WorldWideScience

Sample records for primary learning areas

  1. Investigation the opinions of the primary science teachers toward practice of teaching and learning activities in science learning area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamnanwong, Pornpaka; Thathong, Kongsak

    2018-01-01

    In preparing a science lesson plan, teachers may deal with numerous difficulties. Having a deep understanding of their problems and their demands is extremely essential for the teachers in preparing themselves for the job. Moreover, it is also crucial for the stakeholders in planning suitable and in-need teachers' professional development programs, in school management, and in teaching aid. This study aimed to investigate the primary school science teachers' opinion toward practice of teaching and learning activities in science learning area. Target group was 292 primary science teachers who teach Grade 4 - 6 students in Khon Kaen Province, Thailand in the academic year of 2014. Data were collected using Questionnaire about Investigation the opinions of the primary science teachers toward practice of teaching and learning activities in science learning area. The questionnaires were consisted of closed questions scored on Likert scale and open-ended questions that invite a sentence response to cover from LS Process Ideas. Research findings were as follow. The primary science teachers' level of opinion toward teaching and learning science subject ranged from 3.19 - 3.93 (mean = 3.43) as "Moderate" level of practice. The primary school science teachers' needs to participate in a training workshop based on LS ranged from 3.66 - 4.22 (mean = 3.90) as "High" level. The result indicated that they were interested in attending a training course under the guidance of the Lesson Study by training on planning of management of science learning to solve teaching problems in science contents with the highest mean score 4.22. Open-ended questions questionnaire showed the needs of the implementation of the lesson plans to be actual classrooms, and supporting for learning Medias, innovations, and equipment for science experimentation.

  2. Primary Sources and Inquiry Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses inquiry learning and primary sources. Inquiry learning puts students in the active role of investigators. Questioning, authentic and active learning, and interactivity are a few of the characteristics of inquiry learning that put the teacher and library media specialist in the role of coaches while students…

  3. Audiovisual Association Learning in the Absence of Primary Visual Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Seirafi, Mehrdad; De Weerd, Peter; Pegna, Alan J.; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    Learning audiovisual associations is mediated by the primary cortical areas; however, recent animal studies suggest that such learning can take place even in the absence of the primary visual cortex. Other studies have demonstrated the involvement of extra-geniculate pathways and especially the superior colliculus (SC) in audiovisual association learning. Here, we investigated such learning in a rare human patient with complete loss of the bilateral striate cortex. We carried out an implicit ...

  4. Contextual Teaching and Learning Approach of Mathematics in Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvianiresa, D.; Prabawanto, S.

    2017-09-01

    The Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL) approach is an approach involving active students in the learning process to discover the concepts learned through to knowledge and experience of the students. Similar to Piaget’s opinion that learning gives students an actives trying to do new things by relating their experiences and building their own minds. When students to connecting mathematics with real life, then students can looking between a conceptual to be learned with a concept that has been studied. So that, students can developing of mathematical connection ability. This research is quasi experiment with a primary school in the city of Kuningan. The result showed that CTL learning can be successful, when learning used a collaborative interaction with students, a high level of activity in the lesson, a connection to real-world contexts, and an integration of science content with other content and skill areas. Therefore, CTL learning can be applied by techer to mathematics learning in primary schools.

  5. Developing a universal reading comprehension intervention for mainstream primary schools within areas of social deprivation for children with and without language-learning impairment: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Elspeth; Boyle, James; Ellis, Sue

    2015-01-01

    Some children in areas of social deprivation in Scotland have lower reading attainment than neighbouring children in less deprived areas, and some of these also have lower spoken language comprehension skills than expected by assessment norms. There is a need to develop effective reading comprehension interventions that fit easily into the school curriculum and can benefit all pupils. A feasibility study of reading comprehension strategies with existing evidence of efficacy was undertaken in three mainstream primary schools within an area of social deprivation in west central Scotland, to decide whether further investigation of this intervention was warranted. Aims were to measure comprehension of spoken language and reading via standardised assessments towards the beginning of the school year (T1) in mainstream primary school classrooms within an area of social deprivation; to have teachers introduce previously-validated text comprehension strategies, and to measure change in reading comprehension outcome measures towards the end of the year (T2). A pre- and post-intervention cohort design was used. Reading comprehension strategies were introduced to staff in participating schools and used throughout the school year as part of on-going reading instruction. Spoken language comprehension was measured by TROG-2 at T1, and reading progress by score changes from T1 to T2 on the WIAT-II(UK) -T reading comprehension scale. Forty-seven pupils in five classes in three primary schools took part: 38% had TROG-2 scores below the 10(th) centile. As a group, children made good reading comprehension progress, with a medium effect size of 0.46. Children with TROG-2 scores below the 10(th) centile had lower mean reading scores than others at T1 and T2, although with considerable overlap. However, TROG-2 did not make a unique contribution to reading progress: children below the 10(th) centile made as much progress as other children. The intervention was welcomed by schools, and the

  6. Development of Learning to Learn Skills in Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainikainen, Mari-Pauliina; Wüstenberg, Sascha; Kupiainen, Sirkku; Hotulainen, Risto; Hautamäki, Jarkko

    2015-01-01

    In Finland, schools' effectiveness in fostering the development of transversal skills is evaluated through large-scale learning to learn (LTL) assessments. This article presents how LTL skills--general cognitive competences and learning-related motivational beliefs--develop during primary school and how they predict pupils' CPS skills at the end…

  7. Enhancement of motor learning by focal intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) of either the primary motor (M1) or somatosensory area (S1) in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platz, Thomas; Adler-Wiebe, Marija; Roschka, Sybille; Lotze, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Motor rehabilitation after brain damage relies on motor re-learning as induced by specific training. Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) can alter cortical excitability and thereby has a potential to enhance subsequent training-induced learning. Knowledge about any priming effects of NIBS on motor learning in healthy subjects can help to design targeted therapeutic applications in brain-damaged subjects. To examine whether complex motor learning in healthy subjects can be enhanced by intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) to primary motor or sensory cortical areas. Eighteen young healthy subjects trained eight different arm motor tasks (arm ability training, AAT) once a day for 5 days using their left non-dominant arm. Except for day 1 (baseline), training was performed after applying an excitatory form of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (iTBS) to either (I) right M1 or (II) S1, or (III) sham stimulation to the right M1. Subjects were randomly assigned to conditions I, II, or III. A principal component analysis of the motor behaviour data suggested eight independent motor abilities corresponding to the 8 trained tasks. AAT induced substantial motor learning across abilities with generalisation to a non-trained test of finger dexterity (Nine-Hole-Peg-Test, NHPT). Participants receiving iTBS (to either M1 or S1) showed better performance with the AAT tasks over the period of training compared to sham stimulation as well as a bigger improvement with the generalisation task (NHPT) for the trained left hand after training completion. Priming with an excitatory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation as iTBS of either M1 or S1 can enhance motor learning across different sensorimotor abilities.

  8. Learning experiences of physiotherapy students during primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Primary healthcare (PHC) is necessary to address the health needs of communities. It creates the opportunity for the attainment of curricular outcomes through community-based education. Appropriate learning opportunities are needed to enable students to develop the necessary skills to attain these outcomes ...

  9. Audiovisual Association Learning in the Absence of Primary Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seirafi, Mehrdad; De Weerd, Peter; Pegna, Alan J; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2015-01-01

    Learning audiovisual associations is mediated by the primary cortical areas; however, recent animal studies suggest that such learning can take place even in the absence of the primary visual cortex. Other studies have demonstrated the involvement of extra-geniculate pathways and especially the superior colliculus (SC) in audiovisual association learning. Here, we investigated such learning in a rare human patient with complete loss of the bilateral striate cortex. We carried out an implicit audiovisual association learning task with two different colors of red and purple (the latter color known to minimally activate the extra-genicular pathway). Interestingly, the patient learned the association between an auditory cue and a visual stimulus only when the unseen visual stimulus was red, but not when it was purple. The current study presents the first evidence showing the possibility of audiovisual association learning in humans with lesioned striate cortex. Furthermore, in line with animal studies, it supports an important role for the SC in audiovisual associative learning.

  10. Audiovisual Blindsight: Audiovisual learning in the absence of primary visual cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrdad eSeirafi; Peter eDe Weerd; Alan J Pegna; Beatrice ede Gelder

    2016-01-01

    Learning audiovisual associations is mediated by the primary cortical areas; however, recent animal studies suggest that such learning can take place even in the absence of the primary visual cortex. Other studies have demonstrated the involvement of extra-geniculate pathways and especially the superior colliculus (SC) in audiovisual association learning. Here, we investigated such learning in a rare human patient with complete loss of the bilateral striate cortex. We carried out an implicit...

  11. Implementing Cooperative Learning in Australian Primary Schools: Generalist Teachers' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Angela; Dionigi, Rylee A.

    2013-01-01

    To implement cooperative learning successfully in practice, teachers require knowledge of cooperative learning, its features and terms, and how it functions in classrooms. This qualitative study examined 12 Australian generalist primary teachers', understandings of cooperative learning and perceived factors affecting its implementation. Using…

  12. Investigative Primary Science: A Problem-Based Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etherington, Matthew B.

    2011-01-01

    This study reports on the success of using a problem-based learning approach (PBL) as a pedagogical mode of learning open inquiry science within a traditional four-year undergraduate elementary teacher education program. In 2010, a problem-based learning approach to teaching primary science replaced the traditional content driven syllabus. During…

  13. Identifying Areas of Primary Care Shortage in Urban Ohio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Chung Liao

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study considers both spatial and a-spatial variables in examining accessibility to primary healthcare in the three largest urban areas of Ohio (Cleveland, Columbus, and Cincinnati. Spatial access emphasizes the importance of geographic barriers between individuals and primary care physicians, while a-spatial variables include non-geographic barriers or facilitators such as age, sex, race, income, social class, education, living conditions and language skills. Population and socioeconomic data were obtained from the 2000 Census, and primary care physician data for 2008 was provided by the Ohio Medical Board. We first implemented a two-step method based on a floating catchment area using Geographic Information Systems to measure spatial accessibility in terms of 30-minute travel times. We then used principal component analysis to group various socio-demographic variables into three groups: (1 socioeconomic disadvantages, (2 living conditions, and (3 healthcare needs. Finally, spatial and a-spatial variables were integrated to identify areas with poor access to primary care in Cleveland, Columbus, and Cincinnati. KEYWORDS: Geographic information systems, healthcare access, spatial accessibility, primary care shortage areas

  14. Introducing Cooperative Learning to Primary 1 and Primary 2 Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Salim; Ho, Linda; Chew, Lay See; Wong, Kok Wah; Wee, Sheila; Jacobs, George M.

    2000-01-01

    It was scary at first. Just getting P1 and 2 students to follow basic instructions is hard enough; trying to get them to work together in groups seemed like asking for extra trouble. But, a dash or two of trouble adds a bit of spice to a veteran teacher's life; so the four of us teachers at Mayflower Primary School--a neighbourhood school in Ang…

  15. Improving Primary Education in Pakistan: An Examination of the Association between School Autonomy and Children's Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Bushra

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the impact of the delegation of financial authority to public primary schools through Parent-Teacher Councils (PTCs) on learning outcomes of primary school children in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province, Pakistan. The learning outcomes were measured in three subject areas (Urdu, English, and Mathematics).…

  16. Professional Learning in Mathematical Reasoning: Reflections of a Primary Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Sandra; Widjaja, Wanty; Bragg, Leicha A.; Loong, Esther; Vale, Colleen

    2016-01-01

    Reasoning is an important aspect in the understanding and learning of mathematics. This paper reports on a case study presenting one Australian primary teacher's reflections regarding the role played by a professional learning program in her developing understanding of mathematical reasoning. Examination of the transcripts of two interviews…

  17. The effect of retrieval practice in primary school vocabulary learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, Nicole; Camp, Gino; Verkoeijen, Peter; Tabbers, Huib

    2018-01-01

    The testing effect refers to the finding that retrieval practice leads to better long-term retention than additional study of course material. In the present study, we examined whether this finding generalizes to primary school vocabulary learning. We also manipulated the word learning context.

  18. Hope or Despair? Learning in Pakistan's Primary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Donald P.; Reimers, Fernando

    This book reports on the research findings of the Pakistan Study, a collaboration between the Harvard Institute for International Development and other organizations in Pakistan. The focus is primarily on what affects student learning in Pakistan's government-sponsored primary schools. Chapter 1 discusses primary schools in Pakistan and the…

  19. Continuing Professional Development and Learning in Primary Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Christine A.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the effects of continuing professional development (CPD) on teachers' and pupils' experiences of learning and teaching science in primary classrooms. During 2006-2007, quantitative and qualitative data were elicited from two primary teachers in Scotland using questionnaires, semi-structured interviews and video-stimulated…

  20. Teaching and Learning Mathematics from Primary Historical Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Janet Heine; Lodder, Jerry; Pengelley, David

    2016-01-01

    Why would anyone think of teaching and learning mathematics directly from primary historical sources? We aim to answer this question while sharing our own experiences, and those of our students across several decades. We will first describe the evolution of our motivation for teaching with primary sources, and our current view of the advantages…

  1. Learning from Primary Health Care Centers in Nepal: reflective writings on experiential learning of third year Nepalese medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Dhital, Rolina; Subedi, Madhusudan; Prasai, Neeti; Shrestha, Karun; Malla, Milan; Upadhyay, Shambhu

    2015-01-01

    Background Medical education can play important role in cultivating the willingness among the medical students to work in underprivileged areas after their graduation. Experiential learning through early exposure to primary health care centers could help students better understand the opportunities and challenges of such settings. However, the information on the real experiences and reflections of medical students on the rural primary health care settings from low-income countries like Nepal ...

  2. Relationships Play Primary Role in Boys' Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert. Michael; Hawley. Richard

    2013-01-01

    There is a pantheon of literature and popular panic pointing toward the academic ascent of girls and the decline of boys. On the contrary, the reality is different: Boys are learning and succeeding in many places. Two studies find that the places where boys excel have several common characteristics, including teachers who relate to the boys…

  3. Men learning to be primary school teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Smedley, Susan May

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: Few men choose to become primary school teachers. Those who do move into a world often thought of as feminised and contend with a publiclyvoiced rhetoric which simultaneously idealises and demonises them. It has not been the norm for women to research men. I am setting out from a different place as a woman and former primary school teacher writing about men doing women's work in what can be seen as a man's world. The problem I am tackling is embedded in two questions. First, how do ...

  4. Walkability around primary schools and area deprivation across Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Laura; McCrorie, Paul; Nicholls, Natalie; Ellaway, Anne

    2016-04-14

    A number of studies based in the US, Canada, and Australia, have found evidence of associations between the built environment (BE) and mode of transport to school, and links between active travel and deprivation. Limited research in the UK compares potential BE supports for walking to school by area deprivation. Within this study, we gathered data on BE attributes previously linked to active travel, i.e., street/path connectivity, and dwelling density, created a composite 'walkability score' (WS) for areas around primary schools across urban Scotland, and explored whether poorer areas exhibit lower scores than more affluent areas, or vice versa. We consider this to be a novel approach as few studies have compared BE features by deprivation across a whole country. Address and road/path maps were obtained and primary schools (N = 937) across mainland Scotland were mapped. Schools were attributed income deprivation scores (scores divided into quintiles (Q1: least deprived, Q5: most deprived)). Catchment area (CA) boundaries, i.e., the geographic area representing eligibility for local school attendance, were drawn around schools, and WS calculated for each CA. We compared mean WS by income quintile (ANOVA), for all local authorities (LAs) combined (N = 29), and separately for the four LAs with the greatest number of schools included in the analysis. For all LAs combined, the least deprived quintile (Q1) showed a significantly lower WS (-0.61), than quintiles 3, 4 and 5 (Q2: -0.04 (non-sig), Q3: 0.38, Q4: 0.09, Q5: 0.18); while for Glasgow the second least deprived quintile (Q2) showed significantly higher WS (Q1: 1.35, Q2: 1.73), than middling (Q3: 0.18) and most deprived quintiles (Q4: 0.06, Q5: -0.10). WS differ by deprivation with patterns varying depending on the spatial scale of the analysis. It is essential that less walkable areas are provided with the resources to improve opportunities to engage in active travel.

  5. Effectiveness of student learning during experimental work in primary school

    OpenAIRE

    Logar, Ana; Peklaj, Cirila; Ferk Savec, Vesna

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the research was to optimize the effectiveness of student learning based on experimental work in chemistry classes in Slovenian primary schools. To obtain evidence about how experimental work is implemented during regular chemistry classes, experimental work was videotaped during 19 units of chemistry lessons at 12 Slovenian primary schools from the pool of randomly selected schools. Altogether 332 eight-grade students were involved in the investigation, with an average...

  6. Teacher feedback during active learning: current practices in primary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bergh, Linda; Ros, Anje; Beijaard, Douwe

    2013-06-01

    Feedback is one of the most powerful tools, which teachers can use to enhance student learning. It appears difficult for teachers to give qualitatively good feedback, especially during active learning. In this context, teachers should provide facilitative feedback that is focused on the development of meta-cognition and social learning. The purpose of the present study is to contribute to the existing knowledge about feedback and to give directions to improve teacher feedback in the context of active learning. The participants comprised 32 teachers who practiced active learning in the domain of environmental studies in the sixth, seventh, or eighth grade of 13 Dutch primary schools. A total of 1,465 teacher-student interactions were examined. Video observations were made of active learning lessons in the domain of environmental studies. A category system was developed based on the literature and empirical data. Teacher-student interactions were assessed using this system. Results. About half of the teacher-student interactions contained feedback. This feedback was usually focused on the tasks that were being performed by the students and on the ways in which these tasks were processed. Only 5% of the feedback was explicitly related to a learning goal. In their feedback, the teachers were directing (rather than facilitating) the learning processes. During active learning, feedback on meta-cognition and social learning is important. Feedback should be explicitly related to learning goals. In practice, these kinds of feedback appear to be scarce. Therefore, giving feedback during active learning seems to be an important topic for teachers' professional development. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  7. The development of metacognition in primary school learning environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jager, B; Jansen, M; Reezigt, G; Jansen, G.G.H.

    Constructivist ideas have influenced recent major innovations in Dutch secondary education and new curricula for reading and math in primary education, for example, pay much more attention to metacognition than before. In our study, we compared the growth of student metacognition in varying learning

  8. Distributed Practice and Retrieval Practice in Primary School Vocabulary Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.A.M.C. Goossens (Nicole)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractThe aim of this thesis was to investigate whether particular memory strategies stemming from cognitive and educational psychology, enhance primary school vocabulary learning. Th e memory strategies investigated in this thesis were distributed practice and retrieval practice. Th e

  9. Opportunity to learn English and mathematics in Ghanaian primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Opportunity to learn English and mathematics in Ghanaian primary schools: implications for teacher education programmes. ... teachers' instructional practices and management of instructional time, and • teachers' preparedness to implement the content standards. These inefficiencies could be attributed to the fact that the ...

  10. Toward interdependence: Implementation of cooperative learning in primary schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krol-Pot, K.

    2005-01-01

    The present dissertation concerns the implementation of cooperative learning in Dutch primary schools. The focus was on the process of implementation in four experimental schools and on the outcomes at the levels of the school, the teacher and the student. Chapters 1, 2, and 3 constitute the

  11. Using online learning networks to promote self-regulated learning in primary teacher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, Emmy; Bastiaens, Theo; Stijnen, Sjef

    2017-01-01

    Many recent studies have stressed the importance of students’ self-regulated learning (SRL) skills for successful learning. Consequently, teacher educators have begun to increase student teachers’ SRL opportunities in educational pre-service programs. Although primary teacher educators are aware of

  12. Learning invariance from natural images inspired by observations in the primary visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichmann, Michael; Wiltschut, Jan; Hamker, Fred

    2012-05-01

    The human visual system has the remarkable ability to largely recognize objects invariant of their position, rotation, and scale. A good interpretation of neurobiological findings involves a computational model that simulates signal processing of the visual cortex. In part, this is likely achieved step by step from early to late areas of visual perception. While several algorithms have been proposed for learning feature detectors, only few studies at hand cover the issue of biologically plausible learning of such invariance. In this study, a set of Hebbian learning rules based on calcium dynamics and homeostatic regulations of single neurons is proposed. Their performance is verified within a simple model of the primary visual cortex to learn so-called complex cells, based on a sequence of static images. As a result, the learned complex-cell responses are largely invariant to phase and position.

  13. Disrupted modular organization of primary sensory brain areas in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Bordier

    Full Text Available Abnormal brain resting-state functional connectivity has been consistently observed in patients affected by schizophrenia (SCZ using functional MRI and other neuroimaging techniques. Graph theoretical methods provide a framework to investigate these defective functional interactions and their effects on the organization of brain connectivity networks. A few studies have shown altered distribution of connectivity within and between functional modules in SCZ patients, an indication of imbalanced functional segregation ad integration. However, no major alterations of modular organization have been reported in patients, and unambiguous identification of the neural substrates affected remains elusive. Recently, it has been demonstrated that current modularity analysis methods suffer from a fundamental and severe resolution limit, as they fail to detect features that are smaller than a scale determined by the size of the entire connectivity network. This resolution limit is likely to have hampered the ability to resolve differences between patients and controls in previous studies. Here, we apply Surprise, a novel resolution limit-free approach, to study the modular organization of resting state functional connectivity networks in a large cohort of SCZ patients and in matched healthy controls. Leveraging these important methodological advances we find new evidence of substantial fragmentation and reorganization involving primary sensory, auditory and visual areas in SCZ patients. Conversely, frontal and prefrontal areas, typically associated with higher cognitive functions, appear to be largely unaffected, with changes selectively involving language and speech processing areas. Our findings support the hypothesis that cognitive dysfunction in SCZ may involve deficits occurring already at early stages of sensory processing. Keywords: Schizophrenia, Surprise, Asymptotical surprise, Functional connectivity, Community detection, Modularity, Graph theory

  14. Envisioning DIY learning in primary and secondary schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juana Maria Sancho-Gil

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The DIYLab project (Do it yourself in Education: expanding digital competence to foster student agency and collaborative learning. European Commission seeks to explore the changes (and its educational effects occurring in the last decade regarding digital competencies, especially in relation to the emergence of a culture of collaboration, that connects youth learning, technology and DIY (Kafai & Peppler, 2011. To achieve the project's objective, we are following a methodology based on the principles of collaborative action research (CAR. This paper focuses on the first step of the CAR process and shows the main challenges identified by teachers, students and parents in order to implement the project’s learning philosophy in the current curricula and schools organisation. We carried out a series of focus groups with teachers, students and parents from primary and secondary schools and the university to discuss what DIY learning looks like in the participants’ educational contexts. Based on these discussions we have begun to analyse how each context imagines DIY learning and how it relates to the notion of virtual space. This paper focuses in the Spanish primary and secondary school participating in the project.

  15. Interactions between attention, context and learning in primary visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, C; Ito, M; Kapadia, M; Westheimer, G

    2000-01-01

    Attention in early visual processing engages the higher order, context dependent properties of neurons. Even at the earliest stages of visual cortical processing neurons play a role in intermediate level vision - contour integration and surface segmentation. The contextual influences mediating this process may be derived from long range connections within primary visual cortex (V1). These influences are subject to perceptual learning, and are strongly modulated by visuospatial attention, which is itself a learning dependent process. The attentional influences may involve interactions between feedback and horizontal connections in V1. V1 is therefore a dynamic and active processor, subject to top-down influences.

  16. Non-primary motor areas in the human frontal lobe are connected directly to hand muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitti, S; Määttä, S; Säisänen, L; Könönen, M; Vanninen, R; Hannula, H; Mervaala, E; Karhu, J

    2008-04-15

    Structural studies in primates have shown that, in addition to the primary motor cortex (M1), premotor areas are a source of corticospinal tracts. The function of these putative corticospinal neuronal tracts in humans is still unclear. We found frontal non-primary motor areas (NPMAs), which react to targeted non-invasive magnetic pulses and activate peripheral muscles as fast as or even faster than those in M1. Hand muscle movements were observed in all our subjects about 20 ms after transcranial stimulation of the superior frontal gyrus (Brodmann areas 6 and 8). Stimulation of NPMA could activate both proximal and distal upper limb muscles with the same delay as a stimulation of the M1, indicating converging motor representations with direct functional connections to the hand. We suggest that these non-primary cortical motor representations provide additional capacity for the fast execution of movements. Such a capacity may play a role in motor learning and in recovery from motor deficits.

  17. Learning vocabulary through a serious game in Primary Education

    OpenAIRE

    Heitink, Maaike Christine; Fisser, Petra; Voogt, Joke; McBride, Ron; Searson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the effect of a serious game on the vocabulary of students in primary education. 206 students and 10 teachers used the game during vocabulary lessons in three conditions: (a)online game and vocabulary instruction, (b)online game only, and (c)paper game and vocabulary instruction. Both immediate learning and retention effects were examined. Additionally a student questionnaire and teacher interview regarding their experiences has been employed. Results show a significant le...

  18. A picture tells 1000 words: learning teamwork in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Martina; Bennett, Deirdre; O'Flynn, Siun; Foley, Tony

    2013-04-01

    Teamwork and patient centredness are frequently articulated concepts in medical education, but are not always explicit in the curriculum. In Ireland, recent government policy emphasises the importance of a primary care team approach to health care. We report on an appraisal of a newly introduced community-based student attachment, which focused on teamwork. To review students' experience of teamwork following a community clinical placement by examining student assignments: essays, poetry, music and art. Year-2 graduate-entry students (n = 45) spent 2 weeks with a primary care team. Attachments comprised placements with members of the primary care team, emphasising team dynamics, at the end of which students submitted a representative piece of work, which captured their learning. Essays (n = 22) were analysed using a thematic content analysis. Artwork consisted of painting, collage, photography, poetry and original music (n = 23). These were analysed using Gardner's entry points. Three core themes emerged in both written and visual work: patient centredness; communication; and an improved appreciation of the skills of other health care professionals. Students identified optimal team communication occurring when patient outcomes were prioritised. Metaphors relating to puzzles, hands and inter-connectedness feature strongly. The poems and artwork had a high impact when they were presented to tutors. Primary care team placements focus student attention on teamwork and patient centredness. Student artwork shows potential as a tool to evaluate student learning in medical education. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2013.

  19. Input, Process, and Learning in primary and lower secondary schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Søgaard; Nordenbo, Sven Erik; Holm, Anders

    What do we want to know? What empirical research has been carried out to examine the relationship between factors in primary and lower secondary schools (inputs and processes) and the learning achieved by primary and lower secondary school pupils (outputs and outcomes)? What are the results...... with weight of evidence of this empirical research? Who wants to know and why? The project was commissioned by the Danish Evaluation Institute (Danmarks Evalueringsinstitut) and was performed on behalf of the Nordic Indicator Workgroup (DNI). DNI is a workgroup nominated by the Nordic Evaluation Network...... and development etc. within the primary and lower secondary school sector. What did we find? From 1990 to 2008, 109 studies were published on malleable school factors within school effectiveness research. Of these studies, 71 are of high or medium weight of evidence. Synthesising these studies establishes that 11...

  20. Perceptual learning as improved probabilistic inference in early sensory areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejjanki, Vikranth R; Beck, Jeffrey M; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Pouget, Alexandre

    2011-05-01

    Extensive training on simple tasks such as fine orientation discrimination results in large improvements in performance, a form of learning known as perceptual learning. Previous models have argued that perceptual learning is due to either sharpening and amplification of tuning curves in early visual areas or to improved probabilistic inference in later visual areas (at the decision stage). However, early theories are inconsistent with the conclusions of psychophysical experiments manipulating external noise, whereas late theories cannot explain the changes in neural responses that have been reported in cortical areas V1 and V4. Here we show that we can capture both the neurophysiological and behavioral aspects of perceptual learning by altering only the feedforward connectivity in a recurrent network of spiking neurons so as to improve probabilistic inference in early visual areas. The resulting network shows modest changes in tuning curves, in line with neurophysiological reports, along with a marked reduction in the amplitude of pairwise noise correlations.

  1. Canadian Council for Area Studies Learned Societies - 2007-2008 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    CCASLS) ... for four area studies associations: the Canadian Association of African Studies (CAAS); the ... IDRC invites applications for the IDRC Doctoral Research Awards ... Canada can learn from Uganda's gender budgeting experience.

  2. Administrative Strategies of School Management Effectiveness, Buriram Office of Primary Educational Service Area 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanintipparat Prommaraj

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were 1 to study the current and the expected Conditions of school management effectiveness, Buriram Office of Primary Educational Service Area 4 and 2 to construct administrative strategies of such schools. Eighty of directors, board chairpersons, teachers and parents were sampled. The instruments for data collection were 5-level rating scale questionnaires with the IOC value between 0.60–1.00 and the reliability value of 0.88 and in-depth interview forms. Quantitative data were analyzed by computer and qualitative data were inductively analyzed. The findings were as follows: 1. The current conditions school management effectiveness, Buriram Office of Primary Educational Service Area 4 was moderate while the expected conditions was high. By means of expected condition can be listed from high to low were atmosphere and environment management, administration, learning management and participation. 2. Strategies for effective management of schools under the Office of Educational Service Area 4 consists of four elementary Bachelor’s strategy is the first strategic development, management efficiency. 2 learners develop strategies to meet educational standards. Strategy 3: create an atmosphere and environment conducive to development. Strategy 4 and the joint cooperation of network.

  3. Learning with and about Technology: A Middle School Nature Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, David

    1998-01-01

    Discussion of learning with technology as well as about technology focuses on a case study of a middle school nature area that uses technology to extend accessibility of environmental data. Highlights include the design of Web pages to describe the nature area; file sharing software; and the use of videoconferencing. (LRW)

  4. Universal Design for Learning: Critical Need Areas for People with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, Wendy; Arthanat, Sajay; Bauer, Stephen; Flagg, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    The primary market research outlined in this paper was conducted by the Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center on Technology Transfer to identify critical technology needs for people with learning disabilities. Based on the research conducted, the underlying context of these technology needs is Universal Design for Learning (UDL). The paper…

  5. Differentiation of Enhancing Glioma and Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma by Texture-Based Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaide-Leon, P; Dufort, P; Geraldo, A F; Alshafai, L; Maralani, P J; Spears, J; Bharatha, A

    2017-06-01

    Accurate preoperative differentiation of primary central nervous system lymphoma and enhancing glioma is essential to avoid unnecessary neurosurgical resection in patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of a machine-learning algorithm by using texture analysis of contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images for differentiation of primary central nervous system lymphoma and enhancing glioma. Seventy-one adult patients with enhancing gliomas and 35 adult patients with primary central nervous system lymphomas were included. The tumors were manually contoured on contrast-enhanced T1WI, and the resulting volumes of interest were mined for textural features and subjected to a support vector machine-based machine-learning protocol. Three readers classified the tumors independently on contrast-enhanced T1WI. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves were estimated for each reader and for the support vector machine classifier. A noninferiority test for diagnostic accuracy based on paired areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve was performed with a noninferiority margin of 0.15. The mean areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve were 0.877 (95% CI, 0.798-0.955) for the support vector machine classifier; 0.878 (95% CI, 0.807-0.949) for reader 1; 0.899 (95% CI, 0.833-0.966) for reader 2; and 0.845 (95% CI, 0.757-0.933) for reader 3. The mean area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the support vector machine classifier was significantly noninferior to the mean area under the curve of reader 1 ( P = .021), reader 2 ( P = .035), and reader 3 ( P = .007). Support vector machine classification based on textural features of contrast-enhanced T1WI is noninferior to expert human evaluation in the differentiation of primary central nervous system lymphoma and enhancing glioma. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  6. [Associative Learning between Orientation and Color in Early Visual Areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Kaoru; Shibata, Kazuhisa; Kawato, Mitsuo; Sasaki, Yuka; Watanabe, Takeo

    2017-08-01

    Associative learning is an essential neural phenomenon where the contingency of different items increases after training. Although associative learning has been found to occur in many brain regions, there is no clear evidence that associative learning of visual features occurs in early visual areas. Here, we developed an associative decoded functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) neurofeedback (A-DecNef) to determine whether associative learning of color and orientation can be induced in early visual areas. During the three days' training, A-DecNef induced fMRI signal patterns that corresponded to a specific target color (red) mostly in early visual areas while a vertical achromatic grating was simultaneously, physically presented to participants. Consequently, participants' perception of "red" was significantly more frequently than that of "green" in an achromatic vertical grating. This effect was also observed 3 to 5 months after training. These results suggest that long-term associative learning of two different visual features such as color and orientation, was induced most likely in early visual areas. This newly extended technique that induces associative learning may be used as an important tool for understanding and modifying brain function, since associations are fundamental and ubiquitous with respect to brain function.

  7. Missed opportunities for diagnosis: lessons learned from diagnostic errors in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyder, Clare R; Jones, Caroline H D; Heneghan, Carl J; Thompson, Matthew J

    2015-12-01

    Because of the difficulties inherent in diagnosis in primary care, it is inevitable that diagnostic errors will occur. However, despite the important consequences associated with diagnostic errors and their estimated high prevalence, teaching and research on diagnostic error is a neglected area. To ascertain the key learning points from GPs' experiences of diagnostic errors and approaches to clinical decision making associated with these. Secondary analysis of 36 qualitative interviews with GPs in Oxfordshire, UK. Two datasets of semi-structured interviews were combined. Questions focused on GPs' experiences of diagnosis and diagnostic errors (or near misses) in routine primary care and out of hours. Interviews were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed thematically. Learning points include GPs' reliance on 'pattern recognition' and the failure of this strategy to identify atypical presentations; the importance of considering all potentially serious conditions using a 'restricted rule out' approach; and identifying and acting on a sense of unease. Strategies to help manage uncertainty in primary care were also discussed. Learning from previous examples of diagnostic errors is essential if these events are to be reduced in the future and this should be incorporated into GP training. At a practice level, learning points from experiences of diagnostic errors should be discussed more frequently; and more should be done to integrate these lessons nationally to understand and characterise diagnostic errors. © British Journal of General Practice 2015.

  8. Understanding partnership practice in primary health as pedagogic work: what can Vygotsky's theory of learning offer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Primary health policy in Australia has followed international trends in promoting models of care based on partnership between professionals and health service users. This reform agenda has significant practice implications, and has been widely adopted in areas of primary health that involve supporting families with children. Existing research shows that achieving partnership in practice is associated with three specific challenges: uncertainty regarding the role of professional expertise, tension between immediate needs and longer-term capacity development in families, and the need for challenge while maintaining relationships based on trust. Recently, pedagogic or learning-focussed elements of partnership practice have been identified, but there have been no systematic attempts to link theories of learning with the practices and challenges of primary health-care professionals working with families in a pedagogic role. This paper explores key concepts of Vygotsky's theory of learning (including mediation, the zone of proximal development, internalisation, and double stimulation), showing how pedagogic concepts can provide a bridge between the policy rhetoric of partnership and primary health practice. The use of this theory to address the three key challenges is explicitly discussed.

  9. Creating collaborative learning environments for transforming primary care practices now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William L; Cohen-Katz, Joanne

    2010-12-01

    The renewal of primary care waits just ahead. The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) movement and a refreshing breeze of collaboration signal its arrival with demonstration projects and pilots appearing across the country. An early message from this work suggests that the development of collaborative, cross-disciplinary teams may be essential for the success of the PCMH. Our focus in this article is on training existing health care professionals toward being thriving members of this transformed clinical care team in a relationship-centered PCMH. Our description of the optimal conditions for collaborative training begins with delineating three types of teams and how they relate to levels of collaboration. We then describe how to create a supportive, safe learning environment for this type of training, using a different model of professional socialization, and tools for building culture. Critical skills related to practice development and the cross-disciplinary collaborative processes are also included. Despite significant obstacles in readying current clinicians to be members of thriving collaborative teams, a few next steps toward implementing collaborative training programs for existing professionals are possible using competency-based and adult learning approaches. Grasping the long awaited arrival of collaborative primary health care will also require delivery system and payment reform. Until that happens, there is an abundance of work to be done envisioning new collaborative training programs and initiating a nation-wide effort to motivate and reeducate our colleagues. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Causes of learning problems in primary school students

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    Mirkov Snežana I.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were conducted on learning problems using the sample of eighth-grade students of primary school (N=335. The respondents opted for one or more than seven offered statements related to: insufficient previous knowledge, insufficient studying, teaching contents (extensive, difficult unintelligible, textbook and teacher’s method of presenting the contents. On the basis of the results obtained, one-third of students have problems in mastering teaching contents of foreign language, physics and chemistry, and about one-fourth in mastering those of history and mathematics. All the mentioned causes of problems are present in varying degrees in some school subjects. The causes of learning problems are markedly present in a larger number of school subjects and they are related to some characteristics of teaching contents. Respondents point out, to a large extent, that teaching contents of technical education are uninteresting. In addition, students’ responses indicate that it is necessary to improve the method for mastering the teaching contents in various school subjects i.e. methods applied in the teaching process. Subjective causes, as pointed out by students, are connected with some of the subjects they have characterized as the most difficult. Unintelligible textbook is stressed to the lowest extent as a cause of learning problems compared to other causes stated for the majority of school subjects.

  11. The Role of Context in Third Graders’ Learning of Area Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denny Haris

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many researches showed that the most of students find the difficulty in measuring area. The formula of area tends to be taught directly without involving the conceptual basis and the area measurement are separated from children’s daily experiences. For this reason, the teaching and learning of area measurement was designed and link to a set of students’ experience-based activities. The context of this research is Indonesian traditional handicraft namely anyaman. The study is situated in the context of implementing an Indonesian version of Realistic Mathematics Education, labeled as PMRI in Indonesia. Design Research methodology comprising preliminary design, teaching experiment, and retrospective analysis is applied. This research described the investigation of the context as preliminary of teaching and learning about area measurement held in 3th grade of primary school SDN 119 Palembang. The result of the teaching experiment showed that problem embedded in a context could encourage the students to develop the idea of area measurement concept. The strategies through emergent modeling showed how students’ contribution could be used to develop gradually their reasoning of area measurement concept. In the experience-based activities for learning area measurement, emergent modeling played an important role in the shift of students’ reasoning from informal level towards formal mathematical concepts of area measurement.

  12. Learning About Bird Species on the Primary Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randler, Christoph

    2009-04-01

    Animal species identification is often emphasized as a basic prerequisite for an understanding of ecology because ecological interactions are based on interactions between species at least as it is taught on the school level. Therefore, training identification skills or using identification books seems a worthwhile task in biology education, and should already start on the primary level. On the primary level, however, complex interactions could not be taught but pupils are often interested in basic knowledge about species. We developed a hands-on, group-based and self-determined learning phase organized in workstations. About 138 pupils (2nd-4th graders) participated in this study. The two groups received an identification treatment with six different bird species. These were presented either as soft toys or as taxidermy specimen. Both groups scored similar prior and after the treatment (posttest 1) and with a delay of 6-8 weeks (posttest 2). More complex general linear modeling revealed a significant influence of prior knowledge, treatment and of grade (2nd, 3rd or 4th grade) on the first posttest while in the retention test gender differences emerged. We suggest that soft toys may be of equal value for teaching species identification on the primary level compared to natural taxidermic specimen, especially when considering pricing, insensitivity to handling, and contamination with agents used for preservation.

  13. Effectiveness of Student Learning during Experimental Work in Primary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logar, Ana; Peklaj, Cirila; Ferk Savec, Vesna

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the research was to optimize the effectiveness of student learning based on experimental work in chemistry classes in Slovenian primary schools. To obtain evidence about how experimental work is implemented during regular chemistry classes, experimental work was videotaped during 19 units of chemistry lessons at 12 Slovenian primary schools from the pool of randomly selected schools. Altogether 332 eight-grade students were involved in the investigation, with an average age of 14.2 years. Students were videotaped during chemistry lessons, and their worksheets were collected afterward. The 12 chemistry teachers, who conducted lessons in these schools, were interviewed before the lessons; their teaching plans were also collected. The collected data was analyzed using qualitative methods. The results indicate that many teachers in Slovenian primary schools are not fully aware of the potential of experimental work integrated into chemistry lessons for the development of students' experimental competence. Further research of the value of different kinds of training to support teachers for the use of experimental work in chemistry teaching is needed.

  14. Region and task-specific activation of Arc in primary motor cortex of rats following motor skill learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosp, J A; Mann, S; Wegenast-Braun, B M; Calhoun, M E; Luft, A R

    2013-10-10

    Motor learning requires protein synthesis within the primary motor cortex (M1). Here, we show that the immediate early gene Arc/Arg3.1 is specifically induced in M1 by learning a motor skill. Arc mRNA was quantified using a fluorescent in situ hybridization assay in adult Long-Evans rats learning a skilled reaching task (SRT), in rats performing reaching-like forelimb movement without learning (ACT) and in rats that were trained in the operant but not the motor elements of the task (controls). Apart from M1, Arc expression was assessed within the rostral motor area (RMA), primary somatosensory cortex (S1), striatum (ST) and cerebellum. In SRT animals, Arc mRNA levels in M1 contralateral to the trained limb were 31% higher than ipsilateral (pmotor skill learning in rats. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Improving education in primary care: development of an online curriculum using the blended learning model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewin Linda

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Standardizing the experiences of medical students in a community preceptorship where clinical sites vary by geography and discipline can be challenging. Computer-assisted learning is prevalent in medical education and can help standardize experiences, but often is not used to its fullest advantage. A blended learning curriculum combining web-based modules with face-to-face learning can ensure students obtain core curricular principles. Methods This course was developed and used at The Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine and its associated preceptorship sites in the greater Cleveland area. Leaders of a two-year elective continuity experience at the Case Western Reserve School of Medicine used adult learning principles to develop four interactive online modules presenting basics of office practice, difficult patient interviews, common primary care diagnoses, and disease prevention. They can be viewed at http://casemed.case.edu/cpcp/curriculum. Students completed surveys rating the content and technical performance of each module and completed a Generalist OSCE exam at the end of the course. Results Participating students rated all aspects of the course highly; particularly those related to charting and direct patient care. Additionally, they scored very well on the Generalist OSCE exam. Conclusion Students found the web-based modules to be valuable and to enhance their clinical learning. The blended learning model is a useful tool in designing web-based curriculum for enhancing the clinical curriculum of medical students.

  16. The Role of Pre-School Education on Learning Achievement at Primary Level in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Samir Ranjan

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of pre-school education on learning achievement at primary level in Bangladesh. Evidence from learning achievement test and household and school-related data were obtained from 7093 pupils attending 440 primary schools in Bangladesh. Findings suggest that a small proportion (15.3%) of primary school pupils attended…

  17. Optimal catchment area and primary PCI centre volume revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoos, Mikkel Malby; Pedersen, Frants; Holmvang, Lene

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: The currently stated optimal catchment population for a pPCI centre is 300,000-1,100,000, resulting in 200-800 procedures/year. pPCI centres are increasing in number even within small geographic areas. We describe the organisation and quality of care after merging two high-volume centres...

  18. A Learning Collaborative Approach to Improve Primary Care STI Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, M Diane; Alderman, Elizabeth; York, Deborah V; Blank, Arthur E; Briggs, Rahil D; Hoidal, Kelsey E S; Kus, Christopher; Lechuga, Claudia; Mann, Marie; Meissner, Paul; Patel, Nisha; Racine, Andrew D

    2017-10-01

    The Bronx Ongoing Pediatric Screening (BOPS) project sought to improve screening for sexual activity and sexually transmitted infections (gonorrhea and chlamydia [GCC] and HIV) in a primary care network, employing a modified learning collaborative, real-time clinical data feedback to practices, improvement coaching, and a pay-for-quality monetary incentive. Outcomes are compared for 11 BOPS-participating sites and 10 non-participating sites. The quarterly median rate for documenting sexual activity status increased from 55% to 88% (BOPS sites) and from 13% to 74% (non-BOPS sites). GCC screening of sexually active youth increased at BOPS and non-BOPS sites. Screening at non-health care maintenance visits improved more at BOPS than non-BOPS sites. Data from nonparticipating sites suggests that introduction of an adolescent EMR template or other factors improved screening rates regardless of BOPS participation; BOPS activities appear to promote additional improvement of screening during non-health maintenance visits.

  19. Perceptual learning modifies the functional specializations of visual cortical areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nihong; Cai, Peng; Zhou, Tiangang; Thompson, Benjamin; Fang, Fang

    2016-05-17

    Training can improve performance of perceptual tasks. This phenomenon, known as perceptual learning, is strongest for the trained task and stimulus, leading to a widely accepted assumption that the associated neuronal plasticity is restricted to brain circuits that mediate performance of the trained task. Nevertheless, learning does transfer to other tasks and stimuli, implying the presence of more widespread plasticity. Here, we trained human subjects to discriminate the direction of coherent motion stimuli. The behavioral learning effect substantially transferred to noisy motion stimuli. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying the transfer of learning. The TMS experiment revealed dissociable, causal contributions of V3A (one of the visual areas in the extrastriate visual cortex) and MT+ (middle temporal/medial superior temporal cortex) to coherent and noisy motion processing. Surprisingly, the contribution of MT+ to noisy motion processing was replaced by V3A after perceptual training. The fMRI experiment complemented and corroborated the TMS finding. Multivariate pattern analysis showed that, before training, among visual cortical areas, coherent and noisy motion was decoded most accurately in V3A and MT+, respectively. After training, both kinds of motion were decoded most accurately in V3A. Our findings demonstrate that the effects of perceptual learning extend far beyond the retuning of specific neural populations for the trained stimuli. Learning could dramatically modify the inherent functional specializations of visual cortical areas and dynamically reweight their contributions to perceptual decisions based on their representational qualities. These neural changes might serve as the neural substrate for the transfer of perceptual learning.

  20. Support for learning in the perspective of patient safety in primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thatianny Tanferri de Brito Paranaguá

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the support for learning, in the perspective of patient safety, offered in the work environment, according to health professionals working in primary care. Method: a transversal study, held with 86 health professionals working in primary care. A validated instrument was used, applied via the Internet. Descriptive statistical analysis was undertaken with a presentation of median, mean, standard deviation and coefficient of variation. Results: points which are favorable to supporting learning were evidenced, such as mutual respect, autonomy for organizing the work and valorization of new ideas, which obtained means above 7.0. The variables which hinder the process of learning in the work environment, perceived by the professionals, were: resistance to changes, and excess of work impeding reflection on how to improve the work, with means above 6.0. Conclusion: the study found evidence of indicators related to the process of staff development in the area of health and indicates the influence of support for learning for the improvement of the work processes and of patient safety. It is necessary that a culture involving the systematic assessment of educational interventions in health should be established, the aim being to diagnose actions which are more incisive for changing health professionals' attitude and, therefore, clinical practice.

  1. The Influence of Interactive Learning Materials on Self-Regulated Learning and Learning Satisfaction of Primary School Teachers in Mongolia

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    Shengru Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of interactive learning materials on learners’ self-regulated learning processes and learning satisfaction. A two-group experimental design was employed for 285 primary school teachers involved in teacher training. Teachers in the experimental group utilised interactive learning materials along with training videos and guidelines for their self-development at the school level. Teachers in the control group conducted self-development only with training videos and guidelines. The result was analysed using self-regulated learning theory explaining how one’s self-regulation processes affect learning satisfaction. Five self-regulation processes were identified in this study: internal motivation, motivation for better assessment, planning and organizing skills, critical and positive thinking skills, and effort regulation. The analysis was conducted in two steps. First, t-test analysis was used to identify the significant differences between the experimental group and the control group. The analysis revealed: (1 teachers conducting self-development with interactive learning materials were highly motivated to achieve better teacher assessment, (2 teachers with interactive learning materials had higher learning satisfaction. Second, the study further investigated the effect of interactive materials on the relationship between self-regulation processes and learning satisfaction, using moderation analysis. The results showed that interactive materials significantly affect the relationship between motivation for better assessment and learning satisfaction, as well as the relationship between internal motivation and learning satisfaction. These results were complemented by qualitative analysis including interviews and focus group discussions with teachers.

  2. Response to "Learning through Life": Thematic Area of Poverty Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Julia

    2010-01-01

    This paper responds to the NIACE report "Learning through Life" in relation to the report's thematic area of poverty reduction. The paper draws on the thematic working papers that informed the report as well as wider literature on poverty. It takes a multidimensional perspective of poverty, drawing on Sen's concept of poverty as "unfreedom" and…

  3. Learning through Hallmark People in the Content Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciecierski, Lisa M.; Bintz, William P.

    2018-01-01

    This article shares aspects to consider when designing and implementing content area instruction through the study of people. It begins with a description of an inquiry that investigated students' learning with the use of authentic literature and meaningful writing in social studies, and then extends to a discussion of how to apply these same…

  4. Enhancing Primary Science Teaching: Interconnections of Content, Policy and Practice in a New Zealand Professional Learning and Development Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Steven S.

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports on an ongoing professional learning and development (PLD) initiative in New Zealand. The Academy is designed to provide primary and intermediate classroom teachers with the knowledge, materials and support needed for effective delivery of "The New Zealand Curriculum's" science subject area. Specifically, this paper…

  5. Unintended Learning in Primary School Practical Science Lessons from Polanyi's Perspective of Intellectual Passion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jisun; Song, Jinwoong; Abrahams, Ian

    2016-01-01

    This study explored, from the perspective of intellectual passion developed by Michael Polanyi, the unintended learning that occurred in primary practical science lessons. We use the term "unintended" learning to distinguish it from "intended" learning that appears in teachers' learning objectives. Data were collected using…

  6. Portfolios as "Learning Companions" for Children and a Means to Support and Assess Language Learning in the Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jane

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the idea of portfolios as a way to collect evidence of pupils' learning and achievement in their language learning in the primary school. The emphasis is on portfolio work as an active and reflective process to underpin and support learning and to show evidence of achievement and progression. Pupil choice and reflexivity are…

  7. Primary aldosteronism among newly diagnosed and untreated hypertensive patients in a Swedish primary care area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdahl, Christina; Bergenfelz, Anders; Isaksson, Anders; Nerbrand, Christina; Valdemarsson, Stig

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of primary aldosteronism (PA) in newly diagnosed and untreated hypertensive patients in primary care using the aldosterone/renin ratio (ARR), and to assess clinical and biochemical characteristics in patients with high and normal ARR. Patient survey study. A total of 200 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed and untreated hypertension from six primary health care centres in Sweden were included. ARR was calculated from serum aldosterone and plasma renin concentrations. The cut-off level for ARR was 65. Patients with an increased ARR were considered for confirmatory testing with the fludrocortisone suppression test (FST), followed by adrenal computed tomographic radiology (CT) and adrenal venous sampling (AVS). Of 200 patients, 36 patients had an ARR > 65. Of these 36 patients, 11 patients had an incomplete aldosterone inhibition during FST. Three patients were diagnosed with an aldosterone producing adenoma (APA) and eight with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia (BHA). Except for moderately lower level of P-K in patients with an ARR > 65 and in patients with PA, there were no biochemical or clinical differences found among hypertensive patients with PA compared with patients without PA. Eleven of 200 evaluated patients (5.5%) were considered to have PA. The diagnosis of PA should therefore be considered in newly diagnosed hypertensive subjects and screening for the diagnosis is warranted.

  8. Utilization of Electronic Learning System in Swat Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazir Ahmed Sangi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As developments in electronic technologies i.e. personal computers, laptops, tablets, mobiles and wearable devices, the way of learning is also changing. Therefore, utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT has great important role in schools and colleges. ICT is using by students, teachers and societies in District Swat, KP, Pakistan in the form of mobiles internet (for social contact and chat, computers internet (for knowledge exploration and entertainment and multimedia (for teaching and learning. One of the difficulties involved in rural areas’ students of District Swat is that they cannot join class rooms due to their poor livelihood condition and far away from schools and colleges. Especially most of the females of rural areas of Swat do not come to schools and colleges for their family tradition and culture. Various questions were examined in every aspect of educational technologies in this study. We surveyed 50 responded randomly at District Swat from different schools and colleges and discovered that the responded were generally positive and have great interest about e-learning in Swat. The use of proposed electronic system for the learning, the literacy rate will increase in rural areas and students will achieve their individual goals.

  9. The Role of Context in Third Graders’ Learning of Area Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denny Haris

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many researches showed that the most of students find the difficulty in measuring area. The formula of area tends to be taught directly without involving the conceptual basis and the area measurement are separated from children’s daily experiences. For this reason, the teaching and learning of area measurement was designed and link to a set of students’  experience-based activities. The context of this research is Indonesian traditional handicraft namely anyaman. The study is situated in the context of implementing an Indonesian version of Realistic Mathematics Education, labeled as PMRI in Indonesia. Design Research methodology comprising preliminary design, teaching experiment, and retrospective analysis is  applied. This research described  the investigation of the context as preliminary of teaching and learning about area measurement held in  3th grade of primary school  SDN 119 Palembang. The result of the teaching experiment showed that problem embedded in a context could encourage the students to develop the idea of area measurement concept. The strategies through emergent modeling showed how students’ contribution could be used to develop gradually their reasoning of area measurement concept. In the experience-based activities for learning area measurement, emergent modeling played an important role in the shift of students’ reasoning from informal level towards formal mathematical concepts of area measurement.Keywords: Area measurement, Anyaman, design research, PMRI DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.2.1.778.55-66

  10. Towards Primary School Physics Teaching and Learning: Design Research Approach. Research Report 256

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juuti, Kalle

    2005-01-01

    This thesis describes a project to design a primary school physics learning environment which takes into account teachers' needs, design procedures, properties of the learning environment, and pupil learning outcomes. The project's design team has wide experience in research and development work in relation to science education, the use of ICT in…

  11. Developing Guidelines to Enhance Students Desirable Characteristics for Schools under the Office of Udornthani Primary Education Service Area 1

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    Aroonsiri Janlon

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research were 1 to study the elements and indicators students desirable characteristics for schools ; 2 to study the present condition and the desirable of students desirable characteristics for schools ; and 3 to develop guidelines to enhance students desirable characteristics for schools under the office of Udornthani primary education service area 1. Research and development. Method was divided into three phases for the purposes of research. The samples were 296 teachers and school administrators, using stratified random sampling. Instruments used were questionnaire, assessment elements and indicators, interview form and assessment guidelines. Data were analyzed using mean, standard devitation and modified priority needs index. Research findings were as follows: 1. There were 3 elements of students desirable characteristics for schools consisted of discipline, learning and commitment to work. Discipline consisted of four indicators, learning consisted of indicators and commitment to work consisted of two indicators. 2. The current situation of students desirable characteristics for schools under the office of Udornthani primary education service area 1, overall at a high level, considering each element, discipline was the highest, followed by learning and the lowest was commitment to work as well. In desirable situation the same relults on the current situation. 3. Guidelines to enhance students desirable characteristics for schools under the office of Udornthani primary education service area 1 consisted of 7 guidelines: 1 the policy clearly ; 2 providing specialized committees ; 3 creating a common understanding ; 4 targeting clearly ; 5 the environmental moral ; 6 supervision, monitoring and evaluation ; and 7 creating a network of parents and the community.

  12. Structure of Primary Health Care: Lessons from a Rural Area in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Structure of Primary Health Care: Lessons from a Rural Area in South-West Nigeria. ... of the facilities enjoyed community participation in planning and management. There ... None of the facilities had a functional 2-way referral system in place.

  13. Effects of Language of Instruction on Learning of Literacy Skills among Pre-Primary School Children from Low-Income Urban Communities in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungi, Njora; Njagi, Joan; Wekulo, Patricia; Ngware, Moses

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the language of instruction and learning of literacy skills among pre-primary school children in a multilingual environment. The sample consists of 1867 learners from low-income urban households, attending 147 low-cost private pre-primary schools located in low-income areas of Nairobi, Kenya. About…

  14. Teacher Feedback during Active Learning: Current Practices in Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bergh, Linda; Ros, Anje; Beijaard, Douwe

    2013-01-01

    Background: Feedback is one of the most powerful tools, which teachers can use to enhance student learning. It appears dif?cult for teachers to give qualitatively good feedback, especially during active learning. In this context, teachers should provide facilitative feedback that is focused on the development of meta-cognition and social learning.…

  15. Structure of receptive fields in a computational model of area 3b of primary sensory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detorakis, Georgios Is; Rougier, Nicolas P

    2014-01-01

    In a previous work, we introduced a computational model of area 3b which is built upon the neural field theory and receives input from a simplified model of the index distal finger pad populated by a random set of touch receptors (Merkell cells). This model has been shown to be able to self-organize following the random stimulation of the finger pad model and to cope, to some extent, with cortical or skin lesions. The main hypothesis of the model is that learning of skin representations occurs at the thalamo-cortical level while cortico-cortical connections serve a stereotyped competition mechanism that shapes the receptive fields. To further assess this hypothesis and the validity of the model, we reproduced in this article the exact experimental protocol of DiCarlo et al. that has been used to examine the structure of receptive fields in area 3b of the primary somatosensory cortex. Using the same analysis toolset, the model yields consistent results, having most of the receptive fields to contain a single region of excitation and one to several regions of inhibition. We further proceeded our study using a dynamic competition that deeply influences the formation of the receptive fields. We hypothesized this dynamic competition to correspond to some form of somatosensory attention that may help to precisely shape the receptive fields. To test this hypothesis, we designed a protocol where an arbitrary region of interest is delineated on the index distal finger pad and we either (1) instructed explicitly the model to attend to this region (simulating an attentional signal) (2) preferentially trained the model on this region or (3) combined the two aforementioned protocols simultaneously. Results tend to confirm that dynamic competition leads to shrunken receptive fields and its joint interaction with intensive training promotes a massive receptive fields migration and shrinkage.

  16. Structure of Receptive Fields in a Computational Model of Area 3b of Primary Sensory Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios eDetorakis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In a previous work, we introduced a computational model of area 3b which is built upon the neural field theory and receives input from a simplified model of the index distal finger pad populated by a random set of touch receptors(Merkell cells. This model has been shown to be able to self-organize following the random stimulation of the finger pad model and to cope, to some extent, with cortical or skin lesions. The main hypothesis of the model is that learning of skin representations occurs at the thalamo-cortical level while cortico-cortical connections serve a stereotyped competition mechanism that shapes the receptive fields. To further assess this hypothesis and the validity of the model, we reproduced in this article the exact experimental protocol of DiCarlo et al. that has been used to examine the structure of receptive fields in area 3b of the primary somatosensory cortex. Using the same analysis toolset, the model yields consistent results, having most of the receptive fields to contain a single region of excitation and one to severalregions of inhibition. We further proceeded our study using a dynamic competition that deeply influences the formation of the receptive fields. We hypothesized this dynamic competition to correspond to some form of somatosensory attention that may help to precisely shape the receptive fields. To test this hypothesis, we designed a protocol where an arbitrary region of interest is delineated on the index distal finger pad and we either (1 instructed explicitly the model to attend to this region (simulating an attentional signal (2 preferentially trained the model on this region or (3combined the two aforementioned protocols simultaneously. Results tend to confirm that dynamic competition leads to shrunken receptive fields and its joint interaction with intensive training promotes a massive receptive fields migration and shrinkage.

  17. The Role of Counseling Services in Understanding the Characteristics and Etiology of Learning Disabilities among Primary School Pupils in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guyit Ruth

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper focused on the pivotal role of counseling services for parents, teachers and children with learning disabilities in primary schools with reference to Nigeria. This is with the view to educate the teachers to become more informed about what learning disabilities are and to create awareness and instill hope in the bewildered parents/guardians of children with learning disabilities to appreciate and serve as advocates for their wards. Consequently, a brief historical perspective of learning disabilities in terms of its origin, the need, characteristics and causes has been presented. It is discovered that learning disabilities is a condition with many manifestations and may be compounded by environmental factors such as the home and school. Contrary to people’s conception of the condition, individuals with learning disabilities are of above average intelligence and can be gifted and talented. The paper went further to examine specific areas of counseling services that are needed by pupils, parents and teachers of children with learning disabilities. These include but not limited to personal, social, and academic spheres. Possible challenges of providing effective guidance and counseling services in primary schools are highlighted. Among them are inadequate trained and certified counselors, poor facilities and non patronage by pupils and teachers in addition to parental ignorance. The paper then concluded with suggestions as a way forward.

  18. Heritage learning outcomes in the Nordic and Baltic area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Tine; Kling, Sofia,; Sonne, Lasse

    , there is a cultural heritage sector in a somewhat new arena, where concepts such as citizenship, lifelong learning, social cohesion and human capital are central. This means that museums and archives need to find new ways to justify their activities: it is no longer sufficient to focus on the collection and the care...... and preservation of documents and objects. On the contrary, it has become increasingly important to create new areas of use, relevant to the surrounding society, for the documents and objects chosen for preservation. These guidelines relate to competence development among adult visitors to archives and museums...

  19. BLENDED LEARNING COURSE FOR FUTURE PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IMPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vira V. Kotkova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ukrainian and foreign scientists’ views on the essence of blended learning are analyzed in the article. The author's definition of a blended learning course is presented. The process of such course designing is described according to target, motivational, substantive, operational and diagnostic components. Both the structure of the blended learning course implementation as well as students’ educational-cognitive activity distribution between classroom learning and distance course are shown. The problems for students, teachers, and educational institutions of blended courses effective implementation are summarized. Students’ academic performance of three years study is analyzed. The results of students’ questioning to determine their perception of blended learning course are described according to the following categories: the effectiveness of blended course, evaluation objectivity, motivation to study, the use of plagiarism in studies, understanding of blended learning course.

  20. Defining Primary Care Shortage Areas: Do GIS-based Measures Yield Different Results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Michael R; Mellor, Jennifer M; Millones, Marco

    2018-02-12

    To examine whether geographic information systems (GIS)-based physician-to-population ratios (PPRs) yield determinations of geographic primary care shortage areas that differ from those based on bounded-area PPRs like those used in the Health Professional Shortage Area (HPSA) designation process. We used geocoded data on primary care physician (PCP) locations and census block population counts from 1 US state to construct 2 shortage area indicators. The first is a bounded-area shortage indicator defined without GIS methods; the second is a GIS-based measure that measures the populations' spatial proximity to PCP locations. We examined agreement and disagreement between bounded shortage areas and GIS-based shortage areas. Bounded shortage area indicators and GIS-based shortage area indicators agree for the census blocks where the vast majority of our study populations reside. Specifically, 95% and 98% of the populations in our full and urban samples, respectively, reside in census blocks where the 2 indicators agree. Although agreement is generally high in rural areas (ie, 87% of the rural population reside in census blocks where the 2 indicators agree), agreement is significantly lower compared to urban areas. One source of disagreement suggests that bounded-area measures may "overlook" some shortages in rural areas; however, other aspects of the HPSA designation process likely mitigate this concern. Another source of disagreement arises from the border-crossing problem, and it is more prevalent. The GIS-based PPRs we employed would yield shortage area determinations that are similar to those based on bounded-area PPRs defined for Primary Care Service Areas. Disagreement rates were lower than previous studies have found. © 2018 National Rural Health Association.

  1. Cognitive Neurostimulation: Learning to Volitionally Sustain Ventral Tegmental Area Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacInnes, Jeff J; Dickerson, Kathryn C; Chen, Nan-Kuei; Adcock, R Alison

    2016-03-16

    Activation of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and mesolimbic networks is essential to motivation, performance, and learning. Humans routinely attempt to motivate themselves, with unclear efficacy or impact on VTA networks. Using fMRI, we found untrained participants' motivational strategies failed to consistently activate VTA. After real-time VTA neurofeedback training, however, participants volitionally induced VTA activation without external aids, relative to baseline, Pre-test, and control groups. VTA self-activation was accompanied by increased mesolimbic network connectivity. Among two comparison groups (no neurofeedback, false neurofeedback) and an alternate neurofeedback group (nucleus accumbens), none sustained activation in target regions of interest nor increased VTA functional connectivity. The results comprise two novel demonstrations: learning and generalization after VTA neurofeedback training and the ability to sustain VTA activation without external reward or reward cues. These findings suggest theoretical alignment of ideas about motivation and midbrain physiology and the potential for generalizable interventions to improve performance and learning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Computer-assisted multimedia interactive learning program "Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, V B; Zenz, H; Eisenmann, D; Tekaat, C J; Wagner, R; Jacobi, K W

    1996-05-01

    Advances in the area of information technology have opened up new possibilities for the use of interactive media in the training of medical students. Classical instructional technologies, such as video, slides, audio cassettes and computer programs with a textbook orientation, have been merged into one multimedia computer system. The medical profession has been increasingly integrating computer-based applications which can be used, for example, for record keeping within a medical practice. The goal of this development is to provide access to all modes of information storage and retrieval as well as documentation and training systems within a specific context. Since the beginning of the winter semester 1995, the Department of Ophthalmology in Giessen has used the learning program "Primary Open Angle Glaucoma" in student instruction. One factor that contributed to the implementation of this project was that actual training using patients within the clinic is difficult to conduct. Media-supported training that can provide a simulation of actual practice offers a suitable substitute. The learning program has been installed on Power PCs (Apple MacIntosh), which make up the technical foundation of our system. The program was developed using Hypercard software, which provides userfriendly graphical work environment. This controls the input and retrieval of data, direct editing of documents, immediate simulation, the creation of on-screen documents and the integration of slides that have been scanned in as well as QuickTime films. All of this can be accomplished without any special knowledge of programming language or operating systems on the part of the user. The glaucoma learning program is structured along the lines of anatomy, including an explanation of the circulation of the aqueous humor, pathology, clinical symptoms and findings, diagnosis and treatment. This structure along with the possibility for creating a list of personal files for the user with a collection

  3. [Development and evolution of a balanced scorecard in primary health care: Lessons learned].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomé-Benito, E; Jiménez-Carramiñana, J; Sánchez-Perruca, L; Bartolomé-Casado, M S; Dominguez-Mandueño, A B; Marti-Argandoña, M; Hernández-Pascual, M; Miquel-Gómez, A

    To describe the design, implementation, and monitoring of eSOAP (Primary Health Care Balanced Scorecard) and its role in the deployment of strategic objectives and clinical management, as well as to show the lessons learned during six years of follow-up. Descriptive study areas: methodology (conceptual framework, strategic matrix, strategic map, and processes map), technology and standardisation. As of December 2014, 9,046 (78%) professionals are registered in eSOAP. A total of 381 indicators were measured from 16 data sources, of which 36% were of results (EFQM model), 39.1% of clinical management, and 20% were included in the Program Centre Contract. The Balanced Scorecard has enabled to deploy all strategic lines of Primary Health Care, and has enabled the healthcare professionals to evaluate the evolution of results over time, and at patient level (e.g. 16% increase in control of diabetic patients). A total of 295,779 reports were generated and 13,080 professionals were evaluated by goals. There was an increased use of the eSOAP application by the professionals. The Balanced Scorecard was the key in deploying Primary Health Care strategies. It has helped clinical management and improved relevant indicators (health, patient experience, and costs), such as the management models that we used as references (EFQM Kaplan and Norton), and new emerging scenarios (Triple aim). Copyright © 2016 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Emotion, Identity and Teacher Learning: Becoming a Primary Mathematics Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgen, Jeremy; Askew, Mike

    2007-01-01

    Teacher change in mathematics education is recognised to be a difficult and at times painful process. This is particularly so in countries such as England where primary mathematics is taught by non-specialist teachers, who have often had negative experiences of their own school mathematics. In this paper we explore primary teachers' emotional…

  5. Designing instruction and learning for cognitively gifted pupils in preschool and primary school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton

    2012-01-01

    Mooij, T. (2013). Designing education and learning for cognitively gifted pupils in preschool and primary school. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 17(6), 597-613. doi:10.1080/13603116.2012.696727

  6. ict and quality of teaching–learning related activities in primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Irene

    (ICT) enhance teaching learning related activities in primary schools in Ogoja education zone of Cross. River State ... A sample of six hundred and twenty ... Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that ... video conferencing).

  7. Teaching and Learning of 'Water for Agriculture' in Primary Schools ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    approaches at the expense of traditional and innovative sustainability practices ... development and teaching may miss the opportunity to learn from lessons ..... SADC regional vulnerability assessment and analysis synthesis report 2015: State.

  8. Professional learning for distributed leadership:Primary headteachers’ perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Torrance, Deirdre

    2015-01-01

    This article draws from a small-scale study of headteachers motivated to positively impact on the quality of pupil experience by involving all staff in a distributed perspective on leadership. Each headteacher perceived leadership as involving learned processes requiring support and experience, expending considerable effort in providing a fertile environment for learning about its practice. This perspective developed from their personal experience of challenging established leadership orthodo...

  9. The primary motor and premotor areas of the human cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouinard, Philippe A; Paus, Tomás

    2006-04-01

    Brodmann's cytoarchitectonic map of the human cortex designates area 4 as cortex in the anterior bank of the precentral sulcus and area 6 as cortex encompassing the precentral gyrus and the posterior portion of the superior frontal gyrus on both the lateral and medial surfaces of the brain. More than 70 years ago, Fulton proposed a functional distinction between these two areas, coining the terms primary motor area for cortex in Brodmann area 4 and premotor area for cortex in Brodmann area 6. The parcellation of the cortical motor system has subsequently become more complex. Several nonprimary motor areas have been identified in the brain of the macaque monkey, and associations between anatomy and function in the human brain are being tested continuously using brain mapping techniques. In the present review, the authors discuss the unique properties of the primary motor area (M1), the dorsal portion of the premotor cortex (PMd), and the ventral portion of the premotor cortex (PMv). They end this review by discussing how the premotor areas influence M1.

  10. Learning Chinese Characters via Mobile Technology in a Primary School Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jie; Meng, Sue; Tam, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a project, including the design, development, and use of a mobile application (referred to as application hereafter) for learning Chinese as a second language in a bilingual primary school. The application was designed for iPod Touch Apple technology with the purpose to facilitate learning of a fundamental set of 200 Chinese…

  11. The Day-to-Day Work of Primary School Teachers: A Source of Professional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambler, Trudy Belinda

    2016-01-01

    Teachers are an important influence on students' learning, and therefore the opportunity for teachers to learn and develop is something of interest to educators internationally. This article reports on a research project involving six primary school teachers who participated in one-on-one and small group interviews to explore the opportunities for…

  12. Reliability and validity of the rey visual design learning test in primary school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilhelm, P.

    2004-01-01

    The Rey Visual Design Learning Test (Rey, 1964, in Spreen & Strauss, 1991) assesses immediate memory span, new learning and recognition for non-verbal material. Three studies are presented that focused on the reliability and validity of the RVDLT in primary school children. Test-retest reliability

  13. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to the Primary Motor Cortex Interferes with Motor Learning by Observing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Liana E.; Wilson, Elizabeth T.; Gribble, Paul L.

    2009-01-01

    Neural representations of novel motor skills can be acquired through visual observation. We used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to test the idea that this "motor learning by observing" is based on engagement of neural processes for learning in the primary motor cortex (M1). Human subjects who observed another person learning…

  14. Naïve conceptions about multimedia learning: a study on primary school textbooks

    OpenAIRE

    Colombo, Barbara; Antonietti, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS This interview study explores beliefs about the instructional role of illustrations We compared illustrators', teachers', students' and common people's ideas Participants' responses were internally coherent and close to multimedia learning theory We propose and discuss an integrated multimedia learning model An interview study, based on specific pictures taken from textbooks used in primary schools, was carried out to investigate illustrators', teachers', students'...

  15. Artificial Grammar Learning in Primary School Children with and without Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidou, Elpis V.; Williams, Joanne M.; Kelly, Louise M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores implicit learning in typically developing and primary school children (9-12 years old) with developmental dyslexia using an artificial grammar learning (AGL) task. Two experiments were conducted, which differed in time of presentation and nature of the instructional set (experiment 1-implicit instructions vs experiment…

  16. Support Required for Primary and Secondary Students with Communication Disorders and/or Other Learning Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Sharynne; McKinnon, David H.

    2010-01-01

    Prioritization of school students with additional learning needs is a reality due to a finite resource base. Limited evidence exists regarding teachers' prioritization of primary and secondary school students with additional learning needs. The aim of the present article was to differentiate teachers' perceptions of the level of support required…

  17. Investigation of Primary Education Second Level Students' Motivations toward Science Learning in Terms of Various Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sert Çibik, Ayse

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the primary education second level students' motivations towards science learning in terms of various factors. Within the research, the variation of the total motivational scores in science learning according to the gender, class, socio-economic levels, success in science-technology course and…

  18. Revolution, Evolution or a Trojan Horse? Piloting Assessment for Learning in Some Scottish Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirton, Alison; Hallam, Susan; Peffers, Jack; Robertson, Pamela; Stobart, Gordon

    2007-01-01

    This article analyses some of the findings of an evaluation of Project One of the "Assessment is for Learning" Development Programme in 16 Scottish primary schools and two junior high schools in which teachers developed formative assessment strategies aimed at improving teaching and learning. Drawing on data from pupils, teachers and…

  19. Enhancing Student Self-Worth in the Primary School Learning Environment: Teachers' Views and Students' Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, Penni; Cowan, Jackie

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the findings from a study of teachers and students' views regarding self-worth in the primary school learning environment. The revised New Zealand curriculum recognises the importance of self-worth in students' motivation and ability to learn. While the need to enhance self-worth in the classroom has been well established in the…

  20. Meaningful cultural learning by imitative participation: the case of abstract thinking in primary school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oers, B.

    2012-01-01

    The article describes a theory-driven approach to meaningful learning in primary schools, based on the Vygotskian cultural-historical theory of human development and learning. This approach is elaborated into an educational concept called 'developmental education' that is implemented in the

  1. Learning literacy and content through video activities in primary education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heitink, Maaike Christine; Fisser, Petra; McKenney, Susan; Resta, P.

    2012-01-01

    This case study research explored to what extent and in which ways teachers used Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK) and related competencies to implement video activities in primary education. Three Dutch teachers implemented video activities to improve students‟ content knowledge

  2. TIME-ON-TASK IN PRIMARY CLASSROOMS, DURING DIFFERENT TEACHING-LEARNING APPROACHES

    OpenAIRE

    Sachin Mohite; Meenal Dashputre

    2017-01-01

    The entire education system is moving from the teacher-centered teaching-learning approaches towards student-centered teaching-learning approaches, with anticipation that it would increase the learning outcomes. This empirical study was carried out to compare the traditional and non-traditional classrooms. It also tried to understand the effectiveness of the Alternate Instructions in the Mathematics and Primary Language (Marathi) classrooms. This study collected about 8000 snapshots from the ...

  3. Classroom anxiety of year 6 EFL primary school students in correlation with their learning achievements

    OpenAIRE

    Praček, Anja

    2017-01-01

    The Master thesis examines classroom anxiety of the 6th Grade primary School students in relation to their learning achievements in English as a foreign language. In many a thing, the English class differs from other classes and it is precisely this unique learning situation that can provoke anxiety in students. The Master thesis consists of a theoretical and empirical part. The theoretical part reviews the literature available on the current state of teaching and learning English as a for...

  4. A professional learning community model: a case study of primary teachers community in west Bandung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, A.; Suryadi, D.; Syaodih, E.

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide an alternative model of professional learning community for primary school teachers in improving the knowledge and professional skills. This study is a qualitative research with case study method with data collection is an interview, observation and document and triangulation technique for validation data that focuses on thirteen people 5th grade elementary school teacher. The results showed that by joining a professional learning community, teachers can share both experience and knowledge to other colleagues so that they can be able to continue to improve and enhance the quality of their learning. This happens because of the reflection done together before, during and after the learning activities. It was also revealed that by learning in a professional learning community, teachers can learn in their own way, according to need, and can collaborate with their colleagues in improving the effectiveness of learning. Based on the implementation of professional learning community primary school teachers can be concluded that teachers can develop the curriculum, the students understand the development, overcome learning difficulties faced by students and can make learning design more effective and efficient.

  5. Exploring informal workplace learning in primary healthcare for continuous professional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joynes, Viktoria; Kerr, Micky; Treasure-Jones, Tamsin

    2017-07-01

    All health and social care professionals learn on the job through both formal and informal learning processes, which contributes to continuous professional development (CPD). This study explored workplace learning in General Practices, specifically looking at the role of informal learning and the workplace practices that appear to support or restrict that learning, as well as how technology was integrated into these learning processes. Three focus groups with general practitioners, practice nurses, managerial and administrative staff were conducted followed by twelve individual semi-structured interviews with participants drawn from the focus groups. Three observations of multi-disciplinary team meetings were used to establish potential team-based learning activities. Triggers for informal workplace learning included patients presenting challenging or unusual conditions; exposure to others' professional practice; and policy driven changes through revised guidance and protocols. By exploring how these triggers were acted upon, we identified mechanisms through which the primary care workplace supports or restricts informal learning through working practices, existing technologies and inter-professional structures. Informal workplace learning was identified as arising from both opportunistic encounters and more planned activities, which are both supported and restricted through a variety of mechanisms. Maximising informal learning opportunities and removing barriers to doing so should be a priority for primary care practitioners, managers and educators.

  6. The silent partners? Leading parental involvement in primary schools in areas experiencing educational inequality.

    OpenAIRE

    O'Reilly, Siobhan

    2012-01-01

    This research project explored and examined parental involvement in two primary school with an emphasis on ‘leading’ this involvement. Both schools were situated in designated DEIS Urban Band 1 areas in Dublin. DEIS Urban Band 1 schools are identified as areas of high levels of socioeconomic disadvantage. The project was contextualised within the current national policy which has committed to parents as partners in their child’s education and the evidence from international literature clearly...

  7. Disparities in the access to primary healthcare in rural areas from the county of Iasi - Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duma, Olga-Odetta; Roşu, Solange Tamara; Manole, M; Petrariu, F D; Constantin, Brânduşa

    2014-01-01

    To identify the factors that may conduct to various forms of social exclusion of the population from the primary healthcare and to analyze health disparities as population-specific differences in the access to primary healthcare in rural compared to urban residence areas from Iasi, the second biggest county, situated in the North--East region of Romania. This research is a type of inquiry-based opinion survey of the access to primary healthcare in rural compared to urban areas of the county of Iasi. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews. There were taken into account the socioeconomic status (education level in the adult population, employment status, family income, household size) and two temporal variables (the interval of time spent to arrive at the primary healthcare office as a marker for the geographical access and the waiting time for a consultation). The study group consisted of two samples, from rural and urban area, each of 150 patients, all ages, randomly selected, who were waiting at the family doctor's practice. The study has identified disparities related to a poor economic status assessed through the employed status ("not working" 15% in urban and of 20% in rural).The income calculated per member of family and divided in terciles has recorded significant differences for "high" (36.7% urban and 14.7% rural) and "low", respectively (14.6% urban and 56.6% rural). High household size with more than five members represented 22.6% of the total subjects in rural and 15.3% in urban areas. The assessment of the education level in the adult population (> 18 years) revealed that in the rural areas more than a half (56%) of the sample is placed in the category primary and secondary incomplete, whereas the value for secondary complete and postsecondary was 37.3%. The proportion of respondents in the urban areas who have post-secondary education is five times higher than those in rural areas (15.4% vs. 2.7%). The reduced geographical access assessed as

  8. Children Literature Based Program for Developing EFL Primary Pupils' Life Skills and Language Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhalim, Safaa M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of a proposed English language program based on integrating two forms of children literature, mainly short stories and songs, in developing the needed life skills and language learning strategies of primary school students. Besides, it emphasized the importance of providing EFL fifth year primary students with…

  9. Inquiry-Based Learning in Teacher Education: A Primary Humanities Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Lou; Harvie, Kate; Wallace, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Inquiry-based learning features strongly in the new Australian Humanities and Social Sciences curriculum and increasingly in primary school practice. Yet, there is little research into, and few exemplars of, inquiry approaches in the primary humanities context. In this article, we outline and explain the implementation of a place-based simulation…

  10. Relationship between Professional Learning Community, Bureaucratic Structure and Organisational Trust in Primary Education Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Fatma

    2016-01-01

    This research uses relational survey method to determine the relationship between professional learning community, bureaucratic structure and organisational trust according to the perceptions of teachers who work in primary education schools. Data were collected from 805 teachers who work in primary education schools in the districts (Altindag,…

  11. Constructing a Successful Cross-National Virtual Learning Environment in Primary and Secondary Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligorio, Maria Beatrice; van Veen, Klaas

    2006-01-01

    Virtual environments are more and more used in primary schools. One of the most interesting potentialities of these environments is to foster cross-national applications. Yet, this specific feature is not fully exploited. This paper presents a successful virtual learning environment for primary

  12. Impact of ICT Usage in Primary-School Students' Learning in the Case of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arukaroon, Benjawan; Krairit, Donyaprueth

    2017-01-01

    The utilization of ICT as a teaching-learning tool continues to be very popular in Thai primary schools. However, technology impact assessments are not always properly carried out, and the benefits of using ICT in primary education are not always clear. The aim of this paper is to assess whether the use of ICT has an impact on student performance…

  13. A Study on Teaching Gases to Prospective Primary Science Teachers through Problem-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senocak, Erdal; Taskesenligil, Yavuz; Sozbilir, Mustafa

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the achievement of prospective primary science teachers in a problem-based curriculum with those in a conventional primary science teacher preparation program with regard to success in learning about gases and developing positive attitudes towards chemistry. The subjects of the study were 101 first year…

  14. Primary collector wall local temperature fluctuations in the area of water-steam phase boundary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matal, O.; Klinga, J.; Simo, T. [Energovyzkum Ltd., Brno (Switzerland)

    1995-12-31

    A limited number of temperature sensors could be installed at the primary collector surface in the area of water - steam phase boundary. The surface temperatures as well WWER 440 steam generator process data were measured and stored for a long time and off-line evaluated. Selected results are presented in the paper. (orig.). 2 refs.

  15. Primary collector wall local temperature fluctuations in the area of water-steam phase boundary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matal, O; Klinga, J; Simo, T [Energovyzkum Ltd., Brno (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    A limited number of temperature sensors could be installed at the primary collector surface in the area of water - steam phase boundary. The surface temperatures as well WWER 440 steam generator process data were measured and stored for a long time and off-line evaluated. Selected results are presented in the paper. (orig.). 2 refs.

  16. Analysis of an Interactive Technology Supported Problem-Based Learning STEM Project Using Selected Learning Sciences Interest Areas (SLSIA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, David Devraj

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports an analysis of an interactive technology-supported, problem-based learning (PBL) project in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) from a Learning Sciences perspective using the Selected Learning Sciences Interest Areas (SLSIA). The SLSIA was adapted from the "What kinds of topics do ISLS [International…

  17. Ten Theses of the Joy of Learning at Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantala, Taina; Maatta, Kaarina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to decipher the essence of the joy of learning and the ways to enhance it at school. In the field of educational psychology, research on feelings is lacking, and the little that does exist has focused more on negative rather than positive feelings. The present paper is based on ethnographic and observational research of a…

  18. Collaborative teacher learning in different primary school settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doppenberg, J.J.; Bakx, A.W.E.A.; Brok, den P.J.

    2012-01-01

    During the last two decades there has been a growing awareness of the potentially strong role teacher collaboration can play in relation to teacher and team learning. Teachers collaborate with their colleagues in different formal and informal settings. Because most studies have focused on teacher

  19. Competing Issues in Australian Primary Curriculum: Learning from International Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Robyn

    2012-01-01

    There is no doubt that the increasing politicisation of education in an economically rationalist climate is contributing to less equity, access, participation and, therefore, social justice for many Australian primary children. This article initially explores how the development of the impending national Australian curriculum replete with a high…

  20. Learning vocabulary through a serious game in Primary Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heitink, Maaike Christine; Fisser, Petra; Voogt, Joke; McBride, Ron; Searson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the effect of a serious game on the vocabulary of students in primary education. 206 students and 10 teachers used the game during vocabulary lessons in three conditions: (a)online game and vocabulary instruction, (b)online game only, and (c)paper game and vocabulary instruction.

  1. [Variations in antihypertensive drug utilization among primary care areas in the autonomous region of Valencia (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfélix-Gimeno, Gabriel; Peiró, Salvador; Librero, Julián

    2010-01-01

    To estimate consumption of five subgroups of antihypertensive drugs by primary care areas and to analyze its variation. We performed an ecological, descriptive study of antihypertensive consumption in 239 primary care areas in the autonomous region of Valencia in 2005 followed by analysis of the variability observed. The 239 primary care areas were studied by descriptive analysis of dispensation [defined daily dose (DDD) per 1,000 inhabitants/day in pensioners (DDD/1000p/day) and in the active population (DDD/1000a/day)] and standardized consumption ratios. Small-area variation analysis was used to analyze the observed variability. Associations among dispensations of the distinct therapeutic subgroups were also analyzed. Overall antihypertensive use in the autonomous region of Valencia in 2005 was 235.6DDD/1000/day. This consumption was concentrated in pensioners (800DDD/1000p/day vs. 73DDD/1000a/day). Consumption of antihypertensive subgroups oscillated from 442DDD/1000p/day for drugs with action on the renin-angiotensin system to 32DDD/1000p/day for doxazosin. The active population showed similar patterns. Variation in consumption was moderate, with coefficients of variation from 0.20 to 0.40 (slightly greater for the active population). Associations among dispensations of the different therapeutic subgroups were strong. This study shows major variations in the overall consumption of antihypertensive drugs among primary care areas of the autonomous region of Valencia. These results suggest that variation may be associated with problems of underutilization in areas with lower consumption. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Naïve Conceptions About Multimedia Learning:A Study on Primary School Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eColombo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An interview study, based on specific pictures taken from textbooks used in primary schools, was carried out to investigate illustrators’, teachers’, students’, and common people’s beliefs about the role that illustrations play in facilitating learning. Participants’ responses were internally coherent, indicating a systematic nature of the underlying naïve conceptions. Findings disprove Mayer’s pessimistic claim that laypersons’ conceptions of multimedia learning fail to match experimentally supported principles and theories. On the contrary, interviewees spontaneously came very close to the multimedia learning theory, which states that students learn better from pictures, which fit specific cognitive principles. Implications for school instruction are highlighted.

  3. Learning literacy and content through video activities in primary education

    OpenAIRE

    Heitink, Maaike Christine; Fisser, Petra; McKenney, Susan; Resta, P.

    2012-01-01

    This case study research explored to what extent and in which ways teachers used Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK) and related competencies to implement video activities in primary education. Three Dutch teachers implemented video activities to improve students‟ content knowledge and literacy- and communication skills simultaneously. Lesson materials were provided but teachers chose the theme or subject (content) linked to the video activities themselves. Results show that ap...

  4. Chronicling Innovative Learning in Primary Classrooms: Conceptualizing a Theatrical Pedagogy to Successfully Engage Young Children Learning Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Debra

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on an innovative pedagogical approach devised to re-envigorate primary (elementary) teachers' practice in the United Kingdom for older children. Learning science in elementary schools for 8-11 year olds (Key Stage 2 in England) has been constrained for several decades while teachers prepared them for national tests. The recent…

  5. Naïve conceptions about multimedia learning: a study on primary school textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Barbara; Antonietti, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTSThis interview study explores beliefs about the instructional role of illustrationsWe compared illustrators', teachers', students' and common people's ideasParticipants' responses were internally coherent and close to multimedia learning theoryWe propose and discuss an integrated multimedia learning model An interview study, based on specific pictures taken from textbooks used in primary schools, was carried out to investigate illustrators', teachers', students', and common people's beliefs about the role that illustrations play in facilitating learning. Participants' responses were internally coherent, indicating a systematic nature of the underlying naïve conceptions. Findings disprove Mayer's pessimistic claim that laypersons' conceptions of multimedia learning fail to match experimentally supported principles and theories. On the contrary, interviewees spontaneously came very close to the multimedia learning theory, which states that students learn better from pictures, which fit specific cognitive principles. Implications for school instruction are highlighted.

  6. Implementation of the principles of primary health care in a rural area of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visagie, Surona; Schneider, Marguerite

    2014-02-18

    The philosophy of primary healthcare forms the basis of South Africa's health policy and provides guidance for healthcare service delivery in South Africa. Healthcare service provision in South Africa has shown improvement in the past five years. However, it is uncertain as to whether the changes have reached rural areas and if primary healthcare is implemented successfully in these areas. The aim of this article is to explore the extent to which the principles of primary healthcare are implemented in a remote, rural setting in South Africa. A descriptive, qualitative design was implemented. Data were collected through interviews and case studies with 36 purposively-sampled participants, then analysed through Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Findings indicated challenges with regard to client-centred care, provision of health promotion and rehabilitation, the way care was organised, the role of the doctor, health worker attitudes, referral services and the management of complex conditions. The principles of primary healthcare were not implemented successfully. The community was not involved in healthcare management, nor were users involved in their personal health management. The initiation of a community-health forum is recommended. Service providers, users and the community should identify and address the determinants of ill health in the community. Other recommendations include the training of service managers in the logistical management of ensuring a constant supply of drugs, using a Kombi-type vehicle to provide user transport for routine visits to secondary- and tertiary healthcare services and increasing the doctors' hours.

  7. Implementation of the principles of primary health care in a rural area of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surona Visagie

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The philosophy of primary healthcare forms the basis of South Africa’s health policy and provides guidance for healthcare service delivery in South Africa. Healthcare service provision in South Africa has shown improvement in the past five years. However, it is uncertain as to whether the changes have reached rural areas and if primary healthcare is implemented successfully in these areas. Objectives: The aim of this article is to explore the extent to which the principles of primary healthcare are implemented in a remote, rural setting in South Africa. Method: A descriptive, qualitative design was implemented. Data were collected through interviews and case studies with 36 purposively-sampled participants, then analysed through Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Results: Findings indicated challenges with regard to client-centred care, provision of health promotion and rehabilitation, the way care was organised, the role of the doctor, healthworker attitudes, referral services and the management of complex conditions. Conclusion: The principles of primary healthcare were not implemented successfully. The community was not involved in healthcare management, nor were users involved in their personal health management. The initiation of a community-health forum is recommended. Service providers, users and the community should identify and address the determinants of ill health in the community. Other recommendations include the training of service managers in the logistical management of ensuring a constant supply of drugs, using a Kombi-type vehicle to provide user transport for routine visits to secondary- and tertiary healthcareservices and increasing the doctors’ hours.

  8. Improving the primary school science learning unit about force and motion through lesson study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaikhumnam, Wuttichai; Yuenyong, Chokchai

    2018-01-01

    The study aimed to develop primary school science lesson plan based on inquiry cycle (5Es) through lesson study. The study focused on the development of 4 primary school science lesson plans of force and motion for Grade 3 students in KKU Demonstration Primary School (Suksasart), first semester of 2015 academic year. The methodology is mixed method. The Inthaprasitha (2010) lesson study cycle was implemented in group of KKU Demonstration Primary School. Instruments of reflection of lesson plan developing included participant observation, meeting and reflection report, lesson plan and other document. The instruments of examining students' learning include classroom observation and achievement test. Data was categorized from these instruments to find the issues of changing and improving the good lesson plan of Thai primary school science learning. The findings revealed that teachers could develop the lesson plans through lesson study. The issues of changing and improving were disused by considering on engaging students related to societal issues, students' prior knowledge, scientific concepts for primary school students, and what they learned from their changing. It indicated that the Lesson Study allowed primary school science teachers to share ideas and develop ideas to improve the lesson. The study may have implications for Thai science teacher education through Lesson Study.

  9. Model of Supervision Based on Primary School Teacher Professional Competency in Tematic Learning in Curriculum 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meilani Hartono

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to find the Supervision Model Based on Primary Teacher Professional Competence which effective on integrated learning. This study use research and development with qualitative approach which will be carried out in the Palmerah, West Jakarta. The techniques used to collect data are interviews, questionnaires, observation and documentation. Data v alidity is tested with credibility, transferability, dependability, and comfortability. The model developed will be validated using the Delphi technique. The result of this research is the discovery of the model and device-based supervision model of professional competence of primary teachers in integrated learning. The long-term goal of this research is to improve the teachers’ competence and the supervision quality for primary teachers in integrated learning

  10. Primary schools, markets and choice: studying polarization and the core catchment areas of schools

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, R J; Johnston, RJ

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we distinguish polarization from other conceptions of segregation by conceiving the former as a local phenomenon. To this end we argue that evidence for any school-level separation of ethnic groups must be sought and contextualised within the local markets within which schools operate. By determining the ‘core catchment’ areas of primary schools from geographical micro-data reporting where pupils reside and which school they attend within the study region of Birmingham, England,...

  11. Modelling multiple hospital outcomes: the impact of small area and primary care practice variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congdon Peter

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Appropriate management of care – for example, avoiding unnecessary attendances at, or admissions to, hospital emergency units when they could be handled in primary care – is an important part of health strategy. However, some variations in these outcomes could be due to genuine variations in health need. This paper proposes a new method of explaining variations in hospital utilisation across small areas and the general practices (GPs responsible for patient primary care. By controlling for the influence of true need on such variations, one may identify remaining sources of excess emergency attendances and admissions, both at area and practice level, that may be related to the quality, resourcing or organisation of care. The present paper accordingly develops a methodology that recognises the interplay between population mix factors (health need and primary care factors (e.g. referral thresholds, that allows for unobserved influences on hospitalisation usage, and that also reflects interdependence between hospital outcomes. A case study considers relativities in attendance and admission rates at a North London hospital involving 149 small areas and 53 GP practices. Results: A fixed effects model shows variations in attendances and admissions are significantly related (positively to area and practice need, and nursing home patients, and related (negatively to primary care access and distance of patient homes from the hospital. Modelling the impact of known factors alone is not sufficient to produce a satisfactory fit to the observations, and random effects at area and practice level are needed to improve fit and account for overdispersion. Conclusion: The case study finds variation in attendance and admission rates across areas and practices after controlling for need, and remaining differences between practices may be attributable to referral behaviour unrelated to need, or to staffing, resourcing, and access issues. In

  12. Possibilities and barriers for e-learning in primary school in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Rootzén, Helle

    2016-01-01

    How much are we using e-learning in primary school in Denmark? What are the barriers? What are the benefits? Why do we not use e-learning even more? These questions have been the focus for a one year national investigation conducted by ATV, The Danish Academy of Technical Sciences....... The investigation included interviews with Danish researchers, persons from the ministry, teachers, students, and e-learning companies. The overall purpose was to make recommendations on how to accelerate the digital transformation of the Danish primary and high schools education system. In this paper, we combine...... a fear that using Big Data for personalization of the teaching/learning process will be used to stereotype education, or will only be used to save costs...

  13. Naïve Conceptions About Multimedia Learning:A Study on Primary School Textbooks

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara eColombo; Alessandro eAntonietti

    2013-01-01

    An interview study, based on specific pictures taken from textbooks used in primary schools, was carried out to investigate illustrators’, teachers’, students’, and common people’s beliefs about the role that illustrations play in facilitating learning. Participants’ responses were internally coherent, indicating a systematic nature of the underlying naïve conceptions. Findings disprove Mayer’s pessimistic claim that laypersons’ conceptions of multimedia learning fail to match experiment...

  14. ICT-Supported Problem-Based Learning: Possibilities of Applying Problem-Based Learning from Primary School to Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czékmán Balázs

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Problem Based Learning was originally created for medical students to better diagnose new illnesses; this methodology can be used in almost all the fields of education. Teachers can teach by appealing to students’ natural instincts to create, and they can improve the students’ performance in different disciplines. So, we can say that it is an easy way of the acquisition and integration of new knowledge. While the content and structure of PBL courses may differ, the general goals and learning objectives tend to be similar. It begins with the assumption that learning is an active, integrated, and constructive process influenced by social and contextual factors. The task of our paper is to show how Problem-Based Learning can be used from primary to university level education in teaching different subjects.

  15. The burden of polyparasitism among primary schoolchildren in rural and farming areas in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midzi, N; Sangweme, D; Zinyowera, S; Mapingure, M P; Brouwer, K C; Munatsi, A; Mutapi, F; Mudzori, J; Kumar, N; Woelk, G; Mduluza, T

    2008-10-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in Zimbabwe among 1303 primary schoolchildren from a rural (53.3%) and a commercial farming area (46.7%) to determine the prevalence of co-infection by helminths and Plasmodium falciparum. Urine was examined on three successive days using the filtration method. Two stool specimens were processed using the Kato-Katz method and a third specimen was processed using the sedimentation method. Plasmodium falciparum was diagnosed from thick blood films. The prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium in the rural and farming areas was 66.8% and 52.3%, respectively, and for S. mansoni the prevalence was 12.4% and 22.7%, respectively. Plasmodium falciparum, hookworms, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura occurred only in the farming area, with a prevalence of 27.9%, 23.7%, 2.1%, 2.3%, respectively. Co-infection and triple infection with schistosomes, P. falciparum and soil-transmitted helminths occurred in the commercial farming area only. Hookworm and S. mansoni infections were associated with P. falciparum malaria (P<0.001, OR=2.48, 95% CI 1.56-3.93 and P=0.005, OR=1.85, 95% CI 1.20-2.87, respectively). Overlap of helminths with malaria is a concern among primary schoolchildren and incorporating helminth control in programmes aiming to control malaria will improve funding and increase the efficiency of control for neglected tropical diseases in identified co-endemic settings.

  16. Unintended Learning in Primary School Practical Science Lessons from Polanyi's Perspective of Intellectual Passion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jisun; Song, Jinwoong; Abrahams, Ian

    2016-03-01

    This study explored, from the perspective of intellectual passion developed by Michael Polanyi, the unintended learning that occurred in primary practical science lessons. We use the term `unintended' learning to distinguish it from `intended' learning that appears in teachers' learning objectives. Data were collected using video and audio recordings of a sample of twenty-four whole class practical science lessons, taught by five teachers, in Korean primary schools with 10- to 12-year-old students. In addition, video and audio recordings were made for each small group of students working together in order to capture their activities and intra-group discourse. Pre-lesson interviews with the teachers were undertaken and audio-recorded to ascertain their intended learning objectives. Selected key vignettes, including unintended learning, were analysed from the perspective of intellectual passion developed by Polanyi. What we found in this study is that unintended learning could occur when students got interested in something in the first place and could maintain their interest. In addition, students could get conceptual knowledge when they tried to connect their experience to their related prior knowledge. It was also found that the processes of intended learning and of unintended learning were different. Intended learning was characterized by having been planned by the teacher who then sought to generate students' interest in it. In contrast, unintended learning originated from students' spontaneous interest and curiosity as a result of unplanned opportunities. Whilst teachers' persuasive passion comes first in the process of intended learning, students' heuristic passion comes first in the process of unintended learning. Based on these findings, we argue that teachers need to be more aware that unintended learning, on the part of individual students, can occur during their lesson and to be able to better use this opportunity so that this unintended learning can be

  17. Expanded emergency medical services for the provision of primary care in remote rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccabe, S

    2000-05-01

    It is now widely recognised that a potential recruitment crisis is looming in the provision of primary care physicians for remote rural areas of the United Kingdom. Anecdotal evidence suggests that rural registrar, associate and principal vacancies are becoming increasingly difficult to fill and for many rural GPs locums are an impossible dream. Many practitioners are no longer prepared to work in areas where out-of-hours cooperatives are not available. We are now faced with the very real possibility that in some remote areas of the Scottish Highlands and Islands the recruitment of suitable GPs may no longer be possible. So what are the alternatives? In October 1999 I visited a community in the mountains of northern New Mexico which has had to deal with this very problem.

  18. Math’s teaching through cooperative learning in year-2 Primary Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Iglesias Muñiz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to assess the effects of cooperative learning as a methodological tool for maths teaching. A quasi-experimental design with non-equivalent groups of students was used. A total of 33 students belonging to two year-2 Primary Education intact classes agreed to participate. One experienced a cooperative learning approach, while the other one experienced a traditional approach. Assessment was performed quantitatively through a maths’ skills test and qualitatively through children’s drawings. Quantitative results showed that the cooperative learning group reached higher math scores, while from the qualitative results emerged 3 positive categories: enjoyment, learning, group work and 3 negative: boredom/tiredness, difficult and bad behaviour. Cooperative learning seems to debilitate students’ negative perceptions on the math class.

  19. Scabies among primary schoolchildren in Egypt: sociomedical environmental study in Kafr El-Sheikh administrative area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegab DS

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Doaa Salah Hegab,1 Abdullah Mahfouz Kato,1 Ibrahim Ali Kabbash,2 Ghada Maged Dabish3 1Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Faculty of Medicine, 2Department of Public Health and Community, Faculty of Medicine, 3Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt Background/objectives: Scabies is a major global public health issue that might affect people from all socioeconomic levels. The primary contributing factors in contracting scabies seem to be poverty and overcrowded living conditions. Scabies often spreads among schoolchildren quite rapidly, owing to their close contact and overcrowding within the schools. However, limited information is available about its risk factors and the socioeconomic correlates among schoolchildren in Egypt. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of scabies and its risk factors among primary schoolchildren in Kafr El-Sheikh administrative area, Egypt. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was performed on primary schoolchildren in urban and rural areas of Kafr El-Sheikh administrative area. A predesigned questionnaire was used for data collection from the randomly selected 2,104 children, and clinical dermatological examination was done for them. Results: Out of 2,104 children studied, there were 92 cases of scabies with a prevalence of 4.4%. The prevalence of scabies infestation in male students was 3.9%, while it was 4.8% in females, with no statistical significance. The results showed significant variations in the risk of scabies infestation by factors such as residence, paternal education and occupation, maternal education, sleeping with others, having animals at home, dealing with animals outside the house, type of building for living, family history of itchy rash, and sharing clothes with others. Conclusion: In our community, scabies is still an important health problem affecting schoolchildren, especially in rural areas. It is characterized by a complex web of causation, particularly poor

  20. Interprofessional online learning for primary healthcare: findings from a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Scott; Fletcher, Simon; McLoughlin, Clodagh; Yim, Alastair; Patel, Kunal D

    2017-08-04

    This article presents the findings from a scoping review which explored the nature of interprofessional online learning in primary healthcare. The review was informed by the following questions: What is the nature of evidence on online postgraduate education for primary healthcare interprofessional teams? What learning approaches and study methods are used in this context? What is the range of reported outcomes for primary healthcare learners, their organisations and the care they deliver to patients/clients? The review explored the global literature on interprofessional online learning in primary healthcare settings. The review found that the 23 included studies employed a range of different e-learning methods with contrasting course durations, use of theory, participant mix, approaches to accreditation and assessment of learning. Most of the included studies reported outcomes associated with learner reactions and positive changes in participant attitudes/perceptions and improvement in knowledge/skills as a result of engagement in an e-learning course. In contrast, fewer studies reported changes in participant behaviours, changes in organisational practice and improvements to patients/clients. A number of educational, methodological and outcome implications are be offered. E-learning can enhance an education experience, support development, ease time constraints, overcome geographic limitations and can offer greater flexibility. However, it can also contribute to the isolation of learners and its benefits can be negated by technical problems. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Unequal socioeconomic distribution of the primary care workforce: whole-population small area longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaria, Miqdad; Cookson, Richard; Fleetcroft, Robert; Ali, Shehzad

    2016-01-19

    To measure changes in socioeconomic inequality in the distribution of family physicians (general practitioners (GPs)) relative to need in England from 2004/2005 to 2013/2014. Whole-population small area longitudinal data linkage study. England from 2004/2005 to 2013/2014. 32,482 lower layer super output areas (neighbourhoods of 1500 people on average). Slope index of inequality (SII) between the most and least deprived small areas in annual full-time equivalent GPs (FTE GPs) per 100,000 need adjusted population. In 2004/2005, inequality in primary care supply as measured by the SII in FTE GPs was 4.2 (95% CI 3.1 to 5.3) GPs per 100,000. By 2013/2014, this SII had fallen to -0.7 (95% CI -2.5 to 1.1) GPs per 100,000. The number of FTE GPs per 100,000 serving the most deprived fifth of small areas increased over this period from 54.0 to 60.5, while increasing from 57.2 to 59.9 in the least deprived fifth, so that by the end of the study period there were more GPs per 100,000 need adjusted population in the most deprived areas than in the least deprived. The increase in GP supply in the most deprived fifth of neighbourhoods was larger in areas that received targeted investment for establishing new practices under the 'Equitable Access to Primary Medical Care'. There was a substantial reduction in socioeconomic inequality in family physician supply associated with national policy. This policy may not have completely eliminated socioeconomic inequality in family physician supply since existing need adjustment formulae do not fully capture the additional burden of multimorbidity in deprived neighbourhoods. The small area approach introduced in this study can be used routinely to monitor socioeconomic inequality of access to primary care and to indicate workforce shortages in particular neighbourhoods. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  2. The English Education in Primary Schools in Minor Ethnic Areas in Western China--Taking Leshan City as an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Wang

    2016-01-01

    As we all know, China is a country with many ethnic minorities mainly living in the northeastern and southwestern China. The English education in the primary schools in these areas is an important issue. The article analyzes the status quo of English education in primary schools in minor ethnic areas, taking the Leshan city, a western one as an…

  3. WebQuests in special primary education: Learning in a web-based environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleemans, M.A.J.; Segers, P.C.J.; Droop, W.; Wentink, W.M.J.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the differences in learning gain when performing a WebQuest with a well-defined versus an ill-defined assignment. Twenty boys and twenty girls (mean age 11; 10), attending a special primary education school, performed two WebQuests. In each WebQuest, they performed

  4. E-Learning Pedagogy in the Primary School Classroom: The McDonaldization of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etherington, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    This paper begins as an initial rejoinder to the ideas expressed by Ross (2000) in The Promise and Perils of E-Learning: A critical look at the new technology. In his article, Ross supports the traditional practices of pedagogy at the primary school level--face-to-face pedagogy--and then critiques what he describes as a "fetishisation"…

  5. Experimental Activities in Primary School to Learn about Microbes in an Oral Health Education Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafra, Paulo; Lima, Nelson; Carvalho, Graça S.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental science activities in primary school enable important cross-curricular learning. In this study, experimental activities on microbiology were carried out by 16 pupils in a Portuguese grade-4 classroom (9-10?years old) and were focused on two problem-questions related to microbiology and health: (1) do your teeth carry microbes? (2) why…

  6. Impact of E-Learning and Digitalization in Primary and Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunmibi, Sunday; Aregbesola, Ayooluwa; Adejobi, Pascal; Ibrahim, Olaniyi

    2015-01-01

    This study examines into the impact of e-learning and digitalization in primary and secondary schools, using Greensprings School in Lagos State, Nigeria as a case study. Questionnaire was used as a data collection instrument, and descriptive statistical method was adopted for analysis. Responses from students and teachers reveal that application…

  7. Assessment for Learning in Norway and Portugal: The Case of Primary School Mathematics Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nortvedt, Guri A.; Santos, Leonor; Pinto, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aim to understand the forces driving assessment for learning (AfL) in primary school teaching. By applying a case study design, including the two cases of Norway and Portugal and using mathematics teaching as an example, available policy documents and research reports are analysed to identify the differences and similarities that…

  8. Perspective Changing in Primary and Secondary Learning: A Gender Difference Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccardi, L.; Risetti, M.; Nori, R.; Tanzilli, A.; Bernardi, L.; Guariglia, C.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the ability of 106 (55 males, 51 females) college students to recall an 8-step path from different viewpoints (0 degrees; 90 degrees; 180 degrees and 270 degrees) after primary and secondary learning without a time limit. For each participant, we computed the time and number of repetitions necessary to learn…

  9. Distributed practice and retrieval practice in primary school vocabulary learning: A multi-classroom study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, Nicole; Camp, Gino; Verkoeijen, Peter; Tabbers, Huib; Bouwmeester, Samantha; Zwaan, Rolf

    2018-01-01

    Distributed practice and retrieval practice are promising learning strategies to use in education. We examined the effects of these strategies in primary school vocabulary lessons. Grades 2, 3, 4, and 6 children performed exercises that were part of the regular curriculum. For the distributed

  10. Primary School Pupils' Response to Audio-Visual Learning Process in Port-Harcourt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olube, Friday K.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine primary school children's response on the use of audio-visual learning processes--a case study of Chokhmah International Academy, Port-Harcourt (owned by Salvation Ministries). It looked at the elements that enhance pupils' response to educational television programmes and their hindrances to these…

  11. Determinants of Learning Achievements: Empirical Analysis of Seven Schools in Cambodian Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiguro, Kaoru

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines the determinants of learning achievements in Cambodian primary schools. Both student factors and family factors are evaluated. The student factors consist of student age, enrollment age, frequency of homework completion, and number of questions to ask in class. The family factors include the father's educational background,…

  12. Self-Reported Learning from Co-Teaching Primary Science Lessons to Peers at University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Peter; Nykvist, Shaun; Mukherjee, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Universities are challenged continuously in reviews to improve teacher education, which includes providing substantial theory-practice connections for undergraduates. This study investigated second year preservice teachers' (n = 48) self-reported learning as a result of co-teaching primary science to their peers within the university setting. From…

  13. Connecting Knowledge Domains : An Approach to Concept Learning in Primary Science and Technology Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koski, M.

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand our dependency on technology and the possible loss of control that comes with it, it is necessary for people to understand the nature of technology as well as its roots in science. Learning basic science and technology concepts should be a part of primary education since it

  14. Mind tools contributing to an ICT-rich learning environment for technology education en primary schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lou A.M.P. Slangen; Peter B. Sloep

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines how the learning environment in primary education can be enhanced by stimulating the use of innovative ICT applications. In particular, this discussion focuses on mind tools as a means of leveraging ICT for the development of cognitive skills. The stimulating effect of mind tools

  15. ICT and quality of teaching–learning related activities in primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper is a report of a study carried out to examine how information and communication technology (ICT) enhance teaching learning related activities in primary schools in Ogoja education zone of Cross River State, Nigeria. To achieve the purpose of the study, one research question was formulated to direct the study.

  16. Place-Based Curriculum Making: Devising a Synthesis between Primary Geography and Outdoor Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Anne M.

    2016-01-01

    Outdoor learning provides children with an opportunity to experience the interdisciplinary nature of the real world through interactions with each other and the planet. Geographical enquiry involves exploring the outdoors in an investigative capacity. Space, place and sustainability are three core concepts in primary geography, although…

  17. Analysis of Primary School Student's Science Learning Anxiety According to Some Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaya, Ferhat; Avgin, Sakine Serap; Kumperli, Ethem

    2016-01-01

    On this research, it is analyzed if the science learning anxiety level shows difference according to variables which are gender, grade level, science lesson grade, mother education, father education level. Scanning Design is used for this study. Research working group is consisted of 294 primary school from 6th, 7th and 8th graders on 2015-2016…

  18. Pupils' Views about Spiders. Learning in Science Project (Primary). Working Paper No. 123.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawe, Eleanor

    The Learning in Science Project (Primary)--LISP(P)--investigated the ideas and interests about spiders held by 8- to 10-year-old children. Data included 303 questions--and answers to some of the questions--about spiders obtained from children in four classes and from responses obtained during individual interviews with 10 children from each age…

  19. The Effects of Computer Games on Primary School Students' Achievement and Motivation in Geography Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzun, Hakan; Yilmaz-Soylu, Meryem; Karakus, Turkan; Inal, Yavuz; Kizilkaya, Gonca

    2009-01-01

    The implementation of a computer game for learning about geography by primary school students is the focus of this article. Researchers designed and developed a three-dimensional educational computer game. Twenty four students in fourth and fifth grades in a private school in Ankara, Turkey learnt about world continents and countries through this…

  20. The Primary Student Teachers' Views about a Blended Learning Application in a Basic Physics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskin Ekici, Fatma; Kara, Izzet; Ekici, Erhan

    2012-01-01

    In this study we present an overview of the undergraduate blended Physics course that has been supported by the Moodle platform. The course that has been applied is a basic physics course for primary student teachers. The aim of Moodle is to create an online learning environment which helps students to have a virtual space where they can share…

  1. Enhancing Children's Success in Science Learning: An Experience of Science Teaching in Teacher Primary School Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Maria Eduarda; Porteiro, Ana Cláudia; Pitarma, Rui

    2015-01-01

    The Environmental Studies curricular area, taught at primary school level in Portugal, is a challenging context for curricular interdisciplinarity and the achievement of small-scale research and creative and innovative experiences, inside and outside the classroom. From that assumption, we present, under the master course of primary teacher…

  2. From Hearing Sounds to Recognizing Phonemes: Primary Auditory Cortex is A Truly Perceptual Language Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron Bernal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present a systematic review about the anatomy, function, connectivity, and functional activation of the primary auditory cortex (PAC (Brodmann areas 41/42 when involved in language paradigms. PAC activates with a plethora of diverse basic stimuli including but not limited to tones, chords, natural sounds, consonants, and speech. Nonetheless, the PAC shows specific sensitivity to speech. Damage in the PAC is associated with so-called “pure word-deafness” (“auditory verbal agnosia”. BA41, and to a lesser extent BA42, are involved in early stages of phonological processing (phoneme recognition. Phonological processing may take place in either the right or left side, but customarily the left exerts an inhibitory tone over the right, gaining dominance in function. BA41/42 are primary auditory cortices harboring complex phoneme perception functions with asymmetrical expression, making it possible to include them as core language processing areas (Wernicke’s area.

  3. Science-Based Thematic Cultural Art Learning in Primary School (2013 Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warih Handayaningrum

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at discussing the development result of thematic cultural art subject’s learning material based on science for primary school (2013 curriculum. This study is expected to inspire teacher to develop learning material that may explore artworks exist in our living environment (based on the context of children’s environment. This study applies steps in developmental research collaboration by Borg & Gall (1989 and Puslitjaknov (2008 to create the product. The development stages comprise observation in several primary schools in Surabaya, Gresik, and Sidoarjo that has implemented 2013 curriculum that is followed up by stages of development. Furthermore, prototype of cultural and art thematic learning material development results are verified by learning material experts, material expert, primary school teacher, and revised afterwards. The result of this research development is a set of teacher and student books. Science-based cultural art here means cultural art learning as the main medium to introduce local culture products (music, drawing, dance, and drama by integrating mathematics, sciences, Bahasa Indonesia, and local language subjects. Cultural art products in the form of dance, music, drawing, dramas will help children to understand a simple mathematical concept, such as: two-dimensional figure, geometry, comparing or estimating longer-shorter, smaller-bigger, or more-less.

  4. Access to primary care for socioeconomically disadvantaged older people in rural areas: a realist review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, John A; Wong, Geoff; Jones, Andy P; Steel, Nick

    2016-05-17

    The aim of this review is to identify and understand the contexts that effect access to high-quality primary care for socioeconomically disadvantaged older people in rural areas. A realist review. MEDLINE and EMBASE electronic databases and grey literature (from inception to December 2014). Broad inclusion criteria were used to allow articles which were not specific, but might be relevant to the population of interest to be considered. Studies meeting the inclusion criteria were assessed for rigour and relevance and coded for concepts relating to context, mechanism or outcome. An overarching patient pathway was generated and used as the basis to explore contexts, causal mechanisms and outcomes. 162 articles were included. Most were from the USA or the UK, cross-sectional in design and presented subgroup data by age, rurality or deprivation. From these studies, a patient pathway was generated which included 7 steps (problem identified, decision to seek help, actively seek help, obtain appointment, get to appointment, primary care interaction and outcome). Important contexts were stoicism, education status, expectations of ageing, financial resources, understanding the healthcare system, access to suitable transport, capacity within practice, the booking system and experience of healthcare. Prominent causal mechanisms were health literacy, perceived convenience, patient empowerment and responsiveness of the practice. Socioeconomically disadvantaged older people in rural areas face personal, community and healthcare barriers that limit their access to primary care. Initiatives should be targeted at local contextual factors to help individuals recognise problems, feel welcome, navigate the healthcare system, book appointments easily, access appropriate transport and have sufficient time with professional staff to improve their experience of healthcare; all of which will require dedicated primary care resources. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  5. Group motivational intervention in overweight/obese patients in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in the primary healthcare area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Cristóbal, Juan José; Panisello Royo, Josefa Ma; Alonso-Villaverde Grote, Carlos; Pérez Santos, José Ma; Muñoz Lloret, Anna; Rodríguez Cortés, Francisca; Travé Mercadé, Pere; Benavides Márquez, Francisca; Martí de la Morena, Pilar; González Burgillos, Ma José; Delclós Baulies, Marta; Bleda Fernández, Domingo; Quillama Torres, Elida

    2010-03-18

    The global mortality caused by cardiovascular disease increases with weight. The Framingham study showed that obesity is a cardiovascular risk factor independent of other risks such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and smoking. Moreover, the main problem in the management of weight-loss is its maintenance, if it is achieved. We have designed a study to determine whether a group motivational intervention, together with current clinical practice, is more efficient than the latter alone in the treatment of overweight and obesity, for initial weight loss and essentially to achieve maintenance of the weight achieved; and, secondly, to know if this intervention is more effective for reducing cardiovascular risk factors associated with overweight and obesity. This 26-month follow up multi-centre trial, will include 1200 overweight/obese patients. Random assignment of the intervention by Basic Health Areas (BHA): two geographically separate groups have been created, one of which receives group motivational intervention (group intervention), delivered by a nurse trained by an expert phsychologist, in 32 group sessions, 1 to 12 fortnightly, and 13 to 32, monthly, on top of their standard program of diet, exercise, and the other (control group), receiving the usual follow up, with regular visits every 3 months. By addressing currently unanswered questions regarding the maintenance in weight loss in obesity/overweight, upon the expected completion of participant follow-up in 2012, the IMOAP trial should document, for the first time, the benefits of a motivational intervention as a treatment tool of weight loss in a primary care setting. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01006213.

  6. Game-Based Learning: Increasing the Logical-Mathematical, Naturalistic, and Linguistic Learning Levels of Primary School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Esther Del Moral Pérez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Game-based learning is an innovative methodology that takes advantage of the educational potential offered by videogames in general and serious games in particular to boost training processes, thus making it easier for users to achieve motivated learning. The present paper focuses on the description of the Game to Learn Project, which has as its aim not only to promote the use of serious games and digital mini-games for the development of Multiple Intelligences, but also to analyse whether this methodology results in increased learning. Teachers assessed the level achieved by primary education students (N=119 in each learning category, before and after participating in the project, by means of a qualitative instrument. Finally, after corresponding analysis through descriptive statistical techniques, bivariate correlations, and ANOVA, the results showed significant differences between children’s learning levels in logical-mathematical, naturalistic and linguistic abilities before and after their participation in this innovative project, thus revealing a widespread increase in every indicator.

  7. Learning "Math on the Move": Effectiveness of a Combined Numeracy and Physical Activity Program for Primary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Melanie; O'Connor, Helen; O'Dwyer, Nicholas; Orr, Rhonda

    2018-03-27

    Physically active learning that combines physical activity with core curriculum areas is emerging in school-based health interventions. This study investigates the effectiveness of learning an important numeracy skill of times tables (TT) while concurrently engaging in aerobic activity compared with a seated classroom approach. Grade-4 primary school students were randomly allocated to physical activity (P) or classroom (C) groups and received the alternate condition in the following term. P group received moderate to vigorous exercise (20 min, 3 times per week, 6 wk) while simultaneously learning selected TT. C group received similar learning, but seated. Changes in TT accuracy, general numeracy, aerobic fitness, and body mass index were assessed. Data were expressed as mean (SEM) and between-condition effect size (ES; 95% confidence interval). Participants [N = 85; 55% male, 9.8 (0.3) y, 36.4% overweight/obese] improved similarly on TT in both conditions [C group: 2.2% (1.1%); P group: 2.5% (1.3%); ES = 0.03; -0.30 to 0.36; P = .86]. Improvement in general numeracy was significantly greater for P group than C group [C group: 0.7% (1.2%); P group: 5.3% (1.4%); ES = 0.42; 0.08 to 0.75; P < .03]. An improvement in aerobic fitness for P group (P < .01) was not significantly greater than C group [C group: 0.8 (0.6); P group: 2.2 (0.5) mL·kg·min -1 ; ES = 0.32; -0.01 to 0.66; P = .06]. Body mass index was unchanged. Combined movement with learning TT was effective. Physically active learning paradigms may contribute to meeting daily physical activity guidelines while supporting or even boosting learning.

  8. Primary studies of trace quantities of green vegetation in Mono Lake area using 1990 AVIRIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Kang; Elvidge, Chris D.; Groeneveld, David P.

    1992-01-01

    Our primary results in Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve indicate that high spectral resolution Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data may provide a substantial advantage in vegetation, based on the chlorophyll red edge feature from 700-780 nm. The chlorophyll red edge was detected for green vegetation cover as low as 4.8 percent. The objective of our studies in Mono Lake area is to continue the experiments performed in Jasper Ridge and to examine the persistence of red edge feature of trace quantities of green vegetation for different plant communities with non-uniform soil backgrounds.

  9. Using the Instructional Core to Implement a Professional Learning Programme for Primary Science Teachers in Australia: Teacher Learning and Student Skill Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughland, Tony; Nguyen, Hoa Thi Mai

    2016-01-01

    There has been a call for effective professional learning to improve the quality of the science teaching of primary teachers in Australia. It seems from the literature that teaching science effectively is a challenging endeavour for primary teachers. Professional learning based on the instructional core framework is an emerging approach that has…

  10. A framework for exploring integrated learning systems for the governance and management of public protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkhata, Bimo Abraham; Breen, Charles

    2010-02-01

    This article discusses how the concept of integrated learning systems provides a useful means of exploring the functional linkages between the governance and management of public protected areas. It presents a conceptual framework of an integrated learning system that explicitly incorporates learning processes in governance and management subsystems. The framework is premised on the assumption that an understanding of an integrated learning system is essential if we are to successfully promote learning across multiple scales as a fundamental component of adaptability in the governance and management of protected areas. The framework is used to illustrate real-world situations that reflect the nature and substance of the linkages between governance and management. Drawing on lessons from North America and Africa, the article demonstrates that the establishment and maintenance of an integrated learning system take place in a complex context which links elements of governance learning and management learning subsystems. The degree to which the two subsystems are coupled influences the performance of an integrated learning system and ultimately adaptability. Such performance is largely determined by how integrated learning processes allow for the systematic testing of societal assumptions (beliefs, values, and public interest) to enable society and protected area agencies to adapt and learn in the face of social and ecological change. It is argued that an integrated perspective provides a potentially useful framework for explaining and improving shared understanding around which the concept of adaptability is structured and implemented.

  11. Prehypertension and hypertension among young Indonesian adults at a primary health care in a rural area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix F. Widjaja

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prehypertension and hypertension were related with many complications of nearly every organ, but often neglected by young adults in rural area. This research was done to observe the prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension among young adult in a primary health care of rural area at Cicurug, Sukabumi District, West Java.Methods: This cross-sectional study was done in Cicurug Public Health Center, Sukabumi District, West Java. The subjects were consecutively recruited from the outpatient clinic on Monday until Saturday in September 2012,18–25 years old, not pregnant nor having shock. They were interviewed about their age, gender, physical activity, sitting hours, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, and family history and examined by trained health professionals (weight, height, body mass index [BMI], systolic and diastolic blood pressure.Results: From 111 young adults, 34.2% had prehypertension and 17.1% had hypertension. Within sex groups, the prevalence of prehypertension was higher in females, whereas hypertension was occurred more in males. Neither of family history from mother nor father were associated with prehypertension and hypertension compared with normotension. Total activity was not associated with prehypertension (OR = 2.6; p = 0.052 and hypertension (OR = 1.758; p = 0.498. BMI was associated with hypertension (OR = 3.354; p = 0.041 and not associated with prehypertension (OR = 2.343; p = 0.099.Conclusion: Prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension were relatively high among young adult in primary health care of rural area. Intervention to prevent further complications needs to be done early with lifestyle modification because blood pressure is associated with modifiable risk factors, such as BMI and total activity. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:39-45Keywords: Hypertension, prehypertension, rural area, young adult

  12. Regional structural differences across functionally parcellated Brodmann areas of human primary somatosensory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Panchuelo, Rosa-María; Besle, Julien; Mougin, Olivier; Gowland, Penny; Bowtell, Richard; Schluppeck, Denis; Francis, Susan

    2014-06-01

    Ultra-high-field (UHF) MRI is ideally suited for structural and functional imaging of the brain. High-resolution structural MRI can be used to map the anatomical boundaries between functional domains of the brain by identifying changes related to the pattern of myelination within cortical gray matter, opening up the possibility to study the relationship between functional domains and underlying structure in vivo. In a recent study, we demonstrated the correspondence between functional (based on retinotopic mapping) and structural (based on changes in T2(⁎)-weighted images linked to myelination) parcellations of the primary visual cortex (V1) in vivo at 7T (Sanchez-Panchuelo et al., 2012b). Here, we take advantage of the improved BOLD CNR and high spatial resolution achievable at 7T to study regional structural variations across the functionally defined areas within the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) in individual subjects. Using a traveling wave fMRI paradigm to map the internal somatotopic representation of the index, middle, and ring fingers in S1, we were able to identify multiple map reversals at the tip and base, corresponding to the boundaries between Brodmann areas 3a, 3b, 1 and 2. Based on high resolution structural MRI data acquired in the same subjects, we inspected these functionally-parcellated Brodmann areas for differences in cortical thickness and MR contrast measures (magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) and signal intensity in phase sensitive inversion recovery (PSIR) images) that are sensitive to myelination. Consistent area-related differences in cortical thickness and MTR/PSIR measurements were found across subjects. However these measures did not have sufficient sensitivity to allow definition of areal boundaries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. An Automated Self-Learning Quantification System to Identify Visible Areas in Capsule Endoscopy Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Shinichi; Ogihara, Hiroyuki; Suenaga, Masato; Fujita, Yusuke; Terai, Shuji; Hamamoto, Yoshihiko; Sakaida, Isao

    2017-08-01

    Visibility in capsule endoscopic images is presently evaluated through intermittent analysis of frames selected by a physician. It is thus subjective and not quantitative. A method to automatically quantify the visibility on capsule endoscopic images has not been reported. Generally, when designing automated image recognition programs, physicians must provide a training image; this process is called supervised learning. We aimed to develop a novel automated self-learning quantification system to identify visible areas on capsule endoscopic images. The technique was developed using 200 capsule endoscopic images retrospectively selected from each of three patients. The rate of detection of visible areas on capsule endoscopic images between a supervised learning program, using training images labeled by a physician, and our novel automated self-learning program, using unlabeled training images without intervention by a physician, was compared. The rate of detection of visible areas was equivalent for the supervised learning program and for our automatic self-learning program. The visible areas automatically identified by self-learning program correlated to the areas identified by an experienced physician. We developed a novel self-learning automated program to identify visible areas in capsule endoscopic images.

  14. Improving Science Process Skills for Primary School Students Through 5E Instructional Model-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choirunnisa, N. L.; Prabowo, P.; Suryanti, S.

    2018-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to describe the effectiveness of 5E instructional model-based learning to improve primary school students’ science process skills. The science process skills is important for students as it is the foundation for enhancing the mastery of concepts and thinking skills needed in the 21st century. The design of this study was experimental involving one group pre-test and post-test design. The result of this study shows that (1) the implementation of learning in both of classes, IVA and IVB, show that the percentage of learning implementation increased which indicates a better quality of learning and (2) the percentage of students’ science process skills test results on the aspects of observing, formulating hypotheses, determining variable, interpreting data and communicating increased as well.

  15. Satellite remote sensing for estimating leaf area index, FPAR and primary production. A literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boresjoe Bronge, Laine [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-03-01

    Land vegetation is a critical component of several biogeochemical cycles that have become the focus of concerted international research effort. Most ecosystem productivity models, carbon budget models, and global models of climate, hydrology and biogeochemistry require vegetation parameters to calculate land surface photosynthesis, evapotranspiration and net primary production. Therefore, accurate estimates of vegetation parameters are increasingly important in the carbon cycle, the energy balance and in environmental impact assessment studies. The possibility of quantitatively estimating vegetation parameters of importance in this context using satellite data has been explored by numerous papers dealing with the subject. This report gives a summary of the present status and applicability of satellite remote sensing for estimating vegetation productivity by using vegetation index for calculating leaf area index (LAI) and fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR). Some possible approaches for use of satellite data for estimating LAI, FPAR and net primary production (NPP) on a local scale are suggested. Recommendations for continued work in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn investigation areas, where vegetation data and NDVI-images based on satellite data have been produced, are also given.

  16. Satellite remote sensing for estimating leaf area index, FPAR and primary production. A literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boresjoe Bronge, Laine

    2004-03-01

    Land vegetation is a critical component of several biogeochemical cycles that have become the focus of concerted international research effort. Most ecosystem productivity models, carbon budget models, and global models of climate, hydrology and biogeochemistry require vegetation parameters to calculate land surface photosynthesis, evapotranspiration and net primary production. Therefore, accurate estimates of vegetation parameters are increasingly important in the carbon cycle, the energy balance and in environmental impact assessment studies. The possibility of quantitatively estimating vegetation parameters of importance in this context using satellite data has been explored by numerous papers dealing with the subject. This report gives a summary of the present status and applicability of satellite remote sensing for estimating vegetation productivity by using vegetation index for calculating leaf area index (LAI) and fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR). Some possible approaches for use of satellite data for estimating LAI, FPAR and net primary production (NPP) on a local scale are suggested. Recommendations for continued work in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn investigation areas, where vegetation data and NDVI-images based on satellite data have been produced, are also given

  17. Learning Science through Creating a `Slowmation': A case study of preservice primary teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoban, Garry; Nielsen, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Many preservice primary teachers have inadequate science knowledge, which often limits their confidence in implementing the subject. This paper proposes a new way for preservice teachers to learn science by designing and making a narrated stop-motion animation as an instructional resource to explain a science concept. In this paper, a simplified way for preservice teachers to design and make an animation called 'slowmation' (abbreviated from 'slow animation') is exemplified. A case study of three preservice primary teachers creating one from start to finish over 2 h was conducted to address the following research question: How do the preservice primary teachers create a slowmation and how does this process influence their science learning? The method of inquiry used a case study design involving pre- and post-individual interviews in conjunction with a discourse analysis of video and audio data recorded as they created a slowmation. The data illustrate how the preservice teachers' science learning was related to their prior knowledge and how they iteratively revisited the content through the construction of five representations as a cumulative semiotic progression: (i) research notes; (ii) storyboard; (iii) models; (iv) digital photographs; culminating in (v) the narrated animation. This progression enabled the preservice teachers to revisit the content in each representation and make decisions about which modes to use and promoted social interaction. Creating a slowmation facilitated the preservice teachers' learning about the life cycle of a ladybird beetle and revised their alternative conceptions.

  18. FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE SELECTION OF LEARNING OPPORTUNITIES FOR STUDENT NURSES IN PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. lita

    2002-11-01

    The study therefore focused on the following objective: To identify the factors that influence the selection of learning opportunities for primary health care in hospital units. A qualitative research design utilising focus group discussions were used. The population consisted of conveniently selected lecturers, student nurses and registered nurses. The same initial question was asked in each focus group to initiate the discussions. The data were analysed according to Tesch's method. The results indicated that there is positive commitment from the lecturers and registered nurses to be involved in selecting appropriate learning opportunities. The student nurses also demonstrated a willingness to learn and to be exposed to learning opportunities in primary health care. There were however certain constraints that emerged as themes, namely: • Managerial constraints • Educational constraints Under the theme "managerial constraints" categories such as workload, nursing staff shortages and communication problems were identified. Under the theme "educational constraints" categories such as a lack of guidance, and the correlation of theory and practice emerged. Recommendations based on this research report include improvement of in-service education on managerial and educational aspects to facilitate the primary health care approach in hospitals.

  19. Alcohol abuse management in primary care: an e-learning course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Celina Andrade; Wen, Chao Lung; Tavares, Hermano

    2015-03-01

    The mental health knowledge gap challenges public health. The Alcohol Abuse Management in Primary Care (AAMPC) is an e-learning course designed to cover alcohol-related problems from the primary care perspective. The goal of this study was to verify if the AAMPC was able to enhance healthcare professionals' alcohol-related problems knowledge. One hundred subscriptions for the AAMPC were offered through the federal telehealth program. The course was instructor-led and had nine weekly classes, delivered synchronously or asynchronously, at the students' convenience, using a varied array of learning tools. At the beginning, students took a test that provided a positive score, related to critical knowledge for clinical management, and a negative score, related to misconceptions about alcohol-related problems. The test was repeated 2 months after course completion. Thirty-three students completed the course. The positive score improved significantly (pE-learning was highly appreciated as a learning tool, especially by students with the least frequency of Internet use. Nonetheless, it worked better for those previously familiar with e-courses. The AAMPC e-course provided effective knowledge transmission and retention. Complementary strategies to reduce misconceptions about alcohol-related problems must be developed for the training of primary care staff.

  20. [Professional quality of life in workers of the Toledo primary care health area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarín Castro, A; Méndez García, T; Zuzuárregui Gironés, M S; Sánchez Serrano, S; Conejo Ocaña, R

    2015-01-01

    To determine the professional quality of life in the workers of the Toledo Primary Care Health Area and to analyse its components. Descriptive, cross-sectional study, performed on workers of the Toledo Primary Care Health Area with an online self-administered questionnaire. age, sex, health centre, professional group, seniority, management experience, collaboration in working groups, employment situation, and the PQL-35 professional quality of life questionnaire. A total of 430 completed questionnaires were received (45.3%), of which 68.4% were women. The mean age was 47.7±8.6 years old. Mean seniority was 21.5±9.7 years. PQL-35 results were: perception of management support 4.8±1.5; perception of workload 6.2±1.3; intrinsic motivation 7.9±1.1; job disconnection capacity 6.3±2.6; and professional quality of life 5.2±2.1. Gender differences were found in perception of management support (4.5±1.5 in males vs 4.9±1.5 in females; P=.031) and professional quality of life (4.9±2.0 vs 5.3±2.1; p=.044). Depending on the professional group, differences were found in the perception of workload (6.4±1.1 in physicians, 6.3±1.3 in nurses, 5.9±1.6 in non-sanitary professionals, and 5.3±1.2 in support units professionals; Pquality of life in the workers of the Toledo Primary Care Health Area is similar to that of other Spanish Health Areas, even in a time of economic crisis. The intrinsic motivation of the professionals is very high, in contrast with their high perception of workload and their low perception of management support. Copyright © 2014 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. A Study on Teaching Gases to Prospective Primary Science Teachers Through Problem-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senocak, Erdal; Taskesenligil, Yavuz; Sozbilir, Mustafa

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the achievement of prospective primary science teachers in a problem-based curriculum with those in a conventional primary science teacher preparation program with regard to success in learning about gases and developing positive attitudes towards chemistry. The subjects of the study were 101 first year undergraduate students, who were in two different classes and who were taught by the same lecturer. One of the classes was randomly selected as the intervention group in which problem-based learning (PBL) was used, and the other as the control in which conventional teaching methods were used. The data were obtained through use of the gases diagnostic test (GDT), the chemistry attitude scale (CAS), and scales specific to students’ evaluation of PBL such as the peer evaluation scale (PES), self evaluation scale (SES), tutor’s performance evaluation scale (TPES) and students’ evaluation of PBL scale (SEPBLS). Data were analysed using SPSS 10.0 (Statistical Package for Social Sciences). In order to find out the effect of the intervention (PBL) on students’ learning of gases, independent sample t-tests and ANCOVA (analysis of co-variance) were used. The results obtained from the study showed that there was a statistically significant difference between the experimental and control groups in terms of students’ GDT total mean scores and, their attitude towards chemistry, as well as PBL has a significant effect on the development of students’ skills such as self-directed learning, cooperative learning and critical thinking.

  2. Morphometric analysis of feedforward pathways from the primary somatosensory area (S1 of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. de Sá

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We used biotinylated dextran amine (BDA to anterogradely label individual axons projecting from primary somatosensory cortex (S1 to four different cortical areas in rats. A major goal was to determine whether axon terminals in these target areas shared morphometric similarities based on the shape of individual terminal arbors and the density of two bouton types: en passant (Bp and terminaux (Bt. Evidence from tridimensional reconstructions of isolated axon terminal fragments (n=111 did support a degree of morphological heterogeneity establishing two broad groups of axon terminals. Morphological parameters associated with the complexity of terminal arbors and the proportion of beaded Bp vs stalked Bt were found to differ significantly in these two groups following a discriminant function statistical analysis across axon fragments. Interestingly, both groups occurred in all four target areas, possibly consistent with a commonality of presynaptic processing of tactile information. These findings lay the ground for additional work aiming to investigate synaptic function at the single bouton level and see how this might be associated with emerging properties in postsynaptic targets.

  3. TEACHERS’ TRAINING FOR SOCIAL AND EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY IN CONDITIONS OF MOUNTAIN AREA PRIMARY SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonida Pesotskaya

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the question of using of the method of coaching in preparation of the students to the managerial activity in the sphere of preschool education in mountain areas. The necessity of preparation under the modern conditions of social-economic development of mountain areas has been proved. The content of the article generalizes basic contradictions between the necessity and reality. The definition of the main points of the research has been given. The attention is accentuated on the basic principles of management and on the notion “coaching” in the process of management of preschool education in mountain area. Coaching includes partnership, potential revealing, effectiveness. Methodology of coaching is based on the principle that the person naturally is sufficiently talented and owns great potential, which isn’t realized fully. An important condition of this approach is valuable, respectful attitude of the participants of polylogue to one another. Basic theoretical regulations of the coaching approach have been determined. In the context of selection of teching technologies on the basis of coaching approach, the method “reflexive team” has been briefly revealed. It is determined that coaching is a style of management, transformed culture: if the authoritarian style is substituted into coaching, then the hierarchy changes from the support of blaming and ridiculing to the objective evaluation, all-hands activity changes to strategic planning. Coaching approach will allow optimizing the structure of economic activity of a separate preschool educational establishment. The attention is accentuated at the fact, that using coaching with the students at the lessons as a style of management of preschool education, will let future managers of preschool educational establishments to form the skills of behavior in critical situations of mountain area, to enrich their activity with the new means of performing, to develop professional

  4. Evaluating E-Learning Systems: An Empirical Investigation on Students' Perception in Higher Education Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneer Abbad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In search of better, traditional learning universities have expanded their ways to deliver knowledge and integrate cost effective e-learning systems. Universities' use of information and communication technologies has grown tremendously over the last decade. To ensure efficient use of the e-learning system, the Arab Open University (AOU in Bahrain was the first to use e-learning system there, aimed to evaluate the good and bad practices, detect errors and determine areas for further improvements in usage. This study critically evaluated the students' perception of the elearning system in Bahrain and recommended changes to improve students' e-learning usage. Results of the study indicated that, in general, students have favourable perceptions toward using the e-learning system. This study has shown that technology acceptance is the most variable, factor that contributes to students' perception and satisfaction of the e-learning system.

  5. WHAT ARE AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS PH.D. STUDENTS LEARNING ABOUT AGRIBUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS AND SUBJECT AREAS?

    OpenAIRE

    House, Lisa; Sterns, James A.

    2002-01-01

    This document contains the PowerPoint presentation given by the authors at the 2002 WCC-72 meetings, regarding what agricultural economics Ph.D students are learning about agribusiness research methods and subject areas.

  6. Robot education peers in a situated primary school study: Personalisation promotes child learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Paul; Ashurst, Emily; Read, Robin; Kennedy, James; Belpaeme, Tony

    2017-01-01

    The benefit of social robots to support child learning in an educational context over an extended period of time is evaluated. Specifically, the effect of personalisation and adaptation of robot social behaviour is assessed. Two autonomous robots were embedded within two matched classrooms of a primary school for a continuous two week period without experimenter supervision to act as learning companions for the children for familiar and novel subjects. Results suggest that while children in both personalised and non-personalised conditions learned, there was increased child learning of a novel subject exhibited when interacting with a robot that personalised its behaviours, with indications that this benefit extended to other class-based performance. Additional evidence was obtained suggesting that there is increased acceptance of the personalised robot peer over a non-personalised version. These results provide the first evidence in support of peer-robot behavioural personalisation having a positive influence on learning when embedded in a learning environment for an extended period of time.

  7. Robot education peers in a situated primary school study: Personalisation promotes child learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Baxter

    Full Text Available The benefit of social robots to support child learning in an educational context over an extended period of time is evaluated. Specifically, the effect of personalisation and adaptation of robot social behaviour is assessed. Two autonomous robots were embedded within two matched classrooms of a primary school for a continuous two week period without experimenter supervision to act as learning companions for the children for familiar and novel subjects. Results suggest that while children in both personalised and non-personalised conditions learned, there was increased child learning of a novel subject exhibited when interacting with a robot that personalised its behaviours, with indications that this benefit extended to other class-based performance. Additional evidence was obtained suggesting that there is increased acceptance of the personalised robot peer over a non-personalised version. These results provide the first evidence in support of peer-robot behavioural personalisation having a positive influence on learning when embedded in a learning environment for an extended period of time.

  8. Robot education peers in a situated primary school study: Personalisation promotes child learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashurst, Emily; Read, Robin; Kennedy, James; Belpaeme, Tony

    2017-01-01

    The benefit of social robots to support child learning in an educational context over an extended period of time is evaluated. Specifically, the effect of personalisation and adaptation of robot social behaviour is assessed. Two autonomous robots were embedded within two matched classrooms of a primary school for a continuous two week period without experimenter supervision to act as learning companions for the children for familiar and novel subjects. Results suggest that while children in both personalised and non-personalised conditions learned, there was increased child learning of a novel subject exhibited when interacting with a robot that personalised its behaviours, with indications that this benefit extended to other class-based performance. Additional evidence was obtained suggesting that there is increased acceptance of the personalised robot peer over a non-personalised version. These results provide the first evidence in support of peer-robot behavioural personalisation having a positive influence on learning when embedded in a learning environment for an extended period of time. PMID:28542648

  9. Social Learning Analytics in Higher Education. An experience at the Primary Education stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Javier Díaz-Lázaro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of Learning Analytics, as we understand it today, is relatively new but the practice of evaluating user behavior is not innovative. For years, technological development, along with other educational aspects, have encouraged, developed and facilitated this practice as a way of providing a personalized quality experience to students. The main goal of this study, carried out in the Primary Education Degree of the University of Murcia, was to research, from the perspective of Social Learning Analytics, how students learn and collaborate in online environments, specifically through their use of social media. With the idea of improving and optimizing future teaching experiences, a pilot study was conducted using weblog, Twitter and Facebook to work with different topics on the subject. The method used in this research was a participant observation and the analysis performed was both quantitative, based mainly on the data gathered from the learning analytics, and qualitative (analyzing students’ content from comments. Results show that there was greater interaction on Facebook than weblogs, where students interacted to deal with aspects related to the learning process and the topic of the subject. This exchange of information grew during the development of the experience. In addition, learning analytics shows that there is a relationship between group members and their interaction and behavior in networks.

  10. The connection between teaching and learning: Linking teaching quality and metacognitive strategy use in primary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieser, Svenja; Naumann, Alexander; Decristan, Jasmin; Fauth, Benjamin; Klieme, Eckhard; Büttner, Gerhard

    2016-12-01

    In order for teaching to be successful, students need to be actively involved in learning. However, research on teaching effectiveness often neglects students' learning activities. Although it is assumed that effective teaching promotes the use of beneficial learning activities, empirical evidence for this connection is still limited. This study aimed to investigate the connection between effective teaching and reported learning activities. We hypothesize specific relations between a three-dimensional model of teaching quality (i.e., cognitive activation, supportive climate, and classroom management) and students' reported use of metacognitive strategies. Students' intrinsic motivation is considered as a mediator and a moderator of this connection. N = 1,052 students from 53 German primary school classes and their science teachers participated. Data were collected through classroom or video observation and questionnaires over a period of approximately 2 months. Multilevel analysis was utilized to test our hypotheses. Each dimension of teaching quality positively predicted students' reported use of metacognitive strategies. For supportive climate, this connection was mediated by students' intrinsic motivation. Cognitive activation negatively predicted the slopes between students' reported metacognitive strategy use and motivation. The results support the notion that effective teaching is connected to learning activities and stress the importance of students' learning motivation. Results from the cross-level interaction could indicate that especially less motivated students' reported metacognitive strategy use might be supported by cognitively activating teaching. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Deep Learning for Automated Extraction of Primary Sites From Cancer Pathology Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, John X; Yoon, Hong-Jun; Fearn, Paul A; Tourassi, Georgia D

    2018-01-01

    Pathology reports are a primary source of information for cancer registries which process high volumes of free-text reports annually. Information extraction and coding is a manual, labor-intensive process. In this study, we investigated deep learning and a convolutional neural network (CNN), for extracting ICD-O-3 topographic codes from a corpus of breast and lung cancer pathology reports. We performed two experiments, using a CNN and a more conventional term frequency vector approach, to assess the effects of class prevalence and inter-class transfer learning. The experiments were based on a set of 942 pathology reports with human expert annotations as the gold standard. CNN performance was compared against a more conventional term frequency vector space approach. We observed that the deep learning models consistently outperformed the conventional approaches in the class prevalence experiment, resulting in micro- and macro-F score increases of up to 0.132 and 0.226, respectively, when class labels were well populated. Specifically, the best performing CNN achieved a micro-F score of 0.722 over 12 ICD-O-3 topography codes. Transfer learning provided a consistent but modest performance boost for the deep learning methods but trends were contingent on the CNN method and cancer site. These encouraging results demonstrate the potential of deep learning for automated abstraction of pathology reports.

  12. Improvement of auditory hallucinations and reduction of primary auditory area's activation following TMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giesel, Frederik L.; Mehndiratta, Amit; Hempel, Albrecht; Hempel, Eckhard; Kress, Kai R.; Essig, Marco; Schröder, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Background: In the present case study, improvement of auditory hallucinations following transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) therapy was investigated with respect to activation changes of the auditory cortices. Methods: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), activation of the auditory cortices was assessed prior to and after a 4-week TMS series of the left superior temporal gyrus in a schizophrenic patient with medication-resistant auditory hallucinations. Results: Hallucinations decreased slightly after the third and profoundly after the fourth week of TMS. Activation in the primary auditory area decreased, whereas activation in the operculum and insula remained stable. Conclusions: Combination of TMS and repetitive fMRI is promising to elucidate the physiological changes induced by TMS.

  13. Application of smart phone and supporting set for fundus imaging in primary hospital of rural area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Feng Jing

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To describe the application of smart phone and supporting set for acquiring fundus images with slitlamp examination and non-contact lens in primary hospital of the rural area. METHODS: The supporting set for smart phone was purchased from taobao and securely connected to the ocular lens of slitlamp microscopy. The fundus photos were imaged with assistance of non-contact slitlamp lens from Volk. RESULTS: High quality images of various retinal diseases could be successfully taken with smart phone and supporting set by slitlamp examination. The fundus images were send to patients with Wechat as medical records or used for telconsultant. CONCLUSION: High resolution smart phones are wildly used nowadays and supporting sets are very accessible; thus high quality of images could be obtained with minimal cost in rural hospitals. The digital fundus images will be beneficial for medical record and rapid diagnosis with telconsultant.

  14. WebQuests in Special Primary Education: Learning in a Web-Based Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleemans, Tijs; Segers, Eliane; Droop, Mienke; Wentink, Hanneke

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the differences in learning gain when performing a WebQuest with a well-defined versus an ill-defined assignment. Twenty boys and twenty girls (mean age 11; 10), attending a special primary education school, performed two WebQuests. In each WebQuest, they performed either a well-defined or an ill-defined assignment.…

  15. Stunting and zinc deficiency among primary school children in rural areas with low soil zinc concentrations in Jiangsu Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Yu; Boonstra, A.; Zhao, J.; Wu, M.; Hu, X.; Kok, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess stunting and zinc deficiency among primary school children in north rural area of Jiangsu Province with low soil zinc concentrations, eastern part of China. METHODS: Two data collection rounds were conducted. In the first data collection round, 2268 primary school children aged

  16. Effectiveness of computer-assisted learning in biology teaching in primary schools in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Županec Vera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the comparative effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Learning (CAL and the traditional teaching method in biology on primary school pupils. A stratified random sample consisted of 214 pupils from two primary schools in Novi Sad. The pupils in the experimental group learned the biology content (Chordate using CAL, whereas the pupils in the control group learned the same content using traditional teaching. The research design was the pretest-posttest equivalent groups design. All instruments (the pretest, the posttest and the retest contained the questions belonging to three different cognitive domains: knowing, applying, and reasoning. Arithmetic mean, standard deviation, and standard error were analyzed using the software package SPSS 14.0, and t-test was used in order to establish the difference between the same statistical indicators. The analysis of results of the post­test and the retest showed that the pupils from the CAL group achieved significantly higher quantity and quality of knowledge in all three cognitive domains than the pupils from the traditional group. The results accomplished by the pupils from the CAL group suggest that individual CAL should be more present in biology teaching in primary schools, with the aim of raising the quality of biology education in pupils. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179010: Quality of Educational System in Serbia in the European Perspective

  17. Determinants of undernutrition among primary school children residing in slum areas of a Nigerian city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndukwu, C I; Egbuonu, I; Ulasi, T O; Ebenebe, J C

    2013-01-01

    Undernutrition remains the largest contributor to the global disease burden. Different factors affecting the nutritional status of children need to be studied to determine those to be targeted in a country like Nigeria, characterized by widespread poverty and inequitable distribution of wealth. This study was aimed at ascertaining the relationship between prevailing socioeconomic and environmental factors, and the nutritional status of children residing in a typical urban slum. A cross-sectional descriptive study of 788 children aged 6-12 years selected by stratified, multistage random sampling method from public primary schools in slum and non-slum areas of Onitsha was carried out. Their nutritional status was determined using anthropometric measures. The socioeconomic and environmental variables of interest were analyzed to determine their relationship with undernutrition in the children. Socioeconomic status was the major determinant of nutritional status in this study. Poor housing also affected the nutritional status of the slum children who were significantly from poorer families than those residing in non-slum areas (χ2 = 66.69, P = 0.000). This study highlights the need for an effective nutrition program targeted at school children in urban slums surrounded by factors predisposing them to undernutrition.

  18. Inhalation of primary motor vehicle emissions: Effects of urbanpopulation and land area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Julian D.; McKone, Thomas E.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2004-06-14

    Urban population density can influence transportation demand, as expressed through average daily vehicle-kilometers traveled per capita (VKT). In turn, changes in transportation demand influence total passenger vehicle emissions. Population density can also influence the fraction of total emissions that are inhaled by the exposed urban population. Equations are presented that describe these relationships for an idealized representation of an urban area. Using analytic solutions to these equations, we investigate the effect of three changes in urban population and urban land area (infill, sprawl, and constant-density growth) on per capita inhalation intake of primary pollutants from passenger vehicles. The magnitude of these effects depends on density-emissions elasticity ({var_epsilon}{sub e}), a normalized derivative relating change in population density to change in vehicle emissions. For example, if urban population increases, per capita intake is less with infill development than with constant-density growth if {var_epsilon}{sub e} is less than -0.5, while for {var_epsilon}{sub e} greater than -0.5 the reverse is true.

  19. Designing Math Trails for Enhanced by Mobile Learning Realistic Mathematics Education in Primary Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Fesakis

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Seeking a systematic combination of the pedagogical model of m-learning with the Realistic Mathematics Education (RME approach, this study concerns the use of math trail as a learning activity model that can take the advantages of mobile computing devices for the design of effective learning experiences in an authentic context. The paper presents the design and the case study of the first pilot implementation of a math trail, using mobile devices for primary school students. In this math trail, the students are guided, through a digital map, to a sequence of preselected sites of a park where they solve specially designed math problems using data from the environmental context. The students measure real objects’ dimensions either with conventional instruments or by measurement applications of their tablet. According to the findings of the study, students solved the puzzles by applying mathematical knowledge, discussion and collaboration. The students applied and reinforced their knowledge through an effective and engaging learning activity. Moreover, the students were puzzled about the differences of the measurements by conventional and digital instruments and this confusion triggered social negotiation. Further research is needed for a grounded theory development about m-learning design for RME.

  20. Boundary crossing and learning identities – digital storytelling in primary schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Mette Bjørgen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to academic discussions on how digital storytelling in an educational setting may have potential to build and develop learning identities, agency and digital competences. With a socio-cultural framework on learning and identity as a point of departure, the article sets out to study these issues approached as boundary crossing between the intersecting contexts of leisure time and school. The analysis draws on three examples of digital storytelling among 5th - 7th graders in three Norwegian primary school classes. My findings suggest that digital storytelling might represent a boundary crossing enabling pupils to adopt new roles as producers of creative content, as mentors or guides, to explore new technology and software in a context different from that of outside school and to learn and develop competences related to production processes and multimodal resources. I argue that digital storytelling has a potential to contribute to learning, learning identity and agency, provided it is based on a more fully developed pedagogical strategy of carefully linking school and leisure time.

  1. Functional connectivity between somatosensory and motor brain areas predicts individual differences in motor learning by observing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Heather R; Gribble, Paul L

    2017-08-01

    Action observation can facilitate the acquisition of novel motor skills; however, there is considerable individual variability in the extent to which observation promotes motor learning. Here we tested the hypothesis that individual differences in brain function or structure can predict subsequent observation-related gains in motor learning. Subjects underwent an anatomical MRI scan and resting-state fMRI scans to assess preobservation gray matter volume and preobservation resting-state functional connectivity (FC), respectively. On the following day, subjects observed a video of a tutor adapting her reaches to a novel force field. After observation, subjects performed reaches in a force field as a behavioral assessment of gains in motor learning resulting from observation. We found that individual differences in resting-state FC, but not gray matter volume, predicted postobservation gains in motor learning. Preobservation resting-state FC between left primary somatosensory cortex and bilateral dorsal premotor cortex, primary motor cortex, and primary somatosensory cortex and left superior parietal lobule was positively correlated with behavioral measures of postobservation motor learning. Sensory-motor resting-state FC can thus predict the extent to which observation will promote subsequent motor learning. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We show that individual differences in preobservation brain function can predict subsequent observation-related gains in motor learning. Preobservation resting-state functional connectivity within a sensory-motor network may be used as a biomarker for the extent to which observation promotes motor learning. This kind of information may be useful if observation is to be used as a way to boost neuroplasticity and sensory-motor recovery for patients undergoing rehabilitation for diseases that impair movement such as stroke. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Do textbooks address known learning challenges in area measurement? A comparative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Dae S.; Choi, Kyong Mi; Runnalls, Cristina; Hwang, Jihyun

    2018-02-01

    This study compared area lessons from Korean textbooks and US standard-based textbooks to understand differences and similarities among these textbooks, as well as how these textbooks address known learning challenges in area measurement. Several well-known challenges have been identified in previous studies, such as covering, array structure, and linking array structure to area formula. We were interested in knowing if textbooks addressed these issues in their treatments of area measurement and, in doing so, provided students with opportunities to overcome or become familiar with known challenges. The results show that both countries' textbooks demonstrated similar limitations; only few area and area-related lessons are covered and three important learning challenges in area measurement are not covered well, which need to be informed to practicing teachers.

  3. PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS OF OBESITY IN PRIMARY SCHOOL IN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Ratna Dewi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE Obesity has become a continous increasing global health problem. Obesity can happen in adult population and also on children as well as teenagers. There are several factors that influence the occurrence of obesity. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and risk factors for obesity in primary school children in urban and rural areas. A cross sectional study was conducted with a total sample of 241 pupils in several elementary schools. Anthropometric status determine using body mass index for age and obesity stated if measurement exceed ?95th percentile based on CDC 2000. Analysis data perform with the Pearson Chi-square, Fisher's Exact Test, and logistic regression. A P value of <0.05 was considered significant. This study showed the prevalence of obesity was 15%. The prevalence of obesity in urban areas was 21% and rural areas was 5%. The result showed risk of obesity multiplied by 3.8 times in urban children as they had a habit of "snacking" had risk of suffering obesity by 3.4 times (95% CI 1.2 to 9.0. Children who had habit of having fast food more than 2 times per week had the more risk of obesity by 5 times (95% CI 1.9 to 13.5. Mothers education in urban areas as a protective factor. Conclusion of this study show that the prevalence of obesity in urban areas is 21% and 5% in rural areas. “Snacking” habit and eating fast food more than 2 times per week increase the risk of obesity in urban areas, while in rural areas no risk factors consider significant for obesity. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso

  4. Bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations during primary succession in recently Deglaciated areas of Tierra del Fuego (Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arróniz-Crespo, María; Pérez-Ortega, Sergio; De Los Ríos, Asunción; Green, T G Allan; Ochoa-Hueso, Raúl; Casermeiro, Miguel Ángel; de la Cruz, María Teresa; Pintado, Ana; Palacios, David; Rozzi, Ricardo; Tysklind, Niklas; Sancho, Leopoldo G

    2014-01-01

    Bryophyte establishment represents a positive feedback process that enhances soil development in newly exposed terrain. Further, biological nitrogen (N) fixation by cyanobacteria in association with mosses can be an important supply of N to terrestrial ecosystems, however the role of these associations during post-glacial primary succession is not yet fully understood. Here, we analyzed chronosequences in front of two receding glaciers with contrasting climatic conditions (wetter vs drier) at Cordillera Darwin (Tierra del Fuego) and found that most mosses had the capacity to support an epiphytic flora of cyanobacteria and exhibited high rates of N2 fixation. Pioneer moss-cyanobacteria associations showed the highest N2 fixation rates (4.60 and 4.96 µg N g-1 bryo. d-1) very early after glacier retreat (4 and 7 years) which may help accelerate soil development under wetter conditions. In drier climate, N2 fixation on bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations was also high (0.94 and 1.42 µg N g-1 bryo. d-1) but peaked at intermediate-aged sites (26 and 66 years). N2 fixation capacity on bryophytes was primarily driven by epiphytic cyanobacteria abundance rather than community composition. Most liverworts showed low colonization and N2 fixation rates, and mosses did not exhibit consistent differences across life forms and habitat (saxicolous vs terricolous). We also found a clear relationship between cyanobacteria genera and the stages of ecological succession, but no relationship was found with host species identity. Glacier forelands in Tierra del Fuego show fast rates of soil transformation which imply large quantities of N inputs. Our results highlight the potential contribution of bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations to N accumulation during post-glacial primary succession and further describe the factors that drive N2-fixation rates in post-glacial areas with very low N deposition.

  5. Bryophyte-Cyanobacteria Associations during Primary Succession in Recently Deglaciated Areas of Tierra del Fuego (Chile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arróniz-Crespo, María; Pérez-Ortega, Sergio; De los Ríos, Asunción; Green, T. G. Allan; Ochoa-Hueso, Raúl; Casermeiro, Miguel Ángel; de la Cruz, María Teresa; Pintado, Ana; Palacios, David; Rozzi, Ricardo; Tysklind, Niklas; Sancho, Leopoldo G.

    2014-01-01

    Bryophyte establishment represents a positive feedback process that enhances soil development in newly exposed terrain. Further, biological nitrogen (N) fixation by cyanobacteria in association with mosses can be an important supply of N to terrestrial ecosystems, however the role of these associations during post-glacial primary succession is not yet fully understood. Here, we analyzed chronosequences in front of two receding glaciers with contrasting climatic conditions (wetter vs drier) at Cordillera Darwin (Tierra del Fuego) and found that most mosses had the capacity to support an epiphytic flora of cyanobacteria and exhibited high rates of N2 fixation. Pioneer moss-cyanobacteria associations showed the highest N2 fixation rates (4.60 and 4.96 µg N g−1 bryo. d−1) very early after glacier retreat (4 and 7 years) which may help accelerate soil development under wetter conditions. In drier climate, N2 fixation on bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations was also high (0.94 and 1.42 µg N g−1 bryo. d−1) but peaked at intermediate-aged sites (26 and 66 years). N2 fixation capacity on bryophytes was primarily driven by epiphytic cyanobacteria abundance rather than community composition. Most liverworts showed low colonization and N2 fixation rates, and mosses did not exhibit consistent differences across life forms and habitat (saxicolous vs terricolous). We also found a clear relationship between cyanobacteria genera and the stages of ecological succession, but no relationship was found with host species identity. Glacier forelands in Tierra del Fuego show fast rates of soil transformation which imply large quantities of N inputs. Our results highlight the potential contribution of bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations to N accumulation during post-glacial primary succession and further describe the factors that drive N2-fixation rates in post-glacial areas with very low N deposition. PMID:24819926

  6. Learning and Recognition of a Non-conscious Sequence of Events in Human Primary Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Clive R; Andrews, Samantha K; Antoniades, Chrystalina A; Kennard, Christopher; Soto, David

    2016-03-21

    Human primary visual cortex (V1) has long been associated with learning simple low-level visual discriminations [1] and is classically considered outside of neural systems that support high-level cognitive behavior in contexts that differ from the original conditions of learning, such as recognition memory [2, 3]. Here, we used a novel fMRI-based dichoptic masking protocol-designed to induce activity in V1, without modulation from visual awareness-to test whether human V1 is implicated in human observers rapidly learning and then later (15-20 min) recognizing a non-conscious and complex (second-order) visuospatial sequence. Learning was associated with a change in V1 activity, as part of a temporo-occipital and basal ganglia network, which is at variance with the cortico-cerebellar network identified in prior studies of "implicit" sequence learning that involved motor responses and visible stimuli (e.g., [4]). Recognition memory was associated with V1 activity, as part of a temporo-occipital network involving the hippocampus, under conditions that were not imputable to mechanisms associated with conscious retrieval. Notably, the V1 responses during learning and recognition separately predicted non-conscious recognition memory, and functional coupling between V1 and the hippocampus was enhanced for old retrieval cues. The results provide a basis for novel hypotheses about the signals that can drive recognition memory, because these data (1) identify human V1 with a memory network that can code complex associative serial visuospatial information and support later non-conscious recognition memory-guided behavior (cf. [5]) and (2) align with mouse models of experience-dependent V1 plasticity in learning and memory [6]. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Factors associated with student learning processes in primary health care units: a questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Elisabeth; Alinaghizadeh, Hassan; Saarikoski, Mikko; Kaila, Päivi

    2015-01-01

    Clinical placement plays a key role in education intended to develop nursing and caregiving skills. Studies of nursing students' clinical learning experiences show that these dimensions affect learning processes: (i) supervisory relationship, (ii) pedagogical atmosphere, (iii) management leadership style, (iv) premises of nursing care on the ward, and (v) nursing teachers' roles. Few empirical studies address the probability of an association between these dimensions and factors such as student (a) motivation, (b) satisfaction with clinical placement, and (c) experiences with professional role models. The study aimed to investigate factors associated with the five dimensions in clinical learning environments within primary health care units. The Swedish version of Clinical Learning Environment, Supervision and Teacher, a validated evaluation scale, was administered to 356 graduating nursing students after four or five weeks clinical placement in primary health care units. Response rate was 84%. Multivariate analysis of variance is determined if the five dimensions are associated with factors a, b, and c above. The analysis revealed a statistically significant association with the five dimensions and two factors: students' motivation and experiences with professional role models. The satisfaction factor had a statistically significant association (effect size was high) with all dimensions; this clearly indicates that students experienced satisfaction. These questionnaire results show that a good clinical learning experience constitutes a complex whole (totality) that involves several interacting factors. Supervisory relationship and pedagogical atmosphere particularly influenced students' satisfaction and motivation. These results provide valuable decision-support material for clinical education planning, implementation, and management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Modelling of the local chemistry in stagnant areas in the PWR primary circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, Rick; Fruzzetti, Keith; Ahluwalia, Al; Summe, Alex; Dame, Cecile; Schmitt, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    MRP-236 demonstrated a correlation between stagnant or low flow conditions and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of stainless steel components in the PWR primary system. Of the approximately 140 SCC events documented (affecting 15 different components), 83% involved stagnant or low flow conditions that were likely to be associated with chemical environments different from the well mixed bulk coolant. The chemistry in such locations is typically not monitored, and sampling is difficult or impossible. Actions to improve chemistry in regions of low or no coolant flow, such as flushing, cycling of components and imposition of more stringent make up water chemistry controls affect both operational costs and outage schedules. Similarly, design changes to improve flow in affected areas are costly or impracticable. Improving the understanding of the factors controlling chemistry in such areas and development of the capability to predict typical and worst case conditions will allow an informed assessment of procedural actions and/or design changes to improve local chemistry and thereby reduce SCC susceptibility. A project was undertaken to develop a model to predict local chemistry conditions in stagnant locations. The model comprises the iterative application of the EPRI MULTEQ solution chemistry equilibrium code and standard thermodynamic relationships to predict local chemistry conditions considered likely to have been present at the surfaces of components when SCC was initiated. The starting chemistry conditions are based on PWR primary system chemistry from different plant maneuvers (e.g., startup and shutdown conditions). The model was applied to three example components where SCC has occurred in the field. The selected components were: control rod drive mechanism canopy seals; valve drain lines; and reactor vessel o-ring leak-off lines. This paper provides a summary of the model and predicted local chemistry conditions that develop for the three example component as a

  9. Session: What can we learn from developed wind resource areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelander, Carl; Erickson, Wally

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop was composed of two parts intended to examine what existing science tells us about wind turbine impacts at existing wind project sites. Part one dealt with the Altamont Wind Resource area, one of the older wind projects in the US, with a paper presented by Carl Thelander titled ''Bird Fatalities in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: A Case Study, Part 1''. Questions addressed by the presenter included: how is avian habitat affected at Altamont and do birds avoid turbine sites; are birds being attracted to turbine strings; what factors contribute to direct impacts on birds by wind turbines at Altamont; how do use, behavior, avoidance and other factors affect risk to avian species, and particularly impacts those species listed as threatened, endangered, or of conservation concern, and other state listed species. The second part dealt with direct impacts to birds at new generation wind plants outside of California, examining such is sues as mortality, avoidance, direct habitat impacts from terrestrial wind projects, species and numbers killed per turbine rates/MW generated, impacts to listed threatened and endangered species, to USFWS Birds of Conservation Concern, and to state listed species. This session focused on newer wind project sites with a paper titled ''Bird Fatality and Risk at New Generation Wind Projects'' by Wally Erickson. Each paper was followed by a discussion/question and answer period.

  10. Multimedia Scenario Based Learning Programme for Enhancing the English Language Efficiency among Primary School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navnath Tupe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This research was undertaken with a view to assess the deficiencies in English language among Primary School Children and to develop Multimedia Scenario Based Learning Programme (MSBLP for mastery of English language which required special attention and effective treatment. The experimental study with pretest, post-test control group design was employed to carry out the experiment of MSBLP in a sample school and to determine its efficacy for enhancing English Language skills among Primary School Students. In India, the Central and State Government has made great efforts to Education for All (EFA and initiated several programs to provide universal access to education, to reduce the drop-out rates and ensure achievement of minimum levels of learning. To our surprise the scenario had not much changed inside the classroom even implementing several programmes. However, it was still unclear how effective was the delivery of the course content in the classroom. An intensive training for teachers on a regular basis on a state-wide scale may not be feasible again and again. Hence, multimedia offers pragmatic solutions So that this research paper devoted to explore the issues of learning English and describes the creation of MSBLP as a solution in scientific manner.

  11. Influence of problem-based teaching and learning of grammar on pupils’ attainment in primary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocić Zorica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of getting an insight into the effects of problem-based teaching and learning, an experiment was carried out by using the method of parallel groups on the sample of 204 pupils in the third and sixth grade of primary school. The results of final knowledge assessment showed that problem-based teaching and learning of grammar had positive influence on pupils' attainment comparing to the usual way of learning grammar. A significant improvement has been achieved in the field of reproductive and productive grammar knowledge on the whole sample of pupils as well as on the subsamples of pupils in the third and sixth grade. Because of the limited time left for this experimental programme, the reproductive knowledge of pupils was bigger than the productive knowledge. It has been noticed that regarding the successfulness of solving the grammatical problems, there was no difference between the pupils of younger and older primary school age, in the situation when these problems were decided on according to their age and intellectual abilities. All pupils had made an improvement, but they remained within the range of their marks in Serbian language. In addition to this, better progress was made by the pupils with better marks in Serbian language. Girls were more successful than boys, but the difference between boys and girls was smaller regarding the reproductive knowledge than the productive knowledge.

  12. Engineering Computer Games: A Parallel Learning Opportunity for Undergraduate Engineering and Primary (K-5 Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Michael Budnik

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present how our College of Engineering is developing a growing portfolio of engineering computer games as a parallel learning opportunity for undergraduate engineering and primary (grade K-5 students. Around the world, many schools provide secondary students (grade 6-12 with opportunities to pursue pre-engineering classes. However, by the time students reach this age, many of them have already determined their educational goals and preferred careers. Our College of Engineering is developing resources to provide primary students, still in their educational formative years, with opportunities to learn more about engineering. One of these resources is a library of engineering games targeted to the primary student population. The games are designed by sophomore students in our College of Engineering. During their Introduction to Computational Techniques course, the students use the LabVIEW environment to develop the games. This software provides a wealth of design resources for the novice programmer; using it to develop the games strengthens the undergraduates

  13. [Waste water management in a health area: environmental hygiene in primary care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Cuadrado, J; Contessotto Spadetto, C; Pereñiguez Barranco, J E; Fuster Quiñonero, D; Paricio Núñez, P

    1992-01-01

    Within the scope of the programmes to be developed by the primary health care parties, we consider it interesting to investigate the sewage management in our health area because of its impact on the population health and welfare and the main socioeconomic local activities: agriculture and tourism. We carry out an epidemiological descriptive study: we review the most important structural and functional characteristics of the sewage depuration and collection in the municipality of S. Javier (Murcia). The evaluation of the collected data made it obvious that deficiencies exist in the collection system as well as in the sewage processing; both deficiencies were shown in some places of the locality and in particular periods of the year, with a consequent risk of environmental contamination and enteric diseases transmission among population and summer holidaymakers. A positive corrective action on the installations by the organisms responsible for the local sanitation as a response to these conclusions, which we informed due time, constitutes a good stimulant to go on investigating this question of such a great sanitary and general interest, which is almost unknown in medical literature.

  14. Sun-Protection Habits of Primary Students in a Coastal Area of Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saridi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the present study was to record habits and attitudes of primary school students in Greece regarding sun-protection measures. Materials and Methods. 2,163 students with an average age of 9.9 (±1.1 years, studying in 14 schools of a Greek region, constituted our sample. The SPSS 17.0 software was used for the statistical analysis and significance level was set to P≤0.05. Results. Our sample had an equal gender distribution. 16% of the students belonged to the high-risk group, 70.2% of the participants lived 0–5 km away from the sea (urban area, 84.2% of the students were Greek, and 15.8% had non-Greek nationality. Half of the participants said they wear a hat when under the sun and 72% of them said they use sunscreen. 33.1% of the students said they had a sunburn last summer. Greek students as well as those who lived near the sea had better behaviour patterns regarding sun protection. Finally, children who did not use a sunscreen systematically had suffered sunburns more often than the rest. Conclusions. Health education programmes are necessary for students and parents/teachers alike, in order to raise awareness about everyday sun protection.

  15. Measurements and simulation of forest leaf area index and net primary productivity in Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P; Sun, R; Hu, J; Zhu, Q; Zhou, Y; Li, L; Chen, J M

    2007-11-01

    Large scale process-based modeling is a useful approach to estimate distributions of global net primary productivity (NPP). In this paper, in order to validate an existing NPP model with observed data at site level, field experiments were conducted at three sites in northern China. One site is located in Qilian Mountain in Gansu Province, and the other two sites are in Changbaishan Natural Reserve and Dunhua County in Jilin Province. Detailed field experiments are discussed and field data are used to validate the simulated NPP. Remotely sensed images including Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+, 30 m spatial resolution in visible and near infrared bands) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER, 15m spatial resolution in visible and near infrared bands) are used to derive maps of land cover, leaf area index, and biomass. Based on these maps, field measured data, soil texture and daily meteorological data, NPP of these sites are simulated for year 2001 with the boreal ecosystem productivity simulator (BEPS). The NPP in these sites ranges from 80 to 800 gCm(-2)a(-1). The observed NPP agrees well with the modeled NPP. This study suggests that BEPS can be used to estimate NPP in northern China if remotely sensed images of high spatial resolution are available.

  16. Sun-Protection Habits of Primary Students in a Coastal Area of Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saridi, M.; Toska, A.; Rekleiti, M.; Liachopoulou, A.; Wozniak, G.; Kalokairinou, A.; Birbas, K.; Souliotis, K.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to record habits and attitudes of primary school students in Greece regarding sun-protection measures. Materials and Methods. 2,163 students with an average age of 9.9 (±1.1) years, studying in 14 schools of a Greek region, constituted our sample. The SPSS 17.0 software was used for the statistical analysis and significance level was set toρ≤0.05. Results. Our sample had an equal gender distribution. 16% of the students belonged to the high-risk group, 70.2% of the participants lived 0-5 km away from the sea (urban area), 84.2% of the students were Greek, and 15.8% had non-Greek nationality. Half of the participants said they wear a hat when under the sun and 72% of them said they use sunscreen. 33.1% of the students said they had a sunburn last summer. Greek students as well as those who lived near the sea had better behaviour patterns regarding sun protection. Finally, children who did not use a sunscreen systematically had suffered sunburns more often than the rest. Conclusions. Health education programmes are necessary for students and parents/teachers alike, in order to raise awareness about everyday sun protection.

  17. Support for learning in the perspective of patient safety in primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranaguá, Thatianny Tanferri de Brito; Bezerra, Ana Lúcia Queiroz; Tobias, Gabriela Camargo; Ciosak, Suely Itsuko

    2016-08-18

    to analyze the support for learning, in the perspective of patient safety, offered in the work environment, according to health professionals working in primary care. a transversal study, held with 86 health professionals working in primary care. A validated instrument was used, applied via the Internet. Descriptive statistical analysis was undertaken with a presentation of median, mean, standard deviation and coefficient of variation. points which are favorable to supporting learning were evidenced, such as mutual respect, autonomy for organizing the work and valorization of new ideas, which obtained means above 7.0. The variables which hinder the process of learning in the work environment, perceived by the professionals, were: resistance to changes, and excess of work impeding reflection on how to improve the work, with means above 6.0. the study found evidence of indicators related to the process of staff development in the area of health and indicates the influence of support for learning for the improvement of the work processes and of patient safety. It is necessary that a culture involving the systematic assessment of educational interventions in health should be established, the aim being to diagnose actions which are more incisive for changing health professionals' attitude and, therefore, clinical practice. analisar o suporte para a aprendizagem, na perspectiva da segurança do paciente, oferecido no ambiente de trabalho, segundo os profissionais de saúde atuantes na atenção primária. estudo transversal, conduzido com 86 profissionais de saúde atuantes na atenção primária. Utilizou-se instrumento validado, aplicado via web. Foi realizada análise estatística descritiva com apresentação de mediana, média, desvio padrão e coeficiente de variação. foram evidenciados pontos favoráveis de suporte à aprendizagem, como respeito mútuo, autonomia para organizar o trabalho e a valorização de novas ideias, que obtiveram médias acima de 7,0. As

  18. Emotion as the Amplifier and the Primary Motive: Some Theories of Emotion with Relevance to Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxford, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    Emotion is crucial to living and learning. The powerful intertwining of emotion and cognition ignites learning within a complex dynamic system, which, as several sections of this paper show, also includes societal and cultural influences. As "the primary human motive" (MacIntyre, 2002a, p. 61), emotion operates as an amplifier, which…

  19. An Investigation of Social Behaviors of Primary School Children in Terms of Their Grade, Learning Disability and Intelligence Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukay Yuksel, Muge

    2013-01-01

    In this study, to what extent 7-9-year old primary school children's' social behaviors at school vary depending on their grade, gender and learning disability was investigated. In addition, the predictive value of the intelligence scores of children with normal development and with learning disability was explored for their negative and positive…

  20. Examination of Attitudes to Learning and Educational Stress in Prospective Primary School Teachers: Izmir-Buca Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamurcu, Hülya

    2018-01-01

    Many factors interact with each other in learning and internalizing a subject along with performing a new task. Attitudes and stress are the two of these factors. The aim of this study was to examine attitudes to learning and educational stress in third and fourth year students as prospective primary school teachers. The relational model was used…

  1. Personality characteristics and their connection with learning efficiency of deaf and partially deaf pupils in mainstream primary and secondary school

    OpenAIRE

    Kastelic, Helena

    2012-01-01

    This thesis deals with personality characteristics and their connection with learning efficiency of deaf and partially deaf pupils and students in mainstream primary and secondary school. The theoretical part defines learning efficiency and focuses on the most significant factors of learning efficiency, including also personality characteristics of an individual. This thesis represents the idea of inclusion and its advantages and disadvantages and suggests to what extent it is present in our ...

  2. Service Learning: Study on the degree of satisfaction of students in primary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Folgueiras Bertomeu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Service learning (SL is a pedagogical methodology that engages school and community in a common project. Based on this methodology the article presents the results of a comprehensive descriptive study completed with 93 primary education students in order to analyze the satisfaction they have regarding their participation in SL projects. By adapting a model of satisfaction 4 key dimensions are discussed. The main technique for data analysis is content analysis where we triangulate techniques as well as informants. The data analysis shows a high degree of satisfaction from participating students and opens to discussion the key aspects of SL methodology: reflection, evaluation and participation.

  3. Portuguese primary school children's conceptions about digestion: identification of learning obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rui Graça; Lima, Nelson; Coquet, Eduarda; Clément, Pierre

    2004-09-01

    A cross-sectional study of Portuguese primary school pupils' conceptions on digestion and the digestive tract was carried out before and after teaching this topic. Pupils of the prior four school years (5/6 to 9/10 year old) drew what happens to a cookie inside their body. In some cases they also wrote a short text or were interviewed. To identify their level of graphic development, they produced a free-hand drawing. The main conceptual changes in explaining digestion were strongly linked to teaching. Children's previous conceptions were not epistemological obstacles to learning about digestion. The main obstacles were of didactical origin, as images of primary school books do not represent (i) the path of food from the intestine into the blood, (associated to the epistemological obstacle of the permeability of the gut wall); (ii) a clear continuous tract from stomach to anus, which causes a specific confusion at the intestine level.

  4. The Intercultural and Non-Formal Learning Processes of Children in Primary School Exchange Programmes in France and Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, Valérie; Wagner, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based on educational anthropology, and presents the initial findings of a three-year international comparative study of primary school children's learning-processes during travel and cross-cultural encounters. A French-German research team investigated and here reports on primary school exchange programmes. Open coding of the…

  5. Primary School Puberty/Sexuality Education: Student-Teachers' Past Learning, Present Professional Education, and Intention to Teach These Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Coleman, Stephanie J.

    2013-01-01

    Primary school teachers are often tasked with puberty/sexuality education for students who are undergoing sexual maturation at ever-earlier ages. This study explores the changing trajectories of the pre-service learning and teaching of primary school puberty/sexuality education at an urban university, including student-teachers' childhood…

  6. Tree differences in primary and secondary growth drive convergent scaling in leaf area to sapwood area across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petit, Giai; Arx, von Georg; Kiorapostolou, Natasa; Lechthaler, Silvia; Prendin, Angela Luisa; Anfodillo, Tommaso; Caldeira, Maria C.; Cochard, Hervé; Copini, Paul; Crivellaro, Alan; Delzon, Sylvain; Gebauer, Roman; Gričar, Jožica; Grönholm, Leila; Hölttä, Teemu; Jyske, Tuula; Lavrič, Martina; Lintunen, Anna; Lobo-do-Vale, Raquel; Peltoniemi, Mikko; Peters, Richard L.; Robert, Elisabeth M.R.; Roig Juan, Sílvia; Senfeldr, Martin; Steppe, Kathy; Urban, Josef; Camp, Van Janne; Sterck, Frank

    2018-01-01

    Trees scale leaf (AL) and xylem (AX) areas to couple leaf transpiration and carbon gain with xylem water transport. Some species are known to acclimate in AL: AX balance in response to climate conditions, but whether trees of different species acclimate in AL: AX in similar ways over their entire

  7. Area 5 influences excitability within the primary motor cortex in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azra Premji

    Full Text Available In non-human primates, Brodmann's area 5 (BA 5 has direct connectivity with primary motor cortex (M1, is largely dedicated to the representation of the hand and may have evolved with the ability to perform skilled hand movement. Less is known about human BA 5 and its interaction with M1 neural circuits related to hand control. The present study examines the influence of BA 5 on excitatory and inhibitory neural circuitry within M1 bilaterally before and after continuous (cTBS, intermittent (iTBS, and sham theta-burst stimulation (sham TBS over left hemisphere BA 5. Using single and paired-pulse TMS, measurements of motor evoked potentials (MEPs, short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI, and intracortical facilitation (ICF were quantified for the representation of the first dorsal interosseous muscle. Results indicate that cTBS over BA 5 influences M1 excitability such that MEP amplitudes are increased bilaterally for up to one hour. ITBS over BA 5 results in an increase in MEP amplitude contralateral to stimulation with a delayed onset that persists up to one hour. SICI and ICF were unaltered following TBS over BA 5. Similarly, F-wave amplitude and latency were unaltered following cTBS over BA 5. The data suggest that BA 5 alters M1 output directed to the hand by influencing corticospinal neurons and not interneurons that mediate SICI or ICF circuitry. Targeting BA 5 via cTBS and iTBS is a novel mechanism to powerfully modulate activity within M1 and may provide an avenue for investigating hand control in healthy populations and modifying impaired hand function in clinical populations.

  8. Abnormal cortical synaptic plasticity in primary motor area in progressive supranuclear palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Antonella; Belvisi, Daniele; Bologna, Matteo; Ottaviani, Donatella; Fabbrini, Giovanni; Colosimo, Carlo; Williams, David R; Berardelli, Alfredo

    2012-03-01

    No study has yet investigated whether cortical plasticity in primary motor area (M1) is abnormal in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). We studied M1 plasticity in 15 PSP patients and 15 age-matched healthy subjects. We used intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) to investigate long-term potentiation (LTP) and continuous TBS (cTBS) to investigate long-term depression (LTD)-like cortical plasticity in M1. Ten patients underwent iTBS again 1 year later. We also investigated short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) in M1 with paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation, tested H reflex from upper limb flexor muscles before and after iTBS, and measured motor evoked potential (MEP) input-output (I/O) curves before and after iTBS. iTBS elicited a significantly larger MEP facilitation after iTBS in patients than in healthy subjects. Whereas in healthy subjects, cTBS inhibited MEP, in patients it significantly facilitated MEPs. In patients, SICI was reduced, whereas ICF was normal. H reflex size remained unchanged after iTBS. Patients had steeper MEP I/O slopes than healthy subjects at baseline and became even more steeper after iTBS only in patients. The iTBS-induced abnormal MEP facilitation in PSP persisted at 1-year follow-up. In conclusion, patients with PSP have abnormal M1 LTP/LTD-like plasticity. The enhanced LTP-like cortical synaptic plasticity parallels disease progression.

  9. Exploring Simple Algorithms for Estimating Gross Primary Production in Forested Areas from Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishna R. Nemani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Algorithms that use remotely-sensed vegetation indices to estimate gross primary production (GPP, a key component of the global carbon cycle, have gained a lot of popularity in the past decade. Yet despite the amount of research on the topic, the most appropriate approach is still under debate. As an attempt to address this question, we compared the performance of different vegetation indices from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS in capturing the seasonal and the annual variability of GPP estimates from an optimal network of 21 FLUXNET forest towers sites. The tested indices include the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI, Leaf Area Index (LAI, and Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation absorbed by plant canopies (FPAR. Our results indicated that single vegetation indices captured 50–80% of the variability of tower-estimated GPP, but no one index performed universally well in all situations. In particular, EVI outperformed the other MODIS products in tracking seasonal variations in tower-estimated GPP, but annual mean MODIS LAI was the best estimator of the spatial distribution of annual flux-tower GPP (GPP = 615 × LAI − 376, where GPP is in g C/m2/year. This simple algorithm rehabilitated earlier approaches linking ground measurements of LAI to flux-tower estimates of GPP and produced annual GPP estimates comparable to the MODIS 17 GPP product. As such, remote sensing-based estimates of GPP continue to offer a useful alternative to estimates from biophysical models, and the choice of the most appropriate approach depends on whether the estimates are required at annual or sub-annual temporal resolution.

  10. Learning outcomes and effective communication techniques for hazard recognition learning programmes in the transportation thrust area.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Krige, PD

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available on South African mines ............................................ 32 4.3 People development and training techniques associated with confidence, attitudes and leadership............................................ 34 Page 4 4.4 Recommended learning... to rules and procedures, safety commitment of management, supervision style, organising for safety, equipment design and maintenance. Only the last two are engineering issues. The trend is clear. Improvements in engineering design have significantly...

  11. Identifying key areas for active interprofessional learning partnerships: A facilitated dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven, Kathryn; Angus, Allyson; Breckenridge, Jenna; Davey, Peter; Tully, Vicki; Muir, Fiona

    2016-11-01

    Student and service user involvement is recognised as an important factor in creating interprofessional education (IPE) opportunities. We used a team-based learning approach to bring together undergraduate health professional students, early career professionals (ECPs), public partners, volunteers, and carers to explore learning partnerships. Influenced by evaluative inquiry, this qualitative study used a free text response to allow participants to give their own opinion. A total of 153 participants (50 public partners and 103 students and professionals representing 11 healthcare professions) took part. Participants were divided into mixed groups of six (n = 25) and asked to identify areas where students, professionals, and public could work together to improve health professional education. Each group documented their discussions by summarising agreed areas and next steps. Responses were collected and transcribed for inductive content analysis. Seven key themes (areas for joint working) were identified: communication, public as partners, standards of conduct, IPE, quality improvement, education, and learning environments. The team-based learning format enabled undergraduate and postgraduate health professionals to achieve consensus with public partners on areas for IPE and collaboration. Some of our results may be context-specific but the approach is generalisable to other areas.

  12. Substance P signalling in primary motor cortex facilitates motor learning in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Hertler

    Full Text Available Among the genes that are up-regulated in response to a reaching training in rats, Tachykinin 1 (Tac1-a gene that encodes the neuropeptide Substance P (Sub P-shows an especially strong expression. Using Real-Time RT-PCR, a detailed time-course of Tac1 expression could be defined: a significant peak occurs 7 hours after training ended at the first and second training session, whereas no up-regulation could be detected at a later time-point (sixth training session. To assess the physiological role of Sub P during movement acquisition, microinjections into the primary motor cortex (M1 contralateral to the trained paw were performed. When Sub P was injected before the first three sessions of a reaching training, effectiveness of motor learning became significantly increased. Injections at a time-point when rats already knew the task (i.e. training session ten and eleven had no effect on reaching performance. Sub P injections did not influence the improvement of performance within a single training session, but retention of performance between sessions became strengthened at a very early stage (i.e. between baseline-training and first training session. Thus, Sub P facilitates motor learning in the very early phase of skill acquisition by supporting memory consolidation. In line with these findings, learning related expression of the precursor Tac1 occurs at early but not at later time-points during reaching training.

  13. Substance P signalling in primary motor cortex facilitates motor learning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertler, Benjamin; Hosp, Jonas Aurel; Blanco, Manuel Buitrago; Luft, Andreas Rüdiger

    2017-01-01

    Among the genes that are up-regulated in response to a reaching training in rats, Tachykinin 1 (Tac1)-a gene that encodes the neuropeptide Substance P (Sub P)-shows an especially strong expression. Using Real-Time RT-PCR, a detailed time-course of Tac1 expression could be defined: a significant peak occurs 7 hours after training ended at the first and second training session, whereas no up-regulation could be detected at a later time-point (sixth training session). To assess the physiological role of Sub P during movement acquisition, microinjections into the primary motor cortex (M1) contralateral to the trained paw were performed. When Sub P was injected before the first three sessions of a reaching training, effectiveness of motor learning became significantly increased. Injections at a time-point when rats already knew the task (i.e. training session ten and eleven) had no effect on reaching performance. Sub P injections did not influence the improvement of performance within a single training session, but retention of performance between sessions became strengthened at a very early stage (i.e. between baseline-training and first training session). Thus, Sub P facilitates motor learning in the very early phase of skill acquisition by supporting memory consolidation. In line with these findings, learning related expression of the precursor Tac1 occurs at early but not at later time-points during reaching training.

  14. Tree differences in primary and secondary growth drive convergent scaling in leaf area to sapwood area across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Giai; von Arx, Georg; Kiorapostolou, Natasa; Lechthaler, Silvia; Prendin, Angela Luisa; Anfodillo, Tommaso; Caldeira, Maria C; Cochard, Hervé; Copini, Paul; Crivellaro, Alan; Delzon, Sylvain; Gebauer, Roman; Gričar, Jožica; Grönholm, Leila; Hölttä, Teemu; Jyske, Tuula; Lavrič, Martina; Lintunen, Anna; Lobo-do-Vale, Raquel; Peltoniemi, Mikko; Peters, Richard L; Robert, Elisabeth M R; Roig Juan, Sílvia; Senfeldr, Martin; Steppe, Kathy; Urban, Josef; Van Camp, Janne; Sterck, Frank

    2018-06-01

    Trees scale leaf (A L ) and xylem (A X ) areas to couple leaf transpiration and carbon gain with xylem water transport. Some species are known to acclimate in A L  : A X balance in response to climate conditions, but whether trees of different species acclimate in A L  : A X in similar ways over their entire (continental) distributions is unknown. We analyzed the species and climate effects on the scaling of A L vs A X in branches of conifers (Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies) and broadleaved (Betula pendula, Populus tremula) sampled across a continental wide transect in Europe. Along the branch axis, A L and A X change in equal proportion (isometric scaling: b ˜ 1) as for trees. Branches of similar length converged in the scaling of A L vs A X with an exponent of b = 0.58 across European climates irrespective of species. Branches of slow-growing trees from Northern and Southern regions preferentially allocated into new leaf rather than xylem area, with older xylem rings contributing to maintaining total xylem conductivity. In conclusion, trees in contrasting climates adjust their functional balance between water transport and leaf transpiration by maintaining biomass allocation to leaves, and adjusting their growth rate and xylem production to maintain xylem conductance. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Declarative virtual water maze learning and emotional fear conditioning in primary insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Marion; Hertenstein, Elisabeth; Feige, Bernd; Landmann, Nina; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Baglioni, Chiara; Hemmerling, Johanna; Durand, Diana; Frase, Lukas; Klöppel, Stefan; Riemann, Dieter; Nissen, Christoph

    2018-05-02

    Healthy sleep restores the brain's ability to adapt to novel input through memory formation based on activity-dependent refinements of the strength of neural transmission across synapses (synaptic plasticity). In line with this framework, patients with primary insomnia often report subjective memory impairment. However, investigations of memory performance did not produce conclusive results. The aim of this study was to further investigate memory performance in patients with primary insomnia in comparison to healthy controls, using two well-characterized learning tasks, a declarative virtual water maze task and emotional fear conditioning. Twenty patients with primary insomnia according to DSM-IV criteria (17 females, three males, 43.5 ± 13.0 years) and 20 good sleeper controls (17 females, three males, 41.7 ± 12.8 years) were investigated in a parallel-group study. All participants completed a hippocampus-dependent virtual Morris water maze task and amygdala-dependent classical fear conditioning. Patients with insomnia showed significantly delayed memory acquisition in the virtual water maze task, but no significant difference in fear acquisition compared with controls. These findings are consistent with the notion that memory processes that emerge from synaptic refinements in a hippocampal-neocortical network are particularly sensitive to chronic disruptions of sleep, while those in a basic emotional amygdala-dependent network may be more resilient. © 2018 European Sleep Research Society.

  16. Research and Development Projects with ICT and students as learning designers in Primary Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Karin; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm; Tosca, Susana

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present some methodological challenges that emerged during the process of shaping the research design for the comprehensive and complex research project Children as learning designers in a digital school. The project is the realization of our proposal to a research call from...... to the need to strengthen the populations’ digital literacy and 21st century competencies. The call’s scope was research and development projects as pilot school experiments in relation to five selected areas. The selected projects should contribute with new generalizable and practice oriented knowledge...... of how: • ICT supports students learning, • ICT release time for more teaching, and • teachers digital literacy impact on the role of ICT in the educational practice. Further the call required collaboration between universities and university colleges in order to disseminate knowledge and new practices...

  17. Concurrent TMS to the primary motor cortex augments slow motor learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, Shalini; Zhang, Wei; Rogers, William; Strickland, Casey; Franklin, Crystal; Lancaster, Jack L.; Fox, Peter T.

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has shown promise as a treatment tool, with one FDA approved use. While TMS alone is able to up- (or down-) regulate a targeted neural system, we argue that TMS applied as an adjuvant is more effective for repetitive physical, behavioral and cognitive therapies, that is, therapies which are designed to alter the network properties of neural systems through Hebbian learning. We tested this hypothesis in the context of a slow motor learning paradigm. Healthy right-handed individuals were assigned to receive 5 Hz TMS (TMS group) or sham TMS (sham group) to the right primary motor cortex (M1) as they performed daily motor practice of a digit sequence task with their non-dominant hand for 4 weeks. Resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured by H215O PET at baseline and after 4 weeks of practice. Sequence performance was measured daily as the number of correct sequences performed, and modeled using a hyperbolic function. Sequence performance increased significantly at 4 weeks relative to baseline in both groups. The TMS group had a significant additional improvement in performance, specifically, in the rate of skill acquisition. In both groups, an improvement in sequence timing and transfer of skills to non-trained motor domains was also found. Compared to the sham group, the TMS group demonstrated increases in resting CBF specifically in regions known to mediate skill learning namely, the M1, cingulate cortex, putamen, hippocampus, and cerebellum. These results indicate that TMS applied concomitantly augments behavioral effects of motor practice, with corresponding neural plasticity in motor sequence learning network. These findings are the first demonstration of the behavioral and neural enhancing effects of TMS on slow motor practice and have direct application in neurorehabilitation where TMS could be applied in conjunction with physical therapy. PMID:23867557

  18. Ventral Tegmental Area and Substantia Nigra Neural Correlates of Spatial Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martig, Adria K.; Mizumori, Sheri J. Y.

    2011-01-01

    The ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) may provide modulatory signals that, respectively, influence hippocampal (HPC)- and striatal-dependent memory. Electrophysiological studies investigating neural correlates of learning and memory of dopamine (DA) neurons during classical conditioning tasks have found DA…

  19. Innovative Work Practices and Lessons Learned at the N Area Deactivation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    This report identifies many of the lessons learned, innovations,and effective work practices that derived from activities supporting the N Area Deactivation Project at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site. The work practices discussed in this report may be applicable and beneficial to similar projects throughout the DOE complex

  20. Role of the area postrema in radiation-induced taste aversion learning and emesis in cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.; Chedester, A.L.; Lee, J.

    1986-01-01

    The role of the area postrema in radiation-induced emesis and taste aversion learning and the relationship between these behaviors were studied in cats. The potential involvement of neural factors which might be independent of the area postrema was minimized by using low levels of ionizing radiation (100 rads at a dose rate of 40 rads/min) to elicit a taste aversion, and by using body-only exposures (4500 and 6000 rads at 450 rads/min) to produce emesis. Lesions of the area postrema disrupted both taste aversion learning and emesis following irradiation. These results, which indicate that the area postrema is involved in the mediation of both radiation-induced emesis and taste aversion learning in cats under these experimental conditions, are interpreted as being consistent with the hypotheses that similar mechanisms mediate both responses to exposure to ionizing radiation, and that the taste aversion learning paradigm can therefore serve as a model system for studying radiation-induced emesis

  1. Pre-service primary school teachers' beliefs about learning and teaching english in the first cycle of primary school

    OpenAIRE

    Pratnemer, Manja

    2017-01-01

    When speaking about the appropriate age for the beginning of L2 learning, experts' opinions slightly differ, but mostly they specify the time to start learning L2 from the age of 4 to the age of 8 (Marjanovič Umek, 2009). In the literature we can find many reasons for starting to learn a foreign language at an early age, but most popular is the critical period hypothesis that claims that there is an ideal time window to acquire language in a linguistically rich environment, after which furth...

  2. EVALUATION OF PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY AT THE WILDLIFE PROTECTED AREA, "NEVADO DE TOLUCA" MEXICO, DURING THE DRY SEASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Martínez-Hernández

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report on grassland primary productivity for the wildlife protected area Nevado de Toluca (APFF Nevado de Toluca. We evaluated three communities in this area during dry season: Loma Alta, La Peñuela y Agua Blanca. Following Hodgson (1994, for this study we used exclusion cages. Vegetation was cut every 28 days during a five months sampling period. A randomized block design was used, where the blocks represented the grassland communities and the different months constituted treatments. The month of September showed the higher production (610.3 kg/ha DM. No significant differences were observed among communities (P >0.05. In conclusion, these communities have similar low primary productivity through the evaluation dry season months, which in addition was found lower in comparison to other areas, therefore livestock grazing in this region should be limited this season.

  3. Improved Discriminability of Spatiotemporal Neural Patterns in Rat Motor Cortical Areas as Directional Choice Learning Progresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei eMao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Animals learn to choose a proper action among alternatives to improve their odds of success in food foraging and other activities critical for survival. Through trial-and-error, they learn correct associations between their choices and external stimuli. While a neural network that underlies such learning process has been identified at a high level, it is still unclear how individual neurons and a neural ensemble adapt as learning progresses. In this study, we monitored the activity of single units in the rat medial and lateral agranular (AGm and AGl, respectively areas as rats learned to make a left or right side lever press in response to a left or right side light cue. We noticed that rat movement parameters during the performance of the directional choice task quickly became stereotyped during the first 2-3 days or sessions. But learning the directional choice problem took weeks to occur. Accompanying rats’ behavioral performance adaptation, we observed neural modulation by directional choice in recorded single units. Our analysis shows that ensemble mean firing rates in the cue-on period did not change significantly as learning progressed, and the ensemble mean rate difference between left and right side choices did not show a clear trend of change either. However, the spatiotemporal firing patterns of the neural ensemble exhibited improved discriminability between the two directional choices through learning. These results suggest a spatiotemporal neural coding scheme in a motor cortical neural ensemble that may be responsible for and contributing to learning the directional choice task.

  4. Availability of books as a factor in reading, teaching and learning behaviour in twenty disadvantaged primary schools in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Nassimbeni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research project was to investigate the effects of the provision of story books in twenty disadvantaged primary schools in rural South Africa. The recipients of the donation were children in deprived areas, growing up in printpoor environments. The programme theory of the donor organisation, Biblionef, is that access to attractive ageappropriate books will have beneficial effects such as improved literacy skills, the promotion of confidence and improvement in learning. A qualitative approach was adopted to collect data before the intervention, and six months after the book donation, which included a comprehensive training programme in the use of the books. During the site visits, observation schedules were used; also focus groups of both teachers and children. We were able to chart impact in a number of areas such as improved availability and use of books in fifteen of the schools, with respect to both classroom activities and voluntary reading. In five schools there was no appreciable change. We recommend that innovation in teaching approaches associated with the use of books should be accompanied by careful training, and benign monitoring.

  5. Access to primary care for socio-economically disadvantaged older people in rural areas: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, John A; Turley, Rachel; Porter, Tom; Shakespeare, Tom; Wong, Geoff; Jones, Andy P; Steel, Nick

    2018-01-01

    We aim to explore the barriers to accessing primary care for socio-economically disadvantaged older people in rural areas. Using a community recruitment strategy, fifteen people over 65 years, living in a rural area, and receiving financial support were recruited for semi-structured interviews. Four focus groups were held with rural health professionals. Interviews and focus groups were audio-recorded and transcribed. Thematic analysis was used to identify barriers to primary care access. Older people's experience can be understood within the context of a patient perceived set of unwritten rules or social contract-an individual is careful not to bother the doctor in return for additional goodwill when they become unwell. However, most found it difficult to access primary care due to engaged telephone lines, availability of appointments, interactions with receptionists; breaching their perceived social contract. This left some feeling unwelcome, worthless or marginalised, especially those with high expectations of the social contract or limited resources, skills and/or desire to adapt to service changes. Health professionals' described how rising demands and expectations coupled with service constraints had necessitated service development, such as fewer home visits, more telephone consultations, triaging calls and modifying the appointment system. Multiple barriers to accessing primary care exist for this group. As primary care is re-organised to reduce costs, commissioners and practitioners must not lose sight of the perceived social contract and models of care that form the basis of how many older people interact with the service.

  6. Family influences on breakfast frequency and quality among primary school pupils in Warsaw and its surrounding areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska, Monika; Hamułka, Jadwiga; Gajda, Karolina

    2015-01-01

    Regular consumption of a well balanced breakfast is a pre-requisite for normal growth and child development, along with the acquisition of proper eating habits. The family environment is crucial place where children learn such patterns of behaviour that form the basis for their development. To determine how family factors affect the regular eating of breakfast and types of foodstuffs consumed in primary school pupils, including food purchases made from vending machines and school tuck shops. Subjects were 836 pupils (435 girls and 401 boys, aged 6 - 13) from Warsaw and the surrounding areas. Appropriate socio-demographic data and relevant eating habits were obtained from direct interviewing of the subjects by means of a custom designed questionnaire. Statistical analyses were performed by the Kohonen type cluster analysis model and Chi-square test (Chi(2)); (p≤0.05). Three clusters of pupils were identified by their differing socio-demographics and eating habits (eg. rates of breakfast consumption, buying from vending machines or school tuck shops). The first and third clusters were mainly pupils from two-parent families with parents proportionally spending similar times at work, where respective breakfast (87% and 91%) and second breakfast (77% and 72%) consumption rates were also similar together with food shopping rates during school time (respectively 69% and 63%). Pupils with single-parents, multi-generation families or if both parents were profession- ally active, predominated in the second cluster. These ate breakfast (73%) and second breakfast (67%) more rarely, but more frequently shopped for food at school (84%). A small number of pupils had a packed second breakfast from home, rarely ate sandwiches, fruit and/or vegetables and dairy products but ate more sweets, sweet rolls and savoury snacks. However, a large number of subjects bought sandwiches, fresh fruit and/or vegetables and fast-food at school. Family factors were found to affect eating habits

  7. Development of microbial community during primary succession in areas degraded by mining activities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Harantová, L.; Mudrák, Ondřej; Kohout, Petr; Elhottová, D.; Frouz, J.; Baldrian, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 8 (2017), s. 2574-2584 ISSN 1085-3278 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : plant‐soil interactions * postmining sites * primary succession Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 9.787, year: 2016

  8. Mobile Devices and Apps as Scaffolds to Science Learning in the Primary Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falloon, Garry

    2017-12-01

    Considerable work over many years has explored the contribution technology can make to science learning, at all levels of education. In the school sector, historically this has focused on the use of fixed, desktop-based or semi-mobile laptop systems for purposes such as experiment data collection or analysis, or as a means of engaging or motivating interest in science. However, the advent of mobile devices such as iPads supported by a huge array of low or no cost apps, means that new opportunities are becoming available for teachers to explore how these resources may be useful for supporting `hands on' science learning. This article reports outcomes from a study of primary (elementary) school students' use of a series of apps integrated with practical science activities, in a topic exploring Energy concepts. It used an innovative display capture tool to examine how the students used the apps and features of their iPads to scaffold their practical work at different stages during the experiments. Results identify device functions and app-based scaffolds that assisted these students to structure their experiments, understand procedures, think about the influence of variables and communicate and share outcomes. However, they also discovered limitations in the apps' ability to support conceptual knowledge development, identifying the critical role of teachers and the importance of task structure and design to ensuring conceptual knowledge objectives are met.

  9. Retrieval Practice, with or without Mind Mapping, Boosts Fact Learning in Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Stuart J.; Della Sala, Sergio; McIntosh, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Retrieval practice is a method of study in which testing is incorporated into the learning process. This method is known to facilitate recall for facts in adults and in secondary-school-age children, but existing studies in younger children are somewhat limited in their practical applicability. In two studies of primary school-age children of 8–12 years, we tested retrieval practice along with another study technique, mind mapping, which is more widely-used, but less well-evidenced. Children studied novel geographical facts, with or without retrieval practice and with or without mind mapping, in a crossed-factorial between-subjects design. In Experiment 1, children in the retrieval practice condition recalled significantly more facts four days later. In Experiment 2, this benefit was replicated at one and five weeks in a different, larger sample of schoolchildren. No consistent effects of mind mapping were observed. These results underline the effectiveness of retrieval practice for fact learning in young children. PMID:24265738

  10. Prevalence of specific learning disabilities among primary school children in a South Indian city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogasale, Vijayalaxmi V; Patil, Vishwanath D; Patil, Nanasaheb M; Mogasale, Vittal

    2012-03-01

    To measure the prevalence of specific learning disabilities (SpLDs) such as dyslexia, dysgraphia and dyscalculia among primary school children in a South Indian city. A cross-sectional multi-staged stratified randomized cluster sampling study was conducted among children aged 8-11 years from third and fourth standard. A six level screening approach that commenced with identification of scholastic backwardness followed by stepwise exclusion of impaired vision and hearing, chronic medical conditions and subnormal intelligence was carried out among these children. In the final step, the remaining children were subjected to specific tests for reading, comprehension, writing and mathematical calculation. The prevalence of specific learning disabilities was 15.17% in sampled children, whereas 12.5%, 11.2% and 10.5% had dysgraphia, dyslexia and dyscalculia respectively. This study suggests that the prevalence of SpLDs is at the higher side of previous estimations in India. The study is unique due to its large geographically representative design and identification of the problem using simplified screening approach and tools, which minimizes the number and time of specialist requirement and spares the expensive investigation. This approach and tools are suitable for field situations and resource scarce settings. Based on the authors' experience, they express the need for more prevalence studies, remedial education and policy interventions to manage SpLDs at main stream educational system to improve the school performance in Indian children.

  11. Creating better doctors: exploring the value of learning medicine in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbronner, Elizabeth; Borthwick, Rachel; Finn, Gabrielle; Scales, Michael; Pearson, David

    2017-07-01

    Across the UK, 13% of undergraduate medical education is undertaken in primary care (PC). Students value their experiences in this setting but uncertainty remains about the extent to which these placements influence their future practice. To explore the impact of PC based undergraduate medical education on the development of medical students and new doctors as clinicians, and on students' preparedness for practice. Mixed method study across two UK medical schools. Focus groups and individual interviews with Year 5 medical students, Foundation Year 2 doctors and GP Specialty Trainees; online surveys of Year 5 medical students and Foundation Year 2 doctors. PC placements play an important part in the development of all 'apprentice' doctors, not just those wanting to become GPs. They provide a high quality learning environment, where students can: gradually take on responsibility; build confidence; develop empathy in their approach to patient care; and gain understanding of the social context of health and illness. The study suggests that for these results to be achieved, PC placements have to be high quality, with strong links between practice-based learning and teaching/assessment in medical school. GP tutors need to be enthusiastic and students actively involved in consultations.

  12. Dynamic assessment of word learning skills of pre-school children with primary language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Bernard; Law, James

    2014-10-01

    Dynamic assessment has been shown to have considerable theoretical and clinical significance in the assessment of socially disadvantaged and culturally and linguistically diverse children. In this study it is used to enhance assessment of pre-school children with primary language impairment. The purpose of the study was to determine whether a dynamic assessment (DA) has the potential to enhance the predictive capacity of a static measure of receptive vocabulary in pre-school children. Forty pre-school children were assessed using the static British Picture Vocabulary Scale (BPVS), a DA of word learning potential and an assessment of non-verbal cognitive ability. Thirty-seven children were followed up 6 months later and re-assessed using the BPVS. Although the predictive capacity of the static measure was found to be substantial, the DA increased this significantly especially for children with static scores below the 25th centile. The DA of children's word learning has the potential to add value to the static assessment of the child with low language skills, to predict subsequent receptive vocabulary skills and to increase the chance of correctly identifying children in need of ongoing support.

  13. Cultural entrainment of motor skill development: Learning to write hiragana in Japanese primary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Tetsushi

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine how the social norms shared in a classroom environment influence the development of movement dynamics of handwriting of children who participate in the environment. To look into this issue, the following aspects of the entire period of classroom learning of hiragana letters in Japanese 1st graders who had just entered primary school were studied: First, the structure of classroom events and the specific types of interaction and learning within such environment were described. Second, in the experiment involving 6-year-old children who participated in the class, writing movements of children and their changes over the period of hiragana education were analyzed for each stroke composing letters. It was found that writing movement of children became differentiated in a manner specific to the different types of stroke endings, to which children were systematically encouraged to attend in the classroom. The results provide a detailed description of the process of how dynamics of fine motor movement of children is modulated by the social norms of a populated, classroom environment in a non-Latin alphabet writing system. © 2017 The Authors. Developmental Psychobiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. STUDENTS’ PERCEPTION ABOUT CLINICAL LEARNING ENVIRONMENT IN THE PRIMARY, SECONDARY AND TERTIARY MEDICAL FACILITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Dewi, Dian Puspita; Rahayu, Gandes Retno; Kristina, Tri Nur

    2018-01-01

    Background: Learning environment is an important factor in learning process and can affect students' competence and work-readiness. Learning environment is not only about physical facilities but also social and psychological condition. The complexity of clinical learning environments pose challenges and problems that may affect students learning process so it is necessary to monitoring and evaluating students learning environments. This study aims to assess students' perception of their learn...

  15. Interprofessional Workplace Learning in Primary Care: Students from Different Health Professions Work in Teams in Real-Life Settings

    OpenAIRE

    Bondevik, Gunnar Tschudi; Holst, Lone; Haugland, Mildrid; Bærheim, Anders; Raaheim, Arild

    2015-01-01

    Interprofessional education may be defined as an occasion when two or more professions learn with, from, and about each other in order to improve collaboration and quality of care. We studied the self-reported experiences from Norwegian health care students participating in interprofessional workplace learning in primary care. We discuss the results particularly in light of self-determination theory. During 2012, 24 students from eight different health educations at the University of Bergen a...

  16. Challenges in interdisciplinary weight management in primary care: lessons learned from the 5As Team study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselin, J; Osunlana, A M; Ogunleye, A A; Sharma, A M; Campbell-Scherer, D

    2016-04-01

    Increasingly, research is directed at advancing methods to address obesity management in primary care. In this paper we describe the role of interdisciplinary collaboration, or lack thereof, in patient weight management within 12 teams in a large primary care network in Alberta, Canada. Qualitative data for the present analysis were derived from the 5As Team (5AsT) trial, a mixed-method randomized control trial of a 6-month participatory, team-based educational intervention aimed at improving the quality and quantity of obesity management encounters in primary care practice. Participants (n = 29) included in this analysis are healthcare providers supporting chronic disease management in 12 family practice clinics randomized to the intervention arm of the 5AsT trial including mental healthcare workers (n = 7), registered dietitians (n = 7), registered nurses or nurse practitioners (n = 15). Participants were part of a 6-month intervention consisting of 12 biweekly learning sessions aimed at increasing provider knowledge and confidence in addressing patient weight management. Qualitative methods included interviews, structured field notes and logs. Four common themes of importance in the ability of healthcare providers to address weight with patients within an interdisciplinary care team emerged, (i) Availability; (ii) Referrals; (iii) Role perception and (iv) Messaging. However, we find that what was key to our participants was not that these issues be uniformly agreed upon by all team members, but rather that communication and clinic relationships support their continued negotiation. Our study shows that firm clinic relationships and deliberate communication strategies are the foundation of interdisciplinary care in weight management. Furthermore, there is a clear need for shared messaging concerning obesity and its treatment between members of interdisciplinary teams. © 2016 World Obesity.

  17. Improving Students' Transfer of Learning among Subject Areas through the Use of an Integrated Curriculum and Alternative Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boidy, Tish; Moran, Michelle

    An intervention program sought to improve third- and fifth- grade students' ability to transfer learning among subject areas and to apply their learning to everyday occurrences. Surveys and interviews revealed the lack of student transference of knowledge among subject areas; teacher surveys and an interview with the curriculum director provided…

  18. Development of microbial community during primary succession in areas degraded by mining activities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Harantová, Lenka; Mudrák, O.; Kohout, Petr; Elhottová, Dana; Frouz, J.; Baldrian, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 8 (2017), s. 2574-2584 ISSN 1085-3278 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-11635S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : plant-soil interactions * postmining sites * primary succession Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology; EE - Microbiology, Virology (BC-A) OBOR OECD: Microbiology; Microbiology (BC-A) Impact factor: 9.787, year: 2016

  19. The impact of family planning on primary school enrolment in sub-national areas within 25 African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longwe, Abiba; Smits, Jeroen

    2013-06-01

    We study how the availability and use of family planning services in African countries influences the family planning situation of households and through this the educational participation of young children. A district panel dataset is used for 441 urban and rural areas within 233 districts of 25 countries. Path analysis shows that a decrease in the number of births is associated with an increase in educational participation in the area. The number of births is negatively associated with acceptance, knowledge and actual use of contraceptives in the area. As reversed causality and selection bias seem unlikely, the identified relationship probably is at least partially causal. Hence, investments in family planning services in poor areas are not only important because they allow women to plan their births better, but also because they may lead to higher primary enrolment rates and thus contribute to the region's future economic growth.

  20. Training teachers to teach mental health skills to staff in primary care settings in a vast, under-populated area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, D P; Gask, L; Zakroyeva, A; Proselkova, E; Ryzhkova, N; Williams, P

    2012-12-01

    Background The Arkhangelsk Oblast is an area the size of France with a sparsely distributed population. The existing primary care staff have had very little training in the management of mental health disorders, despite the frequency of these disorders in the population. They requested special teaching on depression, suicide, somatisation and alcohol problems. Methods An educational intervention was developed in partnership with mental health and primary care staff in Russia, to develop mental health skills using established, evidence-based methods. After a preliminary demonstration of teaching methods to be employed, a 5-day full-time teaching course was offered to trainers of general practitioners and feldshers. Results The findings are presented by providing details of improvements that occurred over a 3-month period in four areas, namely depression in primary care, somatic presentations of distress, dealing with suicidal patients, and alcohol problems. We present preliminary data on how the training has generalised since our visits to Archangelsk. Conclusions Teachers who are used to teaching by didactic lectures can be taught the value of short introductory talks that invite discussion, and mental health skills can be taught using role play. The content of such training should be driven by perceived local needs, and developed in conjunction with local leaders and teachers within primary care services. Further research will be needed to establish the impact on clinical outcomes.

  1. PREZICEREA PERFORMANŢELOR STUDENŢILOR FOLOSIND ÎNVĂŢAREA AUTOMATĂ (Machine Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria CRISTEI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available În prezent, învăţarea automată (machine learning ocupă un loc important în inteligenţa artificială, preocupându-se de dezvoltarea algoritmilor ce permit unui sistem informatic să înveţe date, reguli şi algoritmi. Învăţarea automată pre­supune în primul rând identificarea şi implementarea unei modalităţi cât mai eficiente de reprezentare a informaţiilor, în sensul facilitării căutării, reorganizării şi modificării acestora. În acest sens, în prezentul articol se descrie utilitatea şi aplicabilitatea tehnicilor de învăţare automată supervizată la problemele de predicţie şi implementarea acestora în dez­vol­tarea aplicaţiilor informatice. Aplicaţia elaborată este unică prin felul ei de executare a modelului machine learning de predicţie. Metodologia folosită în aplicaţia elaborată este mixtă, cuprinzând tehnologii complexe de ultimă oră: mediul de dezvoltare Jupyter Notebook, limbajul de programare Python împreună cu cele mai populare librării ale acestuia utilizate în machine learning, instrumente de dezvoltare a aplicaţiei web Flask.PREDICTING STUDENT PERFORMANCE USING MACHINE LEARNINGAt present, machine learning occupies an important place in artificial intelligence, and is concerned with the development of algorithms that allow an information system to learn data, rules, and algorithms. Automatic learning involves first and foremost the identification and implementation of a more efficient way of representing information in order to facilitate search, reorganization and change. In this respect, this article describes the utility and applicability of supervised auto­mated learning techniques to prediction problems and their implementation in the development of computer applications. The elaborate application is unique in its way of executing the Machine learning prediction model. The methodology used in the developed application is mixed, including state-of-the-art complex

  2. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1H-MRS reveals geniculocalcarine and striate area degeneration in primary glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glaucoma is a collection of neurodegenerative diseases that affect both the retina and the central visual pathway. We investigated whether metabolites' concentrations changed in the geniculocalcarine (GCT and the striate area of occipital lobe by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1H-MRS, suggesting neurodegeneration of the central visual pathway in primary glaucoma. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 20 patients with glaucoma in both eyes were paired with 20 healthy volunteers in same gender and an age difference less than 3 years. All the participants were examined by MR imaging including T1 Flair, T2 FSE and (1H-MRS. The T1 intensity and T2 intensity of their GCTs and striate areas were measured. The ratio of N-acetylaspartate (NAA/Creatine (Cr, Choline (Cho/Cr, glutamine and glutamate (Glx/Cr were derived by multi-voxels (1H-MRS in the GCT and the striate area of each brain hemisphere. The T1 intensity and T2 intensity had no difference between the groups. Significant decreases in NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr but no difference in Glx/Cr was found between the groups in both the GCT and the striate area. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Primary glaucoma affects metabolites' concentrations in the GCT and the striate area suggesting there is ongoing neurodegenerative process.

  3. [Teaching and learning the science of qualitative research in the health area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Carlos

    2012-03-01

    Qualitative research constitutes a necessary perspective of knowledge within the field of health services. Healthcare always occurs in complex contexts and its enhancement requires research methodologies that address this complexity. Nevertheless, the knowledge and use of qualitative research in health services is still very limited. Among the different factors that affect its development, the teaching and learning of qualitative research proves to be fundamental, even beyond undergraduate education. Healthcare professionals and health services present certain specific aspects that must be considered in the design and development of the teaching and learning of qualitative research. Based on an eight-year online training experience with Primary Healthcare professionals, the main challenges are indentified and discussed.

  4. Designing Multimodal User-Interfaces for Effective E-Learning in the School Primary Stages Applied on Real Fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salaheddin Odeh

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution focuses on the development and design of e-learning tools for school students in primary stages through dealing and considering the math of real fractions, which presents an example of learning material difficult to understand by many school students and a real challenge for e-learning designers and multimedia authoring. Firstly, we will highlight several problems facing school students and teachers caused by the traditional learning approach. Then, we are going to discuss some aspects related to e-learning, the major theoretical issues of educational psychology and e-learning with various modalities related to our work, and the classification of the interactive multimedia methodologies adopted in this work. Furthermore, the software-ergonomic and –architectural features of the developed e-learning tool will be introduced. Finally, the paper will conclude with a brief summary of a usability testing carried out to compare the developed e-learning user-interface with the traditional learning approach.

  5. Integrating Various Apps on BYOD (Bring Your Own Device) into Seamless Inquiry-Based Learning to Enhance Primary Students' Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yanjie; Wen, Yun

    2018-01-01

    Despite that BYOD (Bring Your Own Device) technology model has been increasingly adopted in education, few studies have been reported on how to integrate various apps on BYOD into inquiry-based pedagogical practices in primary schools. This article reports a case study, examining what apps on BYOD can help students enhance their science learning,…

  6. Anomaly detection in wide area network mesh using two machine learning anomaly detection algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, James; Vukotic, Ilija; Gardner, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Anomaly detection is the practice of identifying items or events that do not conform to an expected behavior or do not correlate with other items in a dataset. It has previously been applied to areas such as intrusion detection, system health monitoring, and fraud detection in credit card transactions. In this paper, we describe a new method for detecting anomalous behavior over network performance data, gathered by perfSONAR, using two machine learning algorithms: Boosted Decision Trees (BDT...

  7. Mapping Burned Areas in Tropical Forests Using a Novel Machine Learning Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Varun Mithal; Guruprasad Nayak; Ankush Khandelwal; Vipin Kumar; Ramakrishna Nemani; Nikunj C. Oza

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents an application of a novel machine-learning framework on MODIS (moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer) data to map burned areas over tropical forests of South America and South-east Asia. The RAPT (RAre Class Prediction in the absence of True labels) framework is able to build data adaptive classification models using noisy training labels. It is particularly suitable when expert annotated training samples are difficult to obtain as in the case of wild fires in the ...

  8. Identification of Learning Management Systems Functional Areas and Limitations (Case Study: E-Learning Center of University of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali akbar Farhangi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, ICT and educational processes are experiencing development and innovation. This new trend will help promote educational technology and enhance innovations regarding educational planning. E-learning is considered as one of the most prominent ICT applications across the world. Advantages of virtual learning have entailed daily usage in various universities. Learning management systems are specific web-based systems to manage, track students, define courses, and evaluate the learners. However, these systems may involve inefficiencies and disadvantages as well. This paper attempts to identify the LMS functional areas in University of Tehran based on a specific conceptual framework and to present the relevant issues and problems for each dimension. The data for the present study were collected using focused group interviews, system observations. The researchers also compared the documents and the university system with that of other universities. The results of the theme analysis indicated that “communication” and “system cooperation” dimensions are involved with more important problems and issues. The researchers believe that the main issues are due to the test modules, evaluations, and systemic and underlying databases.

  9. Price Transparency in Primary Care: Can Patients Learn About Costs When Scheduling an Appointment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saloner, Brendan; Cope, Lisa Clemans; Hempstead, Katherine; Rhodes, Karin V; Polsky, Daniel; Kenney, Genevieve M

    2017-07-01

    Cost-sharing in health insurance plans creates incentives for patients to shop for lower prices, but it is unknown what price information patients can obtain when scheduling office visits. To determine whether new patients can obtain price information for a primary care visit and identify variation across insurance types, offices, and geographic areas. Simulated patient methodology in which trained interviewers posed as non-elderly adults seeking new patient primary care appointments. Caller insurance type (employer-sponsored insurance [ESI], Marketplace, or uninsured) and plan were experimentally manipulated. Callers who were offered a visit asked for price information. Unadjusted means and regression-adjusted differences by insurance, office types, and geography were calculated. Calls to a representative sample of primary care offices in ten states in 2014: Arkansas, Georgia, Iowa, Illinois, Massachusetts, Montana, New Jersey, Oregon, Pennsylvania, and Texas (N = 7865). Callers recorded whether they were able to obtain a price. If not, they recorded whether they were referred to other sources for price information. Overall, 61.8% of callers with ESI were able to obtain a price, versus 89.2% of uninsured and 47.3% of Marketplace callers (P information was also more readily available in small offices and in counties with high uninsured rates. Among callers not receiving a price, 72.1% of callers with ESI were referred to other sources (billing office or insurance company), versus 25.8% of uninsured and 50.9% of Marketplace callers (P information is often unavailable for privately insured patients seeking primary care visits at the time a visit is scheduled.

  10. Game-Based Learning: Increasing the Logical-Mathematical, Naturalistic, and Linguistic Learning Levels of Primary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Moral Pérez, M. Esther; Duque, Alba P. Guzmán; García, L. Carlota Fernández

    2018-01-01

    Game-based learning is an innovative methodology that takes advantage of the educational potential offered by videogames in general and serious games in particular to boost training processes, thus making it easier for users to achieve motivated learning. The present paper focuses on the description of the Game to Learn Project, which has as its…

  11. Exploring levers and barriers to accessing primary care for marginalised groups and identifying their priorities for primary care provision: a participatory learning and action research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Patrick; Tierney, Edel; O'Carroll, Austin; Nurse, Diane; MacFarlane, Anne

    2016-12-03

    The involvement of patients and the public in healthcare has grown significantly in recent decades and is documented in health policy documents internationally. Many benefits of involving these groups in primary care planning have been reported. However, these benefits are rarely felt by those considered marginalised in society and they are often excluded from participating in the process of planning primary care. It has been recommended to employ suitable approaches, such as co-operative and participatory initiatives, to enable marginalised groups to highlight their priorities for care. This Participatory Learning and Action (PLA) research study involved 21 members of various marginalised groups who contributed their views about access to primary care. Using a series of PLA techniques for data generation and co-analysis, we explored barriers and facilitators to primary healthcare access from the perspective of migrants, Irish Travellers, homeless people, drug users, sex workers and people living in deprivation, and identified their priorities for action with regard to primary care provision. Four overarching themes were identified: the home environment, the effects of the 'two-tier' healthcare system on engagement, healthcare encounters, and the complex health needs of many in those groups. The study demonstrates that there are many complicated personal and structural barriers to accessing primary healthcare for marginalised groups. There were shared and differential experiences across the groups. Participants also expressed shared priorities for action in the planning and running of primary care services. Members of marginalised groups have shared priorities for action to improve their access to primary care. If steps are taken to address these, there is scope to impact on more than one marginalised group and to address the existing health inequities.

  12. Effects of Improving Primary Health Care Workers' Knowledge About Public Health Services in Rural China: A Comparative Study of Blended Learning and Pure E-Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xingxin; Zhang, Zhixia; Sun, Fang; Liu, Qian; Peng, Weijun; Zhang, Heng; Yan, Weirong

    2017-05-01

    Primary health care workers (PHCWs) are a major force in delivering basic public health services (BPHS) in rural China. It is necessary to take effective training approaches to improve PHCWs' competency on BPHS. Both electronic learning (e-learning) and blended learning have been widely used in the health workers' education. However, there is limited evidence on the effects of blended learning in comparison with pure e-learning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a blended-learning approach for rural PHCWs in improving their knowledge about BPHS as well as training satisfaction in comparison with a pure e-learning approach. The study was conducted among PHCWs in 6 rural counties of Hubei Province, China, between August 2013 and April 2014. Three counties were randomly allocated blended-learning courses (29 township centers or 612 PHCWs-the experimental group), and three counties were allocated pure e-learning courses (31 township centers or 625 PHCWs-the control group). Three course modules were administered for 5 weeks, with assessments at baseline and postcourse. Primary outcomes were score changes in courses' knowledge. Secondary outcome was participant satisfaction (5-point Likert scale anchored between 1 [strongly agree] and 5 [strongly disagree]). The experimental group had higher mean scores than the control group in knowledge achievement in three course modules: (1) module 1: 93.21 (95% CI 92.49-93.93) in experimental group versus 88.29 (95% CI 87.19-89.40) in the control group; adjusted difference, 4.92 (95% CI 2.61-7.24; Plearning group gave more positive responses with the four issues than control group participants: (1) the increase of interest in learning, 1.85 (95% CI 1.22-2.80; P=.003); (2) the increase of interaction with others, 1.77 (95% CI 1.20-2.60; P=.004); (3) the satisfaction with learning experience, 1.78 (95% CI 1.11-2.88; P=.02); and (4) achievement of learning objectives, 1.63 (95% CI 1.08-2.48; P=.02). Among PHCWs in

  13. Effects of Improving Primary Health Care Workers’ Knowledge About Public Health Services in Rural China: A Comparative Study of Blended Learning and Pure E-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xingxin; Zhang, Zhixia; Sun, Fang; Liu, Qian; Peng, Weijun; Zhang, Heng

    2017-01-01

    Background Primary health care workers (PHCWs) are a major force in delivering basic public health services (BPHS) in rural China. It is necessary to take effective training approaches to improve PHCWs’ competency on BPHS. Both electronic learning (e-learning) and blended learning have been widely used in the health workers’ education. However, there is limited evidence on the effects of blended learning in comparison with pure e-learning. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a blended-learning approach for rural PHCWs in improving their knowledge about BPHS as well as training satisfaction in comparison with a pure e-learning approach. Methods The study was conducted among PHCWs in 6 rural counties of Hubei Province, China, between August 2013 and April 2014. Three counties were randomly allocated blended-learning courses (29 township centers or 612 PHCWs—the experimental group), and three counties were allocated pure e-learning courses (31 township centers or 625 PHCWs—the control group). Three course modules were administered for 5 weeks, with assessments at baseline and postcourse. Primary outcomes were score changes in courses’ knowledge. Secondary outcome was participant satisfaction (5-point Likert scale anchored between 1 [strongly agree] and 5 [strongly disagree]). Results The experimental group had higher mean scores than the control group in knowledge achievement in three course modules: (1) module 1: 93.21 (95% CI 92.49-93.93) in experimental group versus 88.29 (95% CI 87.19-89.40) in the control group; adjusted difference, 4.92 (95% CI 2.61-7.24; Plearning group gave more positive responses with the four issues than control group participants: (1) the increase of interest in learning, 1.85 (95% CI 1.22-2.80; P=.003); (2) the increase of interaction with others, 1.77 (95% CI 1.20-2.60; P=.004); (3) the satisfaction with learning experience, 1.78 (95% CI 1.11-2.88; P=.02); and (4) achievement of learning objectives, 1

  14. Adaptation and validation of the instrument Clinical Learning Environment and Supervision for medical students in primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Öhman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical learning takes place in complex socio-cultural environments that are workplaces for the staff and learning places for the students. In the clinical context, the students learn by active participation and in interaction with the rest of the community at the workplace. Clinical learning occurs outside the university, therefore is it important for both the university and the student that the student is given opportunities to evaluate the clinical placements with an instrument that allows evaluation from many perspectives. The instrument Clinical Learning Environment and Supervision (CLES was originally developed for evaluation of nursing students’ clinical learning environment. The aim of this study was to adapt and validate the CLES instrument to measure medical students’ perceptions of their learning environment in primary health care. Methods In the adaptation process the face validity was tested by an expert panel of primary care physicians, who were also active clinical supervisors. The adapted CLES instrument with 25 items and six background questions was sent electronically to 1,256 medical students from one university. Answers from 394 students were eligible for inclusion. Exploratory factor analysis based on principal component methods followed by oblique rotation was used to confirm the adequate number of factors in the data. Construct validity was assessed by factor analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to confirm the dimensions of CLES instrument. Results The construct validity showed a clearly indicated four-factor model. The cumulative variance explanation was 0.65, and the overall Cronbach’s alpha was 0.95. All items loaded similarly with the dimensions in the non-adapted CLES except for one item that loaded to another dimension. The CLES instrument in its adapted form had high construct validity and high reliability and internal consistency. Conclusion CLES, in its adapted form, appears

  15. Mental disorders and the use of primary health care services among homeless shelter users in the Helsinki metropolitan area, Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenius-Ayoade, Agnes; Haaramo, Peija; Erkkilä, Elisabet; Marola, Niko; Nousiainen, Kirsi; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Eriksson, Johan G

    2017-06-21

    Homelessness is associated with increased morbidity, mortality and health care use. The aim of this study was to examine the role of mental disorders in relation to the use of 1) daytime primary health care services and 2) after hours primary health care emergency room (PHER) services among homeless shelter users in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area, Finland. The study cohort consists of all 158 homeless persons using the four shelters operating in the study area during two selected nights. The health records were analyzed over a period of 3 years prior to the sample nights and data on morbidity and primary health care visits were gathered. We used negative binomial regression to estimate the association between mental disorders and daytime visits to primary health care and after hours visits to PHERs. During the 3 years the 158 homeless persons in the cohort made 1410 visits to a physician in primary health care. The cohort exhibited high rates of mental disorders, including substance use disorders (SUDs); i.e. 141 persons (89%) had a mental disorder. We found dual diagnosis, defined as SUD concurring with other mental disorder, to be strongly associated with daytime primary health care utilization (IRR 11.0, 95% CI 5.9-20.6) when compared with those without any mental disorder diagnosis. The association was somewhat weaker for those with only SUDs (IRR 4.9, 95% CI 2.5-9.9) or with only other mental disorders (IRR 5.0, 95% CI 2.4-10.8). When focusing upon the after hours visits to PHERs we observed that both dual diagnosis (IRR 14.1, 95% CI 6.3-31.2) and SUDs (11.5, 95% CI 5.7-23.3) were strongly associated with utilization of PHERs compared to those without any mental disorder. In spite of a high numbers of visits, we found undertreatment of chronic conditions such as hypertension and diabetes. Dual diagnosis is particularly strongly associated with primary health care daytime visits among homeless persons staying in shelters, while after hours visits to primary

  16. Differences in Employee Motivation at Slovak Primary Schools in Rural and Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitka, Miloš; Stachová, Katarína; Balážová, Žaneta; Stacho, Zdenko

    2015-01-01

    In spite of turbulent urbanisation in Slovakia we assume that the 21st century is also a period of differences in value criteria of people living in rural and urban areas. The level of urbanisation, i.e. inhabitant movement from the countryside to towns and the level of suburbanisation, i.e. inhabitant movement from towns to the countryside, are…

  17. Console Game-Based Pedagogy: A Study of Primary and Secondary Classroom Learning through Console Video Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groff, Jennifer S.; Howells, Cathrin; Cranmer, Sue

    2012-01-01

    The main focus of this research project was to identify the educational benefits of console game-based learning in primary and secondary schools. The project also sought to understand how the benefits of educational gaming could transfer to other settings. For this purpose, research was carried out in classrooms in Scotland to explore learning…

  18. Dissecting Sequences of Regulation and Cognition: Statistical Discourse Analysis of Primary School Children's Collaborative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Inge; Chiu, Ming Ming

    2014-01-01

    Extending past research showing that regulative activities (metacognitive and relational) can aid learning, this study tests whether sequences of cognitive, metacognitive and relational activities affect subsequent cognition. Scaffolded by a computer avatar, 54 primary school students (working in 18 groups of 3) discussed writing a report about a…

  19. Drawing-Based Simulation for Primary School Science Education: An Experimental Study of the GearSketch Learning Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenaars, Frank; van Joolingen, Wouter; Gijlers, Aaltje H.; Bollen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Touch screen computers are rapidly becoming available to millions of students. These devices make the implementation of drawing-based simulation environments like Gear Sketch possible. This study shows that primary school students who received simulation-based support in a drawing-based learning

  20. Growing Community: The Impact of the Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden Program on the Social and Learning Environment in Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Karen; Gibbs, Lisa; Staiger, Petra K.; Gold, Lisa; Johnson, Britt; Macfarlane, Susie; Long, Caroline; Townsend, Mardie

    2012-01-01

    This article presents results from a mixed-method evaluation of a structured cooking and gardening program in Australian primary schools, focusing on program impacts on the social and learning environment of the school. In particular, we address the Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden Program objective of providing a pleasurable experience that has…

  1. An Inquiry into the NEST Program in Relation to English Teaching and Learning in Taiwanese Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wen-Hsing

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore the Native English-Speaking Teacher (NEST) Program in relation to teachers' instruction and students' learning of English in primary schools in Taiwan. Inviting native English-speakers to teach English in the school system is not an unusual practice in the Asia-Pacific region. As the practice of including NESTs in the…

  2. Teachers' Experience and Reflections on Game-Based Learning in the Primary Classroom: Views from England and Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsop, Yasemin; Jessel, John

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to provide a comparative account of teachers' experience and views of their role when using digital games in primary classrooms in England and Italy. Interviews and a survey administered online and in hardcopy were used to find out teachers' perceptions of game-based learning and how these impact upon their role as a teacher. This…

  3. Understanding the Primary School Students' Van Hiele Levels of Geometry Thinking in Learning Shapes and Spaces: A Q-Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Tan Tong; Tarmizi, Rohani Ahmad; Yunus, Aida Suraya Md.; Ayub, Ahmad Fauzi

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted using a new hybrid method of research which combined qualitative and quantitative designs to investigate the viewpoints of primary school students' conceptual understanding in learning geometry from the aspect of shapes and spaces according to van Hiele theory. Q-methodology is used in this research to find out what…

  4. Barriers to Use of Educational Technology in the Learning Process of Primary School Students in District 13 in Tehran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshmanziari, Esfandiar; Mostafavi, Aida

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the barriers to use of educational technology in the learning process of primary school students in district 13 of Tehran. This research in terms of purpose is practical, in terms of the title characteristics of the research is descriptive, and in terms of data collection method is a field research. The…

  5. Sex, Grade-Level and Stream Differences in Learning Environment and Attitudes to Science in Singapore Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, Jarina; Fraser, Barry J.

    2015-01-01

    Learning environment research provides a well-established approach for describing and understanding what goes on in classrooms and has attracted considerable interest in Singapore. This article reports the first study of science classroom environments in Singapore primary schools. Ten scales from the What Is Happening In this Class?,…

  6. Moroccan Mothers' Involvement in Dialogic Literary Gatherings in a Catalan Urban Primary School: Increasing Educative Interactions and Improving Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Botton, Lena; Girbés, Sandra; Ruiz, Laura; Tellado, Itxaso

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses a case study on Moroccan mothers' involvement in the Dialogic Literary Gathering (DLG) in an urban primary school in Catalonia (Spain). DLG is a dialogic learning environment that improves reading skills and communicative abilities and promotes school-community links. This activity has been identified in previous European…

  7. Access to primary care for socio-economically disadvantaged older people in rural areas: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turley, Rachel; Porter, Tom; Shakespeare, Tom; Wong, Geoff; Jones, Andy P.; Steel, Nick

    2018-01-01

    Objective We aim to explore the barriers to accessing primary care for socio-economically disadvantaged older people in rural areas. Methods Using a community recruitment strategy, fifteen people over 65 years, living in a rural area, and receiving financial support were recruited for semi-structured interviews. Four focus groups were held with rural health professionals. Interviews and focus groups were audio-recorded and transcribed. Thematic analysis was used to identify barriers to primary care access. Findings Older people’s experience can be understood within the context of a patient perceived set of unwritten rules or social contract–an individual is careful not to bother the doctor in return for additional goodwill when they become unwell. However, most found it difficult to access primary care due to engaged telephone lines, availability of appointments, interactions with receptionists; breaching their perceived social contract. This left some feeling unwelcome, worthless or marginalised, especially those with high expectations of the social contract or limited resources, skills and/or desire to adapt to service changes. Health professionals’ described how rising demands and expectations coupled with service constraints had necessitated service development, such as fewer home visits, more telephone consultations, triaging calls and modifying the appointment system. Conclusion Multiple barriers to accessing primary care exist for this group. As primary care is re-organised to reduce costs, commissioners and practitioners must not lose sight of the perceived social contract and models of care that form the basis of how many older people interact with the service. PMID:29509811

  8. Outline for Remediation of Problem Areas for Children with Learning Disabilities. Revised. = Bosquejo para la Correccion de Areas Problematicas para Ninos con Impedimientos del Aprendizaje.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Joan L.

    The booklet outlines ways to help children with learning disabilities in specific subject areas. Characteristic behavior and remedial exercises are listed for seven areas of auditory problems: auditory reception, auditory association, auditory discrimination, auditory figure ground, auditory closure and sound blending, auditory memory, and grammar…

  9. Effects of a Critical Thinking Skills Program on the Learning Motivation of Primary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weiping; Jia, Xiaojuan; Plucker, Jonathan A.; Shan, Xinxin

    2016-01-01

    Learning motivation has a significant effect on student learning, which is a key determinant of academic performance and creativity. It is increasingly popular and important to cultivate learning motivation in schools. To consider this trend, a long-term intervention program named "Learn to Think" (LTT) was designed not only to improve…

  10. [Prevalence of neurodevelopmental, behavioural and learning disorders in Pediatric Primary Care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballal Mariño, Marta; Gago Ageitos, Ana; Ares Alvarez, Josefa; Del Rio Garma, Mercedes; García Cendón, Clara; Goicoechea Castaño, Ana; Pena Nieto, Josefina

    2017-11-20

    To determine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in primary care pediatrics in Atlantic Galicia. An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional prevalence study was carried out in 9 outpatient clinics in A Coruña and Pontevedra with a population of 8293 children between September and November 2015. A total of 1286 randomly selected patients from 0 to 14 years of age were included. From the medical history was registered: age, sex, psychiatric diagnosis established by DSM-IV-TR criteria in its five axes, professionals who participated in the diagnosis and treatment of the process and what type of treatment was received. Authorization was obtained from the Research Ethics Committee of Galicia number 2015/427. 148 of 1286 patients presented psychiatric pathology (11,5% IC 95% 9.73-13,29), 68% male. Between 0 and 5years, the prevalence was 4.5%; between 6y and 10y, 18.5% and between 11y and 14y 22%. Symptoms lasted a median of 25 months. The most frequent pathologies in 1286 patients were ADHD (5.36%), language disorders (3.42%), learning disorders (3.26%), anxiety-depressive disorders (2.4%) and behavior disorders (1.87%). Of the 148 cases, 47% had comorbidity with another mental disorder. Most of them required attention by multiple social, health and educational professionals; 33% received psychopharmacological treatment. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in pediatric primary care is frequent, chronic and complex, increases with age and requires many health, educational and social resources. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  11. Repetitive Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Induced Excitability Changes of Primary Visual Cortex and Visual Learning Effects-A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sczesny-Kaiser, Matthias; Beckhaus, Katharina; Dinse, Hubert R; Schwenkreis, Peter; Tegenthoff, Martin; Höffken, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Studies on noninvasive motor cortex stimulation and motor learning demonstrated cortical excitability as a marker for a learning effect. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive tool to modulate cortical excitability. It is as yet unknown how tDCS-induced excitability changes and perceptual learning in visual cortex correlate. Our study aimed to examine the influence of tDCS on visual perceptual learning in healthy humans. Additionally, we measured excitability in primary visual cortex (V1). We hypothesized that anodal tDCS would improve and cathodal tDCS would have minor or no effects on visual learning. Anodal, cathodal or sham tDCS were applied over V1 in a randomized, double-blinded design over four consecutive days (n = 30). During 20 min of tDCS, subjects had to learn a visual orientation-discrimination task (ODT). Excitability parameters were measured by analyzing paired-stimulation behavior of visual-evoked potentials (ps-VEP) and by measuring phosphene thresholds (PTs) before and after the stimulation period of 4 days. Compared with sham-tDCS, anodal tDCS led to an improvement of visual discrimination learning (p learning effect. For cathodal tDCS, no significant effects on learning or on excitability could be seen. Our results showed that anodal tDCS over V1 resulted in improved visual perceptual learning and increased cortical excitability. tDCS is a promising tool to alter V1 excitability and, hence, perceptual visual learning.

  12. Learning-induced Dependence of Neuronal Activity in Primary Motor Cortex on Motor Task Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, X; Shimansky, Y; He, Jiping

    2005-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) system such as a cortically controlled robotic arm must have a capacity of adjusting its function to a specific environmental condition. We studied this capacity in non-human primates based on chronic multi-electrode recording from the primary motor cortex of a monkey during the animal's performance of a center-out 3D reaching task and adaptation to external force perturbations. The main condition-related feature of motor cortical activity observed before the onset of force perturbation was a phasic raise of activity immediately before the perturbation onset. This feature was observed during a series of perturbation trials, but were absent under no perturbations. After adaptation has been completed, it usually was taking the subject only one trial to recognize a change in the condition to switch the neuronal activity accordingly. These condition-dependent features of neuronal activity can be used by a BCI for recognizing a change in the environmental condition and making corresponding adjustments, which requires that the BCI-based control system possess such advanced properties of the neural motor control system as capacity to learn and adapt.

  13. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN IN URBAN AREA OF JHANSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjana Singh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study is an attempt to find out the nutritional status including anthropometric assessment. A cross -sectional study was conducted in primary section of two governments and Iwo convent schools of Jhansi city during the study period of march 1999 to feb2000.Selected school children (n=840 aged 5-11 years, 453 children from municipal school and 387 children from convent school comprised the study material. Following results were observed -out of total children surveyed, 52.98% were male and rests 4 7.02% were females. Hindu formed majority (70.90% of children in both types of schools. Mean height and weight of boys and girls were higher than ICMR standards in both type of school. The mean mid arm circumference of all girls and boys from both type of schools had higher value than the ICMR standards but did not come up to WOLANSKI standard. Statistical analysis-percentage, mean, chi-square test.

  14. Learning to Associate Orientation with Color in Early Visual Areas by Associative Decoded fMRI Neurofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Kaoru; Shibata, Kazuhisa; Kawato, Mitsuo; Sasaki, Yuka; Watanabe, Takeo

    2016-07-25

    Associative learning is an essential brain process where the contingency of different items increases after training. Associative learning has been found to occur in many brain regions [1-4]. However, there is no clear evidence that associative learning of visual features occurs in early visual areas, although a number of studies have indicated that learning of a single visual feature (perceptual learning) involves early visual areas [5-8]. Here, via decoded fMRI neurofeedback termed "DecNef" [9], we tested whether associative learning of orientation and color can be created in early visual areas. During 3 days of training, DecNef induced fMRI signal patterns that corresponded to a specific target color (red) mostly in early visual areas while a vertical achromatic grating was physically presented to participants. As a result, participants came to perceive "red" significantly more frequently than "green" in an achromatic vertical grating. This effect was also observed 3-5 months after the training. These results suggest that long-term associative learning of two different visual features such as orientation and color was created, most likely in early visual areas. This newly extended technique that induces associative learning is called "A-DecNef," and it may be used as an important tool for understanding and modifying brain functions because associations are fundamental and ubiquitous functions in the brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Learning to associate orientation with color in early visual areas by associative decoded fMRI neurofeedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Kaoru; Shibata, Kazuhisa; Kawato, Mitsuo; Sasaki, Yuka; Watanabe, Takeo

    2016-01-01

    Summary Associative learning is an essential brain process where the contingency of different items increases after training. Associative learning has been found to occur in many brain regions [1-4]. However, there is no clear evidence that associative learning of visual features occurs in early visual areas, although a number of studies have indicated that learning of a single visual feature (perceptual learning) involves early visual areas [5-8]. Here, via decoded functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) neurofeedback, termed “DecNef” [9], we tested whether associative learning of color and orientation can be created in early visual areas. During three days' training, DecNef induced fMRI signal patterns that corresponded to a specific target color (red) mostly in early visual areas while a vertical achromatic grating was physically presented to participants. As a result, participants came to perceive “red” significantly more frequently than “green” in an achromatic vertical grating. This effect was also observed 3 to 5 months after the training. These results suggest that long-term associative learning of the two different visual features such as color and orientation was created most likely in early visual areas. This newly extended technique that induces associative learning is called “A(ssociative)-DecNef” and may be used as an important tool for understanding and modifying brain functions, since associations are fundamental and ubiquitous functions in the brain. PMID:27374335

  16. Effective strategies for preventing and overcoming learned helplesness among children with special needs in primary school education

    OpenAIRE

    Obolnar Hrnjičić, Maja; Pirih, Neža

    2013-01-01

    Children with special needs are commonly faced with faliure due to their special needs. Therefore they gradually develop a belief that thay can not influence their academic success, which leads to passivity. Learned helplessness influences academic, emotional and motivational aspect of their lives. Children who are facing learned helplessness tend to generalize their belief that they do not have an influence on their success on different areas of their lives. In our diploma thesis we w...

  17. Competition and convergence between auditory and cross-modal visual inputs to primary auditory cortical areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yu-Ting; Hua, Tian-Miao

    2011-01-01

    Sensory neocortex is capable of considerable plasticity after sensory deprivation or damage to input pathways, especially early in development. Although plasticity can often be restorative, sometimes novel, ectopic inputs invade the affected cortical area. Invading inputs from other sensory modalities may compromise the original function or even take over, imposing a new function and preventing recovery. Using ferrets whose retinal axons were rerouted into auditory thalamus at birth, we were able to examine the effect of varying the degree of ectopic, cross-modal input on reorganization of developing auditory cortex. In particular, we assayed whether the invading visual inputs and the existing auditory inputs competed for or shared postsynaptic targets and whether the convergence of input modalities would induce multisensory processing. We demonstrate that although the cross-modal inputs create new visual neurons in auditory cortex, some auditory processing remains. The degree of damage to auditory input to the medial geniculate nucleus was directly related to the proportion of visual neurons in auditory cortex, suggesting that the visual and residual auditory inputs compete for cortical territory. Visual neurons were not segregated from auditory neurons but shared target space even on individual target cells, substantially increasing the proportion of multisensory neurons. Thus spatial convergence of visual and auditory input modalities may be sufficient to expand multisensory representations. Together these findings argue that early, patterned visual activity does not drive segregation of visual and auditory afferents and suggest that auditory function might be compromised by converging visual inputs. These results indicate possible ways in which multisensory cortical areas may form during development and evolution. They also suggest that rehabilitative strategies designed to promote recovery of function after sensory deprivation or damage need to take into

  18. Methodology for assessing the concentrations of the primary marine aerosol in coastal areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsanti, P.; Briganti, G.; Cappelletti, A.; Marri, P.

    2009-01-01

    European and Italian regulations (DM 60/2002) fix for atmospheric particulate matter PM10 the threshold of 50 μg/m 3 as limit not to be exceeded more than 35 times per year (24 hour mean); unfortunately, such prescriptions do not distinguish anthropic contributions from natural ones (sea salt, Saharan sand, coastal erosion, volcanic ashes, etc.). The aim of this study is to set up a methodology in order to estimate sea salt emissions, both from open sea and surf zone, and to model atmospheric dispersion of marine aerosols. The proposed methodology, applied to the coastal zone between Massa Carrara and Viareggio (Tuscany, Italy), shows specific open sea emissions are generally very low in comparison with the surf zone ones: they are not negligible only with strong winds, but such meteorological conditions are neither persistent nor very frequent in the selected area. On the contrary, sea surf contributions are much more strong (at least 1 order of magnitude), peak-shaped and persistent then the first ones, and can lead to high PM10 concentration fields up to few kilometres inland. The comparison between model outputs and observations, in two points placed at 2000 and 4000 m from the shoreline, has shown an amount of sea salt in total PM10 even greater then 70% in mass. The existence of a surf zone, which can persist many hours or days even after a storm, can produce both elevated PM concentrations and gradients, mainly for light winds perpendicular to the shoreline. This work, supported by MINNI Project (www.minni.org), is suitable for other coastal areas as well and it is aimed to furnish an overview of marine particulate production and atmospheric dispersion processes; it is the starting point of an experimental investigation program, supported by institutional air quality authorities [it

  19. Bringing transcranial mapping into shape: Sulcus-aligned mapping captures motor somatotopy in human primary motor hand area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffin, Estelle; Pellegrino, Giovanni; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Motor representations express some degree of somatotopy in human primary motor hand area (M1HAND), but within-M1HAND corticomotor somatotopy has been difficult to study with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Here we introduce a “linear” TMS mapping approach based on the individual shape...... of the central sulcus to obtain mediolateral corticomotor excitability profiles of the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) and first dorsal interosseus (FDI) muscles. In thirteen young volunteers, we used stereotactic neuronavigation to stimulate the right M1HAND with a small eight-shaped coil at 120% of FDI resting...

  20. Vocabulary learning in primary school children: working memory and long-term memory components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morra, Sergio; Camba, Roberta

    2009-10-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate which working memory and long-term memory components predict vocabulary learning. We used a nonword learning paradigm in which 8- to 10-year-olds learned picture-nonword pairs. The nonwords varied in length (two vs. four syllables) and phonology (native sounding vs. including one Russian phoneme). Short, phonologically native nonwords were learned best, whereas learning long nonwords leveled off after a few presentation cycles. Linear structural equation analyses showed an influence of three constructs-phonological sensitivity, vocabulary knowledge, and central attentional resources (M capacity)-on nonword learning, but the extent of their contributions depended on specific characteristics of the nonwords to be learned. Phonological sensitivity predicted learning of all nonword types except short native nonwords, vocabulary predicted learning of only short native nonwords, and M capacity predicted learning of short nonwords but not long nonwords. The discussion considers three learning processes-effortful activation of phonological representations, lexical mediation, and passive associative learning-that use different cognitive resources and could be involved in learning different nonword types.

  1. Optimizing area under the ROC curve using semi-supervised learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shijun; Li, Diana; Petrick, Nicholas; Sahiner, Berkman; Linguraru, Marius George; Summers, Ronald M

    2015-01-01

    Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis is a standard methodology to evaluate the performance of a binary classification system. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) is a performance metric that summarizes how well a classifier separates two classes. Traditional AUC optimization techniques are supervised learning methods that utilize only labeled data (i.e., the true class is known for all data) to train the classifiers. In this work, inspired by semi-supervised and transductive learning, we propose two new AUC optimization algorithms hereby referred to as semi-supervised learning receiver operating characteristic (SSLROC) algorithms, which utilize unlabeled test samples in classifier training to maximize AUC. Unlabeled samples are incorporated into the AUC optimization process, and their ranking relationships to labeled positive and negative training samples are considered as optimization constraints. The introduced test samples will cause the learned decision boundary in a multidimensional feature space to adapt not only to the distribution of labeled training data, but also to the distribution of unlabeled test data. We formulate the semi-supervised AUC optimization problem as a semi-definite programming problem based on the margin maximization theory. The proposed methods SSLROC1 (1-norm) and SSLROC2 (2-norm) were evaluated using 34 (determined by power analysis) randomly selected datasets from the University of California, Irvine machine learning repository. Wilcoxon signed rank tests showed that the proposed methods achieved significant improvement compared with state-of-the-art methods. The proposed methods were also applied to a CT colonography dataset for colonic polyp classification and showed promising results.

  2. Conditions for the quality of primary education teachers’ collective learning at individual and group level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doppenberg, J.J.; Brok, den P.J.; Bergen, T.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Collective teacher learning plays an important role in teachers' professional development and schools' innovative capacity. Despite this importance, collective learning in schools has been weakly conceptualised and little empirical evidence exists with respect to the contributions of collective

  3. Patients' Experiences with Specialist Care via Video Consultation in Primary Healthcare in Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Annette M.; Lindberg, Inger; Söderberg, Siv

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Video consultation (VC) can improve access to specialist care, especially for individuals who live in rural areas that are long distances from specialist clinics. Aim. The aim of this study was to describe patients' experiences with specialist care via VC encounters. Method. Interviews were conducted with 26 patients who had participated in a VC encounter. The data were analysed using thematic content analysis. Result. The analysis resulted in two themes. The theme “confident with the technology” was constructed from the categories “possibilities and obstacles in using VC encounters” and “advantages and disadvantages of the technology.” The theme “personal satisfaction with the VC encounters” was constructed from the categories “support from the healthcare personnel,” “perceived security,” and “satisfaction with the specialist consultation.” Conclusion. The patients who did not think that the VC was the best care still considered that the visit was adequate because they did not have to travel. An important finding was that the patients' perceived even short distances to specialty care as expensive journeys because many patients had low incomes. Among the patients who had more than one VC, the second encounter was perceived as safer. Additionally, good communication was essential for the patient's perception of security during the VC encounter. PMID:25243009

  4. Patients' Experiences with Specialist Care via Video Consultation in Primary Healthcare in Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Annette M; Lindberg, Inger; Söderberg, Siv

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Video consultation (VC) can improve access to specialist care, especially for individuals who live in rural areas that are long distances from specialist clinics. Aim. The aim of this study was to describe patients' experiences with specialist care via VC encounters. Method. Interviews were conducted with 26 patients who had participated in a VC encounter. The data were analysed using thematic content analysis. Result. The analysis resulted in two themes. The theme "confident with the technology" was constructed from the categories "possibilities and obstacles in using VC encounters" and "advantages and disadvantages of the technology." The theme "personal satisfaction with the VC encounters" was constructed from the categories "support from the healthcare personnel," "perceived security," and "satisfaction with the specialist consultation." Conclusion. The patients who did not think that the VC was the best care still considered that the visit was adequate because they did not have to travel. An important finding was that the patients' perceived even short distances to specialty care as expensive journeys because many patients had low incomes. Among the patients who had more than one VC, the second encounter was perceived as safer. Additionally, good communication was essential for the patient's perception of security during the VC encounter.

  5. Patients’ Experiences with Specialist Care via Video Consultation in Primary Healthcare in Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette M. Johansson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Video consultation (VC can improve access to specialist care, especially for individuals who live in rural areas that are long distances from specialist clinics. Aim. The aim of this study was to describe patients’ experiences with specialist care via VC encounters. Method. Interviews were conducted with 26 patients who had participated in a VC encounter. The data were analysed using thematic content analysis. Result. The analysis resulted in two themes. The theme “confident with the technology” was constructed from the categories “possibilities and obstacles in using VC encounters” and “advantages and disadvantages of the technology.” The theme “personal satisfaction with the VC encounters” was constructed from the categories “support from the healthcare personnel,” “perceived security,” and “satisfaction with the specialist consultation.” Conclusion. The patients who did not think that the VC was the best care still considered that the visit was adequate because they did not have to travel. An important finding was that the patients’ perceived even short distances to specialty care as expensive journeys because many patients had low incomes. Among the patients who had more than one VC, the second encounter was perceived as safer. Additionally, good communication was essential for the patient’s perception of security during the VC encounter.

  6. Primary immigration and succession of soil organisms on reclaimed opencast coal mining areas in eastern Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanner, M.; Dunger, W. [Staatliches Museum Naturkunde, Gorlitz (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Immigration to and colonisation of recultivated opencast coal mining areas by soil organisms were investigated in eastern Germany during the period 1996-1998 in freshly exposed substrates (immigration test) and two up to 46-year-old afforested mine soils (stage-dependent succession). The results indicate that immigration by air is characteristic for protists, soil microarthropods and spiders, while active locomotion is more important for the soil macrofauna. Testate amoebae assemblages showed no evident differences between 30-37-year-old Tertiary afforestations (ash-ameliorated, pyrite-rich, low soil pH) and 46-year-old Pleistocene sites (liming, low pyrite content, moderate soil pH), while comparisons in soil animals revealed pronounced differences in abundance, biomass and species composition. Generally, all investigated soil animal groups indicated taxon-specific immigration and colonisation strategies with pronounced site preferences, dependent on substrate quality, age and afforestation. Within 40 years, a consistent trend is visible from an open pioneer to a woodland community. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that long-term investigations as well as numerous taxa of different trophic levels are essential for a comprehensive evaluation of recultivated mine dumps.

  7. A Learning Collaborative Model to Improve Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Rates in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Cynthia M; Tyrrell, Hollyce; Wallace-Brodeur, Rachel; Goldstein, Nicolas P N; Darden, Paul M; Humiston, Sharon G; Albertin, Christina S; Stratbucker, William; Schaffer, Stanley J; Davis, Wendy; Szilagyi, Peter G

    2018-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates remain low, in part because of missed opportunities (MOs) for vaccination. We used a learning collaborative quality improvement (QI) model to assess the effect of a multicomponent intervention on reducing MOs. Study design: pre-post using a QI intervention in 33 community practices and 14 pediatric continuity clinics over 9 months to reduce MOs for HPV vaccination at all visit types. outcome measures comprised baseline and postproject measures of 1) MOs (primary outcome), and 2) HPV vaccine initiation and completion. Process measures comprised monthly chart audits of MOs for HPV vaccination for performance feedback, monthly Plan-Do-Study-Act surveys and pre-post surveys about office systems. providers were trained at the start of the project on offering a strong recommendation for HPV vaccination. Practices implemented provider prompts and/or standing orders and/or reminder/recall if desired, and were provided monthly feedback on MOs to assess their progress. chi-square tests were used to assess changes in office practices, and logistic regression used to assess changes in MOs according to visit type and overall, as well as HPV vaccine initiation and completion. MOs overall decreased (from 73% to 53% in community practices and 62% to 55% in continuity clinics; P < .01, and P = .03, respectively). HPV vaccine initiation increased for both genders in community practices (from 66% to 74% for female, 57% to 65% for male; P < .01), and for male patients in continuity clinics (from 68% to 75%; P = .05). Series completion increased overall in community practices (39% to 43%; P = .04) and for male patients in continuity clinics (from 36% to 44%; P = .03). Office systems changes using a QI model and multicomponent interventions decreased rates of MO for HPV vaccination and increased initiation and completion rates among some gender subgroups. A learning collaborative model provides an effective forum for practices to

  8. Primary and Secondary Virtual Learning in New Zealand: Examining Barriers to Achieving Maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Michael; Davis, Niki; Wenmoth, Derek

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the organisational development of virtual learning in networked rural schools in New Zealand, specifically the obstacles that e-learning clusters of rural schools face in their journey to sustainability and maturity through the lens of the Ministry's Learning Communities Online Handbook. Analysis of a nationwide purposeful…

  9. Vocabulary Learning in Primary School Children: Working Memory and Long-Term Memory Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morra, Sergio; Camba, Roberta

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate which working memory and long-term memory components predict vocabulary learning. We used a nonword learning paradigm in which 8- to 10-year-olds learned picture-nonword pairs. The nonwords varied in length (two vs. four syllables) and phonology (native sounding vs. including one Russian phoneme). Short,…

  10. Combining forces. Distributed Leadership and a professional learning community in primary and secondary education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsbos, Frank; Van Langevelde, Stefan; Evers, Arnoud

    2018-01-01

    This report describes an in depth case study of two good practice schools where a professional learning community and distributed leadership are highly developed. The goal of this study was to learn what conditions in the school support a professional learning community and distributed leadership.

  11. Building and Leading a Learning Culture among Teachers: A Case Study of a Shanghai Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiyan, Qian; Walker, Allan; Xiaowei, Yang

    2017-01-01

    A positive teacher learning culture is important to effect meaningful changes in schools. Literature has established that successful school leaders can build and nurture learning cultures among teachers. However, less is known about how school leaders can shape the culture and make learning conditions happen at the schools in the Chinese education…

  12. The State of Ethical Learning of Students in the Spanish University System: Considerations for the European Higher Education Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxarrais, Maria Rosa; Esteban, Francisco; Mellen, Teodor

    2015-01-01

    With the establishment of the European higher education area (EHEA), the ethical learning of students is a matter of central importance in European universities. This paper examines the current state of ethical learning of students in the Spanish university system. We present the results of a descriptive survey, which used a training model for…

  13. Delivering Formal Outdoor Learning in Protected Areas: A Case Study of Scottish Natural Heritage National Nature Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    In most countries, protected area management agencies provide formal outdoor learning opportunities for a wide range of educational groups. For high-quality formal outdoor learning programmes that provide a range of experiences to be effectively delivered, specific resources and infrastructure are needed. Using the case study of Scottish Natural…

  14. Small Schools Student Learning Objectives, 9-12: Mathematics, Reading, Reading in the Content Areas, Language Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, JoAnne, Ed.; Hartl, David, Ed.

    Designed by Washington curriculum specialists and secondary teachers to assist teachers in small schools with the improvement of curriculum and instruction and to aid smaller districts lacking curriculum personnel to comply with Washington's Student Learning Objectives Law, this handbook contains learning objectives in the areas of language arts,…

  15. Using Virtual Manipulative Instruction to Teach the Concepts of Area and Perimeter to Secondary Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satsangi, Rajiv; Bouck, Emily C.

    2015-01-01

    Secondary students with a learning disability in mathematics often struggle with the academic demands presented in advanced mathematics courses, such as algebra and geometry. With greater emphasis placed on problem solving and higher level thinking skills in these subject areas, students with a learning disability in mathematics often fail to keep…

  16. Student-perceived barriers and facilitators to e-learning in continuing professional development in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, Andrea; Sandhu, Harbinder

    2006-01-01

    WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN IN THIS AREA • E-learning is being increasingly used within learning and teaching including its application within healthcare education and service provision. Multiple advantages have been identified including enhanced accessibility and increased flexibility of learning. Guidance on the generic-design and development of e-learning courses has been generated. WHAT THIS WORK ADDS • This paper provides a detailed understanding of the barriers and facilitators to e-learning as perceived by students on a continuing professional development (CPD); course arid highlights its multifaceted values. In addition, the paper ṕrovides evidence-based guidance for the development of courses within CPD utilising e-learning. SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH • Future research would benefit from, focusing upon the perceptions of staff including barriers and facilitators to the implementation of e-learning and awareness of student experience to generate a balanced and informed understanding of e-learning within the context-of CPD.

  17. Pilot exemption of the controlled area from regulatory control at NPP A1 -lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaninka, A.; Listjak, M.; Slavik, O.; Rau, L.

    2014-01-01

    The contribution includes the lessons learned within frame of the radiological characterisation of surface ground layer in the NPP A1 site of area approximately 60 m2 (9 x 7 m) that was a part of Controlled area. Aim of the characterisation was a demonstration that the area fulfils the requirements to exemption from Controlled area for purpose of decommissioning activities carry out within frame of II. stage of NPP A1 decommissioning project.The requirements on free release of materials into the environment were applied (e.g. 300 Bq/kg for single 137 Cs). Radiological characterisation was performed by two independent methods; in situ scintillation gamma spectrometry and systematic sampling in regular grid followed by gamma spectrometry analyses in accredited laboratory of VUJE, Inc. (S-219). This improved the quality of monitoring and at the same time it enabled the inter-comparison of results obtained by both mentioned independent methods.Characterised ground area was partitioned to smaller sub-areas of 4 m2. At ground layer of 20 cm it means approximately 1000 kg of ground (in compliance with requirements on reference area at even activity distribution according to government regulation No 345/2006) The results of measurements showed that under appropriate conditions (sufficiently low radiation background, on interfering external sources) also the designed in situ method is effective and reliable tool for contaminated ground layer identification. In addition the in situ method is more effective in terms of time and cost consumption on unit of monitored area. (authors)

  18. Morbidity pattern and personal hygiene in children among private primary school in urban area: are the trends changing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhaske, Mayavati S; Khismatrao, Deepak S; Kevin, Fernandez; Pandve, Harshal T; Kundap, Ritesh P

    2013-07-01

    School health is an important intervention as a great deal of research tells us that schools can have a major effect on children's health, by teaching them about health and promoting healthy behaviors. The aim of this study is to determine common health problems and assess personal hygiene status among primary school children. A cross-sectional study was conducted in academic years 2009-2010 and 2010-2011, with three health check-up camps organized in private primary school of Pune city. A total of 450 students were assessed for health problems and composite score of personal hygiene status was calculated ranging from 0 to 5 by examination of hairs, nails, skin and clothes. Proportions calculated with application of Chi-square test and Pearson co-efficient applied to observe the relation between two quantitative variables. Out of 450 students examined, 56.2% were boys and 43.8% were girls with age ranging from 5 to 10 years. The major morbidities observed were dental caries (65.1%), upper respiratory tract infections (38.2%), ear wax (29.9%) and myopia (10.0%). Mean hygiene score was significantly higher in girls (4.32) than boys (3.95) and poor hygiene observed in older boys. Increasing myopia and poor dental hygiene denotes a changing morbidity pattern in private primary school of the urban area. The hygiene status of the girls is significantly better than boys.

  19. [Accidents with biological material in health care workers in 2 primary health care areas (1990-1999)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Navarrete, M J; Montes Villameriel, F J; Solano Bernad, V M; Sánchez Matienzo, D; del Val García, J L; Gil Montalbán, E; Arribas Llorente, J L

    2001-09-15

    To find out the exposures with biological material in health care workers in primary health care, registered in the biological accidents database from Preventive Medicine Service in Miguel Servet Universitary Hospital of Zaragoza. Descriptive study of a retrospective cohort. SITE: Primary health care, Areas II and V of Zaragoza.Participants. Workers in this areas, distributed by: physician, nursing staff, auxiliary, orderly, housekeeping staff, others. Data of: workers, accident, serologic source, worker protection and vaccinal status of hepatitis B. The incidence of accidents was 26 (period 1997-1999). Most proportion of accidents were declared by nursing (78%). The highest occupational incidence was in auxiliary (63 ). In 90,1% of the cases, the accident was needlestick injury. The source was known in 67,7% of cases. The accidents occurred in hands in 96,8% of cases, and only one third of workers carried gloves. Results obtained are similar with previous studies about this event. We must insist on the need to declare these accidents, providing more information and accessibility for the declaration to worker. Moreover, we must insist on the correct application in the health care field of the standard precautions, because almost 50% of accidents are evitable, and to increase hepatitis B vaccination covertures.

  20. Implication of the displacement of the T1 primary target in the west area at the CERN SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Gatignon, L

    1999-01-01

    As soon as the transfer line T12 for proton injection into the LHC must be installed, the T1 primary target has to be at least partly dismantled, as its shielding would block the passage of the beam. Even though the installation of T12 is only foreseen for later, in view of sharing of workload related to the SLI project, it is preferred to move the primary production target T1 for the West Area to its new position already in the shutdown 1999/2000. The new position of the target requires major modifications of support structures in TCC6, of the transfer line towards T1 and of a more than 500 metres long section of the H3 secondary beam in the West Area, all to be completed in the 1999/2000 shutdown. To allow the work to be finished in time, part of it (including some civil engineering in TT4) is already done in the 1998/99 shutdown. In this memo the necessary modifications are described, cost estimates are given and a planning is provided.

  1. Case study: to investigate blogging as an e-learning tool in post-primary schools

    OpenAIRE

    Conroy, Patty

    2011-01-01

    non-peer-reviewed The purpose of this case study is to investigate blogging as an e-learning tool. The era of e-learning has truly arrived. Educators have at their hands many free e-learning tools. It can be no longer the case of how information technology can be incorporated into the classroom but how effective each e-learning tool is to us as educators. Educators need to embrace e-learning combined with traditional teaching methods in order to engage and motivate our students most of who...

  2. Forming Entrepreneurial Mindsets? Preliminary Evidence of Teaching Practices from Primary Schools in a Developing Area in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auxiliadora N. Figueiredo-Nery

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years there has been a renewed interest by governments, companies and academics in the role of entrepreneurship in innovation and economic growth. There has also been a proliferation of studies on education for entrepreneurship in industrialised and developing countries. However, by addressing ‘entrepreneurship’ in terms of SMEs and high-tech start-ups, they overlook: (i the blurring distinctions between entrepreneurial and managerial capitalism, (ii an erosion of the Schumpeterian dichotomy between large and small firms, and (iii the growing importance of entrepreneurial management within companies as a source for economic growth. Additionally, ‘entrepreneurship’ tends to be taught as a stand-alone topic in higher education and business/non-business courses. Empirical studies related to entrepreneurship education within primary schools, especially in least developed locations in developing countries, are largely missing in this field. Drawing on first-hand empirical evidence from primary schools in a developing area in South America, this paper examines the incidence and functioning of pedagogic practices potentially related to the initial formation of entrepreneurial mindsets. The findings show that, despite some efforts, the researched schools suffered from, not surprisingly, inadequate physical conditions and, most importantly, teachers’ unawareness and deficient qualification related to the adoption of these techniques. These problems seemed to prevent children from developing important features of their initial entrepreneurial mindsets. Thus, if companies and countries want to secure their sources of revolutionary ideas and continuous and des-continuous innovation, they need to have a long-term commitment to continuously develop and nurture the seeds for their future innovative knowledge bases. Specifically, a comprehensive, long-term, geographically and socially inclusive perspective on entrepreneurship

  3. PREZICEREA PERFORMANŢELOR STUDENŢILOR FOLOSIND ÎNVĂŢAREA AUTOMATĂ (Machine Learning)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria CRISTEI; Ghenadie MARIN; Victor STELEA

    2017-01-01

    În prezent, învăţarea automată (machine learning) ocupă un loc important în inteligenţa artificială, preocupându-se de dezvoltarea algoritmilor ce permit unui sistem informatic să înveţe date, reguli şi algoritmi. Învăţarea automată pre­supune în primul rând identificarea şi implementarea unei modalităţi cât mai eficiente de reprezentare a informaţiilor, în sensul facilitării căutării, reorganizării şi modificării acestora. În acest sens, în prezentul articol se descrie utilitatea şi aplicabi...

  4. "Because We Weren't Actually Teaching Them, We Thought They Weren't Learning": Primary Teacher Perspectives from the "My Science" Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Anne; Skamp, Keith

    2014-01-01

    "MyScience" is a primary science education initiative in which being in a community of practice is integral to the learning process. This paper describes the ongoing journey to date of eight primary teachers from three primary schools who actively participated in "MyScience" over an extended period. Their views of interactions…

  5. Integrating Various Apps on BYOD (Bring Your Own Device) into Seamless Inquiry-Based Learning to Enhance Primary Students' Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yanjie; Wen, Yun

    2018-04-01

    Despite that BYOD (Bring Your Own Device) technology model has been increasingly adopted in education, few studies have been reported on how to integrate various apps on BYOD into inquiry-based pedagogical practices in primary schools. This article reports a case study, examining what apps on BYOD can help students enhance their science learning, and how students develop their science knowledge in a seamless inquiry-based learning environment supported by these apps. A variety of qualitative data were collected and analyzed. The findings show that the affordances of the apps on BYOD could help students improve their science knowledge without time and place constraints and gain a better sense of ownership in learning.

  6. Comparison on testability of visual acuity, stereo acuity and colour vision tests between children with learning disabilities and children without learning disabilities in government primary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Bakar, Nurul Farhana; Chen, Ai-Hong

    2014-02-01

    Children with learning disabilities might have difficulties to communicate effectively and give reliable responses as required in various visual function testing procedures. The purpose of this study was to compare the testability of visual acuity using the modified Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) and Cambridge Crowding Cards, stereo acuity using Lang Stereo test II and Butterfly stereo tests and colour perception using Colour Vision Test Made Easy (CVTME) and Ishihara's Test for Colour Deficiency (Ishihara Test) between children in mainstream classes and children with learning disabilities in special education classes in government primary schools. A total of 100 primary school children (50 children from mainstream classes and 50 children from special education classes) matched in age were recruited in this cross-sectional comparative study. The testability was determined by the percentage of children who were able to give reliable respond as required by the respective tests. 'Unable to test' was defined as inappropriate response or uncooperative despite best efforts of the screener. The testability of the modified ETDRS, Butterfly stereo test and Ishihara test for respective visual function tests were found lower among children in special education classes ( P learning disabilities. Modifications of vision testing procedures are essential for children with learning disabilities.

  7. A screening on Specific Learning Disorders in an Italian speaking high genetic homogeneity area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappa, Claudia; Giulivi, Sara; Schilirò, Antonino; Bastiani, Luca; Muzio, Carlo; Meloni, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to investigate the prevalence of Specific Learning Disorders (SLD) in Ogliastra, an area of the island of Sardinia, Italy. Having experienced centuries of isolation, Ogliastra has become a high genetic homogeneity area, and is considered particularly interesting for studies on different kinds of pathologies. Here we are going to describe the results of a screening carried out throughout 2 consecutive years in 49 second grade classes (24 considered in the first year and 25 in the second year of the study) of the Ogliastra region. A total of 610 pupils (average age 7.54 years; 293 female, 317 male) corresponding to 68.69% of all pupils who were attending second grade in the area, took part in the study. The tool used for the screening was "RSR-DSA. Questionnaire for the detection of learning difficulties and disorders", which allowed the identification of 83 subjects at risk (13.61% of the whole sample involved in the study). These subjects took part in an enhancement training program of about 6 months. After the program, pupils underwent assessment for reading, writing and calculation abilities, as well as cognitive assessment. According to the results of the assessment, the prevalence of SLDs is 6.06%. For what concerns dyslexia, 4.75% of the total sample manifested this disorder either in isolation or in comorbidity with other disorders. According to the first national epidemiological investigation carried out in Italy, the prevalence of dyslexia is 3.1-3.2%, which is lower than the prevalence obtained in the present study. Given the genetic basis of SLDs, this result, together with the presence of several cases of SLD in isolation (17.14%) and with a 3:1 ratio of males to females diagnosed with a SLD, was to be expected in a sample coming from a high genetic homogeneity area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cultivating engaged leadership through a learning collaborative: lessons from primary care renewal in Oregon safety net clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Carmit K; Schneider, Jennifer; Firemark, Alison; Davis, James; Spofford, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore how learning collaboratives cultivate leadership skills that are essential for implementing patient-centered medical homes (PCMHs). We conducted an ethnographic evaluation of a payor-incentivized PCMH implementation in Oregon safety net clinics, known as Primary Care Renewal. Analyses primarily drew on in-depth interviews with organizational leaders who were involved in the initiative. We solicited perspectives on the history, barriers, facilitators, and other noteworthy factors related to the implementation of PCMH. We reviewed and summarized transcripts and created and applied a coding dictionary to identify emergent leadership themes. We reviewed field notes from clinic site visits and observations of learning collaborative activities for additional information on the role of engaged leadership. Interview data suggested that organizations followed a similar, sequential process of Primary Care Renewal implementation having 2 phases-inspiration and implementation-and that leaders needed and learned different leadership skills in each phase. Leaders reported that collaborative learning opportunities were critical for developing engaged leadership skills during the inspiration phase of transformation. Facilitative and modeling aspects of engaged leadership were most important for codesigning a vision and plan for change. Adaptive leadership skills became more important during the implementation phase, when specific operational and management skills were needed to foster standardization and spread of the Primary Care Renewal initiative throughout participating clinics. The PCMH has received much attention as a way to reorganize and potentially improve primary care. Documenting steps and stages for cultivating leaders with the vision and skills to transform their organizations into PCMHs may offer a useful roadmap to other organizations considering a similar transformation.

  9. Modeling And Simulation As The Basis For Hybridity In The Graphic Discipline Learning/Teaching Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Žiljak Vujić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Only some fifteen years have passed since the scientific graphics discipline was established. In the transition period from the College of Graphics to «Integrated Graphic Technology Studies» to the contemporary Faculty of Graphics Arts with the University in Zagreb, three main periods of development can be noted: digital printing, computer prepress and automatic procedures in postpress packaging production. Computer technology has enabled a change in the methodology of teaching graphics technology and studying it on the level of secondary and higher education. The task has been set to create tools for simulating printing processes in order to master the program through a hybrid system consisting of methods that are separate in relation to one another: learning with the help of digital models and checking in the actual real system. We are setting a hybrid project for teaching because the overall acquired knowledge is the result of completely different methods. The first method is on the free programs level functioning without consequences. Everything remains as a record in the knowledge database that can be analyzed, statistically processed and repeated with new parameter values of the system being researched. The second method uses the actual real system where the results are in proving the value of new knowledge and this is something that encourages and stimulates new cycles of hybrid behavior in mastering programs. This is the area where individual learning incurs. The hybrid method allows the possibility of studying actual situations on a computer model, proving it on an actual real model and entering the area of learning envisaging future development.

  10. Modeling and Simulation as the Basis for Hybridity in the Graphic Discipline Learning/Teaching Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilko Ziljak

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Only some fifteen years have passed since the scientific graphics discipline was established. In the transition period from the College of Graphics to «Integrated Graphic Technology Studies» to the contemporary Faculty of Graphics Arts with the University in Zagreb, three main periods of development can be noted: digital printing, computer prepress and automatic procedures in postpress packaging production. Computer technology has enabled a change in the methodology of teaching graphics technology and studying it on the level of secondary and higher education. The task has been set to create tools for simulating printing processes in order to master the program through a hybrid system consisting of methods that are separate in relation to one another: learning with the help of digital models and checking in the actual real system.  We are setting a hybrid project for teaching because the overall acquired knowledge is the result of completely different methods. The first method is on the free programs level functioning without consequences. Everything remains as a record in the knowledge database that can be analyzed, statistically processed and repeated with new parameter values of the system being researched. The second method uses the actual real system where the results are in proving the value of new knowledge and this is something that encourages and stimulates new cycles of hybrid behavior in mastering programs. This is the area where individual learning incurs. The hybrid method allows the possibility of studying actual situations on a computer model, proving it on an actual real model and entering the area of learning envisaging future development.

  11. How do primary health care teams learn to integrate intimate partner violence (IPV) management? A realist evaluation protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goicolea, Isabel; Vives-Cases, Carmen; San Sebastian, Miguel; Marchal, Bruno; Kegels, Guy; Hurtig, Anna-Karin

    2013-03-23

    Despite the existence of ample literature dealing, on the one hand, with the integration of innovations within health systems and team learning, and, on the other hand, with different aspects of the detection and management of intimate partner violence (IPV) within healthcare facilities, research that explores how health innovations that go beyond biomedical issues-such as IPV management-get integrated into health systems, and that focuses on healthcare teams' learning processes is, to the best of our knowledge, very scarce if not absent. This realist evaluation protocol aims to ascertain: why, how, and under what circumstances primary healthcare teams engage (if at all) in a learning process to integrate IPV management in their practices; and why, how, and under what circumstances team learning processes lead to the development of organizational culture and values regarding IPV management, and the delivery of IPV management services. This study will be conducted in Spain using a multiple-case study design. Data will be collected from selected cases (primary healthcare teams) through different methods: individual and group interviews, routinely collected statistical data, documentary review, and observation. Cases will be purposively selected in order to enable testing the initial middle-range theory (MRT). After in-depth exploration of a limited number of cases, additional cases will be chosen for their ability to contribute to refining the emerging MRT to explain how primary healthcare learn to integrate intimate partner violence management. Evaluations of health sector responses to IPV are scarce, and even fewer focus on why, how, and when the healthcare services integrate IPV management. There is a consensus that healthcare professionals and healthcare teams play a key role in this integration, and that training is important in order to realize changes. However, little is known about team learning of IPV management, both in terms of how to trigger such learning

  12. Curriculum Integration in Distance Learning at Primary and Secondary Educational Levels on the Example of eTwinning Projects

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    Elżbieta Gajek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Curriculum integration is one of the concepts which has been discussed for years. Telecollaborative projects, which employ elements of distance learning, provide opportunities for putting the idea into practice. Analysis of eTwinning projects undertaken in Polish schools aims at demonstrating the integrative role of distance learning approaches and their contribution to integration of various themes in educational context. As the eTwinning framework is very flexible, allowing for teacher and students autonomy the projects may vary in the topics, age and number of participants, duration scope within curriculum etc. The study shows various levels and perspectives of curriculum integration which take place in eTwinning projects. It also discusses the role of distance learning at primary and secondary educational levels. The challenge is to transform international collaboration of selected schools an everyday practice for all learners and teachers.

  13. Informal mobile learning in nurse education and practice in remote areas--a case study from rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimmer, Christoph; Brysiewicz, Petra; Linxen, Sebastian; Walters, Fiona; Chipps, Jennifer; Gröhbiel, Urs

    2014-11-01

    With the proliferation of portable digital technology, mobile learning is becoming increasingly popular in nursing education and practice. Most of the research in this field has been concentrated on small-scale projects in high income countries. Very little is known about the ways in which nurses and midwives use mobile technology in remote and resource poor areas in informal learning contexts in low and middle income countries. To address this gap, this study investigates whether nurses use mobile phones as effective educational tools in marginalized and remote areas, and if so, how and why. In rural South Africa, 16 nurses who attended an advanced midwifery education program, facilitators and clinical managers were interviewed about their use of digital mobile technology for learning. Techniques of qualitative content analysis were used to examine the data. Several rich "organically-grown", learning practices were identified: mobile phone usage facilitated (1) authentic problem solving; (2) reflective practice; (3) emotional support and belongingness; (4) the realization of unpredictable teaching situations; and (5) life-long learning. It is concluded that mobile phones, and the convergence of mobile phones and social media, in particular, change learning environments. In addition, these tools are suitable to connect learners and learning distributed in marginalized areas. Finally, a few suggestions are made about how these insights from informal settings can inform the development of more systematic mobile learning formats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Participation of primary motor cortex area 4a in complex sensory processing: 3.0-T fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terumitsu, Makoto; Ikeda, Kotaro; Kwee, Ingrid L; Nakada, Tsutomu

    2009-05-06

    The precise movement of human fingers requires continuous and reciprocal interaction between motor and sensory systems. Similar to other primates, there is double representation of the digits and wrists within the human primary motor cortex (M1), which are generally referred to as area 4 anterior (M1-4a) and area 4 posterior (M1-4p). In this high-field (3.0 T) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we hypothesized that M1-4p is more important for initiation of motion, whereas M1-4a is important for execution of a given motion involving more complex sensoriomotor interaction. We investigated M1-4a and M1-4p activation associated with two representative motor tasks, namely, finger tapping (voluntary motion, VM) and passive finger movement accomplished by continuous pressure (passive motor, PM), and two representative sensory stimulations, namely, simple stimulation of flutter vibration (simple sensory, SS), and complex stimulation by a row of pins moving either vertically or horizontally (complex sensory, CS). Both M1-4a and M1-4p were activated in both motor tasks, VM and PM. M1-4p was not activated by either of the two sensory tasks, whereas M1-4a was activated by CS but not by SS. Analysis of the center of gravities (COG) of the activated areas showed that VM and PM moved COG towards M1-4p and 3a. SS moved COG towards somatosensory cortex Brodmann areas 1, 2, and 3b, whereas CS towards M1-4a. The result clearly showed that M1-4a represents the area of secondary motor execution, which actively participates in CS processing.

  15. What Can Elder Mistreatment Researchers Learn About Primary Prevention From Family Violence Intervention Models?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Kylie; Yonashiro-Cho, Jeanine; Gassoumis, Zachary D; Mosqueda, Laura; Han, S Duke; Wilber, Kathleen H

    2017-11-28

    Elder mistreatment (EM) is a public health problem that harms millions of older Americans each year. Despite growing recognition of its occurrence, there are no evidence-based primary prevention programs. Although EM is distinct from other areas of family violence, including child maltreatment and intimate partner violence, common risk factors and theoretical underpinnings point to opportunities for prevention strategies. Drawing on evidence-based best practices found in other fields of family violence, we identify approaches that could be tested to prevent EM at the hands of family caregivers, who are among the most likely to commit mistreatment. Specifically, we examine home visiting approaches primarily used in the child maltreatment field and identify components that have potential to inform EM interventions, including prevention. We conclude that there is enough information to begin testing a prevention intervention for EM that targets caregivers. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Prevalence of dental fluorosis among primary school children in rural areas of Chidambaram taluk, Cuddalore district, Tamil Nadu, India

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    Saravanan S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fluorosis is one of the common but major emerging areas of research in the tropics. It is considered endemic in 17 states of India. However, the Cuddalore district of Tamil Nadu is categorised as a fluorosis non-endemic area. But clinical cases of dental fluorosis were reported in the field practice area of Department of Community Medicine, Rajah Muthiah Medical College, Annamalai University, Chidambaram. Since dental fluorosis has been described as a biomarker of exposure to fluoride, we assessed the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis among primary school children in the service area. Materials and Methods: Children studying in six primary schools of six villages in the field practice area of Rural Health Centre of Faculty of Medicine, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, were surveyed. Every child was clinically examined at the school by calibrated examiners with Dean′s fluorosis index recommended by WHO (1997. Chi-square test, Chi-square trend test and Spearman′s rank correlation coefficient test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Five hundred and twenty-five 5- to 12-year-old school children (255 boys and 270 girls were surveyed. The overall dental fluorosis prevalence was found to be 31.4% in our study sample. Dental fluorosis increased with age P < 0.001, whereas gender difference was not statistically significant. Aesthetically objectionable dental fluorosis was found in 2.1% of the sample. Villages Senjicherry, Keezhaperambai and Kanagarapattu revealed a community fluorosis index (CFI score of 0.43, 0.54 and 0.54 with 5.6%, 4.8% and 1.4% of objectionable dental fluorosis, respectively. Correlation between water fluoride content and CFI values in four villages was noted to be positively significant. Conclusion: Three out of six villages studied were in ′borderline′ public health significance (CFI score 0.4-0.6. A well-designed epidemiological investigation can be undertaken to evaluate the risk factors

  17. The teacher's understanding of learned helplessness in children with special needs in primary school

    OpenAIRE

    Tement, Katja

    2012-01-01

    Learned helplessness is very common among students with special needs or students who are less successful in school. Constantly experiencing failure convinces them that they cannot have any influence on being successful with their own activity, and they stop trying. Learned helplessness affects motivation, cognition and child’s emotions. A child, who has developed learned helplessness, cannot overcome it by himself or herself. He or she needs help from an adult. In the research I have focu...

  18. Study on Net Primary Productivity over Complicated Mountainous Area based on Multi-Source Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, X.; Shen, H.; Li, X.; Gan, W.

    2017-12-01

    Mountainous area hosts approximately a quarter of the global land surface, with complex climate and ecosystem conditions. More knowledge about mountainous ecosystem could highly advance our understanding of the global carbon cycle and climate change. Net Primary Productivity (NPP), the biomass increment of plants, is a widely used ecological indicator that can be obtained by remote sensing methods. However, limited by the defective characteristic of sensors, which cannot be long-term with enough spatial details synchronously, the mountainous NPP was far from being understood. In this study, a multi-sensor fusion framework was applied to synthesize a 1-km NPP series from 1982 to 2014 in mountainous southwest China, where elevation ranged from 76m to 6740m. The validation with field-measurements proved this framework greatly improved the accuracy of NPP (r=0.79, prun-off. What is more, it was indicated that the NPP variation showed three distinct stages at the year break-point of 1992 and 2002 over the region. The NPP in low-elevation area varied almost triple more drastic than the high-elevation area for all the three stages, due to the much greater change rate of precipitation. In summary, this study innovatively conducted a long-term and accurate NPP study on the not understood mountainous ecosystem with multi-source data, the framework and conclusions will be beneficial for the further cognition of global climate change.

  19. The complex scenario of obesity, diabetes and hypertension in the area of influence of primary healthcare facilities in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalde-Rabanal, J E; Orozco-Núñez, E; Espinosa-Henao, O E; Arredondo-López, A; Alcayde-Barranco, L

    2018-01-01

    Among non-communicable chronic diseases (NCCD), diabetes and hypertension are the main cause of adult mortality worldwide. Among the members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Mexico is first in prevalence of diabetes and second in obesity. To face this problematic situation of NCCDs the Ministry of Health declared a national epidemiological alert against the overweight, obesity and diabetes. The target of this study is to characterize the status of obesity, diabetes and hypertension in the adult population in the area of influence of primary health facilities located in high social marginality areas. We conducted a cross-sectional observational study and used a convenience sample. A survey was conducted on a population of 18 years old and above in four primary health facilities in four Mexican States. The survey explored sociodemographic characteristics, the presence of chronic diseases, the access to healthcare services, risk factors and life styles. We also applied a complementary questionnaire to 20% of the participants, in order to explore food consumption during the last week and physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire). We based our analysis on descriptive statistics and logistic multivariate regression to analyze factors associated with diabetes and hypertension. 73% (n = 7531, CI 0.72-0.74) percent of the population reported being diabetic, hypertensive and/or overweight. The majority of them receive healthcare in public health services. People over 40 years old, are 11 times more probable of living with diabetes and 8.7 times more probable of living with hypertension. Both conditions affect mostly women, whose main activity is to be a housewife. People who have lunch and dinner out of home are more likely to develop diabetes. People who perform intense physical activity are less likely to live with hypertension. According to the self-report, more than 70% of adult population living in areas with high

  20. Forms of Cooperative Learning in Language Teaching in Slovenian Language Classes at the Primary School Level

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    Alenka Rot Vrhovec

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Slovenian language syllabus, teachers are recommended to provide a greater share of group work during class. During types of learning such as cooperative learning in smaller groups or pairs, students actively develop communicative competence. The present article presents a survey that attempted to determine whether teachers from the first to the fifth grade execute cooperative learning in language classes. The purpose of the article is to raise teachers’ awareness and encourage them to design and execute cooperative learning more frequently.

  1. Experiential Learning in Primary Care: Impact on Veterinary Students' Communication Confidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Daniella; Khosa, Deep; Jones-Bitton, Andria

    2017-01-01

    Experiential learning is essential in medical and veterinary student education and can improve students' communication with clients during medical appointments. There is limited research in veterinary education investigating the effectiveness of experiential learning environments to provide an "integrative approach" to teaching. The…

  2. Australian Primary Students' Motivation and Learning Intentions for Extra-Curricular Music Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Clarence

    2017-01-01

    What are the motivational differences between students who intend to continue their learning in instrumental and choral music programmes and those who intend to discontinue? Using an achievement-goal perspective, this study investigated motivation and learning intentions of Australian students who had engaged in these extra-curricular music…

  3. A Conceptual Framework for the Cultural Integration of Cooperative Learning: A Thai Primary Mathematics Education Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Yong; Nuntrakune, Tippawan

    2013-01-01

    The Thailand education reform adopted cooperative learning to improve the quality of education. However, it has been reported that the introduction and maintenance of cooperative learning has been difficult and uncertain because of the cultural differences. The study proposed a conceptual framework developed based on making a connection between…

  4. Forms of Cooperative Learning in Language Teaching in Slovenian Language Classes at the Primary School Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrhovec, Alenka Rot

    2015-01-01

    In the Slovenian language syllabus, teachers are recommended to provide a greater share of group work during class. During types of learning such as cooperative learning in smaller groups or pairs, students actively develop communicative competence. The present article presents a survey that attempted to determine whether teachers from the first…

  5. Cooperative Learning in a Hong Kong Primary School: Perceptions, Problems and Accommodation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kam Wing

    2014-01-01

    Some educators may see cooperative learning as a Western pedagogy that is difficult to use in Eastern countries with a Confucian Heritage, while others argue that the philosophy of Confucius parallels the elements of cooperative learning. This article reports the key findings of a 2-year longitudinal study that investigated the perceptions of…

  6. Content and Language Integrated Learning through an Online Game in Primary School: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourda, Kyriaki; Bratitsis, Tharrenos; Griva, Eleni; Papadopoulou, Penelope

    2014-01-01

    In this paper an educational design proposal is presented which combines two well established teaching approaches, that of Game-based Learning (GBL) and Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL). The context of the proposal was the design of an educational geography computer game, utilizing QR Codes and Google Earth for teaching English…

  7. A Teachable Agent Game Engaging Primary School Children to Learn Arithmetic Concepts and Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareto, Lena

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we will describe a learning environment designed to foster conceptual understanding and reasoning in mathematics among younger school children. The learning environment consists of 48 2-player game variants based on a graphical model of arithmetic where the mathematical content is intrinsically interwoven with the game idea. The…

  8. A Didactic Analysis of Content Development during Cooperative Learning in Primary Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallhead, Tristan; Dyson, Ben

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the Joint Action Studies in Didactics (JASD) to understand how teachers' and students' interactions co-construct knowledge during Cooperative Learning (CL). The basis of CL is that students learn with and from each other through a structured interdependent relationship. A case study approach was used to examine…

  9. Role of Broca's Area in Implicit Motor Skill Learning: Evidence from Continuous Theta-Burst Magnetic Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerget, Emeline; Poncin, William; Fadiga, Luciano; Olivier, Etienne

    2012-01-01

    Complex actions can be regarded as a concatenation of simple motor acts, arranged according to specific rules. Because the caudal part of the Broca's region (left Brodmann's area 44, BA 44) is involved in processing hierarchically organized behaviors, we aimed to test the hypothesis that this area may also play a role in learning structured motor…

  10. Development of Guidelines for Mentoring Internal Supervision for the Schools under Roi-Et Office of Primary Education Service Area 2

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    Natchana Sahunil

    2017-06-01

    the lowest mean is evaluation of mentoring supervision. 3. Regarding the guidelines on the operation of mentoring internal supervision for the schools under Roi-Et Office of Primary Education Service Area 2, they have the suitability and feasibility, on the whole, in the high level on every factor. The guidelines are concluded and listed as follows: the operation of the mentoring internal supervision should have a support system organized in order to monitor the relationship of the supervision process between the mentor and the mentee ; a handbook of mentoring internal supervision which contains the main substances of the matters under supervision should be written and be used as part of the work and as a reference ; an orientation should be organized for mentors and mentees to get acquainted ; the evaluation of the internal supervision should cover the process, the product and working factors ; there should be achievement evaluation of the project by considering teacher development and the learning achievement of the students ; a network system of mentoring internal supervision should be built in order that personnel of the school as well as personnel of different schools can study together which will induce good collaboration ; there should be production of media, tools, equipment and documents used in internal supervision ; The activities of mentoring internal supervision should be arranged in steps, comprising: meeting before the semester begins, giving advice, focus group discussion, classroom-visit supervision, teaching observation and self-assessment, monitoring in order to give advice, support, and listen to opinions and suggestions from the teachers ; provide opportunities for the teachers to take part in setting the policy of the school ; and there should be conclusion of the operation for further improvements ; feedbacks should be used in the improvement and the work should be publicized and admired as an example in the school.

  11. Emotion as the amplifier and the primary motive: Some theories of emotion with relevance to language learning

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    Rebecca L. Oxford

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotion is crucial to living and learning. The powerful intertwining of emotion and cognition ignites learning within a complex dynamic system, which, as several sections of this paper show, also includes societal and cultural influences. As “the primary human motive” (MacIntyre, 2002a, p. 61, emotion operates as an amplifier, which provides energetic intensity to all human behavior, including language learning. This chapter explains major theories of emotion drawn from positive psychology, social psychology, social constructivism, social constructionism, and existential psychotherapy. It also offers implications for language learning related to understanding and managing emotions; expressing emotions appropriately despite cultural and linguistic differences; viewing emotions as transitory social roles; enhancing positive emotions and developing resilience; and recognizing, perhaps paradoxically, both the negative and the positive aspects of anxiety. The chapter concludes with the statement that language learners can become more agentic in dealing with their emotions. This form of self-regulation can lead to greater success in language learning.

  12. Creating a Framework of a Resource-Based E-Learning Environment for Science Learning in Primary Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Winnie W. M.

    2012-01-01

    Advancements in information and communications technology and the rapid expansion of the Internet have changed the nature and the mode of the presentation and delivery of teaching and learning resources. This paper discusses the results of a study aimed at investigating how five teachers planned to integrate online resources in their teaching of…

  13. Problems and Guidelines of Strategy Implementation in Basic Educational Institutions under the Supervision of KhonKaen Primary Educational Service Area Office 4

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    Sasiwan Tonkanya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to 1 study problems of strategy implementation in basic educational institutions under Khonkaen Primary Educational Service Area Office 4 ; and 2 propose the guidelines for strategy implementation in basic educational institutions under Khonkaen Primary Educational Service Area Office 4. The study was carried out in 2 phases. In phase 1, it focused on the study and analysis of the strategic implementation problems and phase 2 studied the best practice schools. The informants for the interview in phase 1 comprised 6 school administrators and teachers who were involved in strategy implementation from small-sized, medium-sized, and large-sized schools. They were selected by the use of purposive sampling technique. The population in the study of the strategic implementation problems in basic educational institutions in phase 1 consisted of 543 school administrators and teachers who were involved in strategy implementation from 181 schools under Khonkaen Primary Educational Service Area Office 4 in academic year 2014. The study samples were 217 school administrators and teachers who were involved in strategy implementation from small-sized, medium-sized, and large-sized schools under Khonkaen Primary Educational Service Area Office 4. The samples were selected by the use of stratified sampling technique. The informants of the phase 2 study were 6 school administrators and teachers who were involved in strategy implementation from small-sized, medium-sized, and large-sized best practice schools obtained from purposive sampling technique. The research instruments used for data collection consisted of 2 sets of questionnaires. The Set 1 questionnaire was the 5-point Likert scale on the levels of the problems in implementation with item discrimination at 0.60 – 1.00 and reliability of the whole questionnaire at .9359. The questionnaire contained 3 parts with 65 items. The Set 2 questionnaire comprised 2 parts with 10 items regarding

  14. Conflict Prevalence in Primary School and How It Is Understood to Affect Teaching and Learning in Ghana

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    Nana Afia Amponsaa Opoku-Asare

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Verbal and non-verbal interactions that occur daily between teachers and headteachers, teachers and pupils, and among pupils can generate conflict that may adversely affect teaching, learning, and schooling effectiveness. Little attention is, however, paid to the quality of relationships that exists between teachers and pupils, among teachers, among pupils, between teachers and their school heads, and between schools and their local communities. This study sought to investigate conflict prevalence in Ghana’s primary schools, and how relationship conflict is understood to affect teaching and learning at the level of headteachers as administrators, teachers as classroom managers, and pupils as learners, and direct beneficiaries of primary education. Using data gathered via interview, questionnaire administration, and observation in 30 public primary schools in 10 circuits of one district of Ashanti Region, the findings revealed a high prevalence of fighting, heckling, bullying, and other forms of relationship conflict among pupils; strained teacher–pupil relations due to insolence, indiscipline, and use of offensive language; and teacher–parent arguments and quarrels due to harsh punishment and verbal assault of pupils. Teacher–pupil conflicts may extend to teachers excluding the affected pupils from teaching and learning activities, denying them the rights to ask and answer questions, and have their class exercises marked, leading to lowered pupil self-esteem, reduced concentration during lessons, and passive involvement in learning activities, which could result in truancy and school dropout. Strengthening guidance mechanisms and encouraging peer mediation could significantly curb conflict in school environments and thereby raise educational standards in the district.

  15. A cognitive perspective on Singaporean primary school pupils' use of reading strategies in learning to read in English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lawrence Jun; Gu, Peter Yongqi; Hu, Guangwei

    2008-06-01

    This study is conducted in Singapore, where learning to read in English is regarded as essential because it is offered as a First Language (L1) subject in the curriculum and is stipulated as the medium of instruction in the education system, and the mother tongues are offered as Second Language (L2) subjects, although the majority still learn English as an L2. The paper reports on the reading strategies used by Singaporean primary school pupils from a cognitive perspective, which is part of a larger study that aims to investigate these pupils' language learning strategies. The participants were 18 pupils from three neighbourhood primary schools, in grades Primary 4, 5 and 6. The data were collected from high- and low-proficiency pupils at each of the three grades in each school, who read two texts at each level. Grounded in an information-processing theory and based on successful experiences of scholars using think-aloud for data collection, we asked the pupils to read and report what they were thinking about while reading. The think-aloud protocols were recorded, transcribed verbatim, coded and analysed. The results suggest that participants' flexible and appropriate use of reading strategies varies according to language proficiency and grade level, with the high-proficiency group outperforming its lower-proficiency counterpart and the high-graders outnumbering the lower-graders in terms of the number of strategies that they used. These differences were also exemplified with qualitative findings from case studies. The use of reading strategies differs according to proficiency levels, and the quality of pupils' strategy-use patterns has more significant implications for understanding efficient reading among primary school pupils.

  16. Social learning and energy systems: implementing a high energy saving goal in a residential area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glad, Wiktoria (Linkoeping University, Department of Thematic Studies (Sweden))

    2011-07-01

    Generally, retrofitting existing housing stock is considered the area with the most energy-efficiency potential, since buildings last a long time and turnover is slow. This paper presents practice- based research into social learning in the domain of new energy systems in existing dwellings. A case study from Sweden is presented and analysed in relation to social learning. The methodology and data collection are guided by a 'thick description' approach that acknowledges the importance of putting human action in context. The theoretical framework chosen also stresses contexts, using social learning concepts from social shaping of technology (SST) theory. The energy systems as used and managed by professionals and tenants of this retrofitted housing project are the focus. I analyse three connected systems, i.e., the electricity, heating, and hot water system, all parts of a novel individual metering and debiting system installed during the retrofit. An overall goal of the retrofit was to reduce energy demand by 52 % which was achieved but not by the measures invested in. The delivery, metering, and debiting of the energy services are managed in-house by the housing company, but it is up to the tenants to reduce their energy demand. The housing company's technology and implementation policies were ambivalent and evolved in response to the needs of professionals and tenants. Statistics from the property owner's evaluation indicate that the project achieved its goal, but the figures hide that it might have been due to fewer flats, new tenants and new use of buildings

  17. fMRI-vs-MEG evaluation of post-stroke interhemispheric asymmetries in primary sensorimotor hand areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamura, Claudia; Torquati, Kahtya; Zappasodi, Filippo; Ferretti, Antonio; Pizzella, Vittorio; Tibuzzi, Francesco; Vernieri, Fabrizio; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Landi, Doriana; Del Gratta, Cosimo; Romani, Gian-Luca; Maria Rossini, Paolo; Tecchio, Franca

    2007-04-01

    Growing evidence emphasizes a positive role of brain ipsilesional (IL) reorganization in stroke patients with partial recovery. Ten patients affected by a monohemispheric stroke in the middle cerebral artery territory underwent functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) evaluation of the primary sensory (S1) activation via the same paradigm (median nerve galvanic stimulation). Four patients did not present S1 fMRI activation [Rossini, P.M., Altamura, C., Ferretti, A., Vernieri, F., Zappasodi, F., Caulo, M., Pizzella, V., Del Gratta, C., Romani, G.L., Tecchio, F., 2004. Does cerebrovascular disease affect the coupling between neuronal activity and local haemodynamics? Brain 127, 99-110], although inclusion criteria required bilateral identifiable MEG responses. Mean Euclidean distance between fMRI and MEG S1 activation Talairach coordinates was 10.1+/-2.9 mm, with a 3D intra-class correlation (ICC) coefficient of 0.986. Interhemispheric asymmetries, evaluated by an MEG procedure independent of Talairach transformation, were outside or at the boundaries of reference ranges in 6 patients. In 3 of them, the IL activation presented medial or lateral shift with respect to the omega-shaped post-rolandic area while in the other 3, IL areas were outside the peri-rolandic region. In conclusion, despite dissociated intensity, the MEG and fMRI activations displayed good spatial consistency in stroke patients, thus confirming excessive interhemispheric asymmetries as a suitable indicator of unusual recruitments in the ipsilesional hemisphere, within or outside the peri-rolandic region.

  18. Community health worker in hard-to-reach rural areas of Myanmar: filling primary health care service gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommanustweechai, Angkana; Putthasri, Weerasak; Nwe, Mya Lay; Aung, Saw Thetlya; Theint, Mya Min; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Wynn, San Shway

    2016-10-21

    Myanmar is classified as critical shortage of health workforce. In responses to limited number of trained health workforce in the hard-to-reach and remote areas, the MOH trained the Community Health Worker (CHW) as health volunteers serving these communities on a pro bono basis. This study aimed to assess the socio-economic profiles, contributions of CHW to primary health care services and their needs for supports to maintain their quality contributions in rural hard to reach areas in Myanmar. In 2013, cross-sectional census survey was conducted on all three groups of CHW classified by their training dates: (1) prior to 2000, (2) between 2000 and 2011, and (3) more recently trained in 2012, who are still working in 21 townships of 17 states and regions in Myanmar, using a self-administered questionnaire survey in the Burmese language. The total 715 CHWs from 21 townships had completely responded to the questionnaire. CHWs were trained to support the work of midwives in the sub-centres and health assistant and midwives in rural health centres (RHCs) such as community mobilization for immunization, advocates of safe water and sanitation, and general health education and health awareness for the citizens. CHWs were able to provide some of the services by themselves, such as treatment of simple illnesses, and they provided services to 62 patients in the last 6 months. Their contributions to primary health care services were well accepted by the communities as they are geographically and culturally accessible. However, supports from the RHC were inadequate in particular technical supervision, as well as replenishment of CHW kits and financial support for their work and transportation. In practice, 6 % of service provided by CHWs was funded by the community and 22 % by the patients. The CHW's confidence in providing health services was positively associated with their age, education, and more recent training. A majority of them intended to serve as a CHW for more than

  19. Learning to Teach Geography for Primary Education: Results of an Experimental Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankman, Marian; Schoonenboom, Judith; van der Schee, Joop; Boogaard, Marianne; Volman, Monique

    2016-01-01

    Students training to become primary school teachers appear to have little awareness of the core concepts of geography (teaching). To ensure that future primary school teachers are able to develop their pupils' geographical awareness, a six weeks programme was developed. The characteristics of this programme -- named Consciously Teaching Geography…

  20. Learning to teach geography for primary education : Results of an experimental programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankman, M.; Schoonenboom, J.; van der Schee, J.; Boogaard, M.; Volman, M.

    2016-01-01

    Students training to become primary school teachers appear to have little awareness of the core concepts of geography (teaching). To ensure that future primary school teachers are able to develop their pupils’ geographical awareness, a six weeks programme was developed. The characteristics of this

  1. Science That Matters: Exploring Science Learning and Teaching in Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Angela; Smith, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    To help support primary school students to better understand why science matters, teachers must first be supported to teach science in ways that matter. In moving to this point, this paper identifies the dilemmas and tensions primary school teachers face in the teaching of science. The balance is then readdressed through a research-based…

  2. The development of learning model for natural science based on environmental in conservation area of Bengkulu University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karyadi, B.; Susanta, A.; Winari, E. W.; Ekaputri, R. Z.; Enersi, D.

    2018-05-01

    Research on development of a learning model for Natural Science base on conservation area in Bengkulu University has been conducted. The research methods were referred to the standard steps of Research and Development. Stage activities were (a) analysis of needs, (b) observation of the ecological aspects of conservation area as a learning resource, and (c) instructional design based on conservation area for secondary school students. The observation results on the ecological aspects revealed that the diversity of plants and animals, at the conservation area were sufficient as a source for learning. The instructional design was prepared in three phase activities namely Introduction-Exploration-Interpretation (IEI), and then it was compiled in a teaching material Based on Surrounding Natural Environment” (BSNE). The results of a limited scale trial at secondary school students in two districts of Bengkulu province showed that, the students who learned using the IEI model at the conservation area have a good performance and critical thinking. The product from the research is a book named BSNE that can be used for teachers and conservation practitioners in doing the learning activities on environmental conservation which involved public participation.

  3. Improving family medicine resident training in dementia care: an experiential learning opportunity in Primary Care Collaborative Memory Clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Linda; Weston, W Wayne; Hillier, Loretta; Archibald, Douglas; Lee, Joseph

    2018-06-21

    Family physicians often find themselves inadequately prepared to manage dementia. This article describes the curriculum for a resident training intervention in Primary Care Collaborative Memory Clinics (PCCMC), outlines its underlying educational principles, and examines its impact on residents' ability to provide dementia care. PCCMCs are family physician-led interprofessional clinic teams that provide evidence-informed comprehensive assessment and management of memory concerns. Within PCCMCs residents learn to apply a structured approach to assessment, diagnosis, and management; training consists of a tutorial covering various topics related to dementia followed by work-based learning within the clinic. Significantly more residents who trained in PCCMCs (sample = 98), as compared to those in usual training programs (sample = 35), reported positive changes in knowledge, ability, and confidence in ability to assess and manage memory problems. The PCCMC training intervention for family medicine residents provides a significant opportunity for residents to learn about best clinical practices and interprofessional care needed for optimal dementia care integrated within primary care practice.

  4. Designing Reflection and Symmetry Learning by Using Math Traditional Dance in Primary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yullys Helsa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The innovation of education is an important point of Pendidikan Matematika Realistik Indonesia (PMRI, one of them through traditional dance as a context of national cultural. Dance that collaborated with concept of mathematics, it is called Math Traditional Dance. This research aims to produce learning line (specific the material of reflection and symmetry. The research method used is design research that consisted of preparing for the experiments, teaching experiments, and retrospective analysis. Data collected through observation, interviews, documentation and field notes. This research was conducted with 22 students in MIN 2 Palembang. From the try out that is obtained from the formal to the informal learning described in the learning process, so that support learning process of mirroring and symmetry for the students in grade four in elementary school.

  5. When Do Pictures Help Learning from Expository Text? Multimedia and Modality Effects in Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrlinger, Simone; Höffler, Tim N.; Opfermann, Maria; Leutner, Detlev

    2017-06-01

    Adding pictures to a text is very common in today's education and might be especially beneficial for elementary school children, whose abilities to read and understand pure text have not yet been fully developed. Our study examined whether adding pictures supports learning of a biology text in fourth grade and whether the text modality (spoken or written) plays a role. Results indicate that overall, pictures enhanced learning but that the text should be spoken rather than written. These results are in line with instructional design principles derived from common multimedia learning theories. In addition, for elementary school children, it might be advisable to read texts out to the children. Reading by themselves and looking at pictures might overload children's cognitive capacities and especially their visual channel. In this case, text and pictures would not be integrated into one coherent mental model, and effective learning would not take place.

  6. Designing Geometry 2.0 learning environments: a preliminary study with primary school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joglar Prieto, Nuria; María Sordo Juanena, José; Star, Jon R.

    2014-04-01

    The information and communication technologies of Web 2.0 are arriving in our schools, allowing the design and implementation of new learning environments with great educational potential. This article proposes a pedagogical model based on a new geometry technology-integrated learning environment, called Geometry 2.0, which was tested with 39 sixth grade students from a public school in Madrid (Spain). The main goals of the study presented here were to describe an optimal role for the mathematics teacher within Geometry 2.0, and to analyse how dynamic mathematics and communication might affect young students' learning of basic figural concepts in a real setting. The analyses offered in this article illustrate how our Geometry 2.0 model facilitates deeply mathematical tasks which encourage students' exploration, cooperation and communication, improving their learning while fostering geometrical meanings.

  7. Secondary school learners' perceptions of responsible citizenship as taught in the life orientation learning area: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    In this study, secondary school learners perceptions of Responsible Citizenship as taught in the Life Orientation learning area are explored. Citizen Education, which is set out in Learning Outcome Two of the Life Orientation Curriculum, forms the basis of the programme used to conduct this study. An international as well as a national perspective of Responsible Citizenship and the teaching thereof is explicated with special reference being made to the Further Education and Training Band. The...

  8. [Antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae in healthy carrier individuals in primary care in Barcelona area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llor, Carles; Boada, Albert; Pons-Vigués, Mariona; Grenzner, Elisabet; Juvé, Rosa; Almeda, Jesús

    2018-01-01

    The information available on antibiotic resistance patterns are generally based on specimens from hospitalised individuals. This study was aimed at evaluating the antibiotic resistance rate of nasal carriage strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae in healthy individuals, in accordance with age and gender, attended in Primary Care Centres (PCC). Cross-sectional study. Seven PCC in the Barcelona area. Healthy nasal carriers aged 4years or more who did not present with any sign of infectious disease, and had not taken any antibiotic or had been hospitalised in the previous 3months. A total of 3,969 nasal swabs valid for identification were collected between 2010 and 2011 and were sent to one central microbiological laboratory for isolation of both pathogens. Resistance to common antibiotics was determined on the basis of the current European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing guidelines on cut-off points. The prevalence of methicillin-resistant S.aureus was 1.3% (95%CI: 0.5-2.1%), with resistance rates of 87.1% to phenoxymethylpenicillin and 11.6% to azithromycin, with no significant differences with age and gender. A total of 2.4% (95CI%: 0.1-4.7%) of the pneumococcal strains were highly resistant to both phenoxymethylpenicillin and macrolides, whereas the highest resistance rates were to cefaclor (53.3%), followed by tetracycline (20%) and cefuroxime (12.1%). These pathogens have lower resistance rates in the community than in the hospital setting. Primary Care physicians must be more aware of the current antimicrobial resistance, in order to ensure prudent use of antibiotics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Machine learning algorithms for meteorological event classification in the coastal area using in-situ data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Anton; Gengembre, Cyril; Dmitriev, Egor; Delbarre, Hervé

    2017-04-01

    The problem is considered of classification of local atmospheric meteorological events in the coastal area such as sea breezes, fogs and storms. The in-situ meteorological data as wind speed and direction, temperature, humidity and turbulence are used as predictors. Local atmospheric events of 2013-2014 were analysed manually to train classification algorithms in the coastal area of English Channel in Dunkirk (France). Then, ultrasonic anemometer data and LIDAR wind profiler data were used as predictors. A few algorithms were applied to determine meteorological events by local data such as a decision tree, the nearest neighbour classifier, a support vector machine. The comparison of classification algorithms was carried out, the most important predictors for each event type were determined. It was shown that in more than 80 percent of the cases machine learning algorithms detect the meteorological class correctly. We expect that this methodology could be applied also to classify events by climatological in-situ data or by modelling data. It allows estimating frequencies of each event in perspective of climate change.

  10. The relationship between BMI and dietary intake of primary school children from a rural area of South Africa: The Ellisras longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Ende, C.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Monyeki, K.D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship between dietary intake and BMI of primary school children from a rural area of South Africa cross-sectionally. Both under and over nutrition remain major health problems in South Africa. In rural areas, where especially undernutrition leads to child

  11. Prevalence of refractive error in malay primary school children in suburban area of Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Syaratul-Emma; Tan, Hui-Ken; Wan-Hazabbah, W H; Ibrahim, Mohtar

    2008-11-01

    Refractive error remains one of the primary causes of visual impairment in children worldwide, and the prevalence of refractive error varies widely. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of refractive error and study the possible associated factors inducing refractive error among primary school children of Malay ethnicity in the suburban area of Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia. A school-based cross-sectional study was performed from January to July 2006 by random selection on Standard 1 to Standard 6 students of 10 primary schools in the Kota Bharu district. Visual acuity assessment was measured using logMAR ETDRS chart. Positive predictive value of uncorrected visual acuity equal or worse than 20/40, was used as a cut-off point for further evaluation by automated refraction and retinoscopic refraction. A total of 840 students were enumerated but only 705 were examined. The prevalence of uncorrected visual impairment was seen in 54 (7.7%) children. The main cause of the uncorrected visual impairment was refractive error which contributed to 90.7% of the total, and with 7.0% prevalence for the studied population. Myopia is the most common type of refractive error among children aged 6 to 12 years with prevalence of 5.4%, followed by hyperopia at 1.0% and astigmatism at 0.6%. A significant positive correlation was noted between myopia development with increasing age (P <0.005), more hours spent on reading books (P <0.005) and background history of siblings with glasses (P <0.005) and whose parents are of higher educational level (P <0.005). Malays in suburban Kelantan (5.4%) have the lowest prevalence of myopia compared with Malays in the metropolitan cities of Kuala Lumpur (9.2%) and Singapore (22.1%). The ethnicity-specific prevalence rate of myopia was the lowest among Malays in Kota Bharu, followed by Kuala Lumpur, and is the highest among Singaporean Malays. Better socio-economic factors could have contributed to higher myopia rates in the

  12. "We Found the 'Black Spots' on Campus on Our Own": Development of Inquiry Skills in Primary Science Learning with BYOD (Bring Your Own Device)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yanjie

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a study situated in a one-year project "Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) for Mobile Knowledge Building," aiming at investigating how primary school students developed their inquiry skills in science learning in BYOD-supported learning environments. Student perceptions of the BYOD-supported inquiry experience were also…

  13. An Evaluation of "Success and Dyslexia"--A Multi Component School-Based Coping Program for Primary School Students with Learning Disabilities: Is It Feasible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Nola Virginia; Frydenberg, Erica; Bond, Lyndal

    2012-01-01

    A learning disabilities coping program was implemented in the final year of two primary schools within the context of a whole class coping program and whole school learning disabilities professional development. Using data collected over three years from school surveys, reports, interviews, school documents and a field diary, this paper reports on…

  14. Exploring Daily Physical Activity and Nutrition Patterns in Early Learning Settings: Snapshots of Young Children in Head Start, Primary, and After-School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegelin, Dolores A.; Anderson, Denise; Kemper, Karen; Wagner, Jennifer; Evans, Katharine

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to gain a greater understanding of daily routines of 4-7 year olds regarding physical activity and nutrition practices in typical early learning environments. The settings selected for this observational study included Head Start, primary, and after-school learning environments in a city in the southeast.…

  15. Factors associated to clinical learning in nursing students in primary health care: an analytical cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Gallardo, Pilar; Martínez-Marcos, Mercedes; Espejo-Matorrales, Flora; Arakawa, Tiemi; Magnabosco, Gabriela Tavares; Pinto, Ione Carvalho

    2016-09-09

    to identify the students' perception about the quality of clinical placements and asses the influence of the different tutoring processes in clinical learning. analytical cross-sectional study on second and third year nursing students (n=122) about clinical learning in primary health care. The Clinical Placement Evaluation Tool and a synthetic index of attitudes and skills were computed to give scores to the clinical learning (scale 0-10). Univariate, bivariate and multivariate (multiple linear regression) analyses were performed. the response rate was 91.8%. The most commonly identified tutoring process was "preceptor-professor" (45.2%). The clinical placement was assessed as "optimal" by 55.1%, relationship with team-preceptor was considered good by 80.4% of the cases and the average grade for clinical learning was 7.89. The multiple linear regression model with more explanatory capacity included the variables "Academic year" (beta coefficient = 1.042 for third-year students), "Primary Health Care Area (PHC)" (beta coefficient = 0.308 for Area B) and "Clinical placement perception" (beta coefficient = - 0.204 for a suboptimal perception). timeframe within the academic program, location and clinical placement perception were associated with students' clinical learning. Students' perceptions of setting quality were positive and a good team-preceptor relationship is a matter of relevance. identificar a percepção dos estudantes de enfermagem sobre a qualidade das Práticas Clínicas em Atenção Primária à Saúde e avaliar a influência dos diferentes processos de tutoria na aprendizagem clínica. um estudo analítico transversal realizado com alunos do segundo e do terceiro ano de enfermagem (n = 122) na aprendizagem clínica nos serviços de Atenção Primária à Saúde. A Ferramenta de Avaliação de Práticas Clínicas (Clinical Placement Evaluation Tool) e um índice sintético de atitudes e habilidades (escala de 0 a 10) foram calculados para marcar a

  16. Primary care and addiction treatment: lessons learned from building bridges across traditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, A H

    1999-01-01

    A primary care unit combined with residential addiction treatment allows patients with addictive disease and chronic medical or psychiatric problems to successfully complete the treatment. These are patients who would otherwise fail treatment or fail to be considered candidates for treatment. Health care providers should have a background in primary care and have the potential to respond professionally to clinical problems in behavioral medicine. Ongoing professional training and statistical quality management principles can maintain morale and productivity. Health education is an integral part of primary care. The costs of such concurrent care when viewed in the context of the high societal and economic costs of untreated addictive disease and untreated chronic medical problems are low. The principles used to develop this primary care unit can be used to develop health care units for other underserved populations. These principles include identification of specific health care priorities and continuity of rapport with the target population and with addiction treatment staff.

  17. Designing Reflection and Symmetry Learning by Using Math Traditional Dance in Primary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yullys Helsa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The innovation of education is an important point of Pendidikan Matematika Realistik Indonesia (PMRI, one of them through traditional dance as a context of national cultural. Dance that collaborated with concept of mathematics, it is called Math Traditional Dance. This research aims to produce learning line (specific the material of reflection and symmetry. The research method used is design research that consisted of preparing for the experiments, teaching experiments, and retrospective analysis. Data collected through observation, interviews, documentation and field notes. This research was conducted with 22 students in MIN 2 Palembang. From the try out that is obtained from the formal to the informal learning described in the learning process, so that support learning process of mirroring and symmetry for the students in grade four in elementary school.Key words: PMRI, math traditional dance, design research, learning path, mirroring and symmetry DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.2.1.782.79-94

  18. DESIGN STUDY: INTEGER SUBTRACTION OPERATION TEACHING LEARNING USING MULTIMEDIA IN PRIMARY SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rendi Muhammad Aris

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop a learning trajectory to help students understand concept of subtraction of integers using multimedia in the fourth grade. This study is thematic integrative learning in Curriculum 2013 PMRI based. The method used is design research consists of three stages; preparing for the experiment, design experiment, retrospective analysis. The studied was conducted on 20 students of grade four SDN 1 Muara Batun, OKI. The activities of students in this study consisted of six learning trajectories. The first activity asks the students to classify heroism and non-heroism acts, summarize, and classify integers and non-integer. The second activity asks the students to answer the questions in the film given. The third activity asks students to count the remaining gravel in the film. The fourth activity asks students to count remaining spent money in the film. The fifth activity invites students to play rubber seeds in the bag. The last activity asks students to answer the questions in the student worksheet. The media used along the learning activities are a ruler, rubber seed, student worksheet, money, gravel, and film. The results indicate that the learning trajectory using multimedia help students understand the concept of integer subtraction integer. Keywords: Subtraction Integer, PMRI, Multimedia DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.8.1.3233.95-102

  19. [The comorbidity of learning difficulties and ADHD symptoms in primary-school-age children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchardt, Kirsten; Fischbach, Anne; Balke-Melcher, Christina; Mähler, Claudia

    2015-05-01

    Children having difficulties in acquiring early literacy and mathematical skills often show an increased rate of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. This study provides data on the comorbidity rates of specific learning difficulties and ADHD symptoms. We analyzed the data of 273 children with learning difficulties despite an at least average IQ, 57 children with low IQ, and 270 children without learning difficulties and average IQ (comparison group). We assessed children’s IQ and school achievement using standardized achievement tests. ADHD symptoms were assessed via parents’ ratings. Our results showed that only 5 % of both the control group and the group with solely mathematical difficulties fulfilled the criteria of an ADHD subtype according to the DSM-IV based on parents’ ratings. In contrast, this was the case in even 20 % of the children with difficulties in reading/writing and of those with low IQ. Compared to girls, boys in the control group had a 150% higher risk for matching the criteria of one of the ADHD subtypes in parents’ ratings, whereas boys with learning difficulties and those with low IQ had an even 200% to 600% higher risk for it. The relationship between learning difficulties and ADHD symptoms can be found predominantly in the inattentive type. Possible reasons for the results are discussed.

  20. Integrated model of primary and secondary eye care for underserved rural areas: The L V Prasad Eye Institute experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gullapalli N Rao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Blindness is a major global public health problem and recent estimates from World Health Organization (WHO showed that in India there were 62 million visually impaired, of whom 8 million are blind. The Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study (APEDS provided a comprehensive estimate for prevalence and causes of blindness for the state of Andhra Pradesh (AP. It also highlighted that uptake of services was also an issue, predominantly among lower socio-economic groups, women, and rural populations. On the basis of this analysis, L V Prasad Eye Institute (LVPEI developed a pyramidal model of eye care delivery. This article describes the LVPEI eye care delivery model. The article discusses infrastructure development, human resource development, and service delivery (including prevention and promotion in the context of primary and secondary care service delivery in rural areas. The article also alludes to opportunities for research at these levels of service delivery and the amenability of the evidence generated at these levels of the LVPEI eye health pyramid for advocacy and policy planning. In addition, management issues related to the sustainability of service delivery in rural areas are discussed. The article highlights the key factors required for the success of the LVPEI rural service delivery model and discusses challenges that need to be overcome to replicate the model. The article concludes by noting the potential to convert these challenges into opportunities by integrating certain aspects of the existing healthcare system into the model. Examples include screening of diabetes and diabetic retinopathy in order to promote higher community participation. The results of such integration can serve as evidence for advocacy and policy.

  1. Place of residence and primary treatment of prostate cancer: examining trends in rural and nonrural areas in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetnar, Jeremy P; Hampton, John M; Williamson, Amy A; Downs, Tracy; Wang, Dian; Owen, Jean B; Crouse, Byron; Jones, Nathan; Wilson, J Frank; Trentham-Dietz, Amy

    2013-03-01

    To determine whether rural residents were at a disadvantage compared with urban residents with regard to the receipt of curative therapy for prostate cancer. Using the Breast and Prostate Cancer Data Quality and Patterns of Care Study II, patients with prostate cancer who were diagnosed in 2004 were identified. Registrars reviewed the medical records of randomly selected patients with incident prostate cancer (n = 1906). The patients' residential address was geocoded and linked to the census tract from the 2000 U.S. Census. The place of residence was defined as rural or nonrural according to the census tract and rural-urban commuting area categorization. The distance from the residence to the nearest radiation oncology facility was calculated. The odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals associated with receipt of noncurative treatment was calculated from logistic regression models and adjusted for several potential confounders. Of the incident patients, 39.1% lived in urban census tracts, 41.5% lived in mixed tracts, and 19.4% lived in rural tracts. Hormone-only or active surveillance was received by 15.4% of the patients. Relative to the urban patients, the odds ratio for noncurative treatment was 1.01 (95% confidence interval 0.59-1.74) for those living in mixed tracts and 0.96 (95% confidence interval 0.52-1.77) for those living in rural tracts. No association was found for noncurative treatment according to the Rural-Urban Commuting Area categorization. The linear trend was null between noncurative treatment and the distance to nearest radiation oncology facility (P = .92). The choice of curative treatment did not significantly depend on the patient's place of residence, suggesting a lack of geographic disparity for the primary treatment of prostate cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Top-down inputs enhance orientation selectivity in neurons of the primary visual cortex during perceptual learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samat Moldakarimov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Perceptual learning has been used to probe the mechanisms of cortical plasticity in the adult brain. Feedback projections are ubiquitous in the cortex, but little is known about their role in cortical plasticity. Here we explore the hypothesis that learning visual orientation discrimination involves learning-dependent plasticity of top-down feedback inputs from higher cortical areas, serving a different function from plasticity due to changes in recurrent connections within a cortical area. In a Hodgkin-Huxley-based spiking neural network model of visual cortex, we show that modulation of feedback inputs to V1 from higher cortical areas results in shunting inhibition in V1 neurons, which changes the response properties of V1 neurons. The orientation selectivity of V1 neurons is enhanced without changing orientation preference, preserving the topographic organizations in V1. These results provide new insights to the mechanisms of plasticity in the adult brain, reconciling apparently inconsistent experiments and providing a new hypothesis for a functional role of the feedback connections.

  3. Trends in primary surgical and radiation therapy for localized breast cancer in the detroit metropolitan area 1973-1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuba, Paul J.; Simon, Michael S.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this report is to describe trends in primary surgical and radiation therapy for localized breast cancer from 1973 through 1992 among residents of the Detroit Metropolitan area. Methods and Materials: Data on surgical and radiation therapy procedures for women with local stage breast cancer were obtained from the population-based Metropolitan Detroit Cancer Surveillance System (MDCSS). Results: Women age 75 years and older were treated less aggressively than younger women (< age 75) as evidenced by higher rates of simple mastectomy or no treatment among older women. Younger women (< age 75) were more likely to have had optimal breast conservation therapy which consisted of partial mastectomy, axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), and radiation therapy, than were women who were older than 75. Partial mastectomy has increased proportionally from 4% of all breast cancer surgeries in the time period 1973 to 1977, to 39% of all surgeries from 1988 through 1992. Conclusion: A marked difference in surgical treatment of breast cancer exists for younger vs. older women. Despite changes in surgical treatment trends for breast cancer, a large proportion of women who are candidates for conservative therapy continue to undergo mastectomy

  4. Multinomial logistic regression modelling of obesity and overweight among primary school students in a rural area of Negeri Sembilan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghazali, Amirul Syafiq Mohd; Ali, Zalila; Noor, Norlida Mohd; Baharum, Adam [Pusat Pengajian Sains Matematik, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia amirul@unisel.edu.my, zalila@cs.usm.my, norlida@usm.my, adam@usm.my (Malaysia)

    2015-10-22

    Multinomial logistic regression is widely used to model the outcomes of a polytomous response variable, a categorical dependent variable with more than two categories. The model assumes that the conditional mean of the dependent categorical variables is the logistic function of an affine combination of predictor variables. Its procedure gives a number of logistic regression models that make specific comparisons of the response categories. When there are q categories of the response variable, the model consists of q-1 logit equations which are fitted simultaneously. The model is validated by variable selection procedures, tests of regression coefficients, a significant test of the overall model, goodness-of-fit measures, and validation of predicted probabilities using odds ratio. This study used the multinomial logistic regression model to investigate obesity and overweight among primary school students in a rural area on the basis of their demographic profiles, lifestyles and on the diet and food intake. The results indicated that obesity and overweight of students are related to gender, religion, sleep duration, time spent on electronic games, breakfast intake in a week, with whom meals are taken, protein intake, and also, the interaction between breakfast intake in a week with sleep duration, and the interaction between gender and protein intake.

  5. Multinomial logistic regression modelling of obesity and overweight among primary school students in a rural area of Negeri Sembilan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazali, Amirul Syafiq Mohd; Ali, Zalila; Noor, Norlida Mohd; Baharum, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Multinomial logistic regression is widely used to model the outcomes of a polytomous response variable, a categorical dependent variable with more than two categories. The model assumes that the conditional mean of the dependent categorical variables is the logistic function of an affine combination of predictor variables. Its procedure gives a number of logistic regression models that make specific comparisons of the response categories. When there are q categories of the response variable, the model consists of q-1 logit equations which are fitted simultaneously. The model is validated by variable selection procedures, tests of regression coefficients, a significant test of the overall model, goodness-of-fit measures, and validation of predicted probabilities using odds ratio. This study used the multinomial logistic regression model to investigate obesity and overweight among primary school students in a rural area on the basis of their demographic profiles, lifestyles and on the diet and food intake. The results indicated that obesity and overweight of students are related to gender, religion, sleep duration, time spent on electronic games, breakfast intake in a week, with whom meals are taken, protein intake, and also, the interaction between breakfast intake in a week with sleep duration, and the interaction between gender and protein intake

  6. What Australian Primary School Students Value in Mathematics Learning: A WIFI Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seah, Wee Tiong; Barkatsas, Tasos

    2014-01-01

    Grades 5/6 students in Melbourne reported the valuing of "achievement," "open-endedness," "relevance," "humanism," "ICT," and "openness" most in mathematics learning. Although prior research suggested that students in East Asia valued "achievement" most as well, there was an…

  7. Influence of Mothers' Parenting Styles on Self-Regulated Academic Learning among Saudi Primary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnafea, Tahany; Curtis, David D.

    2017-01-01

    Much of the research on self-regulation has investigated the influence of school settings. However, fewer studies have concentrated on the home environment and its influence on student's academic behaviour in school. The present research investigates the influence of mothers' parenting styles on students' self-regulated learning behaviours in…

  8. How does classroom composition affect learning outcomes in Ugandan primary schools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Edward Samuel

    2016-01-01

    There is widespread agreement that schooling quality should be a priority in the post-2015 education agenda, but less agreement on how quality can be enhanced in a cost effective manner. In Uganda, classroom overcrowding is often considered a critical cause of poor learning outcomes. This paper...

  9. Selecting the Most Appropriate Primary Learning Medium for Students with Functional Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangold, S.; Mangold, P.

    1989-01-01

    Five considerations for determining the most appropriate learning medium for students with functional vision are: (1) working distance from the page; (2) portability of reading skills; (3) reading rates and accuracy; (4) visual fatigue; and (5) interpretation of assessment results. (Author/DB)

  10. An Increasing of Primary School Teachers' Competency in Brain-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waree, Chaiwat

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop a powerful and empowering guide (CBT) of elementary school teachers, to compare the ability of elementary school teachers. Management learning uses brain as a base. The experimental group with a control group the experimental group used in this research was a teacher at the grade level. 4-6 in province By…

  11. The Indonesian's Road Transportations as the Contexts to Support Primary School Students Learning Number Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairuddin; Darmawijoyo

    2011-01-01

    This paper highlights the Indonesian's road transportation contexts, namely, angkot, that used in learning and teaching of addition and subtraction in first grade and second grade MIN-2 Palembang. PMRI approach that adopt from RME [Realistic Mathematics Education] was used in this design research. From teaching experiment was founded that the…

  12. Using a Simulation Game to Make Learning about Angles Meaningful. An Exploratory Study in Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piu, Angela; Fregola, Cesare; Santoro, Anna

    2016-01-01

    As indicated in numerous research studies, schoolchildren encounter many difficulties and obstacles in learning the multifaceted concept of the angle. In order to explore the possibility of enhancing schoolchildren's understanding of such a concept, the authors present a study that aims at investigating some structural characteristics of…

  13. Four Weeks of Goal-Directed Learning in Primary Physical Education Classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Platvoet, Sebastiaan W. J.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Kannekens, Rianne; de Niet, Mark; Visscher, Chris

    Relatively little is known about how practice relates to children's improvement in gross motor skill performance. The aim of this study is to determine to what extent 6- and 7-year-old children improve their gross motor skill performance in a four-week period, in which goal-directed learning is

  14. Social Learning Analytics in Higher Education. An Experience at the Primary Education Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Lázaro, José Javier; Fernández, Isabel M. Solano; del Mar Sánchez Vera, María

    2017-01-01

    The concept of Learning Analytics, as we understand it today, is relatively new but the practice of evaluating user behavior is not innovative. For years, technological development, along with other educational aspects, have encouraged, developed and facilitated this practice as a way of providing a personalized quality experience to students. The…

  15. Exploring Human Capital with Primary Children: What We Learn in School "Does" Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meszaros, Bonnie T.; Suiter, Mary C.

    2014-01-01

    At an early age, young children often wonder why they must go to school. They may see the connection between practice and their ability to kick a soccer ball or to play a musical instrument, but seldom know the answer to the question, "Why is school important?" Elementary teachers can give young children the opportunity to learn that…

  16. Primary School Pupils' Attitudes toward Learning Programming through Visual Interactive Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asad, Khaled; Tibi, Moanis; Raiyn, Jamal

    2016-01-01

    New generations are using and playing with mobile and computer applications extensively. These applications are the outcomes of programming work that involves skills, such as computational and algorithmic thinking. Learning programming is not easy for students children. In recent years, academic institutions like the Massachusetts Institute of…

  17. New trends on mobile learning area: The review of published articles on mobile learning in science direct database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrah Soykan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Articles published in Science Direct between 2009 and 2014 (May were screened in this research. This is because of its respectable position in the field of technology and peer-reviewed secured structure of this database. From a total of 161 articles within the scope of the screening 156 articles were included in the study. Through this research, new trends in mobile learning activities in recent years will be determined and a new way will be shown for researchers . "Mobile learning" keywords used during researching process and all the articles with "mobile learning" keywords were included in this study. As a result of this research, it is determined that the most studies in the field of mobile learning were published in 2013 in Malaysia, UK and Taiwan. Particularly undergraduate students was selected as the sample group of the researches. It is emerged that, experimental research was used maximum as a research model. Quantitative data collection tools were used most as a means of data collection. It was emerged that foreign language education is the most widely used field in mobile learning. It is seen that smart phones as mobile learning devices and IOS operating system as an operating system were used in the most researches. Mobile-based method is seen to be used as the teaching method in the present study.

  18. Ipsilateral corticotectal projections from the primary, premotor and supplementary motor cortical areas in adult macaque monkeys: a quantitative anterograde tracing study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregosi, Michela; Rouiller, Eric M.

    2018-01-01

    The corticotectal projection from cortical motor areas is one of several descending pathways involved in the indirect control of spinal motoneurons. In non-human primates, previous studies reported that cortical projections to the superior colliculus originated from the premotor cortex and the primary motor cortex, whereas no projection originated from the supplementary motor area. The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the properties of corticotectal projections originating from these three cortical motor areas in intact adult macaques (n=9). The anterograde tracer BDA was injected into one of these cortical areas in each animal. Individual axonal boutons, both en passant and terminaux, were charted and counted in the different layers of the ipsilateral superior colliculus. The data confirmed the presence of strong corticotectal projections from the premotor cortex. A new observation was that strong corticotectal projections were also found to originate from the supplementary motor area (its proper division). The corticotectal projection from the primary motor cortex was quantitatively less strong than that from either the premotor or supplementary motor areas. The corticotectal projection from each motor area was directed mainly to the deep layer of the superior colliculus, although its intermediate layer was also a consistent target of fairly dense terminations. The strong corticotectal projections from non-primary motor areas are in position to influence the preparation and planning of voluntary movements. PMID:28921678

  19. Validating the accuracy of GIS-based accessibility analysis in determining public primary health care demand in metropolitan areas: conference presentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokgalaka, H

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available selected for the analysis are mainly those that offered public primary health care services and acted as first point of contact with the health service delivery system. Attached to the facility data are attribute data indicating the capacity...-Based Accessibility Analysis in Determining Public Primary Health Care Demand in Metropolitan Areas Hunadi Mokgalaka July 2014 Contents • Service access planning • GIS-based accessibility analysis • Key challenges to application • Methodology...

  20. Response to palatability after area postrema lesions: a result of learned aversions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomoyasu, N; Kenney, N J

    1989-11-01

    The role of palatability, novelty, and food aversion in determining changes of food choice after ablation of the area postrema and caudal-medial aspect of the nucleus of the solitary tract (AP/cmNTS) is examined through a series of studies utilizing 24-h, two-food choice tests. On test days, the food that the animal has ingested since the time of lesioning or sham surgery is presented along with a novel food that varies in palatability. The results indicate that postlesion diet history is the major determinant of food choice by lesioned rats. Lesioned rats consistently take less of their familiar postlesion food than diet-matched controls, suggesting that the lesioned rats have developed an aversion to that food. Over-ingestion of the novel food may occur, but this outcome is not reliable. No indication that the animals' response to food palatability is affected by AP/cmNTS ablation was found. Learned aversion to a food ingested after AP/cmNTS ablation may account not only for changes of food preference after the lesion but also may be involved in the hypophagia and weight loss resulting from the ablation.

  1. Boys as Writers: Perspectives on the Learning and Teaching of Writing in Three Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Gillian; Jones, Jane

    2018-01-01

    Boys' attitude to writing is widely perceived as an issue in English primary and secondary schools. Prior research has identified a link between negative attitudes to writing and lower achievement and raised the issue of the stereotyping of boys as underachievers in literacy. The study reported here suggests that if we are to understand the…

  2. Empathy and Critical Thinking: Primary Students Solving Local Environmental Problems through Outdoor Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampuero, David; Miranda, Christian E.; Delgado, Luisa E.; Goyen, Samantha; Weaver, Sean

    2015-01-01

    The present study explores the outcomes of teaching empathy and critical thinking to solve environmental problems. This investigation was done throughout the duration of an environmental education course within a primary school located in central Chile. A community-based research methodology was used to understand the formation of empathy and…

  3. Learned Helplessness in Inclusive Music Classrooms: Voices of Hong Kong Primary Schools Music Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Marina Wai-yee; Chik, Maria Pik-yuk

    2015-01-01

    In Hong Kong, inclusive education is concerned with educating all students, including those who are categorised as having special educational needs (SEN). This qualitative study reports three challenges faced by primary schools music teachers required to implement inclusive education. The first two challenges echo those reported…

  4. Complexities in Identifying and Defining Mathematics Learning Disability in the Primary School-Age Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; Myers, Gwen F.

    2003-01-01

    Findings from a prospective longitudinal study of math disability (MD) addressed its incidence during primary school, the utility of different MD definitions, and evidence of MD subtypes. Findings indicated only 22 of 209 participants demonstrated "persistent MD"; reading disability was more frequent in this group; and reading related skills and…

  5. Emergent Communities of Practice: Secondary Schools' Interaction with Primary School Foreign Language Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Michael; Fisher, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give an account of the response of secondary schools to the primary school foreign language teaching initiative recently introduced by the UK government. The paper also explores defining features of the process of cross-phase interaction and the role that knowledge and collaborative practice plays in generating change…

  6. Learning to listen to the organisational rhetoric of primary health and social care integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warne, T; McAndrew, S; King, M; Holland, K

    2007-11-01

    The sustained modernisation of the UK primary health care service has resulted in individuals and organisations having to develop more integrated ways of working. This has resulted in changes to the structure and functioning of primary care organisations, changes to the traditional workforce, and an increase in scope of primary care practice. These changes have contributed to what for many staff has become a constantly turbulent organisational and practice environment. Data from a three-year project, commissioned by the North West Development Agency is used to explore how staff involved in these changes dealt with this turbulence. Three hundred and fifty staff working within primary care participated in the study. A multimethods approach was used which facilitated an iterative analysis and data collection process. Thematic analysis revealed a high degree of congruence between the perceptions of all staff groups with evidence of a generally well-articulated, but often rhetorical view of the organisational and professional factors involved in how these changes were experienced. This rhetoric was used by individuals as a way of containing both the good and bad elements of their experience. This paper discusses how these defense mechanisms need to be recognised and understood by managers so that a more supportive organisational culture is developed.

  7. Long lasting structural changes in primary motor cortex after motor skill learning: a behavioural and stereological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAOLA MORALES

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Many motor skills, once acquired, are stored over a long time period, probably sustained by permanent neuronal changes. Thus, in this paper we have investigated with quantitative stereology the generation and persistence of neuronal density changes in primary motor cortex (MI following motor skill learning (skilled reaching task. Rats were trained a lateralised reaching task during an "early" (22-31 days oíd or "late" (362-371 days oíd postnatal period. The trained and corresponding control rats were sacrificed at day 372, immediately after the behavioural testing. The "early" trained group preserved the learned skilled reaching task when tested at day 372, without requiring any additional training. The "late" trained group showed a similar capacity to that of the "early" trained group for learning the skilled reaching task. All trained animáis ("early" and "late" trained groups showed a significant Ínter hemispheric decrease of neuronal density in the corresponding motor forelimb representation área of MI (cortical layers II-III

  8. The use of e-learning materials for teaching computer science in primary schools

    OpenAIRE

    Benedičič, Andrej

    2015-01-01

    In the last few years the teaching in primary and secondary schools all around the world changed severely. One of the reasons for the change was the development of the information and communications technology (ICT). Nowadays we can hardly imagine teaching without the use of the ICT. Schools are equipped with electronic boards, interactive boards, tablets, voting systems and other electronic devices. The right use of these devices and electronic materials (e-materials) developed for them can ...

  9. The relationship between learning atmosphere and social creativity in primary school boy students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Morad Khah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Social creativity is defined as the creative methods in individuals’ interaction. The present study deals with the survey of the relationship between teacher-student interaction and social creativity in the primary school boy students. The study participants are 114 primary school boy students from the four educational districts in Shiraz who have been selected by taking advantage of multistage clustering sampling method with a basic sample class unit; and they were asked to complete the teacher-student interaction and creativity questionnaire. To determine the reliability and validity the Cronbach’s alpha and items correlation were used respectively along with their dimensions and imensions correlation with the total score. The results and evidences were indicative of the favorable validity and reliability of the questionnaire. The results obtained from the Pierson correlation coefficient showed that there is a negative and significant relationship between the dimension of responsibility and freedom with creativity. Also, the results of the regression analysis indicated that from among the dimensions of teacherstudent interaction only dimension of responsibility and freedom are negative and significant predictor of the social creativity in primary school boy students.

  10. The quality of learning in Nigerian primary education. The UPE programme 1976 - 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, George; Lassa, Peter

    1983-06-01

    The speed with which UPE was introduced to Nigeria has meant enormous problems of both a logistical and educational nature. After six years many have proved all but impossible to overcome. While generalising may be wrong, it is questionable whether the government's objectives for UPE can be achieved. Vast regional discrepancies of implementation have meant that the reduction in the previous imblance of opportunity is unlikely. A high rate of unemployment and disaffection among terminal primary leavers will offset the concept of UPE as an investment. Grassroots support will weaken if primary schooling offers no tangible returns. A further problem is present. The curriculum of UPE has been inappropriate for a system which is terminal for the majority. Basic skills are often unlearned. The national curriculum has not been sufficiently localised and, with staff and material shortages, has been impossible to teach. In current conditions it is academic and certificate-orientated. There is an urgent need to review the structure of primary education before it is too late. A community base might be considered in the face of weakening government funding but the redesign of the curriculum is an essential prerequisite. The content and quality of education is as important as the logistics of its provision.

  11. Cathodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Over Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Area Promotes Implicit Motor Learning in a Golf Putting Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Frank F; Yeung, Andrew Y; Poolton, Jamie M; Lee, Tatia M C; Leung, Gilberto K K; Masters, Rich S W

    2015-01-01

    Implicit motor learning is characterized by low dependence on working memory and stable performance despite stress, fatigue, or multi-tasking. However, current paradigms for implicit motor learning are based on behavioral interventions that are often task-specific and limited when applied in practice. To investigate whether cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) area during motor learning suppressed working memory activity and reduced explicit verbal-analytical involvement in movement control, thereby promoting implicit motor learning. Twenty-seven healthy individuals practiced a golf putting task during a Training Phase while receiving either real cathodal tDCS stimulation over the left DLPFC area or sham stimulation. Their performance was assessed during a Test phase on another day. Verbal working memory capacity was assessed before and after the Training Phase, and before the Test Phase. Compared to sham stimulation, real stimulation suppressed verbal working memory activity after the Training Phase, but enhanced golf putting performance during the Training Phase and the Test Phase, especially when participants were required to multi-task. Cathodal tDCS over the left DLPFC may foster implicit motor learning and performance in complex real-life motor tasks that occur during sports, surgery or motor rehabilitation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. What Counts as Evidence for Foreign Language Learning in Primary School?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    aus der Wieschen, Maria Vanessa

    learners, who might ignore these displays, and teachers can observe whether students orient to the displays through gaze and body posture or not. Teachers can make use of this observable behavior when they wish to assess and evaluate to what extent their students have achieved specific learning goals....... This current study is an extension of the above mentioned study, in that it presents a longitudinal investigation of the use of a specific classroom display in a Danish 3rd grade EFL class in two lessons four months apart. Applying a multimodal approach to conversation analysis, this study analyzes in what way...

  13. Debating the use of work-based learning and interprofessional education in promoting collaborative practice in primary care: a discussion paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Shona; Rutherford, Ishbel; Mountain, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    The context of primary care in the UK is changing rapidly, underpinned by continuing policy drivers to ensure person-centred safe and effective practice. Undergraduate and postgraduate programmes for healthcare practitioners are increasingly using interprofessional education (IPE) as one route to engender greater understanding of others' roles and contributions to health care, with the suggestion that IPE leads to better integration and teamwork, and thus stronger collaborative practice. Access to education and professional development for those working in primary care is difficult, and individuals need the focus of learning to be clearly relevant to their practice. To review and debate the evidence on the role of work-based learning and IPE in enhancing collaborative practice in primary care. Literature search and critique of key papers relevant to primary care practice. The three themes emerged of IPE, workbased learning (WBL) and collaborative practice. There is a growing body of literature to support the positive outcomes of IPE and the utilisation of WBL in developing practice. A range of practitioners in a variety of work settings have used WBL approaches in the implementation of innovations and the development of communities of practice. However, little evidence exists to support these approaches in primary care. The application of WBL across primary care teams can support a positive and collaborative learning culture, resulting in changes to professional practice.

  14. Ambient Levels of Primary and Secondary Pollutants in a Residential Area: Population Risk and Hazard Index Calculation over a Three Years Study Period

    OpenAIRE

    S. Al-Salem; A. Al-Fadhlee

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims at presenting data collected over the period of three years (2004-2006) in a residential area in the state of Kuwait. The data collected include ambient levels of primary and secondary pollutants with a number of metrological parameters. A series of unfiltered and filtered concentration roses were plotted to determine the predominant sources as well as the prevailing winds affecting the area under investigation. Local and international air quality regulations were cross refere...

  15. Learning Peri-saccadic Remapping of Receptive Field from Experience in Lateral Intraparietal Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Mingsha; Wu, Si

    2017-01-01

    Our eyes move constantly at a frequency of 3-5 times per second. These movements, called saccades, induce the sweeping of visual images on the retina, yet we perceive the world as stable. It has been suggested that the brain achieves this visual stability via predictive remapping of neuronal receptive field (RF). A recent experimental study disclosed details of this remapping process in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP), that is, about the time of the saccade, the neuronal RF expands along the saccadic trajectory temporally, covering the current RF (CRF), the future RF (FRF), and the region the eye will sweep through during the saccade. A cortical wave (CW) model was also proposed, which attributes the RF remapping as a consequence of neural activity propagating in the cortex, triggered jointly by a visual stimulus and the corollary discharge (CD) signal responsible for the saccade. In this study, we investigate how this CW model is learned naturally from visual experiences at the development of the brain. We build a two-layer network, with one layer consisting of LIP neurons and the other superior colliculus (SC) neurons. Initially, neuronal connections are random and non-selective. A saccade will cause a static visual image to sweep through the retina passively, creating the effect of the visual stimulus moving in the opposite direction of the saccade. According to the spiking-time-dependent-plasticity rule, the connection path in the opposite direction of the saccade between LIP neurons and the connection path from SC to LIP are enhanced. Over many such visual experiences, the CW model is developed, which generates the peri-saccadic RF remapping in LIP as observed in the experiment.

  16. Learning Peri-saccadic Remapping of Receptive Field from Experience in Lateral Intraparietal Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Our eyes move constantly at a frequency of 3–5 times per second. These movements, called saccades, induce the sweeping of visual images on the retina, yet we perceive the world as stable. It has been suggested that the brain achieves this visual stability via predictive remapping of neuronal receptive field (RF. A recent experimental study disclosed details of this remapping process in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP, that is, about the time of the saccade, the neuronal RF expands along the saccadic trajectory temporally, covering the current RF (CRF, the future RF (FRF, and the region the eye will sweep through during the saccade. A cortical wave (CW model was also proposed, which attributes the RF remapping as a consequence of neural activity propagating in the cortex, triggered jointly by a visual stimulus and the corollary discharge (CD signal responsible for the saccade. In this study, we investigate how this CW model is learned naturally from visual experiences at the development of the brain. We build a two-layer network, with one layer consisting of LIP neurons and the other superior colliculus (SC neurons. Initially, neuronal connections are random and non-selective. A saccade will cause a static visual image to sweep through the retina passively, creating the effect of the visual stimulus moving in the opposite direction of the saccade. According to the spiking-time-dependent-plasticity rule, the connection path in the opposite direction of the saccade between LIP neurons and the connection path from SC to LIP are enhanced. Over many such visual experiences, the CW model is developed, which generates the peri-saccadic RF remapping in LIP as observed in the experiment.

  17. The relationship between learning mathematics and general cognitive ability in primary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Richard; Hurry, Jane; Midouhas, Emily

    2018-06-01

    Three relationships between learning mathematics and general cognitive ability have been hypothesized: The educational hypothesis that learning mathematics develops general cognitive skills, the psychometric hypothesis that differences in general cognitive ability cause differences in mathematical attainment, and the reciprocal influence hypothesis that developments in mathematical ability and general cognitive ability influence each other. These hypotheses are assessed with a sample of 948 children from the Twins Early Development Study who were assessed at 7, 9, and 10 years on mathematics, English, and general cognitive ability. A cross-lagged path analysis with mathematics and general cognitive ability measures supports the reciprocal influence hypothesis between 7 and 9 and between 9 and 10. A second analysis including English assessments only provides evidence of a reciprocal relationship between 7 and 9. Statement of Contribution What is already known on this subject? The correlations between mathematical attainment, literacy, and measures of general cognitive skills are well established. The role of literacy in developing general cognitive skills is emerging. What the present study adds? Mathematics contributes to the development of general cognitive skills. General cognitive ability contributes to mathematical development between 7 and 10. These findings support the hypothesis of reciprocal influence between mathematics and general cognitive ability, at least between 7 and 9. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Investigating the Ketogenic Diet As Treatment for Primary Aggressive Brain Cancer: Challenges and Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth A. Schwartz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Survival of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM with the current recommended treatment is poor. Reported median survivals are approximately 8–15 months. Based on recent publications from animal models, combining cancer drugs, radiation, and diet-metabolic treatments may be a new route to better survivals. To investigate this possibility, we have begun a clinical trial that has enrolled 15 subjects using a ketogenic diet (KD as an addition to current standard treatments that include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Of the 15 enrolled, 10 completed the protocol. This perspective describes the challenges and lessons learned during this clinical trial and discusses the critical elements that are essential for investigating treatment with a KD. We also reviewed and compared various types of KDs. We believe that the diet selected should be standardized within individual clinical trials, and more importantly, the patients’ blood should be monitored for glucose and ketones twice daily so that the supervising dietitian can work with the patient and their caregivers to make appropriate changes in the diet. Compliance with the diet is best in highly motivated patients who have excellent home support from a family member or a friend who can help to overcome administrative, physical, and cognition deficiencies associated with the disease. Treatment of GBM using a KD represents a reasonable investigative approach. This perspective summarizes the challenges and lessons learned implementing and continuing KD therapy while the patients are concurrently being treated with radiation and chemotherapy.

  19. Improving adult learning and professional development in a post-conflict area: the case of Cambodia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkvens, J.; Kalyanpur, M.; Kuiper, Wilmad; van den Akker, Jan

    2012-01-01

    All over the world, international development organizations try to increase professional capacity of local staff. These attempts are thought to fail because of financial constraints, but this is just part of the story. Professional development and adult learning theories approach learning from a

  20. Using of Folk Art to Enhance Learning at English Lessons in Primary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana Blyznyuk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In today’s multicultural space we can feel reassessment of existing paradigms of education in view of globalization changes, interstate cooperation in cultural and educational spheres. The article highlights the problem of human adaptation to foreign cultural environment, the contents of ethnographic knowledge, the needs of modern European and global integration. So the paper analyzes and interprets the urgent the idea of using ethnographic materials, including folk art, in teaching humanities and arts subjects in primary school, particularly in native and foreign languages, reading, science, music, manual work, etc.

  1. Seroepidemiology of Toxocara canis infection among primary schoolchildren in the capital area of the Republic of the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chung-Jung; Chuang, Ting-Wu; Lin, Huei-Shan; Wu, Chih-Hsiung; Liu, Yung-Ching; Langinlur, Mailynn K; Lu, Min-Yun; Hsiao, Wesley Wei-Wen; Fan, Chia-Kwung

    2014-05-15

    Toxocariasis, which is predominantly caused by Toxocara canis (T. canis) infection, is a common zoonotic parasitosis worldwide; however, the status of toxocariasis endemicity in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) remains unknown. A seroepidemiological investigation was conducted among 166 primary school children (PSC) aged 7-12 years from the capital area of the RMI. Western blots based the excretory-secretory antigens of larval T. canis (TcES) was employed, and children were considered seropositive if their serum reacted with TcES when diluted at a titer of 1:64. Information regarding demographic characteristics of and environmental risk factors affecting these children was collected using a structured questionnaire. A logistic regression model was applied to conduct a multivariate analysis. The overall seropositive rate of T. canis infection was 86.75% (144/166). In the univariate analysis, PSC who exhibited a history of feeding dogs at home (OR = 5.52, 95% CI = 1.15-26.61, p = 0.02) and whose parents were employed as nonskilled workers (OR = 2.86, 95% CI = 1.08-7.60, p = 0.03) demonstrated a statistically elevated risk of contracting T. canis infections. Cleaning dog huts with gloves might prevent infection, but yielded nonsignificant effects. The multivariate analysis indicated that parental occupation was the critical risk factor in this study because its effect remained significant after adjusting for other variables; by contrast, the effect of dog feeding became nonsignificant because of other potential confounding factors. No associations were observed among gender, age, consuming raw meat or vegetables, drinking unboiled water, cleaning dog huts with gloves, or touching soil. This is the first serological investigation of T. canis infection among PSC in the RMI. The high seroprevalence indicates the commonness of T. canis transmission and possible human risk. The fundamental information that the present study provides

  2. Aboveground Net Primary Production of tree cover at the post-disturbance area in the Tatra National Park, Slovakia

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    Konôpka Bohdan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale disturbances under the conditions of Slovakia, caused especially by storm and bark beetle, bring dramatic decline in carbon budget of the country, besides other negative consequences. The largest disturbance in modern history of the Slovak forestry was the storm damage that occurred in November 2004. The Tatra National Park (TNP was one of the most affected regions. Thus, in this territory, two transects (T1 – the Danielov dom site and T2 – near the Horný Smokovec village were established to survey basic dendrometric properties of trees in young stands established after the disaster. The standing stock of aboveground biomass in tree cover for the spring and autumn 2014 was calculated using the recorded variables, i.e. tree height and diameter measured at the stem base, together with the region-specific allometric relations. Then, the Aboveground Net Primary Production (ANPP in tree cover was estimated with respect to its components (stem, branches and foliage. ANPP was 315 g m−2 per year (Transect T1, and 391 g m−2 per year (Transect T2. The differences in the structure of ANPP, i.e. contribution of tree components, were found between transects T1 and T2. They were caused by the contrasting tree species composition, specifically the ratios between Norway spruce and broadleaved species. Broadleaves allocated more biomass production to foliage than spruce. This phenomenon together with higher turnover (once a year of foliage caused that broadleaves manifest higher share of fast-cycling carbon in comparison to the amount of carbon sequestrated in woody parts (stem and branches. High variability of ANPP was found within the transects, i.e. among the plots (microsites. As for the representative estimation of the standing stock of aboveground part of tree cover as well as ANPP at the post-disturbance area in the TNP territory, the survey should be performed on a net of research plots. Only this approach enables reliable estimates

  3. Development of a Knowledge Management Model for the Development of a Quality Public Sector Management System for the Office of the Primary Educational Service Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khotbancha, Wijitra; Chantarasombat, Chalard; Sriampai, Anan

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this research were: 1) to study the current situation and problem of Knowledge Management of the office of the primary education service area, 2) to develop a Knowledge Management model, 3) to study the success of the implementation of the Knowledge Management system. There were 25 persons in the target group. There were 2 kinds…

  4. Learning from doing: the case for combining normalisation process theory and participatory learning and action research methodology for primary healthcare implementation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brún, Tomas; O'Reilly-de Brún, Mary; O'Donnell, Catherine A; MacFarlane, Anne

    2016-08-03

    The implementation of research findings is not a straightforward matter. There are substantive and recognised gaps in the process of translating research findings into practice and policy. In order to overcome some of these translational difficulties, a number of strategies have been proposed for researchers. These include greater use of theoretical approaches in research focused on implementation, and use of a wider range of research methods appropriate to policy questions and the wider social context in which they are placed. However, questions remain about how to combine theory and method in implementation research. In this paper, we respond to these proposals. Focussing on a contemporary social theory, Normalisation Process Theory, and a participatory research methodology, Participatory Learning and Action, we discuss the potential of their combined use for implementation research. We note ways in which Normalisation Process Theory and Participatory Learning and Action are congruent and may therefore be used as heuristic devices to explore, better understand and support implementation. We also provide examples of their use in our own research programme about community involvement in primary healthcare. Normalisation Process Theory alone has, to date, offered useful explanations for the success or otherwise of implementation projects post-implementation. We argue that Normalisation Process Theory can also be used to prospectively support implementation journeys. Furthermore, Normalisation Process Theory and Participatory Learning and Action can be used together so that interventions to support implementation work are devised and enacted with the expertise of key stakeholders. We propose that the specific combination of this theory and methodology possesses the potential, because of their combined heuristic force, to offer a more effective means of supporting implementation projects than either one might do on its own, and of providing deeper understandings of

  5. Barriers in the implementation of a physical activity intervention in primary care settings: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josyula, Lakshmi K; Lyle, Roseann M

    2013-01-01

    Barriers encountered in implementing a physical activity intervention in primary health care settings, and ways to address them, are described in this paper. A randomized comparison trial was designed to examine the impact of health care providers' written prescriptions for physical activity, with or without additional physical activity resources, to adult, nonpregnant patients on preventive care or chronic disease monitoring visits. Following abysmal recruitment outcomes, the research protocol was altered to make it more appealing to all the participants, i.e., health care providers, office personnel, and patients. Various barriers--financial, motivational, and executive--to the implementation of health promotion interventions in primary health care settings were experienced and identified. These barriers have been classified by the different participants in the research process, viz., healthcare providers, administrative personnel, researchers, and patients. Some of the barriers identified were lack of time and reimbursement for health promotion activities, and inadequate practice capacity, for health care providers; increased time and labor demands for administrative personnel; constrained access to participants, and limited funding, for researchers; and superseding commitments, and inaccurate comprehension of the research protocol, for patients. Solutions suggested to overcome these barriers include financial support, e.g., funding for researchers, remuneration for health care organization personnel, reimbursement for providers, payment for participants, and free or subsidized postage, and use of health facilities; motivational strategies such as inspirational leadership, and contests within health care organizations; and partnerships, with other expert technical and creative entities, to improve the quality, efficiency, and acceptability of health promotion interventions.

  6. Including Migrant Worker Children in the Learning and Social Context of the Rural Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Many of the larger towns and cities within the UK have long experienced a cosmopolitan mix of cultures, resulting in ethnically and linguistically diverse schools. However, the wider expansion of the European Union in 2004 has brought about significant changes and challenges for many schools, particularly for those in more rural areas. This…

  7. Space Shuttle Program Primary Avionics Software System (PASS) Success Legacy -Major Accomplishments and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, James K.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation has shown the accomplishments of the PASS project over three decades and highlighted the lessons learned. Over the entire time, our goal has been to continuously improve our process, implement automation for both quality and increased productivity, and identify and remove all defects due to prior execution of a flawed process in addition to improving our processes following identification of significant process escapes. Morale and workforce instability have been issues, most significantly during 1993 to 1998 (period of consolidation in aerospace industry). The PASS project has also consulted with others, including the Software Engineering Institute, so as to be an early evaluator, adopter, and adapter of state-of-the-art software engineering innovations.

  8. An Online Q-learning Based Multi-Agent LFC for a Multi-Area Multi-Source Power System Including Distributed Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Shayeghi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an online two-stage Q-learning based multi-agent (MA controller for load frequency control (LFC in an interconnected multi-area multi-source power system integrated with distributed energy resources (DERs. The proposed control strategy consists of two stages. The first stage is employed a PID controller which its parameters are designed using sine cosine optimization (SCO algorithm and are fixed. The second one is a reinforcement learning (RL based supplementary controller that has a flexible structure and improves the output of the first stage adaptively based on the system dynamical behavior. Due to the use of RL paradigm integrated with PID controller in this strategy, it is called RL-PID controller. The primary motivation for the integration of RL technique with PID controller is to make the existing local controllers in the industry compatible to reduce the control efforts and system costs. This novel control strategy combines the advantages of the PID controller with adaptive behavior of MA to achieve the desired level of robust performance under different kind of uncertainties caused by stochastically power generation of DERs, plant operational condition changes, and physical nonlinearities of the system. The suggested decentralized controller is composed of the autonomous intelligent agents, who learn the optimal control policy from interaction with the system. These agents update their knowledge about the system dynamics continuously to achieve a good frequency oscillation damping under various severe disturbances without any knowledge of them. It leads to an adaptive control structure to solve LFC problem in the multi-source power system with stochastic DERs. The results of RL-PID controller in comparison to the traditional PID and fuzzy-PID controllers is verified in a multi-area power system integrated with DERs through some performance indices.

  9. Development of a participatory Management approach of the Committee for Basic Education School under the Nongbualamphu Primary Educational Service Area Office 2

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    Jirayu Prommajak

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed: 1 study the present state and adverse conditions of administration with the participation of the basic education in schools. 2 Development of a participatory Management approach of the Committee for Basic Education school under the Nongbualamphu Primary Educational Service Area Office 2. Split data into 2 phases. Phase 1: The sample used for this research consisted of 128 members of the committee on basic education in school under the Nongbualamphu Primary Educational Service Area Office 2. Selected by using stratified random sampling. Instruments used included a set of rating scale questionnaires. Phase 2: Data from the interviews using a structured questionnaire and focus group discussion. The basic statistics used for analyzing the collected data were percentage, means and standard deviation. The results of this study were as follows: 1. On the present state administration with the participation of the basic education commission in schools underunder the Nongbualamphu Primary Educational Service Area Office 2 overall participation in management is moderate. Considering the individual aspects, found that the academic administration overall participation in management and budget management were moderate. The personnel management and general and administrative overall participation in management at a high level. 2. Adverse conditions of administration with the participation of the school board for basic education in schools underunder the Nongbualamphu Primary Educational Service Area Office 2 overall in a high level. Considering the individual aspects, found that the school board in basic education is desirable to participate in the management of all aspects. 3. Development of a participatory management approach of the committee for basic education school under the Nongbualamphu Primary Educational Service Area Office 2 is a developmental process management principles PDCA, 5 steps. Step 1: Creating a common understanding Step

  10. Why Inquiry? Primary Teachers' Objectives in Choosing Inquiry- and Context-Based Instructional Strategies to Stimulate Students' Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walan, Susanne; Nilsson, Pernilla; Ewen, Birgitta Mc

    2017-10-01

    Studies have shown that there is a need for pedagogical content knowledge among science teachers. This study investigates two primary teachers and their objectives in choosing inquiry- and context-based instructional strategies as well as the relation between the choice of instructional strategies and the teachers' knowledge about of students' understanding and intended learning outcomes. Content representations created by the teachers and students' experiences of the enacted teaching served as foundations for the teachers' reflections during interviews. Data from the interviews were analyzed in terms of the intended, enacted, and experienced purposes of the teaching and, finally, as the relation between intended, enacted, and experienced purposes. Students' experiences of the teaching were captured through a questionnaire, which was analyzed inductively, using content analysis. The results show that the teachers' intended teaching objectives were that students would learn about water. During the enacted teaching, it seemed as if the inquiry process was in focus and this was also how many of the students experienced the objectives of the activities. There was a gap between the intended and experienced objectives. Hardly any relation was found between the teachers' choice of instructional strategies and their knowledge about students' understanding, with the exception that the teacher who also added drama wanted to support her students' understanding of the states of water.

  11. Lessons I have learned from my patients: everyday life with primary orthostatic tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidailhet, Marie; Roze, Emmanuel; Maugest, Lucie; Gallea, Cécile

    2017-01-01

    Primary orthostatic tremor is a rare disorder that is still under-diagnosed or misdiagnosed. Motor symptoms are fairly characteristics but the real impact on the patient's every day life and quality of life is under-estimated. The "how my patients taught me" format describes the impact on the patients' every day life with their own words, which is rarely done. A 46 year old lady was diagnosed primary orthostatic tremor (POT) based on the cardinal symptoms: feelings of instability, leg tremor and fear of falling in the standing position, improvement with walking and disappearance while sitting, frequency of Tremor in the 13-18Hz range, normal neurological examination. She gives illustrative examples of her disability in every day life activity (shower, public transportation, shopping). She reports how she felt stigmatized by her "invisible disorder". As a consequence, she developed anxiety depression and social phobia. All these troubles are unknown or under recognized by doctors and family. We review the clinical signs of POT that may help to increase the awareness of doctors and improve the diagnosis accuracy, based on the motor symptoms and description of the every day life disability, as reported by the patient. Non-motor symptoms (including somatic concerns, anxiety, depression, and social phobia) should be better considered in POT as they have a major impact on quality of life. Pharmacological treatments (clonazepam, gabapentin) may be helpful but have a limited effect over the years as the patients experience a worsening of their condition. On the long term follow-up, there are still unmet needs in POT, and new therapeutic avenues may be based on the pathophysiology by modulating the cerebello-thalamo-cortical network.

  12. Investigation of Current Situation of Learning Motivation, Social Anxiety and Loneliness of the Left-behind Children in Rural Primary School

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Biyun; Xu Ming

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To understand the situation of learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of the left-behind children. Method: Selecting three rural primary schools in Xian’an District of Xianning City to investigate left-behind situation, learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of pupils in Grades 4 to 6 in rural primary school in Xian’an District by the use of the MAAT-I-A which is revised by Zhou Bucheng, the Social Anxiety Scale for Children (SASC) and the Children’s Lonelin...

  13. What are the learning outcomes of a short postgraduate training course in dermatology for primary care doctors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background There are increasing expectations on primary care doctors to shoulder a bigger share of care for patients with common dermatological problems in the community. This study examined the learning outcomes of a short postgraduate course in dermatology for primary care doctors. Methods A self-reported questionnaire developed by the research team was sent to the Course graduates. A retrospective design was adopted to compare their clinical practice characteristics before and after the Course. Differences in the ratings were analysed using the nonparametric Wilcoxon signed rank test to evaluate the effectiveness of the Course in various aspects. Results Sixty-nine graduates replied with a response rate of 42.9% (69/161). Most were confident of diagnosing (91.2%) and managing (88.4%) common dermatological problems after the Course, compared to 61.8% and 58.0% respectively before the Course. Most had also modified their approach and increased their attention to patients with dermatological problems. The number of patients with dermatological problems seen by the graduates per day showed significant increase after the Course, while the average percentage of referrals to dermatologists dropped from 31.9% to 23.5%. The proportion of graduates interested in following up patients with chronic dermatological problems increased from 60.3% to 77.9%. Conclusions Graduates of the Course reported improved confidence, attitudes and skills in treating common dermatological problems. They also reported to handle more patients with common dermatological problems in their practice and refer fewer patients. PMID:21575191

  14. Investigation of Current Situation of Learning Motivation, Social Anxiety and Loneliness of the Left-behind Children in Rural Primary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Biyun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To understand the situation of learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of the left-behind children. Method: Selecting three rural primary schools in Xian’an District of Xianning City to investigate left-behind situation, learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of pupils in Grades 4 to 6 in rural primary school in Xian’an District by the use of the MAAT-I-A which is revised by Zhou Bucheng, the Social Anxiety Scale for Children (SASC and the Children’s Loneliness Scale (CLS. Results: (1 The learning motivation of the left-behind children in rural primary school is in a slightly higher medium level. Social anxiety is significantly higher than normal level in Chinese city, and the level of loneliness of about 1/5 of the left-behind children is relatively high. (2 The score of learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of the left-behind children in the level of knowledge learning has significant grade differences, without significant gender differences. (3 The level of learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of the left-behind children is slightly higher than that of non-left-behind children, but both differences are not significant.

  15. Treatment of relapse in herpes simplex on labial and facial areas and of primary herpes simplex on genital areas and "area pudenda" with low-power He-Ne laser or Acyclovir administered orally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez-Gonzalez, Mariano; Urrea-Arbelaez, Alejandro; Nicolas, M.; Serra-Baldrich, E.; Perez, J. L.; Pavesi, M.; Camarasa, J. M.; Trelles, Mario A.

    1996-01-01

    Sixty patients (greater than 16 yrs old) suffering primary or relapse genital herpes simplex viruses (HSV) and relapse labial HSV were appointed for this study. Three or more relapses were experienced per year. Patients (under treatment) were divided into two groups (distribution areas), corresponding to either labial herpes or genital herpes. These groups were sub-divided into 3 groups. The total number of labial or facial HSV patients was 36 (10 in group 1, 12 in group 2, 14 in group 3) and 24 for genital, buttocks, or 'area pudenda' HSV patients (6 in group 1, 8 in group 2, 10 in group 3). The design was a randomized, double- blind study. The setting was hospital and outpatient. The patients diagnosed as having the HVS disease were sent to the dermatology department and were assigned to a group at random. Treatment was begun as follows: During the treatment signs and symptoms were assessed and after the treatment, the relapses were also assessed (biochemical and hematological tests before and after the treatment) and the diagnosis of the HSV type I and II. The statistical evaluation of the results was performed and carried out with the SPSS and BMDP program. The relapses of the herpes infection in the lips and the face were significantly reduced (p less than 0.026) in patients treated with laser He-Ne and laser He-Ne plus Acyclovir. The interim between the relapses also increased significantly (p less than 0.005) in relation with the group treated with Acyclovir. The duration of the herpetic eruptions was clearly reduced in all locations in patients treated with laser He-Ne plus Acyclovir. No differences were noted between patients treated with laser He-Ne only or Acyclovir only. Therefore it is probable that therapeutic synergism took place. In relation with this, laser He-Ne shows the same therapeutic efficacy as Acyclovir taken orally. The association of Acyclovir and laser Ne-Ne could be an alternative method for the treatment of HSV in the face. The number

  16. First direct landscape-scale measurement of tropical rain forest Leaf Area Index, a key driver of global primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. Clark; Paulo C. Olivas; Steven F. Oberbauer; Deborah A. Clark; Michael G. Ryan

    2008-01-01

    Leaf Area Index (leaf area per unit ground area, LAI) is a key driver of forest productivity but has never previously been measured directly at the landscape scale in tropical rain forest (TRF). We used a modular tower and stratified random sampling to harvest all foliage from forest floor to canopy top in 55 vertical transects (4.6 m2) across 500 ha of old growth in...

  17. Spatial Accessibility of Primary Care in England: A Cross-Sectional Study Using a Floating Catchment Area Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Jan; Müller, Ruth; Brüggmann, Dörthe; Groneberg, David A

    2017-07-07

    To analyze the general practitioners (GPs) with regard to the degree of urbanization, social deprivation, general health, and disability. Small area population data and GP practice data in England. We used a floating catchment area method to measure spatial GP accessibility with regard to the degree of urbanization, social deprivation, general health, and disability. Data were collected from the Office for National Statistics and the general practice census and analyzed using a geographic information system. In all, 25.8 percent of the population in England lived in areas with a significant low GP accessibility (mean z-score: -4.2); 27.6 percent lived in areas with a significant high GP accessibility (mean z-score: 7.7); 97.8 percent of high GP accessibility areas represented urban areas, and 31.1 percent of low GP accessibility areas represented rural areas (correlation of accessibility and urbanity: r = 0.59; psocial deprivation was present (r = -0.19; paccessibility throughout England. However, socially deprived areas did not have poorer spatial access to GPs. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  18. Understanding the primary care paradigm: an experiential learning focus of the early veterinary graduate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, William H R; Kinnison, Tierney; May, Stephen A

    2017-11-01

    At a time where high levels of stress are reported in the veterinary profession, this study explores the challenges that veterinary graduates encounter when they enter general (first opinion) practice. Participants had written reflective accounts of their 'Most Puzzling Cases' for the postgraduate Professional Key Skills module of the Certificate in Advanced Veterinary Practice, offered by the Royal Veterinary College. Reasons that a case was puzzling, or became challenging, were thematically analysed. Fifteen summaries were analysed. Three core themes were identified: 'clinical reasoning', centred on the limitations of pattern recognition and the methods used to overcome this; the 'veterinary healthcare system', focusing on the need for continuity of care, time pressure and support in the transition to practice; and the 'owner', looking at the broader clinical skills needed to succeed in general practice. Clinical reasoning was raised as an issue; discussion of when pattern recognition is not appropriate and what to do in these cases was common. A lack of experience in general practice case types, and how to best operate in the resource-constrained environment in which they present, is the likely cause of this, suggesting that a greater focus on the primary care paradigm is needed within veterinary education. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Adaptive compressive learning for prediction of protein-protein interactions from primary sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-Nan; Pan, Xiao-Yong; Huang, Yan; Shen, Hong-Bin

    2011-08-21

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) play an important role in biological processes. Although much effort has been devoted to the identification of novel PPIs by integrating experimental biological knowledge, there are still many difficulties because of lacking enough protein structural and functional information. It is highly desired to develop methods based only on amino acid sequences for predicting PPIs. However, sequence-based predictors are often struggling with the high-dimensionality causing over-fitting and high computational complexity problems, as well as the redundancy of sequential feature vectors. In this paper, a novel computational approach based on compressed sensing theory is proposed to predict yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae PPIs from primary sequence and has achieved promising results. The key advantage of the proposed compressed sensing algorithm is that it can compress the original high-dimensional protein sequential feature vector into a much lower but more condensed space taking the sparsity property of the original signal into account. What makes compressed sensing much more attractive in protein sequence analysis is its compressed signal can be reconstructed from far fewer measurements than what is usually considered necessary in traditional Nyquist sampling theory. Experimental results demonstrate that proposed compressed sensing method is powerful for analyzing noisy biological data and reducing redundancy in feature vectors. The proposed method represents a new strategy of dealing with high-dimensional protein discrete model and has great potentiality to be extended to deal with many other complicated biological systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Effect of Learning Disability on Contralateral Suppression of Otoacoustic Emissions in Primary Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Sarough Farahani

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: One of the most significant complaints of children with learning disability (LD is difficulty in understanding speech in the presence of background noise. Different studies have shown that the medial olivocochlear bundle(MOCB may play a role in hearing in noise. The MOCB function can be evaluated by the contralateral suppression of tone burst evoked otoacoustic emissions (TBEOAEs.The aim of the present study was to evaluate frequency specifications of MOCB by the contralateral suppression of TBEOAEs at 1,2,3 and 4 KHz in response to contralateral white noise in LD students. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 34 LD students aged 7-11 years and 31 normal students matched for age.The contralateral suppression of TBEOAEs was evaluated by comparing TBEOAEs amplitudes with and without contralateral white noise. Results: In the absence of noise there was no significant difference between TBEOAEs amplitudes of two groups. In the presence of noise significant decrease was seen in TBEOAEs amplitudes at 1,2,3 and 4 KHz in both groups. In LD students the amount of this decrement at 1,2 and 4 KHz was lower than in the normal students. Conclusion: A significant diminished suppression effect at 1,2 and 4 KHz in LD students indicates that at these frequency regions MOCB function was reduced. Therefore it suggests that the assessment of MOCB by evaluating the suppression effect of TBEOAEs included in the test battery approach used in the diagnostic of LD students.

  1. Using Service-Learning in Urban Areas in Semarang Regency to Address Local Knowledge System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rully Adi Nugroho

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Service-learning has gained substantial recognition as an effective type of pedagogy and has enhanced civic education across the disciplines, however remains a lack of understanding of this type of learning in Indonesia. The goals of the study were (1 to explore the forms of local knowledge systems practiced in Semarang Regency and how they are used in resources conservation using service-learning method, (2 to foster student engagement with the community, and (3 to promote student awareness of community resources that are directly relevant to local knowledge system issues. The success of the service-learning projects in meeting these goals was assessed via qualitative analysis of student reflective papers and classroom presentations. The results indicated there were local knowledges that were still successfully in use, but often only very locally. Furthermore, the results also indicated that the service-learning projects promoted students’ valuable academic skills, including communication, team-building, and critical thinking, built their self-esteem, their awareness of community needs and resources, and demonstrated the relevance of course content to real life.

  2. Learning transfer of geospatial technologies in secondary science and mathematics core areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Curtis P.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the transfer of geospatial technology knowledge and skill presented in a social sciences course context to other core areas of the curriculum. Specifically, this study explored the transfer of geospatial technology knowledge and skill to the STEM-related core areas of science and mathematics among ninth-grade students. Haskell's (2001) research on "levels of transfer" provided the theoretical framework for this study, which sought to demonstrate the experimental group's higher ability to transfer geospatial skills, higher mean assignment scores, higher post-test scores, higher geospatial skill application and deeper levels of transfer application than the control group. The participants of the study consisted of thirty ninth-graders enrolled in U.S. History, Earth Science and Integrated Mathematics 1 courses. The primary investigator of this study had no previous classroom experiences with this group of students. The participants who were enrolled in the school's existing two-section class configuration were assigned to experimental and control groups. The experimental group had ready access to Macintosh MacBook laptop computers, and the control group had ready access to Macintosh iPads. All participants in U.S. History received instruction with and were required to use ArcGIS Explorer Online during a Westward Expansion project. All participants were given the ArcGIS Explorer Online content assessment following the completion of the U.S. History project. Once the project in U.S. History was completed, Earth Science and Integrated Mathematics 1 began units of instruction beginning with a multiple-choice content pre-test created by the classroom teachers. Experimental participants received the same unit of instruction without the use or influence of ArcGIS Explorer Online. At the end of the Earth Science and Integrated Math 1 units, the same multiple-choice test was administered as the content post-test. Following the

  3. Helwan University Project Developing Primary School Pupils' Abilities and Skills at Some Egyptian Underprivileged Areas (Slums). (Field Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tayeb, Mahmoud N.; El Nashar, Mohamed; Zeid, Mai M.; El-Sayed, Magda; Ramadan, Mohamed A.; Hamdi, Safia M.; El-Affy, Nabila; Ebeid, Amina K.; El-Marasi, Sonia S.; Abou-Elmahty, Maher

    2010-01-01

    Through directing concerted efforts and educational services of seven Faculties of Helwan University towards socially underprivileged pupils in slum areas (EL-Marg area in big Cairo) this research project had two main aims: firstly, modifying a set of arbitrary behaviors of those pupils, in a trial to develop some behavior skills associated with…

  4. Problems of Primary Education Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubova, M. V.

    2014-01-01

    Primary education in Russia has failed to adapt to the needs of post-Soviet society, and is still based on rote learning and memorization instead of learning through discovery and learning to use and apply what is learned.

  5. Effects of Modality and Redundancy Principles on the Learning and Attitude of a Computer-Based Music Theory Lesson among Jordanian Primary Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldalalah, Osamah Ahmad; Fong, Soon Fook

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of modality and redundancy principles on the attitude and learning of music theory among primary pupils of different aptitudes in Jordan. The lesson of music theory was developed in three different modes, audio and image (AI), text with image (TI) and audio with image and text (AIT). The…

  6. "Absent Fathers", and Children's Social and Emotional Learning: An Exploration of the Perceptions of "Positive Male Role Models" in the Primary School Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Peter; Brownhill, Simon

    2018-01-01

    This paper focuses on the testimonies of three male primary school staff members who utilised social and emotional learning (SEL) in their everyday practice within their respective schools. The data, collected through individual interviews, illustrate how these three men interpreted SEL, and their role in the development of children's social,…

  7. Examining Prediction Models of Giving up within a Resource-Based Framework of Coping in Primary School Students with and without Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skues, Jason L.; Cunningham, Everarda G.; Theiler, Stephen S.

    2016-01-01

    This study tests a proposed model of coping outcomes for 290 primary school students in Years 5 and 6 (mean age = 11.50 years) with and without learning disabilities (LDs) within a resource-based framework of coping. Group-administered educational and intelligence tests were used to screen students for LDs. Students also completed a questionnaire…

  8. Technologically Enhanced Language Learning in Primary Schools in England, France and Spain: Developing Linguistic Competence in a Technologically Enhanced Classroom Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrory, Gee; Chretien, Lucette; Ortega-Martin, Jose Luis

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on an EU-funded project (Ref: 134244-2007-UK-COMENIUS-CMP) that explored the impact of technology, notably video-conferencing, on primary school children's language learning in England, France and Spain. Data were gathered from the children in the project, their teachers and also from trainee teachers placed in the schools. The…

  9. Measuring Challenge, Fun and Sterility on a "Phunometre" Scale: Evaluating Creative Teaching and Learning with Children and Their Student Teachers in the Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elton-Chalcraft, Sally; Mills, Kären

    2015-01-01

    "It was the funnest week in the whole history of funnest weeks": our case study, the second phase in a three-phase research project, evaluates the successes and limitations of creative teaching and learning during the "The Creative and Effective Curriculum" module for PGCE primary student teachers which includes a one-week…

  10. Parental Choice of Schooling, Learning Processes and Inter-Ethnic Friendship Patterns: The Case of Malay Students in Chinese Primary Schools in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sua, Tan Yao; Ngah, Kamarudin; Darit, Sezali Md.

    2013-01-01

    This study surveys 200 Malay students enrolled in three Chinese primary schools in relation to three issues, i.e., parental choice of schooling, learning processes and inter-ethnic friendship patterns. The three issues are explored through a combination of quantitative and qualitative research methodologies. Parental expectations for their…

  11. Re-Envisaging the Teaching of Mathematics: One Student Teacher's Experience Learning to Teach Primary Mathematics in a Manner Congruent with the New Zealand Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Judy

    2013-01-01

    Teacher education can provide opportunities for contributing towards a re-envisaging of the teaching and learning of mathematics in the primary classroom. This study documents the experiences of one student teacher who, during her mathematics education courses, embraced a perception of mathematics as a social, creative and experiential discipline.…

  12. Soil Water Retention and Gross Primary Productivity in the Zábrod area in the Šumava Mts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šír, Miloslav; Lichner, Ľ.; Tesař, Miroslav; Krejča, M.; Váchal, J.

    roč. 3, s. 1 (2008), s130-s138 ISSN 1801-5395 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS200420562; GA ČR GA205/05/2312; GA ČR GA205/06/0375; GA MŽP(CZ) SP/1A6/151/07 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : hydrologic cycle * evapotranspiration * gross primary productivity * entropy production * soil water retention Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology

  13. Retinal genes are differentially expressed in areas of primary versus secondary degeneration following partial optic nerve injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissam Chiha

    Full Text Available Partial transection (PT of the optic nerve is an established experimental model of secondary degeneration in the central nervous system. After a dorsal transection, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs with axons in ventral optic nerve are intact but vulnerable to secondary degeneration, whereas RGCs in dorsal retina with dorsal axons are affected by primary and secondary injuries. Using microarray, we quantified gene expression changes in dorsal and ventral retina at 1 and 7 days post PT, to characterize pathogenic pathways linked to primary and secondary degeneration.In comparison to uninjured retina Cryba1, Cryba2 and Crygs, were significantly downregulated in injured dorsal retina at days 1 and 7. While Ecel1, Timp1, Mt2A and CD74, which are associated with reducing excitotoxicity, oxidative stress and inflammation, were significantly upregulated. Genes associated with oxygen binding pathways, immune responses, cytokine receptor activity and apoptosis were enriched in dorsal retina at day 1 after PT. Oxygen binding and apoptosis remained enriched at day 7, as were pathways involved in extracellular matrix modification. Fewer changes were observed in ventral retina at day 1 after PT, most associated with the regulation of protein homodimerization activity. By day 7, apoptosis, matrix organization and signal transduction pathways were enriched. Discriminant analysis was also performed for specific functional gene groups to compare expression intensities at each time point. Altered expression of selected genes (ATF3, GFAP, Ecel1, TIMP1, Tp53 and proteins (GFAP, ECEL1 and ATF3 were semi-quantitatively assessed by qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry respectively.There was an acute and complex primary injury response in dorsal retina indicative of a dynamic interaction between neuroprotective and neurodegenerative events; ventral retina vulnerable to secondary degeneration showed a delayed injury response. Both primary and secondary injury resulted in the

  14. Preliminary study of the primary nozzle position of a supersonic air ejector with a constant-area mixing chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kracik Jan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at investigating the primary nozzle position in a proposed supersonic air ejector device. The ejector is primarily made up of a supersonic primary nozzle, which is located in the axis of the ejector, a suction chamber or secondary stream inlet, a mixing chamber and a diffuser. The ejector design allows to translate the primary nozzle in the axis direction and fix it in a chosen distance from the beginning of the mixing chamber and hence influence the secondary mass flow rate. In a limit case, it is possible to set the nozzle to such a position where no secondary flow occurs. If we ignore the case where no secondary flow occurs, five different nozzle distances have been investigated in this paper. Some cases seem to be alike and there are no significant dissimilarities between them. Courses of relative back-pressure ratio are carried out against the entrainment ratio and transition between on-design and off-design regimes is determined. Measurements of the mixed flow based on the standard ISO 5167 are performed by means of orifice plate method. In addition, a comparison between experiments and simulations performed by Ansys Fluent software is presented in order to indicate further improvements to the numerical model.

  15. Supplementary motor area and primary auditory cortex activation in an expert break-dancer during the kinesthetic motor imagery of dance to music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olshansky, Michael P; Bar, Rachel J; Fogarty, Mary; DeSouza, Joseph F X

    2015-01-01

    The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the neural activity of an expert dancer with 35 years of break-dancing experience during the kinesthetic motor imagery (KMI) of dance accompanied by highly familiar and unfamiliar music. The goal of this study was to examine the effect of musical familiarity on neural activity underlying KMI within a highly experienced dancer. In order to investigate this in both primary sensory and motor planning cortical areas, we examined the effects of music familiarity on the primary auditory cortex [Heschl's gyrus (HG)] and the supplementary motor area (SMA). Our findings reveal reduced HG activity and greater SMA activity during imagined dance to familiar music compared to unfamiliar music. We propose that one's internal representations of dance moves are influenced by auditory stimuli and may be specific to a dance style and the music accompanying it.

  16. Geostatistical and GIS analysis of the spatial variability of alluvial gold content in Ngoura-Colomines area, Eastern Cameroon: Implications for the exploration of primary gold deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takodjou Wambo, Jonas Didero; Ganno, Sylvestre; Djonthu Lahe, Yannick Sthopira; Kouankap Nono, Gus Djibril; Fossi, Donald Hermann; Tchouatcha, Milan Stafford; Nzenti, Jean Paul

    2018-06-01

    Linear and nonlinear geostatistic is commonly used in ore grade estimation and seldom used in Geographical Information System (GIS) technology. In this study, we suggest an approach based on geostatistic linear ordinary kriging (OK) and Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques to investigate the spatial distribution of alluvial gold content, mineralized and gangue layers thicknesses from 73 pits at the Ngoura-Colomines area with the aim to determine controlling factors for the spatial distribution of mineralization and delineate the most prospective area for primary gold mineralization. Gold content varies between 0.1 and 4.6 g/m3 and has been broadly grouped into three statistical classes. These classes have been spatially subdivided into nine zones using ordinary kriging model based on physical and topographical characteristics. Both mineralized and barren layer thicknesses show randomly spatial distribution, and there is no correlation between these parameters and the gold content. This approach has shown that the Ngoura-Colomines area is located in a large shear zone compatible with the Riedel fault system composed of P and P‧ fractures oriented NE-SW and NNE-SSW respectively; E-W trending R fractures and R‧ fractures with NW-SE trends that could have contributed significantly to the establishment of this gold mineralization. The combined OK model and GIS analysis have led to the delineation of Colomines, Tissongo, Madubal and Boutou villages as the most prospective areas for the exploration of primary gold deposit in the study area.

  17. Using Participatory Learning & Action (PLA) research techniques for inter-stakeholder dialogue in primary healthcare: an analysis of stakeholders' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brún, T; O'Reilly-de Brún, M; Van Weel-Baumgarten, E; Burns, N; Dowrick, C; Lionis, C; O'Donnell, C; Mair, F S; Papadakaki, M; Saridaki, A; Spiegel, W; Van Weel, C; Van den Muijsenbergh, M; MacFarlane, A

    2017-01-01

    It is important for health care workers to know the needs and expectations of their patients. Therefore, service users have to be involved in research. To achieve a meaningful dialogue between service users, healthcare workers and researchers, participatory methods are needed. This paper describes how the application of a specific participatory methodology, Participatory Learning and Action (PLA) can lead to such a meaningful dialogue. In PLA all stakeholders are regarded as equal partners and collaborators in research.During 2011-2015, a European project called RESTORE used PLA in Austria, Greece, Ireland, The Netherlands and the UK to investigate how communication between primary health care workers and their migrant patients could be improved.Seventy eight migrants, interpreters, doctors, nurses and other key stakeholders (see Table 2) participated in 62 PLA sessions. These dialogues (involving discussions, activities, PLA techniques and evaluations) were generally 2-3 h long and were recorded and analysed by the researchers.Participants reported many positive experiences about their dialogues with other stakeholders. There was a positive, trusting atmosphere in which all stakeholders could express their views despite differences in social power. This made for better understanding within and across stakeholder groups. For instance a doctor changed her view on the use of interpreters after a migrant explained why this was important. Negative experiences were rare: some doctors and healthcare workers thought the PLA sessions took a lot of time; and despite the good dialogue, there was disappointment that very few migrants used the new interpreting service. Background In order to be effective, primary healthcare must understand the health needs, values and expectations of the population it serves. Recent research has shown that the involvement of service users and other stakeholders and gathering information on their perspectives can contribute positively to many

  18. Opinions from teachers in the Fresno area of Central California regarding the influence of mobile technology on their students’ learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navaridas, Fermín

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the most relevant results of a study in which opinions of the teachers in the area of Fresno (Central California, USA about the effects of the integration of mobile devices into the teaching-learning process. Among other objectives, this study has tried to analyze the influence of mobile learning over three very important learning factors: affective-emotional (motivation, ethic-social (social skills and the cognitive one (cognitive skills. In order to carry out this study, a descriptive methodological approach was adopted, using the survey technique as the most adequate method to collect teachers´ opinions in a relatively fast and precise way. Obtained results show a widespread agreement among teachers about the pedagogical potential of mobile devices as a tool to improve learning quality. In general terms, conclusions suggest an improvement in the students’ interest on educational tasks, an increase during study activities, a better collaborative work, as well as an improvement of creativity and information acquisition.

  19. The Effective Connectivity Between the Two Primary Motor Areas in the Brain during Bilateral Tapping of Hand Fingers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, A. N.; Hamid, K. A.

    Dynamic causal modeling (DCM) was implemented on datasets obtained from an externally-triggered finger tapping functional MRI experiment performed by 5 male and female subjects. The objective was to model the effective connectivity between two significantly activated primary motor regions (M1). The left and right hemisphere M1s are found to be effectively and bidirectionally connected to each other. Both connections are modulated by the stimulus-free contextual input. These connectivities are however not gated (influenced) by any of the two M1s, ruling out the possibility of the non-linear behavior of connections between both M1s. A dynamic causal model was finally suggested.

  20. Evaluation of Visual Arts Lesson Gains According to the Learning Steps of Cognitive, Affective Psychomotor Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tataroglu, Eylem

    2012-01-01

    Primary education (1-8 Grades) Visual Arts Instruction Schedule is a program built up and constituted by a commission composed of academicians and specialist teachers in their fields within the body of Ministry of National Education in year 2006 on the basis of "constructivist approach" philosophy of education. Instruction Schedule…

  1. Prescribed burning in the Kings River Ecosystem Project Area: lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    David S. McCandliss

    2002-01-01

    The prescribed fire program on the Sierra National Forest is in its infancy. Prescription burning was initiated in 1994 in two 32,000-acre watersheds in the Kings River District of the Sierra National Forest. Primary objectives are to return fire to a more historical role in forest ecosystems and to provide opportunities for scientists from the Pacific Southwest...

  2. Prevalence of head lice infestation and pediculicidal effect of permethrine shampoo in primary school girls in a low-income area in southeast of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani-Ahmadi, Moussa; Jaberhashemi, Seyed Aghil; Zare, Mehdi; Sanei-Dehkordi, Alireza

    2017-07-24

    Head lice infestation is a common public health problem that is most prevalent in primary school children throughout the world, especially in developing countries including different parts of Iran. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with head lice infestation and pediculicidal effect of 1% permethrin shampoo in primary schools girls of Bashagard County, one of the low socioeconomic areas in southeast of Iran. In this interventional study six villages with similar demographical situations were selected and randomly assigned into intervention and control areas. In each area 150 girl students aged 7-12 years were selected randomly and screened for head lice infestation by visual scalp examination. In intervention area, treatment efficacy of 1% permethrin shampoo was evaluated via re-examination for infestation after one, two, and three weeks. Pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic and associated factors of head lice infestation. The prevalence of head lice infestation was 67.3%. There was significant association between head lice infestation and school grade, family size, parents' literacy, bathing facilities, frequency of hair washing, and use of shared articles (p shampoo for head lice treatment was 29.2, 68.9, and 90.3% after the first, second, and third weeks, respectively. The head lice infestation is a health problem in primary school girls of Bashagard County. Improvement of socioeconomic status and providing appropriate educational programs about head lice risk factors and prevention can be effective for reduction of infestation in this area. This trial has been registered and approved by Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences ethical committee (Trial No.764). Trial registration date: March 17 2014.

  3. Learning from contract change in primary care dentistry: A qualitative study of stakeholders in the north of England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Richard D; Steele, Jimmy G; Donaldson, Cam; Exley, Catherine

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this research was to explore and synthesise learning from stakeholders (NHS dentists, commissioners and patients) approximately five years on from the introduction of a new NHS dental contract in England. The case study involved a purposive sample of stakeholders associated with a former NHS Primary Care Trust (PCT) in the north of England. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 8 commissioners of NHS dental services and 5 NHS general dental practitioners. Three focus group meetings were held with 14 NHS dental patients. All focus groups and interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. The data were analysed using a framework approach. Four themes were identified: 'commissioners' views of managing local NHS dental services'; 'the risks of commissioning for patient access'; 'costs, contract currency and commissioning constraints'; and 'local decision-making and future priorities'. Commissioners reported that much of their time was spent managing existing contracts rather than commissioning services. Patients were unclear about the NHS dental charge bands and dentists strongly criticised the contract's target-driven approach which was centred upon them generating 'units of dental activity'. NHS commissioners remained relatively constrained in their abilities to reallocate dental resources amongst contracts. The national focus upon practitioners achieving their units of dental activity appeared to outweigh interest in the quality of dental care provided. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. An Observation Tool for Comprehensive Pedagogy in Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL: Examples from Primary Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taina M Wewer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article on principles and practices in Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL is also applicable for general foreign and second language instruction. Since there is no ‘one size fits all’ CLIL pedagogy, the origin of the article lies in the need of educators to obtain and exchange ideas of and tools for actual classroom practices (Pérez Cañado, 2017, and ensure that all key features of CLIL are present in instruction. Although there are a few handbooks available for launching CLIL and adopting CLIL pedagogy (e.g., Coyle, Hood, & Marsh, 2010; Mehisto, Marsh, & Frigols, 2008, these provide principles and general examples of content-based instruction at higher levels of education rather than more detailed advice on how to operate in the beginning phases with young language learners, hence the focus on primary education. The Observation Tool for Effective CLIL Teaching created by de Graaff, Koopman, Anikina, and Gerrit (2007 was chosen as the starting point and was complemented with three additional fields that were not markedly included in the original model: cultural aspects, affects, and assessment.

  5. Improving Students’ Sense to Learn Language in Islamic Institution of Coastal Area Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuraedah, St.; Azaliah Mar, Nur; Gunawan, Fahmi

    2018-05-01

    This research aims to examine the ways to develop a sense of love for learning Arabic among students in Islamic Higher education of Indonesia. This study is essential to do because Arabic should be the favourite subject by the students. In addition, Arabic is also the language of Al-Qur’an. As the language of Al-Qur’an, Arabic for Indonesian is not a foreign language as other foreign languages. In fact, the Arabic becomes one of the dreaded subjects by most students, especially at State Islamic Institute of Kendari. Therefore, it takes the tips and efforts by the Arabic teachers to make Arabic more interesting for the students. The results show that one way to increase the motivation to learn Arabic for students is to develop students’ sense of love to Arabic. The teachers can do it by showing how easy Arabic is and how important it is since it is a language of religion and science, and providing the tips to learn the language. Besides, they also can explain some borrowing words from Arabic adopted into Indonesian and to be used in daily conversations without realizing it, and show the form of word derivation in Arabic that can help to enrich the Arabic vocabulary. The teacher should tell the students that knowing one word in Arabic can develop into some vocabulary with different meanings.

  6. Practice guidelines in the context of primary care, learning and usability in the physicians' decision-making process--a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingemansson, Maria; Bastholm-Rahmner, Pia; Kiessling, Anna

    2014-08-20

    Decision-making is central for general practitioners (GP). Practice guidelines are important tools in this process but implementation of them in the complex context of primary care is a challenge. The purpose of this study was to explore how GPs approach, learn from and use practice guidelines in their day-to-day decision-making process in primary care. A qualitative approach using focus-group interviews was chosen in order to provide in-depth information. The participants were 22 GPs with a median of seven years of experience in primary care, representing seven primary healthcare centres in Stockholm, Sweden in 2011. The interviews focused on how the GPs use guidelines in their decision-making, factors that influence their decision how to approach these guidelines, and how they could encourage the learning process in routine practice.Data were analysed by qualitative content analysis. Meaning units were condensed and grouped in categories. After interpreting the content in the categories, themes were created. Three themes were conceptualized. The first theme emphasized to use guidelines by interactive contextualized dialogues. The categories underpinning this theme: 1. Feedback by peer-learning 2. Feedback by collaboration, mutual learning, and equality between specialties, identified important ways to achieve this learning dialogue. Confidence was central in the second theme, learning that establishes confidence to provide high quality care. Three aspects of confidence were identified in the categories of this theme: 1. Confidence by confirmation, 2. Confidence by reliability and 3. Confidence by evaluation of own results. In the third theme, learning by use of relevant evidence in the decision-making process, we identified two categories: 1. Design and lay-out visualizing the evidence 2. Accessibility adapted to the clinical decision-making process as prerequisites for using the practice guidelines. Decision-making in primary care is a dual process that involves

  7. Differences in the prevalence of overweight, obesity and underweight among children from primary schools in rural and urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Wolnicka

    2016-06-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children from rural and urban areas of Poland is similar. Analysis of regional differences in the prevalence of obesity, overweight and underweight among children and adolescents may indicate the direction of national and local activities aiming to reduce the inequalities resulting from nutritional well-being.

  8. Multi-temporal Land Use Mapping of Coastal Wetlands Area using Machine Learning in Google Earth Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farda, N. M.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal wetlands provide ecosystem services essential to people and the environment. Changes in coastal wetlands, especially on land use, are important to monitor by utilizing multi-temporal imagery. The Google Earth Engine (GEE) provides many machine learning algorithms (10 algorithms) that are very useful for extracting land use from imagery. The research objective is to explore machine learning in Google Earth Engine and its accuracy for multi-temporal land use mapping of coastal wetland area. Landsat 3 MSS (1978), Landsat 5 TM (1991), Landsat 7 ETM+ (2001), and Landsat 8 OLI (2014) images located in Segara Anakan lagoon are selected to represent multi temporal images. The input for machine learning are visible and near infrared bands, PCA band, invers PCA bands, bare soil index, vegetation index, wetness index, elevation from ASTER GDEM, and GLCM (Harralick) texture, and also polygon samples in 140 locations. There are 10 machine learning algorithms applied to extract coastal wetlands land use from Landsat imagery. The algorithms are Fast Naive Bayes, CART (Classification and Regression Tree), Random Forests, GMO Max Entropy, Perceptron (Multi Class Perceptron), Winnow, Voting SVM, Margin SVM, Pegasos (Primal Estimated sub-GrAdient SOlver for Svm), IKPamir (Intersection Kernel Passive Aggressive Method for Information Retrieval, SVM). Machine learning in Google Earth Engine are very helpful in multi-temporal land use mapping, the highest accuracy for land use mapping of coastal wetland is CART with 96.98 % Overall Accuracy using K-Fold Cross Validation (K = 10). GEE is particularly useful for multi-temporal land use mapping with ready used image and classification algorithms, and also very challenging for other applications.

  9. Landslide susceptibility modeling applying machine learning methods: A case study from Longju in the Three Gorges Reservoir area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chao; Yin, Kunlong; Cao, Ying; Ahmed, Bayes; Li, Yuanyao; Catani, Filippo; Pourghasemi, Hamid Reza

    2018-03-01

    Landslide is a common natural hazard and responsible for extensive damage and losses in mountainous areas. In this study, Longju in the Three Gorges Reservoir area in China was taken as a case study for landslide susceptibility assessment in order to develop effective risk prevention and mitigation strategies. To begin, 202 landslides were identified, including 95 colluvial landslides and 107 rockfalls. Twelve landslide causal factor maps were prepared initially, and the relationship between these factors and each landslide type was analyzed using the information value model. Later, the unimportant factors were selected and eliminated using the information gain ratio technique. The landslide locations were randomly divided into two groups: 70% for training and 30% for verifying. Two machine learning models: the support vector machine (SVM) and artificial neural network (ANN), and a multivariate statistical model: the logistic regression (LR), were applied for landslide susceptibility modeling (LSM) for each type. The LSM index maps, obtained from combining the assessment results of the two landslide types, were classified into five levels. The performance of the LSMs was evaluated using the receiver operating characteristics curve and Friedman test. Results show that the elimination of noise-generating factors and the separated modeling of each landslide type have significantly increased the prediction accuracy. The machine learning models outperformed the multivariate statistical model and SVM model was found ideal for the case study area.

  10. Extraction of Built-Up Areas Using Convolutional Neural Networks and Transfer Learning from SENTINEL-2 Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramhe, V. S.; Ghosh, S. K.; Garg, P. K.

    2018-04-01

    With rapid globalization, the extent of built-up areas is continuously increasing. Extraction of features for classifying built-up areas that are more robust and abstract is a leading research topic from past many years. Although, various studies have been carried out where spatial information along with spectral features has been utilized to enhance the accuracy of classification. Still, these feature extraction techniques require a large number of user-specific parameters and generally application specific. On the other hand, recently introduced Deep Learning (DL) techniques requires less number of parameters to represent more abstract aspects of the data without any manual effort. Since, it is difficult to acquire high-resolution datasets for applications that require large scale monitoring of areas. Therefore, in this study Sentinel-2 image has been used for built-up areas extraction. In this work, pre-trained Convolutional Neural Networks (ConvNets) i.e. Inception v3 and VGGNet are employed for transfer learning. Since these networks are trained on generic images of ImageNet dataset which are having very different characteristics from satellite images. Therefore, weights of networks are fine-tuned using data derived from Sentinel-2 images. To compare the accuracies with existing shallow networks, two state of art classifiers i.e. Gaussian Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Back-Propagation Neural Network (BP-NN) are also implemented. Both SVM and BP-NN gives 84.31 % and 82.86 % overall accuracies respectively. Inception-v3 and VGGNet gives 89.43 % of overall accuracy using fine-tuned VGGNet and 92.10 % when using Inception-v3. The results indicate high accuracy of proposed fine-tuned ConvNets on a 4-channel Sentinel-2 dataset for built-up area extraction.

  11. EXTRACTION OF BUILT-UP AREAS USING CONVOLUTIONAL NEURAL NETWORKS AND TRANSFER LEARNING FROM SENTINEL-2 SATELLITE IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Bramhe

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available With rapid globalization, the extent of built-up areas is continuously increasing. Extraction of features for classifying built-up areas that are more robust and abstract is a leading research topic from past many years. Although, various studies have been carried out where spatial information along with spectral features has been utilized to enhance the accuracy of classification. Still, these feature extraction techniques require a large number of user-specific parameters and generally application specific. On the other hand, recently introduced Deep Learning (DL techniques requires less number of parameters to represent more abstract aspects of the data without any manual effort. Since, it is difficult to acquire high-resolution datasets for applications that require large scale monitoring of areas. Therefore, in this study Sentinel-2 image has been used for built-up areas extraction. In this work, pre-trained Convolutional Neural Networks (ConvNets i.e. Inception v3 and VGGNet are employed for transfer learning. Since these networks are trained on generic images of ImageNet dataset which are having very different characteristics from satellite images. Therefore, weights of networks are fine-tuned using data derived from Sentinel-2 images. To compare the accuracies with existing shallow networks, two state of art classifiers i.e. Gaussian Support Vector Machine (SVM and Back-Propagation Neural Network (BP-NN are also implemented. Both SVM and BP-NN gives 84.31 % and 82.86 % overall accuracies respectively. Inception-v3 and VGGNet gives 89.43 % of overall accuracy using fine-tuned VGGNet and 92.10 % when using Inception-v3. The results indicate high accuracy of proposed fine-tuned ConvNets on a 4-channel Sentinel-2 dataset for built-up area extraction.

  12. Poor hypertension control in Greek patients with diabetes in rural areas. The VANK study in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skliros, E; Sotiropoulos, A; Vasibossis, A; Xipnitos, C; Chronopoulos, I; Razis, N; Merkouris, Panagiotis

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to determine hypertension prevalence and levels of awareness, treatment and control of hypertension among diabetic patients using data from the VANK study. The sample consisted of 221 men and women (122/99) diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with all participants. Controlled hypertension definition was based on having a systolic blood pressure (BP) of hypertension was 194/221 (87.7%). In total, 34.1% of patients (66/194) were not aware of having hypertension. Of those who were aware of having hypertension (n = 128, 65.9%), all were treated. Among those treated, only 11 persons (11/194, 5.6%) had systolic BP hypertensive patients (n = 128) received antihypertensive drug therapy, in only 8.6% (11/128) the treatment was effective (BP hypertension from primary care physicians, as well as regular surveillance to detect developing hypertension in diabetic patients.

  13. Camera derived vegetation greenness index as proxy for gross primary production in a low Arctic wetland area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard-Nielsen, Andreas; Lund, Magnus; Hansen, Birger Ulf

    2013-01-01

    vegetation index (NDVI) product derived from the WorldView-2 satellite. An object-based classification based on a bi-temporal image composite was used to classify the study area into heath, copse, fen, and bedrock. Temporal evolution of vegetation greenness was evaluated and modeled with double sigmoid...... and GPP (R-2 = 0.85, p remote Arctic regions....... (C) 2013 International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Inc. (ISPRS) Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  14. An Integrated H-G Scheme Identifying Areas for Soil Remediation and Primary Heavy Metal Contributors: A Risk Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Zou; Xiaolu Jiang; Xiaoli Duan; Xiuge Zhao; Jing Zhang; Jingwen Tang; Guoqing Sun

    2017-01-01

    Traditional sampling for soil pollution evaluation is cost intensive and has limited representativeness. Therefore, developing methods that can accurately and rapidly identify at-risk areas and the contributing pollutants is imperative for soil remediation. In this study, we propose an innovative integrated H-G scheme combining human health risk assessment and geographical detector methods that was based on geographical information system technology and validated its feasibility in a renewabl...

  15. Learning from disaster: Community-based marine protected areas in Fiji

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshito Takasaki

    2013-01-01

    This paper empirically examines whether and how experiencing climate-related disasters can improve the rural poor fs adaptation to climate change through community-based resource management. Original household survey data in Fiji capture the unique sequence of a tropical cyclone and the establishment of community-based marine protected areas as a natural experiment. The analysis reveals that household disaster victimization increases its support for establishing marine protected areas for fut...

  16. Differences in the prevalence of overweight, obesity and underweight among children from primary schools in rural and urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolnicka, Katarzyna; Jarosz, Mirosław; Jaczewska-Schuetz, Joanna; Taraszewska, Anna Małgorzata

    2016-06-02

    Overweight adversely affects not only the health and development of children and adolescents but also their health in adulthood, increasing the risk of chronic non-communicable diseases and disabilities. The frequency of nutritional disorders among children and adolescents is increasing in many countries worldwide, including Poland. To demonstrate differences in the nutritional well-being of school-age children depending on the school location: rural and urban areas. The study conducted in 2010 covered a total of 1,255 pupils, 627 girls and 628 boys, aged nine, from the area of five provinces of Poland: Pomorskie, Opolskie, Wielkopolskie, Podkarpackie and Masovian, representing the northern, southern, western, eastern and central regions of the country. Based on the height and weight measurements of children, the body mass index was calculated. The nutritional status was assessed according to the criteria of Cole et al. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in girls and boys in separate regions of the country (villages, cities with less than 100,000 residents and cities with more than 100,000 residents) did not differ significantly. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children from rural and urban areas of Poland is similar. Analysis of regional differences in the prevalence of obesity, overweight and underweight among children and adolescents may indicate the direction of national and local activities aiming to reduce the inequalities resulting from nutritional well-being.

  17. The distribution feature of size-fractionated chlorophyll a and primary productivity in Prydz Bay and its north sea area during the austral summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘子琳; 陈忠元

    2003-01-01

    The investigation of size-fractionated chlorophyll a and primary productivity were carried out in three longitudinal sections (63°-69°12′S, 70°30′E, 73°E and 75(30′E) at December 18 -26, 1998 and January 12 -18, 1999 in Prydz Bay and its north sea area, Antarctica. The results showed that surface chlorophyll a concentration were 0.16 - 3.99 μg dm -3. The high values of chlorophyll a concentration ( more than 3.5 μg dm -3 ) were in Prydz Bay and in the west Ladies Bank. The average chlorophyll a concentration at sub-surface layer was higher than that at surface layer; its concentration at the deeper layers of 50 m decreased with increasing depth and that at 200 m depth was only 0.01 -0.95 μg dm-3. The results of size-fractionated chlorophyll a showed that the contribution of the netplanktion to total chlorophyll a was 56% , those of the nanoplankton and the picoplankton were 24% and 20% respectively in the surveyed area. The potential primary productivity at the euphotic zone in the surveyed area was 0. 11 - 11.67 mgC m-3 h -1 and average value was 2.00 ±2.80 mgC m-3h-1. The in-situ productivity in the bay and the continental shelf was higher and that in the deep-sea area was lower. The assimilation number of ted primary productivity show that the contribution of the netplanktion to total productivity was 58% , those of the nanoplankton and the picoplankton were 26% and 16% respectively. The cell abundance of phytoplankton was 1. 6 + 103 - 164. 8 + 103 cell dm-3 in the surface water.

  18. Healthcare provider perceptions of the role of interprofessional care in access to and outcomes of primary care in an underserved area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Shaowei; Teichman, Peter G; Latif, David; Boyd, Jennifer; Gupta, Rahul

    2018-03-01

    To meet the needs of an aging population who often have multiple chronic conditions, interprofessional care is increasingly adopted by patient-centred medical homes and Accountable Care Organisations to improve patient care coordination and decrease costs in the United States, especially in underserved areas with primary care workforce shortages. In this cross-sectional survey across multiple clinical settings in an underserved area, healthcare providers perceived overall outcomes associated with interprofessional care teams as positive. This included healthcare providers' beliefs that interprofessional care teams improved patient outcomes, increased clinic efficiency, and enhanced care coordination and patient follow-up. Teams with primary care physician available each day were perceived as better able to coordinate care and follow up with patients (p = .031), while teams that included clinical pharmacists were perceived as preventing medication-associated problems (p care model as a useful strategy to improve various outcomes across different clinical settings in the context of a shortage of primary care physicians.

  19. Within-digit functional parcellation of Brodmann areas of the human primary somatosensory cortex using functional magnetic resonance imaging at 7 tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Panchuelo, Rosa M; Besle, Julien; Beckett, Alex; Bowtell, Richard; Schluppeck, Denis; Francis, Susan

    2012-11-07

    The primary somatosensory cortex (S1) can be subdivided cytoarchitectonically into four distinct Brodmann areas (3a, 3b, 1, and 2), but these areas have never been successfully delineated in vivo in single human subjects. Here, we demonstrate the functional parcellation of four areas of S1 in individual human subjects based on high-resolution functional MRI measurements made at 7 T using vibrotactile stimulation. By stimulating four sites along the length of the index finger, we were able to identify and locate map reversals of the base to tip representation of the index finger in S1. We suggest that these reversals correspond to the areal borders between the mirrored representations in the four Brodmann areas, as predicted from electrophysiology measurements in nonhuman primates. In all subjects, maps were highly reproducible across scanning sessions and stable over weeks. In four of the six subjects scanned, four, mirrored, within-finger somatotopic maps defining the extent of the Brodmann areas could be directly observed on the cortical surface. In addition, by using multivariate classification analysis, the location of stimulation on the index finger (four distinct sites) could be decoded with a mean accuracy of 65% across subjects. Our measurements thus show that within-finger topography is present at the millimeter scale in the cortex and is highly reproducible. The ability to identify functional areas of S1 in vivo in individual subjects will provide a framework for investigating more complex aspects of tactile representation in S1.

  20. The Development of the Academic Administration Model of Basic Primary Educational Institutions under the Office of Sakon Nakhon Educational Service Area Office 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamonlrat Kaenchan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to 1 examine the current conditions, problems and academic administration of basic education schools under the office of Sakon Nakhon educational service area office 3, 2 develop the academic administration model of basic educational schools under the office of Sakon Nakhon educational service area office 3. The study was divided into 2 phases. Phase 1: Study the researches and literatures concerning the framework, the current conditions and the problems of academic administration to gain the concept for constructing a set of questionnaire. The questionnaire was then used to collect data from 50 administrators, 83 heads of academic sections and 198 heads of learning areas ; and interviewed the administrators of 5 schools that ranked top-five of the national education test scores (O-NET and were certified by the office of educational standard assurance and quality assessment in the third-round inspection. Phase 2: Construct the model of educational administration of basic education schools under the office of Sakon Nakhon educational service area office 3, held a focus group discussion of which the participants were 2 educational administrators and 5 school directors on the constructed model, evaluated the educational administration models of the schools under the office of Sakon Nakhon educational service area office 3 by 30 school administrators and teachers. The instruments used to collect data were a set of questionnaire, interviewing forms, recording forms and evaluating forms. The data were analyzed by a computer application. The statistics used to analyze the data were percentage, mean and standard deviation. The results were as follows: 1 The current conditions of academic administration of basic education schools under the office of Sakon Nakhon educational service area office 3, overall, were at a high level. The highest mean was the development of the learning process. The problems of academic administration, overall

  1. Differentiation in Key Learning Areas for Gifted Students in Regular Classes: A Project for Primary School Teachers in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Mantak; Chan, Serene; Chan, Cheri; Fung, Dennis C. L.; Cheung, Wai Ming; Kwan, Tammy; Leung, Frederick K. S.

    2018-01-01

    Gifted students usually require much less time spent in practising and revising basic skills; instead, they benefit greatly from opportunities to work through the curriculum at a faster pace (acceleration). Teachers currently working with mixed-ability classes do not always find it easy to differentiate their teaching approach in this way, so…

  2. How primary health care staff working in rural and remote areas access skill development and expertise to support health promotion practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Kathryn A; Judd, Jenni; Wapau, Hylda; Nichols, Nina; Watt, Kerrianne; Devine, Sue

    2018-05-01

    Health promotion is a key component of comprehensive primary health care. Health promotion approaches complement healthcare management by enabling individuals to increase control over their health. Many primary healthcare staff have a role to play in health promotion practice, but their ability to integrate health promotion into practice is influenced by their previous training and experience. For primary healthcare staff working in rural and remote locations, access to professional development can be limited by what is locally available and prohibitive in terms of cost for travel and accommodation. This study provides insight into how staff at a large north Queensland Aboriginal community controlled health service access skill development and health promotion expertise to support their work. A qualitative exploratory study was conducted. Small group and individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with staff at Apunipima Cape York Health Council (n=9). A purposive sampling method was used to recruit participants from a number of primary healthcare teams that were more likely to be involved in health promotion work. Both on-the-ground staff and managers were interviewed. All participants were asked how they access skill development and expertise in health promotion practice and what approaches they prefer for ongoing health promotion support. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. All participants valued access to skill development, advice and support that would assist their health promotion practice. Skill development and expertise in health promotion was accessed from a variety of sources: conferences, workshops, mentoring or shared learning from internal and external colleagues, and access to online information and resources. With limited funds and limited access to professional development locally, participants fostered external and internal organisational relationships to seek in-kind advice and support. Irrespective of

  3. Project-based learning methodology in the area of microbiology applied to undergraduate medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Estibaliz; Sevillano, Elena

    2018-07-01

    In the recent years, there has been a decrease in the number of medical professionals dedicated to a research career. There is evidence that students with a research experience during their training acquire knowledge and skills that increase the probability of getting involved in research more successfully. In the Degree of Medicine (University of the Basque Country) the annual core subject 'Research Project' introduces students to research. The aim of this work was to implement a project-based learning methodology, with the students working on microbiology, and to analyse its result along time. Given an initial scenario, the students had to come up with a research idea related to medical microbiology and to carry out a research project, including writing a funding proposal, developing the experimental assays and analyzing and presenting their results to a congress organized by the University. Summative assessment was performed by both students and teachers. A satisfaction survey was carried out to gather the students' opinion. The overall results regarding to the classroom dynamics, learning results and motivation after the implementation were favourable. Students referred a greater interest about research than they had before. They would choose the project based methodology versus the traditional one.

  4. Multimedia as an Interactive Platform in Learning Volcanoes in Social Sciences among Upper Primary Students--An Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, R.; Malathy, V. A.

    2010-01-01

    Instructional technology is a growing field which uses technology as a means to solve teaching and learning challenges, both in the classroom and outside the classroom that is in distance learning environments. Multimedia is an interactive instructional technology used in the classroom for teaching learning process has a wide significance to the…

  5. Changes in corticomotor excitability and intracortical inhibition of the primary motor cortex forearm area induced by anodal tDCS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Zhang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have investigated how tDCS over the primary motor cortex modulates excitability in the intrinsic hand muscles. Here, we tested if tDCS changes corticomotor excitability and/or cortical inhibition when measured in the extensor carpi radialis (ECR and if these aftereffects can be successfully assessed during controlled muscle contraction. METHODS: We implemented a double blind cross-over design in which participants (n = 16 completed two sessions where the aftereffects of 20 min of 1 mA (0.04 mA/cm2 anodal vs sham tDCS were tested in a resting muscle, and two more sessions where the aftereffects of anodal vs sham tDCS were tested in an active muscle. RESULTS: Anodal tDCS increased corticomotor excitability in ECR when aftereffects were measured with a low-level controlled muscle contraction. Furthermore, anodal tDCS decreased short interval intracortical inhibition but only when measured at rest and after non-responders (n = 2 were removed. We found no changes in the cortical silent period. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that targeting more proximal muscles in the upper limb with anodal tDCS is achievable and corticomotor excitability can be assessed in the presence of a low-level controlled contraction of the target muscle.

  6. Joint Involvement in Primary Sjögren’s Syndrome: An Ultrasound “Target Area Approach to Arthritis”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Amezcua-Guerra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To characterize the ultrasound (US pattern of joint involvement in primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS. Methods. Seventeen patients with pSS, 18 with secondary Sjögren’s syndrome (sSS, and 17 healthy controls underwent US examinations of various articular regions. Synovitis (synovial hypertrophy/joint effusion, power Doppler (PD signals, and erosions were assessed. Results. In patients with pSS, synovitis was found in the metacarpophalangeal joints (MCP, 76%, wrists (76%, and knees (76%, while the proximal interphalangeal joints, elbows, and ankles were mostly unscathed. Intra-articular PD signals were occasionally detected in wrists (12%, elbows (6%, and knees (6%. Erosions were evident in the wrists of three (18% patients with pSS, one of these also having anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP antibodies. While US synovitis does not discriminate between sSS and pSS, demonstration of bone erosions in the 2nd MCP joints showed 28.8% sensitivity and 100% specificity for diagnosing sSS; in comparison, these figures were 72.2 and 94.1% for circulating anti-CCP antibodies. Conclusions. In pSS, the pattern of joint involvement by US is polyarticular, bilateral, and symmetrical. Synovitis is the US sign most commonly found in patients with pSS, especially in MCP joints, wrists, and knees, and bone erosions also may occur.

  7. Overt Primary Hypothyroidism in an Industrial Area in São Paulo, Brazil: The Impact of Public Disclosure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angela Zaccarelli-Marino

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary hypothyroidism (PH is the most common thyroid pathology. Purpose: to evaluate the impact of public disclosure of an unexpected number of PH cases on the frequency of patients seeking medical evaluation for endocrinological diseases. Methods: data on 6306 subjects (3356 living in the surroundings of a petrochemical complex and 2950 in a control region were collected over a 15-year time span. Thyroid function was determined by serum levels of triiodothyronine, thyroxine, free thyroxine and thyrotrophin. Antithyroglobulin and antithyroperoxidase antibodies and sonographic scans of the thyroid were performed in all patients. The data were analyzed via log-linear models to compute odds and odds ratios. Results: An increasing trend in the odds of PH was detected along the observation period with greater slope in the study region than in the control region. The odds of PH in the post-disclosure period (2002 to 2004 are greater than the corresponding ones in the pre-disclosure period (1989 to 2001. Conclusions: This study shows that living in the surroundings of a petrochemical complex may be an important risk factor for PH for both adults and children. Furthermore, public disclosure of such risk factor contributes to the awareness of the problem and to the possibility of an early diagnosis.

  8. Overt Primary Hypothyroidism in an Industrial Area in São Paulo, Brazil: The Impact of Public Disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccarelli-Marino, Maria Angela; Saldiva André, Carmen Diva; Singer, Julio M

    2016-11-22

    Background : Primary hypothyroidism (PH) is the most common thyroid pathology. Purpose : to evaluate the impact of public disclosure of an unexpected number of PH cases on the frequency of patients seeking medical evaluation for endocrinological diseases. Methods : data on 6306 subjects (3356 living in the surroundings of a petrochemical complex and 2950 in a control region) were collected over a 15-year time span. Thyroid function was determined by serum levels of triiodothyronine, thyroxine, free thyroxine and thyrotrophin. Antithyroglobulin and antithyroperoxidase antibodies and sonographic scans of the thyroid were performed in all patients. The data were analyzed via log-linear models to compute odds and odds ratios. Results : An increasing trend in the odds of PH was detected along the observation period with greater slope in the study region than in the control region. The odds of PH in the post-disclosure period (2002 to 2004) are greater than the corresponding ones in the pre-disclosure period (1989 to 2001). Conclusions : This study shows that living in the surroundings of a petrochemical complex may be an important risk factor for PH for both adults and children. Furthermore, public disclosure of such risk factor contributes to the awareness of the problem and to the possibility of an early diagnosis.

  9. An Integrated H-G Scheme Identifying Areas for Soil Remediation and Primary Heavy Metal Contributors: A Risk Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Bin; Jiang, Xiaolu; Duan, Xiaoli; Zhao, Xiuge; Zhang, Jing; Tang, Jingwen; Sun, Guoqing

    2017-03-23

    Traditional sampling for soil pollution evaluation is cost intensive and has limited representativeness. Therefore, developing methods that can accurately and rapidly identify at-risk areas and the contributing pollutants is imperative for soil remediation. In this study, we propose an innovative integrated H-G scheme combining human health risk assessment and geographical detector methods that was based on geographical information system technology and validated its feasibility in a renewable resource industrial park in mainland China. With a discrete site investigation of cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg) and zinc (Zn) concentrations, the continuous surfaces of carcinogenic risk and non-carcinogenic risk caused by these heavy metals were estimated and mapped. Source apportionment analysis using geographical detector methods further revealed that these risks were primarily attributed to As, according to the power of the determinant and its associated synergic actions with other heavy metals. Concentrations of critical As and Cd, and the associated exposed CRs are closed to the safe thresholds after remediating the risk areas identified by the integrated H-G scheme. Therefore, the integrated H-G scheme provides an effective approach to support decision-making for regional contaminated soil remediation at fine spatial resolution with limited sampling data over a large geographical extent.

  10. Awake craniotomy for brain lesions within and near the primary motor area: A retrospective analysis of factors associated with worsened paresis in 102 consecutive patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoura, Nobusada; Midorikawa, Akira; Yamada, Ryoji; Hana, Taijun; Saito, Akira; Hiromitsu, Kentaro; Itoi, Chisato; Saito, Syoko; Yagi, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Background: We analyzed factors associated with worsened paresis in a large series of patients with brain lesions located within or near the primary motor area (M1) to establish protocols for safe, awake craniotomy of eloquent lesions. Methods: We studied patients with brain lesions involving M1, the premotor area (PMA) and the primary sensory area (S1), who underwent awake craniotomy (n = 102). In addition to evaluating paresis before, during, and one month after surgery, the following parameters were analyzed: Intraoperative complications; success or failure of awake surgery; tumor type (A or B), tumor location, tumor histology, tumor size, and completeness of resection. Results: Worsened paresis at one month of follow-up was significantly associated with failure of awake surgery, intraoperative complications and worsened paresis immediately after surgery, which in turn was significantly associated with intraoperative worsening of paresis. Intraoperative worsening of paresis was significantly related to preoperative paresis, type A tumor (motor tract running in close proximity to and compressed by the tumor), tumor location within or including M1 and partial removal (PR) of the tumor. Conclusions: Successful awake surgery and prevention of deterioration of paresis immediately after surgery without intraoperative complications may help prevent worsening of paresis at one month. Factors associated with intraoperative worsening of paresis were preoperative motor deficit, type A and tumor location in M1, possibly leading to PR of the tumor. PMID:24381792

  11. Evaluation of primary immunization coverage of infants under universal immunization programme in an urban area of Bangalore city using cluster sampling and lot quality assurance sampling techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punith K

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: Is LQAS technique better than cluster sampling technique in terms of resources to evaluate the immunization coverage in an urban area? Objective: To assess and compare the lot quality assurance sampling against cluster sampling in the evaluation of primary immunization coverage. Study Design: Population-based cross-sectional study. Study Setting: Areas under Mathikere Urban Health Center. Study Subjects: Children aged 12 months to 23 months. Sample Size: 220 in cluster sampling, 76 in lot quality assurance sampling. Statistical Analysis: Percentages and Proportions, Chi square Test. Results: (1 Using cluster sampling, the percentage of completely immunized, partially immunized and unimmunized children were 84.09%, 14.09% and 1.82%, respectively. With lot quality assurance sampling, it was 92.11%, 6.58% and 1.31%, respectively. (2 Immunization coverage levels as evaluated by cluster sampling technique were not statistically different from the coverage value as obtained by lot quality assurance sampling techniques. Considering the time and resources required, it was found that lot quality assurance sampling is a better technique in evaluating the primary immunization coverage in urban area.

  12. Evaluation of primary immunization coverage of infants under universal immunization programme in an urban area of bangalore city using cluster sampling and lot quality assurance sampling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K, Punith; K, Lalitha; G, Suman; Bs, Pradeep; Kumar K, Jayanth

    2008-07-01

    Is LQAS technique better than cluster sampling technique in terms of resources to evaluate the immunization coverage in an urban area? To assess and compare the lot quality assurance sampling against cluster sampling in the evaluation of primary immunization coverage. Population-based cross-sectional study. Areas under Mathikere Urban Health Center. Children aged 12 months to 23 months. 220 in cluster sampling, 76 in lot quality assurance sampling. Percentages and Proportions, Chi square Test. (1) Using cluster sampling, the percentage of completely immunized, partially immunized and unimmunized children were 84.09%, 14.09% and 1.82%, respectively. With lot quality assurance sampling, it was 92.11%, 6.58% and 1.31%, respectively. (2) Immunization coverage levels as evaluated by cluster sampling technique were not statistically different from the coverage value as obtained by lot quality assurance sampling techniques. Considering the time and resources required, it was found that lot quality assurance sampling is a better technique in evaluating the primary immunization coverage in urban area.

  13. Object-Based Change Detection in Urban Areas from High Spatial Resolution Images Based on Multiple Features and Ensemble Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To improve the accuracy of change detection in urban areas using bi-temporal high-resolution remote sensing images, a novel object-based change detection scheme combining multiple features and ensemble learning is proposed in this paper. Image segmentation is conducted to determine the objects in bi-temporal images separately. Subsequently, three kinds of object features, i.e., spectral, shape and texture, are extracted. Using the image differencing process, a difference image is generated and used as the input for nonlinear supervised classifiers, including k-nearest neighbor, support vector machine, extreme learning machine and random forest. Finally, the results of multiple classifiers are integrated using an ensemble rule called weighted voting to generate the final change detection result. Experimental results of two pairs of real high-resolution remote sensing datasets demonstrate that the proposed approach outperforms the traditional methods in terms of overall accuracy and generates change detection maps with a higher number of homogeneous regions in urban areas. Moreover, the influences of segmentation scale and the feature selection strategy on the change detection performance are also analyzed and discussed.

  14. Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Risk Estimate Tool (PREsTo) Predicts Outcomes in PSC: A Derivation & Validation Study Using Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, John E; Vesterhus, Mette; McCauley, Bryan M; Atkinson, Elizabeth J; Schlicht, Erik M; Juran, Brian D; Gossard, Andrea A; LaRusso, Nicholas F; Gores, Gregory J; Karlsen, Tom H; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N

    2018-05-09

    Improved methods are needed to risk stratify and predict outcomes in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Therefore, we sought to derive and validate a new prediction model and compare its performance to existing surrogate markers. The model was derived using 509 subjects from a multicenter North American cohort and validated in an international multicenter cohort (n=278). Gradient boosting, a machine based learning technique, was used to create the model. The endpoint was hepatic decompensation (ascites, variceal hemorrhage or encephalopathy). Subjects with advanced PSC or cholangiocarcinoma at baseline were excluded. The PSC risk estimate tool (PREsTo) consists of 9 variables: bilirubin, albumin, serum alkaline phosphatase (SAP) times the upper limit of normal (ULN), platelets, AST, hemoglobin, sodium, patient age and the number of years since PSC was diagnosed. Validation in an independent cohort confirms PREsTo accurately predicts decompensation (C statistic 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84-0.95) and performed well compared to MELD score (C statistic 0.72, 95% CI 0.57-0.84), Mayo PSC risk score (C statistic 0.85, 95% CI 0.77-0.92) and SAP statistic 0.65, 95% CI 0.55-0.73). PREsTo continued to be accurate among individuals with a bilirubin statistic 0.90, 95% CI 0.82-0.96) and when the score was re-applied at a later course in the disease (C statistic 0.82, 95% CI 0.64-0.95). PREsTo accurately predicts hepatic decompensation in PSC and exceeds the performance among other widely available, noninvasive prognostic scoring systems. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  15. Teaching Chemistry in Primary Science: What Does the Research Suggest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skamp, Keith

    2011-01-01

    The new Australian national science curriculum includes chemistry content at the primary level. Chemistry for young students is learning about changes in material stuff (matter) and, by implication, of what stuff is made. Pedagogy in this area needs to be guided by research if stepping stones to later learning of chemical ideas are to facilitate…

  16. Qidong hepatitis B virus infection cohort: a 25-year prospective study in high risk area of primary liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Taoyang; Qian, Gengsun; Fan, Chunsun; Sun, Yan; Wang, Jinbing; Lu, Peixin; Xue, Xuefeng; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Qinan; Jin, Yan; Wu, Yiqian; Gan, Yu; Lu, Jianquan; Kensler, Thomas W; Groopman, John D; Tu, Hong

    2018-01-01

    Qidong hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection cohort (QBC) is a prospective community-based study designed to investigate causative factors of primary liver cancer (PLC) in Qidong, China, where both PLC and HBV infection are highly endemic. Residents aged 20-65 years, living in seven townships of Qidong, were surveyed using hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) serum test and invited to participate in QBC from June 1991 to December 1991. A total of 852 and 786 participants were enrolled in HBsAg-positive and HBsAg-negative sub-cohorts in May 1992, respectively. All participants were actively followed up in person, received HBsAg, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) tests and upper abdominal ultrasonic examination, and donated blood and urine samples once or twice a year. The total response rate was 99.6%, and the number of incident PLC was 201 till the end of February 2017. The ratio of incidence rates was 12.32 (95% confidence interval[CI]=7.16-21.21, P PLC was 13.25 (95% CI=6.67-26.33, P PLC-related mutations including A2159G, A2189C and G2203W at the C gene, A799G, A987G and T1055A at the P gene of HBV genome were identified by using samples from the cohort. The mutation in hepatitis B virus (HBV) basal core promoter region of HBV genome has an accumulative effect on the occurrence of PLC. In addition, the tripartite relationship of aflatoxin exposure, P53 mutation and PLC was also investigated. Dynamic prediction model for PLC risk by using its long-term follow-up information and serial blood samples for QBC was developed. This model is expected to improve the efficiency of PLC screening in HBV infection individuals.

  17. Literacy for Real: Reading, Thinking, and Learning in the Content Areas. Language & Literacy Practitioners Bookshelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, ReLeah Cossett

    2009-01-01

    Written for the busy practitioner by an experienced professional development consultant, writer, and speaker, "Literacy for Real" is a hands-on guide to meaningful reading across the content areas of math, science, and social studies in grades 6-12. It presents key information that addresses all types of 21st century literacy--visual, digital, and…

  18. Nitrogen-controlled intra- and interspecific competition between Populus purdomii and Salix rehderiana drive primary succession in the Gongga Mountain glacier retreat area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mengya; Yu, Lei; Jiang, Yonglei; Lei, Yanbao; Korpelainen, Helena; Niinemets, Ülo; Li, Chunyang

    2017-06-01

    In this study, intra- and interspecific competition were investigated in early successional Salix rehderiana Schneider and later-appearing Populus purdomii Rehder under non-fertilized (control) and nitrogen (N)-fertilized conditions in the Hailuogou glacier retreat area. Our aim was to discover whether N is a key factor in plant-plant competition and whether N drives the primary succession process in a glacier retreat area. We analyzed differences in responses to intra- and interspecific competition and N fertilization between P. purdomii and S. rehderiana, including parameters such as biomass accumulation, nutrient absorption, non-structural carbohydrates, photosynthetic capacity, hydrolysable amino acids and leaf ultrastructure. In the control treatments, S. rehderiana individuals subjected to interspecific competition benefited from the presence of P. purdomii plants, as indicated by higher levels of biomass accumulation, photosynthetic capacity, N absorption, amino acid contents and photosynthetic N-use efficiency. However, in the N-fertilized treatments, P. purdomii individuals exposed to interspecific competition benefited from the presence of S. rehderiana plants, as shown by a higher growth rate, enhanced carbon gain capacity, greater amino acid contents, and elevated water-use efficiency, whereas the growth of S. rehderiana was significantly reduced. Our results demonstrate that N plays a pivotal role in determining the asymmetric competition pattern among Salicaceae species during primary succession. We argue that the interactive effects of plant-plant competition and N availability are key mechanisms that drive primary succession in the Gongga Mountain glacier retreat area. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. The Impact an Oratory Project generates to Primary School Students who live in Rural Areas of Cartago

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    María Gabriela Amador-Solano

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at showing the development and relevance of an extension project in seven rural schools located in “circuito 05” in the central area of Cartago. The main goal is to enhance oral commu­nication in elementary school students. The project was designed as a training workshop for the teach­ers in the chosen schools in order to be taught to students by implementing an oratory club. In each student´s dissertation, the researchers observed the enthusiasm that the project caused in the schools. Objectives, contents, activities, assessment and observations were designed in a didactic plan to be used upon needs of institutions.

  20. Patterns of resting state connectivity in human primary visual cortical areas: a 7T fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raemaekers, Mathijs; Schellekens, Wouter; van Wezel, Richard J A; Petridou, Natalia; Kristo, Gert; Ramsey, Nick F

    2014-01-01

    The nature and origin of fMRI resting state fluctuations and connectivity are still not fully known. More detailed knowledge on the relationship between resting state patterns and brain function may help to elucidate this matter. We therefore performed an in depth study of how resting state fluctuations map to the well known architecture of the visual system. We investigated resting state connectivity at both a fine and large scale within and across visual areas V1, V2 and V3 in ten human subjects using a 7Tesla scanner. We found evidence for several coexisting and overlapping connectivity structures at different spatial scales. At the fine-scale level we found enhanced connectivity between the same topographic locations in the fieldmaps of V1, V2 and V3, enhanced connectivity to the contralateral functional homologue, and to a lesser extent enhanced connectivity between iso-eccentric locations within the same visual area. However, by far the largest proportion of the resting state fluctuations occurred within large-scale bilateral networks. These large-scale networks mapped to some extent onto the architecture of the visual system and could thereby obscure fine-scale connectivity. In fact, most of the fine-scale connectivity only became apparent after the large-scale network fluctuations were filtered from the timeseries. We conclude that fMRI resting state fluctuations in the visual cortex may in fact be a composite signal of different overlapping sources. Isolating the different sources could enhance correlations between BOLD and electrophysiological correlates of resting state activity. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.