JTAC Joint Terminal Attack Controller MAGTF Marine Air Ground Task Force MATSS Marine Aviation Training System Sites MAW Marine Aircraft Wing...relevant to aircraft performance not CAS. Therefore, the SA training system should provide visual and audio cues relevant to the CAS environment ... environmental elements outside the aircraft . The initial environment elements included in the trainer are those relating directly to the CAS execution
Brooks, Christopher J; MacDonald, Conor V; Gibbs, Peter N A
Helicopter underwater escape training (HUET) carries a potential for injury and this paper identifies the injury rate. A marine survival training school registry of all students trained between 2005-2012 in HUET and the coinciding accident records were examined. There were 8902 students trained in a helicopter underwater escape simulator for a total of 59,245 underwater escapes. There were 40 cases where only first-aid was required and 3 serious injuries (a laceration requiring 5 sutures, 1 dislocated shoulder, and 1 water aspiration requiring hospitalization). There were no deaths and no problems reported with using the Emergency Breathing System (EBS) or Air Pocket. Of the injuries, 11 were due to the student using a poor escape technique. The overall probability of injury was 0.74 per 1000 ascents. In HUET training, there is a very low injury rate with almost no significant severity. Although not scientifically proven, this would suggest that the low incident rate is due to good medical screening and the attention given by instructors to anxious students. Compared to other training such as diving, parachute jumping, and submarine escape training, the rate of injury was considerably lower.
Cernada, G P
Training community-based health care workers in "developing" countries is essential to improving the quality of life in both rural and urban areas. Two major obstacles to such training are the tremendous social distance gap between these community workers and their more highly-educated and upper-class trainers (often medical officers) and the didactic, formal educational system. Bridging this gap demands a participant-centered, field-oriented approach which actively involves the trainee in the design, implementation and evaluation of the training program. A description of a philosophic learning approach based on self-initiated change, educational objectives related to planning, organizing, conducting and evaluating training, and specific learning methodologies utilizing participatory learning, non-formal educational techniques, field experience, continuing feedback and learner participation are reviewed. Included are: role playing, story telling, case studies, self-learning and simulation exercises, visuals, and Portapak videotape.
Thornburgh, Robert P.; Kreshock, Andrew R.; Wilbur, Matthew L.; Sekula, Martin K.; Shen, Jinwei
The use of continuous trailing-edge flaps (CTEFs) for primary flight control of a helicopter main rotor is studied. A practical, optimized bimorph design with Macro-Fiber Composite actuators is developed for CTEF control, and a coupled structures and computational fluid dynamics methodology is used to study the fundamental behavior of an airfoil with CTEFs. These results are used within a comprehensive rotorcraft analysis model to study the control authority requirements of the CTEFs when utilized for primary flight control of a utility class helicopter. A study of the effect of blade root pitch index (RPI) on CTEF control authority is conducted, and the impact of structural and aerodynamic model complexity on the comprehensive analysis results is presented. The results show that primary flight control using CTEFs is promising; however, a more viable option may include the control of blade RPI, as well.
Devillers, Louise; Sicsic, Jonathan; Delbarre, Angelique; Le Bel, Josselin; Ferrat, Emilie; Saint Lary, Olivier
Antibiotic prescription is a central public health issue. Overall, 90% of antibiotic prescriptions are delivered to patients in ambulatory care, and a substantial proportion of these prescriptions could be avoided. General Practitioner (GP) trainers are similar to other GPs in terms of sociodemographic and medical activities, but they may have different prescription patterns. Our aim was to compare the antibiotic prescribing rates between GP trainers and non-trainers. This observational cross-sectional study was conducted on administrative data claims from the French National Health Insurance. The antibiotic prescribing rate was calculated. The main independent variable was the training status of the GPs. Prescribing rates were adjusted for the various GPs' characteristics (gender, age, location of the practice, number of visits per GP and the case-mix) in a multiple linear regression analysis. Between June 2014 and July 2015 the prescribing patterns of 860 GPs were analysed, among which 102 were GP trainers (12%). Over the year 363,580 patients were prescribed an antibiotic out of 3,499,248 visits for 1,299,308 patients seen over the year thus representing around 27.5% of patients. In the multivariate analyses, being a trainer resulted in a significant difference of 6.62 percentage points (IC 95%: [-8.55; -4.69]; prole of GP trainers in antibiotic prescriptions. By prescribing fewer antibiotics and influencing the next generations of GPs, the human and economic burden of antibiotics could be reduced.
Barnes, John A.; Statham, Flavous D.
The Helicopter Pilot Training Program of the Army differs from those of the other services in concept. It takes nonpilot servicemen and trains them to fly helicopters. The study provides normative performance data for a pilot trainee in an army light-observation helicopter as a first step toward establishing normative data for pilot performance in…
Couser, S.; Moore, J.
A DOE Technical Safety Appraisal in October 1986 found that training at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant was fragmented and lacked uniformity. Training was localized in departments and was more often handled by line supervisors, etc. - with no certification. The Trainer Certification Program has provided the means for applying standard guidelines to ensure that training is designed, applied, and evaluated in a consistent, effective, and efficient manner. The program is in a state of substantial change and a target date for compliance is set for 1989. Trainer certification will provide both current and future resources to ensure consistent and effective training. 22 figures
Funder, K S; Rasmussen, L S; Siersma, V
BACKGROUND: Implementation of the first Danish helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) was associated with reduced time from first medical contact to treatment at a specialized centre for patients with suspected ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We aimed to investigate effects of HEMS...... was 22.1% (HEMS) vs. 21.2% (adjusted OR = 1.10, 0.64-1.90, P = 0.73). CONCLUSION: In an observational study of patients with suspected STEMI in eastern Denmark, no significant beneficial effect of helicopter transport could be detected on mortality, premature labour market exit or work ability. Only...... a study with random allocation to one system vs. another, along with a large sample size, will allow determination of superiority of helicopter transport....
Bielawa, R. L.; Cheney, M. C., Jr.; Novak, R. C.
Experimental and analytical investigations were conducted to evaluate a bearingless helicopter rotor concept (CBR) made possible through the use of the specialized nonisotropic properties of composite materials. The investigation was focused on four principal areas which were expected to answer important questions regarding the feasibility of this concept. First, an examination of material properties was made to establish moduli, ultimate strength, and fatigue characteristics of unidirectional graphite/epoxy, the composite material selected for this application. The results confirmed the high bending modulus and strengths and low shear modulus expected of this material, and demonstrated fatigue properties in torsion which make this material ideally suited for the CBR application. Second, a dynamically scaled model was fabricated and tested in the low speed wind tunnel to explore the aeroelastic characteristics of the CBR and to explore various concepts relative to the method of blade pitch control. Two basic control configurations were tested, one in which pitch flap coupling could occur and another which eliminated all coupling. It was found that both systems could be operated successfully at simulated speeds of 180 knots; however, the configuration with coupling present revealed a potential for undesirable aeroelastic response. The uncoupled configuration behaved generally as a conventional hingeless rotor and was stable for all conditions tested.
Terranova, Aaron B; Henning, Jolene M
Membership in the National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) has declined in recent years, generating much debate about professional commitment. To compare the contributing factors of job satisfaction and intention to leave athletic training of certified athletic trainers (ATs) employed in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) institutions. Cross-sectional study. A link to a Web-based questionnaire containing the Spector Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) and an original Intention to Leave Survey (ITLS) was distributed by e-mail to 1003 certified members of the National Athletic Trainers' Association. A total of 191 certified members of the NATA employed in a college or university setting in a primarily clinical capacity; representing all NCAA divisions; and having the job title of head athletic trainer, associate/assistant athletic trainer, or graduate assistant/intern athletic trainer. We used separate 3 x 3 factorial analyses of variance to compare the mean scores of each JSS subscale and of the ITLS with NCAA division and job title. A stepwise multiple regression was used to determine the strength of the relationships between the JSS subscales and the ITLS. We found differences for job title in the subscales of Fringe Benefits (F(2182) = 7.82, P = .001 ) and Operating Conditions (F(2,182) = 12.01, P < .001). The JSS subscale Nature of Work was the'greatest indicator of intention to leave (β = -0.45). We found a strong negative correlation between various facets of job satisfaction and intention to leave athletic training. The NCAA division seemed to have no effect on an individual's job satisfaction or intention to leave the profession. In addition, only Fringe Benefits and Operating Conditions seemed to be affected by job title. The ATs had similar levels of job satisfaction regardless of NCAA division, and their job titles were not a major factor in job satisfaction.
Full Text Available Continuing education and training provides a means to improve performance among health care professionals (HCP. Research shows, however, that continuing professional education activities have inconsistent effects on HCP competence, performance, and patient health outcomes. Furthermore, the trainer’s role as a facilitator of knowledge translation (KT has been understudied. To understand how clinical trainers support their trainees in translating what they learned into practice, we conducted 16 in-depth interviews with expert trainers. These interviews yielded a variety of KT-enhancing strategies, including tailoring training activities to their trainees’ needs. In addition, participants recommended trainers familiarize themselves with their trainees’ work environments, be able to identify their knowledge deficits, and devote time to provide trainees with post-training support. Creating an effective training, one that leads to transfer, requires active planning, communication, and command of the training topic by skilled trainers.
CARO, PAUL W., JR.; ISLEY, ROBERT N.
A STUDY WAS CONDUCTED AT THE U.S. ARMY PRIMARY HELICOPTER SCHOOL, FORT WOLTERS, TEXAS, TO DETERMINE WHETHER THE USE OF A HELICOPTER TRAINING DEVICE WOULD IMPROVE STUDENT PERFORMANCE DURING SUBSEQUENT HELICOPTER CONTACT FLIGHT TRAINING. SUBJECTS WERE TWO EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS AND TWO CONTROL GROUPS OF WARRANT OFFICER CANDIDATES ENROLLED FOR A…
Mosso, José L; Nieto, Jesus J; Carbajal, Manuel F; Marmolejo, Jorge; Ochoa, Enrique; De La Fuente, Mireya; Almazan, Andrew; Obrador, Tomas
We present the smallest surgical trainer with a total weight of 400 gr, built in aluminum of 25 cm large and 24 cm wide, and 23 cm high. It's a system integrated by a small and open module, a lamp and a microcamera connected to a Head Mounted display. It holds two endoscopic instruments, and items to make knots or sutures and enhance visual-motor coordination. The vision we got is by a small microcamera displayed to a Head Mounted Display HMD. This surgical trainer is the smallest in the worldwide, easy to install, and easy to carry.
Gormley, Wilma J.; Austin, John H.
Discusses specific training methods and common characteristics of participants in workshops sponsored by Agency for International Development Water and Sanitation for Health Project for extension agents, who will act as trainers in transfer of sanitation technology in developing nations. Recommendations for conducting such workshops in…
Staebler, A.; Erlt-Wagner, B.
This book enables students to simulate examinations. The Radiology Trainer series comprises the whole knowledge of radiology in the form of case studies for self-testing. It is based on the best-sorted German-language collection of radiological examinations of all organ regions. Step by step, radiological knowledge is trained in order to make diagnoses more efficient. The book series ensures optimal preparation for the final medical examinations and is also a valuable tool for practical training. (orig.)
... Airworthiness Directives; Robinson Helicopter Company Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Helicopter Company (Robinson) Model R44 and R44 II helicopters equipped with emergency floats. This AD..., contact Robinson Helicopter Company, 2901 Airport Drive, Torrance, CA 90505; telephone (310) 539-0508; fax...
Hombergh, P. van den; Schalk-Soekar, S.; Kramer, A.; Bottema, B.J.; Campbell, S.M.; Braspenning, J.C.
BACKGROUND: Family Physician (FP) trainees are expected to be provided with high quality training in well organized practice settings. This study examines differences between FP trainers and non-trainers and their practices to see whether there are differences in trainers and non-trainers and in how
Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-479 Combat Rescue Helicopter (CRH) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense Acquisition...Name Combat Rescue Helicopter (CRH) DoD Component Air Force Responsible Office References SAR Baseline (Development Estimate) Defense Acquisition... Helicopter (CRH) system will provide Personnel Recovery (PR) forces with a vertical takeoff and landing aircraft that is quickly deployable and
... workout time Offer support, guidance, and feedback Provide motivation to continue exercising Work with your health care ... American Council on Exercise. How to Choose the Right Personal Trainer. 2014. www.acefitness.org/acefit/healthy_ ...
... Helicopter Company Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Robinson Helicopter Company (Robinson) Model R44 and R44 II helicopters equipped with emergency floats, which would require...
... Airworthiness Directives; Robinson Helicopter Company Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA...) that was published in the Federal Register. That AD applies to Robinson Helicopter Company (Robinson) Model R22, R22 Alpha, R22 Beta, R22 Mariner, R44, and R44 II helicopters. The paragraph reference in...
... Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Bell Helicopter Textron (BHT) Model 412, 412EP, and 412CF helicopters. This AD requires a repetitive inspection of the...
Full Text Available Analysed social-pedagogical aspect of activity of trainer-teacher on preparation of sporting reserve of different level. Activity of trainer is studied on forming socially-active personalities of sportsman. The personal long-term experience is presented to trainer-teaching works of child's trainer, trainer of student command, trainer of command of major league on a handball. It is shown that multilateral activity of trainer is estimated not only the sporting results of his pupils but also has considerably more wide circle of influence on the ward. Influence of employments is represented sport on forming socially-meaningful qualities of personality. It is marked that to the basic personal qualities of trainer behave: creative activity, flexibility of mind, industriousness, honesty, disinterestedness, of principle, self-control, demand, modesty, culture.
Winterstein, A P
To 1) examine the commitment of head athletic trainers to their intercollegiate work environments, 2) develop a model that better reflects the head athletic trainer's daily work setting, and 3) use new techniques to describe the various ways head athletic trainers demonstrate commitment to their organizations. Organizational commitment (OC) surveys were sent to 461 head athletic trainers identified for the sample. A response rate of 71.5% (330/461) was obtained from the mail survey. A proportional random sample of head athletic trainers was taken from a population identified in the National Association of Collegiate Directors of Athletics (NACDA) directory of intercollegiate athletics as Division I, II, and III institutions. Returned OC surveys were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics for all demographic and OC variables. Exploratory cluster analysis was performed to examine naturally clustering groups. Exploratory cluster analysis revealed five naturally clustering groups that represent the head athletic trainers' patterns of commitment across the specific organizational targets. Paired t tests indicated that the continuance commitment scores were significantly lower than the affective and normative scores across the sample. Analysis of variance tests indicated significant differences for specific commitment dimensions based on gender and NCAA division demographics. Beyond that, the five-cluster solution revealed no particular demographic characteristics that predisposed individuals to specific clusters. THE FINDINGS REINFORCE A CENTRAL THEME IN INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETIC TRAINING: that student-athletes and student athletic trainers are the primary focus of the head athletic trainers' commitment. Positive attachment and obligation directed toward student-athletes and student athletic trainers link the five clusters. Commitment patterns in areas other than student-athletes and student athletic trainers define the cluster membership or head athletic
Waugh, C. Keith; Judd, Michael R.
The educators' version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory was completed by 40 of 156 in-house trainers. More than one-third experience emotional exhaustion weekly, and almost half feel a lack of personal accomplishment. Subscales of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment correlated with perceptions of organizations'…
...-0530; Directorate Identifier 2011-SW-075-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Bell Helicopter...
van den Hombergh, Pieter; Schalk-Soekar, Saskia; Kramer, Anneke; Bottema, Ben; Campbell, Stephen; Braspenning, Jozé
Family Physician (FP) trainees are expected to be provided with high quality training in well organized practice settings. This study examines differences between FP trainers and non-trainers and their practices to see whether there are differences in trainers and non-trainers and in how their practices are organized and their services are delivered. 203 practices (88 non-training and 115 training) with 512 FPs (335 non-trainers and 177 trainers) were assessed using the "Visit Instrument Practice organization (VIP)" on 369 items (142 FP-level; 227 Practice level). Analyses (ANOVA, ANCOVA) were conducted for each level by calculating differences between FP trainees and non-trainees and their host practices. Trainers scored higher on all but one of the items, and significantly higher on 47 items, of which 13 remained significant after correcting for covariates. Training practices scored higher on all items and significantly higher on 61 items, of which 23 remained significant after correcting for covariates. Trainers (and training practices) provided more diagnostic and therapeutic services, made better use of team skills and scored higher on practice organization, chronic care services and quality management than non-training practices. Trainers reported more job satisfaction and commitment and less job stress than non-trainers. There are positive differences between FP trainers and non-trainers in both the level and the quality of services provided by their host practices. Training institutions can use this information to promote the advantages of becoming a FP trainer and training practice as well as to improve the quality of training settings for FPs.
Casa, Douglas J; DeMartini, Julie K; Bergeron, Michael F; Csillan, Dave; Eichner, E Randy; Lopez, Rebecca M; Ferrara, Michael S; Miller, Kevin C; O'Connor, Francis; Sawka, Michael N; Yeargin, Susan W
To present best-practice recommendations for the prevention, recognition, and treatment of exertional heat illnesses (EHIs) and to describe the relevant physiology of thermoregulation. Certified athletic trainers recognize and treat athletes with EHIs, often in high-risk environments. Although the proper recognition and successful treatment strategies are well documented, EHIs continue to plague athletes, and exertional heat stroke remains one of the leading causes of sudden death during sport. The recommendations presented in this document provide athletic trainers and allied health providers with an integrated scientific and clinically applicable approach to the prevention, recognition, treatment of, and return-to-activity guidelines for EHIs. These recommendations are given so that proper recognition and treatment can be accomplished in order to maximize the safety and performance of athletes. Athletic trainers and other allied health care professionals should use these recommendations to establish onsite emergency action plans for their venues and athletes. The primary goal of athlete safety is addressed through the appropriate prevention strategies, proper recognition tactics, and effective treatment plans for EHIs. Athletic trainers and other allied health care professionals must be properly educated and prepared to respond in an expedient manner to alleviate symptoms and minimize the morbidity and mortality associated with these illnesses.
... Airworthiness Directives; Hughes Helicopters, Inc., and McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Systems (Type Certificate... Airworthiness Directive (AD): Hughes Helicopters Inc., and McDonnel Douglas Helicopter Systems (Type Certificate...
... Airworthiness Directives; Hughes Helicopters, Inc., and McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Systems (Type Certificate... directive (AD): 2013-05-16 Hughes Helicopters, Inc., and McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Systems (Type...
White, Judy; Woodward, Jenny; South, Jane
The role that members of the public (non-professional lay people) can play in improving health is being increasingly recognised in research and policy. This paper explores what contribution lay people employed as health trainers are making to addressing health inequalities in England. Data from eight local evaluations of health trainer services were synthesised using a data-extraction framework to find out about client populations, any lifestyle changes made, health trainers' background and community engagement activities. These data were compared with national data to assess how findings relating to addressing inequalities compared with the national picture. Local data largely matched national data and showed that health trainers are reaching people living with disadvantage and enabling them to make lifestyle changes. The data suggest that they do this by engaging with communities and taking a person-centred approach. Being non-clinical peers is also important. However, no evidence was found that health trainers were impacting on health inequalities at a population level. Health trainers are contributing to addressing health inequalities but the services evaluated were small and had been operating for a limited time, so to expect reductions in inequalities at a population level within districts would be unrealistic. The findings of this synthesis present a challenge to primary care and public health to employ health trainers in order to engage marginalised communities as one element of plans to address health inequalities.
Master VBA automation quickly and easily to get more out of Excel Excel VBA 24-Hour Trainer, 2nd Edition is the quick-start guide to getting more out of Excel, using Visual Basic for Applications. This unique book/video package has been updated with fifteen new advanced video lessons, providing a total of eleven hours of video training and 45 total lessons to teach you the basics and beyond. This self-paced tutorial explains Excel VBA from the ground up, demonstrating with each advancing lesson how you can increase your productivity. Clear, concise, step-by-step instructions are combined wit
Quick and painless Java programming with expert multimedia instruction Java Programming 24-Hour Trainer, 2nd Edition is your complete beginner's guide to the Java programming language, with easy-to-follow lessons and supplemental exercises that help you get up and running quickly. Step-by-step instruction walks you through the basics of object-oriented programming, syntax, interfaces, and more, before building upon your skills to develop games, web apps, networks, and automations. This second edition has been updated to align with Java SE 8 and Java EE 7, and includes new information on GUI b
Holcomb, John B; Swartz, Michael D; DeSantis, Stacia M; Greene, Thomas J; Fox, Erin E; Stein, Deborah M; Bulger, Eileen M; Kerby, Jeffrey D; Goodman, Michael; Schreiber, Martin A; Zielinski, Martin D; O'Keeffe, Terence; Inaba, Kenji; Tomasek, Jeffrey S; Podbielski, Jeanette M; Appana, Savitri N; Yi, Misung; Wade, Charles E
Earlier use of in-hospital plasma, platelets, and red blood cells (RBCs) has improved survival in trauma patients with severe hemorrhage. Retrospective studies have associated improved early survival with prehospital blood product transfusion (PHT). We hypothesized that PHT of plasma and/or RBCs would result in improved survival after injury in patients transported by helicopter. Adult trauma patients transported by helicopter from the scene to nine Level 1 trauma centers were prospectively observed from January to November 2015. Five helicopter systems had plasma and/or RBCs, whereas the other four helicopter systems used only crystalloid resuscitation. All patients meeting predetermined high-risk criteria were analyzed. Patients receiving PHT were compared with patients not receiving PHT. Our primary analysis compared mortality at 3 hours, 24 hours, and 30 days, using logistic regression to adjust for confounders and site heterogeneity to model patients who were matched on propensity scores. Twenty-five thousand one hundred eighteen trauma patients were admitted, 2,341 (9%) were transported by helicopter, of which 1,058 (45%) met the highest-risk criteria. Five hundred eighty-five of 1,058 patients were flown on helicopters carrying blood products. In the systems with blood available, prehospital median systolic blood pressure (125 vs 128) and Glasgow Coma Scale (7 vs 14) was significantly lower, whereas median Injury Severity Score was significantly higher (21 vs 14). Unadjusted mortality was significantly higher in the systems with blood products available, at 3 hours (8.4% vs 3.6%), 24 hours (12.6% vs 8.9%), and 30 days (19.3% vs 13.3%). Twenty-four percent of eligible patients received a PHT. A median of 1 unit of RBCs and plasma were transfused prehospital. Of patients receiving PHT, 24% received only plasma, 7% received only RBCs, and 69% received both. In the propensity score matching analysis (n = 109), PHT was not significantly associated with mortality
Mager, R. F.
Forces that will affect trainers into the next century include rapid change, information overload, globalization, downsizing, empowerment, and remote worksites. Key characteristics of a 21st-century trainer include performance orientation, technical skills, social skills, self-employability, bilingualism, and international competence. (JOW)
Schwellenbach, David [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)
The Configurable Muon Tracker (CMT) is an adaptation of the existing drift tube detector commercially available from Decision Sciences International Corporation (DSIC). NSTec engineered the CMT around commercially available drift tube assemblies to make a detector that is more versatile than previous drift tube assemblies. The CMT became operational in February 2013. Traditionally, cosmic-ray muon trackers rely on near-vertical trajectory muons for imaging. Since there are scenarios where imaging using vertical trajectory muons is not practical, NSTec designed the CMT specifically for quick configurability to track muons from any trajectory. The CMT was originally designed to be changed from vertical imaging mode to horizontal imaging mode in a few hours with access to a crane or other lifting equipment. In FY14, locations for imaging weapon trainers and SNM were identified and it was determined that lifting equipment would not typically be available in experimental areas. The CMT was further modified and a portable lifting system was developed to allow reconfiguration of the CMT without access to lifting equipment at the facility. This system was first deployed at Los Alamos National Laboratory’s W-division, where several trainers were imaged in both horizontal and vertical modes. Real-time images have been compared in both modes showing that imaging can be done in both modes with the expected longer integration time for horizontal mode. Further imaging and post processing of the data is expected to continue into early FY15.
Carson Helicopters Inc. licensed the Langley RC4 series of airfoils in 1993 to develop a replacement main rotor blade for their Sikorsky S-61 helicopters. The company's fleet of S-61 helicopters has been rebuilt to include Langley's patented airfoil design, and the helicopters are now able to carry heavier loads and fly faster and farther, and the main rotor blades have twice the previous service life. In aerial firefighting, the performance-boosting airfoils have helped the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Forest Service control the spread of wildfires. In 2003, Carson Helicopters signed a contract with Ducommun AeroStructures Inc., to manufacture the composite blades for Carson Helicopters to sell
Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Burton, Laura; Cotrufo, Raymond J.
Context: Very few women have leadership positions in athletic training (ie, head athletic training positions) in intercollegiate athletics. Research exists on the barriers to attaining the role; however, our understanding about the experiences of those currently engaged in the role is limited. Objective: To examine the experiences of female head athletic trainers as they worked toward and attained the position of head athletic trainer. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting. Patients or Other Participants: Eight female athletic trainers serving in the role of head athletic trainer participated in our study. The mean age of the participants was 45 ± 12 years, with 5 ± 1.5 years of experience in the role of head athletic trainer and 21 ± 10 years of experience as athletic trainers. Data Collection and Analysis: We conducted phone interviews with the 8 participants following a semistructured format. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed following a general inductive approach as described by Thomas. To establish credibility, we used a peer reviewer, member checks, and multiple-analyst triangulation. Results: Six major themes emerged from our analysis regarding the experiences of female head athletic trainers. Opportunities to become a head athletic trainer, leadership qualities, and unique personal characteristics were discussed as factors leading to the assumption of the role of the head athletic trainer. Where women hold back, family challenges, and organizational barriers speak to the potential obstacles to assuming the role of head athletic trainer. Conclusions: Female head athletic trainers did not seek the role, but through persistence and encouragement, they find themselves assuming the role. Leadership skills were discussed as important for success in the role of head athletic trainer. Life balancing and parenting were identified as barriers to women seeking the role of head athletic
Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Burton, Laura; Cotrufo, Raymond J
Very few women have leadership positions in athletic training (ie, head athletic training positions) in intercollegiate athletics. Research exists on the barriers to attaining the role; however, our understanding about the experiences of those currently engaged in the role is limited. To examine the experiences of female head athletic trainers as they worked toward and attained the position of head athletic trainer. Qualitative study. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting. Eight female athletic trainers serving in the role of head athletic trainer participated in our study. The mean age of the participants was 45 ± 12 years, with 5 ± 1.5 years of experience in the role of head athletic trainer and 21 ± 10 years of experience as athletic trainers. We conducted phone interviews with the 8 participants following a semistructured format. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed following a general inductive approach as described by Thomas. To establish credibility, we used a peer reviewer, member checks, and multiple-analyst triangulation. Six major themes emerged from our analysis regarding the experiences of female head athletic trainers. Opportunities to become a head athletic trainer, leadership qualities, and unique personal characteristics were discussed as factors leading to the assumption of the role of the head athletic trainer. Where women hold back, family challenges, and organizational barriers speak to the potential obstacles to assuming the role of head athletic trainer. Female head athletic trainers did not seek the role, but through persistence and encouragement, they find themselves assuming the role. Leadership skills were discussed as important for success in the role of head athletic trainer. Life balancing and parenting were identified as barriers to women seeking the role of head athletic trainer.
... Helicopter Textron Inc. (BHTI) Model 205A, 205A-1, and 205B helicopters with certain starter/generator power... that may lead to a fire in the starter/generator, smoke in the cockpit that reduces visibility, and... Office, M-30, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12- 140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590...
... to the specified helicopters with a reversible trim motor, P/N 28-16621 (Ford Motor Company C1AZ... helicopters with a reversible trim motor, P/N 28-16621 (Ford Motor Company C1AZ- 14553A) or P/N AD1R-10...
... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Helicopter facilities. 108.653 Section 108.653 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.653 Helicopter facilities. (a) Each helicopter fueling facility must be marked adjacent to the fueling hose storage: “WARNING—HELICOPTER FUELING STATION—KEEP...
... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Helicopter decks. 108.486 Section 108.486 Shipping COAST... Fire Extinguishing Systems Fire Protection for Helicopter Facilities § 108.486 Helicopter decks. At least two of the accesses to the helicopter landing deck must each have a fire hydrant on the unit's...
Börner, Dirk; Specht, Marcus
This software sketch comprises the first prototype of the presentation trainer. The application uses the Microsoft Kinect sensor and was built using the Processing 1.5.1 development environment. Available under the GNU LGPL licence version 3 or higher.
of Language and Business Communication at the Aarhus School of Business.The other project participants are from Belgium, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain. The project, whose overall objective is to create the means to obtain competent trainers, is a follow-up to three previous projects (Grotius...... trainers have to be made available to them. The aim of this paper is to present the EU project, AGIS II, Making things happen: Training the trainers of legal interpreters and translators throughout the EU, coordinated by Kirsten W. RAsmussen and Bodil Martinsen, associate professors at the Department...... of legal interpreting. This process includes, among other things, the development of exemplary curricula, course designs, sample lesson plans and teaching materials, which will be presented and discussed/evaluated at a concluding Seminar on training the trainers, which is to be held in Aarhus, Denmark...
Cleary, B.; Pearson, R. W.; Greenwood, S. W.; Kaplan, L.
The extent of the threat to the US helicopter industry posed by a determined effort by foreign manufacturers, European companies in particular, to supply their own domestic markets and also to penetrate export markets, including the USA is assessed. Available data on US and world markets for civil and military uses are collated and presented in both graphic and tabular form showing the past history of production and markets and, where forecasts are available, anticipated future trends. The data are discussed on an item-by-item basis and inferences are drawn in as much depth as appears justified.
helicopter (i.e. in an icing tunnel or engine test cell ) and therefore can be subjected to controlled icing where spe- cific problems can be safely...evaluation. 69 22.214.171.124 Ice Protection Systems Demonstration Many of the systems noted in 126.96.36.199 can be evaluated in icing test cells or icing wind tunnels...Figure 2-32 illustrates a typical rotor deice system control arrangement. 104 (N >4 A.dO INaH -E- C4) uo U En 9 E-1 H m I ~z O 04 04iH U 0 El4 E-f C E
Di Domenico, Stefano; Simonassi, Claudio; Chessa, Leonardo
Flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy is an indispensable tool for optimal management of intensive care unit patients. However, the acquisition of sufficient training in bronchoscopy is not straightforward during residency, because of technical and ethical problems. Moreover, the use of commercial simulators is limited by their high cost. In order to overcome these limitations, we realized a low-cost anatomical simulator to acquire and maintain the basic skill to perform bronchoscopy in ventilated patients. We used 1.5 mm diameter iron wire to construct the bronchial tree scaffold; glazier-putty was applied to create the anatomical model. The model was covered by several layers of newspaper strips previously immersed in water and vinilic glue. When the model completely dried up, it was detached from the scaffold by cutting it into six pieces, it was reassembled, painted and fitted with an endotracheal tube. We used very cheap material and the final cost was euro16. The trainer resulted in real-scale and anatomically accurate, with appropriate correspondence on endoscopic view between model and patients. All bronchial segments can be explored and easily identified by endoscopic and external vision. This cheap simulator is a valuable tool for practicing, particularly in a hospital with limited resources for medical training.
Ren, Beibei; Chen, Chang; Fua, Cheng-Heng; Lee, Tong Heng
Modeling, Control and Coordination of Helicopter Systems provides a comprehensive treatment of helicopter systems, ranging from related nonlinear flight dynamic modeling and stability analysis to advanced control design for single helicopter systems, and also covers issues related to the coordination and formation control of multiple helicopter systems to achieve high performance tasks. Ensuring stability in helicopter flight is a challenging problem for nonlinear control design and development. This book is a valuable reference on modeling, control and coordination of helicopter systems,providing readers with practical solutions for the problems that still plague helicopter system design and implementation. Readers will gain a complete picture of helicopters at the systems level, as well as a better understanding of the technical intricacies involved. This book also: Presents a complete picture of modeling, control and coordination for helicopter systems Provides a modeling platform for a general class of ro...
Auffret, R.; Delahaye, R. P.; Metges, P. J.; VICENS
Pathological forms of spinal pain engendered by piloting helicopters were clinically studied. Lumbalgia and pathology of the dorsal and cervical spine are discussed along with their clinical and radiological signs and origins.
Melton, Deana; Dail, Teresa K; Katula, Jeffrey A; Mustian, Karen M
Personal trainers play an integral role in the day-to-day operation of the facilities in which they work. Research has identified a number of qualities and competencies necessary to be an effective exercise leader, but there is little scholarly work addressing clients' attitudes related to the performance of personal trainers. Utilizing focus group methodology, female clients of personal trainers were recruited to provide viewpoints related to the desirable qualities of personal trainers, as well as opinions regarding trainer certification and academic preparation. Responses of the participants were transcribed, coded, and analyzed for themes. Four global themes emerged: Selection Rationale, Personal Trainer Rationale, Loyalty Rationale and Negative Characteristics. Selection Rationale consisted of qualities that influence a client's decision to hire a particular trainer (e.g., physique, results observed in other clients, social skills). Personal Trainer Rationale referred to the clients' reasons (e.g., frustration with current fitness level) for hiring a specific trainer. Loyalty Rationale referred to the credentials of a personal trainer that solidify the client/trainer relationship and Negative Characteristics referred to qualities considered unethical or unprofessional. The results suggest that undergraduate exercise science programs should devote additional time toward the development of future fitness trainers' affective qualities and that clients' would benefit from information about the credentials of personal trainers.
Melton, Deana; Dail, Teresa K.; Katula, Jeffrey A.; Mustian, Karen M.
Personal trainers play an integral role in the day-to-day operation of the facilities in which they work. Research has identified a number of qualities and competencies necessary to be an effective exercise leader, but there is little scholarly work addressing clients' attitudes related to the performance of personal trainers. Utilizing focus group methodology, female clients of personal trainers were recruited to provide viewpoints related to the desirable qualities of personal trainers, as well as opinions regarding trainer certification and academic preparation. Responses of the participants were transcribed, coded, and analyzed for themes. Four global themes emerged: Selection Rationale, Personal Trainer Rationale, Loyalty Rationale and Negative Characteristics. Selection Rationale consisted of qualities that influence a client's decision to hire a particular trainer (e.g., physique, results observed in other clients, social skills). Personal Trainer Rationale referred to the clients' reasons (e.g., frustration with current fitness level) for hiring a specific trainer. Loyalty Rationale referred to the credentials of a personal trainer that solidify the client/trainer relationship and Negative Characteristics referred to qualities considered unethical or unprofessional. The results suggest that undergraduate exercise science programs should devote additional time toward the development of future fitness trainers' affective qualities and that clients' would benefit from information about the credentials of personal trainers. PMID:26005398
Ward, J. F.
Technology needed to provide the basis for creating a widening rotary wing market include: well defined and proven design; reductions in noise, vibration, and fuel consumption; improvement of flying and ride quality; better safety; reliability; maintainability; and productivity. Unsteady transonic flow, yawed flow, dynamic stall, and blade vortex interaction are some of the problems faced by scientists and engineers in the helicopter industry with rotorcraft technology seen as an important development for future advanced high speed vehicle configurations. Such aircraft as the Boeing Vertol medium lift Model 360 composite aircraft, the Sikorsky Advancing Blade Concept (ABC) aircraft, the Bell Textron XV-15 Tilt Rotor Aircraft, and the X-wing rotor aircraft are discussed in detail. Even though rotorcraft technology has become an integral part of the military scene, the potential market for its civil applications has not been fully developed.
Full Text Available The aim of this small-scale research is to explore the hidden world of the workplace trainer. Four trainers from a training institute in Qatar were interviewed and asked about their opinions of the employee as a learner, the trainer’s work, and the role of quality compliance in the training process. After transcribing and analysing the semi- structured interviews, several themes concerning the employee as a learner emerged such as the employees’ motivation and the effects of the workplace environment on learning. The findings also showed the trainers’ need for an adequate professional development plan and a reconsideration of their power inside the classroom. Regarding the quality compliance, there were various insights and suggestions for improvement. The results of this study are important to any workplace trainers, human development, and quality compliance employees or anyone interested in knowing more about the world of adult learning.
Cibele Biehl Bossle
Full Text Available Esse estudo apresenta mapeamento das referências dedicadas à formação do personal trainer em bases de dados eletrônicas. Essa garimpagem revelou baixa produção científica sobre o assunto e mostrou que na literatura sobre personal trainer predominam livros com linguagem corrente no mundo dos negócios. Esses achados nos levaram a indagar sobre a força do discurso físico-empresarial, especialmente o marketing, na constituição desta ocupação profissional. Jeremy Rifkin, Zygmunt Bauman, Paula Sibilia e Denise Sant'Anna permitiram visualizar que o marketing dirigido ao personal trainer tem como tarefa reinventar, ressignificar e "repaginar" esta modalidade de serviço em nome da sobrevivência no disputado mercado da vida ativa.
The Ministry of Education, Culture and Social Welfare (MOECSW), as part of the Population Education Programs (formal and informal), undertook a series of training programs to upgrade the knowledge and skills of master trainers, supervisors, and resource persons. As part of the Population Education in the Formal School Sector Project (NEP/93/P01), under the Curriculum Development Centre five training courses were organized to train 220 master trainers. Under the "Three Steps Training Strategy," these 220 master trainers would teach 825 secondary school headmasters who would reach 2025 secondary school teachers. The training courses were held in Dhangadi, April 23-27, 1995; in Pokhara, April 2-7; and in Biratnagar, February 20-24. The areas covered included: 1) the pedagogical aspect of population education (content, scope, objectives, nature, teaching methodologies); 2) demography and population dynamics (composition, distribution and density, sources of population data, demographic transition, consequences and determinants of population growth); 3) family life and adolescence and human sexuality education, including acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) education; 4) maternal and child health, and family planning; 5) environment; and 6) population policy and programs. As part of the Population Education Programme (NEP/93/P08), a Master Trainers Training Workshop was held in Makwanpur, March 26-28, 1995. These master trainers would train trainers who would train the facilitators and teachers at learning centers for adult learners under the literacy and post literacy programs. This course focused on the approaches and strategies for integrating population education in development programs, and non-formal education, adult literacy, post literacy, and out-of-school children programs. Dr. D. de Rebello and Mr. S. Hutabarat, CST Advisors on Population Education, organized the training courses and served as resource persons.
An operator trainer module has been developed to be used with the security control center equipment to be installed as part of a safeguards physical protection system. The module is designed to provide improved training and testing capabilities for control center operators through the use of simulations for perimeter equipment operations. Operators, through the trainer module, can be challenged with a variety of realistic situations which require responsive action identical to that needed in an actual system. This permits a consistent evaluation and confirmation of operator capabilities prior to assignment as an operator and allows for periodic retesting to verify that adequate performance levels are maintained
Waters, Mark; Wall, David
There is little in the literature giving the perspective of UK General Practice (GP) trainers on their development as teachers. What motivates GP trainers develop themselves as teachers? What obstacles to their professional development do GP trainers perceive? A questionnaire to all GP trainers in the West Midlands Deanery in 2004. 360/444 (81%) questionnaires were returned. 56.6% of GP trainers had another educational role in addition to training GP Registrars in the practice. 15.8% of trainers possessed an educational qualification. 13 had completed a Certificate in Medical Education and 28 were engaged in study towards that qualification. Trainers wanted more time to spend on their development as teachers than they presently have, and would then be interested in a wider variety of learning methods. However, 56.6% of trainers would still not choose to undertake a university-accredited course. Female GP trainers perceived more difficulty in obtaining protected time for their development as teachers (Educational CPD) (p = 0.021), were significantly less sure of their partners' support for this development (p = 0.033), and were more likely to agree with trainers undertaking a Certificate in Medical Education (p = 0.003). Having an additional educational role did not affect trainers' ability to take protected time, but significantly increased the amount of time aspired to (p = 0.005). Nothing made more difference to trainers' perception of their ability to undertake Educational CPD than did the perceived attitude of their partners. Educational CPD was very important to GP trainers, but getting protected time was difficult. Consideration of the needs and opinions of partners was a very strong barrier to trainers taking sufficient protected time. Given more available time, GP trainers would be more likely to consider gaining academic qualifications in education. However, this was not be something that all trainers wanted.
This report documents work done to enhance helicopter fuel consumption modeling in the Federal Aviation : Administrations Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT). Fuel consumption and flight performance data : were collected from helicopter flig...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS is a complicated illness for providers and patients. Fewer than 20% of persons with CFS have been diagnosed and treated. For providers, compounding the issue are the challenges in making a diagnosis due to the lack of a biomedical marker. Methods The objective of the CFS diagnosis and management curriculum was to instruct core trainers as to the evaluation, diagnosis, and management of CFS. Over a two year period, 79 primary care physicians, physician assistants, and nurse practitioners from diverse regions in the U.S. participated as core trainers in a two day Train-the-Trainer (TTT workshop. As core trainers, the workshop participants were expected to show increases in knowledge, self-efficacy, and management skills with the primary goal of conducting secondary presentations. Results The optimal goal for each core trainer to present secondary training to 50 persons in the health care field was not reached. However, the combined core trainer group successfully reached 2064 primary care providers. Eighty-two percent of core trainers responded "Very good" or "Excellent" in a post-tessurvey of self-efficacy expectation and CFS diagnosis. Data from the Chicago workshops showed significant improvement on the Primary Care Opinion Survey (p Conclusion Data show the workshop was successful in meeting the objectives of increasing CFS knowledge and raising perceived self-efficacy towards making a diagnosis. The CFS TTT program informed an educational provider project by shifting the format for physicians to grand rounds and continuing medical education design while retaining TTT aspects for nurse practitioners and physicians assistants. Evaluations also indicate that secondary trainings may be more readily employed and accepted if administrative barriers are addressed early in the planning phases.
Sanders, A.J.B.; Luursema, J.M.; Warntjes, P.; Mastboom, W.J.B.; Geelkerken, R.H.; Klaase, J.M.; Rödel, S.G.J.; ten Cate Hoedemaker, H.O.; Kommers, P.A.M.; Verwey, W.B.; Kunst, E.E.; Westwood, James D.
VREST (Virtual Reality Educational Surgical Tools) is developing a universal and autonomous simulation platform which can be used for training and assessment of medical students and for continuing education of physicians. With the VREST - Virtual Lichtenstein Trainer, simulating the open surgery
Center for Alternative Learning, Bryn Mawr, PA.
This report describes a project that developed a "Train the Trainer" program that would enable individuals to learn and teach the alternative instructional technique, Tic Tac Toe Math, developed by Richard Cooper for adult basic education students. The pilot workshop conducted as part of the project identified problems that traditional…
Flight fascinates people of all ages. Recent advances in battery technology have extended the capabilities of model airplanes and toy helicopters. For those who have never outgrown a childhood enthusiasm for the wonders of flight, it is possible to buy inexpensive, remotely controlled planes and helicopters. A toy helicopter offers an opportunity…
... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Helicopter fueling. 109.577 Section 109.577 Shipping... Miscellaneous § 109.577 Helicopter fueling. (a) The master or person in charge shall designate persons to conduct helicopter fueling operations. (b) Portable tanks are handled and stowed in accordance with...
Rashid, H.S.J.; Place, C.S.; Mba, D.; Keong, R.L.C.; Healey, A.; Kleine-Beek, W.; Romano, M.
The loss of oil from a helicopter main gearbox (MGB) leads to increased friction between components, a rise in component surface temperatures, and subsequent mechanical failure of gearbox components. A number of significant helicopter accidents have been caused due to such loss of lubrication. This paper presents a model to assess the reliability of helicopter MGB lubricating systems. Safety risk modeling was conducted for MGB oil system related accidents in order to analyse key failure mechanisms and the contributory factors. Thus, the dominant failure modes for lubrication systems and key contributing components were identified. The Influence Diagram (ID) approach was then employed to investigate reliability issues of the MGB lubrication systems at the level of primary causal factors, thus systematically investigating a complex context of events, conditions, and influences that are direct triggers of the helicopter MGB lubrication system failures. The interrelationships between MGB lubrication system failure types were thus identified, and the influence of each of these factors on the overall MGB lubrication system reliability was assessed. This paper highlights parts of the HELMGOP project, sponsored by the European Aviation Safety Agency to improve helicopter main gearbox reliability. - Highlights: • We investigated methods to optimize helicopter MGB oil system run-dry capability. • Used Influence Diagram to assess design and maintenance factors of MGB oil system. • Factors influencing overall MGB lubrication system reliability were identified. • This globally influences current and future helicopter MGB designs
Plevin, Rebecca E; Evans, Heather L
Traumatic injury continues to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the year 2011. In addition, the healthcare expenditures and lost years of productivity represent significant economic cost to the affected individuals and their communities. Helicopters have been used to transport trauma patients for the past 40 years, but there are conflicting data on the benefits of helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) in civilian trauma systems. Debate persists regarding the mortality benefit, cost-effectiveness, and safety of helicopter usage, largely because the studies to date vary widely in design and generalizability to trauma systems serving heterogeneous populations and geography. Strict criteria should be established to determine when HEMS transport is warranted and most likely to positively affect patient outcomes. Individual trauma systems should conduct an assessment of their resources and needs in order to most effectively incorporate helicopter transport into their triage model. Research suggests that HEMS improves mortality in certain subgroups of trauma patients, both after transport from the scene of injury and following interfacility transport. Studies examining the cost-effectiveness of HEMS had mixed results, but the majority found that it is a cost-effective tool. Safety remains an issue of contention with HEMS transport, as helicopters are associated with significant safety risk to the crew and patient. However, this risk may be justified provided there is a substantial mortality benefit to be gained. Recent studies suggest that strict criteria should be established to determine when helicopter transport is warranted and most likely to positively affect patient outcomes. Individual trauma systems should conduct an assessment of their resources and needs in order to most effectively incorporate HEMS into their triage model. This will enable regional hospitals to determine if the costs and safety risks associated with HEMS are worthwhile
...-numbered main rotor hub inboard strap fittings (fittings). This AD requires magnetic particle inspecting... identified in this AD, contact Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc., P.O. Box 482, Fort Worth, TX 76101, telephone..., perform a magnetic particle inspection (MPI) of each fitting for a crack. If an MPI was already performed...
Gregory R. Waryasz
Full Text Available Increasing emphasis on maintaining a healthy lifestyle has led many individuals to seek advice on exercise from personal trainers. There are few studies to date that evaluate personal trainer education, practice trends, and injuries they have seen while training clients. A survey was distributed to personal trainers using Survey Monkey® (Palo Alto, CA, USA with 605 personal trainers accessing the survey. An exercise related bachelor’s degree was held by 64.2% of survey participants and a certification in personal training by 89.0%. The most common personal trainer certifications were from American College of Sports Medicine (59.2% and National Strength and Conditioning Association (28.9%. Only 2.9% of all personal trainers surveyed had no exercise-related bachelor’s degree and no personal trainer certification. The most common injuries seen by personal trainers during sessions were lumbar muscle strain (10.7%, rotator cuff tear/tendonitis (8.9%, shin splints (8.1%, ankle sprain (7.5%, and cervical muscle strain (7.4%. There is variability in the practices between different personal trainers when analyzing differences in collegiate education, personal trainer certifications, and strength and conditioning certifications. The clinical implication of the differences in practices is unknown as to the impact on injuries or exercise prescription effectiveness.
Waryasz, Gregory R.; Daniels, Alan H.; Gil, Joseph A.; Suric, Vladimir; Eberson, Craig P.
Increasing emphasis on maintaining a healthy lifestyle has led many individuals to seek advice on exercise from personal trainers. There are few studies to date that evaluate personal trainer education, practice trends, and injuries they have seen while training clients. A survey was distributed to personal trainers using Survey Monkey® (Palo Alto, CA, USA) with 605 personal trainers accessing the survey. An exercise related bachelor’s degree was held by 64.2% of survey participants and a certification in personal training by 89.0%. The most common personal trainer certifications were from American College of Sports Medicine (59.2%) and National Strength and Conditioning Association (28.9%). Only 2.9% of all personal trainers surveyed had no exercise-related bachelor’s degree and no personal trainer certification. The most common injuries seen by personal trainers during sessions were lumbar muscle strain (10.7%), rotator cuff tear/tendonitis (8.9%), shin splints (8.1%), ankle sprain (7.5%), and cervical muscle strain (7.4%). There is variability in the practices between different personal trainers when analyzing differences in collegiate education, personal trainer certifications, and strength and conditioning certifications. The clinical implication of the differences in practices is unknown as to the impact on injuries or exercise prescription effectiveness. PMID:27761219
The spectrum of training aids used in the nuclear industry runs the gamut from the very basic (i.e., valve training aids - gate, globe, check) to the highly complex (i.e., nuclear full scope simulator). Designing and purchasing the best training aids take much time, detailed investigation, and good understanding of plant operations. The training aid that has given the New York Power Authority the best results has been the motor operator valve (MOV) trainer. Some of the items that make the MOV trainer a good choice are: (1) large number of MOVs in the plant, (2) importance of MOVs to safe plant operation, (3) detailed MOV procedures used by the plant, (4) history of MOV problems, and (5) ability to demonstrate important concepts and operation - hammer blow effect, torque and limit switch adjustment and functions, and actual sequence of operation of the limitorque valve operator
Based on work Stanford Research Institute did for Ames Research Center, Joseph Trachtman developed a vision trainer to treat visual focusing problems in the 1980s. In 2014, Trachtman, operating out of Seattle, released a home version of the device called the Zone-Trac. The inventor has found the biofeedback process used by the technology induces an alpha-wave brain state, causing increased hand-eye coordination and reaction times, among other effects
Staebler, A.; Ertl-Wagner, B.
This book enables students to simulate examinations. The Radiology Trainer series comprises the whole knowledge of radiology in the form of case studies for self-testing. It is based on the best-sorted German-language collection of radiological examinations of all organ regions. Step by step, radiological knowledge is trained in order to make diagnoses more efficient. The book series ensures optimal preparation for the final medical examinations and is also a valuable tool for practical training. (orig.)
The goal of this research project is to develop a novel test methodology which can be used for optimizing cost and time efficiency of helicopter-ship qualification testing without reducing safety. For this purpose, the so-called “SHOL-X” test methodology has been established, which includes the
A $1 plastic helicopter toy (called a Wacky Whirler) can be used to demonstrate lift. Students can make basic measurements of the toy, use reasonable assumptions and, with the lift formula, estimate the lift, and verify that it is sufficient to overcome the toy's weight. (Contains 1 figure.)
Paternoster, Alexandre; Loendersloot, Richard; de Boer, Andries; Akkerman, Remko; Berselli, G.; Vertechy, R.; Vassura, G.
Successful rotorcrafts were only achieved when the differences between hovering flight conditions and a stable forward flight were understood. During hovering, the air speed on all helicopter blades is linearly distributed along each blade and is the same for each. However, during forward flight,
Koersel, A.C. van
A technology demonstrator that detects and classifies different helicopter types automatically, was developed at TNO-FEL. The demonstrator is based on a PC, which receives its acoustic input from an all-weather microphone. The demonstrator uses commercial off-the-shelf hardware to digitize the
Snider, Karen T; Seffinger, Michael A; Ferrill, Heather P; Gish, Eric E
The hallmark of osteopathic medical education is the inclusion of hands-on instruction in osteopathic manipulative medicine (OMM), which includes palpatory diagnosis and osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT). This OMM training typically involves a primary instructor presenting theory and techniques with step-by-step demonstrations to a large group of first- and second-year osteopathic medical students. Additional instructors, referred to as table trainers, assist the primary instructor by supervising the students as they practice the presented techniques. To the authors' knowledge, there is no currently accepted standard for a table trainer-to-student ratio in OMM skills laboratories within osteopathic medical schools in the United States. However, through a Google Web search and PubMed literature review, the authors identified published trainer-to-student ratios used in other health care skills training curricula. Psychomotor skills training courses in health care fields typically have a table trainer-to-student ratio of 1 trainer to 8 or fewer students. On the basis of these findings and psychomotor skills learning theory, the authors conclude that this ratio is likely sufficient for OMM skills training.
Adamo Kristi B
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigates approaches for translating evidence-based knowledge for use by fitness trainers. Specific questions were: Where do fitness trainers get their evidence-based information? What types of interventions are effective for translating evidence-based knowledge for use by fitness trainers? What are the barriers and facilitators to the use of evidence-based information by fitness trainers in their practice? Methods We describe a systematic review of studies about knowledge translation interventions targeting fitness trainers. Fitness trainers were defined as individuals who provide exercise program design and supervision services to the public. Nurses, physicians, physiotherapists, school teachers, athletic trainers, and sport team strength coaches were excluded. Results Of 634 citations, two studies were eligible for inclusion: a survey of 325 registered health fitness professionals (66% response rate and a qualitative study of 10 fitness instructors. Both studies identified that fitness trainers obtain information from textbooks, networking with colleagues, scientific journals, seminars, and mass media. Fitness trainers holding higher levels of education are reported to use evidence-based information sources such as scientific journals compared to those with lower education levels, who were reported to use mass media sources. The studies identified did not evaluate interventions to translate evidence-based knowledge for fitness trainers and did not explore factors influencing uptake of evidence in their practice. Conclusion Little is known about how fitness trainers obtain and incorporate new evidence-based knowledge into their practice. Further exploration and specific research is needed to better understand how emerging health-fitness evidence can be translated to maximize its use by fitness trainers providing services to the general public.
Dias, Ana Augusta
This article describes the main challenges faced by teachers and trainers when guiding or "tutoring" online courses. The focus is on their emerging role as e-tutors or e-trainers. The challenges are related with the processes of orientation, guidance and monitoring e-learners within an e-course. European Union DGXXII - Education and Training, Leoardo da VINCI Programme "Trainers Training for Virtual Learning Communities" ( ttVLC)
Cheung, Yannes Tsz-Yan; Chow, Cheuk-Fai; So, Winnie Wing-Mui
To educate a sustainable future, a train-the-trainer (TTT) approach was adopted to train student teachers (STs) from a teacher education institute to be green ambassadors (GAs) in an environmental education (EE) programme with the aim of promoting plastic waste recycling among primary school pupils. The design of the TTT course for the GAs not…
Johnson, Genevieve; Alexander, Greg
ROBoT is an on-orbit version of the ground-based Dynamics Skills Trainer (DST) that astronauts use for training on a frequent basis. This software consists of two primary software groups. The first series of components is responsible for displaying the graphical scenes. The remaining components are responsible for simulating the Mobile Servicing System (MSS), the Japanese Experiment Module Remote Manipulator System (JEMRMS), and the H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV) Free Flyer Robotics Operations. The MSS simulation software includes: Robotic Workstation (RWS) simulation, a simulation of the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS), a simulation of the ISS Command and Control System (CCS), and a portion of the Portable Computer System (PCS) software necessary for MSS operations. These components all run under the CentOS4.5 Linux operating system. The JEMRMS simulation software includes real-time, HIL, dynamics, manipulator multi-body dynamics, and a moving object contact model with Tricks discrete time scheduling. The JEMRMS DST will be used as a functional proficiency and skills trainer for flight crews. The HTV Free Flyer Robotics Operations simulation software adds a functional simulation of HTV vehicle controllers, sensors, and data to the MSS simulation software. These components are intended to support HTV ISS visiting vehicle analysis and training. The scene generation software will use DOUG (Dynamic On-orbit Ubiquitous Graphics) to render the graphical scenes. DOUG runs on a laptop running the CentOS4.5 Linux operating system. DOUG is an Open GL-based 3D computer graphics rendering package. It uses pre-built three-dimensional models of on-orbit ISS and space shuttle systems elements, and provides realtime views of various station and shuttle configurations.
Figure 3. Graphical representation of Baston and Bostock ................. 10 Figure 4. Dips and Speed Circle...dimen.ional helicopter submarine gaines studied by Meinardi [Ref. 7] and more recently by Baston and Bostock [Ref. 8]. Meinardi solves a discr,-te form of...the game while Baston and Bostock solve the continuous case. Bes.ides Danskin’s game, not much work has been done on the two dimensional case except
Full Text Available Rationale and Objectives: Various devices are used to aid in the education of laparoscopic skills ranging from simple box trainers to sophisticated virtual reality trainers. Virtual reality system is an advanced and effective training method, however it is yet to be adopted in India due to its cost and the advanced technology required for it. Therefore, box trainers are being used to train laparoscopic skills. Hence this study was undertaken to assess the overall effectiveness of the box-training course. Study Procedure: The study was conducted during six-day laparoscopic skills training workshops held during 2006. Twenty five surgeons; age range of 26 to 45 years, of either sex, who had not performed laparoscopic surgery before; attending the workshop were evaluated. Each participant was given a list of tasks to perform before beginning the box-training course on day one and was evaluated quantitatively by rating the successful completion of each test. Evaluation began when the subject placed the first tool into the cannula and ended with task completion. Two evaluation methods used to score the subject, including a global rating scale and a task-specific checklist. After the subject completed all sessions of the workshop, they were asked to perform the same tasks and were evaluated in the same manner. For each task completed by the subjects, the difference in the scores between the second and first runs were calculated and interpreted as an improvement as a percentage of the initial score. Statistical Analysis: Wilcoxon matched-paired signed-ranks test was applied to find out the statistical significance of the results obtained. Results: The mean percentage improvement in scores for both the tasks, using global rating scale, was 44.5% + 6.930 (Mean + SD. For task 1, using the global rating scale mean percentage improvement was 49.4% + 7.948 (Mean + SD. For task 2, mean percentage improvement using global rating scale was 39.6% + 10.4 (Mean
Six full practice tests with tips and training for the 2015 revised Cambridge English: First (FCE). First Trainer Second edition offers six practice tests for the revised Cambridge English: First (FCE) exam combined with easy-to-follow guidance and exam tips. The first two tests are fully guided with advice on how to tackle each paper. Extra practice activities, informed by the Cambridge Learner Corpus, a bank of real candidates' exam papers, focus on areas where students typically need the most help. This version contains a full answer key. Audio for the listening and speaking test activities is available online for download. Audio CDs featuring the listening material are also available, separately.
Create and expand feature-rich sites with no programming experience Ready to build, maintain, and expand your web site with WordPress but have no prior programming experience? WordPress 24-Hour Trainer, 3rd Edition is your book-and-video learning solution that walks you step-by-step through all the important features you will need to know. Lessons range from focused, practical everyday tasks to more advanced, creative features. Learn from an industry professional how to enter content, create pages, manage menus, utilize plug-ins, connect to social media, create membership and e-commerce site
Beaudin, Bart; And Others
This document contains a trainer's and a participant's package for teaching employees on site safe handling procedures for working with anhydrous ammonia, especially on farms. The trainer's package includes the following: a description of the module; a competency; objectives; suggested instructional aids; a training outline (or lesson plan) for…
Guldal, D.; Windak, A.; Maagaard, Roar
if these needs vary between trainers who teach general practice in different settings and environments. Needs assessment: Recently EURACT, in collaboration with partners from five EU countries and Turkey, set up a project aimed at the development of a comprehensive 'training the trainers' programme. The project...
Malek, Moh H.; Nalbone, David P.; Berger, Dale E.; Coburn, Jared W.
Examined the relationship between commonly used indicators of knowledge and actual knowledge in five areas among fitness trainers. Data from the Fitness Instructors Knowledge Assessment indicated that a bachelor's degree in the field of exercise science and possession of one of two specific certifications strongly predicted a trainer's knowledge,…
Raab, Scot; Wolfe, Brent D; Gould, Trenton E; Piland, Scott G
Didactic proficiency does not ensure clinical aptitude. Quality athletic health care requires clinical knowledge and affective traits. To develop a grounded theory explaining the constructs of a quality certified athletic trainer (AT). Delphi study. Interviews in conference rooms or business offices and by telephone. Thirteen ATs (men = 8, women = 5) stratified across the largest employment settings (high school, college, clinical) in the 4 largest districts of the National Athletic Trainers? Association (2, 3, 4, 9). Open-ended interview questions were audio recorded, transcribed, and reviewed before condensing. Two member checks ensured trustworthiness. Open coding reduced text to descriptive adjectives. We grouped adjectives into 5 constructs (care, communication, commitment, integrity, knowledge) and grouped these constructs into 2 higher-order constructs (affective traits, effective traits). According to participants, ATs who demonstrate the ability to care, show commitment and integrity, value professional knowledge, and communicate effectively with others can be identified as quality ATs. These abilities facilitate the creation of positive relationships. These relationships allow the quality AT to interact with patients and other health care professionals on a knowledgeable basis that ultimately improves health care delivery. Our resulting theory supported the examination of characteristics not traditionally assessed in an athletic training education program. If researchers can show that these characteristics develop ATs into quality ATs (eg, those who work better with others, relate meaningfully with patients, and improve the standard of health care), they must be cultivated in the educational setting.
Laub, Rasmus R; Tønnesen, Philip; Jennum, Poul J
We tested the effect of the Sleep Position Trainer, a vibrational device, for positional sleep apnea in an open, randomized controlled trial with 101 patients, where 52 patients were allocated to Sleep Position Trainer and 49 patients to a non-treatment control group for 2 months (Part 1). All...... patients were then followed as a cohort for a period of 6 months with use of the Sleep Position Trainer (Part 2). The participants were assessed with polygraphy at entry, and after 2 and 6 months. The mean apnea-hypopnea index supine was 35 per h (SD, 18) in the Sleep Position Trainer group and 38 per h...... (SD, 15) in the control group at entry. In a per protocol analysis, the mean total apnea-hypopnea index at entry and after 2 months in the Sleep Position Trainer group was 18 per h (SD, 10) and 10 per h (SD, 9; P
Stories of "helicopter parents" abound. But several longtime student-affairs officials agree that while helicopter parents are real, their numbers--and behaviors--have been exaggerated. Parental involvement on campus, they say, is usually more of a help than a headache, for students and colleges alike. Some officials believe colleges must do even…
...) Loose gear and objects. Every practical precaution shall be taken to provide for the protection of the employees from flying objects in the rotor downwash. All loose gear within 100 feet of the place of lifting... manner in which loads are connected to the helicopter. If, for any reason, the helicopter operator...
... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Helicopter deck fueling operations. 108.487 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fire Protection for Helicopter Facilities § 108.487 Helicopter deck fueling operations. (a) Each helicopter landing deck on which fueling operations are...
... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Helicopter fueling facilities. 108.489 Section 108.489... AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fire Protection for Helicopter Facilities § 108.489 Helicopter fueling facilities. (a) Each helicopter fueling facility must have a fire protection system that...
The illustrated manual includes information on various aspects of helicopter rescue missions, including mission management roles for key personnel, safety rules around helicopters, requests for helicopter support, sample military air support forms, selection of landing zones, helicopter evacuations, rescuer delivery, passenger unloading, crash…
Michailidou, Maria; Goldstein, Seth D; Salazar, Jose; Aboagye, Jonathan; Stewart, Dylan; Efron, David; Abdullah, Fizan; Haut, Elliot R
Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS) have been designed to provide faster access to trauma center care in cases of life-threatening injury. However, the ideal recipient population is not fully characterized, and indications for helicopter transport in pediatric trauma vary dramatically by county, state, and region. Overtriage, or unnecessary utilization, can lead to additional patient risk and expense. In this study we perform a nationwide descriptive analysis of HEMS for pediatric trauma and assess the incidence of overtriage in this group. We reviewed records from the American College of Surgeons National Trauma Data Bank (2008-11) and included patients less than 16 years of age who were transferred from the scene of injury to a trauma center via HEMS. Overtriage was defined as patients meeting all of the following criteria: Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) equal to 15, absence of hypotension, an Injury Severity Score (ISS) less than 9, no need for procedure or critical care, and a hospital length of stay of less than 24 hours. A total of 19,725 patients were identified with a mean age of 10.5 years. The majority of injuries were blunt (95.6%) and resulted from motor vehicle crashes (48%) and falls (15%). HEMS transported patients were predominately normotensive (96%), had a GCS of 15 (67%), and presented with minor injuries (ISS<9, 41%). Overall, 28 % of patients stayed in the hospital for less than 24 hours, and the incidence of overtriage was 17%. Helicopter overtriage is prevalent among pediatric trauma patients nationwide. The ideal model to predict need for HEMS must consider clinical outcomes in the context of judicious resource utilization. The development of guidelines for HEMS use in pediatric trauma could potentially limit unnecessary transfers while still identifying children who require trauma center care in a timely fashion. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Shupla, Christine; Gladney, Alicia; Dalton, Heather; LaConte, Keliann; Truxillo, Jeannette; Shipp, Stephanie
The Sustainable Trainer Engagement Program (STEP) is a modified train-the-trainer professional development program being conducted by the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI). STEP has provided two cohorts of 6-8th grade science specialists and lead teachers in the Houston region with in-depth Earth and Space Science (ESS) content, activities, and pedagogy over 15 days each, aligned with Texas science standards. This project has two over-arching goals: to improve middle school ESS instruction, and to create and test an innovative model for Train-the-Trainer.This poster will share details regarding STEP’s activities and resources, program achievements, and its main findings to date. STEP is being evaluated by external evaluators at the Research Institute of Texas, part of the Harris County Department of Education. External evaluation shows an increase after one year in STEP participants’ knowledge (cohort 1 showed a 10% increase; cohort 2 showed a 20% increase), confidence in teaching Earth and Space Science effectively (cohort 1 demonstrated a 10% increase; cohort 2 showed a 20% increase), and confidence in preparing other teachers (cohort 1 demonstrated a 12% increase; cohort 2 showed a 20% increase). By September 2015, STEP participants led (or assisted in leading) approximately 40 workshops for about 1800 science teachers in Texas. Surveys of teachers attending professional development conducted by STEP participants show very positive responses, with averages for conference workshop evaluations ranging from 3.6 on a 4 point scale, and other evaluations averaging from 4.1 to 5.0 on a 5 point scale.Main lessons for the team on the train-the-trainer model include: a lack of confidence by leaders in K-12 science education in presenting ESS professional development, difficulties in arranging for school or district content-specific professional development, the minimal duration of most school and district professional development sessions, and uncertainties in
White, Judy; Bagnall, Anne-Marie; Trigwell, Joanne
This short report explores the key findings from a review(1) of information on health trainers in 2013/2014 which had a particular focus on mental health and wellbeing. After summarising the key findings of the review, it focuses on mental health, briefly exploring the links between mental and physical health before discussing what differences engagement with a health trainer made to people's sense of self-efficacy and wellbeing. Health trainers are a non-clinical workforce introduced in 2004,(2) who receive training in competencies to enable them to support people in disadvantaged communities to improve their health.(3) The population groups or settings that health trainers focus on varies from service to service, but all work one-to-one, most spending at least an hour with a client at their first appointment, supporting and enabling them to decide what they want to do. The emphasis is on the client determining their own priorities and how to achieve them. Generally, health trainers see clients for a total of six sessions, where how to achieve goals and progress towards them is discussed. The Data Collection and Reporting System (DCRS) is used by approximately 60% of Health Trainer Services to record monitoring data. Around 90% of Health Trainer Services using DCRS record ethnographic data on health trainers and clients, plus the issues clients worked on and the progress they made. There is also a wide range of other data which can be recorded, including before and after mental health and wellbeing scores. We were given access to aggregate data in order to conduct an analysis. Descriptive statistics were generated to calculate percentage change pre- to post-intervention. A total of 1,377 (= 919 full time equivalents) health trainers were recorded in the DCRS system as working with 97,248 clients in England during 2013/2014. The health trainer model embodies the principle of lay support,(4) and services aim to recruit a high proportion of their staff from similar
Schebesta, Karl; Hüpfl, Michael; Rössler, Bernhard; Ringl, Helmut; Müller, Michael P; Kimberger, Oliver
Human patient simulators and airway training manikins are widely used to train airway management skills to medical professionals. Furthermore, these patient simulators are employed as standardized "patients" to evaluate airway devices. However, little is known about how realistic these patient simulators and airway-training manikins really are. This trial aimed to evaluate the upper airway anatomy of four high-fidelity patient simulators and two airway trainers in comparison with actual patients by means of radiographic measurements. The volume of the pharyngeal airspace was the primary outcome parameter. Computed tomography scans of 20 adult trauma patients without head or neck injuries were compared with computed tomography scans of four high-fidelity patient simulators and two airway trainers. By using 14 predefined distances, two cross-sectional areas and three volume parameters of the upper airway, the manikins' similarity to a human patient was assessed. The pharyngeal airspace of all manikins differed significantly from the patients' pharyngeal airspace. The HPS Human Patient Simulator (METI®, Sarasota, FL) was the most realistic high-fidelity patient simulator (6/19 [32%] of all parameters were within the 95% CI of human airway measurements). The airway anatomy of four high-fidelity patient simulators and two airway trainers does not reflect the upper airway anatomy of actual patients. This finding may impact airway training and confound comparative airway device studies.
Greenwood, Eric; Sim, Ben W.; Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.
The effects of ambient atmospheric conditions, air temperature and density, on rotor harmonic noise radiation are characterized using theoretical models and experimental measurements of helicopter noise collected at three different test sites at elevations ranging from sea level to 7000 ft above sea level. Significant changes in the thickness, loading, and blade-vortex interaction noise levels and radiation directions are observed across the different test sites for an AS350 helicopter flying at the same indicated airspeed and gross weight. However, the radiated noise is shown to scale with ambient pressure when the flight condition of the helicopter is defined in nondimensional terms. Although the effective tip Mach number is identified as the primary governing parameter for thickness noise, the nondimensional weight coefficient also impacts lower harmonic loading noise levels, which contribute strongly to low frequency harmonic noise radiation both in and out of the plane of the horizon. Strategies for maintaining the same nondimensional rotor operating condition under different ambient conditions are developed using an analytical model of single main rotor helicopter trim and confirmed using a CAMRAD II model of the AS350 helicopter. The ability of the Fundamental Rotorcraft Acoustics Modeling from Experiments (FRAME) technique to generalize noise measurements made under one set of ambient conditions to make accurate noise predictions under other ambient conditions is also validated.
The first components of primary helicopter structures to be made of glass fiber reinforced plastics were the main and tail rotor blades of the Bo105 and BK 117 helicopters. These blades are now successfully produced in series. New developments in rotor components, e.g., the rotor blade technology of the Bo108 and PAH2 programs, make use of very complex fiber reinforced structures to achieve simplicity and strength. Computer tomography was found to be an outstanding nondestructive test method for examining the internal structure of components. A CT scanner generates x-ray attenuation measurements which are used to produce computer reconstructed images of any desired part of an object. The system images a range of flaws in composites in a number of views and planes. Several CT investigations and their results are reported taking composite helicopter components as an example.
King, Gregory; Lakey, Charles
With the aim of creating a skill trainer of conceptual knowledge, what is the development process for ensuring the correct set of objectives are determined, matched to appropriate technology, and implemented...
.... Conventional training methods, e.g. treadmill training, require great physical effort from the therapists to assist the patient After the successful development and application of a mechanised gait trainer, a new research project...
Full Text Available Nowadays the unmanned helicopter is widely used for its' unique strongpoint, however, the high failure rate of unmanned helicopter seriously limits its further application and development. For solving the above problems, in this paper, the reasons for the high failure rate of unmanned helicopter is analyzed and the corresponding solution schemes are proposed. The main problem of the failure cause of the unmanned helicopter is the aircraft engine fault, and the failure cause of the unmanned helicopter is analyzed particularly. In order to improving the safety performance of unmanned helicopter system, the scheme of adding the safety parachute system to the unmanned helicopter system is proposed and introduced. These schemes provide the safety redundancy of the unmanned helicopter system and lay on basis for the unmanned helicopter applying into residential areas.
Formation flight is the primary movement technique for teams of helicopters. However, the potential for accidents is greatly increased when helicopter teams are required to fly in tight formations and under harsh conditions. This dissertation proposes that the automation of helicopter formations is a realistic solution capable of alleviating risks. Helicopter formation flight operations in battlefield situations are highly dynamic and dangerous, and, therefore, we maintain that both a high-level formation management system and a distributed coordinated control algorithm should be implemented to help ensure safe formations. The starting point for safe autonomous formation flights is to design a distributed control law attenuating external disturbances coming into a formation, so that each vehicle can safely maintain sufficient clearance between it and all other vehicles. While conventional methods are limited to homogeneous formations, our decentralized model predictive control (MPC) approach allows for heterogeneity in a formation. In order to avoid the conservative nature inherent in distributed MPC algorithms, we begin by designing a stable MPC for individual vehicles, and then introducing carefully designed inter-agent coupling terms in a performance index. Thus the proposed algorithm works in a decentralized manner, and can be applied to the problem of helicopter formations comprised of heterogenous vehicles. Individual vehicles in a team may be confronted by various emerging situations that will require the capability for in-flight reconfiguration. We propose the concept of a formation manager to manage separation, join, and synchronization of flight course changes. The formation manager accepts an operator's commands, information from neighboring vehicles, and its own vehicle states. Inside the formation manager, there are multiple modes and complex mode switchings represented as a finite state machine (FSM). Based on the current mode and collected
Stephen H. Thomas
Full Text Available Patients, EMS systems, and healthcare regions benefit from Helicopter EMS (HEMS utilization. This article discusses these benefits in terms of specific endpoints utilized in research projects. The endpoint of interest, be it primary, secondary, or surrogate, is important to understand in the deployment of HEMS resources or in planning further HEMS outcomes research. The most important outcomes are those which show potential benefits to the patients, such as functional survival, pain relief, and earlier ALS care. Case reports are also important “outcomes” publications. The benefits of HEMS in the rural setting is the ability to provide timely access to Level I or Level II trauma centers and in nontrauma, interfacility transport of cardiac, stroke, and even sepsis patients. Many HEMS crews have pharmacologic and procedural capabilities that bring a different level of care to a trauma scene or small referring hospital, especially in the rural setting. Regional healthcare and EMS system's benefit from HEMS by their capability to extend the advanced level of care throughout a region, provide a “backup” for areas with limited ALS coverage, minimize transport times, make available direct transport to specialized centers, and offer flexibility of transport in overloaded hospital systems.
A computationally efficient, semiempirical noise model suitable for maneuvering flight noise prediction is used to evaluate the community noise impact of practical variations on several helicopter flight procedures typical of normal operations. Turns, "quick-stops," approaches, climbs, and combinations of these maneuvers are assessed. Relatively small variations in flight procedures are shown to cause significant changes to Sound Exposure Levels over a wide area. Guidelines are developed for helicopter pilots intended to provide effective strategies for reducing the negative effects of helicopter noise on the community. Finally, direct optimization of flight trajectories is conducted to identify low noise optimal flight procedures and quantify the magnitude of community noise reductions that can be obtained through tailored helicopter flight procedures. Physically realizable optimal turns and approaches are identified that achieve global noise reductions of as much as 10 dBA Sound Exposure Level.
... objects. The employer shall take all necessary precautions to protect employees from flying objects in the... safety. The size and weight of loads, and the manner in which loads are connected to the helicopter shall...
Blitz, Julia; Edwards, Jill; Mash, Bob; Mowle, Steve
The Royal College of General Practitioners in partnership with the South African Academy of Family Physicians obtained funding to run a series of 'Training the Trainers' courses for trainers of family medicine registrars, with a view to strengthening clinical supervision of postgraduate registrars. The authors wanted to establish whether it was worthwhile for the course to be provided on an ongoing basis after the funded project was completed. Development of a pilot tool for evaluation visits after a faculty development course. The authors developed a pre-visit pack and conducted five site visits to registrar trainers who had been on the course between 12 and 24 months earlier. Before the series of visits and after each visit we debriefed and modified our approach. Optimising the use of the pre-visit pack will require greater orientation of the trainer. Administrative support for the visits will be vital. The visits were experienced very positively. However, in a context in which these visits are not the norm, the trainers need support and encouragement to participate in an activity which made them feel quite vulnerable. The tool enabled course participants to show evidence of their behaviour change, enabled their colleagues to report on the impact on their own teaching practices, and enabled registrars to voice their opinions of their trainer's supervision skills. A post-course formative evaluation visit has the potential to catalyse the impact of the training course. It will be necessary to train the family physicians who conduct these visits.
Prior to the retirement of the Space Shuttle, many exterior repairs on the International Space Station (ISS) were carried out by shuttle astronauts, trained on the ground and flown to the Station to perform these specific repairs. With the retirement of the shuttle, this is no longer an available option. As such, the need for ISS crew members to review scenarios while on flight, either for tasks they already trained for on the ground or for contingency operations has become a very critical issue. NASA astronauts prepare for Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA) or Spacewalks through numerous training media, such as: self-study, part task training, underwater training in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL), hands-on hardware reviews and training at the Virtual Reality Laboratory (VRLab). In many situations, the time between the last session of a training and an EVA task might be 6 to 8 months. EVA tasks are critical for a mission and as time passes the crew members may lose proficiency on previously trained tasks and their options to refresh or learn a new skill while on flight are limited to reading training materials and watching videos. In addition, there is an increased need for unplanned contingency repairs to fix problems arising as the Station ages. In order to help the ISS crew members maintain EVA proficiency or train for contingency repairs during their mission, the Johnson Space Center's VRLab designed an immersive ISS Virtual Reality Trainer (VRT). The VRT incorporates a unique optical system that makes use of the already successful Dynamic On-board Ubiquitous Graphics (DOUG) software to assist crew members with procedure reviews and contingency EVAs while on board the Station. The need to train and re-train crew members for EVAs and contingency scenarios is crucial and extremely demanding. ISS crew members are now asked to perform EVA tasks for which they have not been trained and potentially have never seen before. The Virtual Reality Trainer (VRT
ATTACK HELICOPTER OPERATIONS: ART OR SCIENCE ? BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL JAN CALLEN United States Army DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release...TASK IWORK UNIT ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. ACCESSION NC 11. TITLE (Include Socurity Classification) Attack Helicopter Operations: Art or Science ? 12. PERSONAL...OPERATIONS: ART OR SCIENCE ? AN INDIVIDUAL STUDY PROJECT by Lieutenant Colonel Jan Callen United States Army Colonel Greg Snelgrove Project Adviser U.S
Simulators will gain an increasingly important role in training helicopter pilots only if the simulators are of sufficient fidelity to provide positive transfer of skills to the aircraft. This must be done within an economic model of return on investment. Although rotor pilot demand is still only a small percentage of overall pilot requirements, it will grow in significance. This presentation described the salient factors influencing the use of helicopter training simulators.
Bennie, Jason A; Wiesner, Glen H; van Uffelen, Jannique G Z; Harvey, Jack T; Biddle, Stuart J H
Few studies have examined the sources of practice knowledge fitness trainers use to inform their training methods and update knowledge. This study aims to describe sources of practice knowledge among Australian fitness trainers. In July 2014, 9100 Australian fitness trainers were invited to complete an online survey. Respondents reported the frequency of use of eight sources of practice knowledge (e.g. fitness magazines, academic texts). In a separate survey, exercise science experts (n = 27) ranked each source as either (1) 'high-quality' or (2) 'low-quality'. Proportions of users of 'high-quality' sources were calculated across demographic (age, sex) and fitness industry-related characteristics (qualification, setting, role). A multivariate logistic regression analysis assessed the odds of being classified as a user of high-quality sources, adjusting for demographic and fitness industry-related factors. Out of 1185 fitness trainers (response rate = 13.0%), aged 17-72 years, 47.6% (95% CI, 44.7-50.4%) were classified as frequent users of high-quality sources of practice knowledge. In the adjusted analysis, compared to trainers aged 17-26 years, those aged ≥61 years (OR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.05-4.38) and 40-50 years (OR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.02-2.31) were more likely to be classified as a user of high-quality sources. When compared to trainers working in large centres, those working in outdoor settings (OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.23-2.65) and medium centres (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.12-2.29) were more likely to be classified as users of high-quality sources. Our findings suggest that efforts should be made to improve the quality of knowledge acquisition among Australian fitness trainers.
The purpose of this article is to provide EMS helicopter personnel with an understanding of the civil helicopter manufacturing industry. Specifically, this article examines the current helicopter marketplace and how various manufactures are responding to the recent decline in new helicopter sales. This article further describes how helicopters are designed and manufactured and how global markets, international competition, and strategic considerations are influencing future helicopter design and production. Data for this paper were obtained from a literature search through the ABI-inform Telnet Services offered through the University of Utah Marriott Library. On a search of "helicopter" during the past 5 years, 566 abstracts were identified, all of which were reviewed for information related to the purpose of this article. Forty-seven articles were identified and read in detail for information that may have related to the purpose of this article. In addition, a library search to identify textbooks that describe helicopter production systems was undertaken but did not identify any written resources. Because of the lack of written resources available in writing this article, a direct interview survey of leading helicopter manufactures, associations, and industry writers was conducted. Only information that was considered "public knowledge" was available because of concerns by the various manufactures that publication of confidential information could be detrimental to their competitive advantage. Because helicopter-manufacturing plants were not located within easy travel range, no direct observation of the production facilities could be undertaken. Furthermore, information regarding production and operational management was not easily accessible because the data were not published or were considered confidential. Therefore industry analysis had to take place through direct survey interviewing technique and data obtained through an analysis of the available published
This report presents the results of the noise and emissions analysis of helicopter operations along the North Shore Helicopter Route of Long Island, New York performed by the Federal Aviation Administration, with the assistance of the Volpe Center...
van't Hof, C; Herlaar, K; Luyten, J. M; van der Jagt, M. J
.... The last decades the threat of helicopters has increased in military circumstances. Consequently the helicopters will be exposed to weapon effects like high blast loads and fragment impact more frequently...
Sanchez Ramirez, Andrea; Loendersloot, Richard; Tinga, Tiedo; Basu, B.
The advancement on Wireless Sensor Networks for vibration monitoring presents important possibilities for helicopter rotor health and usage monitoring. While main rotor blades account for the main source of lift for helicopters, rotor induced vibration establishes an important source for
Bisgaard, Morten; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon
This chapter presents a feedforward swing reducing control system for augmenting already existing helicopter controllers and enables slung load flight with autonomous helicopters general cargo transport. The feedforward controller is designed to avoid excitation of the lightly damped modes...
... Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Supplemental notice of... airworthiness directive (AD) for the Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A helicopter, which... proposed AD, contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager, Commercial Technical Support, mailstop...
... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A helicopters. This AD was prompted by the manufacturer's..., contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager, Commercial Technical Support, Mailstop s581a, 6900...
... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... airworthiness directive (AD) for Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A helicopters. This AD... identified in this AD, contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager, Commercial Technical Support...
... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-76A helicopters to require modifying the electric rotor brake (ERB... service information identified in this AD, contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager...
Hesse, S; Uhlenbrock, D
The newly developed gait trainer allows wheel-chair-bound subjects the repetitive practice of a gait-like movement without overstressing therapists. The device simulates the phases of gait, supports the subjects according to their abilities, and controls the center of mass (CoM) in the vertical and horizontal directions. The patterns of sagittal lower limb joint kinematics and of muscle activation for a normal subject were similar when using the mechanized trainer and when walking on a treadmill. A non-ambulatory hemiparetic subject required little help from one therapist on the gait trainer, while two therapists were required to support treadmill walking. Gait movements on the trainer were highly symmetrical, impact free, and less spastic. The vertical displacement of the CoM was bi-phasic instead of mono-phasic during each gait cycle on the new device. Two cases of non-ambulatory patients, who regained their walking ability after 4 weeks of daily training on the gait trainer, are reported.
The Reactor Trainer is a professional, PC based, graphically enhanced, training resource specifically developed and customized for Class Room teaching of and learning about, reactor behavior. This unique, and focused, learning-target sets The Trainer apart from the panorama of the more common PC plant simulator. Its educational scope extends along a logical learning path, starting with important fundamental behavioral concepts of delayed neutrons, neutron multiplying factors, and reactor rate, moving to simple reactor transients in real time, and culminating with more complex operational evolutions. The Trainer empowers the Instructor with a dynamic Class Room demonstrator and the student with a superior hands-on learning tool. The Trainer's versatility encompasses a wide variety of educational needs, including initial operator training, requalification training, Shift Technical Advisor training, and other advanced or specialized training. In addition, The Reactor Trainer enhances prerequisite preparation of operator candidates for full-scale control room training and, in so doing, PC economics relieves full-scale simulator hours. (author)
Akdemir, Ali; Sendağ, Fatih; Oztekin, Mehmet K
To investigate whether a virtual reality simulator (LapSim) and traditional box trainer are effective tools for the acquisition of basic laparoscopic skills, and whether the LapSim is superior to the box trainer in surgical education. In a study at Ege University School of Medicine, Izmir, Turkey, between September 2008 and March 2013, 40 first- and second-year residents were randomized to train via the LapSim or box trainer for 4 weeks, and 20 senior residents were allocated to a control group. All 3 groups performed laparoscopic bilateral tubal ligation. Video records of each operation were assessed via the general rating scale of the Objective Structured Assessment of Laparoscopic Salpingectomy and by operation time in seconds. Compared with the control group, the LapSim and box trainer groups performed significantly better in total score (Peducation. Training with a virtual reality simulator or box trainer should be considered before actual laparoscopic procedures are carried out. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Scott, Grace M; Roth, Kathryn; Rotenberg, Brian; Sommer, Doron D; Sowerby, Leigh; Fung, Kevin
To assess the efficacy of a novel high-fidelity epistaxis simulator in teaching epistaxis management to junior otolaryngology head and neck surgery residents. Prospective cohort study. A novel high-fidelity epistaxis task trainer was developed using a cadaver head, intravenous tubing, and a food coloring-filled saline bag to emulate blood. Learners were instructed on two techniques of nasal packing (formal nasal pack and nasal tampon) for the management of epistaxis using the task trainer. Learners were videotaped attempting to pack the nose of the task trainer pre- and postintervention (verbal instruction, and practice time with task trainer). Five board-certified otolaryngologists (blinded to pre- and postintervention status) evaluated the packing technique using standardized subjective outcome measures. There were 13 junior otolaryngology residents enrolled in the study. This cohort showed a statistically significant increase in global rating scores (P epistaxis simulator has been successful in teaching and the practical application of various skills in epistaxis management. This task trainer appears to confer an educational benefit in technical skills acquisition in novice learners. Further studies are needed to determine long-term skill retention. Simulation is a promising educational adjunct that effectively enhances epistaxis management skills acquisition while maximizing patient safety. NA. Laryngoscope, 126:1501-1503, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Helicopter performance plan and operations... Helicopter performance plan and operations. (a) Each operator must complete a performance plan before each helicopter commercial air tour, or flight operated under 14 CFR 91.146 or 91.147. The pilot in command must...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false VFR: Helicopter surface reference... VFR/IFR Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.207 VFR: Helicopter surface reference requirements. No person may operate a helicopter under VFR unless that person has visual surface reference or...
Peters, J.H.; Wageningen, B. van; Hoogerwerf, N.; Biert, J.
OBJECTIVE: Dutch helicopter emergency medical services are available 24/7. Working without daylight brings additional challenges, both in patient care and in-flight operation. We retrospectively evaluated the safety of this nighttime helicopter transportation of patients. METHODS: Our helicopter
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Helicopter floats for over water. 136.11... TOURS AND NATIONAL PARKS AIR TOUR MANAGEMENT National Air Tour Safety Standards § 136.11 Helicopter floats for over water. (a) A helicopter used in commercial air tours over water beyond the shoreline must...
... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Helicopter-landing decks. 132.320 Section 132.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS FIRE-PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 132.320 Helicopter-landing decks. Each vessel with a helicopter-landing deck must...
...-0734; Directorate Identifier 2012-SW-080-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter...). SUMMARY: We propose to supersede an existing airworthiness directive (AD) for Bell Helicopter Textron (Bell) Model 222, 222B, 222U, 230, and 430 helicopters. The existing AD currently requires inspecting...
... lead to failure of the swashplate and subsequent loss of helicopter control. DATES: We must receive..., which may cause failure of MRH parts and loss of control of the helicopter. The EASA AD requires..., Section 2.3 Flight Envelope, Item 2 Temperature Limits, of the helicopter's Rotorcraft Flight Manual (RFM...
The development of advanced composite technology during the past decade is discussed. Both secondary and primary components fabricated with boron, graphite, and Kevlar composites are evaluated. Included are spoilers, rudders, and fairings on commercial transports, boron/epoxy reinforced wing structure on C-130 military transports, and doors, fairings, tail rotors, vertical fins, and horizontal stabilizers on commercial helicopters. The development of composite structures resulted in advances in design and manufacturing technology for secondary and primary composite structures for commercial transports. Design concepts and inspection and maintenance results for the components in service are reported. The flight, outdoor ground, and controlled laboratory environmental effects on composites were also determined. Effects of moisture absorption, ultraviolet radiation, aircraft fuels and fluids, and sustained tensile stress are included. Critical parameters affecting the long term durability of composite materials are identified
Dexter, H. B.
The development of advanced composite technology during the past decade is discussed. Both secondary and primary components fabricated with boron, graphite, and Kevlar composites are evaluated. Included are spoilers, rudders, and fairings on commercial transports, boron/epoxy reinforced wing structure on C-130 military transports, and doors, fairings, tail rotors, vertical fins, and horizontal stabilizers on commercial helicopters. The development of composite structures resulted in advances in design and manufacturing technology for secondary and primary composite structures for commercial transports. Design concepts and inspection and maintenance results for the components in service are reported. The flight, outdoor ground, and controlled laboratory environmental effects on composites were also determined. Effects of moisture absorption, ultraviolet radiation, aircraft fuels and fluids, and sustained tensile stress are included. Critical parameters affecting the long term durability of composite materials are identified.
The helicopter is probably the most flexible aircraft that we know today. Although its history dates back to around 1500, the first practical helicopter wasn’t manufactured until the 1940s, roughly three decades after the Wright brothers’ first powered human flight. Today, helicopters fulfil a wide
Full Text Available Low fuselage drag has always been a key target of helicopter manufacturers. Therefore, this paper focuses on CFD predictions of the drag of several components of a typical helicopter fuselage. In the first section of the paper, validation of the obtained CFD predictions is carried out using wind tunnel measurements. The measurements were carried out at the Kazan National Research Technical University n.a. A. Tupolev. The second section of the paper is devoted to the analysis of drag contributions of several components of the ANSAT helicopter prototype fuselage using the RANS approach. For this purpose, several configurations of fuselages are considered with different levels of complexity including exhausts and skids. Depending on the complexity of the considered configuration and CFD mesh both the multi-block structured HMB solver and the unstructured commercial tool Fluent are used. Finally, the effect of an actuator disk on the predicted drag is addressed.
Heffley, Robert K.; Mnich, Marc A.
An example of a minimal complexity simulation helicopter math model is presented. Motivating factors are the computational delays, cost, and inflexibility of the very sophisticated math models now in common use. A helicopter model form is given which addresses each of these factors and provides better engineering understanding of the specific handling qualities features which are apparent to the simulator pilot. The technical approach begins with specification of features which are to be modeled, followed by a build up of individual vehicle components and definition of equations. Model matching and estimation procedures are given which enable the modeling of specific helicopters from basic data sources such as flight manuals. Checkout procedures are given which provide for total model validation. A number of possible model extensions and refinement are discussed. Math model computer programs are defined and listed.
Broglio, Steven P.; Cantu, Robert C.; Gioia, Gerard A.; Guskiewicz, Kevin M.; Kutcher, Jeffrey; Palm, Michael; McLeod, Tamara C. Valovich
Objective: To provide athletic trainers, physicians, and other health care professionals with best-practice guidelines for the management of sport-related concussions. Background: An estimated 3.8 million concussions occur each year in the United States as a result of sport and physical activity. Athletic trainers are commonly the first medical providers available onsite to identify and evaluate these injuries. Recommendations: The recommendations for concussion management provided here are based on the most current research and divided into sections on education and prevention, documentation and legal aspects, evaluation and return to play, and other considerations. PMID:24601910
Menon, P. K. A.; Cheng, V. H. L.; Kim, E.
A methodology for optimal trajectory planning, useful in the nap-of-the-earth guidance of helicopters, is presented. This approach uses an adjoint-control transformation along with a one-dimensional search scheme for generating the optimal trajectories. In addition to being useful for helicopter nap-of-the-earth guidance, the trajectory planning solution is of interest in several other contexts, such as robotic vehicle guidance and terrain-following guidance for cruise missiles and aircraft. A distinguishing feature of the present research is that the terrain constraint and the threat envelopes are incorporated in the equations of motion. Second-order necessary conditions are examined.
Walls, Richard T.; And Others
Training methods naturally employed by trainers were analyzed and compared to systematic structured training procedures. Trainers were observed teaching retarded subjects how to assemble a bicycle brake, roller skate, carburetor, and lawn mower engine. Trainers first taught using their own (personal) method, which was recorded in terms of types of…
Towne, Douglas M.; Munro, Allen
A general purpose maintenance trainer, which has the potential to simulate a wide variety of electronic equipments without hardware changes or new computer programs, has been developed and field tested by the Navy. Based on a previous laboratory model, the Generalized Maintenance Trainer Simulator (GMTS) is a relatively low cost trainer that…
In devising a form for the evaluation of students preparing to become athletic trainers, it is helpful to have a checklist in which objectives and behavioral responses are organized into categories, such as prevention of injury, first aid, emergency care, treatment, rehabilitation, and taping and wrapping. It is also important to have records and…
Ackermann, Ole; Barkhausen, Joerg
The radiology trainer for surgical ambulance includes informative X-ray imaging examples for the following issues: zygoma, nasal bone, spinal cord, clavicle, shoulder, upper arms, elbow, forearms, wrist, hand, phalanx, thorax, sternum, pelvis, abdomen, hips, femur, knee, lower leg, ankle, feet.
Full Text Available In this paper we introduce a new generation of language trainers: intelligent virtual agents (IVAs with human appearance and the capability to teach foreign language vocabulary. We report results from studies that we have conducted with Billie, an IVA employed as a vocabulary trainer, as well as research findings on the acceptance of the agent as a trainer by adults and children. The results show that Billie can train humans as well as a human teacher can and that both adults and children accept the IVA as a trainer. The advantages of IVAs are multiple. First, their teaching methods can be based on neuropsychological research findings concerning memory and learning practice. Second, virtual teachers can provide individualized training. Third, they coach users during training, are always supportive, and motivate learners to train. Fourth, agents will reside in the user’s mobile devices and thus be at the user’s disposal everywhere and anytime. Agents in apps will make foreign language training accessible to anybody at low cost. This will enable people around the world, including physically, financially and geographically disadvantaged persons, to learn a foreign language and help to facilitate multilingualism.
An investigation into the competence of workplace trainers to meet the special learning needs of under-prepared learners. ... This goal is shared by the business sector who is aware that only a competent employee can make a meaningful contribution to organisational growth. The writer investigated the capacity of South ...
Public speaking skills are relevant for many professions, developing these skills requires practice and feedback. In order to get this feedback we developed the Presentation Trainer, a tool that automatically tracks your voice, posture and movements to give you feedback about your nonverbal
leave a gap in what would traditionally be thought of as an ideal locomotion device. Research has shown that the introduction of vestibular cues in...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS VIRTUAL CLOSE QUARTER BATTLE (CQB) GRAPHICAL DECISION TRAINER by Jordan Reece...including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson
te Pas, E.; Meinema, J. G.; Visser, M. R. M.; van Dijk, N.
Blended learning (the combination of electronic methods with traditional teaching methods) has the potential to combine the best of traditional education with the best of computer-mediated training. We chose to develop such an intervention for GP trainers who were undertaking a Continuing Medical
equipment and various positioning devices. NOTE With electrical power removed, the moveable platform remains in position largely due to the...ensure that the platform is moved to its parked position before mounting or dismounting the moveable platform. 188.8.131.52.2 Collective Pitch Lever The...chaining” connection, input-level controls and a mono-mode. It provides the following major features: • Two channel stereo or bridged mono switch • All
PROCESS OF DEVELOPING THE STRETCH POTENTIAL OF THIS TECHNOLOGY ". WITH THE ASSISTANCE OF PILOTS, THE HDLS WAS RE-CONFIGURED (HelMET, PILOT/INSTRUCTOR...97 184.108.40.206 HelMET IOS FLYCO Control Panel Area ............................... 100 220.127.116.11 HelMET IOS NFC Control Panel...98 Figure 19 . HelMET IOS Window with NFC Control Panel
Von Bergen, C. W.; Bressler, Martin S.
Perhaps universities have gone too far in their attempts to provide the best learning experience for our students? We have heard of helicopter parents who hover over their sons and daughters, removing all obstacles their student might face and solve problems for them. Have colleges and universities adopted this same kind of behavior in their…
Helicopter parents get a bad rap. Teachers and administrators should view them as a resource--not a nuisance. By encouraging open communication, teachers can begin to understand the motivations of these parents and find creative ways to connect them with opportunities to promote their students' academic success and the school's overall…
Helicopter parents, notorious for hovering over their college-age children, may actually help students thrive, according to this year's National Survey of Student Engagement. Students whose parents intervene on their behalf--38 percent of freshmen and 29 percent of seniors--are more active in and satisfied with college, says the monstrous annual…
the allowable maximum weight can be used as the payload. The payload is a variable. Small helicopters with full fuel and auxillary tanks can fly...equipment, that the program to obtain icing approval on the S-76 will be finalized for management evaluation, and a decision can be made at that time to
Prophet, Wallace W.
For almost 15 years, HumRRO Division No. 6 has conducted an active research program on techniques for measuring the flight performance of helicopter trainees and pilots. This program addressed both the elemental aspects of flying (i.e., maneuvers) and the mission- or goal-oriented aspects. A variety of approaches has been investigated, with the…
Gennaretti, Massimo; Bernardini, Giovanni; Serafini, Jacopo; Anobile, A.; Hartjes, S.
This paper investigates different methodologies for the evaluation of the acoustic disturbance emitted by helicopter’s main rotors during unsteady maneuvers. Nowadays, the simulation of noise emitted by helicopters is of great interest to designers, both for the assessment of the acoustic impact
Werner, C; Von Frankenberg, S; Treig, T; Konrad, M; Hesse, S
The purpose of this study was to compare treadmill and electromechanical gait trainer therapy in subacute, nonambulatory stroke survivors. The gait trainer was designed to provide nonambulatory subjects the repetitive practice of a gait-like movement without overexerting therapists. This was a randomized, controlled study with a crossover design following an A-B-A versus a B-A-B pattern. A consisted of 2 weeks of gait trainer therapy, and B consisted of 2 weeks of treadmill therapy. Thirty nonambulatory hemiparetic patients, 4 to 12 weeks after stroke, were randomly assigned to 1 of the 2 groups receiving locomotor therapy every workday for 15 to 20 minutes for 6 weeks. Weekly gait ability (functional ambulation category [FAC]), gait velocity, and the required physical assistance during both kinds of locomotor therapy were the primary outcome measures, and other motor functions (Rivermead motor assessment score) and ankle spasticity (modified Ashworth score) were the secondary outcome measures. Follow-up occurred 6 months later. The groups did not differ at study onset with respect to the clinical characteristics and effector variables. During treatment, the FAC, gait velocity, and Rivermead scores improved in both groups, and ankle spasticity did not change. Median FAC level was 4 (3 to 4) in group A compared with 3 (2 to 3) in group B at the end of treatment (P=0.018), but the difference at 6-month follow up was not significant. The therapeutic effort was less on the gait trainer, with 1 instead of 2 therapists assisting the patient at study onset. All but seven patients preferred the gait trainer. The newly developed gait trainer was at least as effective as treadmill therapy with partial body weight support while requiring less input from the therapist. Further studies are warranted.
Fontana, Fabio; Bopes, Jonathan; Bendixen, Seth; Speed, Tyler; George, Megan; Mack, Mick
The aim of the study was to compare exercise recommendations, attitudes, and behaviors of personal trainers toward clients of different weight statuses. Fifty-two personal trainers participated in the study. The data collection was organized into two phases. In phase one, trainers read a profile and watched the video displaying an interview of either an obese or an average-weight client. Profiles and video interviews were identical except for weight status. Then, trainers provided exercise recommendations and rated their attitude toward the client. In phase two, trainers personally met an obese or an average-weight mock client. Measures were duration and number of advices provided by the trainer to a question posed by the client and sitting distance between trainer and client. There were no significant differences in exercise intensity ( p = .94), duration of first session ( p = .65), and total exercise duration of first week ( p = .76) prescribed to the obese and average-weight clients. The attitude of the personal trainers toward the obese client were not significantly different from the attitude of personal trainers toward the average-weight client ( p = .58). The number of advices provided ( p = .49), the duration of the answer ( p = .55), and the distance personal trainers sat from the obese client ( p = .68) were not significantly different from the behaviors displayed toward the average-weight client. Personal trainers did not discriminate against obese clients in professional settings.
Full Text Available Keeping the attention level and observing multiple physiological and biomechanical variables at the same time at high precision is very challenging for human trainers. Concurrent augmented feedback, which is suggested to enhance motor learning in complex motor tasks, can also hardly be provided by a human trainer. Thus, in this paper, a concept for a virtual trainer is presented that may overcome the limits of a human trainer. The intended virtual trainer will be implemented in a CAVE providing auditory, visual and haptic cues. As a ﬁrst application, the virtual trainer will be used in a realistic scenario for sweep rowing. To provide individual feedback to each rower, the virtual trainer quantiﬁes errors and provides concurrent auditory, visual, and haptic feedback. The concurrent feedback will be adapted according to the actual performance, individual maximal rowing velocity, and the athlete’s individual perception.
..., Trainer Refinery, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Shrack, Young, and Associates, Inc., and Project Control Associates, Trainer, PA; Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration On April 30, 2012, the... applicable to workers and former workers of ConocoPhillips Company, Trainer Refinery, Trainer, Pennsylvania...
... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 21 Final Airworthiness Design Standards for Acceptance Under the Primary Category Rule; Orlando Helicopter Airways (OHA), Inc... Existence of Proposed Airworthiness Design Standards for Acceptance Under the Primary Category Rule; Orlando...
Harris, Janet; Williams, Tim; Hart, Ollie; Hanson, Chris; Johnstone, Gareth; Muthana, Aziz; Nield, Chris
In 2011, the Sheffield Primary Care Trust piloted a Health Trainer (HT) programme targeted specifically to people with chronic pain. The programme aimed to determine whether patients presenting to primary care with chronic pain would benefit from self-management support, thereby reducing the burden on primary care and secondary care services. We conducted a formative mixed-methods evaluation of the pilot programme, focusing on four aspects of implementation: general practitioner (GP) referral to the programme, HT's ability to use cognitive behavioural (CB) approaches, short-term outcomes for clients and adequacy of resources. Qualitative data were collected via interviews with GPs, HTs and the chronic pain team; supervision sessions with HTs; and client case studies. Quantitative data were collected on satisfaction with training, HT's self-reported confidence to implement CB and clients' self-rated well-being before and after participation. A total of 143 clients with pain for 1 year or more were referred, exceeding the projected 90 referrals by over 50%. A total of 70% of the clients came from the most deprived areas of Sheffield, 40% were listed as permanently sick/disabled and only 20% were working. Qualitative analysis indicated that the CB training was delivered as intended. Clients reported that 75% of their goals were either achieved or partly achieved, and at follow-up 43% of them reported maintaining strategies for self-management. Financial resources were supplemented by indirect resources, including GP 'champions' with a special interest in pain, and a multidisciplinary chronic pain team. The prior history of working with community organizations was critical in ensuring credibility in client communities and addressing client needs. A HT programme promoting self-management of chronic pain can be successfully implemented when supported by community organisations. Preliminary data indicate that the programme can be instrumental in helping clients to
Oktay, Tugrul; Sal, Firat
Helicopter moving horizontal tail (i.e., MHT) strategy is applied in order to save helicopter flight control system (i.e., FCS) energy. For this intention complex, physics-based, control-oriented nonlinear helicopter models are used. Equations of MHT are integrated into these models and they are together linearized around straight level flight condition. A specific variance constrained control strategy, namely, output variance constrained Control (i.e., OVC) is utilized for helicopter FCS. Control energy savings due to this MHT idea with respect to a conventional helicopter are calculated. Parameters of helicopter FCS and dimensions of MHT are simultaneously optimized using a stochastic optimization method, namely, simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation (i.e., SPSA). In order to observe improvement in behaviors of classical controls closed loop analyses are done. PMID:26180841
Full Text Available Helicopter moving horizontal tail (i.e., MHT strategy is applied in order to save helicopter flight control system (i.e., FCS energy. For this intention complex, physics-based, control-oriented nonlinear helicopter models are used. Equations of MHT are integrated into these models and they are together linearized around straight level flight condition. A specific variance constrained control strategy, namely, output variance constrained Control (i.e., OVC is utilized for helicopter FCS. Control energy savings due to this MHT idea with respect to a conventional helicopter are calculated. Parameters of helicopter FCS and dimensions of MHT are simultaneously optimized using a stochastic optimization method, namely, simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation (i.e., SPSA. In order to observe improvement in behaviors of classical controls closed loop analyses are done.
helicopters from Sikorsky to fulfill a number of roles in counterterrorism operations. Rising costs and delays in delivery raised the question of...whether other cost-effective options exist to meet Tunisia’s helicopter requirement. Approach Our team conducted a preliminary assessment of...alternative helicopters for counterterrorism air assault missions. Any decision to acquire an aircraft must consider many factors, including technical
Bisgaard, Morten; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon
This paper presents the design and verification of a swing reducing controller for helicopter slung load systems usingintentional delayed feedback. It is intended for augmenting a trajectory tracking helicopter controller and thereby improving the slung load handing capabilities for autonomous helicopters. The delayed feedback controller is added to actively reduce oscillations of the slung load by improving the damping of the slung load pendulum modes. Furthermore, it is intended for integra...
Lee, Wonsup; Jung, Kihyo; Jeong, Jeongrim; Park, Jangwoon; Cho, Jayoung; Kim, Heeeun; Park, Seikwon; You, Heecheon
This study measured 21 anthropometric dimensions (ADs) of 94 Korean male helicopter pilots in their 20s to 40s and compared them with corresponding measurements of Korean male civilians and the US Army male personnel. The ADs and the sample size of the anthropometric survey were determined by a four-step process: (1) selection of ADs related to helicopter cockpit design, (2) evaluation of the importance of each AD, (3) calculation of required sample sizes for selected precision levels and (4) determination of an appropriate sample size by considering both the AD importance evaluation results and the sample size requirements. The anthropometric comparison reveals that the Korean helicopter pilots are larger (ratio of means = 1.01-1.08) and less dispersed (ratio of standard deviations = 0.71-0.93) than the Korean male civilians and that they are shorter in stature (0.99), have shorter upper limbs (0.89-0.96) and lower limbs (0.93-0.97), but are taller on sitting height, sitting eye height and acromial height (1.01-1.03), and less dispersed (0.68-0.97) than the US Army personnel. The anthropometric characteristics of Korean male helicopter pilots were compared with those of Korean male civilians and US Army male personnel. The sample size determination process and the anthropometric comparison results presented in this study are useful to design an anthropometric survey and a helicopter cockpit layout, respectively.
Cheng, Victor H. L.; Lam, T.
The authors describe the implementation of a full-function guidance and control system for automatic obstacle avoidance in helicopter nap-of-the-earth (NOE) flight. The guidance function assumes that the helicopter is sufficiently responsive so that the flight path can be readily adjusted at NOE speeds. The controller, basically an autopilot for following the derived flight path, was implemented with parameter values to control a generic helicopter model used in the simulation. Evaluation of the guidance and control system with a 3-dimensional graphical helicopter simulation suggests that the guidance has the potential for providing good and meaningful flight trajectories.
Jaksa, László; Haidegger, Tamás; Galambos, Péter; Kiss, Rita
The laparoscopic minimally invasive surgical technique is widely employed on a global scale. However, the efficient and ethical teaching of this technique requires equipment for surgical simulation. These educational devices are present on the market in the form of box trainers and virtual reality simulators, or some combination of those. In this article, we present a systematic overview of commercially available surgical simulators describing the most important features of each product. Our overview elaborates on box trainers and virtual reality simulators, and also touches on surgical robotics simulators, together with operating room workflow simulators, for the sake of completeness. Apart from presenting educational tools, we evaluated the literature of laparoscopic surgical education and simulation, to provide a complete picture of the unfolding trends in this field. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(40): 1570-1576.
Wang, F C; Yu, C H; Chou, T Y
This paper applies robust algorithms to control an active gait trainer for children with walking disabilities. Compared with traditional rehabilitation procedures, in which two or three trainers are required to assist the patient, a motor-driven mechanism was constructed to improve the efficiency of the procedures. First, a six-bar mechanism was designed and constructed to mimic the trajectory of children's ankles in walking. Second, system identification techniques were applied to obtain system transfer functions at different operating points by experiments. Third, robust control algorithms were used to design Hinfinity robust controllers for the system. Finally, the designed controllers were implemented to verify experimentally the system performance. From the results, the proposed robust control strategies are shown to be effective.
Te Pas, E; Meinema, J G; Visser, M R M; van Dijk, N
Blended learning (the combination of electronic methods with traditional teaching methods) has the potential to combine the best of traditional education with the best of computer-mediated training. We chose to develop such an intervention for GP trainers who were undertaking a Continuing Medical Education (CME) course in evidence-based medicine (EBM). This study reports on our experience and investigated the factors influencing the perception on usefulness and logistics of blended learning for learners in CME. In total, 170 GP trainers participated in the intervention. We used questionnaires, observations during the four face-to-face meetings and evaluations in the e-course over one year. Additionally we organised focus groups to gain insight in some of the outcomes of the questionnaires and interpretations of the observations. The GP trainers found the design and the educational method (e-course in combination with meetings) attractive, instructive and complementary. Factors influencing their learning were (1) educational design, (2) educational method, (3) topic of the intervention, (4) time (planning), (5) time (intervention), (6) learning style, (7) technical issues, (8) preconditions and (9) level of difficulty. A close link between daily practice and the educational intervention was considered an important precondition for the success of the intervention in this group of learners. GP trainers were positive about blended learning: they found e-learning a useful way to gain knowledge and the meetings a pleasant way of transferring the knowledge into practice. Although some preconditions should be taken into consideration during its development and implementation, they would participate in similarly designed learning in the future.
Hesse, S; Uhlenbrock, D; Werner, C; Bardeleben, A
To construct an advanced mechanized gait trainer to enable patients the repetitive practice of a gaitlike movement without overstraining therapists. DEVICE: Prototype gait trainer that simulates the phases of gait (by generating a ratio of 40% to 60% between swing and stance phases), supports the subjects according to their ability (lifts the foot during swing phase), and controls the center of mass in the vertical and horizontal directions. Two nonambulatory, hemiparetic patients who regained their walking ability after 4 weeks of daily training on the gait trainer, a 55-year-old woman and a 62-year-old man, both of whom had a first-time ischemic stroke. Four weeks of training, five times a week, each session 20 minutes long. Functional ambulation category (FAC, levels 0-5) to assess gait ability and ground level walking velocity. Rivermead motor assessment score (RMAS, 0-13) to assess gross motor function. Patient 1: At the end of treatment, she was able to walk independently on level ground with use of a walking stick. Her walking velocity had improved from .29m/sec to .59m/sec. Her RMAS score increased from 4 to 10, meaning she could walk at least 40 meters outside, pick up objects from floor, and climb stairs independently. Patient 2: At end of 4-week training, he could walk independently on even surfaces (FAC level 4), using an ankle-foot orthosis and a walking stick. His walking velocity improved from .14m/sec to .63m/sec. His RMAS increased from 3 to 10. The gait trainer enabled severely affected patients the repetitive practice of a gaitlike movement. Future studies may elucidate its value in gait rehabilitation of nonambulatory subjects.
Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Eason, Christianne M
An organizational climate is largely based on an employee's perceptions of the working conditions in which he or she engages regularly. A multifaceted concept, the organizational climate is often formed by perceptions of employee welfare, rewards, and support. Achieving work-life balance is also a part of the climate. To learn collegiate athletic trainers' perceptions of organizational climate and specifically how it may pertain to their work-life balance. Phenomenologic study. Collegiate practice setting. Thirty athletic trainers working in the collegiate athletics setting took part in 1-on-1 phone interviews. The participants were 30.5 (interquartile range [IQR] = 7.75) years old and had been certified for 7 (IQR = 5) years and at their current position for 4 (IQR = 3) years. Participants completed a phone interview that followed a semistructured framework. All transcribed interviews were analyzed using a phenomenologic approach. Researcher triangulation, expert review, and data saturation were used to establish credibility. Athletic trainers working in the collegiate athletics setting who had positive perceptions of their work-life balance described their organizational climate as family friendly. Our participants' supervisors allowed for autonomy related to work scheduling, which provided opportunities for work-life balance. These athletic trainers believed that they worked in a climate that was collegial, which was helpful for work-life balance. In addition, the importance of placing family first was part of the climate. The perceptions of our participants revealed a climate of family friendliness, supervisor support, and collegiality among staff members, which facilitated the positive climate for work-life balance. The mindset embraced the importance of family and recognized that work did not always have to supersede personal priorities.
Potteiger, Kelly; Pitney, William A; Cappaert, Thomas A; Wolfe, Angela
Environmental sustainability efforts are becoming a critical concern in health care. However, little is known regarding how athletic trainers feel about the environment or what can be done to reduce the environmental impact of the practice of athletic training. To examine athletic trainers' attitudes toward and perceptions of factors related to environmental sustainability. Sequential, mixed methods using a survey, focus groups, and personal interviews. Field study. Four hundred forty-two individuals completed the survey. Sixteen participated in the qualitative portion. Quantitative results from the Athletic Training Environmental Impact Survey included data from a 5-point Likert scale (1 = lowest rating and 5 = highest rating). Descriptive statistics and 1-way analyses of variance were used to describe perceptions and determine differences in mean opinion, National Athletic Trainers' Association district, and use of green techniques. Qualitative data were transcribed verbatim and analyzed inductively. The mean score for opinion of the environment was 3.30 ± 0.52. A difference was found between opinion and National Athletic Trainers' Association district ( F 9, 429 = 2.43, P = .01). A Bonferroni post hoc analysis identified this difference ( P = .03) between members of District 2 (Delaware, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania) and District 9 (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee). An inductive analysis resulted in 3 emergent themes: (1) barriers to using green techniques, (2) motivators for using green techniques, and (3) solutions to overcoming the barriers. The information gleaned from participants in the qualitative portion of the study can be useful for clinicians wishing to implement basic conservation efforts in their practice settings and may guide future sustainability projects. Overall, participants reported a positive opinion of environmental sustainability topics related to athletic
McBratney, Colleen M; Rush, Stephen; Kharod, Chetan U
USAF Pararescuemen (PJs) respond to downed aircrew as a fundamental mission for personnel recovery (PR), one of the Air Force's core functions. In addition to responding to these in Military settings, the PJs from the 212 Rescue Squadron routinely respond to small plane crashes in remote regions of Alaska. While there is a paucity of information on the latter, there have been articles detailing injuries sustained from helicopter crashes and while ejecting or parachuting from fixed wing aircraft. The following represents a new chapter added to the Pararescue Medical Operations Handbook, Sixth Edition (2014, editors Matt Wolf, MD, and Stephen Rush, MD, in press). It was designed to be a quick reference for PJs and their Special Operations flight surgeons to help with understanding of mechanism of injury with regard to pilot ejection, parachute, and helicopter accident injuries. It outlines the nature of the injuries sustained in such mishaps and provides an epidemiologic framework from which to approach the problem. 2014.
Larsen, William E. (Editor); Randle, Robert J., Jr. (Editor); Bray, Richard S. (Editor); Zuk, John (Editor)
A workshop was convened by the FAA and NASA for the purpose of providing a forum at which leading designers, manufacturers, and users of helicopter simulators could initiate and participate in a development process that would facilitate the formulation of qualification standards by the regulatory agency. Formal papers were presented, special topics were discussed in breakout sessions, and a draft FAA advisory circular defining specifications for helicopter simulators was presented and discussed. A working group of volunteers was formed to work with the National Simulator Program Office to develop a final version of the circular. The workshop attracted 90 individuals from a constituency of simulator manufacturers, training organizations, the military, civil regulators, research scientists, and five foreign countries.
Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) are considered the stepping stone for the integration of civil unmanned vehicles in the National Airspace System (NAS) because of their low cost and risk. Such systems are aimed at a variety of applications including search and rescue, surveillance, communications, traffic monitoring and inspection of buildings, power lines and bridges. Amidst these systems, small helicopters play an important role because of their capability to hold a position, to maneuver in tight spaces and to take off and land from virtually anywhere. Nevertheless civil adoption of such systems is minimal, mostly because of regulatory problems that in turn are due to safety concerns. This dissertation examines the risk to safety imposed by UAS in general and small helicopters in particular, focusing on accidents resulting in a ground impact. To improve the performance of small helicopters in this area, the use of autonomous autorotation is proposed. This research goes beyond previous work in the area of autonomous autorotation by developing an on-line, model-based, real-time controller that is capable of handling constraints and different cost functions. The approach selected is based on a non-linear model-predictive controller, that is augmented by a neural network to improve the speed of the non-linear optimization. The immediate benefit of this controller is that a class of failures that would otherwise result in an uncontrolled crash and possible injuries or fatalities can now be accommodated. Furthermore besides simply landing the helicopter, the controller is also capable of minimizing the risk of serious injury to people in the area. This is accomplished by minimizing the kinetic energy during the last phase of the descent. The presented research is designed to benefit the entire UAS community as well as the public, by allowing for safer UAS operations, which in turn also allow faster and less expensive integration of UAS in the NAS.
PROCESS Blue screening involving human filming usually employs a blue or green backdrop, since skin contains little blue or green hue. These backdrops...Helicopter Aircrew Training Using Fused Reality 27 - 10 RTO-MP-HFM-136 a. b. c. d. e. f. Figure 13: Frames Showing Physical Object ( witch ... filming . However, when a user’s hands disrupt the light from a helmet-mounted light source, the shadows cast onto the distant background are diffuse and
Adzly Anuar; Maryam Huda Ahmad Phesal; Azrul Abidin Zakaria; Goh Chin Hock; Sivadass Thiruchelvam; Dickson Neoh Tze How; Muhammad Fahmi Abdul Ghani; Khairul Salleh Mohamed Sahari
In recent years, technologies related to mechatronics and robotics is available even to elementary level students. It is now common to see schools in Malaysia using Lego Mindstorm as a tool for active learning on mechatronics and robotics. A new yet interesting way of learning mechatronics and robotics is introduced by Dr. Dan Barry, a former astronaut and his son Andrew Barry during their visit to Malaysia. The kits used are based on a 4-channel RC helicopter, Arduino Uno microcontroller, IR...
Chitra, K. N.; Abhilash, R. M.; Chauhan, Shakti Singh; Venkatesh, G. S.; Shivkumar, N. D.
Biopolymers have received much attention of researchers due to concerns over disposal of plastics, greenhouse gas emission and environmental problems associated with it. Polylactic Acid (PLA) is one of the thermoplastic biopolymer made from lactic acid by using agricultural resources. PLA has received significant interest due to its competitive properties when compared to commodity plastics such as Polyethylene, Polypropylene and Polystyrene. PLA has interesting properties such as high stiffness, UV stability, clear and glossy finish. However, application of PLA is restricted due to its brittle nature. Engineering and thermal properties of PLA can be improved by reinforcing fibres and fillers. Lignocelluloses or natural fibres such as Jute, Hemp, Bamboo, Sisal and Wood fibres can be used as reinforcement. By using natural fibres, a very bio-compostable composite can be produced. In the present study, short fibres from Melia Dubia wood were extracted and used as reinforcement to PLA Bio-Polymer matrix. Characterization of developed composite was obtained using tensile and flexural tests. Tensile test simulation of composite was performed using Altair Hypermesh, a Finite Element (FE) preprocessor and LS-Dyna an explicit FE solver. MAT_01, an elastic material model in LS-Dyna was used to model the behaviour. Further, the design of Root Trainer using developed composite has been explored. A Root Trainer is an aid to the cultivation of seedlings in nurseries. Root Trainer made by using developed composite has advantage of biodegradability and eco-friendly nature.
Macedonia, Manuela; Groher, Iris; Roithmayr, Friedrich
intelligent virtual agents (IVAs) with human appearance and the capability to teach foreign language vocabulary. We report results from studies that we have conducted with Billie, an IVA employed as a vocabulary trainer, as well as research findings on the acceptance of the agent as a trainer by adults and children. The results show that Billie can train humans as well as a human teacher can and that both adults and children accept the IVA as a trainer. The advantages of IVAs are multiple. First, their teaching methods can be based on neuropsychological research findings concerning memory and learning practice. Second, virtual teachers can provide individualized training. Third, they coach users during training, are always supportive, and motivate learners to train. Fourth, agents will reside in the user's mobile devices and thus be at the user's disposal everywhere and anytime. Agents in apps will make foreign language training accessible to anybody at low cost. This will enable people around the world, including physically, financially, and geographically disadvantaged persons, to learn a foreign language and help to facilitate multilingualism.
Pschierer, Christian; Schiefele, Jens; Lüthy, Juerg
Helicopter Emergency Medical Service missions (HEMS) impose a high workload on pilots due to short preparation time, operations in low level flight, and landings in unknown areas. The research project PILAS, a cooperation between Eurocopter, Diehl Avionics, DLR, EADS, Euro Telematik, ESG, Jeppesen, the Universities of Darmstadt and Munich, and funded by the German government, approached this problem by researching a pilot assistance system which supports the pilots during all phases of flight. The databases required for the specified helicopter missions include different types of topological and cultural data for graphical display on the SVS system, AMDB data for operations at airports and helipads, and navigation data for IFR segments. The most critical databases for the PILAS system however are highly accurate terrain and obstacle data. While RTCA DO-276 specifies high accuracies and integrities only for the areas around airports, HEMS helicopters typically operate outside of these controlled areas and thus require highly reliable terrain and obstacle data for their designated response areas. This data has been generated by a LIDAR scan of the specified test region. Obstacles have been extracted into a vector format. This paper includes a short overview of the complete PILAS system and then focus on the generation of the required high quality databases.
The primary usefulness of helicopters shows in missions where regular aircraft cannot be used, especially HEMS (Helicopter Emergency Medical Services). This might be due to requirements for landing in unprepared areas without dedicated runway structures, and an extended exibility to y to more than one previously unprepared target. One example of such missions are search and rescue operations. An important task of such a mission is to locate a proper landing spot near the mission target. Usually, the pilot would have to evaluate possible landing sites by himself, which can be time-intensive, fuel-costly, and generally impossible when operating in degraded visual environments. We present a method for pre-selecting a list of possible landing sites. After specifying the intended size, orientation and geometry of the site, a choice of possibilities is presented to the pilot that can be ordered by means of wind direction, terrain constraints like maximal slope and roughness, and proximity to a mission target. The possible choices are calculated automatically either from a pre-existing terrain data base, or from sensor data collected during earlier missions, e.g., by collecting data with radar or laser sensors. Additional data like water-body maps and topological information can be taken into account to avoid landing in dangerous areas under adverse view conditions. In case of an emergency turnaround the list can be re-ordered to present alternative sites to the pilot. We outline the principle algorithm for selecting possible landing sites, and we present examples of calculated lists.
Full Text Available By cooperating with Yayasan Komodo Kita and Mandiri Bank, English department of Binus University was chiefly in charge of a 15 day Training Of Trainers (TOT program for 24 participants prepared for teaching English in Labuan Bajo, Flores. The training was aimed to prepare already fluent- in – English- teachers, tour guides, and university graduates with the right tools and method in teaching English. To assess the program, a set of evaluation questionnaire was given to the participants to know their responses on the training material, the trainers, and the program by using Likert’s scale type questions. An observational record was also used as a tool to measure participants’ achievement. The questionnaire reveals that the participants respond positively to the program and the material and favor the approaches made by the trainers during the training. However, the training shows various results in participants’ performance. It is assumed that the non teaching background of the majority of participants and the level of English as two key factors influencing their performance.
Bennie, Jason A.; Thornton, Lukar E.; van Uffelen, Jannique G. Z.; Banting, Lauren K.; Biddle, Stuart J. H.
Background Leisure-time physical activity and strength training participation levels are low and socioeconomically distributed. Fitness trainers (e.g. gym/group instructors) may have a role in increasing these participation levels. However, it is not known whether the training location and characteristics of Australian fitness trainers vary between areas that differ in socioeconomic status. Methods In 2014, a sample of 1,189 Australian trainers completed an online survey with questions about ...
Doctor, Michael; Katz, Anne; McNamara, Shannon O; Leifer, Jessica H; Bambrick-Santoyo, Gabriela; Saul, Turandot; Rose, Keith M
Simulation based procedural training is an effective and frequently used method for teaching vascular access techniques which often require commercial trainers. These can be prohibitively expensive, which allows for homemade trainers made of gelatin to be a more cost-effective and attractive option. Previously described trainers are often rectangular with a flat surface that is dissimilar to human anatomy. We describe a novel method to create a more anatomically realistic trainer using ballistic gelatin, household items, and supplies commonly found in an emergency department such as the plaster wrap typically used to make splints.
Background: Helicopter pilots are often exposed to periods of high heat strain, especially when wearing survival suits. Therefore, a prototype of a ventilated vest was evaluated on its capability to reduce the heat strain of helicopter pilots during a 2-h simulated flight. Hypothesis: It was
Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.
This technical manual was designed to assist applicants preparing for the private, commercial, and flight instructor pilot certificates with a helicopter rating. The chapters outline general aerodynamics, aerodynamics of flight, loads and load factors, function of controls, other helicopter components and their functions, introduction to the…
Our research objective consists in developing a, model-based, automatic safety recovery system, for a small-scale helicopter Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) in autorotation, i.e. an engine OFF flight condition, that safely flies and lands the helicopter to a pre-specified ground location. In pursuit
A.N. Ringburg (Akkie)
textabstractAdvanced prehospital medical care with air transport was introduced in the Netherlands in May 1995. The fi rst helicopter Mobile Medical Team, also called Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) was a joint venture initiative of the VU Medical Center in Amsterdam and the Algemene
... prevent failure of float and subsequent loss of control of the helicopter during an emergency water... requirements were intended to prevent failure of float and subsequent loss of control of the helicopter during... in the float becoming punctured, failure of the float to inflate, and subsequent loss of control of...
Somers, Patricia; Settle, Jim
With 117,000 hits on a recent Google[TM] search, the phenomenon of helicopter parenting has been widely reported in the popular press. Yet the scholarly literature is anemic on the topic. This article, part one of a two-part series, presents the small body of research on helicopter parenting and describes a qualitative study of 190 participants…
Somers, Patricia; Settle, Jim
The phenomenon of helicopter parenting has been widely reported, yet the research literature is anemic on the topic. Based on interviews and focus groups involving 190 academic and student services professionals, this article continues by discussing the social, psychological, economic, and cultural factors that influence helicoptering; exploring…
de Jong, Pieter
The blades of helicopters are heavily loaded and are critical components. Failure of any one blade will lead to loss of the aircraft. Currently, the technical lifespan of helicopter blades is calculated using a worst-case operation scenario. The consequence is that a blade that may be suitable for,
Tang, D. M.; Dowell, E. H.
An approximate theoretical method is presented which determined the limit cycle behavior of a helicopter model which has one or two nonlinear dampers. The relationship during unstable ground resonance oscillations between lagging motion of the blades and fuselage motion is discussed. An experiment was carried out on using a helicopter scale model. The experimental results agree with those of the theoretical analysis.
Bisgaard, Morten; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; la Cour-Harbo, Anders
This paper presents the design and verification of a state estimator for a helicopter based slung load system. The estimator is designed to augment the IMU driven estimator found in many helicopter UAV s and uses vision based updates only. The process model used for the estimator is a simple 4...
Simons, M.; Wilschut, E.S.; Valk, P.J.L.
Introduction : Dutch North Sea helicopter operations are characterized by multiple sector flights to offshore platforms under difficult environmental conditions. In the context of a Ministry of Transport program to improve safety levels of helicopter operations, we assessed effects of pre-duty
... the ASB as mandatory. Costs of Compliance We estimate that this AD affects three helicopters of U.S... of the helicopter's bottom structure. AD 2006- 0152 requires compliance with Eurocopter Alert Service... with France, EASA, its technical representative, has notified us of the unsafe condition described in...
and simulating different slung load suspension types. It further includes detection and response to wire slacking and tightening, it models the aerodynamic coupling between the helicopter and the load, and can be used for multilift systems with any combination of multiple helicopters and multiple loads...
... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-76C helicopters. This AD requires installing an improved... Corporation, Attn: Manager, Commercial Technical Support, mailstop s581a, 6900 Main Street, Stratford, CT...
... Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed... Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A helicopters to require modifying the No. 1 engine forward firewall center... Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager, Commercial Technical Support, mailstop s581a, 6900 Main Street...
... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A helicopters to require modifying the No. 1 engine forward... Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager, Commercial Technical Support, mailstop s581a, 6900 Main...
... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A helicopters. This AD requires inspecting the tail rotor (T/R... Corporation, Attn: Manager, Commercial Technical Support, mailstop s581a, 6900 Main Street, Stratford, CT...
... Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed... Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-76C helicopters. This proposed AD is prompted by a bird-strike to.... For service information identified in this proposed AD, contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn...
... Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed... Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A helicopters, which requires inspecting the tail rotor (T/R) pylon for a... service information identified in this proposed AD, contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager...
... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A helicopters. This AD was prompted by the discovery of tail... identified in this AD, contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager, Commercial Technical Support...
Bisgaard, Morten; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon
This paper presents the design of a state estimator system for a generic helicopter based slung load system. The estimator is designed to deliver full rigid body state information for both helicopter and load and is based on the unscented Kalman filter. Two different approaches are investigated......: One based on a parameter free kinematic model and one based on a full aerodynamic helicopter and slung load model. The kinematic model approach uses acceleration and rate information from two Inertial Measurement Units, one on the helicopter and one on the load, to drive a simple kinematic model....... A simple and effective virtual sensor method is developed to maintain the constraints imposed by the wires in the system. The full model based approach uses a complex aerodynamical model to describe the helicopter together with a generic rigid body model. This rigid body model is based on a redundant...
Bisgaard, Morten; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon
This paper presents the design of a state estimator system for a generic helicopter based slung load system. The estimator is designed to deliver full rigid body state information for both helicopter and load and is based on the unscented Kalman filter. Two different approaches are investigated......: One based on a parameter free kinematic model and one based on a full aerodynamic helicopter and slung load model. The kinematic model approach uses acceleration and rate information from two Inertial Measurement Units, one on the helicopter and one on the load, to drive a simple kinematic model....... A simple and effective virtual sensor method is developed to maintain the constraints imposed by the wires in the system. The full model based approach uses a complex aerodynamical model to describe the helicopter together with a generic rigid body model. This rigid body model is based on a redundant...
... helicopter air ambulance operators implement a safety management system program that includes sound risk... partially address NTSB Safety Recommendation A-09-89 regarding the implementation of sound risk management... documents. Authority for This Rulemaking The FAA's authority to issue rules on aviation safety is found in...
... unsafe condition for the Bell Model 430 helicopters. Discrepancies in the processing and display of air... pilot and copilot electronic attitude direction indicators airspeed indicators; [cir] Leak testing the... and responsibilities among the various levels of government. For the reasons discussed, I certify this...
HELICOPTER FLEET Hasnan bin Mohamad Rais Major, Malaysian Army B.S., University Technology of Malaysia , 2000 Submitted in partial...HELICOPTER MAINTENANCE POLICY B. The objective of MAA helicopter maintenance activities is to preserve helicopter safety and mission reliability to
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Helicopter angle of glide: Category B. 29... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 29.71 Helicopter angle of glide: Category B. For each category B helicopter, except multiengine helicopters meeting the...
... helicopter fueling facilities? 149.655 Section 149.655 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT Design and Equipment Helicopter Fueling Facilities § 149.655 What are the requirements for helicopter fueling facilities? Helicopter fueling facilities must comply with 46 CFR 108.489 or an equivalent...
Cheng-xiong, Pan; Jing-zhou, Zhang; Yong, Shan
The effects of exhaust temperature on infrared signature (in 3–5 μm band) for a helicopter equipped with integrative infrared suppressor were numerically investigated. The internal flow of exhaust gas and the external downwash flow, as well as the mixing between exhaust gas and downwash were simulated by CFD software to determine the temperature distributions on the helicopter skin and in the exhaust plume. Based on the skin and plume temperature distributions, a forward–backward ray-tracing method was used to calculate the infrared radiation intensity from the helicopter with a narrow-band model. The results show that for a helicopter with its integrative infrared suppressor embedded inside its rear airframe, the exhaust temperature has significant influence on the plume radiation characteristics, while the helicopter skin radiation intensity has little impact. When the exhaust temperature is raised from 900 K to 1200 K, the plume radiation intensity in 3–5 μm band is increased by about 100%, while the skin radiation intensity is increased by only about 5%. In general, the effects of exhaust temperature on helicopter infrared radiation intensity are mainly concentrated on plume, especially obvious for a lower skin emissivity case. -- Highlights: ► The effect of exhaust temperature on infrared signature for a helicopter is numerically investigated. ► The impact of exhaust temperature on helicopter skin temperature is revealed. ► The impact of exhaust temperature on plume radiation characteristics is revealed. ► The impact of exhaust temperature on helicopter skin radiation is revealed. ► The impact of exhaust temperature on helicopter's total infrared radiation intensity is revealed
Küpper, Thomas; Jansing, Paul; Schöffl, Volker; van Der Giet, Simone
During helicopter rescue operations the medical personnel are at high risk for hearing damage by noise exposure. There are two important factors to be taken into account: first, the extreme variability, with some days involving no exposure but other days with extreme exposure; second, the extreme noise levels during work outside the helicopter, e.g. during winch operations. The benefit of modern, less noisier constructions and the consequences for noise protection are still unknown. We estimated the noise exposure of the personnel for different helicopter types used during rescue operations in the Alps and in other regions of the world with special regard to the advanced types like Eurocopter EC 135 to compare the benefit of modern constructions for noise protection with earlier ones. The rescue operations over 1 year of four rescue bases in the Alps (Raron and Zermatt in Switzerland; Landeck and Innsbruck in Austria, n = 2731) were analyzed for duration of rescue operations (noise exposure). Noise levels were measured during rescue operations at defined points inside and outside the different aircraft. The setting is according to the European standard (Richtlinie 2003/10/EG Amtsblatt) and to Class 1 DIN/IEC 651. With both data sets the equivalent noise level L(eq8h) was calculated. For comparison it was assumed that all rescue operations were performed with a specific type of helicopter. Then model calculations for noise exposure by different helicopter types, such as Alouette IIIb, Alouette II 'Lama', Ecureuil AS350, Bell UH1D, Eurocopter EC135, and others were performed. Depending on modern technologies the situation for the personnel has been improved significantly. Nevertheless noise prevention, which includes noise intermissions in spare time, is essential. Medical checks of the crews by occupational medicine (e.g. 'G20' in Germany) are still mandatory.
Sutton, C; McCloy, R; Middlebrook, A; Chater, P; Wilson, M; Stone, R
The key bimanual instrument tasks involved in laparoscopic surgery have been abstracted for use in a virtual reality surgical skills evaluator and trainer. The trainer uses two laparoscopic instruments mounted on a frame with position sensors which provide instrument movement data that is translated into interactive real time graphics on a PC (P133, 16 Mb RAM, graphics acceleration card). An accurately scaled operating volume of 10 cm3 is represented by a 3D cube on the computer screen. "Camera" position and size of target objects can be varied for different skill levels. Targets appear randomly within the operating volume according to the skill task and can be grasped and manipulated with the instruments. Accuracy and errors during the tasks and time to completion are logged. Mist VR has tutorial, training, examination, analysis and configuration modes. Six tasks have been selected and include combinations of instrument approach, target acquisition, target manipulation and placement, transfer between instruments, target contact with optional diathermy, and controlled instrument withdrawal/replacement. Tasks can be configured for varying degrees of difficulty and the configurations saved to a library for reuse. Specific task configurations can be assigned to individual students. In the examination mode the supervisor can select the tasks, repetitions and order and save to a specific file for that trainee. Progress can be assessed and there is the option for playback of the training session or examination. Data analyses permit overall, including task, and right or left hand performances to be quantified. Mist VR represents a significant advance over the subjective assessment of training performances with existing "plastic box" basic trainers.
Kilickaya, Ferit; Krajka, Jaroslaw
In an attempt to address the issue of ethics in ICT use by university teacher trainers, the current study aimed to investigate academics' downloading and sharing e-books as well as the reasons that led them to be involved in this piracy. The participants included 140 teacher trainers working at faculties of education in Turkey, and a questionnaire…
Kruse, Katrine; Gottlieb, Susanne; Andersen, Ole Dibbern
This article presents how teachers and trainers in the Danish vocational education and training (VET) system are prepared for their work as professionals in an educational system undergoing rapid changes.......This article presents how teachers and trainers in the Danish vocational education and training (VET) system are prepared for their work as professionals in an educational system undergoing rapid changes....
Ruttkay, Z.M.; van Welbergen, H.
In the framework of our Reactive Virtual Trainer (RVT) project, we are developing an Intelligent Virtual Agent (IVA) capable to act similarly to a real trainer. Besides presenting the physical exercises to be performed, she keeps an eye on the user. She provides feedback whenever appropriate, to
Chinn, Nancy Resendes
The purpose of this mixed method study was to compare current practices of athletic trainers in the management of concussion in football at California Community Colleges (CCC) with the concussion management guidelines set forth by the National Athletic Trainers Association (NATA). The study also set out to gain understanding of why some athletic…
Shefrin, Allan; Khazei, Afshin; Cheng, Adam
Pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) physicians have minimal experience in life saving procedures and have turned to task trainers to learn these skills. Realism of these models is an important consideration that has received little study. PEM physicians and trainees participated in a day long procedural training course that utilized commercially available and homemade task trainers to teach pericardiocentesis, chest tube insertion, cricothyroidotomy and central line insertion. Participants rated the realism of the task trainers as part of a post-course survey. The homemade task trainers received variable realism ratings, with 91% of participants rating the pork rib chest tube model as realistic, 82% rating the gelatin pericardiocentesis mold as realistic and 36% rating the ventilator tubing cricothyroidotomy model as realistic. Commercial trainers also received variable ratings, with 45% rating the chest drain and pericardiocentesis simulator as realistic, 74% rating the crichotracheotomy trainer as realistic and 80% rating the central line insertion trainer as realistic. Task training models utilized in our course received variable realism ratings. When deciding what type of task trainer to use future courses should carefully consider the desired aspect of realism, and how it aligns with the procedural skill, balanced with cost considerations.
Full Text Available A validation study on the performance and vibration analyses of the XH-59A compound helicopter is conducted to establish techniques for the comprehensive analysis of lift-offset compound helicopters. This study considers the XH-59A lift-offset compound helicopter using a rigid coaxial rotor system as a verification model. CAMRAD II (Comprehensive Analytical Method of Rotorcraft Aerodynamics and Dynamics II, a comprehensive analysis code, is used as a tool for the performance, vibration, and loads analyses. A general free wake model, which is a more sophisticated wake model than other wake models, is used to obtain good results for the comprehensive analysis. Performance analyses of the XH-59A helicopter with and without auxiliary propulsion are conducted in various flight conditions. In addition, vibration analyses of the XH-59A compound helicopter configuration are conducted in the forward flight condition. The present comprehensive analysis results are in good agreement with the flight test and previous analyses. Therefore, techniques for the comprehensive analysis of lift-offset compound helicopters are appropriately established. Furthermore, the rotor lifts are calculated for the XH-59A lift-offset compound helicopter in the forward flight condition to investigate the airloads characteristics of the ABC™ (Advancing Blade Concept rotor.
Abstract Services provided by personal trainers in Poland are becoming more popular. The legal situation of this professional group in Poland is unregulated, which creates many doubts about the competence and suitability personal trainer. The essence of the work presented in the study is to determine the changes in terms of perception of competence coach, taking place in recent years. The research was conducted in 2009 and repeated in 2015 in fitness clubs coming in Lower Silesia. The study involved 240 respondents, including 72 women and 168 men. Research results indicate that over the years, the number of people regularly using the services of a coach nearly doubled. The significant number of people for whom the profession of coaching combined with better and better assessment of the social and his authority continues to grow. 67.5% of respondents think that the coach should be well built and have mixed personality traits.
Jankowski, M.W.; Bienarz, P.P.; Sartmadjiev, A.D.
MELSIM Severe Accident Simulation Trainer is a personal computer based system being developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency and Risk Management Associates, Inc. for the purpose of training the operators of nuclear power stations. It also serves for evaluating accident management strategies as well as assessing complex interfaces between emergency operating procedures and accident management guidelines. The system is being developed for the Soviet designed WWER-440/Model 213 reactor and it is plant specific. The Bohunice V2 power station in the Slovak Republic has been selected for trial operation of the system. The trainer utilizes several CPUs working simultaneously on different areas of simulation. Detailed plant operation displays are provided on colour monitor mimic screens which show changing plant conditions in approximate real-time. Up to 28 000 curves can be plotted on a separate monitor as the MELSIM program proceeds. These plots proceed concurrently with the program, and time specific segments can be recalled for review. A benchmarking (limited in scope) against well validated thermal-hydraulic codes and selected plant accident data (WWER-440/213 Rovno NPP, Ukraine) has been initiated. Preliminary results are presented and discussed. (author)
Sanada, Yukihisa; Nishizawa, Yukiyasu; Ishizaki, Azusa; Urabe, Yoshimi
The Great East Japan Earthquake that occurred on 11 March 2011 generated a series of large tsunami waves that caused serious damage to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station, following which a large amount of radioactive material was discharged from the nuclear power plant into the environment. Airborne radiation measurements using a manned helicopter were applied to measure the radiation distribution immediately after accident as technique to quickly measure the radiation distribution over a wide area. In Japan, this technique was researched and developed in the 1980s. However, this technique and system were not applied immediately after the accident because standardization of analysis was not established and the Japanese system became deteriorated. This technique is important for post-accident studies at a nuclear facility. We summarized the methods of the airborne radiation measurement using a manned helicopter. In addition, measurement results of the dose rate distribution at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station are given in this paper. (author)
Castor, Jere G.
The Compound Cycle Engine (CCE) is a highly turbocharged, power compounded, ultra-high power density, light-weight diesel engine. The turbomachinery is similar to a moderate pressure ratio, free power turbine engine and the diesel core is high speed and a low compression ratio. This engine is considered a potential candidate for future military light helicopter applications. This executive summary presents cycle thermodynamic (SFC) and engine weight analyses performed to establish general engine operating parameters and configuration. An extensive performance and weight analysis based on a typical two hour helicopter (+30 minute reserve) mission determined final conceptual engine design. With this mission, CCE performance was compared to that of a T-800 class gas turbine engine. The CCE had a 31% lower-fuel consumption and resulted in a 16% reduction in engine plus fuel and fuel tank weight. Design SFC of the CCE is 0.33 lb-HP-HR and installed wet weight is 0.43 lbs/HP. The major technology development areas required for the CCE are identified and briefly discussed.
Mardoian, George H.; Ezzo, Maureen B.
This paper presents the results of a NASA funded contract and Sikorsky research and development programs to evaluate structural composite components in flight service on Sikorsky Model S-76 helicopters. Selected components were removed and tested at prescribed intervals over a nine year time frame. Four horizontal stabilizers and thirteen tail rotor spars were returned from commercial service in West Palm Beach, Florida and in the Gulf Coast region of Louisiana to determine the long term effects of operations in hot and humid climates on component performance. Concurrent with the flight component evaluation, panels of materials used in their fabrication were exposed to the environment in ground racks. Selected panels were tested annually to determine the effects of exposure on physical and mechanical properties. The results of 55,741 component flight hours and 911 months of field exposure are reported and compared with initial Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certification data. The findings of this program have provided increased confidence in the long term durability of advanced composite materials used in helicopter structural applications.
Full Text Available The analytical revue of system of professional fitness trainers' training in the USA is presented in the article. Analysis of 40 literature's sources is performed. The mechanisms of obtaining the profession "fitness trainers" ("personal trainers" in the USA are concretized. Investigated, that certification of competence is a necessary condition for a fitness trainers working, but the higher education (on the level of Bachelor's or Master's curriculum isn't needed. Found, that organizations and education institutes are engaged in the certification of fitness specialists. They quickly react to the emergence of new popular fitness technologies, operatively develop educational programs and offer them to the education market. There is a tendency to the emergence of specialized curriculum of Bachelor and Master in higher education. The benefits of the national American education system of future fitness trainers are singled.
Ward, Sarah; Wiedemann, Lukas; Stinear, Cathy; Stinear, James; McDaid, Andrew
Walking function post-stroke is characterized by asymmetries in gait cycle parameters and joint kinematics. The Re-Link Trainer is designed to provide kinematic constraint to the paretic lower limb, to guide a physiologically normal and symmetrical gait pattern. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the immediate influence of the Re-Link Trainer on measures of gait symmetry in healthy adults. Participants demonstrated a significantly lower cadence and a 62% reduction in walking speed in the Re-Link Trainer compared to normal walking. The step length ratio had a significant increase from 1.0 during normal walking to 2.5 when walking in the Re-Link Trainer. The results from this pilot study suggest in its current iteration the Re-Link Trainer imposes an asymmetrical constraint on lower limb kinematics.
Anderson, D.; Thomson, D. G.
The survivability of helicopters under attack by ground troops using rocket propelled grenades has been amply illustrated over the past decade. Given that an RPG is unguided and it is infeasible to cover helicopters in thick armour, existing optical countermeasures are ineffective - the solution is to compute an evasive manoeuvre. In this paper, an RPG/helicopter engagement model is presented. Manoeuvre profiles are defined in the missile approach warning sensor camera image plane using a local maximum acceleration vector. Required control inputs are then computed using inverse simulation techniques. Assessments of platform survivability to several engagement scenarios are presented.
Bisgaard, Morten; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; A. Danapalasingam, Kumeresan
for the purpose. The model is inverted for the calculation of rotor collective and cyclic pitch angles given the wind disturbance. The control strategy is then applied on a small helicopter in a controlled wind environment and flight tests demonstrates the effectiveness and advantage of the feedforward controller.......This paper presents the design and verification of a model based nonlinear feedforward controller for wind disturbance rejection on autonomous helicopters. The feedforward control is based on a helicopter model that is derived using a number of carefully chosen simplifications to make it suitable...
Bisgaard, Morten; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon
system on the helicopter that measures the position of the slung load. The controller is a combined feedforward and feedback scheme for simultaneous avoidance of swing excitation and active swing damping. Simulations and laboratory flight tests show the effectiveness of the combined control system......This paper presents design and verification of an estimation and control system for a helicopter slung load system. The estimator provides position and velocity estimates of the slung load and is designed to augment existing navigation in autonomous helicopters. Sensor input is provided by a vision......, yielding significant load swing reduction compared to the baseline controller....
Hannay, R Scott; Wyrzykowski, Amy D; Ball, Chad G; Laupland, Kevin; Feliciano, David V
Air ambulance transport for injured patients is vitally important given increasing patient volumes, the limited number of trauma centres and inadequate subspecialty coverage in nontrauma hospitals. Air ambulance services have been shown to improve patient outcomes compared with ground transport in select circumstances. Our primary goal was to compare injuries, interventions and outcomes in patients transported by helicopter versus nonhelicopter transport. We performed a retrospective 10-year review of 14 440 patients transported to an urban Level 1 trauma centre by helicopter or by other means. We compared injury severity, interventions and mortality between the groups. Patients transported by helicopter had higher median injury severity scores (ISS), regardless of penetrating or blunt injury, and were more likely to have Glasgow Coma Scale scores less than 8, require airway control, receive blood transfusions and require admission to the intensive care unit or operating room than patients transported by other means. Helicopter transport was associated with reduced overall mortality (odds ratio 0.41, 95% confidence interval 0.33-0.39). Patients transported by other methods were more likely to die in the emergency department. The mean ISS, regardless of transport method, rose from 12.3 to 15.1 (p = 0.011) during our study period. Patients transported by helicopter to an urban trauma centre were more severely injured, required more interventions and had improved survival than those arriving by other means of transport.
Hinkelbein, Jochen; Schwalbe, Mandy; Wetsch, Wolfgang A; Spelten, Oliver; Neuhaus, Christopher
Whereas accident rates and fatal accident rates for Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS) were investigated sufficiently, resulting consequences for the occupants remain largely unknown. The present study aimed to classify HEMS accidents in Germany to prognosticate accident severity with regard to the helicopter model used. German HEMS accidents (1 Sept. 1970-31 Dec. 2009) were gathered as previously reported. Accidents were categorized in relation to the most severe injury, i.e., (1) no; (2) slight; (3) severe; and (4) fatal injuries. Only helicopter models with at least five accidents were analyzed to retrieve representative data. Prognostication was estimated by the relative percentage of each injury type compared to the total number of accidents. The model BO105 was most often involved in accidents (38 of 99), followed by BK117 and UH-1D. OfN = 99 accidents analyzed, N = 63 were without any injuries (63.6%), N = 8 resulted in minor injuries of the occupants (8.1%), and N = 9 in major injuries (9.1%). Additionally, N = 19 fatal accidents (19.2%) were registered. EC135 and BK1 17 had the highest incidence of uninjured occupants (100% vs. 88.2%) and the lowest percentage of fatal injuries (0% vs. 5.9%; all P > 0.05). Most fatal accidents occurred with the models UH-1D, Bell 212, and Bell 412. Use of the helicopter models EC135 and BK117 resulted in a high percentage of uninjured occupants. In contrast, the fatality rate was highest for the models Bell UH-I D, Bell 222, and Bell 412. Data from the present study allow for estimating accident risk in HEMS missions and prognosticating resulting fatalities, respectively.
Background In patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) reperfusion therapy should be initiated as soon as possible. This study evaluated whether use of a helicopter for transportation of patients is associated with earlier initiation of reperfusion therapy. Material and methods A prospective study was conducted, including patients with STEMI and symptom duration less than 12 hours, who had primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) performed at Aarhus University Hospital in Skejby. Patients with a health care system delay (time from emergency call to first coronary intervention) of more than 360 minutes were excluded. The study period ran from 1.1.2011 until 31.12.2011. A Western Denmark Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) project was initiated 1.6.2011 for transportation of patients with time-critical illnesses, including STEMI. Results The study population comprised 398 patients, of whom 376 were transported by ambulance Emergency Medical Service (EMS) and 22 by HEMS. Field-triage directly to the PCI-center was used in 338 of patients. The median system delay was 94 minutes among those field-triaged, and 168 minutes among those initially admitted to a local hospital. Patients transported by EMS and field-triaged were stratified into four groups according to transport distance from the scene of event to the PCI-center: ≤25 km., 26–50 km., 51–75 km. and > 75 km. For these groups, the median system delay was 78, 89, 99, and 141 minutes. Among patients transported by HEMS and field-triaged the estimated median transport distance by ground transportation was 115 km, and the observed system delay was 107 minutes. Based on second order polynomial regression, it was estimated that patients with a transport distance of >60 km to the PCI-center may benefit from helicopter transportation, and that transportation by helicopter is associated with a system delay of less than 120 minutes even at a transport distance up to 150 km
Reich, David; Elbing, Brian; Schmitz, Sven
A scaled model of a notional helicopter rotor hub was tested in the 48'' Garfield Thomas Water Tunnel at the Applied Research Laboratory Penn State. The main objectives of the experiment were to understand the spatial- and temporal content of the unsteady wake downstream of a rotor hub up to a distance corresponding to the empennage. Primary measurements were the total hub drag and velocity measurements at three nominal downstream locations. Various flow structures were identified and linked to geometric features of the hub model. The most prominent structures were two-per-revolution (hub component: scissors) and four-per-revolution (hub component: main hub arms) vortices shed by the hub. Both the two-per-revolution and four-per-revolution structures persisted far downstream of the hub, but the rate of dissipation was greater for the four-per-rev structures. This work provides a dataset for enhanced understanding of the fundamental physics underlying rotor hub flows and serves as validation data for future CFD analyses.
McCoy, Allen H.
Helicopter external air transportation plays an important role in today's world. For both military and civilian helicopters, external sling load operations offer an efficient and expedient method of handling heavy, oversized cargo. With the ability to reach areas otherwise inaccessible by ground transportation, helicopter external load operations are conducted in industries such as logging, construction, and fire fighting, as well as in support of military tactical transport missions. Historically, helicopter and load combinations have been qualified through flight testing, requiring considerable time and cost. With advancements in simulation and flight test techniques there is potential to substantially reduce costs and increase the safety of helicopter sling load certification. Validated simulation tools make possible accurate prediction of operational flight characteristics before initial flight tests. Real time analysis of test data improves the safety and efficiency of the testing programs. To advance these concepts, the U.S. Army and NASA, in cooperation with the Israeli Air Force and Technion, under a Memorandum of Agreement, seek to develop and validate a numerical model of the UH-60 with sling load and demonstrate a method of near real time flight test analysis. This thesis presents results from flight tests of a U.S. Army Black Hawk helicopter with various external loads. Tests were conducted as the U.S. first phase of this MOA task. The primary load was a container express box (CONEX) which contained a compact instrumentation package. The flights covered the airspeed range from hover to 70 knots. Primary maneuvers were pitch and roll frequency sweeps, steps, and doublets. Results of the test determined the effect of the suspended load on both the aircraft's handling qualities and its control system's stability margins. Included were calculations of the stability characteristics of the load's pendular motion. Utilizing CIFER(R) software, a method for near
Bisgaard, Morten; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon
of swing. The design of the delayed feedback controller is presented as an optimization problem which gives the possibility of an automated design process. Simulations and flight test verifications of the control system on two different autonomous helicopters are presented and it is shown how a significant......This paper presents the design and verification of a swing reducing controller for helicopter slung load systems using intentional delayed feedback. It is intended for augmenting a trajectory tracking helicopter controller and thereby improving the slung load handing capabilities for autonomous...... helicopters. The delayed feedback controller is added to actively reduce oscillations of the slung load by improving the damping of the slung load pendulum modes. Furthermore, it is intended for integration with a feedforward control scheme based on input shaping for concurrent avoidance and dampening...
Chen, Chung-Lung; Chen, Ya-Chi; Chen, Bing; Jain, Rohit; Lund, Tom; Zhao, Hongwu; Wang, Z.-J; Sun, Yuzhi; Saberi, Hossein; Shih, T.-H
.... The problem is indeed multidisciplinary. Current helicopter blade designers use computational models, which depend heavily on experimental data and cannot be used to predict any novel design, which is a significant departure from existing designs...
Rebecca A. Schlaff
Full Text Available Background: Athletes obtain nutrition information from a number of sources, with some being more accurate than others. Little is known about athletes’ perceptions of utilizing Certified Athletic Trainers (ATs as a primary source of information. Objective: We sought to 1 examine the primary sources of nutrition information among a group of United States collegiate athletes and 2 understand athletes’ perceptions regarding utilization of their ATs as primary sources of nutrition information. Methods: Participants (Division II university athletes completed an online questionnaire (n=155;n=58 males, n=97 females assessing demographic information and ranked primary sources of nutrition information, and participated in focus groups (n=26;n=18 women, n=8 men to better understand barriers/perceptions for using their ATs for nutrition information. Mean+SD ranking were calculated for all sources. Mann Whitney-U analyses were used to identify differences in rank order nutrition sources between genders and years of collegiate experience. Semi-structured focus groups were transcribed, coded, and themes were identified regarding barriers to utilizing ATs for nutrition-related information. Results: Parents (3.54±2.38 and the internet (3.69±2.29 had the highest mean ranks. ATs were least often ranked as the number one nutrition source (7.5%, among all sources provided. Barriers to utilizing ATs for nutritional information included discomfort, nutrition information not being within the scope of practice, lack of knowledge, the athletic trainer not caring, and lack of time. Conclusions: Participants reported utilizing ATs less than previous research indicates. Continuing education may be needed to improve the efficacy of ATs in addressing nutritional issues and being seen as a credible and accessible source. Keywords: Diet, Athlete perceptions, Barriers
the cost of prime interest being life-cycle cost, climate that is hot or cold, in atmosphere that is humid Chapter 3 discusses helicopter performance...required to satisfy 8-3.2 ENGINE INSTALLATION LOSSES varying climatic and environmental factors. For in- stance, maintenance of the helicopter should be...thammable h aulic , asytem l at mhtproidtem a considering the overall flight mission in segments, dur- source of flammable fluids, as well as electrical
inherently damage lolerant , any damage- inspection in critical locations where tests have indicated tolerant features in airframe design only enhances...required, so European Rotorcraft Forum. Marseilles, France, 15- that helicopters are equipped with such features as fly- 17 September 1998 . by-wire and...fatigue Evaluation of structural integrity issues of aging helicopters. The Structure," 29 April, 1998 . extended safe-life approach encompasses the best
provide safe, reliable, and timely transportation for the President, Vice President, Foreign Heads of State, and other official parties as directed by...the Director of the White House Military Office. Presidential helicopter transportation requirements are executed by Marine Helicopter Squadron One...Review Jul 2016 Jul 2016 Jan 2017 Jul 2016 Milestone C Jan 2019 Jan 2019 Jul 2019 Jan 2019 IOT &E Complete Mar 2020 Mar 2020 Sep 2020 Mar 2020 IOC Jul
possible employment of decelerating or other innovative approaches to be discussed in Section 3 and may be employed to advantage in reviewing missed...330J Puma is a 19 passenger medium helicopter manufactured by Societe Nationale Industrielle Aerospatiale of Marignane, France and marketed in the...for use by the French and British armed forces. It is manufactured by the Helicopter Divison of Societe Nationale Industrielle Aerospatiale of Marignane
Maxwell, Cassie; Ruth, Kyle; Friesen, Carol
Background: CrossFit is a large, growing force in the fitness community. Currently, Level 1 and 2 CrossFit certification classes do not include nutrition education. The purpose of this study was to identify sports nutrition knowledge, perceptions, resources, and advice given by Certified CrossFit Trainers. Methods: An online questionnaire that measured these four constructs was placed on a private Facebook community, open only to certified CrossFit trainers, for 10 days. Results: Complete surveys were obtained from 289 CrossFit trainers. The mean Sport Nutrition Knowledge (SNK) score was 11.1 ± 2.1, equivalent to 65.3% ± 12.4% correct. The trainers perceived nutrition to be extremely important to athletic performance (9.4 ± 0.9 on a 10 point scale). Overall, the trainers graded their SNK higher than that of their CrossFit peers. The internet and CrossFit peers were the most frequently reported sources for nutrition information; Registered Dietitians were the least reported source. The Paleo and Zone diets were the most common dietary regimens recommended by CrossFit trainers. Results indicated a positive correlation between a CrossFit trainer’s self-reported hours of nutrition education and their SNK score (r = 0.17; p CrossFit trainers, developed with input from Board Certified Specialists in Sports Dietetics, are recommended.
Full Text Available Background: CrossFit is a large, growing force in the fitness community. Currently, Level 1 and 2 CrossFit certification classes do not include nutrition education. The purpose of this study was to identify sports nutrition knowledge, perceptions, resources, and advice given by Certified CrossFit Trainers. Methods: An online questionnaire that measured these four constructs was placed on a private Facebook community, open only to certified CrossFit trainers, for 10 days. Results: Complete surveys were obtained from 289 CrossFit trainers. The mean Sport Nutrition Knowledge (SNK score was 11.1 ± 2.1, equivalent to 65.3% ± 12.4% correct. The trainers perceived nutrition to be extremely important to athletic performance (9.4 ± 0.9 on a 10 point scale. Overall, the trainers graded their SNK higher than that of their CrossFit peers. The internet and CrossFit peers were the most frequently reported sources for nutrition information; Registered Dietitians were the least reported source. The Paleo and Zone diets were the most common dietary regimens recommended by CrossFit trainers. Results indicated a positive correlation between a CrossFit trainer’s self-reported hours of nutrition education and their SNK score (r = 0.17; p < 0.01. Conclusion: Nutrition education modules for Level 1 and 2 CrossFit trainers, developed with input from Board Certified Specialists in Sports Dietetics, are recommended.
Vitish-Sharma, P; Knowles, J; Patel, B
Laparoscopic surgery requires working in a three-dimensional environment with a two-dimensional view. Skills such as depth perception, hand to eye co-ordination and bimanual manipulation are crucial to its efficacy. To compare the efficiency of training in laparoscopic skills on a VR simulator with a traditional box trainer. Twenty medical students were recruited. An initial training session on the relevant anatomy and steps of a laparoscopic cholecystectomy was given. Baseline skills were recorded using a pre-training laparoscopic cholecystectomy on the VR trainer. Parameters measured were: (1) total time taken (mins); (2) number of movements right and left instrument; (3) path length (cms) of right and left instrument was recorded. Ten students trained on a VR simulator, and ten on a box trainer, for three hours each. The box trainer group exercises were based on the Royal College of Surgeons core laparoscopic skills course, and the VR trainer exercises were based on the Simbionix LapMentor basic skills tasks. Following this both groups were reassessed by a laparoscopic cholecystectomy on the VR trainer. Both groups showed improvement in all measured parameters. A student T-test at 95% confidence interval showed no statistically significant difference between the two groups pre and post training. Both the VR and box trainer are effective in the acquisition of laparoscopic skills. Copyright © 2011 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
I Gusti Ayu Vina Widiadnya Putri
Full Text Available This article tries to analyze and discuss the politeness strategies employed by the trainers in room division department when they practice on the job training in the hotel. Politeness strategy was needed when the trainers serve the guest. This research was done by observation and interview with the trainer and the guest about their conversation. The analysis of politeness strategies that employed by the trainer focused on two discussions; (1 the kinds of politeness strategies used by trainer in room division department, and (2 the implications of politeness strategies used by trainer in room division department. This research used the theory from Brown & Levinson (1987 in his book entitled Politeness: Some Universals in Language Usages. The theory is supported by other theories that are considered relevant to the topic of discussion in this research. Based on the analysis, it was found that there were two kinds of politeness stratgies that employed by the trainer in room division department Bapepar Nusa Dua, they were positive face and negative face. Beside that, there are three implications by using politness strategies such as: respect behaviour, togheterness, and cooperative interaction.
Ekegren, C L; Gabbe, B J; Finch, C F
A lack of available injury data on community sports participants has hampered the development of informed preventive strategies for the broad-base of sports participation. In community sports settings, sports trainers or first-aiders are well-placed to carry out injury surveillance, but few studies have evaluated their ability to do so. The aim of this study was to investigate the reporting rate and completeness of sports trainers' injury records and agreement between sports trainers' and players' reports of injury in community Australian football. Throughout the football season, one sports trainer from each of four clubs recorded players' injuries. To validate these data, we collected self-reported injury data from players via short message service (SMS). In total, 210 discrete injuries were recorded for 139 players, 21% by sports trainers only, 59% by players via SMS only, and 21% by both. Completeness of injury records ranged from 95% to 100%. Agreement between sports trainers and players ranged from K = 0.32 (95% confidence interval: 0.27, 0.37) for date of return to football to K = 1.00 for activity when injured. Injury data collected by sports trainers may be of adequate quality for providing an understanding of the profile of injuries. However, data are likely to underestimate injury rates and should be interpreted with caution. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kersey, Robert D.; Elliot, Diane L.; Goldberg, Linn; Kanayama, Gen; Leone, James E.; Pavlovich, Mike; Pope, Harrison G.
This NATA position statement was developed by the NATA Research & Education Foundation. Objective This manuscript summarizes the best available scholarly evidence related to anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) as a reference for health care professionals, including athletic trainers, educators, and interested others. Background Health care professionals associated with sports or exercise should understand and be prepared to educate others about AAS. These synthetic, testosterone-based derivatives are widely abused by athletes and nonathletes to gain athletic performance advantages, develop their physiques, and improve their body image. Although AAS can be ergogenic, their abuse may lead to numerous negative health effects. Recommendations Abusers of AAS often rely on questionable information sources. Sports medicine professionals can therefore serve an important role by providing accurate, reliable information. The recommendations provide health care professionals with a current and accurate synopsis of the AAS-related research. PMID:23068595
Febrianti, Werry; Wiryanto, Leo Hari
The first year students in Sumatera Institute of Technology (ITERA) follow the first year program (TPB). They will learn about mathematics, physics, chemistry, and all of the basic subjects that they need for learning in ITERA. They will study in the big classrooms with different background department of their friends. This situation makes the lectures become more challenging in teaching their lessons. Besides the classrooms, the experience of the lecturers is still need to be improved because the lecturers are young and less of experience in teaching so that they need guidance from their senior lecturer. Because of that situation, Training of Trainers (ToT) program in team teaching is one of the solution that can increase the young lecturers’s ability so that they can teach well in the massal conditions of the classrooms. ToT program in team teaching indicated the better result than regular teaching.
Cinquemani, Simone; Cazzulani, Gabriele; Resta, Ferruccio
Helicopters are among the most complex machines ever made. While ensuring high performance from the aeronautical point of view, they are not very comfortable due to vibration mainly created by the main rotor and by the interaction with the surrounding air. One of the most solicited structural elements of the vehicle are the horizontal stabilizers. These elements are particularly stressed because of their composite structure which, while guaranteeing lightness and strength, is characterized by a low damping. This work makes a preliminary analysis on the dynamics of the structure and proposes different solutions to actively suppress vibrations. Among them, the best in terms of the relationship between performance and weight / complexity of the system is that based on inertial actuators mounted on the inside of the horizontal stabilizers. The work addresses the issue of the design of the device and its use in the stabilizer from both the numerical and the experimental points of view.
Chen, Yong; Wickramasinghe, Viresh; Zimcik, David G.
Helicopter aircrews are exposed to high levels of whole body vibration during flight. This paper presents the results of an investigation of adaptive seat mount approaches to reduce helicopter aircrew whole body vibration levels. A flight test was conducted on a four-blade helicopter and showed that the currently used passive seat systems were not able to provide satisfactory protection to the helicopter aircrew in both front-back and vertical directions. Long-term exposure to the measured whole body vibration environment may cause occupational health issues such as spine and neck strain injuries for aircrew. In order to address this issue, a novel adaptive seat mount concept was developed to mitigate the vibration levels transmitted to the aircrew body. For proof-of-concept demonstration, a miniature modal shaker was properly aligned between the cabin floor and the seat frame to provide adaptive actuation authority. Adaptive control laws were developed to reduce the vibration transmitted to the aircrew body, especially the helmet location in order to minimize neck and spine injuries. Closed-loop control test have been conducted on a full-scale helicopter seat with a mannequin configuration and a large mechanical shaker was used to provide representative helicopter vibration profiles to the seat frame. Significant vibration reductions to the vertical and front-back vibration modes have been achieved simultaneously, which verified the technical readiness of the adaptive mount approach for full-scale flight test on the vehicle.
A syrinx is a fluid-filled cavity within the spinal cord. They can lead to a variety of symptoms, including limb weakness and back pain. Incidental finding of syringomyelia provides a challenge for clinicians due to the wide variety of possible symptoms. In military aviation, neurological findings in pilots can result in extensive investigation that can lead to potentially invasive management. Conversely, the potential for chronic progression of a spinal syrinx and subsequent neurological deterioration makes early identification critical. Ultimately, the discovery of a lesion may have implications for flying status and operational capability. A 25-yr-old man working as a navy Seahawk helicopter pilot presented with episodes of right arm paraesthesia and pain between the scapulae. On at least one occasion, these symptoms woke him at night. Upon magnetic resonance imaging, dilatation of the central canal in a syrinx-like pattern in the lower cervical region was noted. Neurology review suggested the finding was persistent and unlikely to be responsible for his symptoms. No surgical input was recommended. His symptoms were attributed to mild cervical spondylosis, which resolved with ongoing physiotherapy, and he was returned to flying status. This case highlights several issues involved with the incidental finding of a syringomyelia. Surgical intervention has been known to worsen symptoms. Conversely, studies have identified minimal radiological progression in cases of idiopathic syringomyelia, with fewer individuals displaying neurological deterioration. For aircrew, potentially unnecessary neurosurgical intervention poses risks to a flying career and overall operational capability.Schiemer A. Idiopathic syringomyelia in a military helicopter pilot. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(10):962-965.
Schroeder, Jeffery Allyn
Flight simulators attempt to reproduce in-flight pilot-vehicle behavior on the ground. This reproduction is challenging for helicopter simulators, as the pilot is often inextricably dependent on external cues for pilot-vehicle stabilization. One important simulator cue is platform motion; however, its required fidelity is unknown. To determine the required motion fidelity, several unique experiments were performed. A large displacement motion platform was used that allowed pilots to fly tasks with matched motion and visual cues. Then, the platform motion was modified to give cues varying from full motion to no motion. Several key results were found. First, lateral and vertical translational platform cues had significant effects on fidelity. Their presence improved performance and reduced pilot workload. Second, yaw and roll rotational platform cues were not as important as the translational platform cues. In particular, the yaw rotational motion platform cue did not appear at all useful in improving performance or reducing workload. Third, when the lateral translational platform cue was combined with visual yaw rotational cues, pilots believed the platform was rotating when it was not. Thus, simulator systems can be made more efficient by proper combination of platform and visual cues. Fourth, motion fidelity specifications were revised that now provide simulator users with a better prediction of motion fidelity based upon the frequency responses of their motion control laws. Fifth, vertical platform motion affected pilot estimates of steady-state altitude during altitude repositionings. This refutes the view that pilots estimate altitude and altitude rate in simulation solely from visual cues. Finally, the combined results led to a general method for configuring helicopter motion systems and for developing simulator tasks that more likely represent actual flight. The overall results can serve as a guide to future simulator designers and to today's operators.
Kaplan, Yonatan; Nyska, Meir; Palmanovich, Ezequiel; Shanker, Rebecca
Specific weightbearing instructions continue to be a part of routine orthopaedic clinical practice on an injured or postoperative extremity. Researchers and clinicians have struggled to define the best weightbearing strategies to maximize clinical outcomes. To investigate the average percentage body weight (APBW) values, weightbearing distribution percentages (WBDP), and cadence values on the entire foot, hindfoot, and forefoot during changing resistance and incline on an elliptical trainer, as well as to suggest clinical implications. Descriptive laboratory study. An original research study was performed consisting of 30 asymptomatic subjects (mean age, 29.54 ± 12.64 years; range, 21-69 years). The protocol included 3 consecutive tests of changing resistance and incline within a speed range of 70 to 95 steps/min. The SmartStep weightbearing gait analysis system was utilized to measure the values. The APBW values for the entire foot ranged between 70% and 81%, the hindfoot values were between 27% and 57%, and the forefoot values between 42% and 70%. With regard to WBDP, the forefoot remained planted on the pedal (stance phase) 2 to 3 times more as compared with the hindfoot raise in the swing phase. The study findings highlight the fact that elliptical training significantly reduces weightbearing in the hindfoot, forefoot, and entire foot even at higher levels of resistance and incline. Weightbearing on the hindfoot consistently displayed the lowest weightbearing values. Orthopaedic surgeons, now equipped with accurate weightbearing data, may recommend using the elliptical trainer as a weightbearing exercise early on following certain bony or soft tissue pathologies and lower limb surgical procedures.
Background Experiencing independent mobility is important for children with a severe movement disability, but learning to drive a powered wheelchair can be labor intensive, requiring hand-over-hand assistance from a skilled therapist. Methods To improve accessibility to training, we developed a robotic wheelchair trainer that steers itself along a course marked by a line on the floor using computer vision, haptically guiding the driver's hand in appropriate steering motions using a force feedback joystick, as the driver tries to catch a mobile robot in a game of "robot tag". This paper provides a detailed design description of the computer vision and control system. In addition, we present data from a pilot study in which we used the chair to teach children without motor impairment aged 4-9 (n = 22) to drive the wheelchair in a single training session, in order to verify that the wheelchair could enable learning by the non-impaired motor system, and to establish normative values of learning rates. Results and Discussion Training with haptic guidance from the robotic wheelchair trainer improved the steering ability of children without motor impairment significantly more than training without guidance. We also report the results of a case study with one 8-year-old child with a severe motor impairment due to cerebral palsy, who replicated the single-session training protocol that the non-disabled children participated in. This child also improved steering ability after training with guidance from the joystick by an amount even greater than the children without motor impairment. Conclusions The system not only provided a safe, fun context for automating driver's training, but also enhanced motor learning by the non-impaired motor system, presumably by demonstrating through intuitive movement and force of the joystick itself exemplary control to follow the course. The case study indicates that a child with a motor system impaired by CP can also gain a short-term benefit
Full Text Available This study was carried out with the aim of determining the PA levels of the trainers working in Kastamonu in terms of gender and marital status variables. This study was applied to trainers from 15 different branches in the competitions organized by Kastamonu Directorate of Youth and Sports and Kastamonu Directorate of National Education. A total of 51 trainers participated in the study voluntarily; 19 of them were female; their mean age was 26.53±9.08 years, their mean height was 167.37±5.37 m and their mean weight was 60.37±7.30 kg. 32 of the trainers were male; their mean age was 35.41±8.10, their mean height was 179.69±6.25 m and their mean weight was 83.94±12.11 kg. Since the PA levels of the trainers working in the city center of Kastamonu were studied, the number of subjects was 51. In this study, in order to determine the physical activity level of the trainers, Physical Activity Evaluation Survey (PAAQ has been used. SPSS 15.0 was used to analyze the data in the dual comparisons, the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U Test has been applied. According to gender, there was no significant difference in met/week values of all indexes (p>0.05; also according to marital status, there was significant difference in met/week value of work index (p0.05, U=230,500 and sport indexes (p>0.05, U=282,000, PA levels of female trainers were found higher in home index. On the other hand, it was also determined that according to marital status, PA levels of single trainers were higher than married trainers in work index.
Gachoud, D; Félix, S; Monti, M
Communication between trainer and trainee plays a central role in teaching and learning in the clinical environment. There are various strategies to frame the dialogue between trainee and trainer. These strategies allow trainers to be more effective in their supervision, which is important in our busy clinical environment. Communication strategies are well adapted to both in- and out-patient settings, to both under- and postgraduate contexts. This article presents three strategies that we think are particularly useful. They are meant to give feedback, to ask questions and to present a case.
The three members of the American ASTP prime crew are photographed inside the Apollo Command Module (CM) trainer in a water tank in bldg 260 during water egress training at JSC. They are, left to right, Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford, commander; Vance D. Brand, command module pilot; and Donald K. Slayton, docking module pilot (23430); Slayton attaches his life preserver as he egresses an Apollo Command Module trainer in a water tank in bldg 260 during water egresss training at JSC. Astronauts Brand (on left) and Stafford have already egressed the trainer and are seated in a three-man life raft.
López de Aberasturi Ortiz de Pinedo, Aitor
TrainerPlan es una aplicación móvil desarrollada para terminales Android que permitirá la generación y consulta de planes de entrenamiento que podrán ser compartidos por diferentes usuarios. TrainerPlan és una aplicació mòbil desenvolupada per a terminals Android que permetrà la generació i consulta de plans d'entrenament que podran ser compartits per diferents usuaris. TrainerPlan is a mobile application developed for Android terminals that will allow the generation and consultation of...
Murray, Mike; Lange, Britt; Nørnberg, Bo Riebeling
BACKGROUND: Neck pain is frequent among military helicopter pilots and crew-members, and pain may influence individual health and work performance. The aim of this study was to examine if an exercise intervention could reduce neck pain among helicopter pilots and crew-members. METHODS: Thirty......-one pilots and thirty-eight crew-members were randomized to either an exercise-training-group (n = 35) or a reference-group (n = 34). The exercise-training-group received 20-weeks of specific neck/shoulder training. The reference-group received no training. PRIMARY OUTCOME: Intensity of neck pain previous 3......-to-treat and per-protocol. Students t-test was performed (p
Funder, Kamilia S; Rasmussen, Lars S.; Lohse, Nicolai
Background: Transportation by helicopter may reduce time to hospital admission and improve outcome. We aimed to investigate the effect of transport mode on mortality, disability, and labour market affiliation in patients admitted to the stroke unit. Methods: Prospective, observational study with 5...... patients. Primary outcome was long-term mortality after admission to the stroke unit. Results: Of the 1679 patients admitted to the stroke unit, 1068 were eligible for inclusion. Mortality rates were 9.04 per 100 person-years at risk (PYR) in GEMS patients and 9.71 per 100 PYR in HEMS patients (IRR = 1...... for neurological outcome is probably difficult to detect by considering mortality, but for the secondary analyses we had less statistical power as illustrated by the wide confidence intervals. Conclusion: Helicopter transport of stroke patients was not associated with reduced mortality or disability, nor improved...
Yeo, Hyeonsoo; Bousman, William G; Johnson, Wayne
Flight test measurements of the performance of the UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter with both standard and advanced rotors are compared with calculations obtained using the comprehensive helicopter analysis CAMRAD II...
Chua, Joyce; Culpan, Jane; Menon, Edward
To evaluate the longer-term effects of electromechanical gait trainers (GTs) combined with conventional physiotherapy on health status, function, and ambulation in people with subacute stroke in comparison with conventional physiotherapy given alone. Randomized controlled trial with intention-to-treat analysis. Community hospital in Singapore. Nonambulant individuals (N=106) recruited approximately 1 month poststroke. Both groups received 45 minutes of physiotherapy 6 times per week for 8 weeks as follows: the GT group received 20 minutes of GT training and 5 minutes of stance/gait training in contrast with 25 minutes of stance/gait training for the control group. Both groups completed 10 minutes of standing and 10 minutes of cycling. The primary outcome was the Functional Ambulation Category (FAC). Secondary outcomes were the Barthel Index (BI), gait speed and endurance, and Stroke Impact Scale (SIS). Measures were taken at baseline and 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 weeks. Generalized linear model analysis showed significant improvement over time (independent of group) for the FAC, BI, and SIS physical and participation subscales. However, no significant group × time or group differences were observed for any of the outcome variables after generalized linear model analysis. The use of GTs combined with conventional physiotherapy can be as effective as conventional physiotherapy applied alone for people with subacute stroke. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
KWU as a manufacturer of thermal and nuclear power plants has extensive customer training obligations within its power plant contracts. In this respect KWU has gained large experience in training of personnel, in the production of training material including video tapes an in the design of simulators. KWU developed interactive communication systems (ICS) for training and retraining purposes with a personal computer operating a video disc player on which video instruction is stored. The training program is edited with the help of a self developed editing system which enables the author to easily enter his instructions into the computer. ICS enables the plant management to better monitor the performance of its personnel through computerized training results and helps to save training manpower. German NPPs differ very much from other designs with respect to a more complex and integrated reactor control system and an additional reactor limitation system. Simulators for such plants therefore have also to simulate these systems. KWU developed a Functional Trainer (FT) which is a replica of the primary system, the auxiliary systems linked to it and the associated control, limitation and protection systems including the influences of the turbine operation and control
Schmerwitz, Sven; Knabl, Patrizia M.; Lueken, Thomas; Doehler, Hans-Ullrich
Helicopter operations require a well-controlled and minimal lateral drift shortly before ground contact. Any lateral speed exceeding this small threshold can cause a dangerous momentum around the roll axis, which may cause a total roll over of the helicopter. As long as pilots can observe visual cues from the ground, they are able to easily control the helicopter drift. But whenever natural vision is reduced or even obscured, e.g. due to night, fog, or dust, this controllability diminishes. Therefore helicopter operators could benefit from some type of "drift indication" that mitigates the influence of a degraded visual environment. Generally humans derive ego motion by the perceived environmental object flow. The visual cues perceived are located close to the helicopter, therefore even small movements can be recognized. This fact was used to investigate a modified drift indication. To enhance the perception of ego motion in a conformal HMD symbol set the measured movement was used to generate a pattern motion in the forward field of view close or on the landing pad. The paper will discuss the method of amplified ego motion drift indication. Aspects concerning impact factors like visualization type, location, gain and more will be addressed. Further conclusions from previous studies, a high fidelity experiment and a part task experiment, will be provided. A part task study will be presented that compared different amplified drift indications against a predictor. 24 participants, 15 holding a fixed wing license and 4 helicopter pilots, had to perform a dual task on a virtual reality headset. A simplified control model was used to steer a "helicopter" down to a landing pad while acknowledging randomly placed characters.
...) during the implementation stage. The TPCT is an interactive multi-media computer based trainer designed to deliver a full fidelity and analog video training scenario to Prospective Commanding Officers (PCOs...
Astronaut Anna Lee Fisher, mission specialist for 51-A, practices control of the remote manipulator system (RMS) at a special trainer at JSC. Dr. Fisher is pictured in the manipulator development facility (MDF) of JSC's Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory.
Pietrusinski, Maciej; Unluhisarcikli, Ozer; Mavroidis, Constantinos; Cajigas, Iahn; Bonato, Paolo
The Robotic Gait Rehabilitation (RGR) Trainer targets secondary gait deviations in stroke survivors undergoing rehabilitation. Using an impedance control strategy and a linear electromagnetic actuator, the device generates a force field to control pelvic obliquity through a Human-Machine Interface (i.e. a lower body exoskeleton). Herein we describe the design of the RGR Trainer Human-Machine Interface (HMI) and we demonstrate the system's ability to alter the pattern of movement of the pelvis during gait in a healthy subject. Results are shown for experiments during which we induced hip-hiking - in healthy subjects. Our findings indicate that the RGR Trainer has the ability of affecting pelvic obliquity during gait. Furthermore, we provide preliminary evidence of short-term retention of the modified pelvic obliquity pattern induced by the RGR Trainer. © 2011 IEEE
Pietrusinski, Maciej; Unluhisarcikli, Ozer; Mavroidis, Constantinos; Cajigas, Iahn; Bonato, Paolo
The Robotic Gait Rehabilitation (RGR) Trainer targets secondary gait deviations in stroke survivors undergoing rehabilitation. Using an impedance control strategy and a linear electromagnetic actuator, the device generates a force field to control pelvic obliquity through a Human-Machine Interface (i.e. a lower body exoskeleton). Herein we describe the design of the RGR Trainer Human-Machine Interface (HMI) and we demonstrate the system’s ability to alter the pattern of movement of the pelvis during gait in a healthy subject. Results are shown for experiments during which we induced hip-hiking – in healthy subjects. Our findings indicate that the RGR Trainer has the ability of affecting pelvic obliquity during gait. Furthermore, we provide preliminary evidence of short-term retention of the modified pelvic obliquity pattern induced by the RGR Trainer. PMID:22275693
Hesse, S; Werner, C; Uhlenbrock, D; von Frankenberg, S; Bardeleben, A; Brandl-Hesse, B
Modern concepts of gait rehabilitation after stroke favor a task-specific repetitive approach. In practice, the required physical effort of the therapists limits the realization of this approach. Therefore, a mechanized gait trainer enabling nonambulatory patients to have the repetitive practice of a gait-like movement without overstraining therapists was constructed. This preliminary study investigated whether an additional 4-week daily therapy on the gait trainer could improve gait ability in 14 chronic wheelchair-bound hemiparetic subjects. The 4 weeks of physiotherapy and gait-trainer therapy resulted in a relevant improvement of gait ability in all subjects. Velocity, cadence, and stride length improved significantly (p gait trainer seems feasible as an adjunctive tool in gait rehabilitation after stroke; further studies are needed.
Ramachandran, Sowmya; Remolina, Emilio; Fu, Daniel
.... This paper describes FlexiTrainer, an authoring framework that enables the rapid creation of pedagogically rich and performance-oriented learning environments with custom content and tutoring strategies...
...) for the Close Combat Tactical Trainer (CCTT), a system of armored vehicle manned-module simulators and workstations that allows units to train collective armor and infantry tasks at the platoon through battalion task force level...
28. 14 and could land almost in any place bigger than its rotor diameter. It demonstrated the nature of the helicopter . Nevertheless, rotorcraft of... composition of airmobile units, and 67 methodology of helicopter use on the battlefield. The study seems to cover a broad spectrum of knowledge and...can be focused on the one of several aspects: employment of armored helicopters , land mobility vs helicopter mobility, composition of airmobile units
Cassie Maxwell; Kyle Ruth; Carol Friesen
Background: CrossFit is a large, growing force in the fitness community. Currently, Level 1 and 2 CrossFit certification classes do not include nutrition education. The purpose of this study was to identify sports nutrition knowledge, perceptions, resources, and advice given by Certified CrossFit Trainers. Methods: An online questionnaire that measured these four constructs was placed on a private Facebook community, open only to certified CrossFit trainers, for 10 days. Results: Complete sur...
Pietrusinski, Maciej; Unluhisarcikli, Ozer; Mavroidis, Constantinos; Cajigas, Iahn; Bonato, Paolo
The Robotic Gait Rehabilitation (RGR) Trainer targets secondary gait deviations in stroke survivors undergoing rehabilitation. Using an impedance control strategy and a linear electromagnetic actuator, the device generates a force field to control pelvic obliquity through a Human-Machine Interface (i.e. a lower body exoskeleton). Herein we describe the design of the RGR Trainer Human-Machine Interface (HMI) and we demonstrate the system’s ability to alter the pattern of movement of the pelvis...
Zisblatt, Lara; Hayes, Sean M; Lazure, Patrice; Hardesty, Ilana; White, Julie L; Alford, Daniel P
Due to the high prevalence of prescription opioid misuse, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) mandated a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) requiring manufacturers of extended-release/long-acting (ER/LA) opioids to fund continuing education based on an FDA curricular Blueprint. This paper describes the Safe and Competent Opioid Prescribing Education (SCOPE of Pain) train-the-trainer program and its impact on (1) disseminating the SCOPE of Pain curriculum and (2) knowledge, confidence, attitudes, and performance of the participants of trainer-led compared with expert-led meetings. SCOPE of Pain is a 3-hour ER/LA opioid REMS education. In addition to expert-led live statewide meetings, a 2-hour train-the-trainer (TTT) workshop was developed to increase dissemination nationally. The trainers were expected to conduct SCOPE of Pain meetings at their institutions. Participants of both the trainer-led and expert-led SCOPE of Pain programs were surveyed immediately post and 2 months post meetings to assess improvements in knowledge, confidence, attitudes, and self-reported safe opioid prescribing practices. During 9 months (May 2013 to February 2014), 89 trainers were trained during 9 TTT workshops in 9 states. Over 24 months (May 2013 to April 2015), 33% of the trainers conducted at least 1 SCOPE of Pain training, with a total of 79 meetings that educated 1419 participants. The average number of meetings of those who conducted at least 1 meeting was 2.8 (range: 1-19). The participants of the trainer-led programs were significantly more likely to be practicing in rural settings than those who participated in the expert-led meetings (39% vs. 26%, P strategy to increase guideline-based safe opioid prescribing knowledge, confidence, attitudes, and self-reported practices.
Hull, Louise; Kassab, Eva; Arora, Sonal; Kneebone, Roger
Simulation-based training in medical education is increasing. Realism is an integral element of creating an engaging, effective training environment. Although physical trainers offer a low-cost alternative to expensive virtual reality (VR) simulators, many lack in realism. The aim of this research was to enhance the realism of a laparoscopic box trainer by using a simple, inexpensive method. Digital images of the abdominal cavity were captured from a VR simulator. The images were printed onto a laminated card that lined the bottom and sides of the box-trainer cavity. The standard black neoprene material that encloses the abdominal cavity was replaced with a skin-colored silicon model. The realism of the modified box trainer was assessed by surgeons, using quantitative and qualitative methodologies. Results suggest that the modified box trainer was more realistic than a standard box trainer alone. Incorporating this technique in the training of laparoscopic skills is an inexpensive means of emulating surgical reality that may enhance the engagement of the learner in simulation.
White, Peta E; Newton, Joshua D; Makdissi, Michael; Sullivan, S John; Davis, Gavin; McCrory, Paul; Donaldson, Alex; Ewing, Michael T; Finch, Caroline F
The need for accurate diagnosis and appropriate return-to-play decisions following a concussion in sports has prompted the dissemination of guidelines to assist managing this condition. This study aimed to assess whether key messages within these guidelines are reflected in the knowledge of coaches and sports trainers involved in community sport. An online knowledge survey was widely promoted across Australia in May-August 2012 targeting community Australian Football (AF) and Rugby League (RL) coaches and sports trainers. 260 AF coaches, 161 AF sports trainers, 267 RL coaches and 228 RL sports trainers completed the survey. Knowledge scores were constructed from Likert scales and compared across football codes and respondent groups. General concussion knowledge did not differ across codes but sports trainers had higher levels than did coaches. There were no significant differences in either concussion symptoms or concussion management knowledge across codes or team roles. Over 90% of respondents correctly identified five of the eight key signs or symptoms of concussion. Fewer than 50% recognised the increased risk of another concussion following an initial concussion. Most incorrectly believed or were uncertain that scans typically show damage to the brain after a concussion occurs. Fewer than 25% recognised, and >40% were uncertain that younger players typically take longer to recover from concussion than adults. The key messages from published concussion management guidelines have not reached community sports coaches and sports trainers. This needs to be redressed to maximise the safety of all of those involved in community sport.
Liu, Dong; Chen, Weihai; Lee, Kyuhwa; Chavarriaga, Ricardo; Bouri, Mohamed; Pei, Zhongcai; Millán, José del R.
Objective. Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) have been proposed in closed-loop applications for neuromodulation and neurorehabilitation. This study describes the impact of different feedback modalities on the performance of an EEG-based BMI that decodes motor imagery (MI) of leg flexion and extension. Approach. We executed experiments in a lower-limb gait trainer (the legoPress) where nine able-bodied subjects participated in three consecutive sessions based on a crossover design. A random forest classifier was trained from the offline session and tested online with visual and proprioceptive feedback, respectively. Post-hoc classification was conducted to assess the impact of feedback modalities and learning effect (an improvement over time) on the simulated trial-based performance. Finally, we performed feature analysis to investigate the discriminant power and brain pattern modulations across the subjects. Main results. (i) For real-time classification, the average accuracy was 62.33 +/- 4.95 % and 63.89 +/- 6.41 % for the two online sessions. The results were significantly higher than chance level, demonstrating the feasibility to distinguish between MI of leg extension and flexion. (ii) For post-hoc classification, the performance with proprioceptive feedback (69.45 +/- 9.95 %) was significantly better than with visual feedback (62.89 +/- 9.20 %), while there was no significant learning effect. (iii) We reported individual discriminate features and brain patterns associated to each feedback modality, which exhibited differences between the two modalities although no general conclusion can be drawn. Significance. The study reported a closed-loop brain-controlled gait trainer, as a proof of concept for neurorehabilitation devices. We reported the feasibility of decoding lower-limb movement in an intuitive and natural way. As far as we know, this is the first online study discussing the role of feedback modalities in lower-limb MI decoding. Our results suggest that
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airworthiness Criteria for Helicopter... Appendix B to Part 27—Airworthiness Criteria for Helicopter Instrument Flight I. General. A normal category helicopter may not be type certificated for operation under the instrument flight rules (IFR) of this chapter...
... category and helicopter class rating. 61.161 Section 61.161 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... helicopter class rating. (a) A person who is applying for an airline transport pilot certificate with a rotorcraft category and helicopter class rating, must have at least 1,200 hours of total time as a pilot that...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airworthiness Criteria for Helicopter... Appendix B to Part 29—Airworthiness Criteria for Helicopter Instrument Flight I. General. A transport category helicopter may not be type certificated for operation under the instrument flight rules (IFR) of...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Helicopter hospital emergency medical....271 Helicopter hospital emergency medical evacuation service (HEMES). (a) No certificate holder may... certificate holder may assign a helicopter flight crewmember, and no flight crewmember may accept an...
van den Oord, Marieke H. A.; Sluiter, Judith K.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.
The 1-year prevalence of regular or continuous neck pain in military helicopter pilots of the Dutch Defense Helicopter Command (DHC) is 20%, and physical work exposures have been suggested as risk factors. Pilots and cabin crew perform different tasks when flying helicopters. The aims of the current
... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulation of liquids on helicopter decks. 109.575... DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.575 Accumulation of liquids on helicopter decks. The master or person in charge shall ensure that no liquids are allowed to accumulate on the helicopter decks. ...
... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Placard on lifesaving signals and helicopter recovery... SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 131.950 Placard on lifesaving signals and helicopter recovery..., Chapter V, of SOLAS 74/83; and (2) In helicopter recovery. (b) The signals must be employed by vessels or...
.... We also estimate that it would take about 3 work-hours per helicopter to rework the top cable cutter... helicopter to rework the top cable cutter assembly, $9,085 per helicopter to replace the top cable cutter... installing a WSPS upper installation, P/N 4G9540A00111, either: (i) Rework the top cable cutter assembly, P/N...
... would take about three work- hours per helicopter to rework the top cable-cutter assembly, one work... would be $255 per helicopter to rework the top cable-cutter assembly, $9,085 per helicopter to replace... 4G9540A00111, either: (i) Rework the top cable cutter assembly, P/N 423-83001-1, in accordance with the...
van Ingen, Daniel J.; Freiheit, Stacy R.; Steinfeldt, Jesse A.; Moore, Linda L.; Wimer, David J.; Knutt, Adelle D.; Scapinello, Samantha; Roberts, Amber
Helicopter parenting, an observed phenomenon on college campuses, may adversely affect college students. The authors examined how helicopter parenting is related to self-efficacy and peer relationships among 190 undergraduate students ages 16 to 28 years. Helicopter parenting was associated with low self-efficacy, alienation from peers, and a lack…
Bortolussi, Michael R.; Hart, Sandra G.; Shively, Robert J.
A simulation was conducted to determine whether the sensitivity of secondary task measures of pilot workload could be improved by synchronizing their presentation to the occurrence of specific events or pilot actions. This synchronous method of presentation was compared to the more typical asynchronous method, where secondary task presentations are independent of pilot's flight-related activities. Twelve pilots flew low- and high-difficulty scenarios in a motion-base trainer with and without concurrent secondary tasks (e.g., choice reaction time and time production). The difficulty of each scenario was manipulated by the addition of 21 flight-related tasks superimposed on a standard approach and landing sequence. The insertion of the secondary tasks did not affect primary flight performance. However, secondary task performance did reflect workload differences between scenarios and among flight segments within scenarios, replicating the results of an earlier study in which the secondary tasks were presented asynchronously (Bortolussi et al., 1986).
Sensors for synthetic vision are needed to extend the mission profiles of helicopters. A special task for various applications is the autonomous position hold of a helicopter above a ground fixed or moving target. As a proof of concept for a general synthetic vision solution a restricted machine vision system, which is capable of locating and tracking a special target, was developed by the Institute of Flight Mechanics of Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (i.e., German Aerospace Research Establishment). This sensor, which is specialized to detect and track a square, was integrated in the fly-by-wire helicopter ATTHeS (i.e., Advanced Technology Testing Helicopter System). An existing model following controller for the forward flight condition was adapted for the hover and low speed requirements of the flight vehicle. The special target, a black square with a length of one meter, was mounted on top of a car. Flight tests demonstrated the automatic stabilization of the helicopter above the moving car by synthetic vision.
Lieven, Nicholas A. J.
The work presented in this paper is concerned with the application of embedded piezo-electric actuators in model helicopter rotor blades. The paper outlines techniques to define the optimal location of actuators to excite particular modes of vibration whilst the blade is rotating. Using composite blades the distribution of strain energy is defined using a Finite Element model with imposed rotor-dynamic and aerodynamics loads. The loads are specified through strip theory to determine the position of maximum bending moment and thus the optimal location of the embedded actuators. The effectiveness of the technique is demonstrated on a 1/4 scale fixed cyclic pitch rotor head. Measurement of the blade displacement is achieved by using strain gauges. In addition a redundant piezo-electric actuator is used to measure the blades' response characteristics. The addition of piezo-electric devices in this application has been shown to exhibit adverse aeroelastic effects, such as counter mass balancing and increased drag. Methods to minimise these effects are suggested. The outcome of the paper is a method for defining the location and orientation of piezo-electric devices in rotor-dynamic applications.
Krantz, Timothy L.
Split torque designs, proposed as alternatives to traditional planetary designs for helicopter main rotor transmissions, can save weight and be more reliable than traditional designs. This report presents the results of an analytical study of the system dynamics and performance of a split torque gearbox that uses a balance beam mechanism for load sharing. The Lagrange method was applied to develop a system of equations of motion. The mathematical model includes time-varying gear mesh stiffness, friction, and manufacturing errors. Cornell's method for calculating the stiffness of spur gear teeth was extended and applied to helical gears. The phenomenon of sidebands spaced at shaft frequencies about gear mesh fundamental frequencies was simulated by modeling total composite gear errors as sinusoid functions. Although the gearbox has symmetric geometry, the loads and motions of the two power paths differ. Friction must be considered to properly evaluate the balance beam mechanism. For the design studied, the balance beam is not an effective device for load sharing unless the coefficient of friction is less than 0.003. The complete system stiffness as represented by the stiffness matrix used in this analysis must be considered to precisely determine the optimal tooth indexing position.
Iosa, Marco; Morone, Giovanni; Bragoni, Maura; De Angelis, Domenico; Venturiero, Vincenzo; Coiro, Paola; Pratesi, Luca; Paolucci, Stefano
Electromechanically assisted gait training is a promising task-oriented approach for gait restoration, especially for people with subacute stroke. However, few guidelines are available for selecting the parameter values of the electromechanical Gait Trainer (GT) (Reha-Stim; Berlin, Germany) and none is tailored to a patient's motor capacity. We assessed 342 GT sessions performed by 20 people with stroke who were stratified by Functional Ambulatory Category. In the first GT session of all patients, the body-weight support (BWS) required was higher than that reported in the literature. In further sessions, we noted a slow reduction of BWS and a fast increment of walking speed for the most-affected patients. Inverse trends were observed for the less-affected patients. In all the patients, the heart rate increment was about 20 beats per minute, even for sessions in which the number of strides performed was up to 500. In addition, the effective BWS measured during GT sessions was different from that initially selected by the physiotherapist. This difference depended mainly on the position of the GT platforms during selection. Finally, harness acceleration in the anteroposterior direction proved to be higher in patients with stroke than in nondisabled subjects. Our findings are an initial step toward scientifically selecting parameters in electromechanically assisted gait training.
Patrycja, Proskura; Kazimierz, Witkowski
The popularity of the work as a fitness instructor and personal trainer in our country continues to grow. Right about this flu in Poland is not regulated, which creates a lot of concerns about the quality of their qualifications.The existing law on sport of 25 June 2010 requirements for trainers and instructors, excluded the requirement of graduate and cut off the procedure of applying for consent to the competent Minister of physical culture to carry out specialized trainer courses and ins...
Patrycja, Proskura; Kazimierz, Witkowski
The popularity of the work as a fitness instructor and personal trainer in our country continues to grow. Right about this flu in Poland is not regulated, which creates a lot of concerns about the quality of their qualifications. The existing law on sport of 25 June 2010 requirements for trainers and instructors, excluded the requirement of graduate and cut off the procedure of applying for consent to the competent Minister of physical culture to carry out specialized trainer courses and in...
Alppay, Cem; Bayazit, Nigan
In this paper, we study the arrangement of displays in flight instrument panels of multi-purpose civil helicopters following a user-centered design method based on ergonomics principles. Our methodology can also be described as a user-interface arrangement methodology based on user opinions and preferences. This study can be outlined as gathering user-centered data using two different research methods and then analyzing and integrating the collected data to come up with an optimal instrument panel design. An interview with helicopter pilots formed the first step of our research. In that interview, pilots were asked to provide a quantitative evaluation of basic interface arrangement principles. In the second phase of the research, a paper prototyping study was conducted with same pilots. The final phase of the study entailed synthesizing the findings from interviews and observational studies to formulate an optimal flight instrument arrangement methodology. The primary results that we present in our paper are the methodology that we developed and three new interface arrangement concepts, namely relationship of inseparability, integrated value and locational value. An optimum instrument panel arrangement is also proposed by the researchers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
Yoon, Renai; Del Junco, Michael; Kaplan, Adam; Okhunov, Zhamshid; Bucur, Philip; Hofmann, Martin; Alipanah, Reza; McDougall, Elspeth M; Landman, Jaime
We developed the iTrainer (iT) as a portable laparoscopic trainer, which incorporates the iPad tablet. We then compared the iT with a standard pelvic trainer (SPT) to assess surgical skills as well as its image quality, resolution, brightness, comfort, and overall performance. We designed and constructed the iT to be compatible with the Apple iPad 3 and standard laparoscopic instruments. Participants were assigned to perform the thread-the-loops task on both trainers and were prospectively randomized to start on either the iT or the SPT. Each participant was allowed a 2-minute warm-up before the 2-minute testing period. We scored participants using the product of skill quality (0-4 scale) and quantity of loops threaded (0-10 scale). Participants then rated each trainer on image quality, resolution, brightness, comfort, and overall performance on a 5-point Likert scale. A total of 45 subjects including 10 undergraduates, 10 medical students, 10 general surgery and urology residents, and 15 experts (fellows and attending surgeons) participated in this study. There was no significant difference between thread-the-loops task scores completed on the iT when compared with the SPT for all groups tested (p > 0.05) with the exception of the medical student group, who performed better on the SPT (p < 0.05). On evaluation of each trainer, participants rated the iT as having superior image quality and resolution when compared with the SPT (p < 0.05) but rated the SPT higher in overall performance (p < 0.05). Brightness and comfort were rated similarly for both trainers. We have demonstrated face validity and criterion validity for the thread-the-loops task on the iT. The iT rated superior in image quality and resolution but inferior in overall performance compared with the SPT. The iT provides trainees a unique advantage over SPT as an additional resource to laparoscopic training as it is inexpensive, portable, and can be readily available for training. Copyright © 2014
Watts, Michael E.; Snider, Royce; Greenwood, Eric; Baden, Joel
A cooperative flight test by NASA, Bell Helicopter and the U.S. Army to characterize the steady state acoustics and measure the maneuver noise of a Bell Helicopter 430 aircraft was accomplished. The test occurred during June/July, 2011 at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida. This test gathered a total of 410 data points over 10 test days and compiled an extensive data base of dynamic maneuver measurements. Three microphone configurations with up to 31 microphones in each configuration were used to acquire acoustic data. Aircraft data included DGPS, aircraft state and rotor state information. This paper provides an overview of the test.
Heffley, R. K.; Bourne, S. M.; Hindson, W. S.
This paper describes a current study of several basic helicopter flight maneuvers. The data base consists of in-flight measurements from instrumented helicopters using experienced pilots. The analysis technique is simple enough to apply without automatic data processing, and the results can be used to build quantitative matah models of the flight task and some aspects of the pilot control strategy. In addition to describing the performance measurement technqiue, some results are presented which define the aggressiveness and amplitude of maneuvering for several lateral maneuvers including turns and sidesteps.
Friedmann, Peretz P.
Four important current topics in helicopter rotor dynamics and aeroelasticity are discussed: (1) the role of geometric nonlinearities in rotary-wing aeroelasticity; (2) structural modeling, free vibration, and aeroelastic analysis of composite rotor blades; (3) modeling of coupled rotor/fuselage areomechanical problems and their active control; and (4) use of higher-harmonic control for vibration reduction in helicopter rotors in forward flight. The discussion attempts to provide an improved fundamental understanding of the current state of the art. In this way, future research can be focused on problems which remain to be solved instead of producing marginal improvements on problems which are already understood.
Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-390 CH-53K Heavy Lift Replacement Helicopter (CH-53K) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget...December 2015 SAR March 4, 2016 10:04:18 UNCLASSIFIED 4 Col Henry Vanderborght PMA-261 Heavy Lift Helicopters Program Executive Office - Air, Anti...757-5780 Fax: 301-757-5109 DSN Phone: 757-5780 DSN Fax: 757-5109 Date Assigned: May 29, 2014 Program Information Program Name CH-53K Heavy Lift
A. Danapalasingam, Kumeresan; Leth, John-Josef; la Cour-Harbo, Anders
When a helicopter is required to hover with minimum deviations from a desired position without measurements of an affecting persistent wind disturbance, a robustly stabilizing control action is vital. In this paper, the stabilization of the position and translational velocity of a nonlinear...... controller is then designed based on nonlinear adaptive output regulations and robust stabilization of a chain of integrators by a saturated feedback. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the control design in the stabilization of helicopter motion and the built-in robustness of the controller...
Boehm, Hans-Dieter V.; Evers, Carl; Stenner, K.-H.
The TIGER helicopter is under development by the MODs of France and Germany for their armies. The initial German requirement was for anti-tank missions only. This task has been extended to support missions which resulted in an upgrade to the German 'UH-TIGER' variant. German MOD is planning to procure 212 UH-TIGER helicopters armed with TRIGAT-, HOT anti-tank missiles, STINGER air-to-air missiles, 68 mm rockets and a gun pod with a 12.7 mm gun.
Galvez, Jose A; Budovitch, Amy; Harkema, Susan J; Reinkensmeyer, David J
Robotic devices are being developed to automate repetitive aspects of walking retraining after neurological injuries, in part because they might improve the consistency and quality of training. However, it is unclear how inconsistent manual training actually is or whether stepping quality depends strongly on the trainers' manual skill. The objective of this study was to quantify trainer variability of manual skill during step training using body-weight support on a treadmill and assess factors of trainer skill. We attached a sensorized orthosis to one leg of each patient with spinal cord injury and measured the shank kinematics and forces exerted by different trainers during six training sessions. An expert trainer rated the trainers' skill level based on videotape recordings. Between-trainer force variability was substantial, about two times greater than within-trainer variability. Trainer skill rating correlated strongly with two gait features: better knee extension during stance and fewer episodes of toe dragging. Better knee extension correlated directly with larger knee horizontal assistance force, but better toe clearance did not correlate with larger ankle push-up force; rather, it correlated with better knee and hip extension. These results are useful to inform robotic gait-training design.
Russell, Carl; Johnson, Wayne
A conceptual design study of a large civil compound helicopter is presented. The objective is to determine how a compound helicopter performs when compared to both a conventional helicopter and a tiltrotor using a design mission that is shorter than optimal for a tiltrotor and longer than optimal for a helicopter. The designs are generated and analyzed using conceptual design software and are further evaluated with a comprehensive rotorcraft analysis code. Multiple metrics are used to determine the suitability of each design for the given mission. Plots of various trade studies and parameter sweeps as well as comprehensive analysis results are presented. The results suggest that the compound helicopter examined for this study would not be competitive with a tiltrotor or conventional helicopter, but multiple possibilities are identified for improving the performance of the compound helicopter in future research.
Full Text Available Control of a small type helicopter is an interesting research area in unmanned aerial vehicle development. This study aims to detect a more typical helicopter unequipped with markers as a means by which to resolve the various issues of the prior studies. Accordingly, we propose a method of detecting the helicopter location and pose through using an infrastructure camera to recognize its in-air natural features such as ellipse traced by the rotation of the helicopter's propellers. A single-rotor system helicopter was used as the controlled airframe in our experiments. Here, helicopter location is measured by detecting the main rotor ellipse center and pose is measured following relationship between the main rotor ellipse and the tail rotor ellipse. Following these detection results we confirmed the hovering control possibility of the helicopter through experiments.
Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Eason, Christianne M; Goodman, Ashley
Over the last few decades, the National Collegiate Athletics Association (NCAA) has made changes related to the increase in sanctioned team activities during summer athletics. These changes may affect how athletic training services are provided. To investigate the methods by which athletic training departments of NCAA institutions manage expectations regarding athletic training services during the summer. Mixed-methods qualitative and quantitative study. The NCAA Division I. Twenty-two athletic trainers (13 men, 9 women) participated. All were employed full time within the NCAA Division I setting. Participants were 35 ± 8 years of age (range, 26-52 years), with 12 ± 7 years (range, 3-29 years) of athletic training experience. All participants completed a series of questions online that consisted of closed- (demographic and Likert-scale 5-point) and open-ended items that addressed the research questions. Descriptive statistics, frequency distributions, and phenomenologic analyses were completed with the data. Peer review and multiple-analyst triangulation established credibility. Summer athletic training services included 3 primary mechanisms: individual medical care, shared medical care, or a combination of the 2. Participants reported working 40 ± 10 hours during the summer. Likert-item analysis showed that participants were moderately satisfied with their summer medical care structure (3.3 ± 1.0) and with the flexibility of summer schedules (3.0 ± 1.2). Yet the qualitative analysis revealed that perceptions of summer medical care were more positive for shared-care participants than for individual- or combination-care participants. The perceived effect on the athletic trainer included increased workload and expectations and a negative influence on work-life balance, particularly in terms of decreased schedule flexibility and opportunities for rejuvenation. For many, the summer season mimicked the hours, workload, and expectations of the nontraditional season
Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Eason, Christianne M.; Goodman, Ashley
Context: Over the last few decades, the National Collegiate Athletics Association (NCAA) has made changes related to the increase in sanctioned team activities during summer athletics. These changes may affect how athletic training services are provided. Objective: To investigate the methods by which athletic training departments of NCAA institutions manage expectations regarding athletic training services during the summer. Design: Mixed-methods qualitative and quantitative study. Setting: The NCAA Division I. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-two athletic trainers (13 men, 9 women) participated. All were employed full time within the NCAA Division I setting. Participants were 35 ± 8 years of age (range, 26−52 years), with 12 ± 7 years (range, 3−29 years) of athletic training experience. Data Collection and Analysis: All participants completed a series of questions online that consisted of closed- (demographic and Likert-scale 5-point) and open-ended items that addressed the research questions. Descriptive statistics, frequency distributions, and phenomenologic analyses were completed with the data. Peer review and multiple-analyst triangulation established credibility. Results: Summer athletic training services included 3 primary mechanisms: individual medical care, shared medical care, or a combination of the 2. Participants reported working 40 ± 10 hours during the summer. Likert-item analysis showed that participants were moderately satisfied with their summer medical care structure (3.3 ± 1.0) and with the flexibility of summer schedules (3.0 ± 1.2). Yet the qualitative analysis revealed that perceptions of summer medical care were more positive for shared-care participants than for individual- or combination-care participants. The perceived effect on the athletic trainer included increased workload and expectations and a negative influence on work-life balance, particularly in terms of decreased schedule flexibility and
Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Eason, Christianne M.; Clines, Stephanie; Pitney, William A.
Context: The graduate assistant athletic trainer (AT) position often serves as one's first experience working independently as an AT and is also an important aspect of the professional socialization process. The socialization experiences of graduate assistant ATs have yet to be fully explored. Objective: To understand the socialization process for graduate assistant ATs during their graduate experience. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: We conducted phone interviews with all participants. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 25 graduate assistant ATs (20 women, 5 men) studying in 1 of 3 academic tracks: (1) accredited postprofessional athletic training program (n = 8), (2) postprofessional athletic training program (n = 11), or (3) a nonathletic training degree program (n = 6). The average age was 25 ± 5 years, and the median age was 24 years. Participants were certified by the Board of Certification for an average of 2 ± 0.4 years. Data Collection and Analysis: We analyzed the data using a general inductive approach. Peer review, field notes, and intercoder reliability established trustworthiness. Data saturation guided participant recruitment. Results: The ability to gain clinical independence as a practitioner was an important socialization process. Having the chance to develop a relationship with a mentor, who provided support, guidance, and more of a hierarchical relationship, was an important socializing agent for the graduate assistant AT. Participants used the orientation session as a means to understand the expectations and role of the graduate-assistant position. Academic coursework was a way to achieve better inductance into the role via the opportunity to apply classroom skills during their clinical practice. Conclusions: Socializing the graduate assistant blends formal and informal processes. Transition to practice is a critical aspect of the profession; thus, supporting autonomous practice with directed mentoring can promote professional
Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Eason, Christianne M; Clines, Stephanie; Pitney, William A
The graduate assistant athletic trainer (AT) position often serves as one's first experience working independently as an AT and is also an important aspect of the professional socialization process. The socialization experiences of graduate assistant ATs have yet to be fully explored. To understand the socialization process for graduate assistant ATs during their graduate experience. Qualitative study. We conducted phone interviews with all participants. A total of 25 graduate assistant ATs (20 women, 5 men) studying in 1 of 3 academic tracks: (1) accredited postprofessional athletic training program (n = 8), (2) postprofessional athletic training program (n = 11), or (3) a nonathletic training degree program (n = 6). The average age was 25 ± 5 years, and the median age was 24 years. Participants were certified by the Board of Certification for an average of 2 ± 0.4 years. We analyzed the data using a general inductive approach. Peer review, field notes, and intercoder reliability established trustworthiness. Data saturation guided participant recruitment. The ability to gain clinical independence as a practitioner was an important socialization process. Having the chance to develop a relationship with a mentor, who provided support, guidance, and more of a hierarchical relationship, was an important socializing agent for the graduate assistant AT. Participants used the orientation session as a means to understand the expectations and role of the graduate-assistant position. Academic coursework was a way to achieve better inductance into the role via the opportunity to apply classroom skills during their clinical practice. Socializing the graduate assistant blends formal and informal processes. Transition to practice is a critical aspect of the profession; thus, supporting autonomous practice with directed mentoring can promote professional maturity.
Pike, Alicia; Pryor, Riana R; Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Stearns, Rebecca L; Casa, Douglas J
Availability of athletic trainer (AT) services in US secondary schools has recently been reported to be as high as 70%, but this only describes the public sector. The extent of AT coverage in private secondary school settings has yet to be investigated and may differ from the public secondary school setting for several reasons, including differences in funding sources. To determine the level of AT services in US private secondary schools and identify the reasons why some schools did not employ ATs. Concurrent mixed-methods study. Private secondary schools in the United States. Of 5414 private secondary schools, 2044 (38%) responded to the survey. School administrators responded to the survey via telephone or e-mail. This instrument was previously used in a study examining AT services among public secondary schools. Descriptive statistics provided national data. Open-ended questions were evaluated through content analysis. Of the 2044 schools that responded, 58% (1176/2044) offered AT services, including 28% (574/2040) full time, 25% (501/2042) part time, 4% (78/1918) per diem, and 20% (409/2042) from a hospital or clinic. A total of 84% (281 285/336 165) of athletes had access to AT services. Larger private secondary schools were more likely to have AT services available. Barriers to providing AT services in the private sector were budgetary constraints, school size and sports, and lack of awareness of the role of an AT. More than half of the surveyed private secondary schools in the United States had AT services available; however, only 28% had a full-time AT. This demonstrates the need for increased medical coverage to provide athletes in this setting the appropriate level of care. Budgetary concerns, size of the school and sport offerings, and lack of awareness of the role of the AT continued to be barriers in the secondary school setting.
David, Shannon; Larson, Mary
Health care practitioners face increasing expectations to provide patient-centered care. Communication skills, specifically empathy, are critical in the provision of patient-centered care. Past work correlates empathy with improved patient satisfaction, compliance, and treatment outcomes. In particular, a predictive relationship exists between clients' ratings of their clinician's empathy and treatment outcomes. There is a dearth of studies examining empathy using qualitative methodology and factors of empathy in athletic training. To gain an understanding of athletes' perceptions of empathy in the patient-clinician relationship. Qualitative interviews were completed using grounded-theory techniques. A quiet office. A typical, purposeful sample of 15 college-age Division I student-athletes (8 female, 7 male; 19.3 ± 1.2 y) from a variety of sports (football, wrestling, volleyball, baseball, etc) participated. Researchers utilized an interview protocol designed to understand the factors of empathy related to athletic training. The interview protocol established a concept of empathy to help facilitate discussion of ideas. Data were transcribed, coded, and analyzed for themes and patterns using grounded-theory techniques. Trustworthiness of the data was ensured using an external auditor, member checks, and methods triangulation. Five themes described empathy: advocacy, communication, approachability, access, and competence. Advocacy was described as the athletic trainer (AT) representing the patient. Communication was the ability to listen reflectively; approachability emerged as the comfort and personal connection the patient felt with the AT. Access and technical competence were bridges required for the development of empathy. Providing patient-centered care facilitated by developing good patient-clinician relationships is critical in enabling the best treatment outcomes. ATs portray empathy through advocacy, communication, and approachability. Empathy
Ortega, José Luis Gallego; Fuentes, Antonio Rodríguez
Research on teacher training often focuses on learners' perceptions of that training. The focus of this paper, which uses a research-to-practice approach, is instead on the views of the trainers. It evaluates the perceptions of university lecturers teaching classes as part of primary teachers' training degrees and assesses their views of the…
Müller-Putz, Gernot R; Steyrl, David; Faller, Josef
In applying mental imagery brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) to end users, training is a key part for novice users to get control. In general learning situations, it is an established concept that a trainer assists a trainee to improve his/her aptitude in certain skills. In this work, we want to evaluate whether we can apply this concept in the context of event-related desynchronization (ERD) based, adaptive, hybrid BCIs. Hence, in a first session we merged the features of a high aptitude BCI user, a trainer, and a novice user, the trainee, in a closed-loop BCI feedback task and automatically adapted the classifier over time. In a second session the trainees operated the system unassisted. Twelve healthy participants ran through this protocol. Along with the trainer, the trainees achieved a very high overall peak accuracy of 95.3 %. In the second session, where users operated the BCI unassisted, they still achieved a high overall peak accuracy of 83.6%. Ten of twelve first time BCI users successfully achieved significantly better than chance accuracy. Concluding, we can say that this trainer-trainee approach is very promising. Future research should investigate, whether this approach is superior to conventional training approaches. This trainer-trainee concept could have potential for future application of BCIs to end users.
Uhlenbrock, D; Sarkodie-Gyan, T; Reiter, F; Konrad, M; Hesse, S
The aim of the present study was to develop a new gait trainer for the rehabilitation of non-ambulatory patients. For the simulation of the gait phase, we used a commercially available fitness trainer (Fast Track) with two foot plates moving in an alternating fashion and connected to a servo-controlled propulsion system providing the necessary support for the movement depending on the patient's impairment level. To compensate deficient equilibrium reflexes, the patient was suspended in a harness capable of supporting some of his/her weight. Video analysis of gait and the kinesiological EMG were used to assess the pattern of movement and the corresponding muscle activity, which were then evaluated in healthy subjects, spinal cord injured and stroke patients and compared with walking on the flat or on a treadmill. Walking on the gait trainer was characterised by a symmetrical, sinusoidal movement of lower amplitude than in normal gait. The EMG showed a low activity of the tibialis anterior muscle, while the antigravity muscles were clearly activated by the gait trainer during the stance phase. In summary, the new gait trainer generates a symmetrical gait-like movement, promoting weight acceptance in the stance phase, which is important for the restoration of walking ability.
Arush, Ilan; Pavel, M.D.
Helicopter performance relies heavily on the available output power of the engine(s) installed. A simplistic single-variable analysis approach is often used within the flight-testing community to reduce raw flight-test data in order to predict the available output power under different atmospheric
Stanton, Neville A; Plant, Katherine L; Roberts, Aaron P; Harvey, Catherine; Thomas, T Glyn
Helicopters have the potential to be an integral part of the future transport system. They offer a means of rapid transit in an overly populated transport environment. However, one of the biggest limitations on rotary wing flight is their inability to fly in degraded visual conditions in the critical phases of approach and landing. This paper presents a study that developed and evaluated a Head up Display (HUD) to assist rotary wing pilots by extending landing to degraded visual conditions. The HUD was developed with the assistance of the Cognitive Work Analysis method as an approach for analysing the cognitive work of landing the helicopter. The HUD was tested in a fixed based flight simulator with qualified helicopter pilots. A qualitative analysis to assess situation awareness and workload found that the HUD enabled safe landing in degraded conditions whilst simultaneously enhancing situation awareness and reducing workload. Continued development in this area has the potential to extend the operational capability of helicopters in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
van den Oord, Marieke H. A. H.; de Loose, Veerle; Meeuwsen, Ted; Sluiter, Judith K.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.
Our aim is to estimate the self-reported one-year prevalence of neck pain in military helicopter pilots and to compare work-related, individual, and health-related factors in the pilots with (neck pain group) and without (reference group) regular or continuous neck pain. A questionnaire was
Pricer, Wayne F.
Technological advances have made it easy for parents and children--many of them students--to communicate instantaneously. Devices and technologies such as cell phones, laptops, texting, and e-mail all enable various forms of instant communication. "Helicopter parents" are regarded as very overprotective and overly involved in the affairs of their…
This thesis examined leadership styles in United States Marine Corps transport helicopter squadrons. Analyses were conducted to determine how... leadership styles related to subordinate extra effort, leader effectiveness, satisfaction with leader, unit cohesion, and unit morale. The importance of...military history to the development of military leaders was also examined. Leadership styles of officers were evaluated by the leader himself as well as
... Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590-0001. Hand Delivery: Deliver to the ``Mail'' address between 9 a... rotor control turnbuckle ruptured because of corrosion. The damage was discovered during a flight... corrosion or a crack. The delivery date is the date the helicopter left Eurocopter's manufacturing plant in...
...-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590-0001. Hand Delivery: Deliver to the ``Mail... during a scheduled maintenance check, a helicopter was discovered to have interference between the...) Inspect the right and left attachment points of the TGB forward attachment to measure the dimension for a...
Risk Assessment Tool GPS Global Positioning System IFR instrument flight rules ILS instrument landing system IMC instrument meteorological...daily operations. Additionally, the effectiveness of the standards is evaluated by determining if these standards would have prevented the accidents...trends, such as human behavior and lack of standards, that are common in public safety helicopter accidents. Public safety aviation agencies can use this
Coburn, Karen Levin
The relationship between college students and their parents is far closer than it was when most of today's educators were in school. Tapping into the upside and managing the potential drawbacks of highly involved parents is taking on great importance on an increasing number of campuses. Whether people call them "helicopter parents" or…
... helicopters. This AD requires inspecting the cage of the free-wheel assembly for the correct alignment of the... tail rotor drive shaft free-wheel cage, which caused a pilot to experience a heavy jerk in the yaw.... That NPRM proposed to require inspecting the cage of the free-wheel assembly for the correct alignment...
... inspecting each jettisonable emergency exit window panel (window) for sealant, and removing any sealant that... prevent failure of the windows to jettison, so helicopter occupants can exit the aircraft during an... Office, M-30, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590...
... inspecting each jettisonable emergency exit window panel (window) for sealant, and removing any sealant that... prevent failure of the windows to jettison, so helicopter occupants can exit the aircraft during an... comments to the U.S. Department of Transportation, Docket Operations, M-30, West Building Ground Floor...
Brentner, Kenneth S.
Helicopter noise prediction is increasingly important. The purpose of this viewgraph presentation is to: 1) Put into perspective the recent progress; 2) Outline current prediction capabilities; 3) Forecast direction of future prediction research; 4) Identify rotorcraft noise prediction needs. The presentation includes an historical perspective, a description of governing equations, and the current status of source noise prediction.
Martin, Daniel; Nixon, Jim
Controllers and pilots must work together to ensure safe and efficient helicopter flight within the London control zone. Subjective ratings of pilot perception of controller responsibility for five key flight tasks were obtained from thirty helicopter pilots. Three types of airspace were investigated. Results indicate that there is variation in pilot understanding of controller responsibility compared to the formal regulations that define controller responsibility. Significant differences in the perception of controller responsibility were found for the task of aircraft separation in class D airspace and along helicopter routes. Analysis of the patterns of response suggests that task type rather than the airspace type may be the key factor. Results are framed using the concept of a shared mental model. This research demonstrates that pilots flying in complex London airspace have an expectation of controller responsibility for certain flight tasks, in certain airspace types that is not supported by aviation regulation. Practitioner Summary: The responsibility for tasks during flight varies according to the flight rules used and airspace type. Helicopter pilots may attribute responsibility to controllers for tasks when controllers have no responsibility as defined by regulation. This variation between pilot perceptions of controller responsibility could affect safety within the London control zone.
... prompted by flight crew reports of deviations between the displayed attitude on the attitude display screen... screens occurred simultaneously during flight on several helicopters equipped with the GV76-1 vertical... of the Rotorcraft Flight Manual (RFM) by inserting a copy of this AD into the RFM or by pen and ink...
... prompted by flight crew reports of deviations between the displayed attitude on the attitude display screen... screens occurred simultaneously during flight on several helicopters equipped with the GV76-1 vertical... of the Rotorcraft Flight Manual (RFM) by inserting a copy of this AD into the RFM or by pen and ink...
required to fully service two engines during engine change. 3. One quart of hydr aulic fluid , MIL 5606. Used to replace spillage while disconnecting...Maryland , dated 24 January 1963. 7. Report Nr. 1, Final Report, Climatic Laboratory Environ- mental Test of the Model UH- 2A Helicopter , by US
Wilson, John C.; Kelley, Henry L.; Donahue, Cynthia C.; Yenni, Kenneth R.
The use of a strake or spoiler on a helicopter tail boom to beneficially change helicopter tail boom air loads was suggested in the United States in 1975. The anticipated benefits were a change of tail boom loads to reduce required tail rotor thrust and power and improve directional control. High tail boom air loads experienced by the YAH-64 and described in 1978 led to a wind tunnel investigation of the usefullness of strakes in altering such loads on the AH-64, UH-60, and UH-1 helicopters. The wind tunnel tests of 2-D cross sections of the tail boom of each demonstrated that a strake or strakes would be effective. Several limited test programs with the U.S. Army's OH-58A, AH-64, and UH-60A were conducted which showed the effects of strakes were modest for those helicopters. The most recent flight test program, with a Bell 204B, disclosed that for the 204B the tail boom strake or strakes would provide more than a modest improvement in directional control and reduction in tail rotor power.
... September 30, 2011. (g) Subject Joint Aircraft Service Component (JASC) Code: 2436: DC Generator Control... Deutschland GmbH Model MBB-BK117 C-2 helicopters with certain Generator Control Units (GCU) installed. This..., West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590-0001. Hand...
..., 2011. (h) Subject Joint Aircraft Service Component (JASC) Code: 2436: DC Generator Control Unit. Issued... Deutschland GmbH (ECD) Model MBB-BK117 C-2 helicopters with certain Generator Control Units (GCU) installed... Ground Floor, Room W12- 140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...
Kaufmann, David N.
The results of flight tests to determine the feasibility of using the Global Positioning System (GPS) in the Differential mode (DGPS) to provide high accuracy, precision navigation and guidance for helicopter approaches to landing are presented. The airborne DGPS receiver and associated equipment is installed in a NASA UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter. The ground-based DGPS reference receiver is located at a surveyed test site and is equipped with a real-time VHF data link to transmit correction information to the airborne DGPS receiver. The corrected airborne DGPS information, together with the preset approach geometry, is used to calculate guidance commands which are sent to the aircraft's approach guidance instruments. The use of DGPS derived guidance for helicopter approaches to landing is evaluated by comparing the DGPS data with the laser tracker truth data. The errors indicate that the helicopter position based on DGPS guidance satisfies the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Category 1 (CAT 1) lateral and vertical navigational accuracy requirements.
Sierksma, G.; Tijssen, G.A.
This paper deals with a vehicle routing problem with split demands, namely the problem of determining a flight schedule for helicopters to off-shore platform locations for exchanging crew people employed on these platforms. The problem is formulated as an LP model and solved by means of a
future full-scale testing. The thrust sources examined were a 1 in. diameter nozzle , a 4 in. diameter nozzle , and a 16 in. ducted fan. The sources...Hiller also evaluated inclining the thrust vector , and determined there was little reduction in dynamic pressure at the point of ground interaction...CHARACTERISTICS, CAUSES, AND EVALUATION OF HELICOPTER PARTICULATE VISUAL OBSTRUCTION THESIS
...) Subject Joint Aircraft Service Component (JASC) Code: 2800, Fuel system. Issued in Fort Worth, Texas, on... aft fuel system 40 micron fuel filter element with a 10 micron fuel filter element. This proposed AD... AD for the Sikorsky Model S-61A, D, E, L, N, NM, R, and V helicopters with a fuel system 40 micron...
... aft fuel system 40 micron fuel filter element with a 10 micron nominal (40 micron absolute) fuel... helicopters with a fuel system 40 micron fuel filter element, part number (P/N) 52-0505-2 or 52-01064-1. That NPRM proposed to require replacing each forward and aft fuel system 40 micron fuel filter element with...
Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.
The guide provides an outline of the skills required to pass the flight test for an Instrument Pilot Helicopter Rating under Part 61 (revised) of Federal Aviation Regulations. General procedures for flight tests are described and the following pilot operations outlined: maneuvering by reference to instruments, IFR navigation, instrument…
... revising the RFM to reduce the Velocity Never Exceed (V NE ) indicated airspeed (IAS) limitation. It also... (IAS). EAD 2012-0217-E retains some of the requirements of EAD 2012-0207-E, removes the airspeed... Model AS550C3 helicopters (EASB 01.00.65). EASB 01.00.65 is Revision 3, dated February 4, 2013. EASB 01...
Dimanlig, Arsenio C. B.; Vandam, Cornelis P.; Duque, Earl P. N.
Flowfields around helicopters contain complex flow features such as large separated flow regions, vortices, shear layers, blown and suction surfaces and an inherently unsteady flow imposed by the rotor system. Another complicated feature of helicopters is their infrared signature. Typically, the aircraft's exhaust plume interacts with the rotor downwash, the fuselage's complicated flowfield, and the fuselage itself giving each aircraft a unique IR signature at given flight conditions. The goal of this project was to compute the flow about a realistic helicopter fuselage including the interaction of the engine air intakes and exhaust plume. The computations solve the Think-Layer Navier Stokes equations using overset type grids and in particular use the OVERFLOW code by Buning of NASA Ames. During this three month effort, an existing grid system of the Comanche Helicopter was to be modified to include the engine inlet and the hot engine exhaust. The engine exhaust was to be modeled as hot air exhaust. However, considerable changes in the fuselage geometry required a complete regriding of the surface and volume grids. The engine plume computations have been delayed to future efforts. The results of the current work consists of a complete regeneration of the surface and volume grids of the most recent Comanche fuselage along with a flowfield computation.
Johnson, Danny J.
This hands-on project uses a paper helicopter to teach students how to distinguish between common and special causes of variability when developing and using statistical process control charts. It allows the student to experience a process that is out-of-control due to imprecise or incomplete product design specifications and to discover how the…
Full Text Available Omnidirectional dynamic space parameters of high-speed rotating helicopter blades are precise 3D vector description of the blades. In particular, the elevation difference is directly related to the aerodynamic performance and maneuverability of the helicopter. The state of the art detection techniques based on optics and common vision have several drawbacks, such as high demands on devices but poor extensibility, limited measurement range and fixed measurement position. In this paper, a novel approach of helicopter blades running elevation measurement is proposed based on omnidirectional vision. With the advantages of panoramic visual imaging integration, 360° field of view and rotation in-variance, high-resolution images of all rotating blades positions are obtained at one time. By studying the non-linear calibration and calculation model of omnidirectional vision system, aiming at solving the problem of inaccurate visual space mapping model, the omnidirectional and full-scale measurement of the elevation difference are finalized. Experiments are carried out on our multifunctional simulation blades test system and the practical blades test tower, respectively. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method and show that the proposed method can considerably reduce the complexity of measurement. Keywords: Full-scale measurement, Helicopter blades elevation, Non-linear calibration, Omnidirectional vision, Unified sphere model
... (ECD) Model MBB-BK 117 C-2 helicopter picked up a dummy load of 552 lbs. to conduct a ``maximum load... comply with this AD. It will take about 1 work-hour to perform the lift testing at an average labor rate... the distribution of power and responsibilities among the various levels of government. For the reasons...
Full Text Available This article deals with the possibility to use existing helicopter Point in Space procedures with minor changes for airplanes. The basis is to find parts of PinS procedures that need to be changed, suggest these changes, and then determine whether the revised procedures could be usable and could bring the benefits for airplane operations.
The need to provide the necessary funding to research, design and contract the building of an advanced technology rotorcraft that will meet the mission demands of public service (fire, police, paramedics and rescue) operators is discussed. Noise and cost factors, the greatest objections on the part of many police and public adminstrators are addressed. The growth of helicopter utilization in public service is documented.
... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... airworthiness directive (AD) for Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-70, S-70A, S-70C, S-70C(M... after receipt. For service information identified in this AD, contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation...
Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Myers, Sarah L; Walker, Stacy E; Kirby, Jessica
Professional commitment, or one's affinity and loyalty to a career, has become a topic of interest in athletic training. The expanding research on the topic, however, has omitted newly credentialed athletic trainers (ATs). For an impressionable group of practitioners, transitioning to clinical practice can be stressful. To explore the professional commitment of newly credentialed ATs in the secondary school setting. Secondary school. Qualitative study. A total of 31 newly credentialed ATs (6 men, 25 women; mean age = 24 ± 3 years) participated. Of these, 17 ATs (4 men, 13 women; mean age = 25 ± 4 years) were employed full time in the secondary school setting, and 14 ATs (2 men, 12 women; mean age = 23.0 ± 2.0 years) were graduate assistant students in the secondary school setting. All participants completed semistructured interviews, which focused on their experiences in the secondary school setting and transitioning into the role and setting. Transcripts were analyzed using the phenomenologic approach. Creditability was established by peer review, member checks, and researcher triangulation. Four main findings related to the professional commitment of newly credentialed ATs in the secondary school setting were identified. Work-life balance, professional relationships formed with the student-athletes, enjoyment gained from working in the secondary school setting, and professional responsibility emerged as factors facilitating commitment. Affective commitment is a primary facilitator of professional commitment. Newly credentialed ATs who enjoy their jobs and have time to engage in nonwork roles are able to maintain a positive professional commitment. Our findings align with the previous literature and help strengthen our understanding that rejuvenation and passion are important to professional commitment.
Maurício Leite da Silva
Este estudo objetivou compreender os significados do atendimento do personal trainer para o respectivo aluno deste profissional. É uma pesquisa de cunho qualitativo que se sustenta na literatura especializada sobre as temáticas personal trainer e treinamento personalizado. O estudo se valeu da análise de conteúdo como método e da entrevista semiestruturada como ferramenta metodológica. Foram entrevistados sete alunos de treinadores personalizados de uma academia de ginástica da cidade de Cachoeirinha/RS, Brasil. Após a análise das entrevistas, foi possível compreender que o atendimento do personal trainer para os alunos entrevistados significa resultados rápidos, confiança e motivação.
Thorson, Chad M; Kelly, Jason P; Forse, R Armour; Turaga, Kiran K
There are differences between the genders in their innate performances on simulation trainers, which may impair accurate assessment of psychomotor skills. The performance of fourth-year students with no exposure to the Minimally Invasive Surgical Trainer compared based on gender, and other psychomotor skills. Our study included 16 male and 16 female students. After adjusting for choice of medical specialty (Pvideo game use (P=.6), and experience in the operating room (P=.4), female sex was an independent factor for worse performance (P=.04) in multivariate models. Women took more time than men (P<.01) and made more errors (29 versus 25 on 3 reps, P<.01). Among medical students with no previous exposure to laparoscopic trainers, female students perform worse than male students after adjusting for confounding factors. This difference must be recognized by training programs while using simulators for training and evaluation.
Otani, Taiichi; Oki, Ken-ichi; Akino, Mitsuaki; Tamura, Satoru; Naito, Yuki; Homma, Chihiro; Ikeda, Hisami; Sumita, Shinzou
Background There are no reported studies on whether a helicopter flight affects the quality and shelf-life of red blood cells stored in mannitol-adenine-phosphate. Materials and methods Seven days after donation, five aliquots of red blood cells from five donors were packed into an SS-BOX-110 container which can maintain the temperature inside the container between 2 °C and 6 °C with two frozen coolants. The temperature of an included dummy blood bag was monitored. After the box had been transported in a helicopter for 4 hours, the red blood cells were stored again and their quality evaluated at day 7 (just after the flight), 14, 21 and 42 after donation. Red blood cell quality was evaluated by measuring adenosine triphosphate, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, and supernatant potassium, as well as haematocrit, intracellular pH, glucose, supernatant haemoglobin, and haemolysis rate at the various time points. Results During the experiment the recorded temperature remained between 2 and 6 °C. All data from the red blood cells that had undergone helicopter transportation were the same as those from a control group of red blood cell samples 7 (just after the flight), 14, 21, and 42 days after the donation. Only supernatant Hb and haemolysis rate 42 days after the donation were slightly increased in the helicopter-transported group of red blood cell samples. All other parameters at 42 days after donation were the same in the two groups of red blood cells. Discussion These results suggest that red blood cells stored in mannitol-adenine-phosphate are not significantly affected by helicopter transportation. The differences in haemolysis by the end of storage were small and probably not of clinical significance. PMID:22153688
Otani, Taiichi; Oki, Ken-ichi; Akino, Mitsuaki; Tamura, Satoru; Naito, Yuki; Homma, Chihiro; Ikeda, Hisami; Sumita, Shinzou
There are no reported studies on whether a helicopter flight affects the quality and shelf-life of red blood cells stored in mannitol-adenine-phosphate. Seven days after donation, five aliquots of red blood cells from five donors were packed into an SS-BOX-110 container which can maintain the temperature inside the container between 2 °C and 6 °C with two frozen coolants. The temperature of an included dummy blood bag was monitored. After the box had been transported in a helicopter for 4 hours, the red blood cells were stored again and their quality evaluated at day 7 (just after the flight), 14, 21 and 42 after donation. Red blood cell quality was evaluated by measuring adenosine triphosphate, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, and supernatant potassium, as well as haematocrit, intracellular pH, glucose, supernatant haemoglobin, and haemolysis rate at the various time points. During the experiment the recorded temperature remained between 2 and 6 °C. All data from the red blood cells that had undergone helicopter transportation were the same as those from a control group of red blood cell samples 7 (just after the flight), 14, 21, and 42 days after the donation. Only supernatant Hb and haemolysis rate 42 days after the donation were slightly increased in the helicopter-transported group of red blood cell samples. All other parameters at 42 days after donation were the same in the two groups of red blood cells. These results suggest that red blood cells stored in mannitol-adenine-phosphate are not significantly affected by helicopter transportation. The differences in haemolysis by the end of storage were small and probably not of clinical significance.
Daniels, M.L.; Marion, J.L.
Heavy recreational visitation within protected natural areas has resulted in many ecological impacts. Many of these impacts may be avoided or minimized through adoption of low-impact hiking and camping practices. Although ?No Trace? messages have been promoted in public lands since the 1970s, few studies have documented the reception and effectiveness of these messages. The U.S. Leave No Trace Center for Outdoor Ethics develops and promotes two-day Trainer courses that teach Leave No Trace (LNT) skills and ethics to outdoor professionals, groups, and interested individuals. This study examined the change in knowledge, ethics, and behavior of LNT Trainer course participants. The respondents were a convenience sample of participants in Trainer courses offered from April through August 2003. Trainer course instructors administered pre-course and post-course questionnaires to their participants, and we contacted participants individually with a followup questionnaire 4 months after completion of their course. Scores for each of the sections increased immediately following the course, and decreased slightly over the 4 months following the course. Overall, more than half of the knowledge and behavior items, and half of the ethics items, showed significant improvement from pre-course measures to the follow-up. Age, reported LNT experience, and backpacking experience affected the participants? pre-course knowledge and behavior scores. Younger, less experienced respondents also showed a greater improvement in behavior following the course. Trainer course participants also shared their LNT skills and ethics with others both formally and informally. In summary, the LNT Trainer course was successful in increasing participants? knowledge, ethics, and behavior, which they then shared with others. Since many low impact skills taught in the LNT curriculum are supported by scientific research, LNT educational programs have the potential to effectively minimize the environmental
Full Text Available Background: The dental clinical setting, which is a significant learning environment for undergraduate dental students, may induce anxiety, which may adversely affect the clinical performance. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine the factors provoking clinical anxiety in dental students from the trainers and students perspectives. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 6 th (final year dental students of University of Benin and their clinical trainers between January and March 2012 using the 38-item modified Moss and McManus clinical anxiety questionnaire. Results: Of the 67 participants, 32 (47.8% were 6 th year dental students while 35 (52.2% were clinical trainers. According to the students, the top clinical anxiety provoking situations were inability to meet requirements before exams, inability to pass the final exams, dealing with psychiatric patients, coping with uncooperative children, getting infected by patients, fracturing a tooth during extraction, extracting the wrong tooth, discovering calculus by the supervisor after scaling, accidental pulp exposure, inadvertently hurting patients and using the high speed hand piece. There existed concordance on the top two clinical anxiety provoking situations reported by the students and their clinical trainers. However, measuring blood pressure, taking pulse, presenting in the clinic, handling a syncopal attack, and accidental pulp exposure were statistically significant contrasting clinical anxiety provoking situations from dental students and trainers perspectives. Conclusion: Data from this study revealed that clinical trainers share largely the same perspectives with the dental students on the clinical anxiety provoking situations with slight variations. Fostering a supportive learning environment conducive to dental student learning by strengthen efforts to minimize clinical anxiety is a necessity.
Donaldson, Alex; Finch, Caroline F
First-aid is a recommended injury prevention and risk management strategy in community sport; however, little is known about the sport-specific competencies required by first-aid providers. To achieve expert consensus on the competencies required by community Australian Football (community-AF) sports trainers. A three-round online Delphi process. Community-AF. 16 Australian sports first-aid and community-AF experts. Rating of competencies as either 'essential', 'expected', 'ideal' or 'not required'. Results After Round 3, 47 of the 77 (61%) competencies were endorsed as 'essential' or 'expected' for a sports trainer to effectively perform the activities required to the standards expected at a community-AF club by ≥75% of experts. These competencies covered: the role of the sports trainer; the responsibilities of the sports trainer; emergency management; injury and illness assessment and immediate management; taping; and injury prevention and risk management. Four competencies (5%) were endorsed as 'ideal' or 'not required' by ≥85% of experts and were excluded from further consideration. The 26 competencies where consensus was not reached were retained as second-tier, optional competencies. Sports trainers are important members of on-field first-aid teams, providing support to both injured players and other sports medicine professionals. The competencies identified in this study provide the basis of a proposed two-tiered community-AF-specific sports trainer education structure that can be implemented by the peak sports body. This includes six mandatory modules, relating to the 'required' competencies, and a further six optional modules covering competencies on which consensus was not reached.
Stephanie M. Mazerolle
Full Text Available Transition to clinical practice is an important topic in athletic training, as it can be a period of time that presents challenges for the athletic trainer. Most of the research pertaining to transition to practice focuses on the skills and knowledge necessary for clinical practice, yet we know that stress can manifest from not only being an independent practitioner but also from learning how to balance one’s roles. We wanted to understand the perspective of today’s novice athletic trainers and how they feel in their first full-time position, specifically relating to their professional development and establishment or maintenance of work-life balance (WLB. Using a qualitative paradigm, we phone interviewed athletic trainers who were categorized as career starters by the National Athletic Trainers’ Association. Using a purposive recruitment strategy we were able to recruit 20 (12 female, 8 male athletic trainers meeting this classification. General inductive analyses were used to code the data from our interviews, and we satisfied credibility though saturation of the data, peer review, and researcher triangulations during the coding process. Our findings suggest that while confidence in clinical skills is apparent, some of the more administrative aspects of clinical practice present challenges. We found that various employment settings offered various expectations or challenges that had the potential to impact WLB. A blend of professional and organizational processes helped transition the athletic trainer, and although both were helpful each also could be bolstered to improve transitioning for the newly credentialed athletic trainer. Employers of early career starters should be aware of the stress related to transition to practice, and the time it can take to acclimate.
Skvortsova, V I; Ivanova, G E; Kovrazhkina, E A; Rumiantseva, N A; Staritsyn, A N; Suvorov, A Iu; Sogomonian, E K
An aim of the study was to evaluate efficacy of using Gait Trainer GT1, a robot-assisted gait trainer with a system of body-weight support, for the rehabilitation of gait in patients in the acute period of cerebral stroke. A main group included 30 patients in the acute period of ischemic and hemorrhage stroke and a control group--20 age- and sex matched patients. Patients of both groups had daily kinesitherapy sessions with a rehabilitator. Patients of the main group had additional sessions on the Gait Trainer GT1 from the moment of functional readiness to adequate orthostatic probe. Efficacy of rehabilitation was assessed in the four following phases: the first verticalization of patient in the standing position, adaptation of patient to the standing position, walking with assistance, independent walking. Muscular power (scores) in all muscles of low extremities, muscle tonus (the Ashfort scale), amplitude of tendinous reflexes on the reflexes scale, sensory disturbances and discoordination syndromes (specially elaborated scales), pathological positions in the axial muscular system and extremities, functional status (a steadiness scale, the Berg balance scale, the Barthel scale, 5 m test) were assessed in each phase. Stabilometry was conducted for objective evaluation of vertical balance function. The duration of sessions on GT1 and a number of exercises were depended on the patient's tolerability to physical activity. Percentage of relief was determined by the ability of a patient to balance in the standing position. Each patient had 8-10 sessions. A significant improvement of the functional status: ability to balance in standing position, walking, increase of self-care skills were observed in both groups. No significant differences in the level of functional improvements were found compared to the control group. However some peculiarities of the rehabilitation of primary neurologic deficit were observed during CT1-trainings: the normalization of muscle tonus
Hesselfeldt, Rasmus; Pedersen, Frants; Steinmetz, Jacob
This study aimed to compare air (AIR) and ground transport (GRD) of STEMI patients bound for primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI).......This study aimed to compare air (AIR) and ground transport (GRD) of STEMI patients bound for primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI)....
Jochemsen-van der Leeuw, H. G. A. Ria; van Dijk, Nynke; Wieringa-de Waard, Margreet
Purpose Positive role modeling by clinical trainers is important for helping trainees learn professional and competent behavior. The authors developed and validated an instrument to assess clinical trainers as role models: the Role Model Apperception Tool (RoMAT). Method On the basis of a 2011
Yuan, Shupei; Oshita, Tsuyoshi; AbiGhannam, Niveen; Dudo, Anthony; Besley, John C.; Koh, Hyeseung E.
The current study explores the degree to which two-way communication is applied in science communication contexts in North America, based on the experiences of science communication trainers. Interviews with 24 science communication trainers suggest that scientists rarely focus on applying two-way communication tactics, such as listening to their…
Stephanie M. Mazerolle; McLain Whitney; Christy Eason
Transition to clinical practice is an important topic in athletic training, as it can be a period of time that presents challenges for the athletic trainer. Most of the research pertaining to transition to practice focuses on the skills and knowledge necessary for clinical practice, yet we know that stress can manifest from not only being an independent practitioner but also from learning how to balance one’s roles. We wanted to understand the perspective of today’s novice athletic trainers a...
Dempsey, Paula J.; Branning, Jeremy; Wade, Damiel R.; Bolander, Nathan
The focus of this paper was to compare the performance of HUMS condition indicators (CI) when detecting a bearing fault in a test stand or on a helicopter. This study compared data from two sources: first, CI data collected from accelerometers installed on two UH-60 Black Hawk helicopters when oil cooler bearing faults occurred, along with data from helicopters with no bearing faults; and second, CI data that was collected from ten cooler bearings, healthy and faulted, that were removed from fielded helicopters and installed in a test stand. A method using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves to compare CI performance was demonstrated. Results indicated the bearing energy CI responded differently for the helicopter and the test stand. Future research is required if test stand data is to be used validate condition indicator performance on a helicopter.
Pagano, C.; Tauro, F.; Porfiri, M.; Grimaldi, S.
Surface hydrological measurements are typically performed through user-assisted and intrusive field methodologies which can be inadequate to monitor remote and extended areas. In this poster, we present the design and development of a quadrotor helicopter equipped with digital acquisition system and image calibration units for surface flow measurements. This custom-built aerial vehicle is engineered to be lightweight, low-cost, highly customizable, and stable to guarantee optimal image quality. Quadricopter stability guarantees minimal vibrations during image acquisition and, therefore, improved accuracy in flow velocity estimation through large scale particle image velocimetry algorithms or particle tracking procedures. Stability during the vehicle pitching and rolling is achieved by adopting large arm span and high-wing configurations. Further, the vehicle framework is composed of lightweight aluminum and durable carbon fiber for optimal resilience. The open source Ardupilot microcontroller is used for remote control of the quadricopter. The microcontroller includes an inertial measurement unit (IMU) equipped with accelerometers and gyroscopes for stable flight through feedback control. The vehicle is powered by a 3 cell (11.1V) 3000 mAh Lithium-polymer battery. Electronic equipment and wiring are hosted into the hollow arms and on several carbon fiber platforms in the waterproof fuselage. Four 35A high-torque motors are supported at the far end of each arm with 10 × 4.7 inch propellers. Energy dissipation during landing is accomplished by four pivoting legs that, through the use of shock absorbers, prevent the impact energy from affecting the frame thus causing significant damage. The data capturing system consists of a GoPro Hero3 camera and in-house built camera gimbal and shock absorber damping device. The camera gimbal, hosted below the vehicle fuselage, is engineered to maintain the orthogonality of the camera axis with respect to the water surface by
helicopter from the composite radar returns. The received signal consists of returns from the rotating main and tail rotor blades, the helicopter body...is used to separate the main and tail rotor blade components of a helicopter from the composite radar returns. The received signal consists of returns...Two algorithms are presented in the report to separately extract main rotor blade returns and tail rotor blade returns from the composite signal
REFERENCES Anthoni, J. F. (2000). Soil Erosion and Conservation – Part 2. Retrieved 15 August 2009, from http://www.seafriends.org.nz/ enviro / soil ... soils susceptible to helicopter brownout. Helicopter brownout occurs when downwash disturbs the dust and sand beneath the aircraft during takeoff...destruction, as well as personnel injury or death. The likelihood of helicopter brownout is related to soil moisture content, particle size distribution, and
Maneuverability is a key factor to determine whether a helicopter could finish certain flight missions successfully or not. Inverse simulation is commonly used to calculate the pilot controls of a helicopter to complete a certain kind of maneuver flight and to assess its maneuverability. A general method for inverse simulation of maneuver flight for helicopters with the flight control system online is developed in this paper. A general mathematical describing function is established to provid...
Bahtiyar Heru Susanto
This research aimed to develop the tools of Tempo Trainer to help efficiency of arm freestyle movement on the branch of swimming. Small-scale trials were conducted on four coaches and 10 athletes in the swimming association Tirta Alvita and Yuso. Large-scale trial was conducted on 10 coaches and 25 athletes in the swimming association Tirta Alvita, Yuso, Dolphin, Caesar, and Arowana. The instrument used to collect data was a questionnaire based on the analysis PIECES (Performance, Information, Economic, Control, Efficiency, Services. The assessment result of experts, coaches, and athletes toward Tempo Trainer tool shows that the assessment categoryis good, valid and reliable. Based of the resultsthat Tempo Trainer tool developed can count the number of cycles of freestyle movement, a sound that can be heard by coaches and athletes, can be used for more than one athlete, as well as it is more affordable. The coaches assessment shows valid results with every indicator PIECES obtain value rxy > r table = 0.632, with reliable results rxy = 0.908. The assessment of Tempo Trainer draft tool by athletes is good and valid with the result of the rxy > r table = 0.750.
Corp, Mary K.; Rondon, Silivia I.; Van Vleet, Stephen M.
The "train-the-trainer" model successfully created volunteer educators in insect identification. Intensive training programs prepared 71 individuals during 2 1/2-day (20 hour) training sessions. Trainees included university Extension faculty (13), agricultural professionals (13), and certified Master Gardeners (45). The sessions were…
Tibbitts, Felisa L.
This article presents evidence of the links between human rights education and social change by analyzing the long-term effects on 88 trainers engaged in a non-formal adult training program sponsored by a women's human rights group in Turkey, Women for Women's Human Rights--New Ways. In this article, I show the transformative impacts of carrying…
Pearce, Jennifer; Mann, Mala K.; Jones, Caryl; van Buschbach, Susanne; Olff, Miranda; Bisson, Jonathan I.
Introduction: Previous literature has shown that multifaceted, interactive interventions may be the most effective way to train health and social care professionals. A Train-the-Trainer (TTT) model could incorporate all these components. We conducted a systematic review to determine the overall
Shire, Stephanie Yoshiko; Kasari, Connie
This systematic review examines train the trainer (TTT) effectiveness trials of behavioral interventions for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Published methodological quality scales were used to assess studies including participant description, research design, intervention, outcomes, and analysis. Twelve studies including 9 weak…
Full Text Available It is accepted to consider that by motivation for people that practice in a trainer hall is an improvement of health and original appearance. The aim of this research was to determine whether there is training by part of forming of positive attitude toward the health of men-sportsmen-amateurs that occupy in a trainer hall. In research took part 100 men that engage in the power training in one of three trainer halls of Warsaw. Investigational divided by two groups: 50 persons that occupy in a trainer hall more than one year, but no more than 3 years (group A and 50 persons that practice more than 3 (group B. It is well-proven that training positively influences on the emotional state of men. It was discovered at the same time, that than greater experience of sportsman-amateur, the considerably more often he used additions (including by a stimulant. There was no medical control in both groups. Positive influence of the power training shows that they can be the important element of prophylaxis and physiotherapy.
Dennis, A. A.; Foy, M. J.; Monrouxe, L. V.; Rees, C. E.
Emotion characterises learners' feedback experiences. While the failure-to-fail literature suggests that emotion may be important, little is known about the role of emotion for educators. Secondary analyses were therefore conducted on data exploring 110 trainers' and trainees' feedback experiences. Group and individual narrative interviews were…
Dias, D; Laíns, J; Pereira, A; Nunes, R; Caldas, J; Amaral, C; Pires, S; Costa, A; Alves, P; Moreira, M; Garrido, N; Loureiro, L
Partial body weight support (PBWS) is an accepted treatment for hemiplegic patients. The aim of this study is to compare the efficiency of gait trainer with conventional treatment on the gait management after stroke. Forty chronic post-stroke hemiplegics were part of a prospective research. Inclusion criteria were: first ever stroke in a chronic stage with stabilised motor deficits; age >18 and gait trainer, for the same period of time and frequency. Assessment tools: Motricity Index (MI); Toulouse Motor Scale (TMS); modified Ashworth Spasticity Scale (mASS); Berg Balance Scale (BBS); Rivermead Mobility Index (RMI); Fugl-Meyer Stroke Scale (F-MSS); Functional Ambulation Category (FAC); Barthel Index (BI); 10 meters, time up and go (TUG), 6 minutes, and step tests. EG and CG did the assessments before treatment (T(0)), right after treatment (T(1)), and on follow-up, 3 months later (T(2)). CG and EG were homogenous in all the variables at T(0). CG and EG showed improvement in almost all the assessment scales after treatment, although only some with relevant differences. EG showed statistically relevant improvement on T(1) and on T(2) in several of the assessment tools, whereas CG only showed statistically significant improvement after T(1) and only in some of the assessment tools. Both groups of chronic hemiplegic patients improved after either PBWS with gait trainer or Bobath treatment. Only subjects undergoing PBWS with gait trainer maintained functional gain after 3 months.
Peurala, Sinikka H; Airaksinen, Olavi; Huuskonen, Pirjo; Jäkälä, Pekka; Juhakoski, Mika; Sandell, Kaisa; Tarkka, Ina M; Sivenius, Juhani
To analyse the effects of gait therapy for patients after acute stroke in a randomized controlled trial. Fifty-six patients with a mean of 8 days post-stroke participated in: (i) gait trainer exercise; (ii) walking training over ground; or (iii) conventional treatment. Patients in the gait trainer exercise and walking groups practiced gait for 15 sessions over 3 weeks and received additional physiotherapy. Functional Ambulatory Category and several secondary outcome measures assessing gait and mobility were administered before and after rehabilitation and at 6-month follow-up. Patients also evaluated their own effort. Walking ability improved more with intensive walk training compared with conventional treatment; median Functional Ambulatory Category was zero in all patients at the start of the study, but it was 3 in both walk-training groups and 0.5 in the conventional treatment group at the end of the therapy. Median Functional Ambulatory Category was 4 in both walk-training groups and 2.5 in conventional treatment group at 6-month follow-up. Mean accomplished walking distance was not different between the gait trainer exercise and over ground walking groups. Borg scale indicated more effort in over ground walking. Secondary outcomes also indicated improvements. Exercise therapy with walking training improved gait function irrespective of the method used, but the time and effort required to achieve the results favour the gait trainer exercise. Early intensive gait training resulted in better walking ability than did conventional treatment.
Pauser, Johannes; Jendrissek, Andreas; Brem, Matthias; Gelse, Kolja; Swoboda, Bernd; Carl, Hans-Dieter
To investigate the value of a built-in physical strain trainer for the monitoring of partial weight bearing with an ankle-foot orthosis. 12 healthy volunteers were asked to perform three trials. Plantar peak pressure values from normal gait (trial one) were defined as 100% (baseline). The following trials were performed with the Vacoped® dynamic vacuum ankle orthosis worn in a neutral position with full weight bearing (trial two) and a restriction to 10% body weight (BW) (trial three), as monitored with an integrated physical strain trainer. Peak plantar pressure values were obtained using the pedar® X system. Peak pressure values were statistically significantly reduced wearing the Vacoped® shoe with full weight bearing for the hindfoot to 68% of the baseline (normal gait) and for the midfoot and forefoot to 83% and 60%, respectively. Limited weight bearing with 10% BW as controlled by physical strain trainer further reduced plantar peak pressure values for the hindfoot to 19%, for the midfoot to 43% of the baseline and the forefoot to 22% of the baseline. The Vacoped® vacuum ankle orthosis significantly reduces plantar peak pressure. The integrated physical strain trainer seems unsuitable to monitor a limitation to 10% BW adequately for the total foot. The concept of controlling partial weight bearing with the hindfoot-addressing device within the orthosis seems debatable but may be useful when the hindfoot in particular must be off-loaded.
Lockhart, Barbara D.
Context: As educators, athletic trainers should familiarize athletes with the concepts of self acceptance self-esteem and identity to assuage psychological trauma accompanying injury because the more a person identifies with being an athlete, the more difficult it is to deal with athletic injury. Objective: The objective of this article is to…
Mahmood, Maysaa; Alameri, Ali; Jawad, Shakir; Alani, Yasir; Zuerlein, Scott; Nakano, Gregg; Anderson, Warner; Beadling, Charles
A survey was conducted to assess trainee perception of the cross-cultural communication competency of U.S. military trainers and their satisfaction with the training they received. Findings from the survey show that U.S. military trainers rely significantly on local interpreters. This indicates variability in the ability of the trainers to communicate effectively with host nation partners, the variability being dependent on the capabilities of the individual interpreter. The findings illustrate the importance of providing military health personnel with training on how to work effectively with interpreters. The use of supplementary resources such as electronic translation devises when the interpreter is not capable of conveying health-related training information with the desired level of accuracy is recommended. Expanding the availability of general cultural training, which provides baseline information on local values, traditions, and customs in addition to health-specific cultural orientation, is also recommended to help military health trainers customize their training content and methods to fit the local environment. Reprint & Copyright © 2013 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Nzau, K. A.; Ondimu, K. A.; Gikuhi, C. W.
The purpose of this study was to examine the teaching of AIDS education. The study was mainly concerned with the implementation of the AIDS education curriculum. In particular the study sought to investigate the attitudes held by trainers and trainees towards the subject and make suggestions to improve its teaching. The study was conducted in a…
Schneider, Jan; Börner, Dirk; Van Rosmalen, Peter; Specht, Marcus
The paper presents and outlines the demonstration of Presentation Trainer, a prototype that works as a public speaking instructor. It tracks and analyses the body posture, movements and voice of the user in order to give in- structional feedback on non-verbal communication skills. Besides exploring
Batdi, Veli; Elaldi, Senel
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the views of German teacher trainers working in Turkey about their level regarding Reigeluth's organizational strategies and to analyze their views in terms of gender, geographic region, seniority, and graduated high school variables. While the population of the study consisted of German teacher trainers…
Conclusions: Task training models utilized in our course received variable realism ratings. When deciding what type of task trainer to use future courses should carefully consider the desired aspect of realism, and how it aligns with the procedural skill, balanced with cost considerations.
Newton, Joshua D; White, Peta E; Ewing, Michael T; Makdissi, Michael; Davis, Gavin A; Donaldson, Alex; Sullivan, S John; Seward, Hugh; Finch, Caroline F
Sporting bodies have developed guidelines for managing community-level players with suspected concussion in response to international consensus statements on concussion in sport. The purpose of this study was to examine the factors that influence the intended use of concussion guidelines among community-level coaches and sports trainers from two popular football codes in Australia: Australian football and rugby league. Cross-sectional survey. The survey, based on an extended theory of planned behaviour model, was completed by 183 Australian football coaches, 121 Australian football sports trainers, 171 rugby league coaches, and 142 rugby league sports trainers. Personal norms and self-efficacy were significant predictors of intention to use concussion guidelines, although the relationship between self-efficacy and intention was stronger among Australian football coaches than rugby league coaches. Analysis of the salient beliefs that underpin self-efficacy found that coaches, irrespective of football code, felt less familiar (χ(2)=25.70, psports trainers in using the concussion guidelines. At the same time, Australian football personnel, irrespective of their team role, felt that they had insufficient time (χ(2)=8.04, psport concussion guidelines should focus on enhancing self-efficacy and leveraging personal norms. Increasing coaches' familiarity and experience in using the concussion guidelines would also be warranted, as would finding ways to overcome the perceived time and resource constraints identified among Australian football personnel. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The applied dissertation project focused on the development of a comprehensive onboarding program and Trainer's Guide specifically developed for charter school management employees. Charter school education has grown significantly in the last several decades with over 6,100 charter schools that are currently serving students nationwide. Formal or…
Biggs, John; Tang, Catherine
The decision by the Minister of Higher Education, that Malaysian post-secondary institutions should move to outcomes-based teaching and learning (OBTL), involves a change in teaching in over 1,000 institutions. This massive changeover would be accomplished using the "Train-the-Trainers" model in a series of workshops. We are proud to…
Haslebo, Gitte; And Others
EIT, or the European Institute for Transnational Studies in Group and Organisational Development, was founded in 1965 as a forum for international trainers in Europe. At present EIT has about 48 members, among which 7 are in the Scandinavian countries. EIT's most important tasks lie within the field of applied social psychology. After many years…
In order to study the optimal control of helicopters, the control procedures following power failure were theoretically investigated by applying nonlinear optimal control theory to the following four optimization problems. The first was minimization of the touchdown speed following power failure. Comparisons between the calculated optimal solutions and the empirical flight test results showed that pilots used nonoptimal controls, especially in the timing and amplitude of the collective flare before touchdowns. The second was prediction of the height-velocity (H-V) boundaries. The calculated H-V boundaries showed good correlation with the flight test results. The third was optimization of the takeoff procedures for category A STOL operation following power failure. The results showed that the required takeoff distance using the normal takeoff procedure can be significantly reduced. The fourth was evaluation of the takeoff performance for category A VTOL operation. The calculating method of the maximum takeoff weight was confirmed, and possibility of allowing the payload to be increased was shown. 38 refs., 53 figs.
Full Text Available A quadrotor helicopter with uncertain actuator faults, such as loss of effectiveness and lock-in-place, is studied in this paper. An adaptive fuzzy sliding mode controller based on direct self-repairing control is designed for such nonlinear system to track the desired output signal, when any actuator of this quadrotor helicopter is loss of effectiveness or stuck at some place. Moreover, using the Lyapunov stability theory, the stability of the whole system and the convergence of the tracking error can be guaranteed. Finally, the availability of the proposed method is verified by simulation on 3-DOF hover to ensure that the system performance under faulty conditions can be quickly recovered to its normal level. And this proposed method is also proved to be better than that of LQR through simulation.
Lebacqz, J. V.
A sequence of ground and flight simulation experiments was conducted as part of a joint NASA/FAA program to investigate helicopter instrument flight rules (IFR) airworthiness criteria. The first six of these experiments are described and the results summarized. Five of the experiments were conducted on large amplitude motion base simulators; V/STOLAND UH-1H variable stability helicopter was used in the flight experiment. Airworthiness implications of selected variables that were investigated across all of the experiments are discussed, including the level of longitudinal static stability, the type of stability and control augmentation, the addition of flight director displays, and the type of instrument approach task. Among the specific results reviewed are the adequacy of neutral longitudinal statics for dual pilot approaches and the requirement for pitch and roll attitude stabilization in the stability and control augmentation system to achieve flying qualities evaluated as satisfactory.
Greenwood, Eric; Rau, Robert; May, Benjamin; Hobbs, Christopher
A new model for estimating the noise radiation during maneuvering flight is developed in this paper. The model applies the Quasi-Static Acoustic Mapping (Q-SAM) method to a database of acoustic spheres generated using the Fundamental Rotorcraft Acoustics Modeling from Experiments (FRAME) technique. A method is developed to generate a realistic flight trajectory from a limited set of waypoints and is used to calculate the quasi-static operating condition and corresponding acoustic sphere for the vehicle throughout the maneuver. By using a previously computed database of acoustic spheres, the acoustic impact of proposed helicopter operations can be rapidly predicted for use in mission-planning. The resulting FRAME-QS model is applied to near-horizon noise measurements collected for the Bell 430 helicopter undergoing transient pitch up and roll maneuvers, with good agreement between the measured data and the FRAME-QS model.
Watts, Michael E.; Greenwood, Eric; Sim, Ben; Stephenson, James; Smith, Charles D.
A cooperative flight test campaign between NASA and the U.S. Army was performed from September 2014 to February 2015. The purposes of the testing were to: investigate the effects of altitude variation on noise generation, investigate the effects of gross weight variation on noise generation, establish the statistical variability in acoustic flight testing of helicopters, and characterize the effects of transient maneuvers on radiated noise for a medium-lift utility helicopter. This test was performed at three test sites (0, 4000, and 7000 feet above mean sea level) with two aircraft (AS350 SD1 and EH-60L) tested at each site. This report provides an overview of the test, documents the data acquired and describes the formats of the stored data.
Litvin, F. L.; Wang, J.-C.; Bossler, R. B., Jr.; Chen, Y.-J. D.; Heath, G.; Lewicki, D. G.
The use of face gears in helicopter transmissions was explored. A light-weight, split torque transmission design utilizing face gears was described. Face-gear design and geometry were investigated. Topics included tooth generation, limiting inner and outer radii, tooth contact analysis, contact ratio, gear eccentricity, and structural stiffness. Design charts were developed to determine minimum and maximum face-gear inner and outer radii. Analytical study of transmission error showed face-gear drives were relatively insensitive to gear misalignment, but tooth contact was affected by misalignment. A method of localizing bearing contact to compensate for misalignment was explored. The proper choice of shaft support stiffness enabled good load sharing in the split torque transmission design. Face-gear experimental studies were also included and the feasibility of face gears in high-speed, high-load applications such as helicopter transmissions was demonstrated.
Damongeot, A.; Dambra, F.; Masure, B.
The problem of helicopter external noise generation is studied taking into consideration simultaneously the multiple noise sources: rotor rotational-, rotor broadband -, and engine noise. The main data are obtained during flight tests of the rather quiet AS 332 Super Puma. The flight procedures settled by ICAO for noise regulations are used: horizontal flyover at 90 percent of the maximum speed, approach at minimum power velocity, take-off at best rate of climb. Noise source levels are assessed through narrow band analysis of ground microphone recordings, ground measurements of engine noise and theoretical means. With the perceived noise level unit used throughout the study, relative magnitude of noise sources is shown to be different from that obtained with linear noise unit. A parametric study of the influence of some helicopter parameters on external noise has shown that thickness-tapered, chord-tapered, and swept-back blade tips are good means to reduce the overall noise level in flyover and approach.
Jason A. Bennie
Full Text Available Abstract Background Leisure-time physical activity and strength training participation levels are low and socioeconomically distributed. Fitness trainers (e.g. gym/group instructors may have a role in increasing these participation levels. However, it is not known whether the training location and characteristics of Australian fitness trainers vary between areas that differ in socioeconomic status. Methods In 2014, a sample of 1,189 Australian trainers completed an online survey with questions about personal and fitness industry-related characteristics (e.g. qualifications, setting, and experience and postcode of their usual training location. The Australian Bureau of Statistics ‘Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage’ (IRSD was matched to training location and used to assess where fitness professionals trained and whether their experience, qualification level and delivery methods differed by area-level disadvantage. Linear regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between IRSD score and selected characteristics adjusting for covariates (e.g. sex, age. Results Overall, 47 % of respondents worked in areas within the three least-disadvantaged deciles. In contrast, only 14.8 % worked in the three most-disadvantaged deciles. In adjusted regression models, fitness industry qualification was positively associated with a higher IRSD score (i.e. working in the least-disadvantaged areas (Cert III: ref; Cert IV β:13.44 [95 % CI 3.86-23.02]; Diploma β:15.77 [95 % CI: 2.17-29.37]; Undergraduate β:23.14 [95 % CI: 9.41-36.86]. Conclusions Fewer Australian fitness trainers work in areas with high levels of socioeconomic disadvantaged areas than in areas with low levels of disadvantage. A higher level of fitness industry qualifications was associated with working in areas with lower levels of disadvantage. Future research should explore the effectiveness of providing incentives that encourage more fitness trainers and those with
Bennie, Jason A; Thornton, Lukar E; van Uffelen, Jannique G Z; Banting, Lauren K; Biddle, Stuart J H
Leisure-time physical activity and strength training participation levels are low and socioeconomically distributed. Fitness trainers (e.g. gym/group instructors) may have a role in increasing these participation levels. However, it is not known whether the training location and characteristics of Australian fitness trainers vary between areas that differ in socioeconomic status. In 2014, a sample of 1,189 Australian trainers completed an online survey with questions about personal and fitness industry-related characteristics (e.g. qualifications, setting, and experience) and postcode of their usual training location. The Australian Bureau of Statistics 'Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage' (IRSD) was matched to training location and used to assess where fitness professionals trained and whether their experience, qualification level and delivery methods differed by area-level disadvantage. Linear regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between IRSD score and selected characteristics adjusting for covariates (e.g. sex, age). Overall, 47 % of respondents worked in areas within the three least-disadvantaged deciles. In contrast, only 14.8 % worked in the three most-disadvantaged deciles. In adjusted regression models, fitness industry qualification was positively associated with a higher IRSD score (i.e. working in the least-disadvantaged areas) (Cert III: ref; Cert IV β:13.44 [95 % CI 3.86-23.02]; Diploma β:15.77 [95 % CI: 2.17-29.37]; Undergraduate β:23.14 [95 % CI: 9.41-36.86]). Fewer Australian fitness trainers work in areas with high levels of socioeconomic disadvantaged areas than in areas with low levels of disadvantage. A higher level of fitness industry qualifications was associated with working in areas with lower levels of disadvantage. Future research should explore the effectiveness of providing incentives that encourage more fitness trainers and those with higher qualifications to work in more socioeconomically
RAHMATI, Sadegh; GHASED, Amir
Abstract. Small rotary-wing UAVs are susceptible to gusts and other environmental disturbances that affect inflow at their rotors. Inflow variations cause unexpected aerodynamic forces through changes in thrust conditions and unmodeled blade-flapping dynamics. This paper introduces an onboard, pressure-based flow measurement system developed for a small quadrotor helicopter. The probe-based instrumentation package provides spatially distributed airspeed measurements along each of the aircra...
Acute and chronic spinal symptoms such as neck pain may limit flying performance significantly and disqualify the pilot from flight duty. Mechanical neck pain is very common among pilots because of their exposure to vibration, +GZ forces, helmet weight, poor neck posture during air combat maneuvers, previous neck injuries, and poor treatment plans for such injuries. Successful treatment of such injuries requires appropriate therapeutic procedures as well as an aeromedical assessment. The aim of this case study was to demonstrate the benefits of conservative procedures such as spinal manipulation and mobilization therapy (SMMT) and exercise therapy (ET) in treating chronic mechanical neck pain in an Iranian commercial helicopter pilot. A 36-yr-old male patient presented to the clinic with moderate, intermittent nonradicular chronic neck pain and limited range of motion over a 2-yr period. The patient was treated with cervical and upper thoracic SMMT followed by home ET for 5 wk. After this period, the patient reported significant recovery and improvement in range of motion in his neck. Mechanical neck pain is very common among helicopter pilots. Although Air Force and Navy waiver guides recommend nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications as well as SMMT and ET, there are currently very few published studies that examine the benefits of manual and exercise therapy for treating mechanical neck pain in commercial and military pilots. Based on the results of this study, it seems that SMMT and ET may be a safe and effective in treatment of uncomplicated mechanical neck pain in helicopter pilots. Alagha B. Conservative management of mechanical neck pain in a helicopter pilot.
Russell, Carl; Johnson, Wayne
Multiple compound helicopter configurations are designed using a combination of rotorcraft sizing and comprehensive analysis codes. Results from both the conceptual design phase and rotor comprehensive analysis are presented. The designs are evaluated for their suitability to a short-to-medium-haul civil transport mission carrying a payload of 90 passengers. Multiple metrics are used to determine the best configuration, with heavy emphasis placed on minimizing fuel burn.
... this AD, do not install any of the following parts on any helicopter: (i) Left-hand sliding door, part number (P/N) 350A25-0030-00XX, 350A25-0120-00XX, and 350AMR-0227-0052; (ii) Right-hand sliding door, P/N... following a case of total failure and a case of a crack discovered on the support shaft of the sliding door...
stress versus cycles to failure (S/N) method of testing and verification. A mi..iimum of six test specimens is required to establish the mean curve with...Approach) A.D. Hall B.Sc., C.Eng., M.R.Ae.S. 4 Chief Stress Engineer (Dynamic Components) Westland Helicopters Limited, Yeovil, Somerset, England...airworthiness requirements concerning the fatifue strength of British milltary nelicopters are embodied in the U.K. Ministry Documents Aviation Publication
Kaufmann, David N.
The period between 1 July and 31 December, 1992, was spent developing a research plan as well as a navigation system document and flight test plan to investigate helicopter precision approach capability using the Global Positioning System (GPS). In addition, all hardware and software required for the research was acquired, developed, installed, and verified on both the test aircraft and the ground-based reference station.
Newman, John A.; Piascik, Robert S.; Lindenberg, Richard A.
An eight-inch-long (0.2 m) crack was found in an external fuel-tank pylon of a U.S. Coast Guard HH-60 helicopter. The damaged pylon was removed from service and destructively examined at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) to determine the cause of the crack. Results of the analysis revealed that crack initiation occurred at corrosion pits in a fastener hole and crack propagation was a result of cyclic loading.
Andersen, Knut; Baardsen, Roald; Dalen, Ingvild; Larsen, Jan Petter
The aim of this study was to provide information on the occurrence of spinal pain, i.e., low back and neck pain, among commercial helicopter pilots, along with possible associations between pain and anthropometric and demographic factors and flying exposure. Data were collected through a subjective and retrospective survey among all the 313 (294 men, 19 women) full-time pilots employed by two helicopter companies. A questionnaire was used to assess the extent of spinal complaints in a transient and recurrent pain pattern along with information on physical activities, occupational flying experience, and airframes. The survey had 207 responders (194 men, 13 women). The pilots had extensive flying experience. Spinal pain was reported by 67%. Flying-related transient pain was reported among 50%, whereas recurrent spinal pain, not necessarily associated with flying, was reported by 52%. Women experienced more pain, but sample size prevented further conclusions. Male pilots reporting any spinal pain flew significantly more hours last year (median 500 h, IQR 400-650) versus men with no pain (median 445 h, IQR 300-550). Male pilots with transient or recurrent spinal pain did not differ from nonaffected male colleagues in the measured parameters. Spinal pain is a frequent problem among male and female commercial helicopter pilots. For men, no significant associations were revealed for transient or recurrent spinal pain with age, flying experience in years, total hours, annual flying time, type of aircraft, or anthropometric factors except for any spinal pain related to hours flown in the last year.
Zhu, Yan; Lu, Yu-hui; Ling, Ai-min
In order to accurately predict the dynamic instability of helicopter ground resonance, a modeling and simulation method of helicopter ground resonance considering nonlinear dynamic characteristics of components (rotor lead-lag damper, landing gear wheel and absorber) is presented. The numerical integral method is used to calculate the transient responses of the body and rotor, simulating some disturbance. To obtain quantitative instabilities, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is conducted to estimate the modal frequencies, and the mobile rectangular window method is employed in the predictions of the modal damping in terms of the response time history. Simulation results show that ground resonance simulation test can exactly lead up the blade lead-lag regressing mode frequency, and the modal damping obtained according to attenuation curves are close to the test results. The simulation test results are in accordance with the actual accident situation, and prove the correctness of the simulation method. This analysis method used for ground resonance simulation test can give out the results according with real helicopter engineering tests.
...) activation in helicopter pilots who had been deprived of sleep. Six Army helicopter pilots were each exposed to two 40-hour periods of continuous wakefulness separated by one night of recovery sleep...
Hirshon, Jon Mark; Galvagno, Samuel M; Comer, Angela; Millin, Michael G; Floccare, Douglas J; Alcorta, Richard L; Lawner, Benjamin J; Margolis, Asa M; Nable, Jose V; Bass, Robert R
Helicopter emergency medical services (EMS) has become a well-established component of modern trauma systems. It is an expensive, limited resource with potential safety concerns. Helicopter EMS activation criteria intended to increase efficiency and reduce inappropriate use remain elusive and difficult to measure. This study evaluates the effect of statewide field trauma triage changes on helicopter EMS use and patient outcomes. Data were extracted from the helicopter EMS computer-aided dispatch database for in-state scene flights and from the state Trauma Registry for all trauma patients directly admitted from the scene or transferred to trauma centers from July 1, 2000, to June 30, 2011. Computer-aided dispatch flights were analyzed for periods corresponding to field triage protocol modifications intended to improve system efficiency. Outcomes were separately analyzed for trauma registry patients by mode of transport. The helicopter EMS computer-aided dispatch data set included 44,073 transports. There was a statewide decrease in helicopter EMS usage for trauma patients of 55.9%, differentially affecting counties closer to trauma centers. The Trauma Registry data set included 182,809 patients (37,407 helicopter transports, 128,129 ambulance transports, and 17,273 transfers). There was an increase of 21% in overall annual EMS scene trauma patients transported; ground transports increased by 33%, whereas helicopter EMS transports decreased by 49%. Helicopter EMS patient acuity increased, with an attendant increase in patient mortality. However, when standardized with W statistics, both helicopter EMS- and ground-transported trauma patients showed sustained improvement in mortality. Modifications to state protocols were associated with decreased helicopter EMS use and overall improved trauma patient outcomes. Copyright © 2015 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Juel Henrichsen, Peter
Talebob (Speech Bob) is a newly developed interactive CALL-tool for training Danish speech with special regard to the pronunciation of highly idiomatic phrases. Talebob is currently being tested in primary schools in Nuuk, Hafnarfjörður and Tórshavn (where Danish is taught as a L2). The purpose...
Naftel, Kimberly G; Yust, Elizabeth M; Nichols, Michele H; King, William D; Davis, Drew
To identify modifiable barriers in resources, knowledge, and management that may improve the care of young athletes with concussions in the state of Alabama. An electronic survey was distributed to 2668 middle and high school coaches of contact sports in Alabama, and a paper survey was completed by 79 certified athletic trainers (ATCs) in 2010. Questions focused on their resource availability, knowledge of concussions based on the 2008 Consensus Statement on Concussion in Sport: the 3rd International Conference on Concussion in Sport (commonly known as the Zurich consensus statement), and management of concussions. A total of 402 (16% response rate) coaches and 55 ATCs (70% response rate) responded to the survey. This study highlights that ATC coverage often is limited to the high school level, football, and competitions. Both coaches and ATCs primarily use physicians to make return-to-play decisions, although coaches (43.7%) usually refer to primary care physicians, whereas ATCs (43.6%) refer to orthopedic or sports medicine physicians. The study also revealed that coaches and ATCs desire education and could expand concussion awareness by providing education to parents and athletes. No overall difference was seen in the knowledge and management of concussions between coaches and ATCs; however, ATCs were more likely to identify symptoms that are positive for concussions (P = 0.04). Both groups had difficulty recognizing subtle symptoms such as trouble sleeping, personality changes, and dizziness; they also were unaware that strenuous mental activities could delay concussion recovery, although ATCs scored significantly better than coaches (P < 0.001). Neither coaches nor ATCs consistently use standardized measures such as the Sports Concussion Assessment Tool 2 (7.5% vs 56.4%) or neuropsychological testing (5.3% vs 14.5%). This study describes coaches' and ATCs' varying knowledge and management techniques and highlights areas in which targeted interventions and
Van Holten, T.; Mols, B.
No other type of aircraft is as manoeuvrable as a helicopter. Reverse in full flight, rotate in the air, hover at a standstill, the helicopter can do it all. The police, fire services, medical services, military and civil aviation all use the helicopter for the freedom of flight it offers. However,
... of compliance. (d) The Joint Aircraft System/Component Code is 2897: Fuel System Wiring. (e) The... helicopters. This action requires you to disconnect the high level fuel switches in the fuel tanks on the affected helicopters. In addition, for helicopters without a crossfeed between the fuel filler necks, you...
Exploring Intercultural Awareness in the Primary Modern Language Classroom: The Potential of the New Model of European Language Portfolio Developed by the Irish Modern Languages in Primary Schools Initiative (MLPSI)
Rantz, Frederique; Horan, Pascaline
This paper reflects a key concern for teacher trainers: how can primary language teachers promote the development of intercultural awareness among their pupils? It addresses the concept of intercultural awareness as it applies to young learners and refers more specifically to the context of the Irish primary classroom and its curriculum. It argues…
Full Text Available Natural Horsemanship is popular among many amateur and professional trainers and as such, has been the subject of recent scientific enquiry. One method commonly adopted by Natural Horsemanship (NH trainers is that of round pen training (RPT. RPT sessions are usually split into a series of bouts; each including two phases: chasing/flight and chasing offset/flight offset. However, NH training styles are heterogeneous. This study investigated online videos of RPT to explore the characteristics of RPT sessions and test for differences in techniques and outcomes between amateurs and professionals (the latter being defined as those with accompanying online materials that promote clinics, merchandise or a service to the public. From more than 300 candidate videos, we selected sample files for individual amateur (n = 24 and professional (n = 21 trainers. Inclusion criteria were: training at liberty in a Round Pen; more than one bout and good quality video. Sessions or portions of sessions were excluded if the trainer attached equipment, such as a lunge line, directly to the horse or the horse was saddled, mounted or ridden. The number of bouts and duration of each chasing and non-chasing phase were recorded, and the duration of each RPT session was calculated. General weighted regression analysis revealed that, when compared with amateurs, professionals showed fewer arm movements per bout (p<0.05. Poisson regression analysis showed that professionals spent more time looking up at their horses, when transitioning between gaits, than amateurs did (p<0.05. The probability of horses following the trainer was not significantly associated with amount of chasing, regardless of category. Given that, according to some practitioners, the following response is a goal of RPT, this result may prompt caution in those inclined to give chase. The horses handled by professionals showed fewer conflict behaviours (e.g. kicking, biting, stomping, head-tossing, defecating
Jansen, C.; Wennemers, A.S.; Vos, W.K.; Groen, E.L.
Helicopter landings are more challenging in 'brownout' conditions, in which sand and dust is stirred up by the rotary wing aircraft, obscuring visibility. Safe brownout landings require new sensor and display technologies to provide the pilot with information on helicopter motion. In this respect
A study of collaboration and the ongoing negotiation of authority in police helicopter work focused on inflight communication in one helicopter during two weeks of operation. Data were drawn from audio and video recordings of internal and external communications obtained inflight and from observation and physiological indicators of stress and…
... fatigue failure of a TT strap, loss of a blade, and subsequent loss of control of the helicopter. DATES... failure of a TT strap, loss of a blade, and subsequent loss of control of the helicopter. Since issuing... ASB also describes and contains a graph for determining the revised life limit, and provides various...
..., and subsequent loss of helicopter control. DATES: We must receive comments on this proposed AD by... could result in failure of an engine, loss of engine power, and subsequent loss of helicopter control... corrosion, leaking grease, condensation, or water. This proposed AD is prompted by metallic debris from an...
Zhang, H.; Li, Y.; Deng, S.
A two-layer robust control scheme is proposed to get a better response ability for emergency maneuvers of helicopter. Note that the power used in ascending flight is the main coupling between helicopter and its turboshaft engines; therefore vertical flight control is separated from conventional
...; Northeast United States AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY...) structure and designates two helicopter RNAV routes (TK-routes) in the northeast corridor between the... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish two helicopter RNAV routes in Northeast United States...
Ajuwon, Ademola; Funmilayo, Fawole; Oladepo, Oladimeji; Osungbade, Kayode; Asuzu, Michael
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to train primary health care workers to be trainers and implementers of community-based AIDS prevention activities in Oyo State, Nigeria, by describing an evaluation of the project. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 148 primary health care workers recruited from the 33 local government areas (LGA) of the…
Kibwana, Sharon; Haws, Rachel; Kols, Adrienne; Ayalew, Firew; Kim, Young-Mi; van Roosmalen, Jos; Stekelenburg, Jelle
Background: Ethiopia has successfully expanded training for midwives and anesthetists in public institutions. This study explored the perceptions of trainers (instructors, clinical lab assistants and preceptors) towards the adequacy of students' learning experience and implications for achieving
...) for the Close Combat Tactical Trainer (CCTT), a system of armored vehicle manned-module simulators and workstations that allows units to train collective armor and infantry tasks at the platoon through battalion task force level...
Full Text Available Quad-rotor helicopter is becoming popular increasingly as they can well implement many flight missions in more challenging environments, with lower risk of damaging itself and its surroundings. They are employed in many applications, from military operations to civilian tasks. Quad-rotor helicopter autonomous navigation based on the vanishing point fast estimation (VPFE algorithm using clustering principle is implemented in this paper. For images collected by the camera of quad-rotor helicopter, the system executes the process of preprocessing of image, deleting noise interference, edge extracting using Canny operator, and extracting straight lines by randomized hough transformation (RHT method. Then system obtains the position of vanishing point and regards it as destination point and finally controls the autonomous navigation of the quad-rotor helicopter by continuous modification according to the calculated navigation error. The experimental results show that the quad-rotor helicopter can implement the destination navigation well in the indoor environment.
Melton, Deana I.; Katula, Jeffrey A.; Mustian, Karen M.
Although research has identified a number of qualities and competencies necessary to be an effective exercise leader, the fitness industry itself is largely unregulated and lacks a unified governing body. As such, a plethora of personal trainer certifications exists with varying degrees of validity that fail to ensure qualified trainers and, therefore, protect the consumer. It is argued that the potential consequences of this lack of regulation are poor societal exercise adherence, potential injury to the client, and poor public perception of personal trainers. Additionally, it is not known whether personal trainers are meeting the needs of their clients or what criteria are used in the hiring of personal trainers. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the current state of personal training in a midsized Southeast city by using focus group methodology. Local personal trainers were recruited for the focus groups (n = 11), and the results from which were transcribed, coded, and analyzed for themes using inductive reasoning by the authors. Qualities and characteristics that identified by participants clustered around 4 main themes. Client selection rationale consisted of qualities that influenced a client’s decision to hire a particular trainer (e.g., physique, gender, race). Client loyalty referred to the particular qualities involved in maintaining clients (e.g., motivation skills, empathy, social skills). Credentials referred to formal training (e.g., college education, certifications). Negative characteristics referred to qualities considered unethical or unprofessional (e.g., sexual comments, misuse of power) as well as the consequences of those behaviors (e.g., loss of clients, potential for litigation). These results are discussed regarding the implications concerning college programs, certification organizations, increasing public awareness of expectations of qualified trainers, and a move towards state licensure. PMID:18438226
Jose A. Galvez, PhD; Amy Budovitch, PT; Susan J. Harkema, PhD; David J. Reinkensmeyer, PhD
Robotic devices are being developed to automate repetitive aspects of walking retraining after neurological injuries, in part because they might improve the consistency and quality of training. However, it is unclear how inconsistent manual training actually is or whether stepping quality depends strongly on the trainers' manual skill. The objective of this study was to quantify trainer variability of manual skill during step training using body-weight support on a treadmill and assess factor...
Full Text Available In the last years to respond to social marginalization processes compensation social policies were launched, some of them with the idea to support the construction of the employability of working people. As part of these policies, in the different levels of government, were promoted training in entrepreneurship. In this sense, this paper seeks to address the educational proposals aimed at formation in work emotions for trainers in micro-entrepreneurship Villa Maria (Cordoba. The proposal is to analyze the discourse of based management skills of trainers in relation to their possible impact on the construction of “enterprising sensibilities” for the job. To examine part this type of the training will be used methodology of q
The initial training program for trainers is part of an overall gradual development towards full professionalism. Based on the two key words, responsibility and autonomy, the global aim is to provide assistance to new instructors so that they become full actors in their own training process and to prepare them to deal with all the different situations they may meet. The SPIRAL process lasts one full year and could be characterized in four words: alternation, support, individualization and project. From the first weeks in the process, the new trainers already deliver training instructions. The SPIRAL year terminates with the presentation to the project before an evaluation board. The evaluation takes into account the project and the on going assessment of acquisition of knowledge and skills
Yudy Alexandra Molina-Hurtado
mobilization of knowledge in concrete situations and different scenarios. The objective of the article focuses on the importance of the training of trainers in the context of distance education so characterized, on the one hand, the trainer as a person who refines and contemplates his practice from a surrounding reality that impels the formation of values ethical, human, political, economic, social and immersed cultic in the role of teachers in the twenty-first century, and on the other hand, teachers in training as critical beings, advocates and peacemakers to think as teachers for life. Under this, a reflection between teacher training and professional development to the challenges that teachers face in training regarding their teaching practices supported from teaching and affirmed in the classroom through the teaching process is presented under the staging of competitions and performances from processes that generate autonomy to face the complex world in which we live.
Hendrix, A E; Acevedo, E O; Hebert, E
A growing body of knowledge indicates that too much stress can negatively influence psychological and physical health. A model proposed by Smith to explore personal and situational variables, stress appraisal, and burnout has led to significant understanding of burnout of individuals working in service professions. We examined the relationship of hardiness, social support, and work-related issues relevant to athletic trainers to perceived stress and the relationship of perceived stress to burnout. Correlational analyses were performed to examine the relationships predicted by Smith's model. In addition, we conducted stepwise multiple regression analyses to assess the relative contributions of the personal and situational variables to perceived stress and to examine the relative impact of perceived stress on 3 burnout factors (emotional exhaustion, personal accomplishment, and depersonalization). One hundred eighteen certified athletic trainers working in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I-A intercollegiate settings that maintain a football program. We assessed personal and situational variables using the Hardiness Test, the Social Support Questionnaire, and the Athletic Training Issues Survey, adapted for this study. The Perceived Stress Scale was used to assess stress appraisal, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory was used to assess 3 dimensions of burnout. Our results were in support of Smith's theoretical model of stress and burnout. Athletic trainers who scored lower on hardiness and social support and higher on athletic training issues tended to have higher levels of perceived stress. Furthermore, higher perceived stress scores were related to higher emotional exhaustion and depersonalization and lower levels of personal accomplishment. Our findings examining burnout in Division I athletic trainers were similar to those of other studies investigating coaches and coach-teachers and in support of Smith's theoretical model of stress and burnout.
Nemani, Arun; Sankaranarayanan, Ganesh
This study proposes a method that effectively tracks trocar tool and peg positions in real time to allow real time assessment of the peg transfer task of the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS). By utilizing custom code along with OpenCV libraries, tool and peg positions can be accurately tracked without altering the original setup conditions of the FLS trainer box. This is achieved via a series of image filtration sequences, thresholding functions, and Haar training methods.
Pauser, Johannes; Jendrissek, Andreas; Swoboda, Bernd; Gelse, Kolja; Carl, Hans-Dieter
To investigate the use of a physical strain trainer for the monitoring of partial weight bearing. Case series with healthy volunteers. Orthopedic clinic. Healthy volunteers (N=10) with no history of foot complaints. Volunteers were taught to limit weight bearing to 10% body weight (BW) and 50% BW, monitored by a physical strain trainer. The parameters peak pressure, maximum force, force-time integral, and pressure-time integral were assessed by dynamic pedobarography when volunteers walked with full BW (condition 1), 50% BW (condition 2), and 10% BW (condition 3). With 10% BW (condition 3), forces with normative gait (condition 1) were statistically significantly reduced under the hindfoot where the physical strain trainer is placed. All pedobarographic parameters were, however, exceeded when the total foot was measured. A limitation to 10% BW with the physical strain trainer (condition 3) was equal to a bisection of peak pressure and maximum force for the total foot with normative gait (condition 1). Halved BW (condition 2) left a remaining mean 82% of peak pressure and mean 59% of maximum force from full BW (condition 1). The concept of controlling partial weight bearing with the hindfoot-addressing device does not represent complete foot loading. Such devices may be preferably applied in cases when the hindfoot in particular must be off-loaded. Other training devices (eg, biofeedback soles) that monitor forces of the total foot have to be used to control partial weight bearing of the lower limb accurately. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Smith, Matthew D; Norris, Joseph M; Kishikova, Lyudmila; Smith, David P
Laparoscopic surgery has established itself as the approach of choice for a multitude of operations in general, urological, and gynecological surgery. A number of factors make performing laparoscopic surgery technically demanding, and as such it is crucial that surgical trainees hone their skills safely on trainers before operating on patients. These can be highly expensive. Here, we describe a novel and upgradable approach to constructing an affordable laparoscopic trainer. A pattern was produced to build an upgradable laparoscopic trainer for less than $100. The basic model was constructed from an opaque plastic crate with plywood base, 2 trocars, and 2 pairs of disposable laparoscopic instruments. A laptop, a light emitting diode (LED), and a fixed webcam were utilized to visualize the box interior. An enhanced version was also created, as an optional upgrade to the basic model, featuring a neoprene-trocar interface and a simulated mobile laparoscope. The described setup allowed trainees to gain familiarity with laparoscopic techniques, beginning with simple manipulation and then progressing through to more relevant procedures. Novices began by moving easy-to-grasp objects between containers and then attempting more challenging manipulations such as stacking sugar cubes, excising simulated lesions, threading circular mints onto cotton, and ligating fastened drinking straws. These techniques have introduced the necessity of careful instrument placement and have increased trainees' dexterity with laparoscopy. Here, we have outlined an upgradable and affordable alternative laparoscopic trainer that has given many trainees crucial experience with laparoscopic techniques, allowing them to safely improve their manual skill and confidence. Copyright © 2013 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fellow-Smith, Elizabeth; Beveridge, Ed; Hogben, Katy; Wilson, Graeme; Lowe, John; Abraham, Rachel; Ingle, Digby; Bennett, Danielle; Hernandez, Carol
Training the Trainers of Tomorrow Today (T4) is a new way to deliver “Training for Trainers”. Responding to local dissatisfaction with existing arrangements, T4 builds on 3 essential requirements for a future shape of training: 1. Clinical Leadership and a Collaborative Approach 2. Cross-Specialty Design and Participation 3. Local Delivery and Governance Networks Design principles also included: 3 levels of training to reflect differing needs of clinical supervisors, educational supervisors and medical education leader, mapping to GMC requirements and the London Deanery's Professional Development Framework; alignment of service, educational theory and research; recognition of challenges in delivering and ensuring attendance in busy acute and mental health settings, and the development of a faculty network. The delivery plan took into account census of professional development uptake and GMC Trainee Surveys. Strong engagement and uptake from the 11 Trusts in NW London has been achieved, with powerful penetration into all specialties. Attendance has exceeded expectations. Against an initial 12 month target of 350 attendances, 693 were achieved in the first 8 months. Evaluation of content demonstrates modules are pitched appropriately to attendees needs, with positive feedback from trainers new to the role. Delivery style has attracted high ratings of satisfaction: 87% attendees rating delivery as “good\\excellent”. External evaluation of impact demonstrated improved training experiences through changes in supervision, the learning environment and understanding of learning styles. We have addressed sustainability of the programme by advertising and recruiting Local Faculty Development Trainers. Volunteer consultants and higher trainees are trained to deliver the programme on a cascade model, supported by the Specialty Tutors, individual coaching and educational bursaries. The Trainers are local champions for excellence in training, provide a communication
An interior view of the Docking Module trainer in bldg 35 during Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) joint crew training at JSC. Astronaut Thomas P. Stafford, commander of the American ASTP prime crew, is on the right. The other crewman is Cosmonaut Aleksey A. Leonov, commander of the Soviet ASTP prime crew. The training session simulated activities on the second day in Earth orbit. The Docking Module is designed to link the Apollo and Soyuz spacecraft.
Foundation VET reform in Estonia / Estonian National Observatory
Currently there are two main categories of teachers in VET schools – VET teachers and teachers of general education subjects. The former status of two different kinds of VET teachers – the professional subject teacher, and the training master has been replaced by one VET teacher category by the Regulation No 18 of the Minister of Culture and Education the Statute of a VET Teacher/Trainer of 26 May 1995.VET teachers have to carry out workshop training and teach professional subj...
irdividuals adequately trained in the use of a particular trainer. ’S G. L. RICARD Scientific Officer 9., - 5 * NAVTRAEQUIPCEN 81-M-1121-1 TABLE OF...through verbal comunication with the instructors at the console. Several problems exist in the use of the flyout mismatch page. a. The automatic display...Washington, DC 20350 Washington, DC 20301 Chief of Naval Operations Commanding Officer OP-596C Air Force Office of Scientific Washington, DC 20350
A survey was conducted concerning helicopter operating environments and the trends of related technologies in Japan and abroad, and the needs and seeds were grasped. Research was made to study technical problems and measures to solve them for the development of a safe, low-noise, and low-cost next-generation advanced safety helicopter (ASH). A market research was conducted on traffic systems in the future, state of aviation-related infrastructures and their future, current state of people's daily life which centers about locomotion, and the effect that ASH would impose on society. A technical research was carried out relative to flight safety, which involved EVS (enhanced vision system), information display system for helicopters, collision avoidance advisory for pilots, air collision prevention system/surveillance system for helicopters, obstacle detection/warning system for helicopters, blade deicing system for helicopters, and so forth. Detailed investigations were also conducted for technologies for reduction in the manufacturing, maintenance, and development costs, and for reduction in noise. (NEDO)
Wickramasinghe, Viresh K.; Hagood, Nesbitt W.
The primary objective of this work was to characterize the performance of the Active Fiber Composite (AFC) actuator material system for the Boeing Active Material Rotor (AMR) blade application. The AFCs were a new structural actuator system consisting of piezoceramic fibers embedded in an epoxy matrix and sandwiched between interdigitated electrodes to orient the driving electric field in the fiber direction to use the primary piezoelectric effect. These actuators were integrated directly into the blade spar laminate as active plies within the composite structure to perform structural actuation for vibration control in helicopters. Therefore, it was necessary to conduct extensive electromechanical material characterization to evaluate AFCs both as actuators and as structural components of the rotor blade. The characterization tests designed to extract important electromechanical properties under simulated blade operating conditions included stress-strain tests, free strain tests and actuation under tensile load tests. This paper presents the test results as well as the comprehensive testing process developed to evaluate the relevant AFC material properties. The results from this comprehensive performance characterization of the AFC material system supported the design and operation of the Boeing AMR blade scheduled for hover and forward flight wind tunnel tests.
Mamaqi, Xhevrie; Rubio, Pilar Olave; Alvarez, Jesús Miguel
The workplace of today is characterized by rapid changes in work processes, in competition, in customer demands, and in work practices. To keep abreast of these rapid changes employers and employees must be committed to lifelong learning in order to keep ahead. One of the most important actors in the lifelong learning development process are the trainers, whose professional characteristics needs meeting new skills and adapting an varied and specific contents of the current labour market. Affected by the discontinuity and a high rate of job rotation, the recognition of it labour status and basic competence and skills, forms part of the Bologna Process recognized as Vocational Education Training (VET). Sixty in-depth interviews realized to managers of the centres of formation, are used as tools to obtain information about following topics: recruitment strategies, conventional and not conventional routes of the recruitment, rate rotation, qualification and training of the Spanish trainers. The transcription of the interviews achieve that not always exist a previous plan of recruitment, except that it is a question as big centers of formation. Also, the obtained information indicates a high rate of rotation that affects the trainers ones as professionals since there exists the discontinuity of the formative offer on the labour market.
Kaminski, Thomas W.; Hertel, Jay; Amendola, Ned; Docherty, Carrie L.; Dolan, Michael G.; Hopkins, J. Ty; Nussbaum, Eric; Poppy, Wendy; Richie, Doug
Objective: To present recommendations for athletic trainers and other allied health care professionals in the conservative management and prevention of ankle sprains in athletes. Background: Because ankle sprains are a common and often disabling injury in athletes, athletic trainers and other sports health care professionals must be able to implement the most current and evidence-supported treatment strategies to ensure safe and rapid return to play. Equally important is initiating preventive measures to mitigate both first-time sprains and the chance of reinjury. Therefore, considerations for appropriate preventive measures (including taping and bracing), initial assessment, both short- and long-term management strategies, return-to-play guidelines, and recommendations for syndesmotic ankle sprains and chronic ankle instability are presented. Recommendations: The recommendations included in this position statement are intended to provide athletic trainers and other sports health care professionals with guidelines and criteria to deliver the best health care possible for the prevention and management of ankle sprains. An endorsement as to best practice is made whenever evidence supporting the recommendation is available. PMID:23855363
Paleg, Ginny; Huang, Morris; Vasquez Gabela, Stephanie C; Sprigle, Stephen; Livingstone, Roslyn
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the inertial properties and forces required to initiate movement on two different surfaces in a sample of three commonly prescribed gait trainers. Tests were conducted in a laboratory setting to compare the Prime Engineering KidWalk, Rifton Pacer, and Snug Seat Mustang with and without a weighted anthropometric test dummy configured to the weight and proportions of a 4-year-old child. The Pacer was the lightest and the KidWalk the heaviest while footprints of the three gait trainers were similar. Weight was borne fairly evenly on the four casters of the Pacer and Mustang while 85% of the weight was borne on the large wheels of the mid-wheel drive KidWalk. These differences in frame style, wheel, and caster style and overall mass impact inertial properties and forces required to initiate movement. Test results suggest that initiation forces on tile were equivalent for the Pacer and KidWalk while the Mustang had the highest initiation force. Initiation forces on carpet were lowest for the KidWalk and highest for the Mustang. This initial study of inertia and movement initiation forces may provide added information for clinicians to consider when selecting a gait trainer for their clients.
Körner, Mirjam; Ehrhardt, Heike; Steger, Anne-Kathrin; Bengel, Jürgen
The aim of the study was to evaluate the interprofessional SDM training program "Fit for SDM" in medical rehabilitation, which was implemented in two steps: (1) university staff trained providers in executive positions as trainers and (2) the providers trained their staff. For the evaluation of the first step a questionnaire for shared decision-making (SDM) skills and satisfaction with the training was completed by the providers in executive positions. A staff survey was used in a cluster-randomized controlled study to determine the overall impact of the train-the-trainer program on internal and external participation in the team. The providers in the six clinics evaluated their SDM competences and satisfaction very positively after training (step 1). External participation was enhanced by application of the training content, with significant changes recorded for females and nurses in particular. However, it had no direct influence on internal participation. This is the first interprofessional SDM train-the-trainer program in Germany to bridge interprofessionalism (internal participation) and SDM (external participation); it was implemented successfully and evaluated positively. Establishing interprofessional SDM training programs should be encouraged for all health care professionals. Implementation in the interprofessional setting should consider interprofessional team factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jimenez, Carolyn C; Corcoran, Matthew H; Crawley, James T; Guyton Hornsby, W; Peer, Kimberly S; Philbin, Rick D; Riddell, Michael C
To present recommendations for the certified athletic trainer in the management of type 1 diabetes in the athlete. In managing diabetes, the most important goal is to keep blood glucose levels at or as close to normal levels as possible without causing hypoglycemia. This goal requires the maintenance of a delicate balance among hypoglycemia, euglycemia, and hyperglycemia, which is often more challenging in the athlete due to the demands of physical activity and competition. However, effectively managing blood glucose, lipid, and blood pressure levels is necessary to ensuring the long-term health and well-being of the athlete with diabetes. These recommendations are intended to provide the certified athletic trainer participating in the management of an athlete with type 1 diabetes mellitus with the specific knowledge and problem-solving skills needed. Athletic trainers have more contact with the athlete with diabetes than most members of the diabetes management team do and so must be prepared to assist the athlete as required.
Andersen, Knut; Baardsen, Roald; Dalen, Ingvild; Larsen, Jan Petter
Flight related low back pain (LBP) among helicopter pilots is frequent and may influence flight performance. Prolonged confined sitting during flights seems to weaken lumbar trunk (LT) muscles with associated secondary transient pain. Aim of the study was to investigate if structured training could improve muscular function and thus improve LBP related to flying. 39 helicopter pilots (35 men and 4 women), who reported flying related LBP on at least 1 of 3 missions last month, were allocated to two training programs over a 3-month period. Program A consisted of 10 exercises recommended for general LBP. Program B consisted of 4 exercises designed specifically to improve LT muscular endurance. The pilots were examined before and after the training using questionnaires for pain, function, quality of health and tests of LT muscular endurance as well as ultrasound measurements of the contractility of the lumbar multifidus muscle (LMM). Approximately half of the participants performed the training per-protocol. Participants in this subset group had comparable baseline characteristics as the total study sample. Pre and post analysis of all pilots included, showed participants had marked improvement in endurance and contractility of the LMM following training. Similarly, participants had improvement in function and quality of health. Participants in program B had significant improvement in pain, function and quality of health. This study indicates that participants who performed a three months exercise program had improved muscle endurance at the end of the program. The helicopter pilots also experienced improved function and quality of health. Identifier: NCT01788111 Registration date; February 5th, 2013, verified April 2016.
The rotor hub system is by far the largest contributor to helicopter parasite drag and a barrier to increasing helicopter forward-flight speed and range. Additionally, the hub sheds undesirable vibration- and instability-inducing unsteady flow over the empennage. The challenges associated with rotor hub flows are discussed, including bluff body drag, interactional aerodynamics, and the effect of the turbulent hub wake on the helicopter empennage. This study was conducted in three phases to quantify model-scale rotor hub flows in water tunnels at The Pennsylvania State University Applied research lab. The first phase investigated scaling and component interaction effects on a 1:17 scale rotor hub model in the 12-inch diameter water tunnel. Effects of Reynolds number, advance ratio, and hub geometry configuration on the drag and wake shed from the rotor hub were quantified using load cell measurements and particle-image velocimetry (PIV). The second phase focused on flow visualization and measurement on a rotor hub and rotor hub/pylon geometry in the 12-inch diameter water tunnel. Stereo PIV was conducted in a cross plane downstream of the hub and flow visualization was conducted using oil paint and fluorescent dye. The third phase concentrated on high accuracy load measurement and prediction up to full-scale Reynolds number on a 1:4.25 scale model in the 48-inch diameter water tunnel. Measurements include 6 degree of freedom loads on the hub and two-component laser-Doppler velocimetry in the wake. Finally, results and conclusions are discussed, followed by recommendations for future investigations.
Chlada, Milan; Převorovský, Zdeněk; Heřmánek, Jan; Krofta, Josef
Roč. 19, č. 12 (2014) ISSN 1435-4934. [European Conference on Non-Destructive Testing (ECNDT 2014) /11./. Praha, 06.10.2014-10.10.2014] R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI3/755 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : structural health monitoring (SHM) * signal processing * acoustic emission (AE) * diagnostics of helicopter gearbox * wavelet analysis * continuous acoustic emission Subject RIV: JU - Aeronautics, Aerodynamics, Aircrafts http://www.ndt.net/events/ECNDT2014/app/content/Paper/630_Chlada_Rev1.pdf
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Kusyumov Alexander N.
Full Text Available In this work rotor aeroacoustics in hover is considered. Farfield observers are used and the nearfield flow parameters are obtained using the in house HMB and commercial Fluent CFD codes (identical hexa-grids are used for both solvers. Farfield noise at a remote observer position is calculated at post processing stage using FW–H solver implemented in Fluent and HMB. The main rotor of the UH-1H helicopter is considered as a test case for comparison to experimental data. The sound pressure level is estimated for different rotor blade collectives and observation angles.
Full Text Available Kinematical and dynamical equations of a small scale unmanned helicoper are presented in the paper. Based on these equations a model predictive control (MPC method is proposed for controlling the helicopter. This novel method allows the direct accounting for the existing time delays which are used to model the dynamics of actuators and aerodynamics of the main rotor. Also the limits of the actuators are taken into the considerations during the controller design. The proposed control algorithm was verified in real flight experiments where good perfomance was shown in postion control mode.
Fattah, Sabina; Johnsen, Anne Siri; Sollid, Stephen J M
OBJECTIVE: Research on helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) in major incidents is predominately based on case descriptions reported in a heterogeneous fashion. Uniform data reported with a consensus-based template could facilitate the collection, analysis, and exchange of experiences...... variables were determined by consensus. These variables were formatted in a template with 4 main categories: HEMS background information, the major incident characteristics relevant to HEMS, the HEMS response to the major incident, and the key lessons learned. CONCLUSION: Based on opinions from European...
Kusyumov, Alexander N.; Mikhailov, Sergey A.; Batrakov, Andrey S.; Kusyumov, Sergey A.; Barakos, George
In this work rotor aeroacoustics in hover is considered. Farfield observers are used and the nearfield flow parameters are obtained using the in house HMB and commercial Fluent CFD codes (identical hexa-grids are used for both solvers). Farfield noise at a remote observer position is calculated at post processing stage using FW-H solver implemented in Fluent and HMB. The main rotor of the UH-1H helicopter is considered as a test case for comparison to experimental data. The sound pressure level is estimated for different rotor blade collectives and observation angles.
Galvagno, Samuel M.; Haut, Elliott R.; Zafar, S. Nabeel; Millin, Michael G.; Efron, David T.; Koenig, George J.; Baker, Susan P.; Bowman, Stephen M.; Pronovost, Peter J.; Haider, Adil H.
Context Helicopter emergency medical services and their possible effect on outcomes for traumatically injured patients remain a subject of debate. Because helicopter services are a limited and expensive resource, a methodologically rigorous investigation of its effectiveness compared with ground emergency medical services is warranted. Objective To assess the association between the use of helicopter vs ground services and survival among adults with serious traumatic injuries. Design, Setting, and Participants Retrospective cohort study involving 223 475 patients older than 15 years, having an injury severity score higher than 15, and sustaining blunt or penetrating trauma that required transport to US level I or II trauma centers and whose data were recorded in the 2007–2009 versions of the American College of Surgeons National Trauma Data Bank. Interventions Transport by helicopter or ground emergency services to level I or level II trauma centers. Main Outcome Measures Survival to hospital discharge and discharge disposition. Results A total of 61 909 patients were transported by helicopter and 161 566 patients were transported by ground. Overall, 7813 patients (12.6%) transported by helicopter died compared with 17 775 patients (11%) transported by ground services. Before propensity score matching, patients transported by helicopter to level I and level II trauma centers had higher Injury Severity Scores. In the propensity score–matched multivariable regression model, for patients transported to level I trauma centers, helicopter transport was associated with an improved odds of survival compared with ground transport (odds ratio [OR], 1.16; 95% CI, 1.14–1.17; P<.001; absolute risk reduction [ARR], 1.5%). For patients transported to level II trauma centers, helicopter transport was associated with an improved odds of survival (OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.13–1.17; P < .001; ARR, 1.4%). A greater proportion (18.2%) of those transported to level I trauma centers
Turocy, Paula Sammarone; DePalma, Bernard F; Horswill, Craig A; Laquale, Kathleen M; Martin, Thomas J; Perry, Arlette C; Somova, Marla J; Utter, Alan C
To present athletic trainers with recommendations for safe weight loss and weight maintenance practices for athletes and active clients and to provide athletes, clients, coaches, and parents with safe guidelines that will allow athletes and clients to achieve and maintain weight and body composition goals. Unsafe weight management practices can compromise athletic performance and negatively affect health. Athletes and clients often attempt to lose weight by not eating, limiting caloric or specific nutrients from the diet, engaging in pathogenic weight control behaviors, and restricting fluids. These people often respond to pressures of the sport or activity, coaches, peers, or parents by adopting negative body images and unsafe practices to maintain an ideal body composition for the activity. We provide athletic trainers with recommendations for safe weight loss and weight maintenance in sport and exercise. Although safe weight gain is also a concern for athletic trainers and their athletes and clients, that topic is outside the scope of this position statement. Athletic trainers are often the source of nutrition information for athletes and clients; therefore, they must have knowledge of proper nutrition, weight management practices, and methods to change body composition. Body composition assessments should be done in the most scientifically appropriate manner possible. Reasonable and individualized weight and body composition goals should be identified by appropriately trained health care personnel (eg, athletic trainers, registered dietitians, physicians). In keeping with the American Dietetics Association (ADA) preferred nomenclature, this document uses the terms registered dietitian or dietician when referring to a food and nutrition expert who has met the academic and professional requirements specified by the ADA's Commission on Accreditation for Dietetics Education. In some cases, a registered nutritionist may have equivalent credentials and be the
Worley, Gordon H
Helicopters are commonly used in search and rescue operations, and accidents have occurred during helicopter search and rescue (HSAR) missions. The purposes of this study were to investigate whether the HSAR accident rate in the United States could be determined and whether any common contributing factors or trends could be identified. Searches were conducted of the National Transportation Safety Board aviation accident database, the records of the major search and rescue and air medical organizations, and the medical and professional literature for reports of HSAR accidents. A total of 47 civilian HSAR accidents were identified during the study. Of these, 43% involved fatal injuries, compared with a 19% fatality rate for US helicopter general aviation accidents during the same time period and a 40% rate for helicopter emergency medical services. The HSAR accidents carried a significantly higher risk of fatal outcomes when compared with helicopter general aviation accidents (2-tailed Fisher's exact test, P .05). The number of HSAR missions conducted annually could not be established, so an overall accident rate could not be calculated. Although the overall number of HSAR accidents is small, the percentage of fatal outcomes from HSAR accidents is significantly higher than that from general helicopter aviation accidents and is comparable to that seen for helicopter emergency medical services operations. Further study could help to improve the safety of HSAR flights. Copyright © 2015 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Brooks, Christopher J; MacDonald, Conor V; Baker, Susan P; Shanahan, Dennis F; Haaland, Wren L
According to 40 yr of data, the fatality rate for a helicopter crash into water is approximately 25%. Does warning time and the final position of the helicopter in the water influence the survival rate? The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) database was queried to identify helicopter crashes into water between 1981 and 2011 in the Gulf of Mexico and Hawaii. Fatality rate, amount of warning time prior to the crash, and final position of the helicopter were identified. There were 133 helicopters that crashed into water with 456 crew and passengers. Of these, 119 occupants (26%) did not survive; of those who did survive, 38% were injured. Twelve died after making a successful escape from the helicopter. Crashes with 1 min. However, more than half of fatalities (57%) came from crashes for which the warning time could not be determined. Lack of warning time and how to survive in the water after the crash should be a topic for study in all marine survival/aircraft ditching courses. Investigators should be trained to provide estimates of warning time when investigating helicopter crashes into water.
Bekelis, Kimon; Missios, Symeon; Mackenzie, Todd A
To investigate the association of helicopter transport with survival of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), in comparison with ground emergency medical services (EMS). Helicopter utilization and its effect on the outcomes of TBI remain controversial. We performed a retrospective cohort study involving patients with TBI who were registered in the National Trauma Data Bank between 2009 and 2011. Regression techniques with propensity score matching were used to investigate the association of helicopter transport with survival of patients with TBI, in comparison with ground EMS. During the study period, there were 209,529 patients with TBI who were registered in the National Trauma Data Bank and met the inclusion criteria. Of these patients, 35,334 were transported via helicopters and 174,195 via ground EMS. For patients transported to level I trauma centers, 2797 deaths (12%) were recorded after helicopter transport and 8161 (7.8%) after ground EMS. Multivariable logistic regression analysis demonstrated an association of helicopter transport with increased survival [OR (odds ratio), 1.95; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.81-2.10; absolute risk reduction (ARR), 6.37%]. This persisted after propensity score matching (OR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.74-2.03; ARR, 5.93%). For patients transported to level II trauma centers, 1282 deaths (10.6%) were recorded after helicopter transport and 5097 (7.3%) after ground EMS. Multivariable logistic regression analysis demonstrated an association of helicopter transport with increased survival (OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.64-2.00; ARR 5.17%). This again persisted after propensity score matching (OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.55-1.94; ARR, 4.69). Helicopter transport of patients with TBI to level I and II trauma centers was associated with improved survival, in comparison with ground EMS.
McMahon, Terry W; Newman, David G
Flying a helicopter is a complex psychomotor skill. Fatigue is a serious threat to operational safety, particularly for sustained helicopter operations involving high levels of cognitive information processing and sustained time on task. As part of ongoing research into this issue, the object of this study was to develop a field-deployable helicopter-specific psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) for the purpose of daily performance monitoring of pilots. The PVT consists of a laptop computer, a hand-operated joystick, and a set of rudder pedals. Screen-based compensatory tracking task software includes a tracking ball (operated by the joystick) which moves randomly in all directions, and a second tracking ball which moves horizontally (operated by the rudder pedals). The 5-min test requires the pilot to keep both tracking balls centered. This helicopter-specific PVT's portability and integrated data acquisition and storage system enables daily field monitoring of the performance of individual helicopter pilots. The inclusion of a simultaneous foot-operated tracking task ensures divided attention for helicopter pilots as the movement of both tracking balls requires simultaneous inputs. This PVT is quick, economical, easy to use, and specific to the operational flying task. It can be used for performance monitoring purposes, and as a general research tool for investigating the psychomotor demands of helicopter operations. While reliability and validity testing is warranted, data acquired from this test could help further our understanding of the effect of various factors (such as fatigue) on helicopter pilot performance, with the potential of contributing to helicopter operational safety.
The objective of this paper is to set propulsion system targets for an all-electric manned helicopter of ultra-light utility class to achieve performance comparable to combustion engines. The approach is to begin with a current two-seat helicopter (Robinson R 22 Beta II-like), design an all-electric power plant as replacement for its existing piston engine, and study performance of the new all-electric aircraft. The new power plant consists of high-pressure Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cells, hydrogen stored in 700 bar type-4 tanks, lithium-ion batteries, and an AC synchronous permanent magnet motor. The aircraft and the transmission are assumed to remain the same. The paper surveys the state of the art in each of these areas, synthesizes a power plant using best available technologies in each, examines the performance achievable by such a power plant, identifies key barriers, and sets future technology targets to achieve performance at par with current internal combustion engines.
A full-scale crash test was successfully conducted in March 2010 of an MD-500 helicopter at NASA Langley Research Center s Landing and Impact Research Facility. The reasons for conducting this test were threefold: 1 To generate data to be used with finite element computer modeling efforts, 2 To study the crashworthiness features typically associated with a small representative helicopter, and 3 To compare aircraft response to data collected from a previously conducted MD-500 crash test, which included an externally deployable energy absorbing (DEA) concept. Instrumentation on the airframe included accelerometers on various structural components of the airframe; and strain gages on keel beams, skid gear and portions of the skin. Three Anthropomorphic Test Devices and a specialized Human Surrogate Torso Model were also onboard to collect occupant loads for evaluation with common injury risk criteria. This paper presents background and results from this crash test conducted without the DEA concept. These results showed accelerations of approximately 30 to 50 g on the airframe at various locations, little energy attenuation through the airframe, and moderate to high probability of occupant injury for a variety of injury criteria.
Kopiev, V. F.; Zaytsev, M. Yu.; Vorontsov, V. I.; Karabasov, S. A.; Anikin, V. A.
The aeroacoustic characteristics of a helicopter rotor are calculated by a new method, to assess its applicability in assessing rotor performance in hovering. Direct solution of the Euler equations in a noninertial coordinate system is used to calculate the near-field flow around the spinning rotor. The far-field noise field is calculated by the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) method using permeable control surfaces that include the blade. For a multiblade rotor, the signal obtained is duplicated and shifted in phase for each successive blade. By that means, the spectral characteristics of the far-field noise may be obtained. To determine the integral aerodynamic characteristics of the rotor, software is written to calculate the thrust and torque characteristics from the near-field flow solution. The results of numerical simulation are compared with experimental acoustic and aerodynamic data for a large-scale model of a helicopter main rotor in an open test facility. Two- and four-blade configurations of the rotor are considered, in different hover conditions. The proposed method satisfactorily predicts the aerodynamic characteristics of the blades in such conditions and gives good estimates for the first harmonics of the noise. That permits the practical use of the proposed method, not only for hovering but also for forward flight.
Afzali, Monika; Hesselfeldt, Rasmus; Steinmetz, Jacob
Centralization of the hospital system entails longer transport for some patients. A physician-staffed helicopter may provide effective triage, advanced management and fast transport to highly specialized treatment for time-critical patients. The aim of this study was to describe activity and poss......Centralization of the hospital system entails longer transport for some patients. A physician-staffed helicopter may provide effective triage, advanced management and fast transport to highly specialized treatment for time-critical patients. The aim of this study was to describe activity...... and possible beneficial effect of a physician-staffed helicopter in a one-year trial period in eastern Denmark....
Work on advanced concepts for helicopter designs is reported. Emphasis is on use of advanced composites, damage-tolerant design, and load calculations. Topics covered include structural design flight maneuver loads using PDP-10 flight dynamics model, use of 3-D finite element analysis in design of helicopter mechanical components, damage-tolerant design of the YUH-61A main rotor system, survivability of helicopters to rotor blade ballistic damage, development of a multitubular spar composite main rotor blade, and a bearingless main rotor structural design approach using advanced composites.
A preliminary design for a helicopter/VSTOL wide angle simulator image generation display system is studied. The visual system is to become part of a simulator capability to support Army aviation systems research and development within the near term. As required for the Army to simulate a wide range of aircraft characteristics, versatility and ease of changing cockpit configurations were primary considerations of the study. Due to the Army's interest in low altitude flight and descents into and landing in constrained areas, particular emphasis is given to wide field of view, resolution, brightness, contrast, and color. The visual display study includes a preliminary design, demonstrated feasibility of advanced concepts, and a plan for subsequent detail design and development. Analysis and tradeoff considerations for various visual system elements are outlined and discussed.
Time accurate numerical simulations were performed using the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) flow solver OVERFLOW for a heavy lift, slowed-rotor, compound helicopter configuration, tested at the NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel. The primary purpose of these simulations is to provide support for the development of a large field of view Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) flow measurement technique supported by the Subsonic Rotary Wing (SRW) project under the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics program. These simulations provide a better understanding of the rotor and body wake flows and helped to define PIV measurement locations as well as requirements for validation of flow solver codes. The large field PIV system can measure the three-dimensional velocity flow field in a 0.914m by 1.83m plane. PIV measurements were performed upstream and downstream of the vertical tail section and are compared to simulation results. The simulations are also used to better understand the tunnel wall and body/rotor support effects by comparing simulations with and without tunnel floor/ceiling walls and supports. Comparisons are also made to the experimental force and moment data for the body and rotor.
Amendt, Jens; Rodner, Sandra; Schuch, Claus-Peter; Sprenger, Heinz; Weidlich, Lars; Reckel, Frank
One of the most common techniques applied for searching living and even dead persons is the FLIR (Forward Looking Infrared) system fixed on an aircraft like e.g. a helicopter, visualizing the thermal patterns emitted from objects in the long-infrared spectrum. However, as body temperature cools down to ambient values within approximately 24h after death, it is common sense that searching for deceased persons can be just applied the first day post-mortem. We postulated that the insect larval masses on a decomposing body generate a heat which can be considerably higher than ambient temperatures for a period of several weeks and that such heat signatures might be used for locating insect infested human remains. We examined the thermal history of two 70 and 90kg heavy pig cadavers for 21days in May and June 2014 in Germany. Adult and immature insects on the carcasses were sampled daily. Temperatures were measured on and inside the cadavers, in selected maggot masses and at the surroundings. Thermal imaging from a helicopter using the FLIR system was performed at three different altitudes up to 1500ft. during seven day-flights and one night-flight. Insect colonization was dominated by blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) which occurred almost immediately after placement of the cadavers. Larvae were noted first on day 2 and infestation of both cadavers was enormous with several thousand larvae each. After day 14 a first wave of post-feeding larvae left the carcasses for pupation. Body temperature of both cadavers ranged between 15°C and 35°C during the first two weeks of the experiment, while body surface temperatures peaked at about 45°C. Maggot masses temperatures reached values up to almost 25°C above ambient temperature. Detection of both cadavers by thermal imaging was possible on seven of the eight helicopter flights until day 21. Copyright © 2017 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Eason, Christianne M; Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Denegar, Craig R; Burton, Laura; McGarry, Jennifer
Forming a professional identity is a process by which an individual achieves an awareness of his or her own self-concept in the context of the profession. Identity in relation to an individual's profession includes the ability to articulate one's role as a professional and professional philosophy. Professional identity has been studied extensively in other fields, but currently no professional identity scales have been validated within the athletic training profession. To validate the Professional Identity and Values Scale (PIVS) among an athletic trainer population. Cross-sectional study. Web-based questionnaire. Athletic trainers employed in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I, II, III, or National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics colleges or universities (n = 299, 56.5% female, 43.5% male). The average age of the participants was 33.6 ± 8.3 years, and they had 10.3 ± 7.6 years of experience. Participants were asked to complete a demographic questionnaire and the 32-item PIVS. The variables included demographics and the PIVS (Professional Orientation and Values subscale [18 items] and the Professional Development subscale [14 items]). Exploratory factor analysis reduced the survey from 32 to 20 items and revealed 6 factors. Three factors emerged from the Professional Development subscale and emphasized professional insecurities during the early career stages, the importance of mentors during the intermediate stages, and self-confidence and awareness during the later stages of professional development. An additional 3 factors emerged from the Professional Orientation and Values subscale: (1) patient care and advocacy, (2) professional engagement and collaboration, and (3) personal wellness and values. A Cronbach α of 0.80 indicated good internal consistency. A modified PIVS is a valid and reliable measure of professional identity among athletic trainers employed in the collegiate setting.
Weuve, Celest; Pitney, William A; Martin, Malissa; Mazerolle, Stephanie M
Bullying has received a vast amount of attention in the recent past. One form of bullying, workplace bullying (WPB), has been a substantial concern explored in many health professions that can negatively influence a health care provider's role in an organization. To date, however, WPB has not been investigated in athletic training contexts. To examine the perceptions of certified athletic trainers who experienced or witnessed WPB during employment in the collegiate setting. Qualitative study. College or university. Fifteen athletic trainers (7 women, 8 men) with an average age of 42 ± 12 years. Data were collected via semistructured, in-depth phone interviews or asynchronous online interviews. Data were analyzed using an inductive content analysis. Trustworthiness was established with member checks and peer debriefing. Four themes emerged from the analysis: (1) antecedents of WPB, (2) consequences of WPB, (3) coping with WPB, and (4) lack of workplace environment training. The antecedents of WPB involved the bully's personality and perceptions of the athletic training profession as well as environmental factors including the pressure to win and a lack of administrative support. The consequences of WPB included increased stress, feelings of inadequacy, and increased distrust. Individuals coped with WPB by relying on emotional resilience and avoidance. A final theme, lack of workplace environment training, revealed that little attention was given to interpersonal issues and WPB in the workplace. Workplace bullying incidents occur when administrators tolerate bullying behaviors from controlling and manipulative individuals who lack respect for the athletic training professional. Several negative outcomes result from bullying interactions, including stress and anxiety; WPB is dealt with by learning to be more emotionally resilient and avoiding confrontations. Workplace training is needed to prepare athletic trainers for such negative experiences.
Ohlrich, Mogens; Rasmussen, Ulrik Møller
Two novel measurement techniques have been developed for quantifying the vibro-aqcoustic source strength of lightweight helicopter gearboxes. The accuracy, robustness and implementation of these methods have been examined by a comprehensive investigation, including theoretical studies of simple...... multi-modal beam systems and extensive experiments with more realistic small scale models and with large, detailed 3/4-scale test structures of a medium-size helicopter. In addition, partial verification tests have been conducted with the Eurocopter BK 117 helicopter and its main rotor gearbox....... The results of this work are essential as input for any prediction code of the internal noise in a helicopter cabin, because the prediction requires knowledge of the major sources, that is, the rotors, engines and gearboxes....
Sim, Ben W.; Potsdam, Mark; Conner, Dave; Watts, Michael E.
This proposed paper will highlight the application of a CSD/CFD methodology currently inuse by the US Army Aerfolightdynamics Directorate (AFDD) to assess the feasibility and fidelity of directly predicting low frequency sounds of helicopter rotors.
Full Text Available In order to improve low-altitude flight security of single-rotor helicopter, an experimental model of a helicopter antitorque device is developed for wind tunnel test. The model is based on the flow control technology of the cross-flow fan (CFF. Wind tunnel tests show that the model can produce side force. It is concluded that the influence of the CFF rotating speed, the rotor collective pitch, and the forward flight speed on the side force of the model is great. At the same time, the numerical simulation calculation method of the model has been established. Good agreement between experimental and numerical side force and power shows that results of numerical solution are reliable. Therefore, the results in actual helicopter obtained from Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD solution are acceptable. This proves that this antitorque device can be used for a helicopter.
Sonne, Asger; Wulffeld, Sandra; Steinmetz, Jacob
INTRODUCTION: Implementation of a physician-staffed helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) in eastern Denmark was associated with increased survival for severely injured patients. This study aimed to assess the potential impact of advanced prehospital interventions by comparing the proportion...
Enns, Russell; Mossman, David C.
In the face of shrinking defense budgets, survival of the United States rotorcraft industry is becoming increasingly dependent on increased sales in a highly competitive civil helicopter market. As a result, only the most competitive rotorcraft manufacturers are likely to survive. A key ingredient in improving our competitive position is the ability to produce more versatile, high performance, high quality, and low cost of ownership helicopters. Fiber optic technology offers a path of achieving these objectives. Also, adopting common components and architectures for different helicopter models (while maintaining each models' uniqueness) will further decrease design and production costs. Funds saved (or generated) by exploiting this commonality can be applied to R&D used to further improve the product. In this paper, we define a fiber optics based avionics architecture which provides the pilot a fly-by-light / digital flight control system which can be implemented in both civilian and military helicopters. We then discuss the advantages of such an architecture.
.... The helicopter does not stop until the tape is over, hence, the training evolution quickly becomes useless because students usually make mistakes during the first minute of the tape and are unable...
.... The system is referred to as the Health Usage and Monitoring Systems (HUMS). The program's objective is to develop an automated diagnostic system that can identify mechanical faults within the power train of helicopters using vibration analysis...
... to achieve unity of effort. Based on the tenets of operational command and control by Milan Vego, across all services, the United States helicopter forces fare lacking operational command and control...
Full Text Available The new estimating method of stochastic parameters of the complex moving object (helicopter with cargo suspension is suggested for the structured problem identification of the object and optimal stabilizing system synthesis as well.
Gilson, R. D.; Dunn, R. S.; Sun, P.
A kinesthetic-tactual (K-T) display concept is now under research and development (R & D) at the Ohio State University. It appears to offer considerable promise for useful application in helicopters by conveying control information via the sense of touch. This is a review of the overall R & D program including the original K-T display design, initial studies in automobile and fixed-wing vehicles, and feasibility experiments in a helicopter simulator. In addition to investigations of control and potential workload reduction, present efforts are directed toward establishing optimal design requirements for K-T helicopter displays. Potential applications, modes of usage, and the kinds of information that may be displayed in helicopter applications are discussed along with a brief forecast of future R & D. A brief description of the latest multi-axis laboratory prototype K-T display is also provided.
One of the casual factors listed in a 1996 mid-air collision between two Australian Army helicopters in formation was a speculation of possible luminance imbalance between the right and left channels...
Khaizer, A.N.; Hussain, I.
This paper presents a time-domain approach for identification of longitudinal dynamics of single rotor model helicopter. A frequency sweep excitation input signal is applied for hover flying mode widely used for space state linearized model. A fully automated programmed flight test method provides high quality flight data for system identification using the computer controlled flight simulator X-plane. The flight test data were recorded, analyzed and reduced using the SIDPAC (System Identification Programs for Air Craft) toolbox for MATLAB, resulting in an aerodynamic model of single rotor helicopter. Finally, the identified model of single rotor helicopter is validated on Raptor 30-class model helicopter at hover showing the reliability of proposed approach. (author)
Rolf J. Bye
Full Text Available The accident levels in helicopter transportation vary between geographical regions and types of operations. In this paper, we develop some hypotheses regarding the factors that may explain this variation. The aim of this paper is to improve safety in helicopter transportation through better understanding of the causes leading to fatal accidents. We provide an analysis of three segments of helicopter transportation in Norway (i.e., offshore transportation; onshore ambulance/police, and onshore transportation. This analysis refers to international research on helicopter accidents. The number of fatal accidents per million flight hours in Norwegian offshore helicopter transportation was 2.8 in 1990–1999 and zero in 2000–2015. In Norwegian onshore helicopter transportation, the fatal accident rate was 13.8 in the period 2000–2012. Twenty-three onshore helicopters crashed to the ground; seven of these crashes were fatal, killing 16 people. It is reasonable to question why there is such a significant difference in accident rates between offshore and onshore helicopter transportation. We have approached this question by comparing how the different segments of helicopter transportation are organized and managed. Our analysis shows that there are major differences both at the “sharp” end (i.e., in actual operations and the “blunt” end (i.e., rules, regulations and organization. This includes differences in regulations, market conditions, work organization (i.e., training, employment conditions, and qualifications of the crews, operations and technology. A central argument is that differences in the market conditions and requirements stipulated by the users explain some of these differences. The same differences can be found internationally. If we use best practice and expert judgments, there is an opportunity to improve helicopter safety through improving the socio-technical system (i.e., organizational issues, improved design, improved
Louis S. Jenkins
Conclusion: The training of family physicians across Africa shares many common themes. However, there are also big differences among the various countries and even programmes within countries. The way forward would include exploring the local contextual enablers that influence the learning conversations between trainees and their supervisors. Family medicine training institutions and organisations (such as WONCA Africa and the South African Academy of Family Physicians have a critical role to play in supporting trainees and trainers towards developing local competencies which facilitate learning in the clinical workplace dominated by service delivery pressures.
Hirayama, Ryuichi; Fujimoto, Yasunori; Umegaki, Masao; Kagawa, Naoki; Kinoshita, Manabu; Hashimoto, Naoya; Yoshimine, Toshiki
Existing training methods for neuroendoscopic surgery have mainly emphasized the acquisition of anatomical knowledge and procedures for operating an endoscope and instruments. For laparoscopic surgery, various training systems have been developed to teach handling of an endoscope as well as the manipulation of instruments for speedy and precise endoscopic performance using both hands. In endoscopic endonasal surgery (EES), especially using a binostril approach to the skull base and intradural lesions, the learning of more meticulous manipulation of instruments is mandatory, and it may be necessary to develop another type of training method for acquiring psychomotor skills for EES. Authors of the present study developed an inexpensive, portable personal trainer using a webcam and objectively evaluated its utility. Twenty-five neurosurgeons volunteered for this study and were divided into 2 groups, a novice group (19 neurosurgeons) and an experienced group (6 neurosurgeons). Before and after the exercises of set tasks with a webcam box trainer, the basic endoscopic skills of each participant were objectively assessed using the virtual reality simulator (LapSim) while executing 2 virtual tasks: grasping and instrument navigation. Scores for the following 11 performance variables were recorded: instrument time, instrument misses, instrument path length, and instrument angular path (all of which were measured in both hands), as well as tissue damage, max damage, and finally overall score. Instrument time was indicated as movement speed; instrument path length and instrument angular path as movement efficiency; and instrument misses, tissue damage, and max damage as movement precision. In the novice group, movement speed and efficiency were significantly improved after the training. In the experienced group, significant improvement was not shown in the majority of virtual tasks. Before the training, significantly greater movement speed and efficiency were demonstrated in
Rodriguez, J.; Ruiz, J.; Gorjon, J.; Quiles, J. A.; Cavaller, N.; Bodega, J.; Alonso-Abella, M.; Chenlo, F.
The Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT) and the Instituto de Ensenanza Secundaria Virgen de la Paloma (IES VP), through their respective Metrology and Electricity-Electronics departments, have established a first agreement of co-operation with the aim of introducing and enhancing the solar photovoltaic energy within the professional teachings field. This agreements is a result of the compromise of designing entirely in the Electricity-electronics department of IES VP a didactic trainer prototype which enables to analyze cells and photovoltaic panels, all under the supervision and logistic-technical support of CIEMAT Photovoltaic Laboratory. (Author)
Norddal, Ida Kristine
When implementing oil and gas operations in the Santos Basin pre-salt fields, Brazilian energy corporation Petróleo Brasileiro S.A (Petrobras) faces some significant challenges. One of these is the large distance from shore: exceeding 300 km at the most, it is about three times the distance to oil fields explored in the past. This has great impact on the company's offshore helicopter operations. In its current form, helicopters transport employees directly between onshore airport bases and of...
Helicopter parenting is not a new dimension of parenting but it is a parenting that involves hovering parents who are potentially over-involved in the lives of their child. (Padilla-Walker, Nelson, 2012) Helicopter parenting is a unique phenomenon (Odenweller et al, 2014) and unique form of parental control (Willoughby et al., 2013) which can be described as highly involved, intensive, a hands-on method. (Schiffrin et al, 2014) In this study, university students examined about their parental ...
Schmitz, Frederic H.; Greenwood, Eric
A new physics-based method called Fundamental Rotorcraft Acoustic Modeling from Experiments (FRAME) is used to demonstrate the change in rotor harmonic noise of a helicopter operating at different ambient conditions. FRAME is based upon a non-dimensional representation of the governing acoustic and performance equations of a single rotor helicopter. Measured external noise is used together with parameter identification techniques to develop a model of helicopter external noise that is a hybrid between theory and experiment. The FRAME method is used to evaluate the main rotor harmonic noise of a Bell 206B3 helicopter operating at different altitudes. The variation with altitude of Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise, known to be a strong function of the helicopter s advance ratio, is dependent upon which definition of airspeed is flown by the pilot. If normal flight procedures are followed and indicated airspeed (IAS) is held constant, the true airspeed (TAS) of the helicopter increases with altitude. This causes an increase in advance ratio and a decrease in the speed of sound which results in large changes to BVI noise levels. Results also show that thickness noise on this helicopter becomes more intense at high altitudes where advancing tip Mach number increases because the speed of sound is decreasing and advance ratio increasing for the same indicated airspeed. These results suggest that existing measurement-based empirically derived helicopter rotor noise source models may give incorrect noise estimates when they are used at conditions where data were not measured and may need to be corrected for mission land-use planning purposes.
... helicopters. All of the BTs are dated October 3, 2012. The BTs specify a one-time inspection of each rod end assembly, P/Ns M004-01H007-041 and M004-01H007-045, to determine its serial number. The BTs then require... rod ends in these batches. According to the BTs, no one was injured in the helicopters and no...
Cameron, G.W.; Bodger, P.S.; Woudberg, J.J. [University of Canterbury, Christchurch (New Zealand). Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
The use of helicopters for maintenance on live overhead transmission lines has become a realistic option. The helicopter blades, body and working platform can be seen as creating an incomplete Faraday cage which may be an enhancement to live-line worker safety. This paper simulates the condition using a Faraday cage which can be dismantled in a controlled laboratory environment, to ascertain the effectiveness of apparatus. (author)
Detection of Naturally Occurring Gear and Bearing Faults in a Helicopter Drivetrain by Kelsen E. LaBerge, Eric C. Ames, and Brian D. Dykas...5066 ARL-TR-6795 January 2014 Detection of Naturally Occurring Gear and Bearing Faults in a Helicopter Drivetrain Kelsen E. LaBerge...ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Kelsen E. LaBerge, Eric C. Ames, and Brian D. Dykas 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER
Serafini, J.; Bernardini, G.; Mattioni, L.; Vezzari, V.; Ficuciello, C.
This paper presents the development and the application on helicopter blades of a measurement system based on FBG strain gauges. Here, the main goal is the structural characterization of the main rotor blades, with the aim of showing the potentialities of such a system in blades quality check applications, as well as in the development of structural health monitoring and rotor state feedback devices. The device has been used in both non-rotating and rotating tests, and does not require the presence of slip rings or optical joint since it is completely allocated in the rotating system. It has been successfully applied to characterize the frequency response of blades lead-lag, flap and torsion deformations, up to 250 Hz.
Liu, Yafang; Wang, Jidong; Tong, Yan
The elastomeric lag dampers suppress the ground resonance and air resonance that play a significant role in the stability of the helicopter. In this paper, elastomeric lag damper which is made from silicone rubber is built. And a series of experiments are conducted on this elastomeric lag damper. The stress-strain curves of elastomeric lag dampers employed shear forces at different frequency are obtained. And a finite element model is established based on Burgers model. The result of simulation and tests shows that the simple, linear model will yield good predictions of damper energy dissipation and it is adequate for predicting the stress-strain hysteresis loop within the operating frequency and a small-amplitude oscillation.
Beard, L P
On 07 October 1998 a helicopter radiometric survey was flown in the vicinity of Krageroe municipality. The purpose of the survey was to provide radiometric information to help assess radon hazard from radioactive rocks in the area. A total of 60 line-kilometres of radiometric data were acquired in a single flight, covering an area of approximately 3 square km with a 50-m line spacing. The data were collected by Geological Survey of Norway (NGU) personnel and processed at NGU. Radiometric data were reduced using the three-channel procedure recommended by the International Atomic Energy Association. All data were gridded using square cells with 30-m sides and geophysical maps were produced at a scale of 1:5000. This report covers aspects of data acquisition and processing (Author)
Barbosa, Gilberto R.; Machado, Otto L.M.; Gomes, Antonio E. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
The innumerable logistical problems encountered during the implementation of the gas pipeline Urucu - Coari - Manaus, located in the Amazon forest, connecting the Base Operations Geologist Pedro de Moura in Urucu to the refinery Isaac Sabba - Reman, in the city of Manaus, contributed considerably for PETROBRAS to seek non conventional solutions in the construction and assembly of pipelines in our country. Among these solutions, there is the technique of distributing pipes through cargo helicopters. The need for the usage of this technique, innovative in Brazil, comes from the lack and/or insufficiency of land access from Solimoes River to the gas pipeline main route, and the large quantities of flooded areas and/or flood plain, and also the type of soil, that together with the high index of rainfall in the region, makes the soil fully inappropriate to the traffic of heavy equipment. (author)
Full Text Available Some results are presented about the study of airloads of the helicopter rotor blades, the aerodynamic characteristics of airfoil sections, the physical features, and the techniques for modeling the unsteady effects found on airfoil operating under nominally attached flow conditions away from stall. The unsteady problem was approached on the basis of Theodorsen's theory, where the aerodynamic response (lift and pitching moment is considered as a sum of noncirculatory and circulatory parts. The noncirculatory or apparent mass accounts for the pressure forces required to accelerate the fluid in the vicinity of the airfoil. The apparent mass contributions to the forces and pitching moments, which are proportional to the instantaneous motion, are included as part of the quasi-steady result.
Full Text Available The broadband aerodynamic noise can be studied, assuming isotropic flow, turbulence and decay. Proudman’s approach allows practical calculations of noise based on CFD solutions of RANS or URANS equations at the stage of post processing and analysis of the solution. Another aspect is the broadband acoustic spectrum and the distribution of acoustic power over a range of frequencies. The acoustic energy spectrum distribution in isotropic turbulence is non monotonic and has a maximum at a certain value of Strouhal number. In the present work the value of acoustic power peak frequency is determined using a prescribed form of acoustic energy spectrum distribution presented in papers by S. Sarkar and M. Y. Hussaini and by G. M. Lilley. CFD modelling of the flow around isolated helicopter fuselage model was considered using the HMB CFD code and the RANS equations.