects interconnectivity. However, the solutions to manage and utilize the massive volume of data produced by these objects are yet to mature. Traditional database management solutions fall short in satisfying the sophisticated application needs of an IoT network that has a truly global-scale. Current solutions for IoT data management address partial aspects of the IoT environment with special focus on sensor networks. In this paper, we survey the data management solutions that are proposed for IoT or subsystems of the IoT. We highlight the distinctive design primitives that we believe should be addressed in an IoT data management solution, and discuss how they are approached by the proposed solutions. We finally propose a data management framework for IoT that takes into consideration the discussed design elements and acts as a seed to a comprehensive IoT data management solution. The framework we propose adapts a federated, data- and sources-centric approach to link the diverse Things with their abundance of data to the potential applications and services that are envisioned for IoT.

  10. A control theory approach to the analysis and synthesis of the experimentally observed motion primitives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nori, Francesco; Frezza, Ruggero

    2005-11-01

    Recent experiments on frogs and rats, have led to the hypothesis that sensory-motor systems are organized into a finite number of linearly combinable modules; each module generates a motor command that drives the system to a predefined equilibrium. Surprisingly, in spite of the infiniteness of different movements that can be realized, there seems to be only a handful of these modules. The structure can be thought of as a vocabulary of "elementary control actions". Admissible controls, which in principle belong to an infinite dimensional space, are reduced to the linear vector space spanned by these elementary controls. In the present paper we address some theoretical questions that arise naturally once a similar structure is applied to the control of nonlinear kinematic chains. First of all, we show how to choose the modules so that the system does not loose its capability of generating a "complete" set of movements. Secondly, we realize a "complete" vocabulary with a minimal number of elementary control actions. Subsequently, we show how to modify the control scheme so as to compensate for parametric changes in the system to be controlled. Remarkably, we construct a set of modules with the property of being invariant with respect to the parameters that model the growth of an individual. Robustness against uncertainties is also considered showing how to optimally choose the modules equilibria so as to compensate for errors affecting the system. Finally, the motion primitive paradigm is extended to locomotion and a related formalization of internal (proprioceptive) and external (exteroceptive) variables is given.

  11. On non-primitively divergent vertices of Yang-Mills theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Markus Q. [Institute of Physics, University of Graz, NAWI Graz (Austria)

    2017-11-15

    Two correlation functions of Yang-Mills beyond the primitively divergent ones, the two-ghost-two-gluon and the four-ghost vertices, are calculated and their influence on lower vertices is examined. Their full (transverse) tensor structure is taken into account. As input, a solution of the full two-point equations - including two-loop terms - is used that respects the resummed perturbative ultraviolet behavior. A clear hierarchy is found with regard to the color structure that reduces the number of relevant dressing functions. The impact of the two-ghost-two-gluon vertex on the three-gluon vertex is negligible, which is explained by the fact that all non-small dressing functions drop out due to their color factors. Only in the ghost-gluon vertex a small net effect below 2% is seen. The four-ghost vertex is found to be extremely small in general. Since these two four-point functions do not enter into the propagator equations, these findings establish their small overall effect on lower correlation functions. (orig.)

  12. Bax function in the absence of mitochondria in the primitive protozoan Giardia lamblia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian B Hehl

    Full Text Available Bax-induced permeabilization of the mitochondrial outer membrane and release of cytochrome c are key events in apoptosis. Although Bax can compromise mitochondria in primitive unicellular organisms that lack a classical apoptotic machinery, it is still unclear if Bax alone is sufficient for this, or whether additional mitochondrial components are required. The protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia is one of the earliest branching eukaryotes and harbors highly degenerated mitochondrial remnant organelles (mitosomes that lack a genome. Here we tested whether human Bax expressed in Giardia can be used to ablate mitosomes. We demonstrate that these organelles are neither targeted, nor compromised, by Bax. However, specialized compartments of the regulated secretory pathway are completely ablated by Bax. As a consequence, maturing cyst wall proteins that are sorted into these organelles are released into the cytoplasm, causing a developmental arrest and cell death. Interestingly, this ectopic cargo release is dependent on the carboxy-terminal 22 amino acids of Bax, and can be prevented by the Bax-inhibiting peptide Ku70. A C-terminally truncated Bax variant still localizes to secretory organelles, but is unable to permeabilize these membranes, uncoupling membrane targeting and cargo release. Even though mitosomes are too diverged to be recognized by Bax, off-target membrane permeabilization appears to be conserved and leads to cell death completely independently of mitochondria.

  13. Chemotaxis of primitive hematopoietic cells in response to stromal cell–derived factor-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Deog-Yeon; Rafii, Shahin; Hamada, Tsuneyoshi; Moore, Malcolm A.S.

    2000-01-01

    Stromal cell–derived factor-1 (SDF-1) provides a potent chemotactic stimulus for CD34+ hematopoietic cells. We cultured mobilized peripheral blood (PB) and umbilical cord blood (CB) for up to 5 weeks and examined the migratory activity of cobblestone area–forming cells (CAFCs) and long-term culture–initiating cells (LTC-ICs) in a transwell assay. In this system, SDF-1 or MS-5 marrow stromal cells placed in the lower chamber induced transmembrane and transendothelial migration by 2- and 5-week-old CAFCs and LTC-ICs in 3 hours. Transmigration was blocked by preincubation of input CD34+ cells with antibody to CXCR4. Transendothelial migration of CB CAFCs and LTC-ICs was higher than that of PB. We expanded CD34+ cells from CB in serum-free medium with thrombopoietin, flk-2 ligand, and c-kit ligand, with or without IL-3 and found that CAFCs cultured in the absence of IL-3 had a chemotactic response equivalent to noncultured cells, even after 5 weeks. However, addition of IL-3 to the culture reduced this response by 20–50%. These data indicate that SDF-1 induces chemotaxis of primitive hematopoietic cells signaling through CXCR4 and that the chemoattraction could be downmodulated by culture ex vivo. PMID:10619866

  14. Semantics of immersive web through its architectural structure and graphic primitives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén González Crespo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, practices and tools for computer-aided three-dimensional design, do not allow the semantic description of objects constructed in some cases specified notations as handling layers, or labeling of each development itself. The lack of a standard for the description of the elements represents a major drawback for using advanced three-dimensional environments such as the automation of search and construction processes that require semantic knowledge of its elements.This project proposes the development the semantic composition from the hierarchy of three-dimensional visualization of graphics primitives used to construct three-dimensional objects, taking into account the geometric composition architecture of standard 19775-1 of the International Electrotechnical Commission of the International Organization for StandardizationFor the development of semantic composition use the methodology methontology proposed by the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, because it allows the construction of ontologies about specific domains, limiting the domain by defining classes and subclasses, relationships and the generation of instances a framework for resource description on web ontology language.

  15. A Case of Renal Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor Confirmed by Fluorescence in situ Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiki Etani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET is a member of the Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT. We report a case of PNET in a 66-year-old male who presented with a large solid tumor within the parenchyma of the middle pole of the left kidney with metastases to the left adrenal gland and right ischium. A fine-needle biopsy was performed and showed a small round cell tumor. Results of immunohistochemical staining suggested this tumor belonged to ESFT. Preoperative VDC-IE (combined vincristine, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by another combination of ifosfamide and etoposide chemotherapy and left radical nephrectomy and adrenalectomy were performed. The histopathological findings of the resected tumor were similar to those in the biopsy specimen, but the results of AE1/AE3 were different. For the diagnosis, fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed. Split signals of the EWSR1 gene were detected, and transmission electron microscopy showed neuroendocrine granules and microtubules. The final diagnosis of this tumor was PNET of the kidney.

  16. 75 FR 45013 - Pre-Existing Condition Insurance Plan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... Department of Homeland Security's U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) Systematic Alien... pre-existing condition based on evidence of the existence or history of certain medical or health...

  17. Quantum logics with existence property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, C.

    1991-01-01

    A quantum logic (σ-orthocomplete orthomodular poset L with a convex, unital, and separating set Δ of states) is said to have the existence property if the expectation functionals on lin(Δ) associated with the bounded observables of L form a vector space. Classical quantum logics as well as the Hilbert space logics of traditional quantum mechanics have this property. The author shows that, if a quantum logic satisfies certain conditions in addition to having property E, then the number of its blocks (maximal classical subsystems) must either be one (classical logics) or uncountable (as in Hilbert space logics)

  18. Optimising design and cost-effective implementation of future pan-African dietary studies: a review of existing economic integration and nutritional indicators for scenario-based profiling and clustering of countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglago, Elom K; Landais, Edwige; Zotor, Francis; Nicolas, Genevieve; Gunter, Marc J; Amuna, Paul; Slimani, Nadia

    2018-02-01

    Most of the African countries are undergoing a complex nutrition and epidemiologic transition associated with a rapid increase in the prevalence of diverse non-communicable diseases. Despite this alarming situation, the still limited and fragmented resources available in Africa impede the implementation of effective action plans to tackle the current and projected diet-disease burden. In order to address these common needs and challenges, the African Union is increasingly supporting continental approaches and strategies as reflected in the launching of the Agenda 2063 and the African regional nutrition strategy 2015-2025, among others. To assure the successful implementation of pan-African nutritional and health initiatives, cost-effective approaches considering similarities/disparities in economy, regional integration, development and nutritional aspects between countries are needed. In the absence of pre-existing models, we reviewed regional economic integration and nutritional indicators (n 13) available in international organisations databases or governmental agencies websites, for fifty-two African countries. These indicators were used to map the countries according to common languages (e.g. Arabic, English, French, Portuguese), development status (e.g. human development index), malnutrition status (e.g. obesity) and diet (e.g. staples predominantly based on either cereals or tubers). The review of the indicators showed that there exist similarities between African countries that can be exploited to benefit the continent with cross-national experiences in order to avoid duplication of efforts in the implementation of future pan-African health studies. In addition, including present and future nutrition surveillance programmes in Africa into national statistical systems might be cost-effective and sustainable in the longer term.

  19. Transportation capabilities of the existing cask fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.E.; Joy, D.S.; Wankerl, M.W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a number of scenarios estimating the amount of spent nuclear fuel that could be transported to a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility by various combinations of existing cask fleets. To develop the scenarios, the data provided by the Transportation System Data Base (TSDB) were modified to reflect the additional time for cask turnaround resulting from various startup and transportation issues. With these more realistic speed and cask-handling assumptions, the annual transportation capability of a fleet consisting of all of the existing casks is approximately 46 metric tons of uranium (MTU). The most likely fleet of existing casks that would be made available to the Department of Energy (DOE) consists of two rail, three overweight truck, and six legal weight truck casks. Under the same transportation assumptions, this cask fleet is capable of approximately transporting 270 MTU/year. These ranges of capability is a result of the assumptions pertaining to the number of casks assumed to be available. It should be noted that this assessment assumes additional casks based on existing certifications are not fabricated. 5 refs., 4 tabs

  20. Transportation capabilities of the existing cask fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.E.; Wankerl, M.W.; Joy, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a number of scenarios estimating the amount of spent nuclear fuel that could be transported to a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility by various combinations of existing cask fleets. To develop the scenarios, the data provided by the Transportation System Data Base (TSDB) were modified to reflect the additional time for cask turnaround resulting from various startup and transportation issues. With these more realistic speed and cask-handling assumptions, the annual transportation capability of a fleet consisting of all of the existing casks is approximately 465 metric tons of uranium (MTU). The most likely fleet of existing casks that would be made available to the DOE consists of two rail, three overweight truck, and six legal weight truck casks. Under the same transportation assumptions, this cask fleet is capable of approximately transporting 270 MTU/year. These ranges of capability is a result of the assumptions pertaining to the number of casks assumed to be available. It should be noted that this assessment assumes additional casks based on existing certifications are not fabricated

  1. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the zygomaticoorbital complex: a rare location and ways of surgical repair of the area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. R. Ragimov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primitive neuroectodermal tumor in the zygomaticoorbital region is a rare neoplasm of the head and neck. Due to the necessity for wide radical excision of a primary tumor, there may be serious functional and cosmetic disorders that substantially affect quality of life in patients. Restoration of this region is one of the challenges of reconstructive surgery because of the specific features of the relief of bone structures. The paper describes a clinical case of the site of primitive neuroectodermal tumor in the zygomaticoorbital complex and a method for repairing postresectional defect and completely recovering the function of the organ of vision and aesthetic parameters of the face.

  2. Learning and Chaining of Motor Primitives for Goal-directed Locomotion of a Snake-Like Robot with Screw-Drive Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatterjee, Sromona; Nachstedt, Timo; Tamosiunaite, Minija

    2015-01-01

    -directed locomotion for the robot. The behavioural primitives of the robot are generated using a reinforcement learning approach called "Policy Improvement with Path Integrals" (PI2). PI2 is numerically simple and has the ability to deal with high-dimensional systems. Here, PI2 is used to learn the robot’s motor...... controls by finding proper locomotion control parameters, like joint angles and screw-drive unit velocities, in a coordinated manner for different goals. Thus, it is able to generate a large repertoire of motor primitives, which are selectively stored to form a primitive library. The learning process...

  3. Does cold nuclear fusion exist?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brudanin, V.B.; Bystritskij, V.M.; Egorov, V.G.; Shamsutdinov, S.G.; Shyshkin, A.L.; Stolupin, V.A.; Yutlandov, I.A.

    1989-01-01

    The results of investigation of cold nuclear fusion on palladium are given both for electrolysis of heavy water D 2 O and mixture D 2 O + H 2 O) (1:1) and for palladium saturation with gaseous deuterium. The possibility of existance of this phenomenon was examined by detection of neutrons and gamma quanta from reactions: d + d → 3 He + n + 3.27 MeV, p + d → 3 He + γ + 5.5 MeV. Besides these reactions were identified by measuring the characteristic X radiation of palladium due to effect of charged products 3 He, p, t. The upper limits of the intensities of hypothetical sources of neutrons and gamma quanta at the 95% confidence level were obtained to be Q n ≤ 2x10 -2 n/sxcm 3 Pd, Q γ ≤ 2x10 -3 γ/sxcm 3 Pd. 2 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  4. Why do interstellar grains exist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seab, C.G.; Hollenbach, D.J.; Mckee, C.F.; Tielens, A.G.G.M.

    1986-01-01

    There exists a discrepancy between calculated destruction rates of grains in the interstellar medium and postulated sources of new grains. This problem was examined by modelling the global life cycle of grains in the galaxy. The model includes: grain destruction due to supernovae shock waves; grain injection from cool stars, planetary nebulae, star formation, novae, and supernovae; grain growth by accretion in dark clouds; and a mixing scheme between phases of the interstellar medium. Grain growth in molecular clouds is considered as a mechanism or increasing the formation rate. To decrease the shock destruction rate, several new physical processes, such as partial vaporization effects in grain-grain collisions, breakdown of the small Larmor radius approximation for betatron acceleration, and relaxation of the steady-state shock assumption are included

  5. Visceral endoderm and the primitive streak interact to build the fetal-placental interface of the mouse gastrula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Adriana M; Downs, Karen M

    2017-12-01

    Hypoblast/visceral endoderm assists in amniote nutrition, axial positioning and formation of the gut. Here, we provide evidence, currently limited to humans and non-human primates, that hypoblast is a purveyor of extraembryonic mesoderm in the mouse gastrula. Fate mapping a unique segment of axial extraembryonic visceral endoderm associated with the allantoic component of the primitive streak, and referred to as the "AX", revealed that visceral endoderm supplies the placentae with extraembryonic mesoderm. Exfoliation of the AX was dependent upon contact with the primitive streak, which modulated Hedgehog signaling. Resolution of the AX's epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by Hedgehog shaped the allantois into its characteristic projectile and individualized placental arterial vessels. A unique border cell separated the delaminating AX from the yolk sac blood islands which, situated beyond the limit of the streak, were not formed by an EMT. Over time, the AX became the hindgut lip, which contributed extensively to the posterior interface, including both embryonic and extraembryonic tissues. The AX, in turn, imparted antero-posterior (A-P) polarity on the primitive streak and promoted its elongation and differentiation into definitive endoderm. Results of heterotopic grafting supported mutually interactive functions of the AX and primitive streak, showing that together, they self-organized into a complete version of the fetal-placental interface, forming an elongated structure that exhibited A-P polarity and was composed of the allantois, an AX-derived rod-like axial extension reminiscent of the embryonic notochord, the placental arterial vasculature and visceral endoderm/hindgut. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Preliminary study on the way of formation of amino acids on primitive earth under non-reducing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Huaibin; Shao Chunlin; Yu Zengliang

    2001-01-01

    Low energy ions were produced by N 2 glow discharge. The positive ions were accelerated into three kinds of carboxylate solution to induce chemical reactions. HPLC analysis showed that N was deposited into the solution, ammonia and amino acids were produced by such kind of implantation. The time-response of amounts of amino acids was given. The results presented a new way for the production of ammonia and amino acids under primitive earth conditions

  7. Origin of primitive ocean island basalts by crustal gabbro assimilation and multiple recharge of plume-derived melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Anastassia Y.; Bohrson, Wendy A.; Grégoire, Michel

    2017-07-01

    Chemical Geodynamics relies on a paradigm that the isotopic composition of ocean island basalt (OIB) represents equilibrium with its primary mantle sources. However, the discovery of huge isotopic heterogeneity within olivine-hosted melt inclusions in primitive basalts from Kerguelen, Iceland, Hawaii and South Pacific Polynesia islands implies open-system behavior of OIBs, where during magma residence and transport, basaltic melts are contaminated by surrounding lithosphere. To constrain the processes of crustal assimilation by OIBs, we employed the Magma Chamber Simulator (MCS), an energy-constrained thermodynamic model of recharge, assimilation and fractional crystallization. For a case study of the 21-19 Ma basaltic series, the most primitive series ever found among the Kerguelen OIBs, we performed sixty-seven simulations in the pressure range from 0.2 to 1.0 GPa using compositions of olivine-hosted melt inclusions as parental magmas, and metagabbro xenoliths from the Kerguelen Archipelago as wallrock. MCS modeling requires that the assimilant is anatectic crustal melts (P2O5 ≤ 0.4 wt.% contents) derived from the Kerguelen oceanic metagabbro wallrock. To best fit the phenocryst assemblage observed in the investigated basaltic series, recharge of relatively large masses of hydrous primitive basaltic melts (H2O = 2-3 wt%; MgO = 7-10 wt.%) into a middle crustal chamber at 0.2 to 0.3 GPa is required. Our results thus highlight the important impact that crustal gabbro assimilation and mantle recharge can have on the geochemistry of mantle-derived olivine-phyric OIBs. The importance of crustal assimilation affecting primitive plume-derived basaltic melts underscores that isotopic and chemical equilibrium between ocean island basalts and associated deep plume mantle source(s) may be the exception rather than the rule.

  8. From Realistic to Simple Models of Associating Fluids. II. Primitive Models of Ammonia, Ethanol and Models of Water Revisited

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlček, Lukáš; Nezbeda, Ivo

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 5 (2004), s. 485-497 ISSN 0026-8976 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/02/0764; GA AV ČR IAA4072303; GA AV ČR IAA4072309 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : primitive model * association fluids * ethanol Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.406, year: 2004

  9. The divergent fates of primitive hydrospheric water on Earth and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Jon; Dyck, Brendan; Palin, Richard M.; Moore, James D. P.; Smye, Andrew J.

    2017-12-01

    Despite active transport into Earth’s mantle, water has been present on our planet’s surface for most of geological time. Yet water disappeared from the Martian surface soon after its formation. Although some of the water on Mars was lost to space via photolysis following the collapse of the planet’s magnetic field, the widespread serpentinization of Martian crust suggests that metamorphic hydration reactions played a critical part in the sequestration of the crust. Here we quantify the relative volumes of water that could be removed from each planet’s surface via the burial and metamorphism of hydrated mafic crusts, and calculate mineral transition-induced bulk-density changes at conditions of elevated pressure and temperature for each. The metamorphic mineral assemblages in relatively FeO-rich Martian lavas can hold about 25 per cent more structurally bound water than those in metamorphosed terrestrial basalts, and can retain it at greater depths within Mars. Our calculations suggest that in excess of 9 per cent by volume of the Martian mantle may contain hydrous mineral species as a consequence of surface reactions, compared to about 4 per cent by volume of Earth’s mantle. Furthermore, neither primitive nor evolved hydrated Martian crust show noticeably different bulk densities compared to their anhydrous equivalents, in contrast to hydrous mafic terrestrial crust, which transforms to denser eclogite upon dehydration. This would have allowed efficient overplating and burial of early Martian crust in a stagnant-lid tectonic regime, in which the lithosphere comprised a single tectonic plate, with only the warmer, lower crust involved in mantle convection. This provided an important sink for hydrospheric water and a mechanism for oxidizing the Martian mantle. Conversely, relatively buoyant mafic crust and hotter geothermal gradients on Earth reduced the potential for upper-mantle hydration early in its geological history, leading to water being retained

  10. Surgical treatment of primitive gastro-intestinal lymphomas: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cirocchi Roberto

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Primitive Gastrointestinal Lymphomas (PGIL are uncommon tumours, although time-trend analyses have demonstrated an increase. The role of surgery in the management of lymphoproliferative diseases has changed over the past 40 years. Nowadays their management is centred on systemic treatments as chemo-/radio- therapy. Surgery is restricted to very selected indications, always discussed in a multidisciplinary setting. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the actual role of surgery in the treatment of PGIL. A systematic review of literature was conducted according to the recommendations of The Cochrane Collaboration. Main outcomes analysed were overall survival (OS and disease free survival (DFS. There are currently 1 RCT and 4 non-randomised prospective controlled studies comparing surgical versus medical treatment for PGIL. Seven hundred and one patients were analysed, divided into two groups: 318 who underwent to surgery alone or associated with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy (surgical group versus 383 who were treated with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy (medical group. Despite the OS at 10 years between surgical and medical groups did not show relevant differences, the DFS was significantly better in the medical group (P = 0.00001. Accordingly a trend was noticed in the recurrence rate, which was lower in the medical group (6.06 vs. 8.57%; and an higher mortality was revealed in the surgical group (4.51% vs. 1.50%. The chemotherapy confirms its primary role in the management of PGIL as part of systemic treatment in the medical group. Surgery remains the treatment of choice in case of PGIL acutely complicated, although there is no evidence in literature regarding the utility of preventive surgery.

  11. Recurrent spinal primitive neuroectodermal tumor with brain and bone metastases: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Frank; Chiou, Shyh-Shin; Lin, Sheng-Fung; Lieu, Ann-Shung; Chen, Yi-Ting; Huang, Chih-Jen

    2017-11-01

    Primary spinal primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) is relatively rare in all age groups, and the prognosis in most cases of spinal PNETs appears to be poor, with a median patient survival of 1 to 2 years. We present a case with recurrent spinal PNET with brain and bone metastases that was successfully treated by multimodality treatment. A 14-year-old teenage girl had suffered from progressive left upper back pain with bilateral lower legs weakness and numbness for 1 year. After treatment, left neck mass was noted 3 years later. Initially, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed neurogenic tumor involving intradural extramedullary space of T5-T10. Pathology report showed PNET (World Health Organization grade IV) featuring lobules of neoplastic cells with round regular nuclei, high nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio, and fibrillary cytoplasm. At the time of tumor recurrence, chest MRI then showed recurrent tumor at T2-T3 level of the epidural space with right neural foramina invasion. Brain MRI showed extensive bilateral calvarial metastases and leptomeningeal metastases in the right frontoparietal regions. Bone scan showed multiple bone metastases. T-spine tumor removal and adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) to T-spine tumor bed were performed in the initial treatment. After clinical tumor recurrence, tumor removal was done again. She then received chemotherapy followed by whole brain irradiation with hippocampal sparing with 35 gray in 20 fractions. After treatment, follow-up images showed that the disease was under control. There was no neurological sequela. She has survived more than 7 years from diagnosis and more than 4 years from recurrence to date. Multimodality treatments including operation, RT, and chemotherapy should be considered in the initial treatment planning, and salvage chemotherapy was useful in this case.

  12. The divergent fates of primitive hydrospheric water on Earth and Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Jon; Dyck, Brendan; Palin, Richard M; Moore, James D P; Smye, Andrew J

    2017-12-20

    Despite active transport into Earth's mantle, water has been present on our planet's surface for most of geological time. Yet water disappeared from the Martian surface soon after its formation. Although some of the water on Mars was lost to space via photolysis following the collapse of the planet's magnetic field, the widespread serpentinization of Martian crust suggests that metamorphic hydration reactions played a critical part in the sequestration of the crust. Here we quantify the relative volumes of water that could be removed from each planet's surface via the burial and metamorphism of hydrated mafic crusts, and calculate mineral transition-induced bulk-density changes at conditions of elevated pressure and temperature for each. The metamorphic mineral assemblages in relatively FeO-rich Martian lavas can hold about 25 per cent more structurally bound water than those in metamorphosed terrestrial basalts, and can retain it at greater depths within Mars. Our calculations suggest that in excess of 9 per cent by volume of the Martian mantle may contain hydrous mineral species as a consequence of surface reactions, compared to about 4 per cent by volume of Earth's mantle. Furthermore, neither primitive nor evolved hydrated Martian crust show noticeably different bulk densities compared to their anhydrous equivalents, in contrast to hydrous mafic terrestrial crust, which transforms to denser eclogite upon dehydration. This would have allowed efficient overplating and burial of early Martian crust in a stagnant-lid tectonic regime, in which the lithosphere comprised a single tectonic plate, with only the warmer, lower crust involved in mantle convection. This provided an important sink for hydrospheric water and a mechanism for oxidizing the Martian mantle. Conversely, relatively buoyant mafic crust and hotter geothermal gradients on Earth reduced the potential for upper-mantle hydration early in its geological history, leading to water being retained close to

  13. RASSF1A promoter is highly methylated in primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inda, María-del-Mar; Castresana, Javier S

    2007-08-01

    Although cancer is rare in children, primary brain tumors constitute the most frequent location of solid tumors in childhood. Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) of the central nervous system can be divided into infratentorial PNET or medulloblastoma (MB), and supratentorial (sPNET) tumors. Although MB and sPNET are histologically similar, clinical evolution differs, sPNET being more aggressive than MB. Some studies have suggested that MB and sPNET present different molecular genetic aberrations. The RASSF1A (Ras Association Domain Family Protein 1) gene, located at 3p21.3, is highly methylated in multiple primary tumor samples, including neuroblastoma. In order to define whether there are genetic differences in the methylation frequency of RASSF1A between MB and sPNET, we analyzed 32 PNET paraffin-embedded samples (23 MB and 9 sPNET) by methylation specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP). We also analyzed RASSF1A expression by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in five PNET cell lines. All PNET cell lines showed lack of RASSF1A expression that was correlated with RASSF1A promoter hypermethylation. RASSF1A methylation was detected in 19 of 21 MB cases (91%) and in five of six sPNET samples (83%). Although the methylation frequency found in MB was slightly higher than in sPNET, no statistical differences were found for the RASSF1A hypermethylation frequency (P > 0.05) presented at MB versus sPNET. Therefore, the inactivation of the RASSF1A gene seems to be an important step in the tumorigenesis of PNET of the central nervous sytem. More studies should be performed in order to determine genetic differences between MB and sPNET.

  14. The Primitive Thylakoid-Less Cyanobacterium Gloeobacter Is a Common Rock-Dwelling Organism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Mareš

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are an ancient group of photosynthetic prokaryotes, which are significant in biogeochemical cycles. The most primitive among living cyanobacteria, Gloeobacter violaceus, shows a unique ancestral cell organization with a complete absence of inner membranes (thylakoids and an uncommon structure of the photosynthetic apparatus. Numerous phylogenetic papers proved its basal position among all of the organisms and organelles capable of plant-like photosynthesis (i.e., cyanobacteria, chloroplasts of algae and plants. Hence, G. violaceus has become one of the key species in evolutionary study of photosynthetic life. It also numbers among the most widely used organisms in experimental photosynthesis research. Except for a few related culture isolates, there has been little data on the actual biology of Gloeobacter, being relegated to an "evolutionary curiosity" with an enigmatic identity. Here we show that members of the genus Gloeobacter probably are common rock-dwelling cyanobacteria. On the basis of morphological, ultrastructural, pigment, and phylogenetic comparisons of available Gloeobacter strains, as well as on the basis of three new independent isolates and historical type specimen, we have produced strong evidence as to the close relationship of Gloeobacter to a long known rock-dwelling cyanobacterial morphospecies Aphanothece caldariorum. Our results bring new clues to solving the 40 year old puzzle of the true biological identity of Gloeobacter violaceus, a model organism with a high value in several biological disciplines. A probable broader distribution of Gloeobacter in common wet-rock habitats worldwide is suggested by our data, and its ecological meaning is discussed taking into consideration the background of cyanobacterial evolution. We provide observations of previously unknown genetic variability and phenotypic plasticity, which we expect to be utilized by experimental and evolutionary researchers worldwide.

  15. Mechanism of primitive duct formation in the pancreas and submandibular glands: a role for SDF-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtoy Pierre J

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The exocrine pancreas is composed of a branched network of ducts connected to acini. They are lined by a monolayered epithelium that derives from the endoderm and is surrounded by mesoderm-derived mesenchyme. The morphogenic mechanisms by which the ductal network is established as well as the signaling pathways involved in this process are poorly understood. Results By morphological analyzis of wild-type and mutant mouse embryos and using cultured embryonic explants we investigated how epithelial morphogenesis takes place and is regulated by chemokine signaling. Pancreas ontogenesis displayed a sequence of two opposite epithelial transitions. During the first transition, the monolayered and polarized endodermal cells give rise to tissue buds composed of a mass of non polarized epithelial cells. During the second transition the buds reorganize into branched and polarized epithelial monolayers that further differentiate into tubulo-acinar glands. We found that the second epithelial transition is controlled by the chemokine Stromal cell-Derived Factor (SDF-1. The latter is expressed by the mesenchyme, whereas its receptor CXCR4 is expressed by the epithelium. Reorganization of cultured pancreatic buds into monolayered epithelia was blocked in the presence of AMD3100, a SDF-1 antagonist. Analyzis of sdf1 and cxcr4 knockout embryos at the stage of the second epithelial transition revealed transient defective morphogenesis of the ventral and dorsal pancreas. Reorganization of a globular mass of epithelial cells in polarized monolayers is also observed during submandibular glands development. We found that SDF-1 and CXCR4 are expressed in this organ and that AMD3100 treatment of submandibular gland explants blocks its branching morphogenesis. Conclusion In conclusion, our data show that the primitive pancreatic ductal network, which is lined by a monolayered and polarized epithelium, forms by remodeling of a globular mass of non

  16. The role of the temporal pole in modulating primitive auditory memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiliang; Wang, Qian; You, Yu; Yin, Peng; Ding, Hu; Bao, Xiaohan; Yang, Pengcheng; Lu, Hao; Gao, Yayue; Li, Liang

    2016-04-21

    Primitive auditory memory (PAM), which is recognized as the early point in the chain of the transient auditory memory system, faithfully maintains raw acoustic fine-structure signals for up to 20-30 milliseconds. The neural mechanisms underlying PAM have not been reported in the literature. Previous anatomical, brain-imaging, and neurophysiological studies have suggested that the temporal pole (TP), part of the parahippocampal region in the transitional area between perirhinal cortex and superior/inferior temporal gyri, is involved in auditory memories. This study investigated whether the TP plays a role in mediating/modulating PAM. The longest interaural interval (the interaural-delay threshold) for detecting a break in interaural correlation (BIC) embedded in interaurally correlated wideband noises was used to indicate the temporal preservation of PAM and examined in both healthy listeners and patients receiving unilateral anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL, centered on the TP) for treating their temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The results showed that patients with ATL were still able to detect the BIC even when an interaural interval was introduced, regardless of which ear was the leading one. However, in patient participants, the group-mean interaural-delay threshold for detecting the BIC under the contralateral-ear-leading (relative to the side of ATL) condition was significantly shorter than that under the ipsilateral-ear-leading condition. The results suggest that although the TP is not essential for integrating binaural signals and mediating the PAM, it plays a role in top-down modulating the PAM of raw acoustic fine-structure signals from the contralateral ear. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Do endothelial cells belong to the primitive stem leukemic clone in CML? Role of extracellular vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Teresa L; Sánchez-Abarca, Luis Ignacio; López-Ruano, Guillermo; Muntión, Sandra; Preciado, Silvia; Hernández-Ruano, Montserrat; Rosado, Belén; de las Heras, Natalia; Chillón, M Carmen; Hernández-Hernández, Ángel; González, Marcos; Sánchez-Guijo, Fermín; Del Cañizo, Consuelo

    2015-08-01

    The expression of BCR-ABL in hematopoietic stem cells is a well-defined primary event in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Some reports have described the presence of BCR-ABL on endothelial cells from CML patients, suggesting the origin of the disease in a primitive hemangioblastic cell. On the other hand, extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by CML leukemic cells are involved in the angiogenesis modulation process. In the current work we hypothesized that EVs released from BCR-ABL(+) cells may carry inside the oncogene that can be transferred to endothelial cells leading to the expression of both BCR-ABL transcript and the oncoprotein. EVs from K562 cells and plasma of newly diagnosed CML patients were isolated by ultracentrifugation. RT-PCR analysis detected the presence of BCR-ABL RNA in the EVs isolated from both K562 cells and plasma of CML patients. The incorporation of these EVs into endothelial cells was demonstrated by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy showed that after 24h of incubation most EVs were incorporated. BCR-ABL transcripts were detected in all experiments on endothelial cells incubated with EVs from both sources. The presence of BCR-ABL on endothelial cells incubated with Philadelphia(+) EVs was also confirmed by Western blot assays. In summary, endothelial cells acquire BCR-ABL RNA and the oncoprotein after incubation with EVs released from Ph(+) positive cells (either from K562 cells or from plasma of newly diagnosed CML patients). This results challenge the hypothesis that endothelial cells may be part of the Philadelphia(+) clone in CML. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Melting of the Primitive Mercurian Mantle, Insights into the Origin of Its Surface Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boujibar, A.; Righter, K.; Rapp, J. F.; Ross, D. K.; Pando, K. M.; Danielson, L. R.; Fontaine, E.

    2016-01-01

    Recent findings of the MESSENGER mission on Mercury have brought new evidence for its reducing nature, widespread volcanism and surface compositional heteregeneity. MESSENGER also provided major elemental ratios of its surface that can be used to infer large-scale differentiation processes and the thermal history of the planet. Mercury is known as being very reduced, with very low Fe-content and high S and alkali contents on its surface. Its bulk composition is therefore likely close to EH enstatite chondrites. In order to elucidate the origin of the chemical diversity of Mercury's surface, we determined the melting properties of EH enstatite chondrites, at pressures between 1 bar and 3 GPa and oxygen fugacity of IW-3 to IW-5, using piston-cylinder experiments, combined with a previous study on EH4 melting at 1 bar. We found that the presence of Ca-rich sulfide melts induces significant decrease of Ca-content in silicate melts at low pressure and low degree of melting (F). Also at pressures lower than 3 GPa, the SiO2-content decreases with F, while it increases at 3 GPa. This is likely due to the chemical composition of the bulk silicate which has a (Mg+Fe+Ca)/Si ratio very close to 1 and to the change from incongruent to congruent melting of enstatite. We then tested whether the various chemical compositions of Mercury's surface can result from mixing between two melting products of EH chondrites. We found that the majority of the geochemical provinces of Mercury's surface can be explained by mixing of two melts, with the exception of the High-Al plains that require an Al-rich source. Our findings indicate that Mercury's surface could have been produced by polybaric melting of a relatively primitive mantle.

  19. Empirical constraints on partitioning of platinum group elements between Cr-spinel and primitive terrestrial magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Woo; Kamenetsky, Vadim; Campbell, Ian; Park, Gyuseung; Hanski, Eero; Pushkarev, Evgeny

    2017-11-01

    Recent experimental studies and in situ LA-ICP-MS analysis on natural Cr-spinel have shown that Rh and IPGEs (Ir-group platinum group elements: Ru, Ir, Os) are enriched in the lattice of Cr-spinel. However, the factors controlling the partitioning behaviour of these elements are not well constrained. In this study, we report the Rh, IPGE, and trace element contents in primitive Cr-spinel, measured by LA-ICP-MS, from nine volcanic suites covering various tectonic settings including island arc picrites, boninites, large igneous province picrites and mid-ocean ridge basalts. The aim is to understand the factors controlling the enrichment of Rh and IPGEs in Cr-spinels, to estimate empirical partition coefficients between Cr-spinel and silicate melts, and to investigate the role of Cr-spinel fractional crystallization on the PGE geochemistry of primitive magmas during the early stages of fractional crystallization. There are systematic differences in trace elements, Rh and IPGEs in Cr-spinels from arc-related magmas (Arc Group Cr-spinel), intraplate magmas (Intraplate Group Cr-spinel), and mid-ocean ridge magmas (MORB Group Cr-spinel). Arc Group Cr-spinels are systematically enriched in Sc, Co and Mn and depleted in Ni compared to the MORB Group Cr-spinels. Intraplate Group Cr-spinels are distinguished from the Arc Group Cr-spinels by their high Ni contents. Both the Arc and Intraplate Group Cr-spinels have total Rh and IPGE contents of 22-689 ppb whereas the MORB Group Cr-spinels are depleted in Rh and IPGE (total time-resolved spectra of LA-ICP-MS data for Cr-spinels mostly show constant count rates for trace element and Rh and IPGEs, suggesting homogeneous distribution of these elements in Cr-spinels. The PGE spikes observed in several Cr-spinels were interpreted to be PGE-bearing mineral inclusions and excluded from calculating the PGE contents of the Cr-spinels. On primitive mantle normalized diagrams the Arc Group Cr-spinels are characterized by a fractionated

  20. A kinetic study of the formation of organic solids from formaldehyde: Implications for the origin of extraterrestrial organic solids in primitive Solar System objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebukawa, Yoko; Cody, George D.

    2015-03-01

    Aqueous organic solid formation from formaldehyde via the formose reaction and subsequent reactions is a possible candidate for the origin of complex primitive chondritic insoluble organic matter (IOM) and refractory carbon in comets. The rate of formation of organic solids from formaldehyde was studied as a function of temperature and time, with and without ammonia, in order to derive kinetic expressions for polymer yield. The evolution in molecular structure as a function of time and temperature was studied using infrared spectroscopy. Using these kinetic expressions, the yield of organic solids is estimated for extended time and temperature ranges. For example, the half-life for organic solid formation is ∼5 days at 373 K, ∼200 days at 323 K, and ∼70 years at 273 K with ammonia, and ∼25 days at 373 K, ∼13 years at 323 K, and ∼2 × 104 years at 273 K without ammonia. These results indicate that organic solids could form during the aqueous alteration in meteorite parent bodies. If liquid water existed early in the interiors of Kuiper belt objects (KBOs), formaldehyde could convert into organic solids at temperatures close to 273 K, and possibly even below 273 K in the ammonia-water system.