WorldWideScience

Sample records for primary design objective

  1. Designing the Object Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filip, Diane; Lindegaard, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    The Object Game is an exploratory design game and an experiment of developing a tangible object that can spark dialogue and retrospection between collaborative partners and act as a boundary object. The objective of this article is to show and elaborate on the development of the Object Game......, and to provide case examples of the game in action. The Object Game has two parts – Story-building and Co-rating of objects – with the aim of stimulating a collaborative reflection on knowledge sharing with different objects. In Story-building, the participants visualize their knowledge sharing process...... these facilitated knowledge transfer, knowledge exchange, knowledge generation, and knowledge integration. The participants collaborative reflected on their use of different objects for knowledge sharing and learn which objects have been effective (and which have not been effective) in their collaborative...

  2. Design of object processing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigoras, D.R.; Hoede, C.

    Object processing systems are met rather often in every day life, in industry, tourism, commerce, etc. When designing such a system, many problems can be posed and considered, depending on the scope and purpose of design. We give here a general approach which involves graph theory, and which can

  3. Implications of perspective in teaching objects first and object design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    2005-01-01

    There are an increasing number of books published on the important topics of "object-oriented programming" and "object-oriented design" for use in education. However, object-orientation can be viewed from a number of different perspectives---each perspective having its benefits and liabilities...

  4. Object Theatre in Design Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Friis, Preben

    2015-01-01

    our graduate design students create a post-dramatic performance that engages an audience in experiencing and exploring the product concepts they create. Our experiences show that it helps us educate young designers in the abilities to take other perspectives than their own (in particular...

  5. Analyses for designing objects in mechanical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Norihiro; Miyamura, Hiroko N.; Kawakami, Yoshiaki; Kawamura, Takuma

    2015-01-01

    Defining factors to induce the damage that can be assumed in the mechanical structures, it is a loaded work to analyze a damage possibility point derived by the assumption phenomenon that can occur is, but it is the important designing process. Taking factors caused by the earthquake as an example, and simulating the phenomenon that can be assumed, the computational result was analyzed with information visualization. A damage possibility point by analyzing the result mathematically. The illustration of analytical results may give points to designers as means for a designer to recognize a damage possibility point from the sensitivity of the designer. (author)

  6. Freeform object design and simultaneous manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Weihan; Lin, Heng; Leu, Ming C.

    2003-04-01

    Today's product design, especially the consuming product design, focuses more and more on individuation, originality, and the time to market. One way to meet these challenges is using the interactive and creationary product design methods and rapid prototyping/rapid tooling. This paper presents a novel Freeform Object Design and Simultaneous Manufacturing (FODSM) method that combines the natural interaction feature in the design phase and simultaneous manufacturing feature in the prototyping phase. The natural interactive three-dimensional design environment is achieved by adopting virtual reality technology. The geometry of the designed object is defined through the process of "virtual sculpting" during which the designer can touch and visualize the designed object and can hear the virtual manufacturing environment noise. During the designing process, the computer records the sculpting trajectories and automatically translates them into NC codes so as to simultaneously machine the designed part. The paper introduced the principle, implementation process, and key techniques of the new method, and compared it with other popular rapid prototyping methods.

  7. Object-oriented analysis and design

    CERN Document Server

    Deacon, John

    2005-01-01

    John Deacon’s in-depth, highly pragmatic approach to object-oriented analysis and design, demonstrates how to lay the foundations for developing the best possible software. Students will learn how to ensure that analysis and design remain focused and productive. By working through the book, they will gain a solid working knowledge of best practices in software development.

  8. In pursuit of the objects of designing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    1997-01-01

    ’) as too extravagant, I then consider the question of what kind of entity such objects of designing might be, and finally propose an answer in terms of which the nature of designing might be explained in what seems a philosophically plausible way. The paper reports on work in progress, and so cannot...

  9. Multi-objective engineering design using preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchis, J.; Martinez, M.; Blasco, X.

    2008-03-01

    System design is a complex task when design parameters have to satisy a number of specifications and objectives which often conflict with those of others. This challenging problem is called multi-objective optimization (MOO). The most common approximation consists in optimizing a single cost index with a weighted sum of objectives. However, once weights are chosen the solution does not guarantee the best compromise among specifications, because there is an infinite number of solutions. A new approach can be stated, based on the designer's experience regarding the required specifications and the associated problems. This valuable information can be translated into preferences for design objectives, and will lead the search process to the best solution in terms of these preferences. This article presents a new method, which enumerates these a priori objective preferences. As a result, a single objective is built automatically and no weight selection need be performed. Problems occuring because of the multimodal nature of the generated single cost index are managed with genetic algorithms (GAs).

  10. Object-oriented accelerator design with HPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Qiang; Ryne, R.D.; Habib, S.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, object-oriented design is applied to codes for beam dynamics simulations in accelerators using High Performance Fortran (HPF). This results in good maintainability, reusability, and extensibility of software, combined with the ease of parallel programming provided by HPF

  11. Object-oriented accelerator design with HPF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji Qiang; Ryne, R.D.; Habib, S.

    1998-12-31

    In this paper, object-oriented design is applied to codes for beam dynamics simulations in accelerators using High Performance Fortran (HPF). This results in good maintainability, reusability, and extensibility of software, combined with the ease of parallel programming provided by HPF.

  12. The Camp Hill Project: Objectives and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattingly, John B.

    1976-01-01

    Available from: EC 090 474. Outlined are the problems and objectives of Pennsylvania's Camp Hill Project--a program designed to complete psychological needs assessments for juveniles incarcerated at Camp Hill, to develop project policies and guidelines in preparation for meeting with juvenile court judges, and to hire staff. (SBH)

  13. Fast Appearance Modeling for Automatic Primary Video Object Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiong; Price, Brian; Shen, Xiaohui; Lin, Zhe; Yuan, Junsong

    2016-02-01

    Automatic segmentation of the primary object in a video clip is a challenging problem as there is no prior knowledge of the primary object. Most existing techniques thus adapt an iterative approach for foreground and background appearance modeling, i.e., fix the appearance model while optimizing the segmentation and fix the segmentation while optimizing the appearance model. However, these approaches may rely on good initialization and can be easily trapped in local optimal. In addition, they are usually time consuming for analyzing videos. To address these limitations, we propose a novel and efficient appearance modeling technique for automatic primary video object segmentation in the Markov random field (MRF) framework. It embeds the appearance constraint as auxiliary nodes and edges in the MRF structure, and can optimize both the segmentation and appearance model parameters simultaneously in one graph cut. The extensive experimental evaluations validate the superiority of the proposed approach over the state-of-the-art methods, in both efficiency and effectiveness.

  14. Advanced Reactor Fuels Irradiation Experiment Design Objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chichester, Heather Jean MacLean; Hayes, Steven Lowe; Dempsey, Douglas; Harp, Jason Michael

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the objectives of the current irradiation testing activities being undertaken by the Advanced Fuels Campaign relative to supporting the development and demonstration of innovative design features for metallic fuels in order to realize reliable performance to ultra-high burnups. The AFC-3 and AFC-4 test series are nearing completion; the experiments in this test series that have been completed or are in progress are reviewed and the objectives and test matrices for the final experiments in these two series are defined. The objectives, testing strategy, and test parameters associated with a future AFC test series, AFC-5, are documented. Finally, the future intersections and/or synergies of the AFC irradiation testing program with those of the TREAT transient testing program, emerging needs of proposed Versatile Test Reactor concepts, and the Joint Fuel Cycle Study program’s Integrated Recycle Test are discussed.

  15. Advanced Reactor Fuels Irradiation Experiment Design Objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chichester, Heather Jean MacLean [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hayes, Steven Lowe [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Dempsey, Douglas [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Harp, Jason Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report summarizes the objectives of the current irradiation testing activities being undertaken by the Advanced Fuels Campaign relative to supporting the development and demonstration of innovative design features for metallic fuels in order to realize reliable performance to ultra-high burnups. The AFC-3 and AFC-4 test series are nearing completion; the experiments in this test series that have been completed or are in progress are reviewed and the objectives and test matrices for the final experiments in these two series are defined. The objectives, testing strategy, and test parameters associated with a future AFC test series, AFC-5, are documented. Finally, the future intersections and/or synergies of the AFC irradiation testing program with those of the TREAT transient testing program, emerging needs of proposed Versatile Test Reactor concepts, and the Joint Fuel Cycle Study program’s Integrated Recycle Test are discussed.

  16. Designing with objects object-oriented design patterns explained with stories from Harry Potter

    CERN Document Server

    Kak, Avinash C

    2014-01-01

     All code examples in the book are available for download on a companion site with resources for readers and instructors A refreshing alternative to the rather abstract and dry explanations of the  object-oriented design patterns in much of the existing literature on the subject In 24 chapters, Designing with Objects explains well-known design patterns by relating them to stories from the Harry Potter series

  17. ITER status, design and material objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aymar, R.

    2002-01-01

    During the ITER Engineering Design Activities (EDA), completed in July 2001, the Joint Central Team and Home Teams developed a robust design of ITER, summarised in this paper, with parameters which fully meet the required scientific and technological objectives, construction costs and safety requirements, with appropriate margins. The design is backed by R and D to qualify the technology, including materials R and D. Materials for ITER components have been selected largely because of their availability and well-established manufacturing technologies, taking account of the low fluence experienced during neutron irradiation, and the experimental nature of the device. Nevertheless, for specific needs relevant to a future fusion reactor, improved materials, in particular for magnet structures, in-vessel components, and joints between the different materials needed for plasma facing components, have been successfully developed. Now, with the technical readiness to decide on ITER construction, negotiations, supported by coordinated technical activities of an international team and teams from participant countries, are underway on joint construction of ITER with a view to the signature/ratification of an agreement in 2003

  18. On the content and nature of design objects in designing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus Thorp; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2010-01-01

    Often the physical product is seen as the design object. Many properties, which are important for the potential customer or user, are not carried by the product in itself, but by activities and systems brought into relation with the product. Thus, in modern industrial product development and from...

  19. Archetype and object: primary deintegration and primary love in analytical play therapy with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peery, J Craig

    2002-07-01

    Jungian and post-Jungian theory of the development of the child's psyche is reviewed. A discrimination between primary and secondary deintegration is suggested. Post-Freudian theory regarding primary object relations is integrated with the Jungian model. The two approaches can contribute synergistically to inform and advance play therapy with young children. Patients from widely diverse cultural backgrounds use their relationship with the therapist as a helpful person (object), and engage in archetypal material from the collective unconscious, to help them work on and through their unresolved emotional issues.

  20. Integrating ergonomics into engineering design: The role of objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall-Andersen, Lene Bjerg; Broberg, Ole

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the role of objects in integrating ergonomic knowledge in engineering design processes. An engineering design case was analyzed using the theoretical concepts of boundary objects and intermediary objects: Boundary objects facilitate collaboration between...

  1. AIRCRAFT POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM DESIGN PROCESS AS AN AUTOMATION OBJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris V. Zhmurov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of designing aviation electrical power systems (EPS is related to the need to fulfill a number of requirements of normative and technical documents and to conduct a large number of calculations. Experience has shown that it is not possible to obtain reliable initial data on the nature and magnitude of electricity consumption by electricity receivers (end users at the early stages of design. The composition of the electric power receivers and the power consumption of electricity during the design process are repeatedly changed. This leads to the need to repeatedly perform tasks related to the synthesis of primary and secondary systems of generation and calculation.The desire to improve the efficiency of EPS led to the emergence of new standardized types of electrical energy - 270 V DC and 380 V three-phase AC of stable and unstable frequency. It follows that it is possible to implement a rather large number of options for EPS structures, and there may be several secondary EPS or, in general, EPS of a third or higher level.The lack of ready-made aviation energy converters implies the impossibility of using ready-made components, and the development of specific devices should be coordinated with the development of EPS. In this case, one of the results of EPS design will be a set of requirements for the devices and units of the EPS projected.In any case, the design process for EPS aircraft requires a lot of iterations that take into account the change in both the raw data and the constraints on the EPS elements and the design process itself.The traditional approach to the design of EPS aircraft, assuming the knowledge of the designer of dozens of GOSTs (State All-Union standards and OSTs (All-Union standarts regulating the design stages of EPS, as well as the existence of standard EPS structures, from which a specific choice is made, is practically impossible at present. The only way to consciously approach the problem of designing EPS

  2. Integrating ergonomics into engineering design: the role of objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Andersen, Lene Bjerg; Broberg, Ole

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the role of objects in integrating ergonomic knowledge in engineering design processes. An engineering design case was analyzed using the theoretical concepts of boundary objects and intermediary objects: Boundary objects facilitate collaboration between different knowledge domains, while the aim of an intermediary object is to circulate knowledge and thus produce a distant effect. Adjustable layout drawings served as boundary objects and had a positive impact on the dialog between an ergonomist and designers. An ergonomic guideline document was identified as an intermediary object. However, when the ergonomic guidelines were circulated in the design process, only some of the guidelines were transferred to the design of the sterile processing plant. Based on these findings, recommendations for working with objects in design processes are included. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Object-relational database design-exploiting object orientation at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper applies the object-relational database paradigm in the design of a Health Management Information System. The class design, mapping of object classes to relational tables, the representation of inheritance hierarchies, and the appropriate database schema are all examined. Keywords: object relational ...

  4. How to objectively assess jugular primary venous obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Zamboni

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Last January The Lancet published the article by Traboulsee et al. Prevalence of extracranial venous narrowing on catheter venography in people with multiple sclerosis, their sibilings, and unrelated healthy controls: a blinded, case control study. These Authors confirmed the presence of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency with a high prevalence of about 70% in the Canadian population, but without significant differences between patients and healthy controls, yet. However, they used a criterion never published to assess stenosis, in alternative to the classic measurement of the diameter in the segment immediately preceding the narrowest point. Traboulsee et al. measure the stenosis along the entire length of the internal jugular vein, by comparing the maximum diameter with the narrowest point. It has been demonstrated, from normal anatomy findings, how the jugular bulb diameter normally exceeds 50% of the minimum diameter of the internal jugular vein, clearly showing the reason why Traboulsee et al. did not find significant differences between people with multiple sclerosis, their sibilings, and unrelated healthy controls. Furthermore, as the outcome measure of Traboulsee et al., wall stenosis is a neglected part of primary venous obstruction, because in the majority of cases obstruction is the consequence of intraluminal obstacles, as a considerable part of truncular venous malformations, and/or compression; rarely of external hypoplasia. Finally, several recently published methods can be adopted for objective assessment of restricted jugular flow in course of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency, by the means of non invasive magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound and plethysmography. This may help us in improving the assessment of cerebral venous return in the near future.

  5. 40 CFR 60.4114 - Objections concerning Hg designated representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Objections concerning Hg designated... Times for Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Hg Designated Representative for Hg Budget Sources § 60.4114 Objections concerning Hg designated representative. (a) Once a complete certificate of...

  6. Development of Information Technology of Object-relational Databases Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentyn A. Filatov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with the development of information technology of object-relational databases design and study of object features infological and logical database schemes entities and connections.

  7. Design criteria of primary coolant chemistry in SMART-P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Byung Seon; Kim, Ah Young; Kim, Seong Hoon; Yoon, Ju Hyeon; Zee, Sung Qunn

    2005-01-01

    SMART-P differs significantly from commercially designed PWRs. Materials inventories used in SMART-P differ from that at PWRs. All surfaces of the primary circuit with the primary coolant are either made from or plated with stainless steel. The material of steam generator (SG) is also different from that of the standard material of the commercially operating PWRs: titanium alloy for the steam generator tubes. Also, SMART-P primary coolant technology differs from that in PWRs: ammonia is used as a pH raising agent and hydrogen formed due to radiolytic processes is kept in specific range by ammonia dosing. Nevertheless, main objectives of the SMART-P primary coolant are the same as at PWRs: to assure primary system pressure boundary integrity, fuel cladding integrity and to minimize out-of-core radiation buildup. The objective of this work is to introduce the design criteria for the primary water chemistry for SMART-P from the viewpoint of the system characteristics and the chemical design concept

  8. LUTE primary mirror materials and design study report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthven, Greg

    1993-02-01

    The major objective of the Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE) Primary Mirror Materials and Design Study is to investigate the feasibility of the LUTE telescope primary mirror. A systematic approach to accomplish this key goal was taken by first understanding the optical, thermal, and structural requirements and then deriving the critical primary mirror-level requirements for ground testing, launch, and lunar operations. After summarizing the results in those requirements which drove the selection of material and the design for the primary mirror are discussed. Most important of these are the optical design which was assumed to be the MSFC baseline (i.e. 3 mirror optical system), telescope wavefront error (WFE) allocations, the telescope weight budget, and the LUTE operational temperature ranges. Mechanical load levels, reflectance and microroughness issues, and options for the LUTE metering structure were discussed and an outline for the LUTE telescope sub-system design specification was initiated. The primary mirror analysis and results are presented. The six material substrate candidates are discussed and four distinct mirror geometries which are considered are shown. With these materials and configurations together with varying the location of the mirror support points, a total of 42 possible primary mirror designs resulted. The polishability of each substrate candidate was investigated and a usage history of 0.5 meter and larger precision cryogenic mirrors (the operational low end LUTE temperature of 60 K is the reason we feel a survey of cryogenic mirrors is appropriate) that were flown or tested are presented.

  9. Power magnetic devices a multi-objective design approach

    CERN Document Server

    Sudhoff, Scott D

    2014-01-01

    Presents a multi-objective design approach to the many power magnetic devices in use today Power Magnetic Devices: A Multi-Objective Design Approach addresses the design of power magnetic devices-including inductors, transformers, electromagnets, and rotating electric machinery-using a structured design approach based on formal single- and multi-objective optimization. The book opens with a discussion of evolutionary-computing-based optimization. Magnetic analysis techniques useful to the design of all the devices considered in the book are then set forth. This material is then used for ind

  10. Multi-Objective Design Of Optimal Greenhouse Gas Observation Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, D. D.; Bergmann, D. J.; Cameron-Smith, P. J.; Gard, E.; Guilderson, T. P.; Rotman, D.; Stolaroff, J. K.

    2010-12-01

    One of the primary scientific functions of a Greenhouse Gas Information System (GHGIS) is to infer GHG source emission rates and their uncertainties by combining measurements from an observational network with atmospheric transport modeling. Certain features of the observational networks that serve as inputs to a GHGIS --for example, sampling location and frequency-- can greatly impact the accuracy of the retrieved GHG emissions. Observation System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) provide a framework to characterize emission uncertainties associated with a given network configuration. By minimizing these uncertainties, OSSEs can be used to determine optimal sampling strategies. Designing a real-world GHGIS observing network, however, will involve multiple, conflicting objectives; there will be trade-offs between sampling density, coverage and measurement costs. To address these issues, we have added multi-objective optimization capabilities to OSSEs. We demonstrate these capabilities by quantifying the trade-offs between retrieval error and measurement costs for a prototype GHGIS, and deriving GHG observing networks that are Pareto optimal. [LLNL-ABS-452333: This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  11. Adapting the Mathematical Task Framework to Design Online Didactic Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Janet; Bezuk, Nadine; Aguilar, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Designing didactic objects involves imagining how students can conceive of specific mathematical topics and then imagining what types of classroom discussions could support these mental constructions. This study investigated whether it was possible to design Java applets that might serve as didactic objects to support online learning where…

  12. Project Design Concept - Primary Ventilation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCGREW, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operation (TFRSO), Project W-3 14 was established to provide upgrades that would improve the reliability and extend the system life of portions of the waste transfer, electrical, ventilation, instrumentation and control systems for the Hanford Site Tank Farms. An assessment of the tank farm system was conducted and the results are documented in system assessment reports. Based on the deficiencies identified in the tank farm system assessment reports, and additional requirements analysis performed in support of the River Protection Project (RPP), an approved scope for the TFRSO effort was developed and documented in the Upgrade Scope Summary Report (USSR), WHC-SD-W314-RPT-003, Rev. 4. The USSR establishes the need for the upgrades and identifies the specific equipment to be addressed by this project. This Project Design Concept (PDC) is in support of the Phase 2 upgrades and provides an overall description of the operations concept for the W-314 Primary Ventilation Systems. Actual specifications, test requirements, and procedures are not included in this PDC. The PDC is a ''living'' document, which will be updated throughout the design development process to provide a progressively more detailed description of the W-314 Primary Ventilation Systems design. The Phase 2 upgrades to the Primary Ventilation Systems shall ensure that the applicable current requirements are met for: Regulatory Compliance; Safety; Mission Requirements; Reliability; and Operational Requirements

  13. [Community health in primary health care teams: a management objective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebot Adell, Carme; Pasarin Rua, Maribel; Canela Soler, Jaume; Sala Alvarez, Clara; Escosa Farga, Alex

    2016-12-01

    To describe the process of development of community health in a territory where the Primary Health Care board decided to include it in its roadmap as a strategic line. Evaluative research using qualitative techniques, including SWOT analysis on community health. Two-steps study. Primary care teams (PCT) of the Catalan Health Institute in Barcelona city. The 24 PCT belonging to the Muntanya-Dreta Primary Care Service in Barcelona city, with 904 professionals serving 557,430 inhabitants. Application of qualitative methodology using SWOT analysis in two steps (two-step study). Step 1: Setting up a core group consisting of local PCT professionals; collecting the community projects across the territory; SWOT analysis. Step 2: From the needs identified in the previous phase, a plan was developed, including a set of training activities in community health: basic, advanced, and a workshop to exchange experiences from the PCTs. A total of 80 team professionals received specific training in the 4 workshops held, one of them an advanced level. Two workshops were held to exchange experiences with 165 representatives from the local teams, and 22 PCTs presenting their practices. In 2013, 6 out of 24 PCTs have had a community diagnosis performed. Community health has achieved a good level of development in some areas, but this is not the general situation in the health care system. Its progression depends on the management support they have, the local community dynamics, and the scope of the Primary Health Care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Design of the RTO/RC ITER primary pumping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladd, P.; Ibbott, C; Janeschitz, G.; Martin, E.

    2000-01-01

    The primary pumping system is needed not only to exhaust helium ash resulting from the DT reaction but also excess fuelling gas injected during the fusion burn, which can extend for 100's to 1000's of seconds, and to perform a variety of other functions. The prevailing environmental conditions, principally nuclear radiation, tritium exposure, magnetic fields, and the need for containment, have a significant impact on the design and selection of equipment. This paper presents the design of the Reduced Technical Objectives/Reduced Cost (RTO/RC) ITER primary pumping system with particular emphasis on the nuclear aspects of the design. Component selection and equipment layout issues to meet established requirements for the system are reviewed together with the R and D that is being undertaken to support the design. In addition, serviceability and maintainability issues related to this system are also discussed

  15. Design development of graphite primary structures enables SSTO success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagiotti, V. A.; Yahiro, J. S.; Suh, Daniel E.; Hodges, Eric R.; Prior, Donald J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a graphite composite wing and a graphite composite intertank primary structure for application toward Single-Stage to Orbit space vehicles such as those under development in NASA's X-33/Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Program. The trade study and designs are based on a Rockwell vertical take-off and horizontal landing (VTHL) wing-body RLV vehicle. Northrop Grumman's approach using a building block development technique is described. Composite Graphite/Bismaleimide (Gr/BMI) material characterization test results are presented. Unique intertank and wing composite subcomponent test article designs are described and test results to date are presented. Wing and intertank Full Scale Section Test Article (FSTA) objectives and designs are outlined. Trade studies, supporting building block testing, and FSTA demonstrations combine to develop graphite primary structure composite technology that enables developing X-33/RLV design programs to meet critical SSTO structural weight and operations performance criteria.

  16. Participatory ergonomics in design processes: The role of boundary objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole; Andersen, Vibeke; Seim, Rikke

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of boundary objects in order to better understand the role of objects in participatory ergonomics (PE) design processes. The research question is: What characterizes boundary objects in PE processes? Based on two case studies, we identify eight...... enable workers’ participation and collaborative design in different ways. The framework developed may serve to provide criteria to guide practitioners and intervention researchers in the selection of objects to facilitate a PE process. The paper concludes with a list of recommendations for ergonomic...

  17. MYRRHA/XT-ADS primary system design and experimental devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maes, D.

    2009-01-01

    The EUROTRANS project is an integrated project in the Sixth European Framework Program in the context of Partitioning and Transmutation. The objective of this project is to work towards an ETD (European Transmutation Demonstration) in a step-wise manner. The first step is to carry out an advanced design of a small-scale XT-ADS (eXperimental Transmutation in an Accelerator Driven System) for realisation in a short-term (about 10 years) as well as to accomplish a generic conceptual design of EFIT (European Facility for Industrial Transmutation) for realisation in the long-term. The MYRRHA-2005 design served as a starting basis for the XT-ADS. Many options have been revisited and the framework is now set up. While the MYRRHA-2005 design was still a conceptual design, the intention is to get at the end of the EUROTRANS project (March 2009) an advanced design of the XT-ADS, albeit a first advanced design. While the design work performed during the first years of the project (2005-2006) was mainly devoted to optimise and enhance the primary and secondary system configuration according to the suggestions and contributions of our industrial partners (Ansaldo Nucleare, Areva, Suez-Tractebel) within the DM1 (Domain 1 D ESIGN ) , the last year work objectives mainly consisted of (1) the release of the Remote Handling Design Catalogue for XT-ADS and (2) the formulation of the specification of the experimental devices according to the XT-ADS objectives and adapted to the actual XT-ADS core and core support structure design; (3) the detailed calculations of the main XT-ADS primary and secondary system components

  18. Liberating Learning Object Design from the Learning Style of Student Instructional Designers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Yavuz

    2007-01-01

    Learning objects are a new form of learning resource, and the design of these digital environments has many facets. To investigate senior instructional design students' use of reflection tools in designing learning objects, a series of studies was conducted using the Reflective Action Instructional Design and Learning Object Review Instrument…

  19. Design and Test of Object Aligning Grippers for Industrial Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellekilde, Lars-Peter; Petersen, Henrik Gordon

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we will present a new concept for gripping objects in industrial applications. We assume that a priori, the object pose is only known with a relative low accuracy. Despite this, our method can lead to high accuracy gripping suitable for e.g. industrial assembly. Our concept...... is to augment a simple parallel gripper by mounting a set of object speci?c jaws. Given the right shapes these jaws enable the gripper to automatically align the object, and thereby compensate for errors in the original object pose estimation. We will introduce a couple of automatic and semi-automatic design...

  20. Design objectives with non-zero prescribed support displacements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pauli; Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2011-01-01

    When non-zero prescribed support displacements are involved in addition to design independent loads for a continuum/structure, then the objectives of minimum compliance (total elastic energy) and of maximum strength lead to different designs. This is verified by the presented sensitivities. Designs...... minimization as well as that of direct strength maximization; we choose the objective of obtaining uniform energy density and show by examples that the obtained solutions are close to fulfilling also strength maximization, with the price of increased compliance. Optimal design examples are presented...

  1. Multi objective decision making in hybrid energy system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Gabriel Guillermo

    The design of grid-connected photovoltaic wind generator system supplying a farmstead in Nebraska has been undertaken in this dissertation. The design process took into account competing criteria that motivate the use of different sources of energy for electric generation. The criteria considered were 'Financial', 'Environmental', and 'User/System compatibility'. A distance based multi-objective decision making methodology was developed to rank design alternatives. The method is based upon a precedence order imposed upon the design objectives and a distance metric describing the performance of each alternative. This methodology advances previous work by combining ambiguous information about the alternatives with a decision-maker imposed precedence order in the objectives. Design alternatives, defined by the photovoltaic array and wind generator installed capacities, were analyzed using the multi-objective decision making approach. The performance of the design alternatives was determined by simulating the system using hourly data for an electric load for a farmstead and hourly averages of solar irradiation, temperature and wind speed from eight wind-solar energy monitoring sites in Nebraska. The spatial variability of the solar energy resource within the region was assessed by determining semivariogram models to krige hourly and daily solar radiation data. No significant difference was found in the predicted performance of the system when using kriged solar radiation data, with the models generated vs. using actual data. The spatial variability of the combined wind and solar energy resources was included in the design analysis by using fuzzy numbers and arithmetic. The best alternative was dependent upon the precedence order assumed for the main criteria. Alternatives with no PV array or wind generator dominated when the 'Financial' criteria preceded the others. In contrast, alternatives with a nil component of PV array but a high wind generator component

  2. Designing a mixed methods study in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John W; Fetters, Michael D; Ivankova, Nataliya V

    2004-01-01

    Mixed methods or multimethod research holds potential for rigorous, methodologically sound investigations in primary care. The objective of this study was to use criteria from the literature to evaluate 5 mixed methods studies in primary care and to advance 3 models useful for designing such investigations. We first identified criteria from the social and behavioral sciences to analyze mixed methods studies in primary care research. We then used the criteria to evaluate 5 mixed methods investigations published in primary care research journals. Of the 5 studies analyzed, 3 included a rationale for mixing based on the need to develop a quantitative instrument from qualitative data or to converge information to best understand the research topic. Quantitative data collection involved structured interviews, observational checklists, and chart audits that were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical procedures. Qualitative data consisted of semistructured interviews and field observations that were analyzed using coding to develop themes and categories. The studies showed diverse forms of priority: equal priority, qualitative priority, and quantitative priority. Data collection involved quantitative and qualitative data gathered both concurrently and sequentially. The integration of the quantitative and qualitative data in these studies occurred between data analysis from one phase and data collection from a subsequent phase, while analyzing the data, and when reporting the results. We recommend instrument-building, triangulation, and data transformation models for mixed methods designs as useful frameworks to add rigor to investigations in primary care. We also discuss the limitations of our study and the need for future research.

  3. Multi-objective optimization design method of radiation shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shouhai; Wang Weijin; Lu Daogang; Chen Yixue

    2012-01-01

    Due to the shielding design goals of diversification and uncertain process of many factors, it is necessary to develop an optimization design method of intelligent shielding by which the shielding scheme selection will be achieved automatically and the uncertainties of human impact will be reduced. For economical feasibility to achieve a radiation shielding design for automation, the multi-objective genetic algorithm optimization of screening code which combines the genetic algorithm and discrete-ordinate method was developed to minimize the costs, size, weight, and so on. This work has some practical significance for gaining the optimization design of shielding. (authors)

  4. Fostering design for avoiding small parts in commonly used objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Koning, Ton; Foltran, Francesca; Gregori, Dario

    2012-05-14

    Injuries due to the accidental ingestion or aspiration of small parts have became a matter of interest in the last 30 years, focusing on the relationship between a proper prevention and the diminished frequency of occurrences. Small parts in commonly used objects represent a large sector of potential danger, taking explicit mouthing behavior of children in the first four years of life. In this paper the intent is to show the current situation of design projects and legislation around the world, meant to avoid the casual accidents due to manufacturing reasons. Proposed process and quality control standards seek to eliminate production errors and control materials to avoid deviation from the design. The present study draws its data from the Susy Safe registry, a European Commission co-funded project started in February 2005, whose aim is to establish an international registry of cases of Foreign Bodies (FB) injuries in children aged 0-14 years. Information collected from the data base concern age and gender of the child, location, shape, volume, consistency and elipticity of the foreign body, any complication occurred, hospitalization, and behavioral aspects linked to the injury, like the supervision of the parents or the activity concomitant to the injury. Cases are prospectively collected using the Susy Safe system from 06/2005; moreover, also information regarding past consecutive cases available in each center adhering to the project have been entered in the Susy Safe Registry. Data evidenced that the majority of small parts related injuries are related to stationery. The majority of objects (56.7%), were located in the nose, followed by the ears (31.5%). The distribution on incidence of FB injuries by age class shows that the majority of injuries due to small parts in common objects occurred in children older than >3 years. Male and female were affected with the same frequency when concerning the nose, while all other locations showed a higher frequency in males

  5. Bilevel formulation of a policy design problem considering multiple objectives and incomplete preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, Bryant; Panchal, Jitesh H.

    2014-07-01

    A bilevel optimization formulation of policy design problems considering multiple objectives and incomplete preferences of the stakeholders is presented. The formulation is presented for Feed-in-Tariff (FIT) policy design for decentralized energy infrastructure. The upper-level problem is the policy designer's problem and the lower-level problem is a Nash equilibrium problem resulting from market interactions. The policy designer has two objectives: maximizing the quantity of energy generated and minimizing policy cost. The stakeholders decide on quantities while maximizing net present value and minimizing capital investment. The Nash equilibrium problem in the presence of incomplete preferences is formulated as a stochastic linear complementarity problem and solved using expected value formulation, expected residual minimization formulation, and the Monte Carlo technique. The primary contributions in this article are the mathematical formulation of the FIT policy, the extension of computational policy design problems to multiple objectives, and the consideration of incomplete preferences of stakeholders for policy design problems.

  6. Producing design objects from regular polyhedra: A Pratical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Polimeni, Beniamino

    2017-01-01

    In the last few years, digital modeling techniques have played a major role in Architecture and design, influencing, at the same time, the creative process and the way the objects are fabricated. This revolution has produced a new fertile generation of architects and designers focused on the expanding possibilities of material and formal production reinforcing the idea of architecture as an interaction between art and artisanship. This innovative perspective inspires this paper, w...

  7. Multi-objective evolutionary optimisation for product design and manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    Presents state-of-the-art research in the area of multi-objective evolutionary optimisation for integrated product design and manufacturing Provides a comprehensive review of the literature Gives in-depth descriptions of recently developed innovative and novel methodologies, algorithms and systems in the area of modelling, simulation and optimisation

  8. Object-oriented design and programming in medical decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heathfield, H; Armstrong, J; Kirkham, N

    1991-12-01

    The concept of object-oriented design and programming has recently received a great deal of attention from the software engineering community. This paper highlights the realisable benefits of using the object-oriented approach in the design and development of clinical decision support systems. These systems seek to build a computational model of some problem domain and therefore tend to be exploratory in nature. Conventional procedural design techniques do not support either the process of model building or rapid prototyping. The central concepts of the object-oriented paradigm are introduced, namely encapsulation, inheritance and polymorphism, and their use illustrated in a case study, taken from the domain of breast histopathology. In particular, the dual roles of inheritance in object-oriented programming are examined, i.e., inheritance as a conceptual modelling tool and inheritance as a code reuse mechanism. It is argued that the use of the former is not entirely intuitive and may be difficult to incorporate into the design process. However, inheritance as a means of optimising code reuse offers substantial technical benefits.

  9. Multi-objective Design Method for Hybrid Active Power Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jingrong; Deng, Limin; Liu, Maoyun; Qiu, Zhifeng

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, a multi-objective optimal design for transformerless hybrid active power filter (HAPF) is proposed. The interactions between the active and passive circuits is analyzed, and by taking the interactions into consideration, a three-dimensional objective problem comprising of performance, efficiency and cost of HAPF system is formulated. To deal with the multiple constraints and the strong coupling characteristics of the optimization model, a novel constraint processing mechanism based on distance measurement and adaptive penalty function is presented. In order to improve the diversity of optimal solution and the local searching ability of the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, a chaotic mutation operator based on multistage neighborhood is proposed. The simulation results show that the optimums near the ordinate origin of the three-dimension space make better tradeoff among the performance, efficiency and cost of HAPF, and the experimental results of transformerless HAPF verify the effectiveness of the method for multi-objective optimization and design.

  10. Attending to Objects as Outcomes of Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenkins, Tom; Andersen, Kristina; Gaver, William

    2016-01-01

    outcomes. The premise of this workshop is simple: We need additional spaces for interacting with and reflecting upon material design outcomes at CHI. The goal of this workshop is to experiment with such a space, and to initially do so without a strong theoretical or conceptual framing.......The goal for this workshop is to provide a venue at CHI for research through design practitioners to materially share their work with each other. Conversation will largely be centered upon a discussion of objects produced through a research through design process. Bringing together researchers...

  11. Parametric Approach in Designing Large-Scale Urban Architectural Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Riekstiņš

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available When all the disciplines of various science fields converge and develop, new approaches to contemporary architecture arise. The author looks towards approaching digital architecture from parametric viewpoint, revealing its generative capacity, originating from the fields of aeronautical, naval, automobile and product-design industries. The author also goes explicitly through his design cycle workflow for testing the latest methodologies in architectural design. The design process steps involved: extrapolating valuable statistical data about the site into three-dimensional diagrams, defining certain materiality of what is being produced, ways of presenting structural skin and structure simultaneously, contacting the object with the ground, interior program definition of the building with floors and possible spaces, logic of fabrication, CNC milling of the proto-type. The author’s developed tool that is reviewed in this article features enormous performative capacity and is applicable to various architectural design scales.Article in English

  12. VIMOS Instrument Control Software Design: an Object Oriented Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brau-Nogué, Sylvie; Lucuix, Christian

    2002-12-01

    The Franco-Italian VIMOS instrument is a VIsible imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph with outstanding multiplex capabilities, allowing to take spectra of more than 800 objects simultaneously, or integral field spectroscopy mode in a 54x54 arcsec area. VIMOS is being installed at the Nasmyth focus of the third Unit Telescope of the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope (VLT) at Mount Paranal in Chile. This paper will describe the analysis, the design and the implementation of the VIMOS Instrument Control System, using UML notation. Our Control group followed an Object Oriented software process while keeping in mind the ESO VLT standard control concepts. At ESO VLT a complete software library is available. Rather than applying waterfall lifecycle, ICS project used iterative development, a lifecycle consisting of several iterations. Each iteration consisted in : capture and evaluate the requirements, visual modeling for analysis and design, implementation, test, and deployment. Depending of the project phases, iterations focused more or less on specific activity. The result is an object model (the design model), including use-case realizations. An implementation view and a deployment view complement this product. An extract of VIMOS ICS UML model will be presented and some implementation, integration and test issues will be discussed.

  13. Analyzing and designing object-oriented missile simulations with concurrency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randorf, Jeffrey Allen

    2000-11-01

    A software object model for the six degree-of-freedom missile modeling domain is presented. As a precursor, a domain analysis of the missile modeling domain was started, based on the Feature-Oriented Domain Analysis (FODA) technique described by the Software Engineering Institute (SEI). It was subsequently determined the FODA methodology is functionally equivalent to the Object Modeling Technique. The analysis used legacy software documentation and code from the ENDOSIM, KDEC, and TFrames 6-DOF modeling tools, including other technical literature. The SEI Object Connection Architecture (OCA) was the template for designing the object model. Three variants of the OCA were considered---a reference structure, a recursive structure, and a reference structure with augmentation for flight vehicle modeling. The reference OCA design option was chosen for maintaining simplicity while not compromising the expressive power of the OMT model. The missile architecture was then analyzed for potential areas of concurrent computing. It was shown how protected objects could be used for data passing between OCA object managers, allowing concurrent access without changing the OCA reference design intent or structure. The implementation language was the 1995 release of Ada. OCA software components were shown how to be expressed as Ada child packages. While acceleration of several low level and other high operations level are possible on proper hardware, there was a 33% degradation of 4th order Runge-Kutta integrator performance of two simultaneous ordinary differential equations using Ada tasking on a single processor machine. The Defense Department's High Level Architecture was introduced and explained in context with the OCA. It was shown the HLA and OCA were not mutually exclusive architectures, but complimentary. HLA was shown as an interoperability solution, with the OCA as an architectural vehicle for software reuse. Further directions for implementing a 6-DOF missile modeling

  14. Towards Automatic Controller Design using Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Gerulf

    of evolutionary computation, a choice was made to use multi-objective algorithms for the purpose of aiding in automatic controller design. More specifically, the choice was made to use the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGAII), which is one of the most potent algorithms currently in use...... for automatic controller design. However, because the field of evolutionary computation is relatively unknown in the field of control engineering, this thesis also includes a comprehensive introduction to the basic field of evolutionary computation as well as a description of how the field has previously been......In order to design the controllers of tomorrow, a need has risen for tools that can aid in the design of these. A desire to use evolutionary computation as a tool to achieve that goal is what gave inspiration for the work contained in this thesis. After having studied the foundations...

  15. Head First Object-Oriented Analysis and Design

    CERN Document Server

    McLaughlin, Brett D; West, David

    2006-01-01

    "Head First Object Oriented Analysis and Design is a refreshing look at subject of OOAD. What sets this book apart is its focus on learning. The authors have made the content of OOAD accessible, usable for the practitioner." Ivar Jacobson, Ivar Jacobson Consulting "I just finished reading HF OOA&D and I loved it! The thing I liked most about this book was its focus on why we do OOA&D-to write great software!" Kyle Brown, Distinguished Engineer, IBM "Hidden behind the funny pictures and crazy fonts is a serious, intelligent, extremely well-crafted presentation of OO Analysis and Design

  16. Designing A Mixed Methods Study In Primary Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John W.; Fetters, Michael D.; Ivankova, Nataliya V.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND Mixed methods or multimethod research holds potential for rigorous, methodologically sound investigations in primary care. The objective of this study was to use criteria from the literature to evaluate 5 mixed methods studies in primary care and to advance 3 models useful for designing such investigations. METHODS We first identified criteria from the social and behavioral sciences to analyze mixed methods studies in primary care research. We then used the criteria to evaluate 5 mixed methods investigations published in primary care research journals. RESULTS Of the 5 studies analyzed, 3 included a rationale for mixing based on the need to develop a quantitative instrument from qualitative data or to converge information to best understand the research topic. Quantitative data collection involved structured interviews, observational checklists, and chart audits that were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical procedures. Qualitative data consisted of semistructured interviews and field observations that were analyzed using coding to develop themes and categories. The studies showed diverse forms of priority: equal priority, qualitative priority, and quantitative priority. Data collection involved quantitative and qualitative data gathered both concurrently and sequentially. The integration of the quantitative and qualitative data in these studies occurred between data analysis from one phase and data collection from a subsequent phase, while analyzing the data, and when reporting the results. DISCUSSION We recommend instrument-building, triangulation, and data transformation models for mixed methods designs as useful frameworks to add rigor to investigations in primary care. We also discuss the limitations of our study and the need for future research. PMID:15053277

  17. Extraction of design rules from multi-objective design exploration (MODE) using rough set theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obayashi, Shigeru

    2011-01-01

    Multi-objective design exploration (MODE) and its application for design rule extraction are presented. MODE reveals the structure of design space from the trade-off information. The self-organizing map (SOM) is incorporated into MODE as a visual data-mining tool for design space. SOM divides the design space into clusters with specific design features. The sufficient conditions for belonging to a cluster of interest are extracted using rough set theory. The resulting MODE was applied to the multidisciplinary wing design problem, which revealed a cluster of good designs, and we extracted the design rules of such designs successfully.

  18. Object-oriented software design in semiautomatic building extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guelch, Eberhard; Mueller, Hardo

    1997-08-01

    Developing a system for semiautomatic building acquisition is a complex process, that requires constant integration and updating of software modules and user interfaces. To facilitate these processes we apply an object-oriented design not only for the data but also for the software involved. We use the unified modeling language (UML) to describe the object-oriented modeling of the system in different levels of detail. We can distinguish between use cases from the users point of view, that represent a sequence of actions, yielding in an observable result and the use cases for the programmers, who can use the system as a class library to integrate the acquisition modules in their own software. The structure of the system is based on the model-view-controller (MVC) design pattern. An example from the integration of automated texture extraction for the visualization of results demonstrate the feasibility of this approach.

  19. The objects and basic design of TPE-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyama, Satoru; Ashida, Hisao; Hayase, Kiyoshi

    1986-01-01

    The objects and design of TPE-2 are described TPE-2 is a high beta toroidal screw pinch experiment. The magnetic field configuration of the screw pinch is the tokamaklike one (safty factor q > approx 1). The high beta plasma is obtained by the fast compression heating in TPE-2. The major objects of TPE-2 are to obtain a stable high beta plasma (> 10 %) in the configuration and to examine the behavior of the plasma in respect to given plasma parameters (T e ∼ T i > approx 300 eV, τ E > approx 0.4 ms, n e > approx 10 21 m -3 ). To atlain these objects, the optimum conditions of the machine parameters, such as aspect ratio, scale, rise time of the magnetic fields and others are analyzed for the beta, energy confinement, temperature and others. The analysis indicates that the aspect ratio and q must be small and the high veltage power supply is necessary. The designs of the coil and power supply system are briefly described. Several technical developments which are necessary for the construction of the apparatus are alss given, the diagnostic and data processing systems is included. The brief history of TPE-2 is described and the plasma parameters are compared with the designed values. (author)

  20. Availability objectives integration to design. The CIDEM approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degrave, C.; Martin-Onraet, M.

    1994-01-01

    Considering the operation experience feedback from its nuclear park and from foreign parks, and considering new approaches and design tools such as concurrent engineering, total quality, etc., EDF (Electricite de France) has decided to start the CIDEM approach (integration of availability, operating experience feedback and maintenance into design), an analytical and systematical study process for new projects (REP2000 (or PWR2000)), in order to optimize as much as possible the design phase while integrating maintenance, availability and safety objectives, with the view of a minimized kWh cost. This process, already used in other industries, employs concepts such as RAM (Reliability Availability Maintainability), RCM (Reliability Centered Maintenance) and ILS (Integrated Logistic Support). The availability and maintenance scheduling studies for the REP2000 project are detailed. 10 fig., 6 tab

  1. Multi-objective three stage design optimization for island microgrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachs, Julia; Sawodny, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An enhanced multi-objective three stage design optimization for microgrids is given. • Use of an optimal control problem for the calculation of the optimal operation. • The inclusion of a detailed battery model with CC/CV charging control. • The determination of a representative profile with optimized number of days. • The proposed method finds its direct application in a design tool for microgids. - Abstract: Hybrid off-grid energy systems enable a cost efficient and reliable energy supply to rural areas around the world. The main potential for a low cost operation and uninterrupted power supply lies in the optimal sizing and operation of such microgrids. In particular, sudden variations in load demand or in the power supply from renewables underline the need for an optimally sized system. This paper presents an efficient multi-objective model based optimization approach for the optimal sizing of all components and the determination of the best power electronic layout. The presented method is divided into three optimization problems to minimize economic and environmental objectives. This design optimization includes detailed components models and an optimized energy dispatch strategy which enables the optimal design of the energy system with respect to an adequate control for the specific configuration. To significantly reduce the computation time without loss of accuracy, the presented method contains the determination of a representative load profile using a k-means clustering method. The k-means algorithm itself is embedded in an optimization problem for the calculation of the optimal number of clusters. The benefits in term of reduced computation time, inclusion of optimal energy dispatch and optimization of power electronic architecture, of the presented optimization method are illustrated using a case study.

  2. RF control at SSCL - an object oriented design approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohan, D.A.; Osberg, E.; Biggs, R.; Bossom, J.; Chillara, K.; Richter, R.; Wade, D.

    1994-01-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) in Texas, the construction of which was stopped in 1994, would have represented a major challenge in accelerator research and development. This paper addresses the issues encountered in the parallel design and construction of the control systems for the RF equipment for the five accelerators comprising the SSC. An extensive analysis of the components of the RF control systems has been undertaken, based upon the Schlaer-Mellor object-oriented analysis and design (OOA/OOD) methodology. The RF subsystem components such as amplifiers, tubes, power supplies, PID loops, etc. were analyzed to produce OOA information, behavior and process models. Using these models, OOD was iteratively applied to develop a generic RF control system design. This paper describes the results of this analysis and the development of 'bridges' between the analysis objects, and the EPICS-based software and underlying VME-based hardware architectures. The application of this approach to several of the SSCL RF control systems is discussed. ((orig.))

  3. Designing an object-oriented scheme for accelerator equipment control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trofimov, N.N.

    1994-01-01

    The object-oriented analysis (OOA) and design (OOD) formalisms developed by Project Technology Inc. is presented in this report. The method was originated in 1979 with the analysis phase of a large real-time project at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and since that time has been used in several large-scale industrial projects. It is supported by the Teamwork CASE package from Cadre Technologies Inc. For introducing basic concepts and definitions of the OOA/OOD, a typical accelerator device example: remotely controllable power supply which is used to power magnets in an accelerator beam transfer line is used through out this report. 18 refs., 18 figs

  4. The multiplicity of the digital textbook as design object

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis Ebbesen, Toke

    2015-01-01

    Building on a preliminary case study of the Danish educational publisher Systime A/S and its flagship product, the web-based ‘iBog’/‘iBook’, this article explores how digital textbooks can be understood as design. The shaping of digital books is seen as being intertwined in a wider circuit...... reorganization of the publishing company, web-based user interfaces, and ultimately the branding, which market these new digital objects, are building power- ful discourses around the product. Thus it is suggested that the design process of the iBog case can be understood in a model of database-based publishing...... with multiple levels. In the final analysis, the iBog is much more than a product and a technology. It is a brand that goes beyond what can be studied by looking at the digital textbook as a singular artefact....

  5. 78 FR 75442 - Designation of the Primary Freight Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ...] Designation of the Primary Freight Network AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice... period for the Designation of the highway Primary Freight Network (PFN) notice, which was published on... the complete National Freight Network (NFN), and to solicit comments on aspects of the NFN. The five...

  6. Object-oriented design of medical imaging software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligier, Y; Ratib, O; Logean, M; Girard, C; Perrier, R; Scherrer, J R

    1994-01-01

    A special software package for interactive display and manipulation of medical images was developed at the University Hospital of Geneva, as part of a hospital wide Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS). This software package, called Osiris, was especially designed to be easily usable and adaptable to the needs of noncomputer-oriented physicians. The Osiris software has been developed to allow the visualization of medical images obtained from any imaging modality. It provides generic manipulation tools, processing tools, and analysis tools more specific to clinical applications. This software, based on an object-oriented paradigm, is portable and extensible. Osiris is available on two different operating systems: the Unix X-11/OSF-Motif based workstations, and the Macintosh family.

  7. ACCOUNTING OF ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGE IN THE DESIGN OF MINING OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Maksimova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to study the existing methods of calculation of environmental damage and identifying the most effective ones. To achieve this goal, the author has formulated and solved the following tasks: to investigate the mining sector, given its environmental safety; to define the stages of development of deposits of rare earth metals and to assess their level of environmental damage.The theoretical basis of the article is the domestic and foreign scholars on various aspects of the world energy market the hydrocarbon resources and the economy of industrial enterprises. As a methodological basis of applied methods: analysis, synthesis, analogy, comparison, induction and deduction, mathematical-statistical (factor.In the result of the study revealed that the greatest importance and practical significance is a methodology  based on the effectiveness of environmental protection measures as it may consider three types of environmental risks: environmental damage that was caused in the past; the present environmental pollution associated with the existing mining facility; future environmental costs.The study shows that the design of the mining facilities shall be based on the assessment of possible environmental impacts and effectiveness of environmental protection measures. In this regard, the economic assessment of environmental damage in the mining design of the object should represent a combination of costs of implementing environmental measures to compensate for residual environmental impacts and reclamation of disturbed natural complexes.

  8. Object Persistence: A Framework Based On Design Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Kienzle, Jörg; Romanovsky, Alexander

    2000-01-01

    The poster presents a framework for providing object persistence in object-oriented programming languages without modifying the run-time system or the language itself. The framework does not rely on any kind of special programming language features. It only uses basic object-oriented programming techniques, and is therefore implementable in any object-oriented programming language.

  9. Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS): objectives, design, methodology and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O

    2011-01-01

    There is a lack of comparable data on physical activity, sedentary behavior, and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, which limits our understanding and interpretation of the relationship between obesity and lifestyle parameters. Therefore, we initiated the Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS). The ATLS is a multicenter collaborative project for assessing lifestyle habits of Arab adolescents. The objectives of the ATLS project were to investigate the prevalence rates for overweight and obesity, physical activity, sedentary activity and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, and to examine the interrelationships between these lifestyle variables. This paper reports on the objectives, design, methodology, and implications of the ATLS. The ATLS is a school-based cross-sectional study involving 9182 randomly selected secondary-school students (14-19 years) from major Arab cities, using a multistage stratified sampling technique. The participating Arab cities included Riyadh, Jeddah, and Al-Khobar (Saudi Arabia), Bahrain, Dubai (United Arab Emirates), Kuwait, Amman (Jordan), Mosel (Iraq), Muscat (Oman), Tunisia (Tunisia) and Kenitra (Morocco). Measured variables included anthropometric measurements, physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep duration, and dietary habits. The ATLS project will provide a unique opportunity to collect and analyze important lifestyle information from Arab adolescents using standardized procedures. This is the first time a collaborative Arab project will simultaneously assess broad lifestyle variables in a large sample of adolescents from numerous urbanized Arab regions. This joint research project will supply us with comprehensive and recent data on physical activity/inactivity and eating habits of Arab adolescents relative to obesity. Such invaluable lifestyle-related data are crucial for developing public health policies and regional strategies for health promotion and disease prevention.

  10. Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS: objectives, design, methodology and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musaiger AO; ATLS Research Group

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hazzaa M Al-Hazzaa1,2, Abdulrahman O Musaiger3, ATLS Research Group1Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Physical Education and Movement Sciences, College of Education, King Saud University, 2Scientific Board, Obesity Research Chair, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Arab Center for Nutrition, Manama, Bahrain, and Nutrition and Health Studies Unit, Deanship of Scientific Research, University of Bahrain, BahrainBackground: There is a lack of comparable data on physical activity, sedentary behavior, and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, which limits our understanding and interpretation of the relationship between obesity and lifestyle parameters. Therefore, we initiated the Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS. The ATLS is a multicenter collaborative project for assessing lifestyle habits of Arab adolescents. The objectives of the ATLS project were to investigate the prevalence rates for overweight and obesity, physical activity, sedentary activity and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, and to examine the interrelationships between these lifestyle variables. This paper reports on the objectives, design, methodology, and implications of the ATLS.Design/Methods: The ATLS is a school-based cross-sectional study involving 9182 randomly selected secondary-school students (14–19 years from major Arab cities, using a multistage stratified sampling technique. The participating Arab cities included Riyadh, Jeddah, and Al-Khobar (Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Dubai (United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Amman (Jordan, Mosel (Iraq, Muscat (Oman, Tunisia (Tunisia and Kenitra (Morocco. Measured variables included anthropometric measurements, physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep duration, and dietary habits.Discussion: The ATLS project will provide a unique opportunity to collect and analyze important lifestyle information from Arab adolescents using standardized procedures. This is the first time a collaborative Arab project will

  11. Designing optimal degradation tests via multi-objective genetic algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marseguerra, Marzio; Zio, Enrico; Cipollone, Maurizio

    2003-01-01

    The experimental determination of the failure time probability distribution of highly reliable components, such as those used in nuclear and aerospace applications, is intrinsically difficult due to the lack, or scarce significance, of failure data which can be collected during the relatively short test periods. A possibility to overcome this difficulty is to resort to the so-called degradation tests, in which measurements of components' degradation are used to infer the failure time distribution. To design such tests, parameters like the number of tests to be run, their frequency and duration, must be set so as to obtain an accurate estimate of the distribution statistics, under the existing limitations of budget. The optimisation problem which results is a non-linear one. In this work, we propose a method, based on multi-objective genetic algorithms for determining the values of the test parameters which optimise both the accuracy in the estimate of the failure time distribution percentiles and the testing costs. The method has been validated on a degradation model of literature

  12. TESTABILITY MEASUREMENT MODEL FOR OBJECT ORIENTED DESIGN (TMMOOD)

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah; Dr. M.H. Khan; Dr. Reena Srivastava

    2015-01-01

    Measuring testability early in the development life cycle especially at design phase is a criterion of crucial importance to software designers, developers, quality controllers and practitioners. However, most of the mechanism available for testability measurement may be used in the later phases of development life cycle. Early estimation of testability, absolutely at design phase helps designers to improve their designs before the coding starts. Practitioners regularly advocate t...

  13. Testability Measurement Model for Object Oriented Design (TMMOOD)

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, M. H. Khan; Srivastava, Reena

    2015-01-01

    Measuring testability early in the development life cycle especially at design phase is a criterion of crucial importance to software designers, developers, quality controllers and practitioners. However, most of the mechanism available for testability measurement may be used in the later phases of development life cycle. Early estimation of testability, absolutely at design phase helps designers to improve their designs before the coding starts. Practitioners regularly advocate that testabil...

  14. Design Space Exploration of Object Caches with Cross-Profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin; Binder, Walter; Villazon, Alex

    2011-01-01

    . However, before implementing such an object cache, an empirical analysis of different organization forms is needed. We use a cross-profiling technique based on aspect-oriented programming in order to evaluate different object cache organizations with standard Java benchmarks. From the evaluation we......To avoid data cache trashing between heap-allocated data and other data areas, a distinct object cache has been proposed for embedded real-time Java processors. This object cache uses high associativity in order to statically track different object pointers for worst-case execution-time analysis...... conclude that field access exhibits some temporal locality, but almost no spatial locality. Therefore, filling long cache lines on a miss just introduces a high miss penalty without increasing the hit rate enough to make up for the increased miss penalty. For an object cache, it is more efficient to fill...

  15. Possibility of object recognition using Altera's model based design approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tickle, A J; Harvey, P K; Smith, J S; Wu, F

    2009-01-01

    Object recognition is an image processing task of finding a given object in a selected image or video sequence. Object recognition can be divided into two areas: one of these is decision-theoretic and deals with patterns described by quantitative descriptors, for example such as length, area, shape and texture. With this Graphical User Interface Circuitry (GUIC) methodology employed here being relatively new for object recognition systems, the aim of this work is to identify if the developed circuitry can detect certain shapes or strings within the target image. A much smaller reference image feeds the preset data for identification, tests are conducted for both binary and greyscale and the additional mathematical morphology to highlight the area within the target image with the object(s) are located is also presented. This then provides proof that basic recognition methods are valid and would allow the progression to developing decision-theoretical and learning based approaches using GUICs for use in multidisciplinary tasks.

  16. Objectivity

    CERN Document Server

    Daston, Lorraine

    2010-01-01

    Objectivity has a history, and it is full of surprises. In Objectivity, Lorraine Daston and Peter Galison chart the emergence of objectivity in the mid-nineteenth-century sciences--and show how the concept differs from its alternatives, truth-to-nature and trained judgment. This is a story of lofty epistemic ideals fused with workaday practices in the making of scientific images. From the eighteenth through the early twenty-first centuries, the images that reveal the deepest commitments of the empirical sciences--from anatomy to crystallography--are those featured in scientific atlases, the compendia that teach practitioners what is worth looking at and how to look at it. Galison and Daston use atlas images to uncover a hidden history of scientific objectivity and its rivals. Whether an atlas maker idealizes an image to capture the essentials in the name of truth-to-nature or refuses to erase even the most incidental detail in the name of objectivity or highlights patterns in the name of trained judgment is a...

  17. Exploring the Design Space of Shape-Changing Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merritt, Timothy; Petersen, Marianne Graves; Nørgaard, Mie

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we describe the outcomes from a design exercise in which eight groups of designers designed and built hardware sketches in the form of playful shape- changing prototypes, generatively working with Rasmussen et al’s [31] eight unique types of shape change. Seeing that shape-changing ......In this paper we describe the outcomes from a design exercise in which eight groups of designers designed and built hardware sketches in the form of playful shape- changing prototypes, generatively working with Rasmussen et al’s [31] eight unique types of shape change. Seeing that shape...... for the further expansion of the design space of shape changing interfaces relating to the perception and understanding of behaviour, causality and the mechanics involved in shape change events, which we call “Imagined Physics.” This concept is described along with additional insights into the qualities of shape...

  18. Exploring the design space of shape-changing objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Mie; Merritt, Timothy Robert; Rasmussen, Majken

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe the outcomes from a design exercise in which eight groups of designers designed and built hardware sketches in the form of playful shape-changing prototypes, generatively working with Rasmussen et al's [31] eight unique types of shape change. Seeing that shape-changing i......In this paper we describe the outcomes from a design exercise in which eight groups of designers designed and built hardware sketches in the form of playful shape-changing prototypes, generatively working with Rasmussen et al's [31] eight unique types of shape change. Seeing that shape...... for the further expansion of the design space of shape changing interfaces relating to the perception and understanding of behaviour, causality and the mechanics involved in shape change events, which we call "Imagined Physics." This concept is described along with additional insights into the qualities of shape...

  19. Embedding object-oriented design in system engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.; Kilov, H.; Rumpe, B.; Simmonds, I.

    1999-01-01

    The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a collection of techniques intended to document design decisions about software. This contrasts with systems engineering approaches such as for example Statemate and the Yourdon Systems Method (YSM), in which the design of an entire system consisting of

  20. On the Design of the Object-Oriented Language Sina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aksit, Mehmet

    1989-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the development of software tools to design distributed information systems. These systems are inherently more complex to build than centralized systems. The complexity of distributed information system design is heightened by the lack of tools that assist in the

  1. Layout design of user interface components with multiple objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peer S.K.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A multi-goal layout problem may be formulated as a Quadratic Assignment model, considering multiple goals (or factors, both qualitative and quantitative in the objective function. The facilities layout problem, in general, varies from the location and layout of facilities in manufacturing plant to the location and layout of textual and graphical user interface components in the human–computer interface. In this paper, we propose two alternate mathematical approaches to the single-objective layout model. The first one presents a multi-goal user interface component layout problem, considering the distance-weighted sum of congruent objectives of closeness relationships and the interactions. The second one considers the distance-weighted sum of congruent objectives of normalized weighted closeness relationships and normalized weighted interactions. The results of first approach are compared with that of an existing single objective model for example task under consideration. Then, the results of first approach and second approach of the proposed model are compared for the example task under consideration.

  2. Object migration and authentication. [in computer operating systems design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gligor, V. D.; Lindsay, B. G.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents a mechanism permitting a type manager to fabricate a migrated object representation which can be entrusted to other subsystems or transmitted outside of the control of a local computer system. The migrated object representation is signed by the type manager in such a way that the type manager's signature cannot be forged and the manager is able to authenticate its own signature. Subsequently, the type manager can retrieve the migrated representation and validate its contents before reconstructing the object in its original representation. This facility allows type managers to authenticate the contents of off-line or network storage and solves problems stemming from the hierarchical structure of the system itself.

  3. PRESENTATION OF AN ARCHITECTURAL OBJECT DESIGNED BY WARPED SURFACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VELJKOVIĆ Milica

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the importance of good functional solutions and aesthetic appearance of an object, modeling in architecture is the subject of this study. Application of more modern materials in architecture allows us to perform various geometric surfaces in the production of facade and roof structures. With such complex objects, it is necessary to create detailed three-dimensional models, using some of the modern software package for modeling. This paper provides an example of creating a 3D model of a modern building in whose exterior we can recognize nondevelopmental (becoming warped line-generated surfaces, primarily cylindroids and conoids. The entire process of modeling and presenting an object using augmented reality was carried out using the modern software package for visualization in architecture.

  4. Creating designs as effective boundary objects in innovation journeys?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, A.P.; Bommel, van S.; Klerkx, L.W.A.

    2012-01-01

    In innovation processes, prospects are often seen as a strategic tool to connect multiple actors. They are perceived to be flexible enough to have meaning in all social worlds, and stable enough to travel back and forth between them. In other words, effective prospects are seen as boundary objects

  5. Archive Design Based on Planets Inspired Logical Object Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld; Johansen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    We describe a proposal for a logical data model based on preliminary work the Planets project In OAIS terms the main areas discussed are related to the introduction of a logical data model for representing the past, present and future versions of the digital object associated with the Archival St...... Storage Package for the publications deposited by our client repositories....

  6. Safety objectives and design criteria for the NHR-200

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Dazhi; Zheng Wenxiang

    1997-01-01

    The construction of a nuclear district heating reactor (NHR) demonstration plant with a thermal power of 200 MW has been decided for the northeast of China. To facilitate the design and licensability a set of design criteria were developed for the NHR, based on existing general criteria for NPP but amended with regard to the unique features of NHR-200. Some key points are discussed in this paper. (author). 7 refs

  7. Design of Object-based Information System Prototype

    OpenAIRE

    Suhyeon Yoo; Sumi Shin; Hyesun Kim

    2014-01-01

    Researchers who use science and technology information were found to ask an information service in which they can excerpt the contents they needed, rather than using the information at article level. In this study, we micronized the contents of scholarly articles into text, image, and table and then constructed a micro-content DB to design a new information system prototype based on this micro-content. After designing the prototype, we performed usability test for this prototype so as to conf...

  8. ActionScript 30 Design Patterns Object Oriented Programming Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, William

    2008-01-01

    If you're an experienced Flash or Flex developer ready to tackle sophisticated programming techniques with ActionScript 3.0, this hands-on introduction to design patterns takes you step by step through the process. You learn about various types of design patterns and construct small abstract examples before trying your hand at building full-fledged working applications outlined in the book.

  9. Safety objectives and design criteria for the NHR-200

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dazhi, Xue; Wenxiang, Zheng [Institute of Nuclear Energy and Technology, Tsingua Univ., Beijing (China)

    1997-09-01

    The construction of a nuclear district heating reactor (NHR) demonstration plant with a thermal power of 200 MW has been decided for the northeast of China. To facilitate the design and licensability a set of design criteria were developed for the NHR, based on existing general criteria for NPP but amended with regard to the unique features of NHR-200. Some key points are discussed in this paper. (author). 7 refs.

  10. Designing pilot projects as boundary objects a Brazilian case study in the promotion of sustainable design

    CERN Document Server

    Zurlo, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    This book describes a collaborative Design Pilot Project held in Brazil (called MODU.Lares) involving micro and small enterprises and other actors in the furniture sector. The experience was based on an action research method and evaluated by using a tool, in order to assess the value of pilot project as a boundary object capable of fostering innovation and sustainability. The impact of the Design Pilot Project in triggering change in a fragmented local system with a poor environmental and social record, as well as management and innovation issues, were assessed with the help of the same tool, taking into account environmental, technological, economic, sociocultural, and organizational indicators. The collaborative network established was chiefly based on four elements: prototypes, meetings, exhibitions and the Pilot Project (as an overall process). The results indeed demonstrate that a Design Pilot Project can be a valid instrument for establishing a collaborative environment that promotes sustainability an...

  11. IFR fuel cycle process equipment design environment and objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigg, R.H.

    1993-01-01

    Argonne National laboratory (ANL) is refurbishing the hot cell facility originally constructed with the EBR-II reactor. When refurbishment is complete, the facility win demonstrate the complete fuel cycle for current generation high burnup metallic fuel elements. These are sodium bonded, stainless steel clad fuel pins of U-Zr or U-Pu-Zr composition typical of the fuel type proposed for a future Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) design. To the extent possible, the process equipment is being built at full commercial scale, and the facility is being modified to incorporate current DOE facility design requirements and modem remote maintenance principles. The current regulatory and safety environment has affected the design of the fuel fabrication equipment, most of which will be described in greater detail in subsequent papers in this session

  12. The Things of Design Research: Diversity in Objects and Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenkins, Tom; Andersen, Kristina; Gaver, Bill

    2017-01-01

    of attending to its made-material outcomes. The premise of this workshop is simple: We need additional social spaces and platforms for interacting with and reflecting upon material design outcomes at CHI. The goal of this workshop is to keep experimenting with such a space, with an emphasis on how prototyping...

  13. Two Paper Airplane Design Challenges: Customizing for Different Learning Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Daniel Z.; Meyer, Allison Antink

    2012-01-01

    The incorporation of scientific inquiry into college classrooms has steadily risen as faculty work to move away from exclusively didactic methods. One type of inquiry structure, the design task, produces a product rather than simply a conclusion. This offers students a context to apply their understanding of content in a tangible way that has…

  14. The LUVOIR Ultraviolet Multi-Object Spectrograph (LUMOS): instrument definition and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Kevin; Fleming, Brian; West, Garrett; McCandliss, Stephan R.; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Harris, Walter; Moustakas, Leonidas; O'Meara, John M.; Pascucci, Ilaria; Rigby, Jane; Schiminovich, David; Tumlinson, Jason

    2017-08-01

    The Large Ultraviolet/Optical/Infrared Surveyor (LUVOIR) is one of four large mission concepts currently undergoing community study for consideration by the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. LUVOIR is being designed to pursue an ambitious program of exoplanetary discovery and characterization, cosmic origins astrophysics, and planetary science. The LUVOIR study team is investigating two large telescope apertures (9- and 15-meter primary mirror diameters) and a host of science instruments to carry out the primary mission goals. Many of the exoplanet, cosmic origins, and planetary science goals of LUVOIR require high-throughput, imaging spectroscopy at ultraviolet (100 - 400 nm) wavelengths. The LUVOIR Ultraviolet Multi-Object Spectrograph, LUMOS, is being designed to support all of the UV science requirements of LUVOIR, from exoplanet host star characterization to tomography of circumgalactic halos to water plumes on outer solar system satellites. LUMOS offers point source and multi-object spectroscopy across the UV bandpass, with multiple resolution modes to support different science goals. The instrument will provide low (R = 8,000 - 18,000) and medium (R = 30,000 - 65,000) resolution modes across the far-ultraviolet (FUV: 100 - 200 nm) and nearultraviolet (NUV: 200 - 400 nm) windows, and a very low resolution mode (R = 500) for spectroscopic investigations of extremely faint objects in the FUV. Imaging spectroscopy will be accomplished over a 3 × 1.6 arcminute field-of-view by employing holographically-ruled diffraction gratings to control optical aberrations, microshutter arrays (MSA) built on the heritage of the Near Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec) on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), advanced optical coatings for high-throughput in the FUV, and next generation large-format photon-counting detectors. The spectroscopic capabilities of LUMOS are augmented by an FUV imaging channel (100 - 200nm, 13 milliarcsecond angular resolution, 2 × 2

  15. DICE: An Object Oriented Programming Environment for Cooperative Engineering Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-20

    environment called PARMENIDES /FRULEKIT; PARMENIDES /FRULEKIT supports programming in frames and rules and was developed in LISP at Carnegie-Mellon...the domain of building design and construction. The Blackboard in DICEY-BUILDER is represented as frames in PARMENIDES , while the KMs are implemented... PARMENIDES fo rart omat format d a b C /envelope BLACKBOAR D machine to machine (’BLACKBOARD l m message f il transfer message p read •d message format J

  16. The Army Communications Objectives Measurement System (ACOMS): Survey Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    tiveness, assessments of advertising strategy efficiencies, management of the advertising program, and planning and development of new marketing strategies... advertising strategy and market segmentation. The ACOMS development effort has focused on specifying the design and analysis plan for the survey...second set of goals involves the use of ACOMS data to assess the Army’s advertising strategy . ACOMS is examining the extent to which the Army’s in

  17. Thermal hydraulic tradeoffs in the design of IRIS primary circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oriani, L.; Lombardi, C.; Ricotti, M.E.; Paramonov, D.; Carelli, M.; Conway, L.

    2001-01-01

    IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) is currently being developed by an international consortium, led by Westinghouse and including universities. In order to achieve high level of safety, reduce complexity and capital cost, and enhance proliferation resistance, an integral primary circuit configuration has been selected. The integral configuration (the core, steam generators, coolant pumps, pressurizer and control rods are all contained within the reactor vessel) has no loop piping and thereby eliminates the possibility of large loss of coolant accidents. If the reactor vessel and components are designed for a very high level of natural circulation, which is promoted by an integral design, the consequence of loss of flow accidents can be significantly reduced or even completely eliminated. Core and integral primary circuit design optimization has been performed using the OSCAR computer code, a specialized tool for the analyses of the IRIS primary system developed at POLIMI. Results of trade-off studies of various in-vessel configurations explored to achieve tight packaging and high serviceability and/or replacement of components such as steam generators and pumps are reported. Effects of changes in secondary side parameters and steam generator design on system efficiency were explored together with the optimization of the vessel and steam generator dimensions and costs. The aim of the trade-off analyses was to limit the design space, and select a reference configuration for the IRIS reactor. (author)

  18. Didactital design of mathematics teaching in primary school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur’aeni, E.; Muharram, M. R. W.

    2018-05-01

    The fact that the low ability of geometrical understanding of primary school students is what triggers this study to be conducted. Thus, this research aimed to find out how to create a didactical design of students' mathematical understanding, particularly on one of geometry materials that is unit of length. A qualitative approach promoting Didactical Design Research (DDR) was administered in this study. Participants of the study were primary school students in Tasikmalaya, an city in West Java Province, Indonesia. The results show that there was a learning design based on learning obstacles found in the mathematics teaching and learning processes. The learning obstacles comprised students' difficulties in memorizing, relating, and operating the standards of unit of lengths. It has been proven that the most influential factor in the success of mathematics teaching and learning processes is the use of creative media.

  19. Combining ethnography and object-orientation for mobile interaction design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldskov, Jesper; Stage, Jan

    2012-01-01

    There has been a lot of interest in ethnography within human–computer interaction over the last two decades, and its relevance within systems development is today beyond question. However, one of the challenges reported is that ethnography generates findings and knowledge with such contextual...... richness that it can be hard to transfer into system design. In the light of recent years' push for the use of ethnography within the area of mobile human–computer interaction, this challenge has resurfaced and is of renewed importance to the research field. In this article we describe an interdisciplinary...

  20. ASTRID core: Design objectives, design approach, and R&D in support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mignot, G.; Devictor, N.

    2012-01-01

    ASTRID core design is mainly guided by safety objectives: 1. Prevention of the core meltdown accident: To prevent meltdown accidents: - by a natural behavior of the core and the reactor (no actuation of the two shutdown systems); - with adding passive complementary systems if natural behavior is not sufficient for some transient cases. 2. Mitigation of the fusion accident: To garantee that core fusion accidents don’t lead to significant mechanical energy release, whatever initiator event: - by a natural core behavior; - with adding specific mitigation dispositions in case of natural behavior is not suffficient

  1. Integrating availability and maintenance objectives in plant design. EDF approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degrave, Claude; Martin-Onraet, Michel

    1995-01-01

    Energy self sufficiency is a major strategic necessity for France. Regarding the fossil fuels power, competitiveness of nuclear energy is a key goal for Electricite de France. Accordingly, for future nuclear power plants to remain competitive, it is necessary to maintain the kWh production costs of the future units at a level close to those of the latest units under construction (N4 series), while raising the safety level. EDF therefore decided to implement an analytical and systematic process for study of the new projects to optimize the design by integration of the maintenance (durations, costs), availability and radiation exposure goals from the related operating experience. This approach, CIDEM (French acronym for Design Integrating Availability, operating Experience and Maintenance) aims at a single goal: to minimize the kWh production cost incorporating investment, operation and fuel costs, allowing for the operating experience from French and foreign units. The implementation of the CIDEM process constitutes for EDF a new approach to the study of the new Nuclear Power Plant projects. The competitivity of nuclear energy greatly depends on the success of such an approach. The studies conducted in the availability field have already highlighted a number of critical points and have made it possible to define the corresponding goal allocations and to establish a first series of structuring specifications for the project. (J.P.N.)

  2. Designing display primaries with currently available light sources for UHDTV wide-gamut system colorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaoka, Kenichiro; Nishida, Yukihiro; Sugawara, Masayuki

    2014-08-11

    The wide-gamut system colorimetry has been standardized for ultra-high definition television (UHDTV). The chromaticities of the primaries are designed to lie on the spectral locus to cover major standard system colorimetries and real object colors. Although monochromatic light sources are required for a display to perfectly fulfill the system colorimetry, highly saturated emission colors using recent quantum dot technology may effectively achieve the wide gamut. This paper presents simulation results on the chromaticities of highly saturated non-monochromatic light sources and gamut coverage of real object colors to be considered in designing wide-gamut displays with color filters for the UHDTV.

  3. Design of Launcher Towards Spacecraft Comfort: Ariane 6 Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourey, Patrick; Lambare, Hadrien; Valbuena, Matias F.

    2014-06-01

    Preliminary advanced studies were performed recently to select the possible concepts for a launcher that could succeed to Ariane 5. During the end of 2012 Space Ministry Conference, a configuration defining the propellant of the stages and the coarse staging ("PPH") was frozen in order to engage the preliminary selection concept studies. The first phase consisted to select the main features of the architecture in order to go deeper in the different matters or the advanced studies. The concept was selected mid of 2013.During all these phases of the preliminary project, different criteria (such as the recurring cost which is a major one) were used to quote the different concepts, among which the "payload comfort", ie the minimization of the environment generated by the launcher toward the satellites.The minimization of the environment was first expressed in term of objectives in the Mission Requirement Document (MRD) for the different mechanical environment such as quasi-static loads, dynamic loads, acoustics, shocks... Criteria such as usable volume, satellites frequency requirement and interface requirement are also expressed in the MRD.The definition of these different criteria was of course fixed taking benefit from the launcher operator experience based on a long story of dealing with spacecraft-launcher interface issues on Ariane, Soyouz and Vega. The general idea is to target improved or similar levels than those currently applicable for Ariane 5. For some environment for which a special need is anticipated from the potential end users, a special effort is aimed.The preliminary advanced study phase is currently running and has to address specific topics such as the definition of the upper part layout including geometry ofthe fairing, the definition of the launch pad with preliminary ideas to minimize acoustics and blast wave or first calculations on dimensioning dynamic load- cases such as thrust oscillations of the solid rocket motors (SRM).The present paper

  4. Feasibility analysis of CNP 1000 computerized I and C system design objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Mingguang; Xu Jijun; Zhang Qinshen

    2000-01-01

    The author states the design objectives of the computerized I and C (CIC) system and advanced main control room (AMCR), which could and should be achieved in CNP 1000, based on the national 1E computer production technology including software and hardware, and current instrumentation and control design technique of nuclear power plant. The feasibility analysis on the design objectives and the reasons or necessity to do the design research projects have been described. The objectives of design research on CIC and AMCR as well as the self-design proficiency after the design research have been given

  5. Design space for space design: Dialogs through boundary objects at the intersections of art, design, science, and engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balint, Tibor S.; Pangaro, Paul

    2017-05-01

    For over half a century space exploration has been dominated by engineering and technology driven practices. This paradigm leaves limited room for art and design. Yet in other parts of our lives, art and design play important roles: they stimulate new ideas and connect people to their experiences and to each other at a deeper level, while affecting our worldview as we evolve our cognitive models. We develop these models through circular conversations with our environment, through perception and making sense through our sensory systems and responding back through language and interactions. Artists and designers create artifacts through conversation cycles of sense-giving and sense-making, thus increasing variety in the world in the form of evolving messages. Each message becomes information when the observer decodes it, through multiple sense-making and re-sampling cycles. The messages form triggers to the cognitive state of the observer. Having a shared key between the artist/designer and the observer-for example, in the form of language, gestures, and artistic/design styles-is fundamental to encode and decode the information, in conversations. Art, design, science, and engineering, are all creative practices. Yet, they often speak different languages, where some parts may correspond, while others address a different variety in a cybernetic sense. These specialized languages within disciplines streamline communications, but limit variety. Thus, different languages between disciplines may introduce communication blocks. Nevertheless, these differences are desired as they add variety to the interactions, and could lead to novel discourses and possibilities. We may dissolve communication blocks through the introduction of boundary objects in the intersection of multiple disciplines. Boundary objects can ground ideas and bridge language diversity across disciplines. These artifacts are created to facilitate circular cybernetic conversations, supporting convergence

  6. Mechanical Design of the HER Synchrotron Light Monitor Primary Mirror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daly, Edward F.; /SLAC; Fisher, Alan S.; Kurita, Nadine R.; Langton, J.; /SLAC

    2011-09-14

    This paper describes the mechanical design of the primary mirror that images the visible portion of the synchrotron radiation (SR) extracted from the High Energy Ring (HER) of the PEP-II B-Factory. During off-axis operation, the water-cooled GlidCop mirror is subjected to a heat flux in excess of 2000 W/cm2. When on-axis imaging occurs, the heat flux due to scattered SR, resistive wall losses and Higher-Order-Mode (HOM) heating is estimated at 1 W/cm2. The imaging surface is plated with Electroless Nickel to improve its optical characteristics. The design requirements for the primary mirror are listed and discussed. Calculated mechanical distortions and stresses experienced by the mirror during on-axis and off-axis operation will be presented.

  7. Structure design of primary heat-exchanger for the MHWRR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yanshui; Cao Zhibin

    1999-01-01

    Primary heat-exchanger is one of the key equipment in the Multi-application Heavy Water Research Reactor (MHWRR). Its structure design ought to meet as much possible as the demands for safety, feasibility and economy. To reduce the liquid resistance, the locating structure between inner tube and outer tube is distributed spirally. The edge of outer tube is processed in the shape of hexahedron and then splice-welded into honeycomb structure thereby the heat-exchanger has the smallest outer diameter compared with that with the same heat-exchanging area according to 'Normal Design', 'Anabasis Design' is applied to the design for parts with Safety Class I, to ensure safety of the heat-exchanger

  8. An objective and cross-sectional examination of sun-safe behaviours in New South Wales primary schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean A. Dudley

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous evaluations have supported the link between sun protection policies and improved sun protection behaviours. However these evaluations have relied on self-reported data. Methods A cross-sectional design as part of an ongoing 18-month cluster-controlled trial in primary schools (n = 20 was used. Researchers conducted direct observations to record students’ hat use and teachers’ use of sun protective measures during recess and lunch. Researchers also recorded the volume of sunscreen consumed in each school. Results Only 60% of primary school children wear a sun-safe hat during their breaks when observed using objective measures. Weak correlations were observed between the wearing of a sun-safe hat and a school’s socio-economic status (r = 0.26. All other independent variables measured had only very weak correlations (r < 0.19 with sun-safe hat wearing behaviour of students. Sunscreen consumption by school students during the school day is negligible. Conclusions A large percentage of NSW primary schools in this study wear sun-safe hats during the school day but this is well below what has been reported in previous national surveys. Given the finite resources of schools and the correlation, though small, with SES status for these behaviours, it behoves researchers to investigate low-cost solutions to these problems. Further qualitative data will also be needed to inform the enablers and barriers for sun-safe behaviour interventions to be adopted in NSW primary schools.

  9. How the architect-engineer manages design objectives and restraints for optimizing sodium cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roe, K.A.; Roe, K.K.

    1978-01-01

    The design objectives of low capital and operating costs and high reliability are best attained by carefully defining criteria early in the development stage. Throughout the design development, unusual attention to constructibility, reliability and availability requirements, and the early resolution of licensing issues by designated engineering specialists are some of the approaches used to minimize design restraints. Effective management of these design objectives and restraints can assure that, on balance, LMFBR costs can be improved, reliability increased, and maintenance can be effective. (author)

  10. Optimization of the National Ignition Facility primary shield design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annese, C.E.; Watkins, E.F.; Greenspan, E.; Miller, W.F.

    1993-10-01

    Minimum cost design concepts of the primary shield for the National Ignition laser fusion experimental Facility (NIF) are searched with the help of the optimization code SWAN. The computational method developed for this search involves incorporating the time dependence of the delayed photon field within effective delayed photon production cross sections. This method enables one to address the time-dependent problem using relatively simple, time-independent transport calculations, thus significantly simplifying the design process. A novel approach was used for the identification of the optimal combination of constituents that will minimize the shield cost; it involves the generation, with SWAN, of effectiveness functions for replacing materials on an equal cost basis. The minimum cost shield design concept was found to consist of a mixture of polyethylene and low cost, low activation materials such as SiC, with boron added near the shield boundaries

  11. Community participation to design rural primary healthcare services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Jane; Nimegeer, Amy

    2014-03-21

    This paper explores how community participation can be used in designing rural primary healthcare services by describing a study of Scottish communities. Community participation is extolled in healthcare policy as useful in planning services and is understood as particularly relevant in rural settings, partly due to high social capital. Literature describes many community participation methods, but lacks discussion of outcomes relevant to health system reconfiguration. There is a spectrum of ideas in the literature on how to design services, from top-down standard models to contextual plans arising from population health planning that incorporates community participation. This paper addresses an evidence gap about the outcomes of using community participation in (re)designing rural community health services. Community-based participatory action research was applied in four Scottish case study communities in 2008-10. Data were collected from four workshops held in each community (total 16) and attended by community members. Workshops were intended to produce hypothetical designs for future service provision. Themes, rankings and selections from workshops are presented. Community members identified consistent health priorities, including local practitioners, emergency triage, anticipatory care, wellbeing improvement and health volunteering. Communities designed different service models to address health priorities. One community did not design a service model and another replicated the current model despite initial enthusiasm for innovation. Communities differ in their receptiveness to engaging in innovative service design, but some will create new models that fit in a given budget. Design diversity indicates that context influences local healthcare planning, suggesting community participation impacts on design outcomes, but standard service models maybe useful as part of the evidence in community participation discussions.

  12. Methodology for object-oriented real-time systems analysis and design: Software engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeffler, James D.

    1991-01-01

    Successful application of software engineering methodologies requires an integrated analysis and design life-cycle in which the various phases flow smoothly 'seamlessly' from analysis through design to implementation. Furthermore, different analysis methodologies often lead to different structuring of the system so that the transition from analysis to design may be awkward depending on the design methodology to be used. This is especially important when object-oriented programming is to be used for implementation when the original specification and perhaps high-level design is non-object oriented. Two approaches to real-time systems analysis which can lead to an object-oriented design are contrasted: (1) modeling the system using structured analysis with real-time extensions which emphasizes data and control flows followed by the abstraction of objects where the operations or methods of the objects correspond to processes in the data flow diagrams and then design in terms of these objects; and (2) modeling the system from the beginning as a set of naturally occurring concurrent entities (objects) each having its own time-behavior defined by a set of states and state-transition rules and seamlessly transforming the analysis models into high-level design models. A new concept of a 'real-time systems-analysis object' is introduced and becomes the basic building block of a series of seamlessly-connected models which progress from the object-oriented real-time systems analysis and design system analysis logical models through the physical architectural models and the high-level design stages. The methodology is appropriate to the overall specification including hardware and software modules. In software modules, the systems analysis objects are transformed into software objects.

  13. A Framework for the Flexible Content Packaging of Learning Objects and Learning Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukasiak, Jason; Agostinho, Shirley; Burnett, Ian; Drury, Gerrard; Goodes, Jason; Bennett, Sue; Lockyer, Lori; Harper, Barry

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a platform-independent method for packaging learning objects and learning designs. The method, entitled a Smart Learning Design Framework, is based on the MPEG-21 standard, and uses IEEE Learning Object Metadata (LOM) to provide bibliographic, technical, and pedagogical descriptors for the retrieval and description of learning…

  14. INST7150 - Advanced Topics in Learning Object Design and Reuse, Fall 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Wiley, David

    2005-01-01

    This course is designed to help you understand and apply advanced topics in the design, creation, and reuse of learning objects. The course is structured around a practical, hands-on project using learning objects, intermingled with readings and discussion on a variety of topics.

  15. 78 FR 43960 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Dante Ferretti: Design...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8385] Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Dante Ferretti: Design and Construction for Cinema'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the... that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Dante Ferretti: Design and Construction for Cinema...

  16. A multiphoton objective design with incorporated beam splitter for enhanced fluorescence collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Jesse D; Zipfel, Warren R

    2010-03-15

    We present a de novo design of an objective for use in multi-photon (MPM) and second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy. This objective was designed to have a large field of view (FOV), while maintaining a moderate numerical aperture (NA) and relative straight forward construction. A dichroic beam splitter was incorporated within the objective itself allowing for an increase in the front aperture of the objective and corresponding enhancement of the solid angle of collected emission by an order of magnitude over existing designs.

  17. Concept of object-oriented intelligent support for nuclear reactor designing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, H.; Gofuku, A.

    1991-01-01

    A concept of object-oriented intelligent CAD/CAE environment is proposed for the conceptual designing of advanced nuclear reactor system. It is composed of (i) object-oriented frame-structure database which represents the hierarchical relationship of the composite elements of reactor core and the physical properties, and (ii) object-oriented modularization of the elementary calculation processes, which are needed for reactor core design analysis. As an example practise, an object-oriented frame structure is constructed for representing a 3D configuration of a special fuel element of a space reactor design, by using a general-purpose expert system shell ESHELL/X. (author)

  18. Intermediary object for participative design processes based on the ergonomic work analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Souza da Conceição, Carolina; Duarte, F.; Broberg, Ole

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present and discuss the use of an intermediary object, built from the ergonomic work analysis, in a participative design process. The object was a zoning pattern, developed as a visual representation ‘mapping’ of the interrelations among the functional units of t...

  19. Object-oriented analysis and design of a GEANT based detector simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amako, K.; Kanzaki, J.; Sasaki, T.; Takaiwa, Y.; Nakagawa, Y.; Yamagata, T.

    1994-01-01

    The authors give a status report of the project to design a detector simulation program by reengineering GEANT with the object-oriented methodology. They followed the Object Modeling Technique. They explain the object model they constructed. Also problems of the technique found during their study are discussed

  20. Design Guideline for Primary Heat Exchanger in a Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sunil; Seo, Kyoung-Woo; Kim, Seong-Hoon; Chi, Dae-Young; Park, Cheol [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this paper, analytical study is conducted to track the variation of the PCS outlet temperature in conditions of the constant core power and constant SCS inlet temperature. The PCS circulates demineralized water to remove the heat generated in reactor core. The heat is transferred to the cold water of the SCS through the primary heat exchanger. In JRTR, Plate-type Heat Exchanger (PHE) was used as the primary heat exchanger. The cooling tower automatically sets the SCS inlet temperature constant by fan speed control. The flow rate of SCS is adjusted to be identical with the PCS flow rate. To design the PHE, the inlet and outlet temperatures and the flow rates for both systems should be determined. The flow rate has the allowable band for the safe operation from the lower limit to upper limit resulting in different temperature distribution in the PHE. Specially, the PCS outlet temperature which is the core inlet temperature is used for a safety parameter for the reactor shutdown. Therefore, we need to figure out which limit for the flow rate should be used from the conservative point of view. At 200 kg/s of PCS and SCS flow rates, the inlet and outlet temperatures are 41.3℃and 34℃, respectively. With increase of the flow rate, both of PCS inlet and outlet temperatures decrease to 33.6℃ and 39.9℃. This result means the low limit of the allowable flow band should be used for the conservative design of primary heat exchanger. If the upper limit of the allowable flow band is used, the PCS outlet temperature which is the safety parameter used for the reactor shutdown increases with decrease of the flow rate.

  1. Design Guideline for Primary Heat Exchanger in a Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sunil; Seo, Kyoung-Woo; Kim, Seong-Hoon; Chi, Dae-Young; Park, Cheol

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, analytical study is conducted to track the variation of the PCS outlet temperature in conditions of the constant core power and constant SCS inlet temperature. The PCS circulates demineralized water to remove the heat generated in reactor core. The heat is transferred to the cold water of the SCS through the primary heat exchanger. In JRTR, Plate-type Heat Exchanger (PHE) was used as the primary heat exchanger. The cooling tower automatically sets the SCS inlet temperature constant by fan speed control. The flow rate of SCS is adjusted to be identical with the PCS flow rate. To design the PHE, the inlet and outlet temperatures and the flow rates for both systems should be determined. The flow rate has the allowable band for the safe operation from the lower limit to upper limit resulting in different temperature distribution in the PHE. Specially, the PCS outlet temperature which is the core inlet temperature is used for a safety parameter for the reactor shutdown. Therefore, we need to figure out which limit for the flow rate should be used from the conservative point of view. At 200 kg/s of PCS and SCS flow rates, the inlet and outlet temperatures are 41.3℃and 34℃, respectively. With increase of the flow rate, both of PCS inlet and outlet temperatures decrease to 33.6℃ and 39.9℃. This result means the low limit of the allowable flow band should be used for the conservative design of primary heat exchanger. If the upper limit of the allowable flow band is used, the PCS outlet temperature which is the safety parameter used for the reactor shutdown increases with decrease of the flow rate

  2. A procedure for multi-objective optimization of tire design parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Nikola Korunović; Miloš Madić; Miroslav Trajanović; Miroslav Radovanović

    2015-01-01

    The identification of optimal tire design parameters for satisfying different requirements, i.e. tire performance characteristics, plays an essential role in tire design. In order to improve tire performance characteristics, formulation and solving of multi-objective optimization problem must be performed. This paper presents a multi-objective optimization procedure for determination of optimal tire design parameters for simultaneous minimization of strain energy density at two distinctive zo...

  3. Comparing infants' use of featural and spatiotemporal information when individuating objects in an event monitoring design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøjgaard, Peter

    . The results obtained using this design reveal that infants are more successful using spatiotemporal object information than when using featural information. However, recent studies using the less cognitively demanding event monitoring design have revealed that even younger infants are capable of object...... in the present series of experiments in which infants' use of spatiotemporal and featural information is compared directly using the less demanding event monitoring design. The results are discussed in relation to existing empirical evidence......., to what extent infants rely on spatiotemporal or featural object information when individuating objects is currently under debate. Hitherto, infants' use of spatiotemporal and featural object information has only been compared directly using the rather cognitively demanding event mapping design...

  4. The Research Paper as an Object of Communication in Industrial Design Educations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bente Dahl; Botin, Lars

    2014-01-01

    The preparation of papers provides students at industrial design education´s an opportunity to gain experience with design research and papers as an object of communication. Design research is an interdisciplinary field that is both relatively new and with a blurred borderline to the professional...

  5. Hybrid Evolutionary Metaheuristics for Concurrent Multi-Objective Design of Urban Road and Public Transit Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miandoabchi, Elnaz; Farahani, Reza Zanjirani; Dullaert, Wout; Szeto, W. Y.

    This paper addresses a bi-modal multi-objective discrete urban road network design problem with automobile and bus flow interaction. The problem considers the concurrent urban road and bus network design in which the authorities play a major role in designing bus network topology. The road network

  6. A procedure for multi-objective optimization of tire design parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Korunović

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The identification of optimal tire design parameters for satisfying different requirements, i.e. tire performance characteristics, plays an essential role in tire design. In order to improve tire performance characteristics, formulation and solving of multi-objective optimization problem must be performed. This paper presents a multi-objective optimization procedure for determination of optimal tire design parameters for simultaneous minimization of strain energy density at two distinctive zones inside the tire. It consists of four main stages: pre-analysis, design of experiment, mathematical modeling and multi-objective optimization. Advantage of the proposed procedure is reflected in the fact that multi-objective optimization is based on the Pareto concept, which enables design engineers to obtain a complete set of optimization solutions and choose a suitable tire design. Furthermore, modeling of the relationships between tire design parameters and objective functions based on multiple regression analysis minimizes computational and modeling effort. The adequacy of the proposed tire design multi-objective optimization procedure has been validated by performing experimental trials based on finite element method.

  7. 75 FR 52860 - Final Airworthiness Design Standards for Acceptance Under the Primary Category Rule; Orlando...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 21 Final Airworthiness Design Standards for Acceptance Under the Primary Category Rule; Orlando Helicopter Airways (OHA), Inc... Existence of Proposed Airworthiness Design Standards for Acceptance Under the Primary Category Rule; Orlando...

  8. Object-Oriented/Data-Oriented Design of a Direct Simulation Monte Carlo Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liechty, Derek S.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, there has been much progress towards improved phenomenological modeling and algorithmic updates for the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, which provides a probabilistic physical simulation of gas Rows. These improvements have largely been based on the work of the originator of the DSMC method, Graeme Bird. Of primary importance are improved chemistry, internal energy, and physics modeling and a reduction in time to solution. These allow for an expanded range of possible solutions In altitude and velocity space. NASA's current production code, the DSMC Analysis Code (DAC), is well-established and based on Bird's 1994 algorithms written in Fortran 77 and has proven difficult to upgrade. A new DSMC code is being developed in the C++ programming language using object-oriented and data-oriented design paradigms to facilitate the inclusion of the recent improvements and future development activities. The development efforts on the new code, the Multiphysics Algorithm with Particles (MAP), are described, and performance comparisons are made with DAC.

  9. BSDB: A New Consistent Designation Scheme for Identifying Objects in Binary and Multiple Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovaleva D. A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The new consistent scheme for designation of objects in binary and multiple systems, BSDB, is described. It was developed in the frame of the Binary star DataBase, BDB (http://www.inasan.ru, due to necessity of a unified and consistent system for designation of objects in the database, and the name of the designation scheme was derived from that of the database. The BSDB scheme covers all types of observational data. Three classes of objects introduced within the BSDB nomenclature provide correct links between objects and data, what is especially important for complex multiple stellar systems. The final stage of establishing the BSDB scheme is compilation of the Identification List of Binaries, ILB, where all known objects in binary and multiple stars are presented with their BSDB identifiers along with identifiers according to major catalogues and lists.

  10. Development of model pump for establishing hydraulic design of primary sodium pumps in PFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chougule, R.J.; Sahasrabudhe, H.G.; Rao, A.S.L.K.; Balchander, K.; Kale, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam indicated requirement of indigenous development of primary sodium pump, handling liquid sodium as coolant in Fast Breeder Reactor. The primary sodium pump concept selected in its preliminary design is a vertical, single stage, with single suction impeller, suction facing downwards. The pump is having diffuser, discharge casing and discharge collector. The 1/3 rd size model pump is developed to establish the hydraulic performance of the prototype primary sodium pump. The main objectives were to verify the hydraulic design to operate on low net positive suction head available (NPSHA), no evidence of visible cavitation at available NPSHA, the pump should be designed with a diffuser etc. The model pump PSP 250/40 was designed and successfully developed by Research and Development Division of M/s Kirloskar Brothers Ltd., Kirloskarvadi. The performance testing using model pump was successfully carried out on a closed circuit test rig. The performance of a model pump at three different speeds 1900 rpm, 1456 rpm and 975 rpm was established. The values of hydraulic axial thrust with and without balancing holes on impeller at 1900 rpm was measured. Visual cavitation study at 1900 rpm was carried out to establish the NPSH at bubble free operation of the pump. The tested performance of the model pump is converted to the full scale prototype pump. The predicted performance of prototype pump at 700 rpm was found to be meeting fully with the expected duties. (author). 6 figs., 3 tabs

  11. A performance-oriented power transformer design methodology using multi-objective evolutionary optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adly, Amr A; Abd-El-Hafiz, Salwa K

    2015-05-01

    Transformers are regarded as crucial components in power systems. Due to market globalization, power transformer manufacturers are facing an increasingly competitive environment that mandates the adoption of design strategies yielding better performance at lower costs. In this paper, a power transformer design methodology using multi-objective evolutionary optimization is proposed. Using this methodology, which is tailored to be target performance design-oriented, quick rough estimation of transformer design specifics may be inferred. Testing of the suggested approach revealed significant qualitative and quantitative match with measured design and performance values. Details of the proposed methodology as well as sample design results are reported in the paper.

  12. Performance of a genetic algorithm for solving the multi-objective, multimodel transportation network design problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brands, Ties; van Berkum, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    The optimization of infrastructure planning in a multimodal network is defined as a multi-objective network design problem, with accessibility, use of urban space by parking, operating deficit and climate impact as objectives. Decision variables are the location of park and ride facilities, train

  13. USING OF OBJECT-ORIENTED DESIGN PRINCIPLES IN ELECTRIC MACHINES DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.N. Zablodskii

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To develop the theoretical basis of electrical machines object-oriented design, mathematical models and software to improve their design synthesis, analysis and optimization. Methodology. We have applied object-oriented design theory in electric machines optimal design and mathematical modelling of electromagnetic transients and electromagnetic field distribution. We have correlated the simulated results with the experimental data obtained by means of the double-stator screw dryer with an external solid rotor, brushless turbo-generator exciter and induction motor with squirrel cage rotor. Results. We have developed object-oriented design methodology, transient mathematical modelling and electromagnetic field equations templates for cylindrical electrical machines, improved and remade Cartesian product and genetic optimization algorithms. This allows to develop electrical machines classifications models, included not only structure development but also parallel synthesis of mathematical models and design software, to improve electric machines efficiency and technical performance. Originality. For the first time, we have applied a new way of design and modelling of electrical machines, which is based on the basic concepts of the object-oriented analysis. For the first time is suggested to use a single class template for structural and system organization of electrical machines, invariant to their specific variety. Practical value. We have manufactured screw dryer for coil dust drying and mixing based on the performed object-oriented theory. We have developed object-oriented software for design and optimization of induction motor with squirrel cage rotor of AIR series and brushless turbo-generator exciter. The experimental studies have confirmed the adequacy of the developed object-oriented design methodology.

  14. VNM: An R Package for Finding Multiple-Objective Optimal Designs for the 4-Parameter Logistic Model

    OpenAIRE

    Hyun, Seung Won; Wong, Weng Kee; Yang, Yarong

    2018-01-01

    A multiple-objective optimal design is useful for dose-response studies because it can incorporate several objectives at the design stage. Objectives can be of varying interests and a properly constructed multiple-objective optimal design can provide user-specified efficiencies, delivering higher efficiencies for the more important objectives. In this work, we introduce the VNM package written in R for finding 3-objective locally optimal designs for the 4-parameter logistic (4PL) model widely...

  15. Design of a Model Execution Framework: Repetitive Object-Oriented Simulation Environment (ROSE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Justin S.; Briggs, Jeffery L.

    2008-01-01

    The ROSE framework was designed to facilitate complex system analyses. It completely divorces the model execution process from the model itself. By doing so ROSE frees the modeler to develop a library of standard modeling processes such as Design of Experiments, optimizers, parameter studies, and sensitivity studies which can then be applied to any of their available models. The ROSE framework accomplishes this by means of a well defined API and object structure. Both the API and object structure are presented here with enough detail to implement ROSE in any object-oriented language or modeling tool.

  16. Automatic seismic support design of piping system by an object oriented expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatogawa, T.; Takayama, Y.; Hayashi, Y.; Fukuda, T.; Yamamoto, Y.; Haruna, T.

    1990-01-01

    The seismic support design of piping systems of nuclear power plants requires many experienced engineers and plenty of man-hours, because the seismic design conditions are very severe, the bulk volume of the piping systems is hyge and the design procedures are very complicated. Therefore we have developed a piping seismic design expert system, which utilizes the piping design data base of a 3 dimensional CAD system and automatically determines the piping support locations and support styles. The data base of this system contains the maximum allowable seismic support span lengths for straight piping and the span length reduction factors for bends, branches, concentrated masses in the piping, and so forth. The system automatically produces the support design according to the design knowledge extracted and collected from expert design engineers, and using design information such as piping specifications which give diameters and thickness and piping geometric configurations. The automatic seismic support design provided by this expert system achieves in the reduction of design man-hours, improvement of design quality, verification of design result, optimization of support locations and prevention of input duplication. In the development of this system, we had to derive the design logic from expert design engineers and this could not be simply expressed descriptively. Also we had to make programs for different kinds of design knowledge. For these reasons we adopted the object oriented programming paradigm (Smalltalk-80) which is suitable for combining programs and carrying out the design work

  17. Design of Learning Objects for Concept Learning: Effects of Multimedia Learning Principles and an Instructional Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Thomas K. F.; Churchill, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Literature suggests using multimedia learning principles in the design of instructional material. However, these principles may not be sufficient for the design of learning objects for concept learning in mathematics. This paper reports on an experimental study that investigated the effects of an instructional approach, which includes two teaching…

  18. Intermediary objects in the workspace design process: means of experience transfer in the offshore sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Souza da Conceição, Carolina; Silva, Gislaine; Broberg, Ole

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the use of intermediary objects in the workspace design process of offshore accommodations module. The integration of ergonomics in the design process can lead to better work conditions, more effectiveness in the work process and less health and safety issues...

  19. 24 CFR 1003.208 - Criteria for compliance with the primary objective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... considered is the creation or retention of jobs except as provided in paragraph (b)(4) of this section.) To... households. (d) Job creation or retention activities. An activity designed to create or retain permanent jobs.... (4) An activity designed to provide job training and placement and/or other employment support...

  20. Worst-case execution time analysis-driven object cache design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Benedikt; Puffitsch, Wolfgang; Schoeberl, Martin

    2012-01-01

    result in a WCET analysis‐friendly design. Aiming for a time‐predictable design, we therefore propose to employ WCET analysis techniques for the design space exploration of processor architectures. We evaluated different object cache configurations using static analysis techniques. The number of field......Hard real‐time systems need a time‐predictable computing platform to enable static worst‐case execution time (WCET) analysis. All performance‐enhancing features need to be WCET analyzable. However, standard data caches containing heap‐allocated data are very hard to analyze statically....... In this paper we explore a new object cache design, which is driven by the capabilities of static WCET analysis. Simulations of standard benchmarks estimating the expected average case performance usually drive computer architecture design. The design decisions derived from this methodology do not necessarily...

  1. Design and development of a zoom lens objective for the fast breeder test reactor periscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, N.C.; Udupa, D.V.; Shukla, R.P.

    2003-10-01

    A three lens optically compensated zoom lens useful for the 5 meter long periscope in the Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) has been designed, fabricated and tested. The zoom lens fabricated using radiation resistant glasses has a zoom ratio of 2.5 with a focal length range of l00 mm to 250 mm. The zoom lens objective has been designed for viewing the objects kept at a distance in the range of 1.5 m to 3 m from the objective lens. It is found that the zoom lens objective can be used for resolving objects with a linear resolution of 0.2 mm inside the reactor when viewed with an eye piece of focal length 50 mm. (author)

  2. Object-oriented analysis and design for information systems Modeling with UML, OCL, IFML

    CERN Document Server

    Wazlawick, Raul Sidnei

    2014-01-01

    Object-Oriented Analysis and Design for Information Systems clearly explains real object-oriented programming in practice. Expert author Raul Sidnei Wazlawick explains concepts such as object responsibility, visibility and the real need for delegation in detail. The object-oriented code generated by using these concepts in a systematic way is concise, organized and reusable. The patterns and solutions presented in this book are based in research and industrial applications. You will come away with clarity regarding processes and use cases and a clear understand of how to expand a use case.

  3. Multi-objective design of PV-wind-diesel-hydrogen-battery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dufo-Lopez, Rodolfo; Bernal-Agustin, Jose L. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Zaragoza, Calle Maria de Luna 3, 50018-Zaragoza (Spain)

    2008-12-15

    This paper presents, for the first time, a triple multi-objective design of isolated hybrid systems minimizing, simultaneously, the total cost throughout the useful life of the installation, pollutant emissions (CO{sub 2}) and unmet load. For this task, a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA) and a genetic algorithm (GA) have been used in order to find the best combination of components of the hybrid system and control strategies. As an example of application, a complex PV-wind-diesel-hydrogen-battery system has been designed, obtaining a set of possible solutions (Pareto Set). The results achieved demonstrate the practical utility of the developed design method. (author)

  4. Design optimization of axial flow hydraulic turbine runner: Part II - multi-objective constrained optimization method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Guoyi; Cao, Shuliang; Ishizuka, Masaru; Hayama, Shinji

    2002-06-01

    This paper is concerned with the design optimization of axial flow hydraulic turbine runner blade geometry. In order to obtain a better design plan with good performance, a new comprehensive performance optimization procedure has been presented by combining a multi-variable multi-objective constrained optimization model with a Q3D inverse computation and a performance prediction procedure. With careful analysis of the inverse design of axial hydraulic turbine runner, the total hydraulic loss and the cavitation coefficient are taken as optimization objectives and a comprehensive objective function is defined using the weight factors. Parameters of a newly proposed blade bound circulation distribution function and parameters describing positions of blade leading and training edges in the meridional flow passage are taken as optimization variables.The optimization procedure has been applied to the design optimization of a Kaplan runner with specific speed of 440 kW. Numerical results show that the performance of designed runner is successfully improved through optimization computation. The optimization model is found to be validated and it has the feature of good convergence. With the multi-objective optimization model, it is possible to control the performance of designed runner by adjusting the value of weight factors defining the comprehensive objective function. Copyright

  5. Multi-objective optimisation for spacecraft design for demise and survivability

    OpenAIRE

    Trisolini, Mirko; Colombo, Camilla; Lewis, Hugh

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the development of a multi-objective optimisation framework to study the effects that preliminary design choices have on the demisability and the survivability of a spacecraft. Building a spacecraft such that most of it will demise during the re-entry through design-for-demise strategies may lead to design that are more vulnerable to space debris impacts, thus compromising the reliability of the mission. The two models developed to analyse the demisability and the survivabi...

  6. Improving Awareness of Health Hazards Associated with Air Pollution in Primary School Children: Design and Test of Didactic Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carducci, Annalaura; Casini, Beatrice; Donzelli, Gabriele; Verani, Marco; Bruni, Beatrice; Ceretti, Elisabetta; Zani, Claudia; Carraro, Elisabetta; Bonetta, Sara; Bagordo, Francesco; Grassi, Tiziana; Villarini, Milena; Bonizzoni, Silvia; Zagni, Licia; Gelatti, Umberto

    2016-01-01

    One of the objectives of the MAPEC-Life project is raising children's awareness on air quality and its health effects. To achieve this goal, we designed didactic tools for primary school students, including leaflets with more information for teachers, a cartoon, and three educational videogames. The tools were then tested with 266 children who…

  7. The integration of occupational therapy into primary care: a multiple case study design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background For over two decades occupational therapists have been encouraged to enhance their roles within primary care and focus on health promotion and prevention activities. While there is a clear fit between occupational therapy and primary care, there have been few practice examples, despite a growing body of evidence to support the role. In 2010, the province of Ontario, Canada provided funding to include occupational therapists as members of Family Health Teams, an interprofessional model of primary care. The integration of occupational therapists into this model of primary care is one of the first large scale initiatives of its kind in North America. The objective of the study was to examine how occupational therapy services are being integrated into primary care teams and understand the structures supporting the integration. Methods A multiple case study design was used to provide an in-depth description of the integration of occupational therapy. Four Family Health Teams with occupational therapists as part of the team were identified. Data collection included in-depth interviews, document analyses, and questionnaires. Results Each Family Health Team had a unique organizational structure that contributed to the integration of occupational therapy. Communication, trust and understanding of occupational therapy were key elements in the integration of occupational therapy into Family Health Teams, and were supported by a number of strategies including co-location, electronic medical records and team meetings. An understanding of occupational therapy was critical for integration into the team and physicians were less likely to understand the occupational therapy role than other health providers. Conclusion With an increased emphasis on interprofessional primary care, new professions will be integrated into primary healthcare teams. The study found that explicit strategies and structures are required to facilitate the integration of a new professional group

  8. Special Aspects of Learning Objectives Design for Disciplines in Engineering Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. B. Tsvetkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to a problem of learning objectives design for disciplines in engineering education. It is shown that the system of well defined objectives can form a basis of discipline content analysis, acquisition control and improvement.The detailed defining of clear objectives and designing forms and content of objectives which allow to estimate their achievement are considered.For this purpose the objectives should consider the level of learners, to designate result which they will be able to show after training, conditions and how well they will be able to make it.Some examples of objective formulations are provided which allow to show in an explicit form the results reached by a learner.It is shown that cognitive process dimension can be divided into groups of initial level of thinking (to remember, understand, apply and thinking of high level (to analyze, estimate, create.Thus knowledge dimension include the factual, conceptual, procedural and metacognitive knowledges.On the basis of cognitive process dimension and knowledge dimension in engineering education it is offered to form system of learning objectives on the basis of their twodimensional classification - taxonomy.Objectives examples for engineering discipline are given. They consider conditions of their achievement and criteria of execution for various combinations of cognitive process dimension and levels of knowledge dimension.For some engineering disciplines examples of learning objectives are formulated including their achievement and criterion of execution of the corresponding actions.The given results can form a basis for design of learning objectives at realization of a competence approach in modern engineering education.Further work in this direction preplan the analysis and approbation of two-dimensional matrix applicability for objectives design on examples of various engineering disciplines.It is of profound importance to use matrixes of well defined

  9. Object-oriented analysis and design of a health care management information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, M; Reich, D L

    1999-04-01

    We have created a prototype for a universal object-oriented model of a health care system compatible with the object-oriented approach used in version 3.0 of the HL7 standard for communication messages. A set of three models has been developed: (1) the Object Model describes the hierarchical structure of objects in a system--their identity, relationships, attributes, and operations; (2) the Dynamic Model represents the sequence of operations in time as a collection of state diagrams for object classes in the system; and (3) functional Diagram represents the transformation of data within a system by means of data flow diagrams. Within these models, we have defined major object classes of health care participants and their subclasses, associations, attributes and operators, states, and behavioral scenarios. We have also defined the major processes and subprocesses. The top-down design approach allows use, reuse, and cloning of standard components.

  10. Searching for the Pareto frontier in multi-objective protein design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Vikas; Belure, Sandeep V; Shir, Ofer M

    2017-08-01

    The goal of protein engineering and design is to identify sequences that adopt three-dimensional structures of desired function. Often, this is treated as a single-objective optimization problem, identifying the sequence-structure solution with the lowest computed free energy of folding. However, many design problems are multi-state, multi-specificity, or otherwise require concurrent optimization of multiple objectives. There may be tradeoffs among objectives, where improving one feature requires compromising another. The challenge lies in determining solutions that are part of the Pareto optimal set-designs where no further improvement can be achieved in any of the objectives without degrading one of the others. Pareto optimality problems are found in all areas of study, from economics to engineering to biology, and computational methods have been developed specifically to identify the Pareto frontier. We review progress in multi-objective protein design, the development of Pareto optimization methods, and present a specific case study using multi-objective optimization methods to model the tradeoff between three parameters, stability, specificity, and complexity, of a set of interacting synthetic collagen peptides.

  11. Object-Oriented Control System Design Using On-Line Training of Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubaai, Ahmed

    1997-01-01

    This report deals with the object-oriented model development of a neuro-controller design for permanent magnet (PM) dc motor drives. The system under study is described as a collection of interacting objects. Each object module describes the object behaviors, called methods. The characteristics of the object are included in its variables. The knowledge of the object exists within its variables, and the performance is determined by its methods. This structure maps well to the real world objects that comprise the system being modeled. A dynamic learning architecture that possesses the capabilities of simultaneous on-line identification and control is incorporated to enforce constraints on connections and control the dynamics of the motor. The control action is implemented "on-line", in "real time" in such a way that the predicted trajectory follows a specified reference model. A design example of controlling a PM dc motor drive on-line shows the effectiveness of the design tool. This will therefore be very useful in aerospace applications. It is expected to provide an innovative and noval software model for the rocket engine numerical simulator executive.

  12. Integrated conservation planning for coral reefs: Designing conservation zones for multiple conservation objectives in spatial prioritisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A. Magris

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Decision-makers focus on representing biodiversity pattern, maintaining connectivity, and strengthening resilience to global warming when designing marine protected area (MPA systems, especially in coral reef ecosystems. The achievement of these broad conservation objectives will likely require large areas, and stretch limited funds for MPA implementation. We undertook a spatial prioritisation of Brazilian coral reefs that considered two types of conservation zones (i.e. no-take and multiple use areas and integrated multiple conservation objectives into MPA planning, while assessing the potential impact of different sets of objectives on implementation costs. We devised objectives for biodiversity, connectivity, and resilience to global warming, determined the extent to which existing MPAs achieved them, and designed complementary zoning to achieve all objectives combined in expanded MPA systems. In doing so, we explored interactions between different sets of objectives, determined whether refinements to the existing spatial arrangement of MPAs were necessary, and tested the utility of existing MPAs by comparing their cost effectiveness with an MPA system designed from scratch. We found that MPAs in Brazil protect some aspects of coral reef biodiversity pattern (e.g. threatened fauna and ecosystem types more effectively than connectivity or resilience to global warming. Expanding the existing MPA system was as cost-effective as designing one from scratch only when multiple objectives were considered and management costs were accounted for. Our approach provides a comprehensive assessment of the benefits of integrating multiple objectives in the initial stages of conservation planning, and yields insights for planners of MPAs tackling multiple objectives in other regions.

  13. Multi-Objective Design Optimization of an Over-Constrained Flexure-Based Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Ni

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The optimizing design for enhancement of the micro performance of manipulator based on analytical models is investigated in this paper. By utilizing the established uncanonical linear homogeneous equations, the quasi-static analytical model of the micro-manipulator is built, and the theoretical calculation results are tested by FEA simulations. To provide a theoretical basis for a micro-manipulator being used in high-precision engineering applications, this paper investigates the modal property based on the analytical model. Based on the finite element method, with multipoint constraint equations, the model is built and the results have a good match with the simulation. The following parametric influences studied show that the influences of other objectives on one objective are complicated.  Consequently, the multi-objective optimization by the derived analytical models is carried out to find out the optimal solutions of the manipulator. Besides the inner relationships among these design objectives during the optimization process are discussed.

  14. Evolutionary algorithms for multi-objective energetic and economic optimization in thermal system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toffolo, A.; Lazzaretto, A.

    2002-01-01

    Thermoeconomic analyses in thermal system design are always focused on the economic objective. However, knowledge of only the economic minimum may not be sufficient in the decision making process, since solutions with a higher thermodynamic efficiency, in spite of small increases in total costs, may result in much more interesting designs due to changes in energy market prices or in energy policies. This paper suggests how to perform a multi-objective optimization in order to find solutions that simultaneously satisfy exergetic and economic objectives. This corresponds to a search for the set of Pareto optimal solutions with respect to the two competing objectives. The optimization process is carried out by an evolutionary algorithm, that features a new diversity preserving mechanism using as a test case the well-known CGAM problem. (author)

  15. Design of a centrifugal compressor impeller using multi-objective optimization algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Hyuk; Husain, Afzal; Kim, Kwang Yong; Choi, Jae Ho

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a design optimization of a centrifugal compressor impeller with hybrid multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (hybrid MOEA). Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with shear stress transport turbulence model are discretized by finite volume approximations and solved on hexahedral grids for flow analyses. Two objectives, i.e., isentropic efficiency and total pressure ratio are selected with four design variables defining impeller hub and shroud contours in meridional contours to optimize the system. Non-dominated Sorting of Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) with ε-constraint strategy for local search coupled with Radial Basis Neural Network model is used for multi-objective optimization. The optimization results show that isentropic efficiencies and total pressure ratios of the five cluster points at the Pareto-optimal solutions are enhanced by multi-objective optimization.

  16. Design of a centrifugal compressor impeller using multi-objective optimization algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Hyuk; Husain, Afzal; Kim, Kwang Yong [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jae Ho [Samsung Techwin Co., Ltd., Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents a design optimization of a centrifugal compressor impeller with hybrid multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (hybrid MOEA). Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with shear stress transport turbulence model are discretized by finite volume approximations and solved on hexahedral grids for flow analyses. Two objectives, i.e., isentropic efficiency and total pressure ratio are selected with four design variables defining impeller hub and shroud contours in meridional contours to optimize the system. Non-dominated Sorting of Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) with {epsilon}-constraint strategy for local search coupled with Radial Basis Neural Network model is used for multi-objective optimization. The optimization results show that isentropic efficiencies and total pressure ratios of the five cluster points at the Pareto-optimal solutions are enhanced by multi-objective optimization.

  17. A new multi objective optimization model for designing a green supply chain network under uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahdi Saffar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, researchers have focused on how to minimize the negative effects of industrial activities on environment. Consequently, they work on mathematical models, which minimize the environmental issues as well as optimizing the costs. In the field of supply chain network design, most managers consider economic and environmental issues, simultaneously. This paper introduces a bi-objective supply chain network design, which uses fuzzy programming to obtain the capability of resisting uncertain conditions. The design considers production, recovery, and distribution centers. The advantage of using this model includes the optimal facilities, locating them and assigning the optimal facilities to them. It also chooses the type and the number of technologies, which must be bought. The fuzzy programming converts the multi objective model to an auxiliary crisp model by Jimenez approach and solves it with ε-constraint. For solving large size problems, the Multi Objective Differential Evolutionary algorithm (MODE is applied.

  18. A Parameterized Pattern-Error Objective for Large-Scale Phase-Only Array Pattern Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-21

    of 1D heuristic design approaches can be found in [6–11]. Reference [12], which proposes separate beams on interlaced subarrays, represents a 2D...and is well suited for solving with efficient quasi-Newton methods. Although deliberately simple, the objective has several heuristic parameters for...with efficient quasi-Newton methods. Although deliberately simple, the objective has several heuristic parameters for flexibility and can be used to

  19. Multi-objective optimization of generalized reliability design problems using feature models-A concept for early design stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limbourg, Philipp; Kochs, Hans-Dieter

    2008-01-01

    Reliability optimization problems such as the redundancy allocation problem (RAP) have been of considerable interest in the past. However, due to the restrictions of the design space formulation, they may not be applicable in all practical design problems. A method with high modelling freedom for rapid design screening is desirable, especially in early design stages. This work presents a novel approach to reliability optimization. Feature modelling, a specification method originating from software engineering, is applied for the fast specification and enumeration of complex design spaces. It is shown how feature models can not only describe arbitrary RAPs but also much more complex design problems. The design screening is accomplished by a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm for probabilistic objectives. Comparing averages or medians may hide the true characteristics of this distributions. Therefore the algorithm uses solely the probability of a system dominating another to achieve the Pareto optimal set. We illustrate the approach by specifying a RAP and a more complex design space and screening them with the evolutionary algorithm

  20. Design Guide for Earth System Science Education: Common Student Learning Objectives and Special Pedagogical Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D.

    2006-12-01

    As part of the NASA-supported undergraduate Earth System Science Education (ESSE) program, fifty-seven institutions have developed and implemented a wide range of Earth system science (ESS) courses, pedagogies, and evaluation tools. The Teaching, Learning, and Evaluation section of USRA's online ESSE Design Guide showcases these ESS learning environments. This Design Guide section also provides resources for faculty who wish to develop ESS courses. It addresses important course design issues including prior student knowledge and interests, student learning objectives, learning resources, pedagogical approaches, and assessments tied to student learning objectives. The ESSE Design Guide provides links to over 130 ESS course syllabi at introductory, senior, and graduate levels. ESS courses over the past 15 years exhibit common student learning objectives and unique pedagogical approaches. From analysis of ESS course syllabi, seven common student learning objectives emerged: 1) demonstrate systems thinking, 2) develop an ESS knowledge base, 3) apply ESS to the human dimension, 4) expand and apply analytical skills, 5) improve critical thinking skills, 6) build professional/career skills, and 7) acquire an enjoyment and appreciation for science. To meet these objectives, ESSE often requires different ways of teaching than in traditional scientific disciplines. This presentation will highlight some especially successful pedagogical approaches for creating positive and engaging ESS learning environments.

  1. Evaluation of a miniature microscope objective designed for fluorescence array microscopy detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Brian; Olsen, Randall J; Nelles, Nicole J; Williams, Dawn L; Jackson, Kevin; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Graviss, Edward A; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S

    2014-03-01

    A prototype miniature objective that was designed for a point-of-care diagnostic array microscope for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and previously fabricated and presented in a proof of concept is evaluated for its effectiveness in detecting acid-fast bacteria. To evaluate the ability of the microscope to resolve submicron features and details in the image of acid-fast microorganisms stained with a fluorescent dye, and to evaluate the accuracy of clinical diagnoses made with digital images acquired with the objective. The lens prescription data for the microscope design are presented. A test platform is built by combining parts of a standard microscope, a prototype objective, and a digital single-lens reflex camera. Counts of acid-fast bacteria made with the prototype objective are compared to counts obtained with a standard microscope over matched fields of view. Two sets of 20 smears, positive and negative, are diagnosed by 2 pathologists as sputum smear positive or sputum smear negative, using both a standard clinical microscope and the prototype objective under evaluation. The results are compared to a reference diagnosis of the same sample. More bacteria are counted in matched fields of view in digital images taken with the prototype objective than with the standard clinical microscope. All diagnostic results are found to be highly concordant. An array microscope built with this miniature lens design will be able to detect M tuberculosis with high sensitivity and specificity.

  2. Design for Sustainability of Industrial Symbiosis based on Emergy and Multi-objective Particle Swarm Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Liang, Hanwei; Dong, Liang

    2016-01-01

    approach for supporting decision-making in the design for the sustainability with the implementation of industrial symbiosis in chemical complex. Through incorporating the emergy theory, the model is formulated as a multi-objective approach that can optimize both the economic benefit and sustainable...... performance of the integrated industrial system. A set of emergy based evaluation index are designed. Multi-objective Particle Swarm Algorithm is proposed to solve the model, and the decision-makers are allowed to choose the suitable solutions form the Pareto solutions. An illustrative case has been studied...

  3. USING PARAMETERIZATION OF OBJECTS IN AUTODESK INVENTOR IN DESIGNING STRUCTURAL CONNECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Borowski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the parameterization of objects used for designing the type of elements as structural connectors and making modifications of their characteristics. The design process was carried out using Autodesk Inventor 2015. We show the latest software tools, which were used for parameterization and modeling selected types of structural connectors. We also show examples of the use of parameterization facilities in the process of constructing some details and making changes to geometry with holding of the shape the element. The presented method of Inventor usage has enabled fast and efficient creation of new objects based on sketches created.

  4. Lessons from Objects: Designing a Modern Hungarian Childhood 1890-1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Winick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Art and architecture assisted Hungary’s delivery into modern Europe, and many Hungarian designs of the early twentieth century invoked the child rather than the adult as the ideal citizen. Throughout the first half of the twentieth century, Hungarian designers, design reformers and the Ministry of Culture and Education expressed national identity through design, emphasizing objects and spaces for children as a key element in defining a national culture. This research unfolds a vital dimension of Hungarian culture by examining a selection of objects and spaces—nursery designs, children’s clothing, school architecture, the Budapest Zoo and book illustrations—made for Hungary’s children during different periods of the last century. Working in partnership with the Iparművészeti Múzeum—the Museum of Applied Arts in Budapest—as well as several public and private collections across Hungary, I researched a number of important children’s designs that helped to shape the lives and experiences of twentieth century Hungarian children.  Central to my research is how social and political forces shaped designs and how these designs helped children identify as Hungarian citizens. Looking at five material case studies, I hope to demonstrate the ways in which designers negotiated issues of Hungarian identity, tradition, and modernity.

  5. Care pathways as boundary objects between primary and secondary care: Experiences from Norwegian home care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håland, Erna; Røsstad, Tove; Osmundsen, Tonje C

    2015-11-01

    The need for integration of healthcare services and collaboration across organisational boundaries is highlighted as a major challenge within healthcare in many countries. Care pathways are often presented as a solution to this challenge. In this article, we study a project of developing, introducing and using a care pathway across healthcare levels focusing on older home-dwelling patients in need of home care services after hospital discharge. In so doing, we use the concept of boundary object, as described by Star and Griesemer, to explore how care pathways can act as tools for translation between specialist healthcare services and home care services. Based on interviews with participants in the project, we find that response to existing needs, local tailoring, involvement and commitment are all crucial for the care pathway to function as a boundary object in this setting. Furthermore, the care pathway, as we argue, can be used to push boundaries just as much as it can be used as a tool for bridging across them, thus potentially contributing to a more equal relationship between specialist healthcare services and home care services. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. A Case Study on Coloured Petri Nets in Object-oriented Analysis and Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barros, Joao Paulo; Jørgensen, Jens Bæk

    2005-01-01

    is structurally and conceptually closer to class diagrams and object-oriented programming languages. The CPN models reduce the gap between user-level requirements and the respective implementation, thus simplifying the implementation or code generation. Finally, we discuss the code generation from object-oriented......In this paper, we first demonstrate how a coloured Petri nets (CPN) model can be used to capture requirements for a considered example system, an elevator controller. Then, we show how this requirements-level CPN model is transformed into a design-level object-oriented CPN model, which...

  7. [An object-oriented intelligent engineering design approach for lake pollution control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Rui; Zhou, Jing; Liu, Yong; Zhu, Xiang; Zhao, Lei; Yang, Ping-Jian; Guo, Huai-Cheng

    2013-03-01

    Regarding the shortage and deficiency of traditional lake pollution control engineering techniques, a new lake pollution control engineering approach was proposed in this study, based on object-oriented intelligent design (OOID) from the perspective of intelligence. It can provide a new methodology and framework for effectively controlling lake pollution and improving water quality. The differences between the traditional engineering techniques and the OOID approach were compared. The key points for OOID were described as object perspective, cause and effect foundation, set points into surface, and temporal and spatial optimization. The blue algae control in lake was taken as an example in this study. The effect of algae control and water quality improvement were analyzed in details from the perspective of object-oriented intelligent design based on two engineering techniques (vertical hydrodynamic mixer and pumping algaecide recharge). The modeling results showed that the traditional engineering design paradigm cannot provide scientific and effective guidance for engineering design and decision-making regarding lake pollution. Intelligent design approach is based on the object perspective and quantitative causal analysis in this case. This approach identified that the efficiency of mixers was much higher than pumps in achieving the goal of low to moderate water quality improvement. However, when the objective of water quality exceeded a certain value (such as the control objective of peak Chla concentration exceeded 100 microg x L(-1) in this experimental water), the mixer cannot achieve this goal. The pump technique can achieve the goal but with higher cost. The efficiency of combining the two techniques was higher than using one of the two techniques alone. Moreover, the quantitative scale control of the two engineering techniques has a significant impact on the actual project benefits and costs.

  8. Object-oriented design for LHD data acquisition using client-server model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, M.; Nakanishi, H.; Hidekuma, S.

    1997-11-01

    The LHD data acquisition system handles a huge amount of data exceeding over 600MB per shot. The fully distributed processing and the object-oriented system design are the main principles of this system. Its wide flexibility has been realized by introducing the object-oriented method into the data processing, in which the object-sharing and the class libraries will provide the unified way of data handling for both servers and clients program developments. The object class libraries are written in C ++ , and the network object-sharing is provided through a commercial software called HARNESS. As for the CAMAC setup, the Java script can use the C ++ class libraries and thus establishes the relationship between the object-oriented database and the WWW server. In LHD experiments, the CAMAC system and the Windows NT operating system are applied for digitizing and acquiring data, respectively. For the purpose of the LHD data acquisition, the new CAMAC handling softwares which work on Windows NT have been developed to manipulate the SCSI-connected crate controllers. The CAMAC command lists and diagnostic data classes are shared between clients and servers. A lump of diagnostic data mass is treated as a part of an object by the object-oriented programming. (author)

  9. Object-oriented designs for LHD data acquisitions using client-server model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, M.; Nakanishi, H.; Hidekuma, S.

    1999-01-01

    The LHD data acquisition system handles >600 MB data per shot. The fully distributed data processing and the object-oriented system design are the main principles of this system. Its wide flexibility has been realized by introducing the object-oriented method into the data processing, in which the object sharing and class libraries will provide the unified way of data handling for the network client-server programming. The object class libraries are described in C++, and the network object sharing is provided through the commercial software named HARNESS. As for the CAMAC setup, the Java script can use the C++ class libraries and thus establishes the relationship between the object-oriented database and the WWW server. In LHD experiments, the CAMAC system and the Windows NT operating system are applied for digitizing and acquiring data, respectively. For the purpose of the LHD data acquisition, the new CAMAC handling software on Windows NT have been developed to manipulate the SCSI-connected crate controllers. The CAMAC command lists and diagnostic data classes are shared between client and server computers. A lump of the diagnostic data can be treated as part of an object by the object-oriented programming. (orig.)

  10. Designing personal grief rituals: An analysis of symbolic objects and actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sas, Corina; Coman, Alina

    2016-10-01

    Personal grief rituals are beneficial in dealing with complicated grief, but challenging to design, as they require symbolic objects and actions meeting clients' emotional needs. The authors reported interviews with 10 therapists with expertise in both grief therapy and grief rituals. Findings indicate three types of rituals supporting honoring, letting go, and self transformation, with the latter being particularly complex. Outcomes also point to a taxonomy of ritual objects for framing and remembering ritual experience, and for capturing and processing grief. Besides symbolic possessions, the authors identified other types of ritual objects including transformational and future-oriented ones. Symbolic actions include creative craft of ritual objects, respectful handling, disposal, and symbolic play. They conclude with theoretical implications of these findings, and a reflection on their value for tailored, creative co-design of grief rituals. In particular, several implications for designing grief rituals were identified that include accounting for the client's need, selecting (or creating) the most appropriate objects and actions from the identified types, integrating principles of both grief and art/drama therapy, exploring clients' affinity for the ancient elements as medium of disposal in letting go rituals, and the value of technology for recording and reflecting on ritual experience.

  11. A Case Study on Coloured Petri Nets in Object-oriented Analysis and Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barros, Joao Paulo; Jørgensen, Jens Bæk

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we first demonstrate how a coloured Petri nets (CPN) model can be used to capture requirements for a considered example system, an elevator controller. Then, we show how this requirements-level CPN model is transformed into a design-level object-oriented CPN model, which...

  12. Quality assessment in in vivo NMR spectroscopy: III. Clinical test objects: design, construction, and solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leach, M.O.; Collins, D.J.; Keevil, S

    1995-01-01

    /Perspex interface produced minimum susceptibility effects. The design of the objects has been evaluated in trials on different magnetic resonance instruments, with size and loading being adjusted to allow use on currently available equipment. Appropriate test solutions for 31P and 1H measurements have been...

  13. Design of homo-organic acid producing strains using multi-objective optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Tae Yong; Park, Jong Myoung; Kim, Hyun Uk

    2015-01-01

    Production of homo-organic acids without byproducts is an important challenge in bioprocess engineering to minimize operation cost for separation processes. In this study, we used multi-objective optimization to design Escherichia coli strains with the goals of maximally producing target organic ...

  14. Accelerating solving the dynamic multi-objective nework design problem using response surface methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, Luc Johannes Josephus; van Berkum, Eric C.; Bliemer, Michiel C.J.; Viti, F.; Immers, B.; Tampere, C.

    2011-01-01

    Multi objective optimization of externalities of traffic solving a network design problem in which Dynamic Traffic Management measures are used, is time consuming while heuristics are needed and solving the lower level requires solving the dynamic user equilibrium problem. Use of response surface

  15. Design and Development of an Objective, Structured Management Examinations (OSMEs) on Management Skills among Pharmacy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Jill

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to design, develop, and administer an Objective, Structured Management Exam (OSME) on management skills for pharmacy students. Pharmacy preceptors for the University of Arizona College of Pharmacy participated in focus groups that identified business, management, and human resource skills needed by pharmacy graduates.…

  16. Framework for Computer-Aided Evolution of Object-Oriented Designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciraci, S.; van den Broek, P.M.; Aksit, Mehmet

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a framework for the computer aided evolution of the designs of object-oriented software systems. Evolution mechanisms are software structures that prepare software for certain type of evolutions. The framework uses a database which holds the evolution mechanisms, modeled

  17. Design drivers for a wide-field multi-object spectrograph for the William Herschel Telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balcells, Marc; Benn, Chris R.; Carter, David; Dalton, Gavin B.; Trager, Scott C.; Feltzing, Sofia; Verheijen, M.A.W.; Jarvis, Matt; Percival, Will; Abrams, Don C.; Agocs, Tibor; Brown, Anthony G. A.; Cano, Diego; Evans, Chris; Helmi, Amina; Lewis, Ian J.; McLure, Ross; Peletier, Reynier F.; Pérez-Fournon, Ismael; Sharples, Ray M.; Tosh, Ian A. J.; Trujillo, Ignacio; Walton, Nic; Westhall, Kyle B.

    Wide-field multi-object spectroscopy is a high priority for European astronomy over the next decade. Most 8-10m telescopes have a small field of view, making 4-m class telescopes a particularly attractive option for wide-field instruments. We present a science case and design drivers for a

  18. Applicability of object-oriented design methods and C++ to safety-critical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuthill, B.B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports on a study identifying risks and benefits of using a software development methodology containing object-oriented design (OOD) techniques and using C++ as a programming language relative to selected features of safety-critical systems development. These features are modularity, functional diversity, removing ambiguous code, traceability, and real-time performance

  19. Design and Implementation of High-Performance GIS Dynamic Objects Rendering Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Y.; Wang, S.; Li, R.; Yun, W.; Song, G.

    2017-12-01

    Spatio-temporal dynamic visualization is more vivid than static visualization. It important to use dynamic visualization techniques to reveal the variation process and trend vividly and comprehensively for the geographical phenomenon. To deal with challenges caused by dynamic visualization of both 2D and 3D spatial dynamic targets, especially for different spatial data types require high-performance GIS dynamic objects rendering engine. The main approach for improving the rendering engine with vast dynamic targets relies on key technologies of high-performance GIS, including memory computing, parallel computing, GPU computing and high-performance algorisms. In this study, high-performance GIS dynamic objects rendering engine is designed and implemented for solving the problem based on hybrid accelerative techniques. The high-performance GIS rendering engine contains GPU computing, OpenGL technology, and high-performance algorism with the advantage of 64-bit memory computing. It processes 2D, 3D dynamic target data efficiently and runs smoothly with vast dynamic target data. The prototype system of high-performance GIS dynamic objects rendering engine is developed based SuperMap GIS iObjects. The experiments are designed for large-scale spatial data visualization, the results showed that the high-performance GIS dynamic objects rendering engine have the advantage of high performance. Rendering two-dimensional and three-dimensional dynamic objects achieve 20 times faster on GPU than on CPU.

  20. Multi-Objective Optimization Design for a Hybrid Energy System Using the Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myeong Jin Ko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To secure a stable energy supply and bring renewable energy to buildings within a reasonable cost range, a hybrid energy system (HES that integrates both fossil fuel energy systems (FFESs and new and renewable energy systems (NRESs needs to be designed and applied. This paper presents a methodology to optimize a HES consisting of three types of NRESs and six types of FFESs while simultaneously minimizing life cycle cost (LCC, maximizing penetration of renewable energy and minimizing annual greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. An elitist non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm is utilized for multi-objective optimization. As an example, we have designed the optimal configuration and sizing for a HES in an elementary school. The evolution of Pareto-optimal solutions according to the variation in the economic, technical and environmental objective functions through generations is discussed. The pair wise trade-offs among the three objectives are also examined.

  1. Object-oriented integrated approach for the design of scalable ECG systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskovic, Dusanka; Besic, Ingmar; Avdagic, Zikrija

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents the implementation of Object-Oriented (OO) integrated approaches to the design of scalable Electro-Cardio-Graph (ECG) Systems. The purpose of this methodology is to preserve real-world structure and relations with the aim to minimize the information loss during the process of modeling, especially for Real-Time (RT) systems. We report on a case study of the design that uses the integration of OO and RT methods and the Unified Modeling Language (UML) standard notation. OO methods identify objects in the real-world domain and use them as fundamental building blocks for the software system. The gained experience based on the strongly defined semantics of the object model is discussed and related problems are analyzed.

  2. Clinical simulation as a boundary object in design of health IT-systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Stine Loft; Jensen, Sanne; Lyng, Karen Marie

    2013-01-01

    simulation provides the opportunity to evaluate the design and the usage of clinical IT-systems without endangering the patients and interrupting clinical work. In this paper we present how clinical simulation additionally holds the potential to function as a boundary object in the design process. The case...... points out that clinical simulation provides an opportunity for discussions and mutual learning among the various stakeholders involved in design of standardized electronic clinical documentation templates. The paper presents and discusses the use of clinical simulation in the translation, transfer...... and transformation of knowledge between various stakeholders in a large healthcare organization...

  3. 10 CFR 50.34a - Design objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents-nuclear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Design objectives for equipment to control releases of... out in appendix I to this part provide numerical guidance on design objectives for light-water-cooled... unrestricted areas be kept as low as is reasonably achievable. These numerical guides for design objectives and...

  4. High Fidelity Multi-Objective Design Optimization of a Downscaled Cusped Field Thruster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Fahey

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Cusped Field Thruster (CFT concept has demonstrated significantly improved performance over the Hall Effect Thruster and the Gridded Ion Thruster; however, little is understood about the complexities of the interactions and interdependencies of the geometrical, magnetic and ion beam properties of the thruster. This study applies an advanced design methodology combining a modified power distribution calculation and evolutionary algorithms assisted by surrogate modeling to a multi-objective design optimization for the performance optimization and characterization of the CFT. Optimization is performed for maximization of performance defined by five design parameters (i.e., anode voltage, anode current, mass flow rate, and magnet radii, simultaneously aiming to maximize three objectives; that is, thrust, efficiency and specific impulse. Statistical methods based on global sensitivity analysis are employed to assess the optimization results in conjunction with surrogate models to identify key design factors with respect to the three design objectives and additional performance measures. The research indicates that the anode current and the Outer Magnet Radius have the greatest effect on the performance parameters. An optimal value for the anode current is determined, and a trend towards maximizing anode potential and mass flow rate is observed.

  5. Design of a flexible tactile sensor for classification of rigid and deformable objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drimus, Alin; Kootstra, Gert; Bilberg, Arne

    2014-01-01

    of the sensor in an active object-classification system. A robotic gripper with two sensors mounted on its fingers performs a palpation procedure on a set of objects. By squeezing an object, the robot actively explores the material properties, and the system acquires tactile information corresponding......For both humans and robots, tactile sensing is important for interaction with the environment: it is the core sensing used for exploration and manipulation of objects. In this paper, we present a novel tactile-array sensor based on flexible piezoresistive rubber.We describe the design of the sensor...... and data acquisition system.We evaluate the sensitivity and robustness of the sensor, and show that it is consistent over time with little relaxation. Furthermore, the sensor has the benefit of being flexible, having a high resolution, it is easy to mount, and simple to manufacture. We demonstrate the use...

  6. DISCO: An object-oriented system for music composition and sound design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.; Wright, J. M.

    2000-09-05

    This paper describes an object-oriented approach to music composition and sound design. The approach unifies the processes of music making and instrument building by using similar logic, objects, and procedures. The composition modules use an abstract representation of musical data, which can be easily mapped onto different synthesis languages or a traditionally notated score. An abstract base class is used to derive classes on different time scales. Objects can be related to act across time scales, as well as across an entire piece, and relationships between similar objects can replicate traditional music operations or introduce new ones. The DISCO (Digital Instrument for Sonification and Composition) system is an open-ended work in progress.

  7. Practical integrated design of a condenser-objective lens for transmission electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenping; Wu Jian; Zhou Zhen; Gui Lijiang; Han Li

    2009-01-01

    A condenser-objective lens is designed through combination of separating and integrating to consider the effect of the front condenser field on its objective performance. A practical lens model including magnetic pole piece, magnetic circuit and coil windings is built to optimize its rear field. The front field can be integrated into the rear one by simply adjusting the position of the specimen and the excitation on the condenser-objective lens. Optical performance of the integrated lens is researched as both a condenser lens and an imaging one. The total aberrations at the specimen plane are 0.01nm under STEM operation mode and its spherical aberration coefficient is 1.5mm when being an imaging objective lens, which can meet for high resolution microanalysis and TEM imaging.

  8. An object-oriented class design for the generalized finite element method programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorival Piedade Neto

    Full Text Available The Generalized Finite Element Method (GFEM is a numerical method based on the Finite Element Method (FEM, presenting as its main feature the possibility of improving the solution by means of local enrichment functions. In spite of its advantages, the method demands a complex data structure, which can be especially benefited by the Object-Oriented Programming (OOP. Even though the OOP for the traditional FEM has been extensively described in the technical literature, specific design issues related to the GFEM are yet little discussed and not clearly defined. In the present article it is described an Object-Oriented (OO class design for the GFEM, aiming to achieve a computational code that presents a flexible class structure, circumventing the difficulties associated to the method characteristics. The proposed design is evaluated by means of some numerical examples, computed using a code implemented in Python programming language.

  9. Design Of Pump Monitoring Of Primary Cooling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indrakoesoema, Koes; Sujarwono

    2000-01-01

    Monitoring of 3 primary cooling pumps done visually by operator on the spot. The operator must be check oil in a sight glass, oil leakage during pump operation and water leakage. If reaktor power increase about more than 3 MW, the radiation exposure also increase in the primary cell and that's way the operator can not check the pumps. To continuing monitor all pump without delay, one system has been added I.e Closed Circuit Television (CCTV). This system using 3 video camera to monitor 3 pumps and connected to one receiver video monitor by coaxial cable located in Main Control Room. The sequence monitoring can be done by sequential switcher

  10. Design of a hybrid double-sideband/single-sideband (schlieren) objective aperture suitable for electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buijsse, Bart; Laarhoven, Frank M.H.M. van [FEI Company, PO Box 80066, 5600 KA Eindhoven (Netherlands); Schmid, Andreas K.; Cambie, Rossana; Cabrini, Stefano; Jin, Jian [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Glaeser, Robert M., E-mail: rmglaeser@lbl.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    A novel design is described for an aperture that blocks a half-plane of the electron diffraction pattern out to a desired scattering angle, and then - except for a narrow support beam - transmits all of the scattered electrons beyond that angle. Our proposed tulip-shaped design is thus a hybrid between the single-sideband (ssb) aperture, which blocks a full half-plane of the diffraction pattern, and the conventional (i.e. fully open) double-sideband (dsb) aperture. The benefits of this hybrid design include the fact that such an aperture allows one to obtain high-contrast images of weak-phase objects with the objective lens set to Scherzer defocus. We further demonstrate that such apertures can be fabricated from thin-foil materials by milling with a focused ion beam (FIB), and that such apertures are fully compatible with the requirements of imaging out to a resolution of at least 0.34 nm. As is known from earlier work with single-sideband apertures, however, the edge of such an aperture can introduce unwanted, electrostatic phase shifts due to charging. The principal requirement for using such an aperture in a routine data-collection mode is thus to discover appropriate materials, protocols for fabrication and processing and conditions of use such that the hybrid aperture remains free of charging over long periods of time. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New objective-aperture design is proposed for imaging weak-phase objects. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Design produces single-sideband contrast at low spatial frequencies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Design also retains Scherzer-defocus phase contrast at higher resolution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proof-of-concept results are presented for microfabricated apertures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Charging of such apertures during use remains an experimental challenge.

  11. Shield design of concrete wall between decay tank room and primary pump room in TRIGA facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M. J. H.; Rahman, M.; Haque, A.; Zulquarnain, A.; Ahmed, F. U.; Bhuiyan, S. I.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study is to recommend the radiation protection design parameters from the shielding point of view for concrete wall between the decay tank room and the primary pump room in TRIGA Mark-II research reactor facility. The shield design for this concrete wall has been performed with the help of Point-kernel Shielding Code Micro-Shield 5.05 and this design was also validated based on the measured dose rate values with Radiation Survey Meter (G-M Counter) considering the ICRP-60 (1990) recommendations for occupational dose rate limit (10 μSv/hr). The recommended shield design parameters are: (i) thickness of 114.3 cm Ilmenite-Magnetite Concrete (IMC) or 129.54 cm Ordinary Reinforced Concrete (ORC) for concrete wall A (ii) thickness of 66.04 cm Ilmenite-Magnetite Concrete (IMC) or 78.74 cm Ordinary Reinforced Concrete (ORC) for concrete wall B and (iii) door thickness of 3.175 cm Mild Steel (MS) on the entrance of decay tank room. In shielding efficiency analysis, the use of I-M concrete in the design of this concrete wall shows that it reduced the dose rate by a factor of at least 3.52 times approximately compared to ordinary reinforced concrete

  12. A Pareto-based multi-objective optimization algorithm to design energy-efficient shading devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoroshiltseva, Marina; Slanzi, Debora; Poli, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We present a multi-objective optimization algorithm for shading design. • We combine Harmony search and Pareto-based procedures. • Thermal and daylighting performances of external shading were considered. • We applied the optimization process to a residential social housing in Madrid. - Abstract: In this paper we address the problem of designing new energy-efficient static daylight devices that will surround the external windows of a residential building in Madrid. Shading devices can in fact largely influence solar gains in a building and improve thermal and lighting comforts by selectively intercepting the solar radiation and by reducing the undesirable glare. A proper shading device can therefore significantly increase the thermal performance of a building by reducing its energy demand in different climate conditions. In order to identify the set of optimal shading devices that allow a low energy consumption of the dwelling while maintaining high levels of thermal and lighting comfort for the inhabitants we derive a multi-objective optimization methodology based on Harmony Search and Pareto front approaches. The results show that the multi-objective approach here proposed is an effective procedure in designing energy efficient shading devices when a large set of conflicting objectives characterizes the performance of the proposed solutions.

  13. Emergent features and perceptual objects: re-examining fundamental principles in analogical display design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Jerred; Bennett, Kevin B; Flach, John M

    2015-01-01

    Two sets of design principles for analogical visual displays, based on the concepts of emergent features and perceptual objects, are described. An interpretation of previous empirical findings for three displays (bar graph, polar graphic, alphanumeric) is provided from both perspectives. A fourth display (configural coordinate) was designed using principles of ecological interface design (i.e. direct perception). An experiment was conducted to evaluate performance (accuracy and latency of state identification) with these four displays. Numerous significant effects were obtained and a clear rank ordering of performance emerged (from best to worst): configural coordinate, bar graph, alphanumeric and polar graphic. These findings are consistent with principles of design based on emergent features; they are inconsistent with principles based on perceptual objects. Some limitations of the configural coordinate display are discussed and a redesign is provided. Practitioner Summary: Principles of ecological interface design, which emphasise the quality of very specific mappings between domain, display and observer constraints, are described; these principles are applicable to the design of all analogical graphical displays.

  14. [Relationship between perceived emotional intelligence and professional quality of life with the achievement of occupational objectives in the costa del sol primary health care district].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías Fernández, Antonio José; Gutiérrez-Castañeda, Carlos; Carmona González, Francisco Jesús; Crespillo Vílchez, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    To examine the relationship between "Quality of Professional Life" and "Perceived Emotional Intelligence" and the relationship of both of these with the level of achievement of occupational objectives in the Costa del Sol Primary Health Care District. Multicentre descriptive cross-sectional observational study. The Costa del Sol Primary Health Care District in the province of Málaga. Sample of Employees of all categories in fixed and contracted employment in the Management Units of the Costa del Sol District. (N=303). Respondents 247 (81.5%) The data collected was that of the percentage of achievement of objectives in 2010 and the socio-demographic data of the participants, using ad hoc designed self-report questionnaires. The TMMS -24 questionnaire was used to measure the "Perceived Emotional Intelligence", with the following dimensions: Perception, comprehension, and emotional control, and the CVP-35 measuring: management support, work demands, and intrinsic motivation. Significant correlationas were observed between Quality of Professional Life and Emotional Intelligence in the Regulation (p<.01) and Comprehension categories (p<0.05). There were also significant correlations between the profession and the type of contract in the achievement of objectives (p<.005), and quality of professional life and type of contract (p<.05). The perceived quality of professional life is related to perception and regulation dimensions of Emotional Intelligence. Knowledge of emotion management methods should be promoted by management organisations for all employees. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Pareto-optimal multi-objective design of airplane control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schy, A. A.; Johnson, K. G.; Giesy, D. P.

    1980-01-01

    A constrained minimization algorithm for the computer aided design of airplane control systems to meet many requirements over a set of flight conditions is generalized using the concept of Pareto-optimization. The new algorithm yields solutions on the boundary of the achievable domain in objective space in a single run, whereas the older method required a sequence of runs to approximate such a limiting solution. However, Pareto-optimality does not guarantee a satisfactory design, since such solutions may emphasize some objectives at the expense of others. The designer must still interact with the program to obtain a well-balanced set of objectives. Using the example of a fighter lateral stability augmentation system (SAS) design over five flight conditions, several effective techniques are developed for obtaining well-balanced Pareto-optimal solutions. For comparison, one of these techniques is also used in a recently developed algorithm of Kreisselmeier and Steinhauser, which replaces the hard constraints with soft constraints, using a special penalty function. It is shown that comparable results can be obtained.

  16. Inventory of water objects for purposes of development objectives and design of natural frame of Kazan (Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingazova, N. M.

    2018-01-01

    The article is devoted to the results of the inventory and certification of water objects in the city of Kazan in 2007-2017. Inventory of water objects contributes to the formation of the natural framework of the city, improvement of the quality of the environment, preservation of the local gene pool of flora and fauna in urban conditions. During the research, 236 small lakes, rivers and their tributaries, as well as wetlands, were identified. The environmental passports were developed for each of them. Registries of water bodies were developed for administrative regions. The inventory and certification of water objects are an effective measure in the conservation of lakes and rivers in urban conditions.

  17. Java programming fundamentals problem solving through object oriented analysis and design

    CERN Document Server

    Nair, Premchand S

    2008-01-01

    While Java texts are plentiful, it's difficult to find one that takes a real-world approach, and encourages novice programmers to build on their Java skills through practical exercise. Written by an expert with 19 experience teaching computer programming, Java Programming Fundamentals presents object-oriented programming by employing examples taken from everyday life. Provides a foundation in object-oriented design principles and UML notation Describes common pitfalls and good programming practicesFurnishes supplemental links, documents, and programs on its companion website, www.premnair.netU

  18. Design of an Object-Oriented Turbomachinery Analysis Code: Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Scott M.

    2015-01-01

    Performance prediction of turbomachines is a significant part of aircraft propulsion design. In the conceptual design stage, there is an important need to quantify compressor and turbine aerodynamic performance and develop initial geometry parameters at the 2-D level prior to more extensive Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analyses. The Object-oriented Turbomachinery Analysis Code (OTAC) is being developed to perform 2-D meridional flowthrough analysis of turbomachines using an implicit formulation of the governing equations to solve for the conditions at the exit of each blade row. OTAC is designed to perform meanline or streamline calculations; for streamline analyses simple radial equilibrium is used as a governing equation to solve for spanwise property variations. While the goal for OTAC is to allow simulation of physical effects and architectural features unavailable in other existing codes, it must first prove capable of performing calculations for conventional turbomachines. OTAC is being developed using the interpreted language features available in the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) code described by Claus et al (1991). Using the NPSS framework came with several distinct advantages, including access to the pre-existing NPSS thermodynamic property packages and the NPSS Newton-Raphson solver. The remaining objects necessary for OTAC were written in the NPSS framework interpreted language. These new objects form the core of OTAC and are the BladeRow, BladeSegment, TransitionSection, Expander, Reducer, and OTACstart Elements. The BladeRow and BladeSegment consumed the initial bulk of the development effort and required determining the equations applicable to flow through turbomachinery blade rows given specific assumptions about the nature of that flow. Once these objects were completed, OTAC was tested and found to agree with existing solutions from other codes; these tests included various meanline and streamline comparisons of axial

  19. Femoral hip prosthesis design for Thais using multi-objective shape optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virulsri, Chanyaphan; Tangpornprasert, Pairat; Romtrairat, Parineak

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A multi-objective shape optimization was proposed to design hip prosthesis for Thais. • The prosthesis design was optimized in terms of safety of both cement and prosthesis. • The objective functions used the Soderberg fatigue strength formulations. • Safety factors of the cement and prosthesis are 1.200 and 1.109 respectively. • The newly designed prosthesis also fits well with chosen small-sized Thai femurs. - Abstract: The long-term success of Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA) depends largely on how well the prosthetic components fit the bones. The majority of cemented femoral hip prosthesis failures are due to aseptic loosening, which is possibly caused by cracking of the cement mantle. The strength of cement components is a function of cement mantles having adequate thickness. Since the size and shape of cemented femoral hip prostheses used in Thailand are based on designs for a Caucasian population, they do not properly conform to most Thai patients’ physical requirements. For these reasons, prostheses designed specifically for Thai patients must consider the longevity and functionality of both cement and prosthesis. The objective of this study was to discover a new design for femoral hip prostheses which is not only optimal and safe in terms of both cement and prosthesis, but also fits the selected Thai femur. This study used a small-sized Thai femoral model as a reference model for a new design. Biocompatible stainless steel 316L (SS316L) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) were selected as raw materials for the prosthesis and bone cement respectively. A multi-objective shape optimization program, which is an interface between optimization C program named NSGA-II and a finite element program named ANSYS, was used to optimize longevity of femoral hip prostheses by varying shape parameters at assigned cross-sections of the selected geometry. Maximum walking loads of sixty-kilograms were applied to a finite element model for stress and

  20. Global Optimization of Damping Ring Designs Using a Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Emery, Louis

    2005-01-01

    Several damping ring designs for the International Linear Collider have been proposed recently. Some of the specifications, such as circumference and bunch train, are not fixed yet. Designers must make a choice anyway, select a geometry type (dog-bone or circular), an arc cell type (TME or FODO), and optimize linear and nonlinear part of the optics. The design process include straightforward steps (usually the linear optics), and some steps not so straightforward (when nonlinear optics optimization is affected by the linear optics). A first attempt at automating this process for the linear optics is reported. We first recognize that the optics is defined by just a few primary parameters (e.g., phase advance per cell) that determine the rest (e.g., quadrupole strength). In addition to the exact specification of circumference, equilibrium emittance and damping time there are some other quantities which could be optimized that may conflict with each other. A multiobjective genetic optimizer solves this problem b...

  1. Data management in an object-oriented distributed aircraft conceptual design environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhijie

    In the competitive global market place, aerospace companies are forced to deliver the right products to the right market, with the right cost, and at the right time. However, the rapid development of technologies and new business opportunities, such as mergers, acquisitions, supply chain management, etc., have dramatically increased the complexity of designing an aircraft. Therefore, the pressure to reduce design cycle time and cost is enormous. One way to solve such a dilemma is to develop and apply advanced engineering environments (AEEs), which are distributed collaborative virtual design environments linking researchers, technologists, designers, etc., together by incorporating application tools and advanced computational, communications, and networking facilities. Aircraft conceptual design, as the first design stage, provides major opportunity to compress design cycle time and is the cheapest place for making design changes. However, traditional aircraft conceptual design programs, which are monolithic programs, cannot provide satisfactory functionality to meet new design requirements due to the lack of domain flexibility and analysis scalability. Therefore, we are in need of the next generation aircraft conceptual design environment (NextADE). To build the NextADE, the framework and the data management problem are two major problems that need to be addressed at the forefront. Solving these two problems, particularly the data management problem, is the focus of this research. In this dissertation, in light of AEEs, a distributed object-oriented framework is firstly formulated and tested for the NextADE. In order to improve interoperability and simplify the integration of heterogeneous application tools, data management is one of the major problems that need to be tackled. To solve this problem, taking into account the characteristics of aircraft conceptual design data, a robust, extensible object-oriented data model is then proposed according to the

  2. Vision-based overlay of a virtual object into real scene for designing room interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harasaki, Shunsuke; Saito, Hideo

    2001-10-01

    In this paper, we introduce a geometric registration method for augmented reality (AR) and an application system, interior simulator, in which a virtual (CG) object can be overlaid into a real world space. Interior simulator is developed as an example of an AR application of the proposed method. Using interior simulator, users can visually simulate the location of virtual furniture and articles in the living room so that they can easily design the living room interior without placing real furniture and articles, by viewing from many different locations and orientations in real-time. In our system, two base images of a real world space are captured from two different views for defining a projective coordinate of object 3D space. Then each projective view of a virtual object in the base images are registered interactively. After such coordinate determination, an image sequence of a real world space is captured by hand-held camera with tracking non-metric measured feature points for overlaying a virtual object. Virtual objects can be overlaid onto the image sequence by taking each relationship between the images. With the proposed system, 3D position tracking device, such as magnetic trackers, are not required for the overlay of virtual objects. Experimental results demonstrate that 3D virtual furniture can be overlaid into an image sequence of the scene of a living room nearly at video rate (20 frames per second).

  3. Technical considerations for designing low-cost, long-wave infrared objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desroches, Gerard; Dalzell, Kristy; Robitaille, Blaise

    2014-06-01

    With the growth of uncooled infrared imaging in the consumer market, the balance between cost implications and performance criteria in the objective lens must be examined carefully. The increased availability of consumer-grade, long-wave infrared cameras is related to a decrease in military usage but it is also due to the decreasing costs of the cameras themselves. This has also driven up demand for low-cost, long-wave objectives that can resolve smaller pixels while maintaining high performance. Smaller pixels are traditionally associated with high cost objectives because of higher resolution requirements but, with careful consideration of all the requirements and proper selection of materials, costs can be moderated. This paper examines the cost/performance trade-off implications associated with optical and mechanical requirements of long-wave infrared objectives. Optical performance, f-number, field of view, distortion, focus range and thermal range all affect the cost of the objective. Because raw lens material cost is often the most expensive item in the construction, selection of the material as well as the shape of the lens while maintaining acceptable performance and cost targets were explored. As a result of these considerations, a low-cost, lightweight, well-performing objective was successfully designed, manufactured and tested.

  4. Practical solutions for multi-objective optimization: An application to system reliability design problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taboada, Heidi A.; Baheranwala, Fatema; Coit, David W.; Wattanapongsakorn, Naruemon

    2007-01-01

    For multiple-objective optimization problems, a common solution methodology is to determine a Pareto optimal set. Unfortunately, these sets are often large and can become difficult to comprehend and consider. Two methods are presented as practical approaches to reduce the size of the Pareto optimal set for multiple-objective system reliability design problems. The first method is a pseudo-ranking scheme that helps the decision maker select solutions that reflect his/her objective function priorities. In the second approach, we used data mining clustering techniques to group the data by using the k-means algorithm to find clusters of similar solutions. This provides the decision maker with just k general solutions to choose from. With this second method, from the clustered Pareto optimal set, we attempted to find solutions which are likely to be more relevant to the decision maker. These are solutions where a small improvement in one objective would lead to a large deterioration in at least one other objective. To demonstrate how these methods work, the well-known redundancy allocation problem was solved as a multiple objective problem by using the NSGA genetic algorithm to initially find the Pareto optimal solutions, and then, the two proposed methods are applied to prune the Pareto set

  5. Why Inquiry? Primary Teachers' Objectives in Choosing Inquiry- and Context-Based Instructional Strategies to Stimulate Students' Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walan, Susanne; Nilsson, Pernilla; Ewen, Birgitta Mc

    2017-10-01

    Studies have shown that there is a need for pedagogical content knowledge among science teachers. This study investigates two primary teachers and their objectives in choosing inquiry- and context-based instructional strategies as well as the relation between the choice of instructional strategies and the teachers' knowledge about of students' understanding and intended learning outcomes. Content representations created by the teachers and students' experiences of the enacted teaching served as foundations for the teachers' reflections during interviews. Data from the interviews were analyzed in terms of the intended, enacted, and experienced purposes of the teaching and, finally, as the relation between intended, enacted, and experienced purposes. Students' experiences of the teaching were captured through a questionnaire, which was analyzed inductively, using content analysis. The results show that the teachers' intended teaching objectives were that students would learn about water. During the enacted teaching, it seemed as if the inquiry process was in focus and this was also how many of the students experienced the objectives of the activities. There was a gap between the intended and experienced objectives. Hardly any relation was found between the teachers' choice of instructional strategies and their knowledge about students' understanding, with the exception that the teacher who also added drama wanted to support her students' understanding of the states of water.

  6. Multi-objective optimum design of fast tool servo based on improved differential evolution algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Zhiwei; Zhou, Xiaoqin; Liu, Qiang; Zhao, Shaoxin

    2011-01-01

    The flexure-based mechanism is a promising realization of fast tool servo (FTS), and the optimum determination of flexure hinge parameters is one of the most important elements in the FTS design. This paper presents a multi-objective optimization approach to optimizing the dimension and position parameters of the flexure-based mechanism, which is based on the improved differential evolution algorithm embedding chaos and nonlinear simulated anneal algorithm. The results of optimum design show that the proposed algorithm has excellent performance and a well-balanced compromise is made between two conflicting objectives, the stroke and natural frequency of the FTS mechanism. The validation tests based on finite element analysis (FEA) show good agreement with the results obtained by using the proposed theoretical algorithm of this paper. Finally, a series of experimental tests are conducted to validate the design process and assess the performance of the FTS mechanism. The designed FTS reaches up to a stroke of 10.25 μm with at least 2 kHz bandwidth. Both of the FEA and experimental results demonstrate that the parameters of the flexure-based mechanism determined by the proposed approaches can achieve the specified performance and the proposed approach is suitable for the optimum design of FTS mechanism and of excellent performances

  7. Using Design as Boundary Spanner Object in Climate Change Mitigation Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Fernandez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a growing concern for society and the focus of numerous research initiatives across multiple fields of science. These initiatives often need to capitalize on the cross-specialized knowledge contributed by researchers from very different fields. The diversity of worldviews among key stakeholders requires an effective overall design strategy acting as a boundary spanner object. This study presents an account of the issues faced by a multidisciplinary research project and discusses the suitability of a design approach to help address issues such as equality, empowerment, autonomy, creativity, performance, reduction of innovation cycle times and also provide for the necessary balance between control, speediness and flexibility.

  8. Re-designating water bodies in Denmark bypasses the Water Framework Directive objectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baaner, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    Despite the initially ambitious provisions of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) when it first entered into force, thousands of kilometres of Danish watercourses have now lost their legal protection through the application of the WFD’s provisions concerning the designation of water bodies....... This article describes the designation process and concludes that it does not conform to the obligation carefully to assign an environmental objective to discrete and significant water bodies as set out in the WFD. Neither does it ensure the same level of protection that existed prior to the implementation...

  9. Re-designating water bodies in Denmark bypasses the Water Framework Directive objectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baaner, Lasse

    2017-01-01

    Despite the initially ambitious provisions of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) when it first entered into force, thousands of kilometres of Danish watercourses have now lost their legal protection through the application of the WFD’s provisions concerning the designation of water bodies....... This article describes the designation process and concludes that it does not conform to the obligation carefully to assign an environmental objective to discrete and significant water bodies as set out in the WFD. Neither does it ensure the same level of protection that existed prior to the implementation...

  10. An object-oriented feature-based design system face-based detection of feature interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariffin Abdul Razak

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an object-oriented, feature-based design system which supports the integration of design and manufacture by ensuring that part descriptions fully account for any feature interactions. Manufacturing information is extracted from the feature descriptions in the form of volumes and Tool Access Directions, TADs. When features interact, both volumes and TADs are updated. This methodology has been demonstrated by developing a prototype system in which ACIS attributes are used to record feature information within the data structure of the solid model. The system implemented in the C++ programming language and embedded in a menu-driven X-windows user interface to the ACIS 3D Toolkit. (author)

  11. An Efficient Multi-objective Approach for Designing of Communication Interfaces in Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghasemkhani, Amir; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    The next generation of power systems require to use smart grid technologies due to their unique features like high speed, reliable and secure data communications to monitor, control and protect system effectively. Hence, one of the main requirements of achieving a smart grid is optimal designing...... of telecommunication systems. In this study, a novel dynamic Multi-Objective Shortest Path (MOSP) algorithm is presented to design a spanning graph of a communication infrastructure using high speed Optimal Power Ground Wire (OPGW) cables and Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs). Applicability of the proposed model...

  12. Feasibility study for objective oriented design of system thermal hydraulic analysis program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Bub Dong; Jeong, Jae Jun; Hwang, Moon Kyu

    2008-01-01

    The system safety analysis code, such as RELAP5, TRAC, CATHARE etc. have been developed based on Fortran language during the past few decades. Refactoring of conventional codes has been also performed to improve code readability and maintenance. However the programming paradigm in software technology has been changed to use objects oriented programming (OOP), which is based on several techniques, including encapsulation, modularity, polymorphism, and inheritance. In this work, objective oriented program for system safety analysis code has been tried utilizing modernized C language. The analysis, design, implementation and verification steps for OOP system code development are described with some implementation examples. The system code SYSTF based on three-fluid thermal hydraulic solver has been developed by OOP design. The verifications of feasibility are performed with simple fundamental problems and plant models. (author)

  13. Sensor Placement via Optimal Experiment Design in EMI Sensing of Metallic Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Ping Song

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work, under the optimal experimental design framework, investigates the sensor placement problem that aims to guide electromagnetic induction (EMI sensing of multiple objects. We use the linearized model covariance matrix as a measure of estimation error to present a sequential experimental design (SED technique. The technique recursively minimizes data misfit to update model parameters and maximizes an information gain function for a future survey relative to previous surveys. The fundamental process of the SED seeks to increase weighted sensitivities to targets when placing sensors. The synthetic and field experiments demonstrate that SED can be used to guide the sensing process for an effective interrogation. It also can serve as a theoretic basis to improve empirical survey operation. We further study the sensitivity of the SED to the number of objects within the sensing range. The tests suggest that an appropriately overrepresented model about expected anomalies might be a feasible choice.

  14. A fuzzy multi-objective optimization model for sustainable reverse logistics network design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Paam, Parichehr; Abtahi, Amir Reza

    2016-01-01

    Decreasing the environmental impact, increasing the degree of social responsibility, and considering the economic motivations of organizations are three significant features in designing a reverse logistics network under sustainability respects. Developing a model, which can simultaneously consider...... a multi-echelon multi-period multi-objective model for a sustainable reverse logistics network. To reflect all aspects of sustainability, we try to minimize the present value of costs, as well as environmental impacts, and optimize the social responsibility as objective functions of the model. In order...... these environmental, social, and economic aspects and their indicators, is an important problem for both researchers and practitioners. In this paper, we try to address this comprehensive approach by using indicators for measurement of aforementioned aspects and by applying fuzzy mathematical programming to design...

  15. Subjective and Objective Measures of Dryness Symptoms in Primary Sjögren's Syndrome: Capturing the Discrepancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezzina, Oriana M; Gallagher, Peter; Mitchell, Sheryl; Bowman, Simon J; Griffiths, Bridget; Hindmarsh, Victoria; Hargreaves, Ben; Price, Elizabeth J; Pease, Colin T; Emery, Paul; Lanyon, Peter; Bombardieri, Michele; Sutcliffe, Nurhan; Pitzalis, Costantino; Hunter, John; Gupta, Monica; McLaren, John; Cooper, Anne M; Regan, Marian; Giles, Ian P; Isenberg, David A; Saravanan, Vadivelu; Coady, David; Dasgupta, Bhaskar; McHugh, Neil J; Young-Min, Steven A; Moots, Robert J; Gendi, Nagui; Akil, Mohammed; MacKay, Kirsten; Ng, W Fai; Robinson, Lucy J

    2017-11-01

    To develop a novel method for capturing the discrepancy between objective tests and subjective dryness symptoms (a sensitivity scale) and to explore predictors of dryness sensitivity. Archive data from the UK Primary Sjögren's Syndrome Registry (n = 688) were used. Patients were classified on a scale from -5 (stoical) to +5 (sensitive) depending on the degree of discrepancy between their objective and subjective symptoms classes. Sensitivity scores were correlated with demographic variables, disease-related factors, and symptoms of pain, fatigue, anxiety, and depression. Patients were on average relatively stoical for both types of dryness symptoms (mean ± SD ocular dryness -0.42 ± 2.2 and -1.24 ± 1.6 oral dryness). Twenty-seven percent of patients were classified as sensitive to ocular dryness and 9% to oral dryness. Hierarchical regression analyses identified the strongest predictor of ocular dryness sensitivity to be self-reported pain and that of oral dryness sensitivity to be self-reported fatigue. Ocular and oral dryness sensitivity can be classified on a continuous scale. The 2 symptom types are predicted by different variables. A large number of factors remain to be explored that may impact symptom sensitivity in primary Sjögren's syndrome, and the proposed method could be used to identify relatively sensitive and stoical patients for future studies. © 2016, The Authors. Arthritis Care & Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Rheumatology.

  16. Infantile sexuality, primary object-love and the anthropological significance of the Oedipus complex: re-reading Freud's 'Female sexuality'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haute, Philippe

    2005-12-01

    The author attempts to show why and in what respect Freud's famous article 'Female sexuality' can still be a source of inspiration for a contemporary metapsychology. In this text, Freud acknowledges the importance of the child's tie to its mother for the first time. Both Balint and Bowlby consider this text to be a distant forerunner of their own theories on primary object-love and attachment respectively. At the same time, Freud's text contains some elements of a 'theory of generalized seduction' as it was developed in the last decades by Jean Laplanche. 'Female sexuality' therefore presents itself as the perfect point of departure for a discussion of the relation between primary object-love (and attachment) and sexuality. Based on his reading of Freud's text, the author argues that human subjectivity is characterized by the lack of attunement between the world of the adult and the world of the child. This insight allows for a reformulation of the anthropological significance of the Oedipus and castration complexes. They are no longer interpreted as universal problems that every child has to face, but as historical and contingent solutions to the lack of attunement between the child and the adult that is essential to human subjectivity.

  17. Multi-objective optimal design of sandwich panels using a genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaomei; Jiang, Yiping; Pueh Lee, Heow

    2017-10-01

    In this study, an optimization problem concerning sandwich panels is investigated by simultaneously considering the two objectives of minimizing the panel mass and maximizing the sound insulation performance. First of all, the acoustic model of sandwich panels is discussed, which provides a foundation to model the acoustic objective function. Then the optimization problem is formulated as a bi-objective programming model, and a solution algorithm based on the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) is provided to solve the proposed model. Finally, taking an example of a sandwich panel that is expected to be used as an automotive roof panel, numerical experiments are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed model and solution algorithm. Numerical results demonstrate in detail how the core material, geometric constraints and mechanical constraints impact the optimal designs of sandwich panels.

  18. Multi-objective design optimization of the transverse gaseous jet in supersonic flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Yang, Jun; Yan, Li

    2014-01-01

    The mixing process between the injectant and the supersonic crossflow is one of the important issues for the design of the scramjet engine, and the efficiency mixing has a great impact on the improvement of the combustion efficiency. A hovering vortex is formed between the separation region and the barrel shock wave, and this may be induced by the large negative density gradient. The separation region provides a good mixing area for the injectant and the subsonic boundary layer. In the current study, the transverse injection flow field with a freestream Mach number of 3.5 has been optimized by the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA II) coupled with the Kriging surrogate model; and the variance analysis method and the extreme difference analysis method have been employed to evaluate the values of the objective functions. The obtained results show that the jet-to-crossflow pressure ratio is the most important design variable for the transverse injection flow field, and the injectant molecular weight and the slot width should be considered for the mixing process between the injectant and the supersonic crossflow. There exists an optimal penetration height for the mixing efficiency, and its value is about 14.3 mm in the range considered in the current study. The larger penetration height provides a larger total pressure loss, and there must be a tradeoff between these two objection functions. In addition, this study demonstrates that the multi-objective design optimization method with the data mining technique can be used efficiently to explore the relationship between the design variables and the objective functions.

  19. Designing Dynamic Adaptive Policy Pathways using Many-Objective Robust Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwakkel, Jan; Haasnoot, Marjolijn

    2017-04-01

    Dealing with climate risks in water management requires confronting a wide variety of deeply uncertain factors, while navigating a many dimensional space of trade-offs amongst objectives. There is an emerging body of literature on supporting this type of decision problem, under the label of decision making under deep uncertainty. Two approaches within this literature are Many-Objective Robust Decision Making, and Dynamic Adaptive Policy Pathways. In recent work, these approaches have been compared. One of the main conclusions of this comparison was that they are highly complementary. Many-Objective Robust Decision Making is a model based decision support approach, while Dynamic Adaptive Policy Pathways is primarily a conceptual framework for the design of flexible strategies that can be adapted over time in response to how the future is actually unfolding. In this research we explore this complementarity in more detail. Specifically, we demonstrate how Many-Objective Robust Decision Making can be used to design adaptation pathways. We demonstrate this combined approach using a water management problem, in the Netherlands. The water level of Lake IJselmeer, the main fresh water resource of the Netherlands, is currently managed through discharge by gravity. Due to climate change, this won't be possible in the future, unless water levels are changed. Changing the water level has undesirable flood risk and spatial planning consequences. The challenge is to find promising adaptation pathways that balance objectives related to fresh water supply, flood risk, and spatial issues, while accounting for uncertain climatic and land use change. We conclude that the combination of Many-Objective Robust Decision Making and Dynamic Adaptive Policy Pathways is particularly suited for dealing with deeply uncertain climate risks.

  20. Designing and optimising anaerobic digestion systems: A multi-objective non-linear goal programming approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nixon, J.D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a method for optimising the design parameters of an anaerobic digestion (AD) system by using first-order kinetics and multi-objective non-linear goal programming. A model is outlined that determines the ideal operating tank temperature and hydraulic retention time, based on objectives for minimising levelised cost of electricity, and maximising energy potential and feedstock mass reduction. The model is demonstrated for a continuously stirred tank reactor processing food waste in two case study locations. These locations are used to investigate the influence of different environmental and economic climates on optimal conditions. A sensitivity analysis is performed to further examine the variation in optimal results for different financial assumptions and objective weightings. The results identify the conditions for the preferred tank temperature to be in the psychrophilic, mesophilic or thermophilic range. For a tank temperature of 35 °C, ideal hydraulic retention times, in terms of achieving a minimum levelised electricity cost, were found to range from 29.9 to 33 days. Whilst there is a need for more detailed information on rate constants for use in first-order models, multi-objective optimisation modelling is considered to be a promising option for AD design. - Highlights: • Nonlinear goal programming is used to optimise anaerobic digestion systems. • Multiple objectives are set including minimising the levelised cost of electricity. • A model is developed and applied to case studies for the UK and India. • Optimal decisions are made for tank temperature and retention time. • A sensitivity analysis is carried out to investigate different model objectives.

  1. Multi-objective genetic algorithm for solving N-version program design problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamachi, Hidemi; Tsujimura, Yasuhiro; Kambayashi, Yasushi; Yamamoto, Hisashi

    2006-01-01

    N-version programming (NVP) is a programming approach for constructing fault tolerant software systems. Generally, an optimization model utilized in NVP selects the optimal set of versions for each module to maximize the system reliability and to constrain the total cost to remain within a given budget. In such a model, while the number of versions included in the obtained solution is generally reduced, the budget restriction may be so rigid that it may fail to find the optimal solution. In order to ameliorate this problem, this paper proposes a novel bi-objective optimization model that maximizes the system reliability and minimizes the system total cost for designing N-version software systems. When solving multi-objective optimization problem, it is crucial to find Pareto solutions. It is, however, not easy to obtain them. In this paper, we propose a novel bi-objective optimization model that obtains many Pareto solutions efficiently. We formulate the optimal design problem of NVP as a bi-objective 0-1 nonlinear integer programming problem. In order to overcome this problem, we propose a Multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA), which is a powerful, though time-consuming, method to solve multi-objective optimization problems. When implementing genetic algorithm (GA), the use of an appropriate genetic representation scheme is one of the most important issues to obtain good performance. We employ random-key representation in our MOGA to find many Pareto solutions spaced as evenly as possible along the Pareto frontier. To pursue improve further performance, we introduce elitism, the Pareto-insertion and the Pareto-deletion operations based on distance between Pareto solutions in the selection process. The proposed MOGA obtains many Pareto solutions along the Pareto frontier evenly. The user of the MOGA can select the best compromise solution among the candidates by controlling the balance between the system reliability and the total cost

  2. Multi-objective genetic algorithm for solving N-version program design problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamachi, Hidemi [Department of Computer and Information Engineering, Nippon Institute of Technology, Miyashiro, Saitama 345-8501 (Japan) and Department of Production and Information Systems Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Technology, Hino, Tokyo 191-0065 (Japan)]. E-mail: yamachi@nit.ac.jp; Tsujimura, Yasuhiro [Department of Computer and Information Engineering, Nippon Institute of Technology, Miyashiro, Saitama 345-8501 (Japan)]. E-mail: tujimr@nit.ac.jp; Kambayashi, Yasushi [Department of Computer and Information Engineering, Nippon Institute of Technology, Miyashiro, Saitama 345-8501 (Japan)]. E-mail: yasushi@nit.ac.jp; Yamamoto, Hisashi [Department of Production and Information Systems Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Technology, Hino, Tokyo 191-0065 (Japan)]. E-mail: yamamoto@cc.tmit.ac.jp

    2006-09-15

    N-version programming (NVP) is a programming approach for constructing fault tolerant software systems. Generally, an optimization model utilized in NVP selects the optimal set of versions for each module to maximize the system reliability and to constrain the total cost to remain within a given budget. In such a model, while the number of versions included in the obtained solution is generally reduced, the budget restriction may be so rigid that it may fail to find the optimal solution. In order to ameliorate this problem, this paper proposes a novel bi-objective optimization model that maximizes the system reliability and minimizes the system total cost for designing N-version software systems. When solving multi-objective optimization problem, it is crucial to find Pareto solutions. It is, however, not easy to obtain them. In this paper, we propose a novel bi-objective optimization model that obtains many Pareto solutions efficiently. We formulate the optimal design problem of NVP as a bi-objective 0-1 nonlinear integer programming problem. In order to overcome this problem, we propose a Multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA), which is a powerful, though time-consuming, method to solve multi-objective optimization problems. When implementing genetic algorithm (GA), the use of an appropriate genetic representation scheme is one of the most important issues to obtain good performance. We employ random-key representation in our MOGA to find many Pareto solutions spaced as evenly as possible along the Pareto frontier. To pursue improve further performance, we introduce elitism, the Pareto-insertion and the Pareto-deletion operations based on distance between Pareto solutions in the selection process. The proposed MOGA obtains many Pareto solutions along the Pareto frontier evenly. The user of the MOGA can select the best compromise solution among the candidates by controlling the balance between the system reliability and the total cost.

  3. Thermodynamic design of Stirling engine using multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Chen; Wang, Xinggang; Shu, Shuiming; Jing, Changwei; Chang, Huawei

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An improved thermodynamic model taking into account irreversibility parameter was developed. • A multi-objective optimization method for designing Stirling engine was investigated. • Multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm was adopted in the area of Stirling engine for the first time. - Abstract: In the recent years, the interest in Stirling engine has remarkably increased due to its ability to use any heat source from outside including solar energy, fossil fuels and biomass. A large number of studies have been done on Stirling cycle analysis. In the present study, a mathematical model based on thermodynamic analysis of Stirling engine considering regenerative losses and internal irreversibilities has been developed. Power output, thermal efficiency and the cycle irreversibility parameter of Stirling engine are optimized simultaneously using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm, which is more effective than traditional genetic algorithms. In this optimization problem, some important parameters of Stirling engine are considered as decision variables, such as temperatures of the working fluid both in the high temperature isothermal process and in the low temperature isothermal process, dead volume ratios of each heat exchanger, volumes of each working spaces, effectiveness of the regenerator, and the system charge pressure. The Pareto optimal frontier is obtained and the final design solution has been selected by Linear Programming Technique for Multidimensional Analysis of Preference (LINMAP). Results show that the proposed multi-objective optimization approach can significantly outperform traditional single objective approaches

  4. Design for sustainability of industrial symbiosis based on emergy and multi-objective particle swarm optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Liang, Hanwei; Dong, Liang; Sun, Lu; Gao, Zhiqiu

    2016-08-15

    Industrial symbiosis provides novel and practical pathway to the design for the sustainability. Decision support tool for its verification is necessary for practitioners and policy makers, while to date, quantitative research is limited. The objective of this work is to present an innovative approach for supporting decision-making in the design for the sustainability with the implementation of industrial symbiosis in chemical complex. Through incorporating the emergy theory, the model is formulated as a multi-objective approach that can optimize both the economic benefit and sustainable performance of the integrated industrial system. A set of emergy based evaluation index are designed. Multi-objective Particle Swarm Algorithm is proposed to solve the model, and the decision-makers are allowed to choose the suitable solutions form the Pareto solutions. An illustrative case has been studied by the proposed method, a few of compromises between high profitability and high sustainability can be obtained for the decision-makers/stakeholders to make decision. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Anthropometric evaluation and recommendation for primary schools classroom furniture design in Perlis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Lim Shaiu; Jing, Ewe Hui; Effendi, M. S. M.; Rosli, Muhamad Farizuan

    2017-09-01

    This study was carried out with the objective to obtain the anthropometric data of primary school children from Year 1 to Year 6 and evaluate the children's anthropometry with the current dimensions of classroom furniture (i.e. chair and table). In addition, this study also proposed the design dimensions for the improvement in classroom furniture design with the consideration of children's anthropometric data. A total of 390 children selected from 13 primary schools in Perlis, Malaysia were participated in this study. There were 11 anthropometric measurements of children have been measured in this study, which include stature (St), popliteal height (PH), knee height (KH), thigh thickness (TT), buttock popliteal length (BPL), hip breadth (HB), sitting shoulder height (SSH), sitting elbow height (SEH), forearm-hand length (FHL), height of lumbar point (HLP) and buttock clearance (BC). Besides that, 7 dimensions relating to current classroom chair have been measured, such as seat height (SH), seat depth (SD), seat width (SW), upper edge of backrest (UEB), lower edge of backrest (LEB), S point (SP), overall chair height (OCH). Another 5 dimensions of the existing classroom table have been measured too, which involve table height (TH), table depth (TD), table width (TW), under table height (UH) and seat to table clearance (STC). All the measurements were performed by using metal measuring tape. The anthropometric data of the children were analyzed with the help of Microsoft Excel 2013. Several equations with associated with the anthropometric data and furniture dimensions have been applied in this research. The new design dimensions for classroom furniture that proposed in this paper which based on the collected anthropometric data can be referred as a guideline for classroom furniture design. The implementation of these data may help to create comfortability, safety, suitability and improve performance of children in the classroom.

  6. A hybrid non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm and its application on multi-objective optimal design of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Lei; Yan, Changqi; Liao, Yi; Song, Feifei; Jia, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The optimization ability of NSGA-II is improved. • The design targets can be obvious optimized through optimization methodology. • Multi-objective optimization is implanted into the design of nuclear power plant. - Abstract: The design of nuclear component can be optimized by seeking out the best combination of article operational and structural parameters. Through multi-objective optimization, the optimized scheme can not only meets the design requirements, but also satisfies the safety regulations. In this work, a hybrid non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm is proposed, and its performance is verified by comparing it with its prototype and immune memory clone constraint multi-objective algorithm through four test-functions; the designs of the steam generator and the primary loop of Qinshan I nuclear power plant are optimized by the proposed algorithm. The results show that the algorithm outperforms the other two through overall evaluation; the reactor inlet temperature is an important parameter which influences the distribution of the Pareto optimal front; through optimization, the weight of the steam generator can be reduced by 16.5%, and the primary flow-rate can be reduced by 17.0%, the weight of the primary loop can be reduced by 11.4%, and the volume can be reduced by 9.8%.

  7. Associations of self-reported and objectively measured sleep disturbances with depression among primary caregivers of children with disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orta OR

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Olivia R Orta,1 Clarita Barbosa,1 Juan Carlos Velez,2 Bizu Gelaye,1 Xiaoli Chen,1 Lee Stoner,3 Michelle A Williams,1 1Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA; 2Worker's Hospital, The Chilean Safety Association, Santiago, Chile; 3School of Sport and Exercise, Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the association between sleep and depression using both self-reported (subjective and actigraphic (objective sleep traits. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 175 female primary caregivers of children with disabilities receiving care at a rehabilitation center in Punta Arenas, Chile. The eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire was used to ascertain participants' depression status. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used to define subjective, or perceived, sleep quality. Wrist-worn actigraph monitors, worn for seven consecutive nights, were used to characterize objective sleep quality and disturbances. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to collect information on sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Linear regression models were fit using continuous sleep parameters as the dependent variables and depression status as the independent variable. Multivariable models were adjusted for body mass index, marital status, smoking status, education level, and children's disabilities. Results: Using an eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire score ≥10, 26.3% of participants presented with depression. Depressed women were more likely to self-report overall poorer (subjective sleep compared to non-depressed women; however, differences in sleep were not consistently noted using actigraphic (objective sleep traits. Among the depressed, both sleep duration and total time in bed were significantly underestimated. In multivariable models, depression was negatively associated with sleep duration using both subjective (β=–0

  8. Solving advanced multi-objective robust designs by means of multiple objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEA): A reliability application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar A, Daniel E. [Division de Computacion Evolutiva (CEANI), Instituto de Sistemas Inteligentes y Aplicaciones Numericas en Ingenieria (IUSIANI), Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. Canary Islands (Spain)]. E-mail: danielsalazaraponte@gmail.com; Rocco S, Claudio M. [Universidad Central de Venezuela, Facultad de Ingenieria, Caracas (Venezuela)]. E-mail: crocco@reacciun.ve

    2007-06-15

    This paper extends the approach proposed by the second author in [Rocco et al. Robust design using a hybrid-cellular-evolutionary and interval-arithmetic approach: a reliability application. In: Tarantola S, Saltelli A, editors. SAMO 2001: Methodological advances and useful applications of sensitivity analysis. Reliab Eng Syst Saf 2003;79(2):149-59 [special issue

  9. A performance comparison of multi-objective optimization algorithms for solving nearly-zero-energy-building design problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamdy, M.; Nguyen, A.T. (Anh Tuan); Hensen, J.L.M.

    2016-01-01

    Integrated building design is inherently a multi-objective optimization problem where two or more conflicting objectives must be minimized and/or maximized concurrently. Many multi-objective optimization algorithms have been developed; however few of them are tested in solving building design

  10. Observing how others lift light or heavy objects: time-dependent encoding of grip force in the primary motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaerts, Kaat; de Beukelaar, Toon T; Swinnen, Stephan P; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2012-07-01

    During movement observation, corticomotor excitability of the observer's primary motor cortex (M1) is modulated according to the force requirements of the observed action. Here, we explored the time course of observation-induced force encoding. Force-related changes in M1-excitability were assessed by delivering transcranial magnetic stimulations at distinct temporal phases of an observed reach-grasp-lift action. Temporal changes in force-related electromyographic activity were also assessed during active movement execution. In observation conditions in which a heavy object was lifted, M1-excitability was higher compared to conditions in which a light object was lifted. Both during observation and execution, differential force encoding tended to gradually increase from the grasping phase until the late lift phase. Surprisingly, however, during observation, force encoding was already present at the early reach phase: a time point at which no visual cues on the object's weight were available to the observer. As the observer was aware that the same weight condition was presented repeatedly, this finding may indicate that prior predictions concerning the upcoming weight condition are reflected by M1 excitability. Overall, findings may provide indications that the observer's motor system represents motor predictions as well as muscular requirements to infer the observed movement goal.

  11. Design and verification of the miniature optical system for small object surface profile fast scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Sheng; Lee, Shu-Sheng; Huang, Jen, Jen-Yu; Lai, Ti-Yu; Jan, Chia-Ming; Hu, Po-Chi

    2016-04-01

    As the progress of optical technologies, different commercial 3D surface contour scanners are on the market nowadays. Most of them are used for reconstructing the surface profile of mold or mechanical objects which are larger than 50 mm×50 mm× 50 mm, and the scanning system size is about 300 mm×300 mm×100 mm. There are seldom optical systems commercialized for surface profile fast scanning for small object size less than 10 mm×10 mm×10 mm. Therefore, a miniature optical system has been designed and developed in this research work for this purpose. Since the most used scanning method of such system is line scan technology, we have developed pseudo-phase shifting digital projection technology by adopting projecting fringes and phase reconstruction method. A projector was used to project a digital fringe patterns on the object, and the fringes intensity images of the reference plane and of the sample object were recorded by a CMOS camera. The phase difference between the plane and object can be calculated from the fringes images, and the surface profile of the object was reconstructed by using the phase differences. The traditional phase shifting method was accomplished by using PZT actuator or precisely controlled motor to adjust the light source or grating and this is one of the limitations for high speed scanning. Compared with the traditional optical setup, we utilized a micro projector to project the digital fringe patterns on the sample. This diminished the phase shifting processing time and the controlled phase differences between the shifted phases become more precise. Besides, the optical path design based on a portable device scanning system was used to minimize the size and reduce the number of the system components. A screwdriver section about 7mm×5mm×5mm has been scanned and its surface profile was successfully restored. The experimental results showed that the measurement area of our system can be smaller than 10mm×10mm, the precision reached to

  12. Multi-objective experimental design for (13)C-based metabolic flux analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvin, Jeroen; Cajot, Simon; D'Huys, Pieter-Jan; Ampofo-Asiama, Jerry; Anné, Jozef; Van Impe, Jan; Geeraerd, Annemie; Bernaerts, Kristel

    2015-10-01

    (13)C-based metabolic flux analysis is an excellent technique to resolve fluxes in the central carbon metabolism but costs can be significant when using specialized tracers. This work presents a framework for cost-effective design of (13)C-tracer experiments, illustrated on two different networks. Linear and non-linear optimal input mixtures are computed for networks for Streptomyces lividans and a carcinoma cell line. If only glucose tracers are considered as labeled substrate for a carcinoma cell line or S. lividans, the best parameter estimation accuracy is obtained by mixtures containing high amounts of 1,2-(13)C2 glucose combined with uniformly labeled glucose. Experimental designs are evaluated based on a linear (D-criterion) and non-linear approach (S-criterion). Both approaches generate almost the same input mixture, however, the linear approach is favored due to its low computational effort. The high amount of 1,2-(13)C2 glucose in the optimal designs coincides with a high experimental cost, which is further enhanced when labeling is introduced in glutamine and aspartate tracers. Multi-objective optimization gives the possibility to assess experimental quality and cost at the same time and can reveal excellent compromise experiments. For example, the combination of 100% 1,2-(13)C2 glucose with 100% position one labeled glutamine and the combination of 100% 1,2-(13)C2 glucose with 100% uniformly labeled glutamine perform equally well for the carcinoma cell line, but the first mixture offers a decrease in cost of $ 120 per ml-scale cell culture experiment. We demonstrated the validity of a multi-objective linear approach to perform optimal experimental designs for the non-linear problem of (13)C-metabolic flux analysis. Tools and a workflow are provided to perform multi-objective design. The effortless calculation of the D-criterion can be exploited to perform high-throughput screening of possible (13)C-tracers, while the illustrated benefit of multi-objective

  13. Mathematical programming model for heat exchanger design through optimization of partial objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Viviani C.; Ravagnani, Mauro A.S.S.; Caballero, José A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Rigorous design of shell-and-tube heat exchangers according to TEMA standards. • Division of the problem into sets of equations that are easier to solve. • Selected heuristic objective functions based on the physical behavior of the problem. • Sequential optimization approach to avoid solutions stuck in local minimum. • The results obtained with this model improved the values reported in the literature. - Abstract: Mathematical programming can be used for the optimal design of shell-and-tube heat exchangers (STHEs). This paper proposes a mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP) model for the design of STHEs, following rigorously the standards of the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association (TEMA). Bell–Delaware Method is used for the shell-side calculations. This approach produces a large and non-convex model that cannot be solved to global optimality with the current state of the art solvers. Notwithstanding, it is proposed to perform a sequential optimization approach of partial objective targets through the division of the problem into sets of related equations that are easier to solve. For each one of these problems a heuristic objective function is selected based on the physical behavior of the problem. The global optimal solution of the original problem cannot be ensured even in the case in which each of the sub-problems is solved to global optimality, but at least a very good solution is always guaranteed. Three cases extracted from the literature were studied. The results showed that in all cases the values obtained using the proposed MINLP model containing multiple objective functions improved the values presented in the literature

  14. Embedded or linked learning objects: Implications for content development, course design and classroom use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail Kopp

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This research explores the idea of embedding and linking to existing content in learning object repositories and investigates teacher-designer use of learning objects within one high school mathematics course in an online school. This qualitative case study supports and extends the learning object literature, and brings forward context-specific examples of issues around repository design, autonomy and self-containment, technical support and granularity. Moreover, these findings have implications for building learning objects and repositories that could better support teachers in their instructional design and pedagogical decision-making. Résumé : La présente recherche étudie la possibilité d’effectuer un emboîtement et d’établir des liens avec le contenu existant dans les référentiels sur les objets d’apprentissage et explore l’utilisation par les enseignants-concepteurs des objets d’apprentissage au sein d’un cours de mathématique du secondaire donné dans une école en ligne. Cette étude de cas qualitative appuie et vise la littérature sur les objets d’apprentissage et met en avant plan des exemples de questions touchant la conception de référentiels, l’autonomie et l’indépendance, le soutien technique et la granularité propres au contexte. De plus, ces conclusions ont des répercussions sur l’élaboration d’objets et de référentiels d’apprentissage qui pourraient mieux appuyer les enseignants dans le cadre de leur conception pédagogique et de leur prise de décision touchant l’enseignement.

  15. Applicability of ISO 9001: 2000 standard to design and research activities in nuclear objectives and installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamatopol, M.; Patticu, C.

    2001-01-01

    The ISO 9001: 2000 standard contains the results of the latest studies concerning the design and implementation of quality management systems. The continuous improvement of these systems required a new approach, namely, the process-based approach. A process-based model of quality management is presented in terms of client request, input data, management responsibility, resource management, product realisation, measurement / analysis and optimization, product, output data and client request fulfilment. Thus, the quality management system becomes an ensemble of interconnected or interacting processes. Consequently, to implement such a system the necessary processes have to be identified and their ISO 9001: 2000 standard based management ensured. Process based approach also allows better evidencing the input and output data specific to each process. Such an approach grants a wider applicability to the design and research activities in nuclear objectives and installations. This work aims at identifying additional requirements implied in design and research activities in nuclear field, as stipulated in the following standards / documents: - IAEA SG Q8 'Quality assurance in research and development'; - IAEA SG Q10 'Quality assurance in design'; - CAN / CSA N 286.2 - 00 'Design Quality Assurance for Nuclear Power Plants'; CAN 3 - CSA Z 299.1 'Quality Assurance Program - Category 1'; - NQA - 1, SUPPLEMENT 3S-1 'Supplementary requirements for design control'

  16. Design of AC-DC Grid Connected Converter using Multi-Objective Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piasecki Szymon

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Power electronic circuits, in particular AC-DC converters are complex systems, many different parameters and objectives have to be taken into account during the design process. Implementation of Multi-Objective Optimization (MOO seems to be attractive idea, which used as designer supporting tool gives possibility for better analysis of the designed system. This paper presents a short introduction to the MOO applied in the field of power electronics. Short introduction to the subject is given in section I. Then, optimization process and its elements are briefly described in section II. Design procedure with proposed optimization parameters and performance indices for AC-DC Grid Connected Converter (GCC interfacing distributed systems is introduced in section III. Some preliminary optimization results, achieved on the basis of analytical and simulation study, are shown at each stage of designing process. Described optimization parameters and performance indices are part of developed global optimization method dedicated for ACDC GCC introduced in section IV. Described optimization method is under development and only short introduction and basic assumptions are presented. In section V laboratory prototype of high efficient and compact 14 kVA AC-DC converter is introduced. The converter is elaborated based on performed designing and optimization procedure with the use of silicon carbide (SiC power semiconductors. Finally, the paper is summarized and concluded in section VI. In presented work theoretical research are conducted in parallel with laboratory prototyping e.g. all theoretical ideas are verified in laboratory using modern DSP microcontrollers and prototypes of the ACDC GCC.

  17. Primary Cosmic Rays Composition: Simulations and Detector Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supanitsky, D.; Etchegoyen, A.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Gomez Berisso, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is a hybrid detector system for the detection of very high energy cosmic rays. A most difficult and important problem in these studies is the determination of the primary cosmic ray composition for which muon content in air showers appears to be one of the best parameters to discriminate between different composition types.Although the Pierre Auger surface detectors, which consist of water Cherenkov tanks, are sensitive to muon content they are not able to measure the number of muons directly. In this work we study using simulations the information that can be gained by adding muon detectors to the Auger surface detectors. We consider muon counters with two alternative areas

  18. Polar vessel hullform design based on the multi-objective optimization NSGA II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUAN Fei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] With the increasing exploitation of the Arctic abundant oil and gas resources, a large number of ships which meet the polar navigational requirements are needed.[Methods] In this paper, the fast elitist Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA Ⅱ is applied to the hull optimization, and the multi-objective optimization method of polar vessel design is proposed. With the optimization goal of resistance and icebreaking resistance, filtering hull forms through the standard of polar vessel displacement and EEDI, fast ship hull optimization that satisfy the ice-ship dead weight and EEDI requirements has been achieved. Taking a 65 000 t shuttle tanker as an example, full parametric modeling method is adopted, the hull optimization of three different bow forms is conducted through the polar vessel multi-objective optimization method.[Results] The ship hull after optimization can satisfy the IA class navigation require, where the resistance in calm water decreases up to 12.94%, and the minimum propulsion power in ice field has a 27.36% reduction.[Conclusions] The feasibility and validity of the NSGA Ⅱ applying in polar vessel design is verified.

  19. Selection of security system design via games of imperfect information and multi-objective genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lins, Isis Didier; Rêgo, Leandro Chaves; Moura, Márcio das Chagas

    2013-01-01

    This work analyzes the strategic interaction between a defender and an intelligent attacker by means of a game and reliability framework involving a multi-objective approach and imperfect information so as to support decision-makers in choosing efficiently designed security systems. A multi-objective genetic algorithm is used to determine the optimal security system's configurations representing the tradeoff between the probability of a successful defense and the acquisition and operational costs. Games with imperfect information are considered, in which the attacker has limited knowledge about the actual security system. The types of security alternatives are readily observable, but the number of redundancies actually implemented in each security subsystem is not known. The proposed methodology is applied to an illustrative example considering power transmission lines in the Northeast of Brazil, which are often targets for attackers who aims at selling the aluminum conductors. The empirical results show that the framework succeeds in handling this sort of strategic interaction. -- Highlights: ► Security components must have feasible costs and must be reliable. ► The optimal design of security systems considers a multi-objective approach. ► Games of imperfect information enable the choice of non-dominated configurations. ► MOGA, reliability and games support the entire defender's decision process. ► The selection of effective security systems may discourage attacker's actions

  20. The production of direct object clitics in pre-school- and primary school-aged children with specific language impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guasti, Maria Teresa; Palma, Silvia; Genovese, Elisabetta; Stagi, Paolo; Saladini, Gabriella; Arosio, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Third-person direct object (DO) clitic pronoun production is examined through an elicited production method in pre-school- and primary school-aged groups of Italian children with specific language impairment (SLI) to establish whether there is an improvement from age 5 years to age 7 years and whether there are qualitative differences in the two groups' responses. It was found that 5- and 7-year-old Italian children with SLI produce fewer third-person DO clitics than same-age peers. The kind of responses they provide changes: at 5 years, children with SLI tend to omit clitics, while at 7 years, they use a full noun. Production of third-person DO clitics is a persistent challenge for children with SLI and is confirmed to be a good clinical marker both at 5 and 7 years of age.

  1. Validity of single-cycle objective functions for multicycle reload design optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kropaczek, D.J.; McElroy, J.; Turinsky, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    Beyond the equilibrium cycle scoping calculations used for determining numbers of feed assemblies and enrichment estimates, multicycle reload design currently consists of stagewise optimization of single-cycle core loading patterns, typically extending over a short-term planning horizon of perhaps three reload cycles. Particularly in transition cycles, however, optimizing a loading pattern over a single cycle for a stated objective, such as minimum core leakage, may have an adverse impact on subsequent cycles. The penalties paid may be in the form of reduced thermal margin or an increase in feed enrichment due to insufficient reactivity carryover from the open-quotes optimizedclose quotes cycle. In view of current practices, a study was performed that examined the behavior of the loading pattern as a function of the objective functions selected as implemented in the stagewise optimization of single-cycle core loading patterns from initial transition cycle through equilibrium using the FORMOSA-P code. The objective functions studied were region average discharge burnup maximization (with enrichment search) and feed enrichment minimization. It is noted at the beginning that the maximization of region average discharge has no meaning for the equilibrium cycle because region average discharge burnup is explicitly set by the feed size and cycle length independent of the loading pattern. In the nonequilibrium cycle, however, it was reasoned that this objective would provide the maximum reactivity carryover throughout the transition and thus have a direct effect on minimizing the multicycle levelized fuel cost

  2. The Implementation of Satellite Attitude Control System Software Using Object Oriented Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, W. Mark; Hansell, William; Phillips, Tom; Anderson, Mark O.; Drury, Derek

    1998-01-01

    NASA established the Small Explorer (SNMX) program in 1988 to provide frequent opportunities for highly focused and relatively inexpensive space science missions. The SMEX program has produced five satellites, three of which have been successfully launched. The remaining two spacecraft are scheduled for launch within the coming year. NASA has recently developed a prototype for the next generation Small Explorer spacecraft (SMEX-Lite). This paper describes the object-oriented design (OOD) of the SMEX-Lite Attitude Control System (ACS) software. The SMEX-Lite ACS is three-axis controlled and is capable of performing sub-arc-minute pointing. This paper first describes high level requirements governing the SMEX-Lite ACS software architecture. Next, the context in which the software resides is explained. The paper describes the principles of encapsulation, inheritance, and polymorphism with respect to the implementation of an ACS software system. This paper will also discuss the design of several ACS software components. Specifically, object-oriented designs are presented for sensor data processing, attitude determination, attitude control, and failure detection. Finally, this paper will address the establishment of the ACS Foundation Class (AFC) Library. The AFC is a large software repository, requiring a minimal amount of code modifications to produce ACS software for future projects.

  3. Peer review for conceptual design of the new safe confinement for the Chernobyl NPP shelter object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupny, Valentin; Shestopalov, Vyacheslav; Sobotovich, Emlen; Tokarevsky, Vladimir; Veryuzhsky, Yuri; Abdulakhatov, Murat

    2005-01-01

    The results of peer review for Conceptual Design of the New Safe Confinement (NSC) for Chernobyl NPP Shelter Object in the Arch option are presented. NSC consists of: 1) main building, including steel arch structure of tubular trusses, covered with thin-sheet metal (its bay in the direction north-south is equal to 257.44 m, height - 108.39 m, length - 150 m), foundations, western and eastern front walls; 2) technological (process) building, including sites for decontamination, fragmentation and packaging, sanitary locks, workshops and other technological premises; 3) auxiliary systems and structures. The following questions are considered: evolution of the requirements to the new Shelter-2, compliance of functional and engineering solutions; compliance with normative documents, standards and laws. The Arch design has no advantages compared with other known options for SO transformation into an ecologically safe system: by its process capabilities, it yields to the Dock-Caisson design; by cost of construction and operational expenses, it yields to the 'Monolith design; by dose expenses for construction and strength parameters it yields to the 'Rainbow design. (author)

  4. Multi-objective design of fuzzy logic controller in supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghane, Mahdi; Tarokh, Mohammad Jafar

    2012-08-01

    Unlike commonly used methods, in this paper, we have introduced a new approach for designing fuzzy controllers. In this approach, we have simultaneously optimized both objective functions of a supply chain over a two-dimensional space. Then, we have obtained a spectrum of optimized points, each of which represents a set of optimal parameters which can be chosen by the manager according to the importance of objective functions. Our used supply chain model is a member of inventory and order-based production control system family, a generalization of the periodic review which is termed `Order-Up-To policy.' An auto rule maker, based on non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II, has been applied to the experimental initial fuzzy rules. According to performance measurement, our results indicate the efficiency of the proposed approach.

  5. "Slit Mask Design for the Giant Magellan Telescope Multi-object Astronomical and Cosmological Spectrograph"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Darius; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Schmidt, Luke M.; Prochaska, Travis; DePoy, Darren L.

    2018-01-01

    The Giant Magellan Telescope Multi-object Astronomical and Cosmological Spectrograph (GMACS) is currently in development for the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT). GMACS will employ slit masks with a usable diameter of approximately 0.450 m for the purpose of multi-slit spectroscopy. Of significant importance are the design constraints and parameters of the multi-object slit masks themselves as well as the means for mapping astronomical targets to physical mask locations. Analytical methods are utilized to quantify deformation effects on a potential slit mask due to thermal expansion and vignetting of target light cones. Finite element analysis (FEA) is utilized to simulate mask flexure in changing gravity vectors. The alpha version of the mask creation program for GMACS, GMACS Mask Simulator (GMS), a derivative of the OSMOS Mask Simulator (OMS), is introduced.

  6. A Global Multi-Objective Optimization Tool for Design of Mechatronic Components using Generalized Differential Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Michael Møller; Nørgård, Christian; Roemer, Daniel Beck

    2016-01-01

    This paper illustrates how the relatively simple constrained multi-objective optimization algorithm Generalized Differential Evolution 3 (GDE3), can assist with the practical sizing of mechatronic components used in e.g. digital displacement fluid power machinery. The studied bi- and tri-objectiv......This paper illustrates how the relatively simple constrained multi-objective optimization algorithm Generalized Differential Evolution 3 (GDE3), can assist with the practical sizing of mechatronic components used in e.g. digital displacement fluid power machinery. The studied bi- and tri...... different optimization control parameter settings and it is concluded that GDE3 is a reliable optimization tool that can assist mechatronic engineers in the design and decision making process....

  7. Design and Assembly of DNA Nano-Objects and 2D DNA Origami Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenyan

    DNA, which plays a central role in biology as the carrier of genetic information, is also an excellent candidate for structural nanotechnology. Researches have proven that a variety of complicated DNA assemblies, such as objects, 2D & 3D crystals, and nanomechanical devices, can be fabricated through the combination of robust branched DNA motifs and sticky ends. This dissertation focuses on the design and construction of DNA nano--objects and 2D DNA origami arrays. In this dissertation, we first describe the formation of a triangular species that has four strands per edge, held together by PX interactions. We demonstrate by nondenaturing gel electrophoresis and by atomic force microscopy (AFM) that we can combine a partial triangle with other strands to form a robust four--stranded molecule. By combining them with a novel three--domain molecule, we also demonstrate by AFM that these triangles can be self--assembled into a linear array. Second, we demonstrate our attempts to design and self--assemble 2D DNA origami arrays using several different strategies. Specifically, we introduce the self--assembly of 2D DNA origami lattices using a symmetric cross--like design. This design strategy resulted in a well--ordered woven latticework array with edge dimensions of 2--3 mum. This size is likely to be large enough to connect bottom-up methods of patterning with top--down approaches. Third, we illustrate the design and construction of DNA nano--objects for exploring the substrate preferences of topoisomerase (topo) II. We designed and fabricated four double rhombus--like DNA molecules, each of which contains a different conformation of crossover in the middle, as possible substrates to establish the structural preferences for topo II. We characterized the formation of each substrate molecule by gel electrophoresis. Finally, we study the effect of M13 DNA knotting on the formation of the DNA origami tiles. We demonstrate by atomic force microscopy (AFM) that knotted M13

  8. A sustainable manufacturing system design: A fuzzy multi-objective optimization model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nujoom, Reda; Mohammed, Ahmed; Wang, Qian

    2017-08-10

    In the past decade, there has been a growing concern about the environmental protection in public society as governments almost all over the world have initiated certain rules and regulations to promote energy saving and minimize the production of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions in many manufacturing industries. The development of sustainable manufacturing systems is considered as one of the effective solutions to minimize the environmental impact. Lean approach is also considered as a proper method for achieving sustainability as it can reduce manufacturing wastes and increase the system efficiency and productivity. However, the lean approach does not include environmental waste of such as energy consumption and CO 2 emissions when designing a lean manufacturing system. This paper addresses these issues by evaluating a sustainable manufacturing system design considering a measurement of energy consumption and CO 2 emissions using different sources of energy (oil as direct energy source to generate thermal energy and oil or solar as indirect energy source to generate electricity). To this aim, a multi-objective mathematical model is developed incorporating the economic and ecological constraints aimed for minimization of the total cost, energy consumption, and CO 2 emissions for a manufacturing system design. For the real world scenario, the uncertainty in a number of input parameters was handled through the development of a fuzzy multi-objective model. The study also addresses decision-making in the number of machines, the number of air-conditioning units, and the number of bulbs involved in each process of a manufacturing system in conjunction with a quantity of material flow for processed products. A real case study was used for examining the validation and applicability of the developed sustainable manufacturing system model using the fuzzy multi-objective approach.

  9. Primary energy implications of different design strategies for an apartment building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe; Dodoo, Ambrose; Gustavsson, Leif

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we explored the effects of different design strategies on final and primary energy use for production and operation of a newly constructed apartment building. We analysed alternatives of the building “As built” as well as to energy efficiency levels of the Swedish building code and passive house criteria. Our approach is based on achieving improved versions of the building alternatives from combination of design strategies giving the lowest space heating and cooling demand and primary energy use, respectively. We found that the combination of design strategies resulting in the improved building alternatives varies depending on the approach. The improved building alternatives gave up to 19–34% reduction in operation primary energy use compared to the initial alternatives. The share of production primary energy use of the improved building alternatives was 39–54% of the total primary energy use for production, space heating, space cooling and ventilation over 50-year lifespan, compared to 31–42% for the initial alternatives. This study emphasises the importance of incorporating appropriate design strategies to reduce primary energy use for building operation and suggests that combining such strategies with careful choice of building frame materials could result in significant primary energy savings in the built environment. - Highlights: • Primary energy implications of different design strategies were analysed. • The improved building alternatives had 19–34% lower operation primary energy use. • The improved building alternatives had higher production primary energy use. • Still, the improved building alternatives had lower overall primary energy use. • Design strategies should be combined with careful building frame material choice.

  10. Design and implementation of distributed multimedia surveillance system based on object-oriented middleware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xuesong; Jiang, Ling; Hu, Ruimin

    2006-10-01

    Currently, the applications of surveillance system have been increasingly widespread. But there are few surveillance platforms that can meet the requirement of large-scale, cross-regional, and flexible surveillance business. In the paper, we present a distributed surveillance system platform to improve safety and security of the society. The system is constructed by an object-oriented middleware called as Internet Communications Engine (ICE). This middleware helps our platform to integrate a lot of surveillance resource of the society and accommodate diverse range of surveillance industry requirements. In the follow sections, we will describe in detail the design concepts of system and introduce traits of ICE.

  11. Multi-objective Design Optimization of a Parallel Schönflies-motion Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Guanglei; Bai, Shaoping; Hjørnet, Preben

    2016-01-01

    . The dynamic performance is concerned mainly the capability of force transmission in the parallel kinematic chain, for which transmission indices are defined. The Pareto-front is obtained to investigate the influence of the design variables to the robot performance. Dynamic characteristics for three Pareto......This paper introduces a parallel Schoenflies-motion robot with rectangular workspace, which is suitable for pick-and-place operations. A multi-objective optimization problem is formulated to optimize the robot's geometric parameters with consideration of kinematic and dynamic performances...

  12. Practical experience with graphical user interfaces and object-oriented design in the clinical laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, I G; Cartwright, R Y; Farnan, L P

    1993-12-15

    The computing strategy in our laboratories evolved from research in Artificial Intelligence, and is based on powerful software tools running on high performance desktop computers with a graphical user interface. This allows most tasks to be regarded as design problems rather than implementation projects, and both rapid prototyping and an object-oriented approach to be employed during the in-house development and enhancement of the laboratory information systems. The practical application of this strategy is discussed, with particular reference to the system designer, the laboratory user and the laboratory customer. Routine operation covers five departments, and the systems are stable, flexible and well accepted by the users. Client-server computing, currently undergoing final trials, is seen as the key to further development, and this approach to Pathology computing has considerable potential for the future.

  13. Towards Primary School Physics Teaching and Learning: Design Research Approach. Research Report 256

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juuti, Kalle

    2005-01-01

    This thesis describes a project to design a primary school physics learning environment which takes into account teachers' needs, design procedures, properties of the learning environment, and pupil learning outcomes. The project's design team has wide experience in research and development work in relation to science education, the use of ICT in…

  14. Design and manufacture of mechanical forceps to pick up objects at the bottom of the pool reactor TRIGA MK II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kankunku, K.P.; Lukanda, M.V.

    2011-01-01

    This design helps us to pick up any objects felt in bottom of swimming pool, which is a radioactive area, due to the presence of spent nuclear fuel. Its great advantage is its sample designing and made with local material.

  15. Multi-objective design optimization and control of magnetorheological fluid brakes for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamieh, Hadi; Sedaghati, Ramin

    2017-12-01

    The magnetorheological brake (MRB) is an electromechanical device that generates a retarding torque through employing magnetorheological (MR) fluids. The objective of this paper is to design, optimize and control an MRB for automotive applications considering. The dynamic range of a disk-type MRB expressing the ratio of generated toque at on and off states has been formulated as a function of the rotational speed, geometrical and material properties, and applied electrical current. Analytical magnetic circuit analysis has been conducted to derive the relation between magnetic field intensity and the applied electrical current as a function of the MRB geometrical and material properties. A multidisciplinary design optimization problem has then been formulated to identify the optimal brake geometrical parameters to maximize the dynamic range and minimize the response time and weight of the MRB under weight, size and magnetic flux density constraints. The optimization problem has been solved using combined genetic and sequential quadratic programming algorithms. Finally, the performance of the optimally designed MRB has been investigated in a quarter vehicle model. A PID controller has been designed to regulate the applied current required by the MRB in order to improve vehicle’s slipping on different road conditions.

  16. Objective Oriented Design of Architecture for TH System Safety Analysis Code and Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Bub Dong

    2008-03-15

    In this work, objective oriented design of generic system analysis code has been tried based on the previous works in KAERI for two phase three field Pilot code. It has been performed to implement of input and output design, TH solver, component model, special TH models, heat structure solver, general table, trip and control, and on-line graphics. All essential features for system analysis has been designed and implemented in the final product SYSTF code. The computer language C was used for implementation in the Visual studio 2008 IDE (Integrated Development Environment) since it has easier and lighter than C++ feature. The code has simple and essential features of models and correlation, special component, special TH model and heat structure model. However the input features is able to simulate the various scenarios, such as steady state, non LOCA transient and LOCA accident. The structure validity has been tested through the various verification tests and it has been shown that the developed code can treat the non LOCA and LOCA simulation. However more detailed design and implementation of models are required to get the physical validity of SYSTF code simulation.

  17. Objective Oriented Design of Architecture for TH System Safety Analysis Code and Verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Bub Dong

    2008-03-01

    In this work, objective oriented design of generic system analysis code has been tried based on the previous works in KAERI for two phase three field Pilot code. It has been performed to implement of input and output design, TH solver, component model, special TH models, heat structure solver, general table, trip and control, and on-line graphics. All essential features for system analysis has been designed and implemented in the final product SYSTF code. The computer language C was used for implementation in the Visual studio 2008 IDE (Integrated Development Environment) since it has easier and lighter than C++ feature. The code has simple and essential features of models and correlation, special component, special TH model and heat structure model. However the input features is able to simulate the various scenarios, such as steady state, non LOCA transient and LOCA accident. The structure validity has been tested through the various verification tests and it has been shown that the developed code can treat the non LOCA and LOCA simulation. However more detailed design and implementation of models are required to get the physical validity of SYSTF code simulation

  18. A possibilistic approach to rotorcraft design through a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Han Gil

    Most of the engineering design processes in use today in the field may be considered as a series of successive decision making steps. The decision maker uses information at hand, determines the direction of the procedure, and generates information for the next step and/or other decision makers. However, the information is often incomplete, especially in the early stages of the design process of a complex system. As the complexity of the system increases, uncertainties eventually become unmanageable using traditional tools. In such a case, the tools and analysis values need to be "softened" to account for the designer's intuition. One of the methods that deals with issues of intuition and incompleteness is possibility theory. Through the use of possibility theory coupled with fuzzy inference, the uncertainties estimated by the intuition of the designer are quantified for design problems. By involving quantified uncertainties in the tools, the solutions can represent a possible set, instead of a crisp spot, for predefined levels of certainty. From a different point of view, it is a well known fact that engineering design is a multi-objective problem or a set of such problems. The decision maker aims to find satisfactory solutions, sometimes compromising the objectives that conflict with each other. Once the candidates of possible solutions are generated, a satisfactory solution can be found by various decision-making techniques. A number of multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) have been developed, and can be found in the literature, which are capable of generating alternative solutions and evaluating multiple sets of solutions in one single execution of an algorithm. One of the MOEA techniques that has been proven to be very successful for this class of problems is the strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm (SPEA) which falls under the dominance-based category of methods. The Pareto dominance that is used in SPEA, however, is not enough to account for the

  19. Design considerations of fission and corrosion product in primary system of MONJU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, T.; Akagane, K.; Yamamoto, K.; Kawashima, K.

    1976-01-01

    General influence of fission and corrosion products in primary system on MONJU plant design is reviewed. Various research and development works are now in progress to decrease the generation rate, to remove the products more effectively and to develop the methods of evaluation the behaviour of radioactive products. The inventory and distribution of fission and corrosion products in the primary circuit of MONJU are given. The radiation levels on the primary components are estimated to be several roentgens per hour. (author)

  20. Primary design and operation analysis of ITER air transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haitian; Li Ge; Qin Shijun

    2010-01-01

    Air transfer system (ATS) is a remote handling transfer, which can work in the nuclear radiation environment and can be driven by the electricity fully. Its motion power is provided by several servo motors. The remote control technology of ATS, which is China taking part in the plan of international Tokamak experimental reactor (ITER) and grasping this technology, is one of key technologies of ITER. The remote handling technology can lay the foundation for developing demonstration nuclear fusion power plant in China on self-reliance. Because there is gamma irradiation and hazard material in these ITER parts, all required maintenance of port plugs and inner components are been transmitted by ATS. The pick-up or drop-off these components are completed by means of a remotely controlled TCS system between the Vacuum Vessel and the Hot Cell through the bridge-gallery. Tokamak building includes three floors, including upper port, equatorial port and lower port, linked by a lift. According to each port level configuration and safety requirement, the radius of curvature with ATS trajectory is optimized, and a trajectory of each level is determined by positioned guidance beacons. At last, the results of computer aided design (CAD) show single trajectory guidance of ATS in each level is available. (authors)

  1. Design notes for the next generation persistent object manager for CAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isely, M.; Fischler, M.; Galli, M.

    1995-05-01

    The CAP query system software at Fermilab has several major components, including SQS (for managing the query), the retrieval system (for fetching auxiliary data), and the query software itself. The central query software in particular is essentially a modified version of the 'ptool' product created at UIC (University of Illinois at Chicago) as part of the PASS project under Bob Grossman. The original UIC version was designed for use in a single-user non-distributed Unix environment. The Fermi modifications were an attempt to permit multi-user access to a data set distributed over a set of storage nodes. (The hardware is an IBM SP-x system - a cluster of AIX POWER2 nodes with an IBM-proprietary high speed switch interconnect). Since the implementation work of the Fermi-ized ptool, the CAP members have learned quite a bit about the nature of queries and where the current performance bottlenecks exist. This has lead them to design a persistent object manager that will overcome these problems. For backwards compatibility with ptool, the ptool persistent object API will largely be retained, but the implementation will be entirely different

  2. Version II of the ISACS Intelligent Coordinator: object-oriented design and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liholt, V.; Miazza, P.

    1993-03-01

    Within the Integrated Surveillance And Control System (ISACS-1)prototype coupled to the NORS PWR simulator, the Intelligent Coordinator (IC) is a central software module. It provides for example the operators with high-level knowledge on the overall plant status. This is performed through the integration of information fetched from the process and different Computerised Operator Support Systems. In 1991, the first version of ISACS and its associated Intelligent Information Coordinator came into operation. During initial ISACS-1 test runs, minor malfunctions were evidently detected in the IC software. At the same time, new reasoning capabilities were also required. A careful analysis of the IC software, implemented with the software shell G2, revealed that its software structure did not allow any easy extension. This report presents in detail the object-oriented redesign of the Intelligent Coordinator of ISACS-1 Firstly, the main capabilities of the Intelligent Coordinator are recalled. Then, the different object classes composing the application are commented in detail The implementation of this new design with the G2 software shell is illustrated through examples. This allows us at the same time to comment our experiences made with the G2 tool. Finally, a quantitative comparison between the successive versions of the Intelligent Coordinator shows clearly the improvements achieved by this object-oriented redesign. A drastic reduction of the number of production rules attests that a better representation of the plant expert knowledge embedded in the Intelligent Coordinator has been achieved. (author)

  3. Designs and Algorithms to Map Eye Tracking Data with Dynamic Multielement Moving Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziho Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Design concepts and algorithms were developed to address the eye tracking analysis issues that arise when (1 participants interrogate dynamic multielement objects that can overlap on the display and (2 visual angle error of the eye trackers is incapable of providing exact eye fixation coordinates. These issues were addressed by (1 developing dynamic areas of interests (AOIs in the form of either convex or rectangular shapes to represent the moving and shape-changing multielement objects, (2 introducing the concept of AOI gap tolerance (AGT that controls the size of the AOIs to address the overlapping and visual angle error issues, and (3 finding a near optimal AGT value. The approach was tested in the context of air traffic control (ATC operations where air traffic controller specialists (ATCSs interrogated multiple moving aircraft on a radar display to detect and control the aircraft for the purpose of maintaining safe and expeditious air transportation. In addition, we show how eye tracking analysis results can differ based on how we define dynamic AOIs to determine eye fixations on moving objects. The results serve as a framework to more accurately analyze eye tracking data and to better support the analysis of human performance.

  4. System design and improvement of an emergency department using Simulation-Based Multi-Objective Optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uriarte, A Goienetxea; Zúñiga, E Ruiz; Moris, M Urenda; Ng, A H C

    2015-01-01

    Discrete Event Simulation (DES) is nowadays widely used to support decision makers in system analysis and improvement. However, the use of simulation for improving stochastic logistic processes is not common among healthcare providers. The process of improving healthcare systems involves the necessity to deal with trade-off optimal solutions that take into consideration a multiple number of variables and objectives. Complementing DES with Multi-Objective Optimization (SMO) creates a superior base for finding these solutions and in consequence, facilitates the decision-making process. This paper presents how SMO has been applied for system improvement analysis in a Swedish Emergency Department (ED). A significant number of input variables, constraints and objectives were considered when defining the optimization problem. As a result of the project, the decision makers were provided with a range of optimal solutions which reduces considerably the length of stay and waiting times for the ED patients. SMO has proved to be an appropriate technique to support healthcare system design and improvement processes. A key factor for the success of this project has been the involvement and engagement of the stakeholders during the whole process. (paper)

  5. Designing instruction and learning for cognitively gifted pupils in preschool and primary school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton

    2012-01-01

    Mooij, T. (2013). Designing education and learning for cognitively gifted pupils in preschool and primary school. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 17(6), 597-613. doi:10.1080/13603116.2012.696727

  6. The Mercury Thermal Environment As A Design Driver and A Scientific Objective of The Bepicolombo Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotto, V.; Malosti, T.; Martino, R.; Briccarello, M.; Anselmi, A.

    The thermal environment of Mercury is extremely severe and a strong design driver for any mission to the planet. The main factors are the large amount of energy both di- rectly received from the sun and reflected/re-emitted from the planet, and the variation of such energy with time. The total thermal flux received by an object in orbit or on the surface of Mercury is a combination of the above-mentioned contributions, weighted according to the orbit characteristics, or the morphology of the surface. For a lander mission, the problems are compounded by the uncertainty in the a-priori knowledge of the surface properties and morphology. The thermal design of the orbiting and land- ing elements of the BepiColombo mission has a major role in the Definition Study being carried out under ESA contract by a team led by Alenia Spazio. The project en- compasses a spacecraft in low, near-circular, polar orbit (Mercury Planetary Orbiter, MPO), a spacecraft in high-eccentricity, polar orbit (Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter, MMO, provided by ISAS, Japan) and a lander (Mercury Surface Element, MSE). The approach to a feasible mission design must rely on several provisions. For the orbiting elements, the orientation of the orbit plane with respect to the line of apsides of the or- bit of Mercury is found to have a major effect on the achievable orbiter temperatures. The spacecraft configuration, and its attitude with respect to the planet and the sun, drive the accommodation of the scientific instruments. Once the optimal orientation, attitude and configuration are determined, specific thermal control solutions must be elaborated, to maintain all components including the instruments in the required tem- perature range. The objective is maximizing the scientific return under constraints such as the available on-board resources and the project budget. A major outcome of the study so far has been the specification of requirements for improved thermal con- trol technologies, which are

  7. Impact of implant design on primary stability of orthodontic mini-implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmes, Benedict; Ottenstreuer, Stephanie; Su, Yu-Yu; Drescher, Dieter

    2008-01-01

    Skeletal anchorage with mini-implants has greatly broadened the treatment possibilities in orthodontics over the last few years. To reduce implant failure rates, it is advisable to obtain adequate primary stability. The aim of this study was to quantitatively analyze the impact of implant design and dimension on primary stability. Forty-two porcine iliac bone segments were prepared and embedded in resin. To evaluate the primary stability, we documented insertion torques of the following mini-implants: Aarhus Screw, AbsoAnchor, LOMAS, Micro-Anchorage-System, ORLUS and Spider Screw. In each bone, five Dual Top Screws were inserted for reference purposes to achieve comparability among the specimens. We observed wide variation in insertion torques and hence primary stability, depending on mini-implant design and dimension; the great impact that mini-implant diameter has on insertion torques was particularly conspicuous. Conical mini-implants achieved higher primary stabilities than cylindrical designs. The diameter and design of the mini-implant thread have a distinctive impact on primary stability. Depending on the region of insertion and local bone quality, the choice of the mini-implant design and size is crucial to establish sufficient primary stability.

  8. The design of trachea-main bronchial covered embranchment stent and the primary clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Xinwei; Wu Gang; Gao Xuemei; Li Yongdong; Wang Yanli; Ma Nan

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To design the trachea-main bronchus covered embranchment stent and study the primary treatment for thoracostomach main bronchial fistula and main bronchial stenosis. Methods: The stent was designed on the bases of the peculiar anatomic structure and the pathological changes of thoracostomach-main bronchial fistula and main bronchial stenosis. Under the fluoroscopic guidance, implantations were carried out in thoracostomach-carina fistula 1 case thoracostomach-left main bronchial fistula 1, thoracostomach-right main bronchial fistula and left main bronchial stenosis 1 case, altogether with 5 stents. Results: Stents were placed successfully, not only improving the breathing and living quality but also completing the closure of the ora of the thoracostomach-airway fistula with further vanishing of the choke after drinking and eating together with the inhalation pneumonia. The bronchus became normal in a main bronchial stenosis after the stent was taken out. Conclusions: Trachea-main bronchial covered embranchment stent could be used to close thoracostomach-airway fistula and to treat main bronchial benign/malignant stenosis. The procedure is simple and safe. (authors)

  9. Multi-objective optimization design and experimental investigation of centrifugal fan performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Songling; Hu, Chenxing; Zhang, Qian

    2013-11-01

    Current studies of fan performance optimization mainly focus on two aspects: one is to improve the blade profile, and another is only to consider the influence of single impeller structural parameter on fan performance. However, there are few studies on the comprehensive effect of the key parameters such as blade number, exit stagger angle of blade and the impeller outlet width on the fan performance. The G4-73 backward centrifugal fan widely used in power plants is selected as the research object. Based on orthogonal design and BP neural network, a model for predicting the centrifugal fan performance parameters is established, and the maximum relative errors of the total pressure and efficiency are 0.974% and 0.333%, respectively. Multi-objective optimization of total pressure and efficiency of the fan is conducted with genetic algorithm, and the optimum combination of impeller structural parameters is proposed. The optimized parameters of blade number, exit stagger angle of blade and the impeller outlet width are seperately 14, 43.9°, and 21 cm. The experiments on centrifugal fan performance and noise are conducted before and after the installation of the new impeller. The experimental results show that with the new impeller, the total pressure of fan increases significantly in total range of the flow rate, and the fan efficiency is improved when the relative flow is above 75%, also the high efficiency area is broadened. Additionally, in 65% -100% relative flow, the fan noise is reduced. Under the design operating condition, total pressure and efficiency of the fan are improved by 6.91% and 0.5%, respectively. This research sheds light on the considering of comprehensive effect of impeller structrual parameters on fan performance, and a new impeller can be designed to satisfy the engineering demand such as energy-saving, noise reduction or solving air pressure insufficiency for power plants.

  10. Creation of system of computer-aided design for technological objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubkova, T. M.; Tokareva, M. A.; Sultanov, N. Z.

    2018-05-01

    Due to the competition in the market of process equipment, its production should be flexible, retuning to various product configurations, raw materials and productivity, depending on the current market needs. This process is not possible without CAD (computer-aided design). The formation of CAD begins with planning. Synthesizing, analyzing, evaluating, converting operations, as well as visualization and decision-making operations, can be automated. Based on formal description of the design procedures, the design route in the form of an oriented graph is constructed. The decomposition of the design process, represented by the formalized description of the design procedures, makes it possible to make an informed choice of the CAD component for the solution of the task. The object-oriented approach allows us to consider the CAD as an independent system whose properties are inherited from the components. The first step determines the range of tasks to be performed by the system, and a set of components for their implementation. The second one is the configuration of the selected components. The interaction between the selected components is carried out using the CALS standards. The chosen CAD / CAE-oriented approach allows creating a single model, which is stored in the database of the subject area. Each of the integration stages is implemented as a separate functional block. The transformation of the CAD model into the model of the internal representation is realized by the block of searching for the geometric parameters of the technological machine, in which the XML-model of the construction is obtained on the basis of the feature method from the theory of image recognition. The configuration of integrated components is divided into three consecutive steps: configuring tasks, components, interfaces. The configuration of the components is realized using the theory of "soft computations" using the Mamdani fuzzy inference algorithm.

  11. The Implementation of Satellite Control System Software Using Object Oriented Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark O.; Reid, Mark; Drury, Derek; Hansell, William; Phillips, Tom

    1998-01-01

    NASA established the Small Explorer (SMEX) program in 1988 to provide frequent opportunities for highly focused and relatively inexpensive space science missions that can be launched into low earth orbit by small expendable vehicles. The development schedule for each SMEX spacecraft was three years from start to launch. The SMEX program has produced five satellites; Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX), Fast Auroral Snapshot Explorer (FAST), Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS), Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) and Wide-Field Infrared Explorer (WIRE). SAMPEX and FAST are on-orbit, TRACE is scheduled to be launched in April of 1998, WIRE is scheduled to be launched in September of 1998, and SWAS is scheduled to be launched in January of 1999. In each of these missions, the Attitude Control System (ACS) software was written using a modular procedural design. Current program goals require complete spacecraft development within 18 months. This requirement has increased pressure to write reusable flight software. Object-Oriented Design (OOD) offers the constructs for developing an application that only needs modification for mission unique requirements. This paper describes the OOD that was used to develop the SMEX-Lite ACS software. The SMEX-Lite ACS is three-axis controlled, momentum stabilized, and is capable of performing sub-arc-minute pointing. The paper first describes the high level requirements which governed the architecture of the SMEX-Lite ACS software. Next, the context in which the software resides is explained. The paper describes the benefits of encapsulation, inheritance and polymorphism with respect to the implementation of an ACS software system. This paper will discuss the design of several software components that comprise the ACS software. Specifically, Object-Oriented designs are presented for sensor data processing, attitude control, attitude determination and failure detection. The paper addresses

  12. Influence of Reynolds Number on Multi-Objective Aerodynamic Design of a Wind Turbine Blade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Mingwei; Fang, Le; Tian, De

    2015-01-01

    At present, the radius of wind turbine rotors ranges from several meters to one hundred meters, or even more, which extends Reynolds number of the airfoil profile from the order of 105 to 107. Taking the blade for 3MW wind turbines as an example, the influence of Reynolds number on the aerodynamic design of a wind turbine blade is studied. To make the study more general, two kinds of multi-objective optimization are involved: one is based on the maximum power coefficient (CPopt) and the ultimate load, and the other is based on the ultimate load and the annual energy production (AEP). It is found that under the same configuration, the optimal design has a larger CPopt or AEP (CPopt//AEP) for the same ultimate load, or a smaller load for the same CPopt//AEP at higher Reynolds number. At a certain tip-speed ratio or ultimate load, the blade operating at higher Reynolds number should have a larger chord length and twist angle for the maximum Cpopt//AEP. If a wind turbine blade is designed by using an airfoil database with a mismatched Reynolds number from the actual one, both the load and Cpopt//AEP will be incorrectly estimated to some extent. In some cases, the assessment error attributed to Reynolds number is quite significant, which may bring unexpected risks to the earnings and safety of a wind power project.

  13. Influence of Reynolds Number on Multi-Objective Aerodynamic Design of a Wind Turbine Blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Mingwei; Fang, Le; Tian, De

    2015-01-01

    At present, the radius of wind turbine rotors ranges from several meters to one hundred meters, or even more, which extends Reynolds number of the airfoil profile from the order of 105 to 107. Taking the blade for 3MW wind turbines as an example, the influence of Reynolds number on the aerodynamic design of a wind turbine blade is studied. To make the study more general, two kinds of multi-objective optimization are involved: one is based on the maximum power coefficient (C Popt) and the ultimate load, and the other is based on the ultimate load and the annual energy production (AEP). It is found that under the same configuration, the optimal design has a larger C Popt or AEP (C Popt//AEP) for the same ultimate load, or a smaller load for the same C Popt//AEP at higher Reynolds number. At a certain tip-speed ratio or ultimate load, the blade operating at higher Reynolds number should have a larger chord length and twist angle for the maximum C popt//AEP. If a wind turbine blade is designed by using an airfoil database with a mismatched Reynolds number from the actual one, both the load and C popt//AEP will be incorrectly estimated to some extent. In some cases, the assessment error attributed to Reynolds number is quite significant, which may bring unexpected risks to the earnings and safety of a wind power project. PMID:26528815

  14. Multi-objective optimization of aircraft design for emission and cost reductions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pollutant gases emitted from the civil jet are doing more and more harm to the environment with the rapid development of the global commercial aviation transport. Low environmental impact has become a new requirement for aircraft design. In this paper, estimation method for emission in aircraft conceptual design stage is improved based on the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO aircraft engine emissions databank and the polynomial curve fitting methods. The greenhouse gas emission (CO2 equivalent per seat per kilometer is proposed to measure the emissions. An approximate sensitive analysis and a multi-objective optimization of aircraft design for tradeoff between greenhouse effect and direct operating cost (DOC are performed with five geometry variables of wing configuration and two flight operational parameters. The results indicate that reducing the cruise altitude and Mach number may result in a decrease of the greenhouse effect but an increase of DOC. And the two flight operational parameters have more effects on the emissions than the wing configuration. The Pareto-optimal front shows that a decrease of 29.8% in DOC is attained at the expense of an increase of 10.8% in greenhouse gases.

  15. Optimum design of pultrusion process via evolutionary multi-objective optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tutum, Cem Celal; Baran, Ismet; Deb, Kalyanmoy

    2014-01-01

    Pultrusion is one of the most cost-effective manufacturing techniques for producing fiber-reinforced composites with constant cross-sectional profiles. This obviously makes it more attractive for both researchers and practitioners to investigate the optimum process parameters, i.e., pulling speed......, power, and dimensions of the heating platens, length and width of the heating die, design of the resin injection chamber, etc., to provide better understanding of the process, consequently to improve the efficiency of the process as well as the product quality. Using validated computer simulations...... this type of problems without any biased treatment of objectives such as weighting constants serving as pre-assumed user preferences. In this paper, first, a thermochemical simulation of the pultrusion process has been presented considering the steady-state conditions. Following that, it is integrated...

  16. Multi-objective optimization approach for cost management during product design at the conceptual phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durga Prasad, K. G.; Venkata Subbaiah, K.; Narayana Rao, K.

    2014-03-01

    The effective cost management during the conceptual design phase of a product is essential to develop a product with minimum cost and desired quality. The integration of the methodologies of quality function deployment (QFD), value engineering (VE) and target costing (TC) could be applied to the continuous improvement of any product during product development. To optimize customer satisfaction and total cost of a product, a mathematical model is established in this paper. This model integrates QFD, VE and TC under multi-objective optimization frame work. A case study on domestic refrigerator is presented to show the performance of the proposed model. Goal programming is adopted to attain the goals of maximum customer satisfaction and minimum cost of the product.

  17. Multi-objective optimization and simulation model for the design of distributed energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falke, Tobias; Krengel, Stefan; Meinerzhagen, Ann-Kathrin; Schnettler, Armin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Development of a model for the optimal design of district energy systems. • Multi-objective approach: integrated economic and ecological optimization. • Consideration of conventional conversion technologies, RES and district heating. • Decomposition of optimization problem to reduce computation complexity. • Approach enables the investigation of districts with more than 150 buildings. - Abstract: In this paper, a multi-objective optimization model for the investment planning and operation management of distributed heat and electricity supply systems is presented. Different energy efficiency measures and supply options are taken into account, including various distributed heat and power generation units, storage systems and energy-saving renovation measures. Furthermore, district heating networks are considered as an alternative to conventional, individual heat supply for each building. The optimization problem is decomposed into three subproblems to reduce the computational complexity. This enables a high level of detail in the optimization and simultaneously the comprehensive investigation of districts with more than 100 buildings. These capabilities distinguish the model from previous approaches in this field of research. The developed model is applied to a district in a medium-sized town in Germany in order to analyze the effects of different efficiency measures regarding total costs and emissions of CO 2 equivalents. Based on the Pareto efficient solutions, technologies and efficiency measures that can contribute most efficiently to reduce greenhouse gas emissions are identified.

  18. TRUST AND REPUTATION MODEL DESIGN FOR OBJECTS OF MULTI-AGENT ROBOTICS SYSTEMS WITH DECENTRALIZED CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Zikratov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of mechanisms design for protection of multi-agent robotics systems from attacks of robots-saboteurs is considered. Functioning analysis of these systems with decentralized control is carried out. The type of the so-called soft attacks using interception of messages, misinformation formation and transmission to group of robots which are also realizing other actions without identified signs of invasion of robots-saboteurs. Analysis of existing information security models of the system based on the trust level computation, calculated in the process of agents’ interaction is carried out. Information security model is offered in which robots-agents produce the trust levels to each other on the basis of situation analysis emerging on a certain step of iterative algorithm with usage of onboard sensor devices. On the basis of calculated trust levels, recognition of “saboteur” objects in the group of legitimate robots-agents is done. For measure of likeness (adjacency increase for objects from the same category (“saboteur” or “legitimate agent”, calculation algorithm for agents reputation is offered as a measure of public opinion about qualities of this or that agent-subject. Implementation alternatives of the algorithms for detection of saboteurs on the example of the basic algorithm for distribution of purposes in the group of robots are considered.

  19. Objective Oriented Design of System Thermal Hydraulic Analysis Program and Verification of Feasibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Bub Dong; Jeong, Jae Jun; Hwang, Moon Kyu

    2008-01-01

    The system safety analysis code, such as RELAP5, TRAC, CATHARE etc. have been developed based on Fortran language during the past few decades. Refactoring of conventional codes has been also performed to improve code readability and maintenance. TRACE, RELAP5-3D and MARS codes are examples of these activities. The codes were redesigned to have modular structures utilizing Fortran 90 features. However the programming paradigm in software technology has been changed to use objects oriented programming (OOP), which is based on several techniques, including encapsulation, modularity, polymorphism, and inheritance. It was not commonly used in mainstream software application development until the early 1990s. Many modern programming languages now support OOP. Although the recent Fortran language also support the OOP, it is considered to have limited functions compared to the modern software features. In this work, objective oriented program for system safety analysis code has been tried utilizing modern C language feature. The advantage of OOP has been discussed after verification of design feasibility

  20. Improving Primary Care with Human-Centered Design and Partnership-Based Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May-Lynn Andresen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this quality improvement project was to empower and activate first-line staff (FLS to improve the six-month depression remission rate in a primary care clinic. Background: Lack of workforce engagement has been identified as an emerging national problem in health care and health care leaders have urged practice redesign to foster the Triple Aim of improved population health, improved care experience, and reduced cost of care (Berwick et al., 2008. Depression is difficult to manage and often exacerbates chronic illnesses and shortens lifespans, yet despite known effective treatments, six-month remission rates are low and care practices are often inadequate. Engaging in empowering leadership behaviors has demonstrated improvement in motivation, work outcomes, and empowerment in various industry settings across the world. Core approaches include: enhancing staff self-determination, encouraging participation in decision-making, and ensuring that staff have the knowledge and tools to achieve their performance goals, in addition to leadership communications that increase confidence in staff’s potential to perform at high levels, and their recognition that their efforts have an impact on improving organizational effectiveness. Methods: In this outpatient setting, care was siloed, staff were disengaged and a hierarchical paradigm was evident. Human-centered design principles were employed to intensively explore stakeholders’ experiences and to deeply engage end users in improving depression remission rates by creating, participating, and partnering in solutions. Leadership was educated in and deployed empowering leadership behaviors, which were synergistic with design thinking, and fostered empowerment. Results: Pre- and post-surveys demonstrated statistically significant improvement in empowerment. The six-month depression remission rate increased 167%, from 7.3% (N=261 to 19.4% (N=247. Conclusion: The convergence of

  1. INFLUENCE OF SUBJECT AND OBJECTIVES FACTORS OF INFORMATIZATION ON THE PEDAGOGICAL DESIGN EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara O. Pushkareva

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a preliminary terminological analysis of the conceptual apparatus in the direction of computer-oriented informatization of pedagogical designing of educational activity in the structure of general secondary education has been made. The influence of the subject and object factors of the informatization of the educational process on the efficiency of pedagogical design is investigated. The existence of a dual problem in the educational sphere, related both to the formatting of an effective informational and educational product, and to the technologically acceptable component of well-organized computer-oriented support for students, is established. It is carried out the analysis of priority in the perception of varieties of information by the subjects of the educational system, as well as revealed that in the perception of computer information by subjects of different status or age there are differences that are related to their individual needs, desires, inclinations. The means of informative support of educational process are considered and recommendations on their use are given.

  2. Digital Distributed Control System Design: Control Policy for Shared Objects in HTR-PM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Shuqiao; Huang Xiaojin

    2014-01-01

    HTR-PM is an HTR demonstration plant with a structure of two modules feeding one steam turbine. Compared with the structure of one single reactor feeding one turbine, there are more devices shared between these two modules. When they are operated, the shared components are prone to introduce collisions or even logical deadlocks for different technical processes. The future commercial HTR-PM plants are supposed to comprise more modules for a larger turbine, thus the collision problem introduced by the shared components may become severer. Therefore, how to design suitable policies in the distributed control system (DCS) to relieve the collisions during using these shared devices is a new and also a very important problem. In this paper, the classifications of the shared devices are first addressed, and then how to identify the shared objects of an NPP is proposed. Furthermore, a general model for the control logic design is proposed, taking into consideration the collision avoidance, time delay and fairness. The example of how to apply the schemes to relieve the conflicts and deadlocks in the processes of using the shared devices in fuel element cycling system is illustrated. (author)

  3. Design of Distortion-Invariant Optical ID Tags for Remote Identification and Verification of Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Cabré, Elisabet; Millán, María Sagrario; Javidi, Bahram

    Optical identification (ID) tags [1] have a promising future in a number of applications such as the surveillance of vehicles in transportation, control of restricted areas for homeland security, item tracking on conveyor belts or other industrial environment, etc. More specifically, passive optical ID tag [1] was introduced as an optical code containing a signature (that is, a characteristic image or other relevant information of the object), which permits its real-time remote detection and identification. Since their introduction in the literature [1], some contributions have been proposed to increase their usefulness and robustness. To increase security and avoid counterfeiting, the signature was introduced in the optical code as an encrypted function [2-5] following the double-phase encryption technique [6]. Moreover, the design of the optical ID tag was done in such a way that tolerance to variations in scale and rotation was achieved [2-5]. To do that, the encrypted information was multiplexed and distributed in the optical code following an appropriate topology. Further studies were carried out to analyze the influence of different sources of noise. In some proposals [5, 7], the designed ID tag consists of two optical codes where the complex-valued encrypted signature was separately introduced in two real-valued functions according to its magnitude and phase distributions. This solution was introduced to overcome some difficulties in the readout of complex values in outdoors environments. Recently, the fully phase encryption technique [8] has been proposed to increase noise robustness of the authentication system.

  4. A Validation of Object-Oriented Design Metrics as Quality Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basili, Victor R.; Briand, Lionel C.; Melo, Walcelio

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study in which we empirically investigated the suits of object-oriented (00) design metrics introduced in another work. More specifically, our goal is to assess these metrics as predictors of fault-prone classes and, therefore, determine whether they can be used as early quality indicators. This study is complementary to the work described where the same suite of metrics had been used to assess frequencies of maintenance changes to classes. To perform our validation accurately, we collected data on the development of eight medium-sized information management systems based on identical requirements. All eight projects were developed using a sequential life cycle model, a well-known 00 analysis/design method and the C++ programming language. Based on empirical and quantitative analysis, the advantages and drawbacks of these 00 metrics are discussed. Several of Chidamber and Kamerer's 00 metrics appear to be useful to predict class fault-proneness during the early phases of the life-cycle. Also, on our data set, they are better predictors than 'traditional' code metrics, which can only be collected at a later phase of the software development processes.

  5. Aligning experimental design with bioinformatics analysis to meet discovery research objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael D

    2002-01-01

    The utility of genomic technology and bioinformatic analytical support to provide new and needed insight into the molecular basis of disease, development, and diversity continues to grow as more research model systems and populations are investigated. Yet deriving results that meet a specific set of research objectives requires aligning or coordinating the design of the experiment, the laboratory techniques, and the data analysis. The following paragraphs describe several important interdependent factors that need to be considered to generate high quality data from the microarray platform. These factors include aligning oligonucleotide probe design with the sample labeling strategy if oligonucleotide probes are employed, recognizing that compromises are inherent in different sample procurement methods, normalizing 2-color microarray raw data, and distinguishing the difference between gene clustering and sample clustering. These factors do not represent an exhaustive list of technical variables in microarray-based research, but this list highlights those variables that span both experimental execution and data analysis. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Physical models and primary design of reactor based slow positron source at CMRR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanbo; Li, Rundong; Qian, Dazhi; Yang, Xin

    2018-07-01

    Slow positron facilities are widely used in material science. A high intensity slow positron source is now at the design stage based on the China Mianyang Research Reactor (CMRR). This paper describes the physical models and our primary design. We use different computer programs or mathematical formula to simulate different physical process, and validate them by proper experiments. Considering the feasibility, we propose a primary design, containing a cadmium shield, a honeycomb arranged W tubes assembly, electrical lenses, and a solenoid. It is planned to be vertically inserted in the Si-doping channel. And the beam intensity is expected to be 5 ×109

  7. Design optimization of shell-and-tube heat exchangers using single objective and multiobjective particle swarm optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsays, Mostafa A.; Naguib Aly, M; Badawi, Alya A.

    2010-01-01

    The Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm is used to optimize the design of shell-and-tube heat exchangers and determine the optimal feasible solutions so as to eliminate trial-and-error during the design process. The design formulation takes into account the area and the total annual cost of heat exchangers as two objective functions together with operating as well as geometrical constraints. The Nonlinear Constrained Single Objective Particle Swarm Optimization (NCSOPSO) algorithm is used to minimize and find the optimal feasible solution for each of the nonlinear constrained objective functions alone, respectively. Then, a novel Nonlinear Constrained Mult-objective Particle Swarm Optimization (NCMOPSO) algorithm is used to minimize and find the Pareto optimal solutions for both of the nonlinear constrained objective functions together. The experimental results show that the two algorithms are very efficient, fast and can find the accurate optimal feasible solutions of the shell and tube heat exchangers design optimization problem. (orig.)

  8. Concept Maps as Instructional Tools for Improving Learning of Phase Transitions in Object-Oriented Analysis and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Shin-Shing

    2016-01-01

    Students attending object-oriented analysis and design (OOAD) courses typically encounter difficulties transitioning from requirements analysis to logical design and then to physical design. Concept maps have been widely used in studies of user learning. The study reported here, based on the relationship of concept maps to learning theory and…

  9. Upgradation of design features of primary coolant pumps of Indian 220 MWe PHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.S.; Mhetre, S.G.; Manna, M.M.

    1994-01-01

    Evolution in the design features of Primary Coolant Pump (PCP) had started in fifties for catering to stringent specification requirements of reactor coolant systems of larger capacity reactors of various kinds. Primary coolant pumps of PWR and PHWR are employed for circulating radioactive, pressurized hot water in a circuit consisting of reactor (heat source) and steam generator (heat sink). As primary coolant pump capacity decides the station capacity, larger capacity primary coolant pumps have been evolved. Since primary coolant pump pressure containing parts are part of Primary Heat Transport system envelope, the parts are designed, manufactured, inspected and tested in accordance with the applicable system guidelines. Flywheel is mounted on the motor shaft for increasing mass moment of inertia of pump motor rotor to meet the coast down requirements of reactor cooling system under Class-IV electrical power supply failure. Due to limited accessibility of the PCP (PCP installed in shut down accessible area), quick maintenance, condition monitoring, reliable shaft seal system/bearing system aspects have been of great concern to reactor owners and pump manufacturers. In this paper upgradation of design features of RAPS, MAPS and NAPS primary coolant pumps have been covered. (author). 4 figs., 1 tab

  10. Impact of mechanism vibration characteristics by joint clearance and optimization design of its multi-objective robustness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Baoping; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Yu; Gong, Yajun; Hu, Sanbao

    2017-12-01

    Joint clearances and friction characteristics significantly influence the mechanism vibration characteristics; for example: as for joint clearances, the shaft and bearing of its clearance joint collide to bring about the dynamic normal contact force and tangential coulomb friction force while the mechanism works; thus, the whole system may vibrate; moreover, the mechanism is under contact-impact with impact force constraint from free movement under action of the above dynamic forces; in addition, the mechanism topology structure also changes. The constraint relationship between joints may be established by a repeated complex nonlinear dynamic process (idle stroke - contact-impact - elastic compression - rebound - impact relief - idle stroke movement - contact-impact). Analysis of vibration characteristics of joint parts is still a challenging open task by far. The dynamic equations for any mechanism with clearance is often a set of strong coupling, high-dimensional and complex time-varying nonlinear differential equations which are solved very difficultly. Moreover, complicated chaotic motions very sensitive to initial values in impact and vibration due to clearance let high-precision simulation and prediction of their dynamic behaviors be more difficult; on the other hand, their subsequent wearing necessarily leads to some certain fluctuation of structure clearance parameters, which acts as one primary factor for vibration of the mechanical system. A dynamic model was established to the device for opening the deepwater robot cabin door with joint clearance by utilizing the finite element method and analysis was carried out to its vibration characteristics in this study. Moreover, its response model was carried out by utilizing the DOE method and then the robust optimization design was performed to sizes of the joint clearance and the friction coefficient change range so that the optimization design results may be regarded as reference data for selecting bearings

  11. Children Designing & Engineering: Contextual Learning Units in Primary Design and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    The Children Designing & Engineering (CD&E) Project at the College of New Jersey is a collaborative effort of the College's Center for Design and Technology and the New Jersey Chamber of Commerce. The Project, funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF), has been charged to develop instructional materials for grades K-5. The twelve…

  12. A hybrid multi-objective imperialist competitive algorithm and Monte Carlo method for robust safety design of a rail vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejlaoui, Mohamed; Houidi, Ajmi; Affi, Zouhaier; Romdhane, Lotfi

    2017-10-01

    This paper deals with the robust safety design optimization of a rail vehicle system moving in short radius curved tracks. A combined multi-objective imperialist competitive algorithm and Monte Carlo method is developed and used for the robust multi-objective optimization of the rail vehicle system. This robust optimization of rail vehicle safety considers simultaneously the derailment angle and its standard deviation where the design parameters uncertainties are considered. The obtained results showed that the robust design reduces significantly the sensitivity of the rail vehicle safety to the design parameters uncertainties compared to the determinist one and to the literature results.

  13. Application of objective provision tree to development of standard review plan for sodium-cooled fast reactor nuclear design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Moo-Hoon; Suh, Namduk; Choi, Yongwon; Shin, Andong [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    A systematic methodology was developed for the standard review plan for sodium-cooled fast reactor nuclear design. The process is first to develop an objective provision tree of sodium-cooled fast reactor for the reactivity control safety function. The provision tree is generally developed by designer to confirm whether the design satisfies the defense-in-depth concept. Then applicability of the current standard review plan of nuclear design for light water reactor to sodium-cooled fast reactor was evaluated and complemented by the developed objective provision tree.

  14. Design study of primary ion provider for relativistic heavy ion collider electron beam ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, K; Kanesue, T; Tamura, J; Okamura, M

    2010-02-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory has developed the new preinjector system, electron beam ion source (EBIS) for relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Radiation Laboratory. Design of primary ion provider is an essential problem since it is required to supply beams with different ion species to multiple users simultaneously. The laser ion source with a defocused laser can provide a low charge state and low emittance ion beam, and is a candidate for the primary ion source for RHIC-EBIS. We show a suitable design with appropriate drift length and solenoid, which helps to keep sufficient total charge number with longer pulse length. The whole design of primary ion source, as well as optics arrangement, solid targets configuration and heating about target, is presented.

  15. Restructuring of burnup sensitivity analysis code system by using an object-oriented design approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenji, Yokoyama; Makoto, Ishikawa; Masahiro, Tatsumi; Hideaki, Hyoudou

    2005-01-01

    A new burnup sensitivity analysis code system was developed with help from the object-oriented technique and written in Python language. It was confirmed that they are powerful to support complex numerical calculation procedure such as reactor burnup sensitivity analysis. The new burnup sensitivity analysis code system PSAGEP was restructured from a complicated old code system and reborn as a user-friendly code system which can calculate the sensitivity coefficients of the nuclear characteristics considering multicycle burnup effect based on the generalized perturbation theory (GPT). A new encapsulation framework for conventional codes written in Fortran was developed. This framework supported to restructure the software architecture of the old code system by hiding implementation details and allowed users of the new code system to easily calculate the burnup sensitivity coefficients. The framework can be applied to the other development projects since it is carefully designed to be independent from PSAGEP. Numerical results of the burnup sensitivity coefficient of a typical fast breeder reactor were given with components based on GPT and the multicycle burnup effects on the sensitivity coefficient were discussed. (authors)

  16. Design and implementation of an XML based object-oriented detector description database for CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liendl, M.

    2003-04-01

    This thesis deals with the development of a detector description database (DDD) for the compact muon solenoid (CMS) experiment at the large hadron collider (LHC) located at the European organization for nuclear research (CERN). DDD is a fundamental part of the CMS offline software with its main applications, simulation and reconstruction. Both are in need of different models of the detector in order to efficiently solve their specific tasks. In the thesis the requirements to a detector description database are analyzed and the chosen solution is described in detail. It comprises the following components: an XML based detector description language, a runtime system that implements an object-oriented transient representation of the detector, and an application programming interface to be used by client applications. One of the main aspects of the development is the design of the DDD components. The starting point is a domain model capturing concisely the characteristics of the problem domain. The domain model is transformed into several implementation models according to the guidelines of the model driven architecture (MDA). Implementation models and appropriate refinements thereof are foundation for adequate implementations. Using the MDA approach, a fully functional prototype was realized in C++ and XML. The prototype was successfully tested through seamless integration into both the simulation and the reconstruction framework of CMS. (author)

  17. Data Quality Objectives Process for Designation of K-Basins Debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WESTCOTT, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has developed a schedule and approach for the removal of spent fuels, sludge, and debris from the K East (KE) and K West (KW) Basins, located in the 100 Area at the Hanford Site. The project that is the subject of this data quality objective (DQO) process is focused on the removal of debris from the K Basins and onsite disposal of the debris at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). This material previously has been dispositioned at the Hanford Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBGs) or Central Waste Complex (CWC). The goal of this DQO process and the resulting Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) is to provide the strategy for characterizing and designating the K-Basin debris to determine if it meets the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), Revision 3 (BHI 1998). A critical part of the DQO process is to agree on regulatory and WAC interpretation, to support preparation of the DQO workbook and SAP

  18. The Life Journeys Of Young Women Project: objectives, design, and recruitment results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Emily J; Giles, Lynne C; Davies, Michael J; Moore, Vivienne M

    2011-07-01

    The Life Journeys of Young Women Project is the first population-based study to examine the role of economic uncertainty throughout early adulthood on age at first childbirth. A retrospective cross-sectional component was added to an existing cohort study that is based on a birth cohort of women born during 1973-1975 in Adelaide, South Australia (n ∼ 1,000). An event history calendar instrument was used to obtain data regarding a range of life domains including partnering, educational attainment, home ownership, higher education debt, employment, and pregnancies over a 20-year period (sometimes as detailed as at monthly intervals). Interviews were conducted between 2007 and 2009. An analysis framework applying time-varying and time-constant survival analysis techniques within a life-course framework was developed that will guide analyses to examine the role of duration and life-course timing of economic uncertainty on age at first childbirth. This paper discusses study objectives and design, fieldwork procedures, planned statistical analyses, and recruitment outcomes, focusing on novel features that would facilitate analogous epidemiologic research.

  19. An experimental analysis of design choices of multi-objective ant colony optimization algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Ibanez, Manuel; Stutzle, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    There have been several proposals on how to apply the ant colony optimization (ACO) metaheuristic to multi-objective combinatorial optimization problems (MOCOPs). This paper proposes a new formulation of these multi-objective ant colony optimization (MOACO) algorithms. This formulation is based on adding specific algorithm components for tackling multiple objectives to the basic ACO metaheuristic. Examples of these components are how to represent multiple objectives using pheromone and heuris...

  20. Science Objectives and Design of the European Seas Observatory NETwork (ESONET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, H.; Géli, L.; Karstensen, J.; Colaço, A.; Lampitt, R.; Greinert, J.; Phannkuche, O.; Auffret, Y.

    2009-04-01

    important feedbacks of potential ecological change be on biogeochemical cycles? What are the factors that control the distribution and abundance of marine life and what will the influence of anthropogenic change be? We will outline a set of science objectives and observation parameters to be collected at all ESONET sites, as well as a set of rather specific objectives and thus parameters that might only be measured at some sites. We will also present the preliminary module specifications now being considered by ESONET. In a practical sense the observatory design has been divided into those that will be included in a so called ‘generic' module and those that will be part of science-specific modules. Outlining preliminary module specifications is required to move forward with studies of observatory design and operation. These specifications are importantly provisional and can be updated as science needs and feasibility change. A functional cleavage not only comes between aspects that are considered generic or specific, but also the settings in which those systems will be used. For example, some modules will be on the seabed and some will be moored in the water column. In order to address many of the questions posed above ESONET users will require other supporting data from other programs from local to international levels. Examples of these other data sources include satellite oceanographic data, climatic data, air-sea interface data, and the known distribution and abundances of marine fauna. Thus the connection of ESONET to other programs is integral to its success. The development of ESONET provides a substantial opportunity for ocean science to evolve in Europe. Furthermore, ESONET and several other developing ocean observatory programs are integrating into larger science frameworks including the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and Global Monitoring of Environment and Security (GMES) programs. It is only in a greater integrated framework that the full

  1. Object methods of analysis and design: presentation of U R L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objects invaded the world of data processing, and there is no field which did not feel their effects. The object approach originates in the programming object, whose languages Smalltalk and C++ are the most known representatives. Thereafter, its application spread with many fields such as the software genius, the left again ...

  2. Design of mechanism of a robot's hand grabbing special curved surface object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Fan; Wang Fagen

    2001-01-01

    A robot paw structure for capturing especial arc face object is introduced. The authors explain the paw institution of capturing, revising and holding of position posture, pressing and locking of position, preventing the object from falling down and numbering method of revising the object

  3. Thermal design and technical economical and environmental analyses of a hydrogen fired multi-objective cogeneration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durmaz, A; Yilmazoglu, M. Z.; Pasoglu, A.

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 85% of rapidly increasing world energy demand is supplied by fossil fuels. Extreme usage of fossil fuels causes serious global warming and environmental problems in form of air, soil and water pollutions. The period, in which fossil fuel reserves are decreasing, energy costs are increasing rapidly and new energy sources and technologies do not exist on the horizon, can be called as the expensive and critical energy period. Hydrogen becomes a matter of primary importance as a candidate energy source and carrier in the critical energy period and beyond to solve the energy and environmental problems radically. In this respect, the main obstacle for the use of hydrogen is the high cost of hydrogen production, which is expected to be decreased in the feature. The aim of this study is to examine how hydrogen energy will be able to be integrated with the existing energy substructure with technical and economical dimensions. In this sense, a multi objective hydrogen fired gas turbine cogeneration system is designed and optimized. Technical and economical analyses depending on the load conditions and different hydrogen production cost are carried out. It is possible that the co-generated heat is to be marketed for residence and industrial plants in the surrounding at or under market prices. The produced electricity however can only be sold to the public grid at a high unit support price which is only obtainable in case of the development of new energy technologies. This price should however be kept within the nowadays supportable energy price range. The main mechanism to be used during the design stage of the system to achieve this goal is to decrease the amortization and operational costs which lead to decrease investment and fuel costs and to increase the system load factor and co-generated heat revenues

  4. Irreversibility analysis for optimization design of plate fin heat exchangers using a multi-objective cuckoo search algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhe; Li, Yanzhong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The first application of IMOCS for plate-fin heat exchanger design. • Irreversibility degrees of heat transfer and fluid friction are minimized. • Trade-off of efficiency, total cost and pumping power is achieved. • Both EGM and EDM methods have been compared in the optimization of PFHE. • This study has superiority over other single-objective optimization design. - Abstract: This paper introduces and applies an improved multi-objective cuckoo search (IMOCS) algorithm, a novel met-heuristic optimization algorithm based on cuckoo breeding behavior, for the multi-objective optimization design of plate-fin heat exchangers (PFHEs). A modified irreversibility degree of the PFHE is separated into heat transfer and fluid friction irreversibility degrees which are adopted as two initial objective functions to be minimized simultaneously for narrowing the search scope of the design. The maximization efficiency, minimization of pumping power, and total annual cost are considered final objective functions. Results obtained from a two dimensional normalized Pareto-optimal frontier clearly demonstrate the trade-off between heat transfer and fluid friction irreversibility. Moreover, a three dimensional Pareto-optimal frontier reveals a relationship between efficiency, total annual cost, and pumping power in the PFHE design. Three examples presented here further demonstrate that the presented method is able to obtain optimum solutions with higher accuracy, lower irreversibility, and fewer iterations as compared to the previous methods and single-objective design approaches

  5. Interim design status and operational report for remote handling fixtures: primary and secondary burners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgoyne, R.M.

    1976-12-01

    The HTGR reprocessing flowsheet consists of two basic process elements: (1) spent fuel crushing and burning and (2) solvent extraction. Fundamental to these elements is the design and development of specialized process equipment and support facilities. A major consideration of this design and development program is equipment maintenance: specifically, the design and demonstration of selected remote maintenance capabilities and the integration of these into process equipment design. This report documents the current status of the development of remote handling and maintenance fixtures for the primary and secondary burners

  6. Information about the weight of grasped objects from vision and internal models interacts within the primary motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Morrison N; Kirsch, Louise; Rothwell, John C; Lemon, Roger N; Davare, Marco

    2010-05-19

    When grasping and lifting different objects, visual cues and previously acquired knowledge enable us to prepare the upcoming grasp by scaling the fingertip forces according to the actual weight of the object. However, when no visual information is available, the weight of the object has to be predicted based on information learned from previous grasps. Here, we investigated how changes in corticospinal excitability (CSE) and grip force scaling depend on the presence of visual cues and the weight of previously lifted objects. CSE was assessed by delivering transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) at different times before grasp of the object. In conditions in which visual information was not provided, the size of motor evoked potentials (MEP) was larger when the object lifted was preceded by a heavy relative to a light object. Interestingly, the previous lift also affected MEP amplitude when visual cues about object weight were available but only in the period immediately after object presentation (50 ms); this effect had already declined for TMS delivered 150 ms after presentation. In a second experiment, we demonstrated that these CSE changes are used by the motor system to scale grip force. This suggests that the corticospinal system stores a "sensorimotor memory" of the grasp of different objects and relies on this memory when no visual cues are present. Moreover, visual information about weight interacts with this stored representation and allows the corticospinal system to switch rapidly to a different model of predictive grasp control.

  7. Designing Observation and Modeling Systems to Inform Decisions and Policies on Freshwater Objectives in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baisden, W. T.; Ellis, T.; Rissman, C.; Moore, C.; Matthews, A.

    2016-12-01

    Declines in New Zealand's freshwater quality have led to legislation - the 2014 National Policy Statement on Freshwater Management (NPS-FM) - which requires regional governments to set "objectives" and design policies accordingly. In most regions, increases in freshwater contaminants are derived largely from intensifying agriculture and come as nitrogen, phosphorous or sediment, or a combination thereof. Here, the development and application of N and O isotopes as natural tracers for nitrate is examined as a case study, in the context of a wider hierarchy of observations such as N concentrations, flow and broader hydrochemistry used for NPS-FM implementation. The analysis of N and O isotopes in nitrate provides specific information on sources and removal processes that cannot be obtained by other measurements. Yet, despite considerable development of the technical methodology and environment-specific interpretation, application of measurements has faced barriers. Many may be typical of science in a small advanced nation with a population of 4.5 million, but others are unique due to New Zealand's limited rural population base and large diversity in physical geography, as well as a unique economic reliance on highly productive pastoral agricultural systems. Seventeen different regional governments are empowered to regulate in ways consistent with local consultation and democracy within their catchment boundaries, but with limited resources to align highly technical observational data to policies and decisions, as well as supporting models. The resulting gaps in communication and technical capability combine with a diversity of approaches to pose both challenges and opportunities for development and application of hierarchical observation systems. Success appears to lie in ensuring decision frameworks can be `mapped', so that different frameworks can be compared, and the benefits of sophisticated observations understood directly in relation to influence on regional

  8. Designing Tasks to Examine Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching Statistics for Primary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswono, T. Y. E.; Kohar, A. W.; Hartono, S.

    2018-01-01

    Mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT) is viewed as fuel resources for conducting an orchestra in a teaching and learning process. By understanding MKT, especially for primary teachers, it can predict the success of a goal of an instruction and analyze the weaknesses and improvements of it. To explore what teachers think about subject matters, pedagogical terms, and appropriate curriculum, it needs a task which can be identified the teachers’ MKT including the subject matter knowledge (SMK) and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). This study aims to design an appropriate task for exploring primary teachers’ MKT for statistics in primary school. We designed six tasks to examine 40 primary teachers’ MKT, of which each respectively represents the categories of SMK (common content knowledge (CCK) and specialised content knowledge (SCK)) and PCK (knowledge of content and students (KCS), knowledge of content and teaching (KCT), and knowledge of content and curriculum (KCC)). While MKT has much attention of numbers of scholars, we consider knowledge of content and culture (KCCl) to be hypothesized in the domains of MKT. Thus, we added one more task examining how the primary teachers used their knowledge of content (KC) regarding to MKT in statistics. Some examples of the teachers’ responses on the tasks are discussed and some refinements of MKT task in statistics for primary teachers are suggested.

  9. Effect of implant macro-design on primary stability: A prospective clinical study

    OpenAIRE

    Lozano-Carrascal, Naroa; Salom?-Coll, Oscar; Gilabert-Cerd?, Marta; Farr?-Pag?s, Nuria; Gargallo-Albiol, Jordi; Hern?ndez-Alfaro, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Background Implant restorations have become a high predictable treatment option. Several caracteristics such as surgical technique and implant design can influence the treatment outcomes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of implant macro-design on primary stability measured with resonance frequency analysis (RFA) and insertion torque (IT). Material and Methods A total of 47 implants divided in two groups: Test group (TI): 22 Tapered MIS? Seven implants; Control group...

  10. Design and implementation of visual object-oriented LOGO using Prograph

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Emily M.; Fall, Thierno

    1994-01-01

    This thesis addresses the problem of how best to teach beginning programmers the necessary skills of object oriented programming. There is no established method of introducing object oriented concepts such as encapsulation, inheritance, and polymorphism, or providing an intuitive progression from simple programs to complex problem solving. The approach was to use two commercially available programming languages which we consider exemplify good object oriented programming techniques, to teach ...

  11. Information about the weight of grasped objects from vision and from internal models interacts within the primary motor cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Morrison N; Kirsch, Louise; Rothwell, John C; Lemon, Roger N; Davare, Marco

    2010-01-01

    When grasping and lifting different objects, visual cues and previously acquired knowledge enable us to prepare the upcoming grasp by scaling the fingertip forces according to the actual weight of the object. However, when no visual information is available, the object’s weight has to be predicted based on information learned from previous grasps. Here, we investigated changes in corticospinal excitability (CSE) and grip force scaling depending on the presence of visual cues and the weight of previously lifted objects. CSE was assessed by delivering transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) at different times before grasp of the object. In conditions where visual information was not provided, the size of motor evoked potentials (MEP) was larger when the object lifted was preceded by a heavy relative to a light object. Interestingly, the previous lift also affected MEP amplitude when visual cues about object weight were available, but only in the period immediately after (50 ms) object presentation; this effect had already declined for TMS delivered 150 ms after presentation. In a second experiment, we demonstrated that these CSE changes are used by the motor system to scale grip force. This suggests that the corticospinal system stores a ‘sensorimotor memory’ of the grasp of different objects and relies on this memory when no visual cues are present. Moreover, visual information about weight interacts with this stored representation and allows the corticospinal system to switch rapidly to a different model of predictive grasp control. PMID:20484640

  12. Design and Development of a Geography Module for First-year Primary Student Teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankman, M.; van der Schee, J.; Boogaard, M.; Volman, M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the result of a design study in which a geography course was developed and tested aiming to develop the Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) of first-year primary student teachers. This resulted in a course called ‘Consciously Teaching Geography’ with characteristics as (1)

  13. Design and Development of a Geography Module for First-Year Primary Student Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankman, Marian; van der Schee, Joop; Boogaard, Marianne; Volman, Monique

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the result of a design study in which a geography course was developed and tested aiming to develop the Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) of first-year primary student teachers. This resulted in a course called "Consciously Teaching Geography" with characteristics as (1) starting from students' preconceptions and…

  14. Design considerations for primary neutron beam collimation on the Spallation Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, W.S.

    1980-09-01

    A scheme for the design of primary neutron beam collimation is presented which is based on ray diagrams. The practical application of the ideas is outlined and the influence of various constraints such as beam shutters is discussed. The ideas are illustrated with examples which include the layouts for some typical instruments. (author)

  15. Reliability and validity of the rey visual design learning test in primary school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilhelm, P.

    2004-01-01

    The Rey Visual Design Learning Test (Rey, 1964, in Spreen & Strauss, 1991) assesses immediate memory span, new learning and recognition for non-verbal material. Three studies are presented that focused on the reliability and validity of the RVDLT in primary school children. Test-retest reliability

  16. Validity of the rey visual design test in primary and secondary school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilhelm, P.; van Klink, M.; van Klink, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Rey Visual Design Learning Test (Rey, 1964, cited in Spreen & Strauss, 1991, Wilhelm, 2004) assesses immediate memory span, new learning, delayed recall and recognition for nonverbal material. Two studies are presented that focused on the construct validity of the RVDLT in primary and secondary

  17. DESIGN OF EXPERT SYSTEM AS A SUPPORT TOOL FOR EARLY DIAGNOSIS OF PRIMARY HEADACHE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahwa Arsy Azzahra

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion. The design of early detection of primary headaches with the input parameters as mentioned before derived from the raw data as electronic medical records to be analyzed based on methods Naïve Bayes classifier resulted in the decision diagnosis of migraine, cluster and TTH have accuracy values by 92 %.

  18. Health effects of freshwater bathing among primary school children; Design for a randomised exposure study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asperen IA van; Medema GJ; Havelaar AH; Borgdorff MW; CIE; MGB

    1997-01-01

    To study the health effects of bathing in freshwaters that meet current water quality standard, large epidemiological studies are needed. A design is presented of a study among primary school children, that aims to evaluate current water quality standard. The study concerns a randomised exposure

  19. 3D Projection on Physical Objects: Design Insights from Five Real Life Cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Peter; Halskov, Kim

    2011-01-01

    3D projection on physical objects is a particular kind of Augmented Reality that augments a physical object by projecting digital content directly onto it, rather than by using a mediating device, such as a mobile phone or a head- mounted display. In this paper, we present five cases in which we...

  20. Analysis and design of the SI-simulator software system for the VHTR-SI process by using the object-oriented analysis and object-oriented design methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Jiwoon; Shin, Youngjoon; Kim, Jihwan; Lee, Kiyoung; Lee, Wonjae; Chang, Jonghwa; Youn, Cheung

    2008-01-01

    The SI-simulator is an application software system that simulates the dynamic behavior of the VHTR-SI process by the use of mathematical models. Object-oriented analysis (OOA) and object-oriented design (OOD) methodologies were employed for the SI simulator system development. OOA is concerned with developing software engineering requirements and specifications that are expressed as a system's object model (which is composed of a population of interacting objects), as opposed to the traditional data or functional views of systems. OOD techniques are useful for the development of large complex systems. Also, OOA/OOD methodology is usually employed to maximize the reusability and extensibility of a software system. In this paper, we present a design feature for the SI simulator software system by the using methodologies of OOA and OOD

  1. Design a Solid Waste Management Course for Primary School focus on Reduce-Reuse-Recycle : Project: WastED – Export of Education, Waste Management - Target market: Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Linh

    2014-01-01

    This product-oriented Bachelor’s thesis looks at waste-management education in primary schools. The primary objective of the study was to design a basic wastemanagement course, concisely packed in a booklet, ready-to-use for teachers and trainers. The outcome of the thesis, the booklet (content of the course) is expected to be used as one of the materials for the WastED project – Export of Education in Waste Management. The study is made up of theory sections and a product design se...

  2. Towards controlled innovation of complex objects. : A sociotechnical approach to describing ship design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bruinessen, T.M.

    2016-01-01

    Within the ship design industry, and in particular in the development of large, complex and innovative vessels experienced ship designers play an important role in organizing and structuring the design process. How this actually happens within projects that develop such large, complex and

  3. Pruning techniques for multi-objective system-level design space exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piscitelli, R.

    2014-01-01

    System-level design space exploration (DSE), which is performed early in the design process, is of eminent importance to the design of complex multi-processor embedded system architectures. During system-level DSE, system parameters like, e.g., the number and type of processors, the type and size of

  4. Design evaluation of the 40-cm (16-inch) primary burner system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rode, J.S.

    1977-06-01

    An evaluation is given of the design of the existing 40-cm (16-in.) engineering-scale primary burner system in the HTGR reprocessing cold pilot plant at General Atomic Co. The purpose of this evaluation is to assess the suitability of the existing design as a prototype of the HTGR Recycle Demonstration Facility (HRDF) primary burner system and to recommend alternatives where the existing design is thought to be unsuitable as a prototype. This evaluation has led to recommendations for the parallel development of two integrated design concepts for a prototype primary burner system. One concept utilizes the existing burner heating and cooling sub-systems in order to minimize development risk, but simplifies a number of other features associated with remote maintenance and burner operation. The other concept, which offers maximum cost reduction, utilizes direct contact hot gas heating and internal gas cooling of the burner, but requires considerable development to reduce the risk to acceptable limits. These concepts, as well as other design alternatives, are described and evaluated

  5. Associations of object control motor skill proficiency, game play competence, physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness among primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrew; Eather, Narelle; Duncan, Mitch; Lubans, David Revalds

    2018-06-18

    This study investigated if object control relates to children's game play competence, and examined these competencies as correlates of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness. Game play (Game Performance Assessment Instrument), object control (The Test Gross Motor Development-3), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (Accelerometry), and cardiorespiratory fitness (20-metre shuttle) assessments were completed for 107 children (57% Female, 43% Male) aged 9-12 years (M 10.53, SD 0.65). Two-level regression of object control on game play competence, and object control and game play competence on physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness assessed associations. Object control competence was positively associated with game play competence (Std. B = 0.25, t (104.77) = 2.38, p = 0.001). Game play competence (Std. B = 0.33, t (99.81) = 5.21, p competence (Std. B = 0.20, t (106.93) = 2.96, p = 0.003). Likewise, game competence (Std. B = 0.39, t (104.41) = 4.36, p fitness than object control competence (Std. B = 0.22, t (106.69) = 2.63, p = 0.002). Object control and game competence are both important as correlates of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in children.

  6. CICERO: research in the design of software for control systems using the object oriented techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barillere, R [and others

    1996-12-31

    CICERO is a collaborative project between industrial companies and research institutes to study the use of object-oriented techniques for needs of complex control systems. The CICERO project is realized in the COBRA standard. 19 refs.

  7. Association between self-reported and objectively measured physical fitness level in a middle-aged population in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstine H. Obling

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: A single-item question is a cost-effective way of measuring physical fitness level, but the method has low association and fair agreement when compared to the Aastrand test. Men tend to overestimate physical fitness more than women, which should be accounted for if using the question in primary care settings.

  8. Design on Hygrometry System of Primary Coolant Circuit of HTR-PM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yanfei; Zhong Shuoping; Huang Xiaojin

    2014-01-01

    Helium is the primary coolant in HTR-PM. If vapor get into the helium in primary coolant circuit because of some special reasons, such as the broken of steam-generator tube, chemical reaction will take effect between the graphite in reactor core and vapor in primary coolant circuit, and the safety of the reactor operation will be influenced. So the humidity of the helium in primary coolant circuit is one key parameter of HTR-PM to be monitored in-line. Once the humidity is too high, trigger signal of turning off the reactor must be issued. The hygrometry system of HTR-PM is consisting of filter, cooler, hygrometry sensor, flow meter, and some valves and tube. Helium with temperature of 250℃ is lead into the hygrometry system from the outlet of the main helium blower. After measuring, the helium is re-injected back to the primary circuit. No helium loses in this processing, and no other pump is needed. Key factors and calculations in design on hygrometry system of HTR-PM are described. A sample instrument has been made. Results of experiments proves that this hygrometry system is suitable for monitoring the humidity of the primary coolant of HTR-PM. (author)

  9. Components of the LWR primary circuit. Pt. 2. Design, construction and calculation. Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This standard is to be applied to components made of metallic materials, operated at design temperatures of up to 673 K (400 deg C). The primary circuit as the pressure containment of the reactor coolant comprises: Reactor pressure vessel (without internals), steam generator (primary loop), pressurizer, reactor coolant pump housing, interconnecting pipings between the components mentioned above and appropriate various valve and instrument casings, pipings branding from the above components and interconnecting pipings, including the appropriate instrument casings, up to and including the first isolating valve, pressure shielding of control rod drives. (orig.) [de

  10. Towards controlled innovation of complex objects.: A sociotechnical approach to describing ship design

    OpenAIRE

    van Bruinessen, T.M.

    2016-01-01

    Within the ship design industry, and in particular in the development of large, complex and innovative vessels experienced ship designers play an important role in organizing and structuring the design process. How this actually happens within projects that develop such large, complex and innovative vessels for a single client is not clear. This observation lead to a broad, initial research question as the starting point for further research. How are innovative, large and complex vessels deve...

  11. First Simulations of Designing Stratospheric Sulfate Aerosol Geoengineering to Meet Multiple Simultaneous Climate Objectives: DESIGNING STRATOSPHERIC GEOENGINEERING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravitz, Ben [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; MacMartin, Douglas G. [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca NY USA; Department of Computing and Mathematical Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena CA USA; Mills, Michael J. [Atmospheric Chemistry, Observations, and Modeling Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder CO USA; Richter, Jadwiga H. [Climate and Global Dynamics Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder CO USA; Tilmes, Simone [Atmospheric Chemistry, Observations, and Modeling Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder CO USA; Climate and Global Dynamics Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder CO USA; Lamarque, Jean-Francois [Atmospheric Chemistry, Observations, and Modeling Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder CO USA; Tribbia, Joseph J. [Climate and Global Dynamics Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder CO USA; Vitt, Francis [Atmospheric Chemistry, Observations, and Modeling Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder CO USA

    2017-12-07

    We describe the first simulations of stratospheric sulfate aerosol geoengineering using multiple injection locations to meet multiple simultaneous surface temperature objectives. Simulations were performed using CESM1(WACCM), a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model with fully interactive stratospheric chemistry, dynamics (including an internally generated quasi-biennial oscillation), and a sophisticated treatment of sulfate aerosol formation, microphysical growth, and deposition. The objectives are defined as maintaining three temperature features at their 2020 levels against a background of the RCP8.5 scenario over the period 2020-2099. These objectives are met using a feedback mechanism in which the rate of sulfur dioxide injection at each of the four locations is adjusted independently every year of simulation. Even in the presence of uncertainties, nonlinearities, and variability, the objectives are met, predominantly by SO2 injection at 30°N and 30°S. By the last year of simulation, the feedback algorithm calls for a total injection rate of 51 Tg SO2 per year. The injections are not in the tropics, which results in a greater degree of linearity of the surface climate response with injection amount than has been found in many previous studies using injection at the equator. Because the objectives are defined in terms of annual mean temperature, the required geeongineering results in "overcooling" during summer and "undercooling" during winter. The hydrological cycle is also suppressed as compared to the reference values corresponding to the year 2020. The demonstration we describe in this study is an important step toward understanding what geoengineering can do and what it cannot do.

  12. Design of SCADA water resource management control center by a bi-objective redundancy allocation problem and particle swarm optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolatshahi-Zand, Ali; Khalili-Damghani, Kaveh

    2015-01-01

    SCADA is an essential system to control critical facilities in big cities. SCADA is utilized in several sectors such as water resource management, power plants, electricity distribution centers, traffic control centers, and gas deputy. The failure of SCADA results in crisis. Hence, the design of SCADA system in order to serve a high reliability considering limited budget and other constraints is essential. In this paper, a bi-objective redundancy allocation problem (RAP) is proposed to design Tehran's SCADA water resource management control center. Reliability maximization and cost minimization are concurrently considered. Since the proposed RAP is a non-linear multi-objective mathematical programming so the exact methods cannot efficiently handle it. A multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) algorithm is designed to solve it. Several features such as dynamic parameter tuning, efficient constraint handling and Pareto gridding are inserted in proposed MOPSO. The results of proposed MOPSO are compared with an efficient ε-constraint method. Several non-dominated designs of SCADA system are generated using both methods. Comparison metrics based on accuracy and diversity of Pareto front are calculated for both methods. The proposed MOPSO algorithm reports better performance. Finally, in order to choose the practical design, the TOPSIS algorithm is used to prune the Pareto front. - Highlights: • Multi-objective redundancy allocation problem (MORAP) is proposed to design SCADA system. • Multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) is proposed to solve MORAP. • Efficient epsilon-constraint method is adapted to solve MORAP. • Non-dominated solutions are generated on Pareto front of MORAP by both methods. • Several multi-objective metrics are calculated to compare the performance of methods

  13. Multi-objective and multidisciplinary design optimization of large sports building envelopes : A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, D.; Sun, Y.; Turrin, M.; von Buelow, P.; Paul, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, in the conceptual envelope design of sports facilities, multiple engineering performance feedbacks (e.g. daylight, energy and structural performance) are expected to assist architectural design decision-making. In general, it is known as Building Performance Optimization in the conceptual

  14. A Multi-Objective Harmony Search Algorithm for Sustainable Design of Floating Settlements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cubukcuoglu, Cemre; Chatzikonstantinou, I.; Tasgetiren, Mehmet Fatih; Sariyildiz, I.S.; Pan, Q.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the application of computational intelligence techniques to the conceptual design and development of a large-scale floating settlement. The settlement in question is a design for the area of Urla, which is a rural touristic region located on the west coast of Turkey,

  15. A Multi-Objective Harmony Search Algorithm for Sustainable Design of Floating Settlements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Çubukçuoglu, C.; Chatzikonstantinou, I.; Tasgetiren, Mehmet Fatih; Sariyildiz, I.S.; Pan, Quan-Ke

    2016-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the application of computational intelligence techniques to the conceptual design and development of a large-scale floating settlement. The settlement in question is a design for the area of Urla, which is a rural touristic region located on the west coast of Turkey,

  16. Mixed reality system and objective ergonomics evaluation for designing work stations in manufacturing industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhijn, J.W. van; Bosch, T.; Looze, M.P. de

    2011-01-01

    Due to shorter productlife cycles in manufacturing industry there is a lot of pressure on the process of designing new work systems. Early attention for human factors would lower the costs compared to changes at a later stage. Low cost tools for workstations design could help especially small to

  17. Association between self-reported and objectively measured physical fitness level in a middle-aged population in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obling, Kirstine H.; Hansen, Anne-Louise Smidt; Overgaard, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    fitness level were cross-tabulated and agreement was quantified by Kappa statistics. Gender differences within categories were investigated by Poisson regression. RESULTS: Data from 996 men and 1017 women were analyzed (excluded, n = 303). In both men and women a higher self-reported fitness level......AIM: To investigate the association between self-reported physical fitness level obtained by a single-item question and objectively measured fitness level in 30- to 49-year-old men and women. METHODS: From the Danish 'Check Your Health Preventive Program' 2013-2014 fitness level was assessed...... in 2316 participants using the Aastrand test. Additionally, participants rated their physical fitness as high, good, average, fair or low. The association of self-reported- with objectively measured fitness level was analyzed by linear regression. Categories of self-reported- and objectively measured...

  18. Sustainable and Resilient Garment Supply Chain Network Design with Fuzzy Multi-Objectives under Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Irshad Mari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Researchers and practitioners are taking more interest in developing sustainable garment supply chains in recent times. On the other hand, the supply chain manager drops sustainability objectives while coping with unexpected natural and man-made disruption risks. Hence, supply chain managers are now trying to develop sustainable supply chains that are simultaneously resilient enough to cope with disruption risks. Owing to the importance of the considered issue, this study proposed a network optimization model for a sustainable and resilient supply chain network by considering sustainability via embodied carbon footprints and carbon emissions and resilience by considering resilience index. In this paper, initially, a possibilistic fuzzy multi-objective sustainable and resilient supply chain network model is developed for the garment industry considering economic, sustainable, and resilience objectives. Secondly, a possibilistic fuzzy linguistic weight-based interactive solution method is proposed. Finally, a numerical case example is presented to show the applicability of the proposed model and solution methodology.

  19. OoTran, an object-oriented program for charged-particle beam transport design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninane, A.; Ferte, J.M.; Mareschal, P.; Sibomana, M.; Somers, F.

    1990-01-01

    The OoTran program is a new object-oriented program for charged-particle beam transport computation. Using a simple menu interface, the user builds his beam line with magnetic and electric elements taken from a standard library. The program computes the beam transport using a well-known first-order matrix formalism and displays 'in real time' the computed beam envelope. The menu editor provides functions to interactively modify the beam line. Ootran is written in C++ and uses two object libraries: OOPS, the Object-Oriented Program Support Class Library, which is a collection of classes similar to those of Smalltalk-80; and InterViews, a C++ graphical-interface toolkit based on the X-Window system. OoTran is running on DECstation 3100, VAXstation 2000 and SUN 3, with the ULTRIX and SUN OS operating systems. (orig.)

  20. Effect of implant macro-design on primary stability: A prospective clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Carrascal, Naroa; Salomó-Coll, Oscar; Gilabert-Cerdà, Marta; Farré-Pagés, Nuria; Gargallo-Albiol, Jordi; Hernández-Alfaro, Federico

    2016-03-01

    Implant restorations have become a high predictable treatment option. Several caracteristics such as surgical technique and implant design can influence the treatment outcomes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of implant macro-design on primary stability measured with resonance frequency analysis (RFA) and insertion torque (IT). Material and Mehods: A total of 47 implants divided in two groups: Test group (TI): 22 Tapered MIS® Seven implants; Control group (CI): 25 cylindrical Astra® Osseospeed implants. All implants were inserted following the manufacturers' standard protocols. Implant primary stability was measured at the moment of implant placement by registering insertion torque values (ITv) and ISQ values by means of Osstell™ Mentor (ISQv) (Integration Diagnostic Ltd., Goteborg, Sweden). In the mandible, mean ISQv for tapered implants (TI) was 71.67±5.16 and for cylindrical implants (CI) 57.15±4.83 (p=0.01). Mean insertion torque was 46.67±6.85 Ncm for TI and 35.77±6.72 Ncm for CI (p=0.01). In the maxilla, mean ISQ was 67.2±4.42 for tapered implants and 49.17±15.30 for cylindrical implants (p=0.01). Mean insertion torque for TI was 41.5±6.26 Ncm and for CI 39.17±6.34 Ncm (p>0.05). For tapered implants, no correlation could be found between implant diameter and primary stability. But for cylindrical implants there was a statistically significant correlation between implant diameter and primary stability: ITv (p=0.03); ISQv (p=0.04). Within the limits of the present study, tapered shaped implants achieve higher primary stability measured through ISQ and insertion torque values. Moreover, for cylindrical implants positive correlation has been established between implant diameter and primary stability.

  1. [Design of a supervision model for administration of the Child Development Evaluation Test at primary care facilities in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villasís-Keever, Miguel Ángel; Rizzoli-Córdoba, Antonio; Delgado-Ginebra, Ismael; Mares-Serratos, Blanca Berenice; Martell-Valdez, Liliana; Sánchez-Velázquez, Olivia; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia; O'Shea-Cuevas, Gabriel; Aceves-Villagrán, Daniel; Carrasco-Mendoza, Joaquín; Antillón-Ocampo, Fátima Adriana; Villagrán-Muñoz, Víctor Manuel; Halley-Castillo, Elizabeth; Baqueiro-Hernández, César Iván; Pizarro-Castellanos, Mariel; Martain-Pérez, Itzamara Jacqueline; Palma-Tavera, Josuha Alexander; Vargas-López, Guillermo; Muñoz-Hernández, Onofre

    The Child Development Evaluation (CDE) test designed and validated in Mexico has been used as a screening tool for developmental problems in primary care facilities across Mexico. Heterogeneous results were found among those states where these were applied, despite using the same standardized training model for application. The objective was to evaluate a supervision model for quality of application of the CDE test at primary care facilities. A study was carried out in primary care facilities from three Mexican states to evaluate concordance of the results between supervisor and primary care personnel who administered the test using two different methods: direct observation (shadow study) or reapplication of the CDE test (consistency study). There were 380 shadow studies applied to 51 psychologists. General concordance of the shadow study was 86.1% according to the supervisor: green 94.5%, yellow 73.2% and red 80.0%. There were 302 re-test evaluations with a concordance of 88.1% (n=266): green 96.8%, yellow 71.7% and red 81.8%. There were no differences between CDE test subgroups by age. Both shadow and re-test study were adequate for the evaluation of the quality of the administration of the CDE Test and may be useful as a model of supervision in primary care facilities. The decision of which test to use relies on the availability of supervisors. Copyright © 2015 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  2. Design and test of ASME strainer for primary cooling system in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yong-Chul; Ryu, Jeong-Soo

    1999-01-01

    The ASME strainers have been newly installed at the suction side of each reactor coolant pump to get rid of the foreign materials which may damage the pump impeller or interfere with the coolant path of fuel flow tube or primary plate type heat exchanger. The strainer was designed in accordance with ASME SEC. III, DIV. 1, ND and the structural integrity was verified by seismic analysis. The screen was designed in accordance with the effective void area from the result of flow analysis for T-type strainer. After installation of the strainer, it was confirmed through the field test that the flow characteristics of primary cooling system were not adversely affected. The pressure loss coefficient was calculated by Darcy equation using the pressure difference through each strainer and the flow rate measured during the strainer performance test. And these are useful data to predict flow variations by the pressure difference. (author)

  3. Learning Mathematics by Designing, Programming, and Investigating with Interactive, Dynamic Computer-Based Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Neil; Buteau, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    As part of their undergraduate mathematics curriculum, students at Brock University learn to create and use computer-based tools with dynamic, visual interfaces, called Exploratory Objects, developed for the purpose of conducting pure or applied mathematical investigations. A student's Development Process Model of creating and using an Exploratory…

  4. A Model for the Design of Puzzle-Based Games Including Virtual and Physical Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melero, Javier; Hernandez-Leo, Davinia

    2014-01-01

    Multiple evidences in the Technology-Enhanced Learning domain indicate that Game-Based Learning can lead to positive effects in students' performance and motivation. Educational games can be completely virtual or can combine the use of physical objects or spaces in the real world. However, the potential effectiveness of these approaches…

  5. COORDINATED LOCATION, DISTRIBUTION AND INVENTORY DECISIONS IN SUPPLY CHAIN NETWORK DESIGN: A MULTI-OBJECTIVE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Reza Nasiri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This research presents an integrated multi-objective distribution model for use in simultaneous strategic and operational food supply chain (SC planning. The proposed method is adopted to allow use of a performance measurement system that includes conflicting objectives such as distribution costs, customer service level (safety stock holding, resource utilisation, and the total delivery time, with reference to multiple warehouse capacities and uncertain forecast demands. To deal with these objectives and enable the decision makers (DMs to evaluate a greater number of alternative solutions, three different approaches are implemented in the proposed solution procedure. A detailed case study derived from food industrial data is used to illustrate the preference of the proposed approach. The proposed method yields an efficient solution and an overall degree of DMs’ satisfaction with the determined objective values.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die navorsing behandel ’n geïntegreerde multidoelwit distribusiemodel vir strategiese beplanning van ’n voedseltoevoerketting. Om met die model doelmatig te werk, moet ’n versameling van randvoorwaardes hanteer word om die saamgestelde optimiseringsdoelwit te bereik teen ’n agtergrond van uiteenlopende sienings.

  6. Design and Use of a Learning Object for Finding Complex Polynomial Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, Julio; Gimenez, Marcos H.; Hueso, Jose L.; Martinez, Eulalia; Riera, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Complex numbers are essential in many fields of engineering, but students often fail to have a natural insight of them. We present a learning object for the study of complex polynomials that graphically shows that any complex polynomials has a root and, furthermore, is useful to find the approximate roots of a complex polynomial. Moreover, we…

  7. A Learning Research Informed Design and Evaluation of a Web-Enhanced Object Oriented Programming Seminar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgantaki, Stavroula C.; Retalis, Symeon D.

    2007-01-01

    "Object-Oriented Programming" subject is included in the ACM Curriculum Guidelines for Undergraduate and Graduate Degree Programs in Computer Science as well as in Curriculum for K-12 Computer Science. In a few research studies learning problems and difficulties have been recorded, and therefore, specific pedagogical guidelines and…

  8. Designing Learning Object Repositories as Systems for Managing Educational Communities Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Demetrios G.; Zervas, Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    Over the past years, a number of international initiatives that recognize the importance of sharing and reusing digital educational resources among educational communities through the use of Learning Object Repositories (LORs) have emerged. Typically, these initiatives focus on collecting digital educational resources that are offered by their…

  9. Agent And Component Object Framework For Concept Design Modeling Of Mobile Cyber Physical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    base design, service-oriented architecture (SOA) and enterprise architecture , brought a new emphasis on business processes and business organization...there are some useful concepts that can be leveraged into an MIGVS architecture . The concept of modeling operational or business behavior logic as...Design 1. Explicit meta model for architecture concepts and relationships 2. Support business or operational modeling and associated events 3

  10. First Simulations of Designing Stratospheric Sulfate Aerosol Geoengineering to Meet Multiple Simultaneous Climate Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravitz, Ben; MacMartin, Douglas G.; Mills, Michael J.; Richter, Jadwiga H.; Tilmes, Simone; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Tribbia, Joseph J.; Vitt, Francis

    2017-12-01

    We describe the first simulations of stratospheric sulfate aerosol geoengineering using multiple injection locations to meet multiple simultaneous surface temperature objectives. Simulations were performed using CESM1(WACCM), a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model with fully interactive stratospheric chemistry, dynamics (including an internally generated quasi-biennial oscillation), and a sophisticated treatment of sulfate aerosol formation, microphysical growth, and deposition. The objectives are defined as maintaining three temperature features at their 2020 levels against a background of the RCP8.5 scenario over the period 2020-2099. These objectives are met using a feedback mechanism in which the rate of sulfur dioxide injection at each of the four locations is adjusted independently every year of simulation. Even in the presence of uncertainties, nonlinearities, and variability, the objectives are met, predominantly by SO2 injection at 30°N and 30°S. By the last year of simulation, the feedback algorithm calls for a total injection rate of 51 Tg SO2 per year. The injections are not in the tropics, which results in a greater degree of linearity of the surface climate response with injection amount than has been found in many previous studies using injection at the equator. Because the objectives are defined in terms of annual mean temperature, the required geongineering results in "overcooling" during summer and "undercooling" during winter. The hydrological cycle is also suppressed as compared to the reference values corresponding to the year 2020. The demonstration we describe in this study is an important step toward understanding what geoengineering can do and what it cannot do.

  11. An Ethnographically Informed Participatory Design of Primary Healthcare Information Technology in a Developing Country Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shidende, Nima Herman; Igira, Faraja Teddy; Mörtberg, Christina Margaret

    2017-01-01

    Ethnography, with its emphasis on understanding activities where they occur, and its use of qualitative data gathering techniques rich in description, has a long tradition in Participatory Design (PD). Yet there are limited methodological insights in its application in developing countries. This paper proposes an ethnographically informed PD approach, which can be applied when designing Primary Healthcare Information Technology (PHIT). We use findings from a larger multidisciplinary project, Health Information Systems Project (HISP) to elaborate how ethnography can be used to facilitate participation of health practitioners in developing countries settings as well as indicating the importance of ethnographic approach to participatory Health Information Technology (HIT) designers. Furthermore, the paper discusses the pros and cons of using an ethnographic approach in designing HIT.

  12. Sjögren SER: National registry of the Spanish Society of Rheumatology of patients with primary Sjögren syndrome: Objectives and methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Castro, Mónica; Andreu, Jose Luis; Sánchez-Piedra, Carlos; Martínez Taboada, Víctor; Olivé, Alejandro; Rosas, José; Sánchez-Alonso, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    To describe the objectives and methods of the Spanish Society of Rheumatology primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS) registry (SJOGREN-SER) METHODS: This is a multicenter descriptive transversal study of a cohort of pSS patients fulfilling European/American consensus criteria collected from Rheumatology clinics all over Spain. Patients were included by randomisation from an anonymised list provided by every department. Data were collected by reviewing clinical records and an interviewing the patients. Two hundred and ninety eight variables were investigated: epidemiological, clinical, serological characteristics, treatments and complications. Informed consent was obtained and local ethics committees approved the study. Variables were analysed by descriptive statistical methods, using means, medians, and rates, with their deviations and interquartile ranges (p25-p75). A total of 3 rheumatology departments participated in the registry. A total of 437 patients were included. And 95% of them were women, with a median age of 58. Median age at pSS 's diagnosis was 50 years. Dryness symptoms (95%) were the most frequent complaint and anti-Ro/SS-A were present in 94% of the cases. Only 27% of the patients fulfilled the new 2012 SICCA-ACR classification criteria. SJOGREN-SER has been designed in order to characterize a representative pSS Spanish cohort, in clinical daily practice, to analyze the magnitude and distribution of its manifestations, activity, accumulated damage and therapeutic management of the disease. This will allow broadening the knowledge of this disease and plan strategies of action in pSS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  13. 10 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Numerical Guides for Design Objectives and Limiting Conditions for Operation To Meet the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... pathways and individual receptors as actually exist at the time the plant is licensed. 2. The... Reactor Effluents SECTION I. Introduction. Section 50.34a provides that an application for a construction... guides on design objectives set forth in this section may be used by an applicant for a construction...

  14. 40 CFR 33.406 - May a recipient designate a lead agency for fair share objective negotiation purposes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May a recipient designate a lead agency for fair share objective negotiation purposes? 33.406 Section 33.406 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE PARTICIPATION BY DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS ENTERPRISES IN UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL...

  15. Design and implementation of the reconstruction software for the photon multiplicity detector in object oriented programming framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhayay, Subhasis; Ghosh, Premomoy; Gupta, R.; Mishra, D.; Phatak, S.C.; Sood, G.

    2002-01-01

    High granularity photon multiplicity detector (PMD) is scheduled to take data in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collision(RHIC) this year. A detailed scheme has been designed and implemented in object oriented programming framework using C++ for the monitoring and reconstruction job of PMD data

  16. Object-oriented design and programming with C++ your hands-on guide to C++ programming, with special emphasis on design, testing, and reuse

    CERN Document Server

    Leach, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Object-Oriented Design and Programming with C++: Your Hands-On Guide to C++ Programming, with Special Emphasis on Design, Testing, and Reuse provides a list of software engineering principles to guide the software development process. This book presents the fundamentals of the C++ language.Organized into two parts encompassing 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of C++ and describes object-oriented programming and the history of C++. This text then introduces classes, polymorphism, inheritance, and overloading. Other chapters consider the C++ preprocessor and organization of class l

  17. A Bi-Objective Green Closed Loop Supply Chain Design Problem with Uncertain Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available With the development of e-commerce, competition among enterprises is becoming fiercer. Furthermore, environmental problems can no longer be ignored. To address these challenges, we devise a green closed loop supply chain (GCLSC with uncertain demand. In the problem, two conflict objectives and recycling the used products are considered. To solve this problem, a mathematical model is formulated with the chance constraint, and the ϵ -constraint method is adapted to obtain the true Pareto front for small sized problems. For larger sized problems, the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II and the multi-objective simulated annealing method (MOSA are developed. Numerous computational experiments can help manufacturers make better production and sales plans to keep competitive advantage and protect the environment.

  18. Design and selection of load control strategies using a multiple objective model and evolutionary algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Alvaro; Antunes, Carlos Henggeler; Martins, Antonio Gomes

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims at presenting a multiple objective model to evaluate the attractiveness of the use of demand resources (through load management control actions) by different stakeholders and in diverse structure scenarios in electricity systems. For the sake of model flexibility, the multiple (and conflicting) objective functions of technical, economical and quality of service nature are able to capture distinct market scenarios and operating entities that may be interested in promoting load management activities. The computation of compromise solutions is made by resorting to evolutionary algorithms, which are well suited to tackle multiobjective problems of combinatorial nature herein involving the identification and selection of control actions to be applied to groups of loads. (Author)

  19. A multi-objective optimization for brush monofilament tufting process design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Salmasnia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the optimization of monofilament tufting process as the most important and the main stage of toothbrush production in sanitary industries. In order to minimize both process time and depreciation costs, and ultimately increase the production efficiency in such an industrial unit, we propose a metaheuristic based optimization approach to solve it. The Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP is used to formulate the proposed problem. Then by using multi-objective evolutionary algorithms, NSGA-II and MOPSO, we seek to obtain the best solution and objective functions described above. Extensive computational experiments on three different kinds of toothbrush handles are performed and the results demonstrate the applicability and appropriate performance of algorithms. The comparison metrics like spacing, number of Pareto solutions, time, mean distance from the ideal solution and diversity are used to evaluate the quality of solutions. Moreover a sensitivity analysis is done for investigation of the performance in various setting of parameters.

  20. A modified multi-objective particle swarm optimization approach and its application to the design of a deepwater composite riser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Chen, J.

    2017-09-01

    A modified multi-objective particle swarm optimization method is proposed for obtaining Pareto-optimal solutions effectively. Different from traditional multi-objective particle swarm optimization methods, Kriging meta-models and the trapezoid index are introduced and integrated with the traditional one. Kriging meta-models are built to match expensive or black-box functions. By applying Kriging meta-models, function evaluation numbers are decreased and the boundary Pareto-optimal solutions are identified rapidly. For bi-objective optimization problems, the trapezoid index is calculated as the sum of the trapezoid's area formed by the Pareto-optimal solutions and one objective axis. It can serve as a measure whether the Pareto-optimal solutions converge to the Pareto front. Illustrative examples indicate that to obtain Pareto-optimal solutions, the method proposed needs fewer function evaluations than the traditional multi-objective particle swarm optimization method and the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II method, and both the accuracy and the computational efficiency are improved. The proposed method is also applied to the design of a deepwater composite riser example in which the structural performances are calculated by numerical analysis. The design aim was to enhance the tension strength and minimize the cost. Under the buckling constraint, the optimal trade-off of tensile strength and material volume is obtained. The results demonstrated that the proposed method can effectively deal with multi-objective optimizations with black-box functions.

  1. Multi-Objective Optimal Design of Renewable Energy Integrated CCHP System Using PICEA-g

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozheng Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The integration of renewable energies into combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP systems has become increasingly popular in recent years. However, the optimization of renewable energies integrated CCHP (RECCHP systems (i.e., optimal component configurations is far from being well addressed, especially in isolated mode. This study aims to fill this research gap. A multi-objective optimization model characterizing the system reliability, system cost, and environmental sustainability is constructed. In this model, the objectives include minimization of annual total cost (ATC, carbon dioxide emission (CDE, and loss of energy supply probability (LESP. The decision variables representing the configuration of the RECCHP system include the number of photovoltaic (PV panels and wind turbines (WTs, the tilt angle of PV panels, the height of WTs, the maximum fuel consumption, and the capacity of battery and heat storage tanks (HSTs. The multi-objective model is solved by a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm, namely, the preference-inspired coevolutionary algorithm (PICEA-g, resulting in a set of Pareto optimal (trade-off solutions. Then, a decision-making process is demonstrated, selecting a preferred solution amongst those trade-off solutions by further considering the decision-maker preferences. Furthermore, on the optimization of the RECCHP system, operational strategies (i.e., following electric load, FEL, and following thermal load, FTL are considered, respectively. Experimental results show that the FEL and FTL strategies lead to different optimal configurations. In general, the FTL is recommended in summer and winter, while the FEL is more suitable for spring and autumn. Compared with traditional energy systems, RECCHP has better economic and environmental advantages.

  2. Perception Of "Features" And "Objects": Applications To The Design Of Instrument Panel Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poynter, Douglas; Czarnomski, Alan J.

    1988-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine whether socalled feature displays allow for faster and more accurate processing compared to object displays. Previous psychological studies indicate that features can be processed in parallel across the visual field, whereas objects must be processed one at a time with the aid of attentional focus. Numbers and letters are examples of objects; line orientation and color are examples of features. In this experiment, subjects were asked to search displays composed of up to 16 elements for the presence of specific elements. The ability to detect, localize, and identify targets was influenced by display format. Digital errors increased with the number of elements, the number of targets, and the distance of the target from the fixation point. Line orientation errors increased only with the number of targets. Several other display types were evaluated, and each produced a pattern of errors similar to either digital or line orientation format. Results of the study were discussed in terms of Feature Integration Theory, which distinguishes between elements that are processed with parallel versus serial mechanisms.

  3. Design, Implementation and Evaluation of a Learning Object that Supports the Mathematics Learning in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Munoz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Information technologies have been widely used for entertainment and learning purposes by children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD. Nonetheless, learning objects aiming at specific skills development in children with ASD require both a well bounded learning domain and a user-centered design process, considering skill levels of the users and the local geographical context and language. “Proyect@ Matemáticas” is a multi-touch based app designed for developing pre-calculus and functional mathematical skills in children with ASD, according to the Chilean regulations of learning goals for children with special educational necessities. This paper presents the User-centered design process conducted in order to develop the learning object, which included the evaluation by 15 experts in special educational needs, testing by 10 ASD-diagnosed children with different functional levels, and a multidisciplinary development team that also included a graphic designer diagnosed with ASD of high functionality. The development process yields to a validated learning object in terms of interactivity, design, engagement, and usability, from the point of view of the experts, and successful usage tests with ASD diagnosed children in terms of performance and achievement of learning outcomes. The application is currently available for download in the Google Play store for free, and currently has more than 15,000 downloads and an average rating of 4.2 out of 5 points.

  4. To Work or Play? Junior Age Non-Fiction as Objects of Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Gemma

    2001-01-01

    Examines change and variation in the design of non-fiction texts which have a junior-age readership. Argues that different forms of presentation of non-fiction offer different ways of reading non-fiction texts, which as yet are neither fully described nor recognized. Suggests that non-fiction texts can be more or less firmly orientated towards…

  5. Whole Building Design Objectives for Campus Safety and Security: A System Dynamics Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Charles G.

    2010-01-01

    The May/June 2009 issue of "Facilities Manager" introduced APPA readers to the Whole Building Design Guide (WBDG)--today's most comprehensive Internet-based depository of resources contributing to a systems approach for everything of a building nature. The emphasis in that article was on Operations and Maintenance (O&M) issues and procedures. In…

  6. 4MOST: the 4-metre Multi-Object Spectroscopic Telescope project at preliminary design review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Roelof S.; Barden, Samuel C.; Bellido-Tirado, Olga; Brynnel, Joar G.; Frey, Steffen; Giannone, Domenico; Haynes, Roger; Johl, Diana; Phillips, Daniel; Schnurr, Olivier; Walcher, Jakob C.; Winkler, Roland; Ansorge, Wolfgang R.; Feltzing, Sofia; McMahon, Richard G.; Baker, Gabriella; Caillier, Patrick; Dwelly, Tom; Gaessler, Wolfgang; Iwert, Olaf; Mandel, Holger G.; Piskunov, Nikolai A.; Pragt, Johan H.; Walton, Nicholas A.; Bensby, Thomas; Bergemann, Maria; Chiappini, Cristina; Christlieb, Norbert; Cioni, Maria-Rosa L.; Driver, Simon; Finoguenov, Alexis; Helmi, Amina; Irwin, Michael J.; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Liske, Jochen; Merloni, Andrea; Minchev, Ivan; Richard, Johan; Starkenburg, Else

    2016-01-01

    We present an overview of the 4MOST project at the Preliminary Design Review. 4MOST is a major new wide-field, high-multiplex spectroscopic survey facility under development for the VISTA telescope of ESO. 4MOST has a broad range of science goals ranging from Galactic Archaeology and stellar physics

  7. Deep Learning Object-Recognition in a Design-to-Robotic-Production and -Operation Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu Cheng, A.; Bier, H.H.; Mostafavi, S.S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a new instance in a series of discrete proof-of-concept implementations of comprehensively intelligent built-environments based on Design-to-Robotic-Production and -Operation (D2RP&O) principles developed at Delft University of Technology (TUD). With respect to D2RP, the

  8. Developing a User Oriented Design Methodology for Learning Activities Using Boundary Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragou, ?lga; Kameas, Achilles

    2013-01-01

    International Standards in High and Open and Distance Education are used for developing Open Educational Resources (OERs). Current issues in e-learning community are the specification of learning chunks and the definition of describing designs for different units of learning (activities, units, courses) in a generic though expandable format.…

  9. Multi-objective LQR with optimum weight selection to design FOPID controllers for delayed fractional order processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saptarshi; Pan, Indranil; Das, Shantanu

    2015-09-01

    An optimal trade-off design for fractional order (FO)-PID controller is proposed with a Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) based technique using two conflicting time domain objectives. A class of delayed FO systems with single non-integer order element, exhibiting both sluggish and oscillatory open loop responses, have been controlled here. The FO time delay processes are handled within a multi-objective optimization (MOO) formalism of LQR based FOPID design. A comparison is made between two contemporary approaches of stabilizing time-delay systems withinLQR. The MOO control design methodology yields the Pareto optimal trade-off solutions between the tracking performance and total variation (TV) of the control signal. Tuning rules are formed for the optimal LQR-FOPID controller parameters, using median of the non-dominated Pareto solutions to handle delayed FO processes. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 78 FR 47191 - Air Quality Designations for the 2010 Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Primary National Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... Air Quality Designations for the 2010 Sulfur Dioxide (SO[bdi2]) Primary National Ambient Air Quality... air quality designations for certain areas in the United States for the 2010 primary Sulfur Dioxide (SO 2 ) National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). The EPA is issuing this rule to identify areas...

  11. Designing Excellence and Quality Model for Training Centers of Primary Health Care: A Delphi Method Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizi, Jafar-Sadegh; Farahbakhsh, Mostafa; Shahgoli, Javad; Rahbar, Mohammad Reza; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad; Ahadi, Hamid-Reza; Azami-Aghdash, Saber

    2015-10-01

    Excellence and quality models are comprehensive methods for improving the quality of healthcare. The aim of this study was to design excellence and quality model for training centers of primary health care using Delphi method. In this study, Delphi method was used. First, comprehensive information were collected using literature review. In extracted references, 39 models were identified from 34 countries and related sub-criteria and standards were extracted from 34 models (from primary 39 models). Then primary pattern including 8 criteria, 55 sub-criteria, and 236 standards was developed as a Delphi questionnaire and evaluated in four stages by 9 specialists of health care system in Tabriz and 50 specialists from all around the country. Designed primary model (8 criteria, 55 sub-criteria, and 236 standards) were concluded with 8 criteria, 45 sub-criteria, and 192 standards after 4 stages of evaluations by specialists. Major criteria of the model are leadership, strategic and operational planning, resource management, information analysis, human resources management, process management, costumer results, and functional results, where the top score was assigned as 1000 by specialists. Functional results had the maximum score of 195 whereas planning had the minimum score of 60. Furthermore the most and the least sub-criteria was for leadership with 10 sub-criteria and strategic planning with 3 sub-criteria, respectively. The model that introduced in this research has been designed following 34 reference models of the world. This model could provide a proper frame for managers of health system in improving quality.

  12. Estimation on the Pressure Loss of the Conceptual Primary Cooling System and Design of the Primary Cooling Pump for a Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Kyoung Woo; Oh, Jae Min; Park, Jong Hark; Chae, Hee Taek; Seo, Jae Kwang; Park, Cheon Tae; Yoon, Ju Hyeon; Lee, Doo Jeong

    2009-01-01

    A new conceptual primary cooling system (PCS) for a research reactor has been designed for an adequate cooling to the reactor core which has various powers ranging from 30MW through 80MW. The developed primary cooling system consisted of decay tanks, pumps, heat exchangers, vacuum breakers, some isolation and check valves, connection piping, and instruments. Because the system flow rate should be determined by the thermal hydraulic design analysis for the core, the heads to design the primary cooling pumps (PCPs) in a PCS will be estimated by the variable system flow rates. The heads of the part of a research reactor vessel was evaluated by the previous study. The various pressure losses of the PCS can be calculated by the dimensional analysis of the pipe flow and the head loss coefficient of the components. The purpose of this research is to estimate the various pressure losses and to design the PCPs

  13. Incorporating the effects of lateral spread of the primary fluence, into compensator design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reece, P.J.; Hoban, P.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: In this study we extended ideas developed by Faddegon and Pfalzner on the construction of patient specific compensating filters. Their research was essentially focused on formulating a general method for creating compensators using a 3D planning system. In their work Faddegon and Pfalzner utilized a simple attenuation model to convert transmission arrays into filter thickness arrays. The compensators constructed from these arrays produce the primary fluence required to give a uniform dose distribution at a specified depth. This technique does not account for local geometric variations hi compensator scattering conditions. Therefore we have devised a method to incorporate the effects of lateral spread of the primary fluence passing through the compensating filter. A 2D Gaussian kernel, generated from Monte Carlo measurements, was used to model the spread of the primary fluence in the compensating filter. A 'maximum likelihood' optimisation algorithm was employed to deconvolve the kernel from the desired primary fluence to produce a more realistic incident fluence and compensator thickness array. The CMS FOCUS planning system was used to generate transmission maps corresponding to the desired influence of the compensating filter. Two compensating filters were constructed for each map, one using the standard attenuation method and the other with our method. For each method, an assessment was made using film dosimetry, on the degree of correlation between the desired primary fluence and the primary fluence produced by the compensating filter. Our results indicate that for compensating filters which are relatively uniform in thickness, there is good agreement between desired and delivered fluence maps for both methods. For non-uniform compensating filters the attenuation method deviates more notably from the desired fluence map. As expected, both methods also show significant deviations around the edges of the filter. It is anticipated that the work done here

  14. DESIGN OF OBJECT-ORIENTED DEBUGGER MODEL BY USING UNIFIED MODELING LANGUAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Nor Fazlida Mohd Sani; Noor Afiza Mohd Ariffin; Rodziah Atan

    2013-01-01

    Debugging on computer program is a complex cognitive activity. Although it is complex, itâs still one of the popular issues in computer programming task. It is a difficult task, which is to understand what the error is and how to solve such error? In computer programming the difficulty is to understand the Object-Oriented programming concept together with the programming logic. If the programming logic is incorrect, the program codes will have such error named as logic error and can caused hi...

  15. Efficient and equitable design of marine protected areas in Fiji through inclusion of stakeholder-specific objectives in conservation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, Georgina G; Pressey, Robert L; Ban, Natalie C; Álvarez-Romero, Jorge G; Jupiter, Stacy; Adams, Vanessa M

    2015-10-01

    The efficacy of protected areas varies, partly because socioeconomic factors are not sufficiently considered in planning and management. Although integrating socioeconomic factors into systematic conservation planning is increasingly advocated, research is needed to progress from recognition of these factors to incorporating them effectively in spatial prioritization of protected areas. We evaluated 2 key aspects of incorporating socioeconomic factors into spatial prioritization: treatment of socioeconomic factors as costs or objectives and treatment of stakeholders as a single group or multiple groups. Using as a case study the design of a system of no-take marine protected areas (MPAs) in Kubulau, Fiji, we assessed how these aspects affected the configuration of no-take MPAs in terms of trade-offs between biodiversity objectives, fisheries objectives, and equity in catch losses among fisher stakeholder groups. The achievement of fisheries objectives and equity tended to trade-off concavely with increasing biodiversity objectives, indicating that it is possible to achieve low to mid-range biodiversity objectives with relatively small losses to fisheries and equity. Importantly, the extent of trade-offs depended on the method used to incorporate socioeconomic data and was least severe when objectives were set for each fisher stakeholder group explicitly. We found that using different methods to incorporate socioeconomic factors that require similar data and expertise can result in plans with very different impacts on local stakeholders. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  16. THE TECHNOLOGIES OF DESIGNING THE DISTANCE COURSE FOR PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS’ TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliia Katasonova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays distance education became one of the main forms of studying and became popular in many countries of the world. The rash development of technologies, increasing of the education significance and global informatization makes distance learning one of the foreground directions of the modern education. Nowadays distance learning became an essential part of Primary school teachers professional preparation. There is an actual question of the creation and the implementation of distance courses to the preparation of the future primary school teachers, that will significantly increase the quality of studying. During the process of analyzing the literature, it was identified, that distance learning – is a pedagogical technology. That`s why, before beginning the designing of a distance course, you should remember the main components of a pedagogical technology. In the work «The components of the pedagogical technology», written by V. Bespalko, the foundation of the pedagogical techoogy is considered to be didactics. Modern scientists (V. Kremen, Ye. Rybalko, S. Sysoieva, A. Khutorskyi support the position of V.Bespalko and connect didactic principles with the organization of distance learning.The closest to our understanding appeared some theoretical positions of the work by V. Bikov, V. Kuharenko e.tc., that is called «The technologies of developing of the distance course:tutorial»,in which they offer five stages of designing of the online course: analysis, designing, development, implementation, valuation. During designing of a course, you also should remember about technical methods of realization of the distance education. V. Vishnivsky mentions, that a choice of the e-learning platform is a very important step. Modern platforms divide into two big categories: commercial and free. Try to determine basic steps of designing and creating of a distance course for the future Primary school teachers and use the result during the creation of the

  17. New Exoskeleton Arm Concept Design And Actuation For Haptic Interaction With Virtual Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakarov, D.; Veneva, I.; Tsveov, M.; Tiankov, T.

    2014-12-01

    In the work presented in this paper the conceptual design and actuation of one new exoskeleton of the upper limb is presented. The device is designed for application where both motion tracking and force feedback are required, such as human interaction with virtual environment or rehabilitation tasks. The choice is presented of mechanical structure kinematical equivalent to the structure of the human arm. An actuation system is selected based on braided pneumatic muscle actuators. Antagonistic drive system for each joint is shown, using pulley and cable transmissions. Force/displacement diagrams are presented of two antagonistic acting muscles. Kinematics and dynamic estimations are performed of the system exoskeleton and upper limb. Selected parameters ensure in the antagonistic scheme joint torque regulation and human arm range of motion.

  18. Design of New Test Function Model Based on Multi-objective Optimization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoxia Shang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Space partitioning method, as a new algorism, has been applied to planning and decision-making of investment portfolio more and more often. But currently there are so few testing function for this algorism, which has greatly restrained its further development and application. An innovative test function model is designed in this paper and is used to test the algorism. It is proved that for evaluation of space partitioning method in certain applications, this test function has fairly obvious advantage.

  19. Land characterisation for soil-based constructed wetlands: Adapting investigation methods to design objectives

    OpenAIRE

    Petitjean, A.; Forquet, N.; Choubert, J.M.; Coquery, M; Bouyer, M.; Boutin, C.

    2015-01-01

    Buffer zones between wastewater treatment plants and receiving water bodies have recently gained interest in France. These soil-based constructed wetland (SBCW) systems receive treated wastewater and may have various designs aiming to mimic 'natural' wetlands. Research is needed to assess the treatment efficiency of such systems. To this aim, a comprehensive study is carried out to understand the fate of water, conventional pollutants (suspended solids, organic carbon, ammonium, and phosph...

  20. BIM Workflow for Mechanical Ventilation Design : Object-Based Modeling with Autodesk Revit®

    OpenAIRE

    Bonduel, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    This study is conducted for the Belgian engineering firm CENERGIE, whose main business activities are within the fields of building systems and sustainable buildings. The company wants to change their current design workflows to adapt the use of Building Information Modeling (BIM) with Autodesk Revit The research focused on the development of a BIM workflow where no models are exchanged between building partners. The aim of this study was to develop such a Revit BIM workflow for the desig...

  1. The shape gradient of the least-squares objective functional in optimal shape design problems of radiative heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rukolaine, Sergey A.

    2010-01-01

    Optimal shape design problems of steady-state radiative heat transfer are considered. The optimal shape design problem (in the three-dimensional space) is formulated as an inverse one, i.e., in the form of an operator equation of the first kind with respect to a surface to be optimized. The operator equation is reduced to a minimization problem via a least-squares objective functional. The minimization problem has to be solved numerically. Gradient minimization methods need the gradient of a functional to be minimized. In this paper the shape gradient of the least-squares objective functional is derived with the help of the shape sensitivity analysis and adjoint problem method. In practice a surface to be optimized may be (or, most likely, is to be) given in a parametric form by a finite number of parameters. In this case the objective functional is, in fact, a function in a finite-dimensional space and the shape gradient becomes an ordinary gradient. The gradient of the objective functional, in the case that the surface to be optimized is given in a finite-parametric form, is derived from the shape gradient. A particular case, that a surface to be optimized is a 'two-dimensional' polyhedral one, is considered. The technique, developed in the paper, is applied to a synthetic problem of designing a 'two-dimensional' radiant enclosure.

  2. Study design, objectives, hypotheses, main findings, health consequences for the population exposed, rationale of future research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trnovec, T.; Kocan, A. [Slovak Medical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia); Bencko, V. [Charles Univ., Prague (Czech Republic); Langer, P. [Institute of Experimental Endocrinology SAS, Bratislava (Slovakia); Berg, M. van den [Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (Netherlands); Bergman, A. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden); Hustak, M. [Air Force Military Hospital, Kosics (Slovakia)

    2004-09-15

    In Slovakia, the Chemko Chemical Company, based in Strazske, in the Michalovce district, produced PCBs between 1959 and 1984, in the amount of more than 21,000 tons of commercial mixtures (Delor 103, 104, 105, 106, Delotherm DK and DH, Hydelor 137). PCBs were used for similar industrial purposes as in the west. Improper disposal from the Chemko plant via release of effluent directly into the Laborec River resulted in long-term contamination of sediment. As a result eastern Slovakia, the Michalovce district in particular, is recognized as one of the areas all over the world most heavily polluted with PCBs. Historical studies show that blood and adipose PCB levels were higher in Czechoslovakia than elsewhere in the 1970's and 1980's. Current data indicate that persons who eat locally raised food - pork, beef, poultry, eggs - in this district have elevated serum concentrations of PCBs. Environmental exposure to organochlorines in the Michalovce district indicate association with higher rates of certain cancers, but an inverse association with risk of breast cancer. An increased prevalence of thyroid disorders in the polluted area was also reported. This ''experimental setting in nature'' has attracted international scientific teams and two projects in the area are ongoing: Evaluating Human Health Risk from Low-dose and Long-term PCB Exposure, 5{sup th} FP Project QLK4-2000-00488, 2001- 2004; PCBRISK (http://www.pcbrisk.sk/) and Early Childhood Development and PCB Exposures in Slovakia, NCI/NIH, R01-CA96525 University of California, Davis, USA. This paper is serving as an introduction to papers of a session reporting on various health outcomes associated with PCB exposure. The objectives of the PCBRISK project were targeted at an evaluation of the human health risks of low-dose and long-term exposure to a group of persistent organochlorine pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their metabolites, organochlorine

  3. The Combined Multi-objective Optimization Design for a Light Guide Rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yu-Sen; Fung, Rong-Fong; Shih, Chun-Yao; Chien, Hong-Yao

    2013-01-01

    The light guide rod (LGR) has been popularly used for the vehicles, and the automobile lamp industries need mass production to match this trend. This paper aims to develop a systemic way to find the best parameters' combination for the LGR, and the parameters are usually restricted to some levels and random values. In this paper, the LGR example with two optical performances of illuminance flux and uniformity is to be optimized by use of the real-coded genetic algorithm (RGA) and grey relational analysis (GRA). The illuminance flux and uniformity of the best parameters' combination are obtained and compared with the initial set. Comparisons with Taguchi-Grey can improve 5% of gain and comparisons with Pareto genetic algorithm (PaGA) can improve 1.7% of gain. The combined multi-objective optimization can saving 7% time and it is found that the new proposed method has positive gains in performances.

  4. Constructal design of a blast furnace iron-making process based on multi-objective optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiong; Chen, Lingen; Feng, Huijun; Qin, Xiaoyong; Sun, Fengrui

    2016-01-01

    For the fixed total raw material cost and based on constructal theory and finite time thermodynamics, a BFIM (blast furnace iron-making) process is optimized by taking a complex function as optimization objective. The complex function is integrated with HM (hot metal) yield and useful energy of the BF (blast furnace). The optimal cost distribution of raw materials (namely “generalized optimal construct”) is obtained. The effects of some parameters, such as oxygen enrichment, blast temperature and pulverized coal dosage, on the optimization results are analyzed. The results show that the HM yield, useful energy and complex function are, respectively, increased by 3.13%, 2.66% and 2.90% after generalized constructal optimization. The utilization efficiencies of the BFG (blast furnace gas) and slag are 41.3% and 57.1%, respectively, which means that the utilization potentials of the BFG and slag can be further exploited. Increasing pulverized coal dosage and decreasing the agglomerate ratio can increase the complex function. The performance the BFIM process can be improved by adjusting the oxygen enrichment, blast temperature, blast dosage, pressure ratio of the Brayton cycle's air compressor and relative pressure drop of the air compressor inlet to their optimal values, respectively, which are new findings of this paper. - Highlights: • Constructal optimization of a blast furnace iron-making process is performed. • Finite time thermodynamic model of open Brayton cycle is adopted. • Weighting function is taken as optimization objective. • Optimal cost distribution of the raw materials is obtained.

  5. Many-objective Groundwater Monitoring Network Design Using Bias-Aware Ensemble Kalman Filtering and Evolutionary Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollat, J. B.; Reed, P. M.

    2009-12-01

    This study contributes the ASSIST (Adaptive Strategies for Sampling in Space and Time) framework for improving long-term groundwater monitoring decisions across space and time while accounting for the influences of systematic model errors (or predictive bias). The ASSIST framework combines contaminant flow-and-transport modeling, bias-aware ensemble Kalman filtering (EnKF) and many-objective evolutionary optimization. Our goal in this work is to provide decision makers with a fuller understanding of the information tradeoffs they must confront when performing long-term groundwater monitoring network design. Our many-objective analysis considers up to 6 design objectives simultaneously and consequently synthesizes prior monitoring network design methodologies into a single, flexible framework. This study demonstrates the ASSIST framework using a tracer study conducted within a physical aquifer transport experimental tank located at the University of Vermont. The tank tracer experiment was extensively sampled to provide high resolution estimates of tracer plume behavior. The simulation component of the ASSIST framework consists of stochastic ensemble flow-and-transport predictions using ParFlow coupled with the Lagrangian SLIM transport model. The ParFlow and SLIM ensemble predictions are conditioned with tracer observations using a bias-aware EnKF. The EnKF allows decision makers to enhance plume transport predictions in space and time in the presence of uncertain and biased model predictions by conditioning them on uncertain measurement data. In this initial demonstration, the position and frequency of sampling were optimized to: (i) minimize monitoring cost, (ii) maximize information provided to the EnKF, (iii) minimize failure to detect the tracer, (iv) maximize the detection of tracer flux, (v) minimize error in quantifying tracer mass, and (vi) minimize error in quantifying the moment of the tracer plume. The results demonstrate that the many-objective problem

  6. The Spiral-in Method for Designing and Connecting Learning Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, Evgenios

    2012-01-01

    . The Spiral-in Method (SiM) encloses pedagogical and didactic potentials, addresses issues on both the educator and the group learners and implements personalized mechanisms. This methodology structures the design process into four distinct phases, fragmentation, coordination, combination and grouping...... given, LOs are created and connected in a linear structure, like a spiral. The LOs are grouped together into lessons attempting to satisfy short-term learning outcomes. The spiral has to be fully wrapped for the possession of the subject matter....

  7. CCLab--a multi-objective genetic algorithm based combinatorial library design software and an application for histone deacetylase inhibitor design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Guanghua; Xue, Mengzhu; Su, Mingbo; Hu, Dingyu; Li, Yanlian; Xiong, Bing; Ma, Lanping; Meng, Tao; Chen, Yuelei; Li, Jingya; Li, Jia; Shen, Jingkang

    2012-07-15

    The introduction of the multi-objective optimization has dramatically changed the virtual combinatorial library design, which can consider many objectives simultaneously, such as synthesis cost and drug-likeness, thus may increase positive rates of biological active compounds. Here we described a software called CCLab (Combinatorial Chemistry Laboratory) for combinatorial library design based on the multi-objective genetic algorithm. Tests of the convergence ability and the ratio to re-take the building blocks in the reference library were conducted to assess the software in silico, and then it was applied to a real case of designing a 5×6 HDAC inhibitor library. Sixteen compounds in the resulted library were synthesized, and the histone deactetylase (HDAC) enzymatic assays proved that 14 compounds showed inhibitory ratios more than 50% against tested 3 HDAC enzymes at concentration of 20 μg/mL, with IC(50) values of 3 compounds comparable to SAHA. These results demonstrated that the CCLab software could enhance the hit rates of the designed library and would be beneficial for medicinal chemists to design focused library in drug development (the software can be downloaded at: http://202.127.30.184:8080/drugdesign.html). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. In situ heating experiments in hard rock: their objectives and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, N.G.W.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1978-01-01

    Of the many alternatives that are being considered for the disposal of nuclear wastes, deep underground burial is favored. The wealth of experience concerning the design and construction of underground excavations does not include the unique effects of heating excavations by radioactive decay, nor the issue of long-term isolation. The effects of heating are important in establishing the feasibility of this method of disposal, and are essential for the design of an underground repository. Near-field phenomena around individual canisters can be studied by full-scale experiments, using electrical heaters. The thermal diffusivity of rock is so low that information concerning the interaction between full-scale heaters and of the effects of heating a large volume of rock cannot be measured in full-scale experiments lasting less than a few decades. To overcome this difficulty, a time-scaled heating experiment has been developed in which a reduction in linear scale is accompanied by an acceleration of the time scale to the second power. In this experiment, the linear scale is about a third, so that the time scale is about ten fold

  9. In situ heating experiments in hard rock: their objectives and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, N.G.W.; Witherspoon, P.A.; California Univ., Berkeley

    1978-01-01

    Of the many alternatives that are being considered for the disposal of nuclear wastes, deep underground burial is favored. The wealth of experience concerning the design and construction of underground excavations does not include the unique effects of heating excavations by radioactive decay, nor the issue of long-term isolation. The effects of heating are important in establishing the feasibility of this method of disposal and are essential for the design of an underground repository. Near-field phenomena around individual canisters can be studied by full-scale experiments, using electrical heaters. The thermal diffusivity of rock is so low that information concerning the interaction between full-scale heaters and of the effects of heating a large volume of rock cannot be measured in full-scale experiments lasting less than a few decades. To overcome this difficulty, a time-scaled heating experiment has been developed in which a reduction in linear scale is accompanied by an acceleration of the time scale to the second power. In this experiment, the linear scale is about a third, so that the time scale is about ten fold

  10. Evaluation of primary care midwifery in the Netherlands: design and rationale of a dynamic cohort study (DELIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manniën Judith

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Netherlands, midwives are autonomous medical practitioners and 78% of pregnant women start their maternity care with a primary care midwife. Scientific research to support evidence-based practice in primary care midwifery in the Netherlands has been sparse. This paper describes the research design and methodology of the multicenter multidisciplinary prospective DELIVER study which is the first large-scale study evaluating the quality and provision of primary midwifery care. Methods/Design Between September 2009 and April 2011, data were collected from clients and their partners, midwives and other healthcare professionals across the Netherlands. Clients from twenty midwifery practices received up to three questionnaires to assess the expectations and experiences of clients (e.g. quality of care, prenatal screening, emotions, health, and lifestyle. These client data were linked to data from the Netherlands Perinatal Register and electronic client records kept by midwives. Midwives and practice assistants from the twenty participating practices recorded work-related activities in a diary for one week, to assess workload. Besides, the midwives were asked to complete a questionnaire, to gain insight into collaboration of midwives with other care providers, their tasks and attitude towards their job, and the quality of the care they provide. Another questionnaire was sent to all Dutch midwifery practices which reveals information regarding the organisation of midwifery practices, provision of preconception care, collaboration with other care providers, and provision of care to ethnic minorities. Data at client, midwife and practice level can be linked. Additionally, partners of pregnant women and other care providers were asked about their expectations and experiences regarding the care delivered by midwives and in six practices client consults were videotaped to objectively assess daily practice. Discussion In total, 7685

  11. Designing concept maps for a precise and objective description of pharmaceutical innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iordatii Maia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When a new drug is launched onto the market, information about the new manufactured product is contained in its monograph and evaluation report published by national drug agencies. Health professionals need to be able to determine rapidly and easily whether the new manufactured product is potentially useful for their practice. There is therefore a need to identify the best way to group together and visualize the main items of information describing the nature and potential impact of the new drug. The objective of this study was to identify these items of information and to bring them together in a model that could serve as the standard for presenting the main features of new manufactured product. Methods We developed a preliminary conceptual model of pharmaceutical innovations, based on the knowledge of the authors. We then refined this model, using a random sample of 40 new manufactured drugs recently approved by the national drug regulatory authorities in France and covering a broad spectrum of innovations and therapeutic areas. Finally, we used another sample of 20 new manufactured drugs to determine whether the model was sufficiently comprehensive. Results The results of our modeling led to three sub models described as conceptual maps representingi the medical context for use of the new drug (indications, type of effect, therapeutical arsenal for the same indications, ii the nature of the novelty of the new drug (new molecule, new mechanism of action, new combination, new dosage, etc., and iii the impact of the drug in terms of efficacy, safety and ease of use, compared with other drugs with the same indications. Conclusions Our model can help to standardize information about new drugs released onto the market. It is potentially useful to the pharmaceutical industry, medical journals, editors of drug databases and medical software, and national or international drug regulation agencies, as a means of describing the main

  12. Design, experimental investigation and multi-objective optimization of a small-scale radial compressor for heat pump applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffmann, J. [Fischer Engineering Solutions AG, Birkenweg 3, CH-3360 Herzogenbuchsee (Switzerland); Favrat, D. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, EPFL STI IGM LENI, Station 9, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2010-01-15

    The main driver for small scale turbomachinery in domestic heat pumps is the potential for reaching higher efficiencies than volumetric compressors currently used and the potential for making the compressor oil-free, bearing a considerable advantage in the design of advanced multi-stage heat pump cycles. An appropriate turbocompressor for driving domestic heat pumps with a high temperature lift requires the ability to operate on a wide range of pressure ratios and mass flows, confronting the designer with the necessity of a compromise between range and efficiency. The present publication shows a possible way to deal with that difficulty, by coupling an appropriate modeling tool to a multi-objective optimizer. The optimizer manages to fit the compressor design into the possible specifications field while keeping the high efficiency on a wide operational range. The 1D-tool used for the compressor stage modeling has been validated by experimentally testing an initial impeller design. The excellent experimental results, the agreement with the model and the linking of the model to a multi-objective optimizer will allow to design radial compressor stages managing to fit the wide operational range of domestic heat pumps while keeping the high efficiency level. (author)

  13. Design and Selection of Innovative Primary Circulation Pumps for GEN-IV Lead Fast Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Borreani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Although Lead-cooled Fast Reactor (LFR is not a new concept, it continues to be an example of innovation in the nuclear field. Recently, there has been strong interest in liquid lead (Pb or liquid lead–bismuth eutectic (LBE both critical and subcritical systems in a relevant number of Countries, including studies performed in the frame of GENERATION-IV initiative. In this paper, the theoretical and computational findings for three different designs of Primary Circulation Pump (PCP evolving liquid lead (namely the jet pump, the Archimedean pump and the blade pump are presented with reference to the ALFRED (Advanced Lead Fast Reactor European Demonstrator design. The pumps are first analyzed from the theoretical point of view and then modeled with a 3D CFD code. Required design performance of the pumps are approximatively around an effective head of 2 bar with a mass flow rate of 5000 kg/s. Taking into account the geometrical constraints of the reactor and the fluid dynamics characteristics of the molten lead, the maximum design velocity for molten lead fluid flow of 2 m/s may be exceeded giving rise to unacceptable erosion phenomena of the blade or rotating component of the primary pumping system. For this reason a deep investigation of non-conventional axial pumps has been performed. The results presented shows that the design of the jet pump looks like beyond the current technological feasibility while, once the mechanical challenges of the Archimedean (screw pump and the fluid-dynamic issues of the blade pump will be addressed, both could represent viable solutions as PCP for ALFRED. Particularly, the blade pump shows the best performance in terms of pressure head generated in normal operation conditions as well as pressure drop in locked rotor conditions. Further optimizations (mainly for what the geometrical configuration is concerned are still necessary.

  14. SphinX soft X-ray spectrophotometer: Science objectives, design and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gburek, S.; Sylwester, J.; Kowalinski, M.; Bakala, J.; Kordylewski, Z.; Podgorski, P.; Plocieniak, S.; Siarkowski, M.; Sylwester, B.; Trzebinski, W.; Kuzin, S. V.; Pertsov, A. A.; Kotov, Yu. D.; Farnik, F.; Reale, F.; Phillips, K. J. H.

    2011-06-01

    The goals and construction details of a new design Polish-led X-ray spectrophotometer are described. The instrument is aimed to observe emission from entire solar corona and is placed as a separate block within the Russian TESIS X- and EUV complex aboard the CORONAS-PHOTON solar orbiting observatory. SphinX uses silicon PIN diode detectors for high time resolution measurements of the solar spectra in the range 0.8-15 keV. Its spectral resolution allows for discerning more than hundred separate energy bands in this range. The instrument dynamic range extends two orders of magnitude below and above these representative for GOES. The relative and absolute accuracy of spectral measurements is expected to be better than few percent, as follows from extensive ground laboratory calibrations.

  15. Multi-pinhole collimator design for small-object imaging with SiliSPECT: a high-resolution SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shokouhi, S; Peterson, T E; Metzler, S D; Wilson, D W

    2009-01-01

    We have designed a multi-pinhole collimator for a dual-headed, stationary SPECT system that incorporates high-resolution silicon double-sided strip detectors. The compact camera design of our system enables imaging at source-collimator distances between 20 and 30 mm. Our analytical calculations show that using knife-edge pinholes with small-opening angles or cylindrically shaped pinholes in a focused, multi-pinhole configuration in combination with this camera geometry can generate narrow sensitivity profiles across the field of view that can be useful for imaging small objects at high sensitivity and resolution. The current prototype system uses two collimators each containing 127 cylindrically shaped pinholes that are focused toward a target volume. Our goal is imaging objects such as a mouse brain, which could find potential applications in molecular imaging.

  16. Clinical and cost-effectiveness of computerised cognitive behavioural therapy for depression in primary care: Design of a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severens Johan L

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Major depression is a common mental health problem in the general population, associated with a substantial impact on quality of life and societal costs. However, many depressed patients in primary care do not receive the care they need. Reason for this is that pharmacotherapy is only effective in severely depressed patients and psychological treatments in primary care are scarce and costly. A more feasible treatment in primary care might be computerised cognitive behavioural therapy. This can be a self-help computer program based on the principles of cognitive behavioural therapy. Although previous studies suggest that computerised cognitive behavioural therapy is effective, more research is necessary. Therefore, the objective of the current study is to evaluate the (cost- effectiveness of online computerised cognitive behavioural therapy for depression in primary care. Methods/Design In a randomised trial we will compare (a computerised cognitive behavioural therapy with (b treatment as usual by a GP, and (c computerised cognitive behavioural therapy in combination with usual GP care. Three hundred mild to moderately depressed patients (aged 18–65 will be recruited in the general population by means of a large-scale Internet-based screening (N = 200,000. Patients will be randomly allocated to one of the three treatment groups. Primary outcome measure of the clinical evaluation is the severity of depression. Other outcomes include psychological distress, social functioning, and dysfunctional beliefs. The economic evaluation will be performed from a societal perspective, in which all costs will be related to clinical effectiveness and health-related quality of life. All outcome assessments will take place on the Internet at baseline, two, three, six, nine, and twelve months. Costs are measured on a monthly basis. A time horizon of one year will be used without long-term extrapolation of either costs or quality of life

  17. In-service English language training for Italian Primary School Teachers An experience in syllabus design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Dawes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to report on an in-service English Language Teacher Training Programme devised for the Government project to equip Italian primary school teachers  with the skills to teach English. The paper focuses on the first phase of the project which envisaged research into the best training models and the preparation of appropriate  English Language syllabuses. In  the first three sections of the paper we report on the experience of designing the language syllabus. In the last section we suggest ways of using the syllabus as a tool for self reflective professional development.

  18. Optical design and performance analysis of a 25 m class telescope with a segmented spherical primary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owner-Petersen, Mette

    1996-01-01

    The basic design and an analysis of the performance possibilities of a 25 m class optical telescope are presented here. The configuration consists of a 28 m segmented spherical primary M1 followed by three highly aspherical corrective mirrors M2, M3 and M4 which also deviate from cartesian shape...... sag and windbuffeting. Several types of aspherical figuring of M2, M3 and M4 all resulting in a field performance better than characterized by a RMS spotradius smaller than 0.1 arcseconds within a full FOV of 21 arcminutes are presented....

  19. Designing a water calorimeter as primary standard of gamma rays at IPEN/CNEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cintra, Felipe B. de; Caldas, Linda V.E.

    2013-01-01

    This work aims to describe the present stage and the next steps of the development of a water calorimeter of the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN/CNEN. This calorimeter will be used as a primary standard of gamma ray sources at the laboratory. Between the design and the construction step it will be shown how this model was chosen and how it is modeled virtually with computer simulation. The two main codes used, MCNP and Fluent, to characterize the prototype before its construction are presented. (author)

  20. Pricing index-based catastrophe bonds: Part 2: Object-oriented design issues and sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, André J. A.

    2010-02-01

    This work is the second installment in a two-part series, and focuses on object-oriented programming methods to implement an augmented-state variable approach to aggregate the PCS index and introduce the Bermudan-style call feature into the proposed CAT bond model. The PCS index is aggregated quarterly using a discrete Asian running-sum formulation. The resulting aggregate PCS index augmented-state variable is used to specify the payoff (principle) on the CAT bond based on reinsurance layers. The purpose of the Bermudan-style call option is to allow the reinsurer to minimize their interest rate risk exposure on making fixed coupon payments under prevailing interest rates. A sensitivity analysis is performed to determine the impact of uncertainty in the frequency and magnitude of hurricanes on the price of the CAT bond. Results indicate that while the CAT bond is highly sensitive to the natural variability in the frequency of landfalling hurricanes between El Ninõ and non-El Ninõ years, it remains relatively insensitive to uncertainty in the magnitude of damages. In addition, results indicate that the maximum price of the CAT bond is insensitive to whether it is engineered to cover low frequency high magnitude events in a 'high' reinsurance layer relative to high frequency low magnitude events in a 'low' reinsurance layer. Also, while it is possible for the reinsurer to minimize their interest rate risk exposure on the fixed coupon payments, the impact of this risk on the price of the CAT bond appears small relative to the natural variability in the CAT bond price, and consequently catastrophic risk, due to uncertainty in the frequency and magnitude of landfalling hurricanes.

  1. Ubiquitous computing to support co-located clinical teams: using the semiotics of physical objects in system design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Magnus; Timpka, Toomas

    2007-06-01

    Co-located teams often use material objects to communicate messages in collaboration. Modern desktop computing systems with abstract graphical user interface (GUIs) fail to support this material dimension of inter-personal communication. The aim of this study is to investigate how tangible user interfaces can be used in computer systems to better support collaborative routines among co-located clinical teams. The semiotics of physical objects used in team collaboration was analyzed from data collected during 1 month of observations at an emergency room. The resulting set of communication patterns was used as a framework when designing an experimental system. Following the principles of augmented reality, physical objects were mapped into a physical user interface with the goal of maintaining the symbolic value of those objects. NOSTOS is an experimental ubiquitous computing environment that takes advantage of interaction devices integrated into the traditional clinical environment, including digital pens, walk-up displays, and a digital desk. The design uses familiar workplace tools to function as user interfaces to the computer in order to exploit established cognitive and collaborative routines. Paper-based tangible user interfaces and digital desks are promising technologies for co-located clinical teams. A key issue that needs to be solved before employing such solutions in practice is associated with limited feedback from the passive paper interfaces.

  2. User-centered design to improve clinical decision support in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Julian; Chuang, Emmeline; Goldzweig, Caroline; Cain, Cindy L; Sugar, Catherine; Yano, Elizabeth M

    2017-08-01

    A growing literature has demonstrated the ability of user-centered design to make clinical decision support systems more effective and easier to use. However, studies of user-centered design have rarely examined more than a handful of sites at a time, and have frequently neglected the implementation climate and organizational resources that influence clinical decision support. The inclusion of such factors was identified by a systematic review as "the most important improvement that can be made in health IT evaluations." (1) Identify the prevalence of four user-centered design practices at United States Veterans Affairs (VA) primary care clinics and assess the perceived utility of clinical decision support at those clinics; (2) Evaluate the association between those user-centered design practices and the perceived utility of clinical decision support. We analyzed clinic-level survey data collected in 2006-2007 from 170 VA primary care clinics. We examined four user-centered design practices: 1) pilot testing, 2) provider satisfaction assessment, 3) formal usability assessment, and 4) analysis of impact on performance improvement. We used a regression model to evaluate the association between user-centered design practices and the perceived utility of clinical decision support, while accounting for other important factors at those clinics, including implementation climate, available resources, and structural characteristics. We also examined associations separately at community-based clinics and at hospital-based clinics. User-centered design practices for clinical decision support varied across clinics: 74% conducted pilot testing, 62% conducted provider satisfaction assessment, 36% conducted a formal usability assessment, and 79% conducted an analysis of impact on performance improvement. Overall perceived utility of clinical decision support was high, with a mean rating of 4.17 (±.67) out of 5 on a composite measure. "Analysis of impact on performance

  3. Multi-objective optimization and design for free piston Stirling engines based on the dimensionless power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Jian; Hong, Guotong

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, the dimensionless power is used to optimize the free piston Stirling engines (FPSE). The dimensionless power is defined as a ratio of the heat power loss and the output work. The heat power losses include the losses of expansion space, heater, regenerator, cooler and the compression space and every kind of the heat loss calculated by empirical formula. The output work is calculated by the adiabatic model. The results show that 82.66% of the losses come from the expansion space and 54.59% heat losses of expansion space come from the shuttle loss. At different pressure the optimum bore-stroke ratio, heat source temperature, phase angle and the frequency have different values, the optimum phase angles increase with the increase of pressure, but optimum frequencies drop with the increase of pressure. However, no matter what the heat source temperature, initial pressure and frequency are, the optimum ratios of piston stroke and displacer stroke all about 0.8. The three-dimensional diagram is used to analyse Stirling engine. From the three-dimensional diagram the optimum phase angle, frequency and heat source temperature can be acquired at the same time. This study offers some guides for the design and optimization of FPSEs.

  4. Pre elementary design of primary reformer for hydrogen plant coupled with HTGR type NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedy Priambodo; Erlan Dewita; Sudi Ariyanto

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen has a high potent for new energy, because of it availability. Steam reforming is a fully developed commercial technology and is the most economical method for production of hydrogen. Steam reforming uses an external source of hot gas to heat tubes in which a catalytic reaction takes place that converts steam and lighter hydrocarbons such as natural gas (methane) or refinery feedstock into hydrogen and carbon monoxide (syngas) at high temperature on primary reformer (800-900°C). Utilization of helium from HTGR as heating medium for primary reformer has consequence to type and shape of its reactor. The main goal of this paper is to determine type/shape and pre elementary design of chemical reactor for the cogeneration system of Hydrogen Plant and HTGR The primary reformer for this system is Fixed Bed Multitube reactor with specification tube: NPS 3,5 Sch 40 ST 40S, 0.281 in thickness, number of tube 849 pieces and ASTM HH 30 for tube material. Tube arrangement is 'triangular pitch' on shell Split-Ring Floating Head from Steel Alloy SA 301 Grade B equipted with 8 baffles. (author)

  5. Multi-objective Optimal Design of a Five-Phase Fault-Tolerant Axial Flux PM Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAAVEDRA, H.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Electric motors used for traction purposes in electric vehicles (EVs must meet several requirements, including high efficiency, high power density and fault-tolerance. Among them, permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs highlight. Especially, five-phase axial flux permanent magnet (AFPM synchronous motors are particularly suitable for in-wheel applications with enhanced fault-tolerant capabilities. This paper is devoted to optimally design an AFPM for in-wheel applications. The main geometric, electric and mechanical parameters of the designed AFPM are calculated by applying an iterative method based on a set of analytical equations, which is assisted by means of a reduced number of three-dimensional finite element method (3D-FEM simulations to limit the computational burden. To optimally design the AFPM, a constrained multi-objective optimization process based on a genetic algorithm is applied, in which two objective functions are considered, i.e. the power density and the efficiency. Several fault-tolerance constraints are settled during the optimization process to ensure enhanced fault-tolerance in the resulting motor design. The accuracy of the best solution attained is validated by means of 3D-FEM simulations.

  6. Design and implementation of pay-for-quality in primary healthcare: A case study from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Sadegh Tabrizi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background The common methods of payment to healthcare providers such as capitation and salary are not designed to be stimulation for high quality healthcare. The pay-for -quality (P4Q programs are designed to provide the financial incentives to the service providers in order to improve quality of services based on specified criteria. Aims This study describes the design and implementation of a P4Q program in the primary healthcare (PHc in East Azerbaijan Province, Iran. Methods The present study is a case study that describes the process of designing and implementing the P4Q program in PHC in East-Azerbaijan province in 2015. To design the P4Q program, after identifying core components of the program through literature review and Focus Group Discussion (FGD, final decision about each component was made by achieving consensus from a panel of recognised experts in the area of PHc. Altogether two FGD and seven expert panel sessions were hold in EAPHC in order to design the P4Q program. Results Key components of P4Q program were selected by qualitative studies and the results were categorized in five headings including P4Q formula, quality measures, payment strategy, data reporting and performance evaluation. The formula consists of five elements including fixed payment, individual, team and organization performance and managerial appraisal. A total of 37 measures, which covers the domains of quality of PHc, human resource development and responsibility were selected. ‘Improvement’ and ‘absolute level of measures’ were selected as the payment strategy. The methods of data reporting included valid questionnaire, organization’s documents and medical records. The final P4Q program was used for paying incentives to all primary health care providers in public health centres affiliated to Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Conclusion Designing and implementing the P4Q program led to a shift in paying the incentives to healthcare providers

  7. Design Study for the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV) Composite Primary Bulkhead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cressman, Thomas O.; Paddock, David A.

    2017-01-01

    A design study was undertaken of a carbon fiber primary bulkhead for a large solar electric propulsion (SEP) spacecraft. The bulkhead design, supporting up to 16 t of xenon propellant, progressed from one consisting of many simple parts with many complex joints, to one consisting of a few complex parts with a few simple joints. The unique capabilities of composites led to a topology that transitioned loads from bending to in-plane tension and shear, with low part count. This significantly improved bulkhead manufacturability, cost, and mass. The stiffness-driven structure utilized high-modulus M55J fiber unidirectional prepregs. A full-scale engineering demonstration unit (EDU) of the concept was used to demonstrate manufacturability of the concept. Actual labor data was obtained, which could be extrapolated to a full bulkhead. The effort demonstrated the practicality of using high-modulus fiber (HMF) composites for unique shape topologies that minimize mass and cost. The lessons are applicable to primary and secondary aerospace structures that are stiffness driven.

  8. First results of the wind evaluation breadboard for ELT primary mirror design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes García-Talavera, Marcos; Viera, Teodora; Núñez, Miguel

    2010-07-01

    The Wind Evaluation Breadboard (WEB) is a primary mirror and telescope simulator formed by seven aluminium segments, including position sensors, electromechanical support systems and support structures. WEB has been developed to evaluate technologies for primary mirror wavefront control and to evaluate the performance of the control of wind buffeting disturbance on ELT segmented mirrors. For this purpose WEB electro-mechanical set-up simulates the real operational constrains applied to large segmented mirrors. This paper describes the WEB assembly, integration and verification, the instrument characterisation and close loop control design, including the dynamical characterization of the instrument and the control architecture. The performance of the new technologies developed for position sensing, acting and controlling is evaluated. The integration of the instrument in the observatory and the results of the first experiments are summarised, with different wind conditions, elevation and azimuth angles of incidence. Conclusions are extracted with respect the wind rejection performance and the control strategy for an ELT. WEB has been designed and developed by IAC, ESO, ALTRAN and JUPASA, with the integration of subsystems of FOGALE and TNO.

  9. Equation of costs and function objective for the optimization of the design of nets of flow of liquids to pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narvaez R, Paulo Cesar; Galeano P, Haiver

    2002-01-01

    Optimal design problem of liquid distribution systems has been viewed as the selection of pipe sizes and pumps, which will minimize overall costs, accomplishing the flow and pressure constraints. There is a set of methods for least cost design of liquids distribution networks (6). In the last years, some of them have been studied broadly: linear programming (1, 4, 5, 7], non-linear programming [8, 9], and genetic algorithms (3, 10, 13). This paper describes the development of a cost equation and the objective function for liquid distribution networks that together to the mathematical model and the solution method of the flow problem developed by Narvaez (11), were used by in a computer model that involves the application of an genetic algorithm to the problem of least cost design of liquids distribution networks

  10. Multi-objective optimization design of air distribution of grate cooler by entropy generation minimization and genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, Wei; Cui, Zheng; Cheng, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A multi-objective optimization model of air distribution of grate cooler by genetic algorithm is proposed. • Pareto Front is obtained and validated by comparing with operating data. • Optimal schemes are compared and selected by engineering background. • Total power consumption after optimization decreases 61.10%. • Thickness of clinker on three grate plates is thinner. - Abstract: The cooling air distributions of grate cooler exercise a great influence on the clinker cooling efficiency and power consumption of cooling fans. A multi-objective optimization model of air distributions of grate cooler with cross-flow heat exchanger analogy is proposed in this paper. Firstly, thermodynamic and flow models of clinker cooling process is carried out. Then based on entropy generation minimization analysis, modified entropy generation numbers caused by heat transfer and pressure drop are chosen as objective functions respectively which optimized by genetic algorithm. The design variables are superficial velocities of air chambers and thicknesses of clinker layers on different grate plates. A set of Pareto optimal solutions which two objectives are optimized simultaneously is achieved. Scattered distributions of design variables resulting in the conflict between two objectives are brought out. The final optimal air distribution and thicknesses of clinker layers are selected from the Pareto optimal solutions based on power consumption of cooling fans minimization and validated by measurements. Compared with actual operating scheme, the total air volumes of optimized schemes decrease 2.4%, total power consumption of cooling fans decreases 61.1% and the outlet temperature of clinker decreases 122.9 °C which shows a remarkable energy-saving effect on energy consumption.

  11. Designing Math Trails for Enhanced by Mobile Learning Realistic Mathematics Education in Primary Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Fesakis

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Seeking a systematic combination of the pedagogical model of m-learning with the Realistic Mathematics Education (RME approach, this study concerns the use of math trail as a learning activity model that can take the advantages of mobile computing devices for the design of effective learning experiences in an authentic context. The paper presents the design and the case study of the first pilot implementation of a math trail, using mobile devices for primary school students. In this math trail, the students are guided, through a digital map, to a sequence of preselected sites of a park where they solve specially designed math problems using data from the environmental context. The students measure real objects’ dimensions either with conventional instruments or by measurement applications of their tablet. According to the findings of the study, students solved the puzzles by applying mathematical knowledge, discussion and collaboration. The students applied and reinforced their knowledge through an effective and engaging learning activity. Moreover, the students were puzzled about the differences of the measurements by conventional and digital instruments and this confusion triggered social negotiation. Further research is needed for a grounded theory development about m-learning design for RME.

  12. [Design of an educational tool for Primary Care patients with chronic non-specific low back pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Cerrillo, Juan Luis; Rondón-Ramos, Antonio

    2015-02-01

    Current scientific evidence on the management of chronic non-specific low back pain highlights the benefits of physical exercise. This goal is frequently undermined due to lack of education of the subjects on the multifactorial, benign, and non-specific nature of low back pain, which can lead to a chronic disease with genuine psychosocial risk factors. Its influence may not only interfere with individual decision to adopt more adaptive coping behaviors, but also with the endogenous mechanisms of pain neuromodulation. Thus, the educational strategies and control of these factors have become important objectives to be incorporated into the management of the disorder and research guidelines. This paper presents the theoretical models and the scientific basis on which it has based the design of an educational tool for patients with chronic non-specific low back pain treated in Primary Care physiotherapy. Structure, content and objectives are also presented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of primary care midwifery in The Netherlands: design and rationale of a dynamic cohort study (DELIVER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manniën, Judith; Klomp, Trudy; Wiegers, Therese; Pereboom, Monique; Brug, Johannes; de Jonge, Ank; van der Meijde, Margreeth; Hutton, Eileen; Schellevis, Francois; Spelten, Evelien

    2012-03-20

    In the Netherlands, midwives are autonomous medical practitioners and 78% of pregnant women start their maternity care with a primary care midwife. Scientific research to support evidence-based practice in primary care midwifery in the Netherlands has been sparse. This paper describes the research design and methodology of the multicenter multidisciplinary prospective DELIVER study which is the first large-scale study evaluating the quality and provision of primary midwifery care. Between September 2009 and April 2011, data were collected from clients and their partners, midwives and other healthcare professionals across the Netherlands. Clients from twenty midwifery practices received up to three questionnaires to assess the expectations and experiences of clients (e.g. quality of care, prenatal screening, emotions, health, and lifestyle). These client data were linked to data from the Netherlands Perinatal Register and electronic client records kept by midwives. Midwives and practice assistants from the twenty participating practices recorded work-related activities in a diary for one week, to assess workload. Besides, the midwives were asked to complete a questionnaire, to gain insight into collaboration of midwives with other care providers, their tasks and attitude towards their job, and the quality of the care they provide. Another questionnaire was sent to all Dutch midwifery practices which reveals information regarding the organisation of midwifery practices, provision of preconception care, collaboration with other care providers, and provision of care to ethnic minorities. Data at client, midwife and practice level can be linked. Additionally, partners of pregnant women and other care providers were asked about their expectations and experiences regarding the care delivered by midwives and in six practices client consults were videotaped to objectively assess daily practice. In total, 7685 clients completed at least one questionnaire, 136 midwives and

  14. Children's Health and Indoor Air Quality in Primary Schools and Homes in Portugal-Study Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madureira, Joana; Paciência, Inês; Ramos, Elisabete; Barros, Henrique; Pereira, Cristiana; Teixeira, João Paulo; Fernandes, Eduardo de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the research project "On the Contribution of Schools to Children's Overall Indoor Air Exposure" is to study associations between adverse health effects, namely, allergy, asthma, and respiratory symptoms, and indoor air pollutants to which children are exposed to in primary schools and homes. Specifically, this investigation reports on the design of the study and methods used for data collection within the research project and discusses factors that need to be considered when designing such a study. Further, preliminary findings concerning descriptors of selected characteristics in schools and homes, the study population, and clinical examination are presented. The research project was designed in two phases. In the first phase, 20 public primary schools were selected and a detailed inspection and indoor air quality (IAQ) measurements including volatile organic compounds (VOC), aldehydes, particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), bacteria, fungi, temperature, and relative humidity were conducted. A questionnaire survey of 1600 children of ages 8-9 years was undertaken and a lung function test, exhaled nitric oxide (eNO), and tear film stability testing were performed. The questionnaire focused on children's health and on the environment in their school and homes. One thousand and ninety-nine questionnaires were returned. In the second phase, a subsample of 68 children was enrolled for further studies, including a walk-through inspection and checklist and an extensive set of IAQ measurements in their homes. The acquired data are relevant to assess children's environmental exposures and health status.

  15. Partnership effectiveness in primary community care networks: A national empirical analysis of partners' coordination infrastructure designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Blossom Yen-Ju; Lin, Yung-Kai; Lin, Cheng-Chieh

    2010-01-01

    Previous empirical and managerial studies have ignored the effectiveness of integrated health networks. It has been argued that the varying definitions and strategic imperatives of integrated organizations may have complicated the assessment of the outcomes/performance of varying models, particularly when their market structures and contexts differed. This study aimed to empirically verify a theoretical perspective on the coordination infrastructure designs and the effectiveness of the primary community care networks (PCCNs) formed and funded by the Bureau of National Health Insurance since March 2003. The PCCNs present a model to replace the traditional fragmented providers in Taiwan's health care. The study used a cross-sectional mailed survey designed to ascertain partnership coordination infrastructure and integration of governance, clinical care, bonding, finances, and information. The outcome indicators were PCCNs' perceived performance and willingness to remain within the network. Structural equation modeling examined the causal relationships, controlling for organizational and environmental factors. Primary data collection occurred from February through December 2005, via structured questionnaires sent to 172 PCCNs. Using the individual PCCN as the unit of analysis, the results found that a network's efforts regarding coordination infrastructures were positively related to the PCCN's perceived performance and willingness to remain within the network. In addition, PCCNs practicing in rural areas and in areas with higher density of medical resources had better perceived effectiveness and willingness to cooperate in the network.Practical Implication: The lack of both an operational definition and an information about system-wide integration may have obstructed understanding of integrated health networks' organizational dynamics. This study empirically examined individual PCCNs and offers new insights on how to improve networks' organizational design and

  16. Conceptual design and related R and D on ITER mechanical based primary pumping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanzawa, Sadamitsu; Hiroki, Seiji; Abe, Tetsuya; Shimizu, Katsusuke; Inoue, Masahiko; Watanabe, Mitsunori; Iguchi, Masashi; Sugimoto, Tomoko; Inohara, Takashi; Nakamura, Jun-ichi

    2008-12-01

    The primary vacuum pumping system of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) exhausts a helium (He) ash resulting from the DT-burn with excess DT fueling gas, as well as performing a variety of functions such as pump-down, leak testing and wall conditioning. A mechanical based vacuum pumping system has some merits of a continuous pumping, a much lower tritium inventory, a lower operational cost and easy maintenance, comparing with a cryopump system, although demerits of an indispensable magnetic shield and insufficient performance for hydrogen (H 2 ) pumping is are well recognized. To overcome the demerits, we newly fabricated and tested a helical grooved pump (HGP) unit suitable for H 2 pumping at the ITER divertor pressure of 0.1-10 Pa. Through this R and D, we successfully established many design and manufacturing databases of large HGP units for the lightweight gas pumping. Based on the databases, we conceptually designed the ITER vacuum pumping system mainly comprising the HGP with an optimal pump unit layout and a magnetic shield. We also designed conceptually the reduced cost (RC)-ITER pumping system, where a compound molecular pump combining turbine bladed rotors and helical grooved ones was mainly used. The ITER mechanical based primary pumping system proposed has eventually been a back-up solution, whereas a cryopump based one was formally selected to the ITER for construction. The mechanical pumps are increasingly used in many areas with well sophisticated performance, so we believe that fusion reactors of subsequent prototype ones will select the mechanical based pumping system due to primarily a high operational reliability and a cost melt. (author)

  17. Bi-objective integrating sustainable order allocation and sustainable supply chain network strategic design with stochastic demand using a novel robust hybrid multi-objective metaheuristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Jafarian, Ahmad; Nourbakhsh, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    simultaneously considering the sustainable OAP in the sustainable SCND as a strategic decision. The proposed supply chain network is composed of five echelons including suppliers classified in different classes, plants, distribution centers that dispatch products via two different ways, direct shipment......, a novel multi-objective hybrid approach called MOHEV with two strategies for its best particle selection procedure (BPSP), minimum distance, and crowding distance is proposed. MOHEV is constructed through hybridization of two multi-objective algorithms, namely the adapted multi-objective electromagnetism...

  18. The Primary Experiments of an Analysis of Pareto Solutions for Conceptual Design Optimization Problem of Hybrid Rocket Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Fumiya; Yoshikawa, Tomohiro; Furuhashi, Takeshi

    Recentry, Multi-objective Genetic Algorithm, which is the application of Genetic Algorithm to Multi-objective Optimization Problems is focused on in the engineering design field. In this field, the analysis of design variables in the acquired Pareto solutions, which gives the designers useful knowledge in the applied problem, is important as well as the acquisition of advanced solutions. This paper proposes a new visualization method using Isomap which visualizes the geometric distances of solutions in the design variable space considering their distances in the objective space. The proposed method enables a user to analyze the design variables of the acquired solutions considering their relationship in the objective space. This paper applies the proposed method to the conceptual design optimization problem of hybrid rocket engine and studies the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  19. A new iterative approach for multi-objective fault detection observer design and its application to a hypersonic vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Di; Duan, Zhisheng

    2018-03-01

    This paper addresses the multi-objective fault detection observer design problems for a hypersonic vehicle. Owing to the fact that parameters' variations, modelling errors and disturbances are inevitable in practical situations, system uncertainty is considered in this study. By fully utilising the orthogonal space information of output matrix, some new understandings are proposed for the construction of Lyapunov matrix. Sufficient conditions for the existence of observers to guarantee the fault sensitivity and disturbance robustness in infinite frequency domain are presented. In order to further relax the conservativeness, slack matrices are introduced to fully decouple the observer gain with the Lyapunov matrices in finite frequency range. Iterative linear matrix inequality algorithms are proposed to obtain the solutions. The simulation examples which contain a Monte Carlo campaign illustrate that the new methods can effectively reduce the design conservativeness compared with the existing methods.

  20. Rotor Design of IPMSM Traction Motor Based on Multi- Objective Optimization using BFGS Method and Train Motion Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ahmadi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a multiobjective optimal design method of interior permanent magnet synchronous motor ( IPMSM for traction applications so as to maximize average torque and to minimize torque ripple has been presented. Based on train motion equations and physical properties of train, desired specifications such as steady state speed, rated output power, acceleration time and rated speed of traction motor are related to each other. By considering the same output power, steady state speed, rated voltage, rated current and different acceleration time for a specified train, multiobjective optimal design has been performed by Broyden–Fletcher–Goldfarb–Shanno (BFGS method and finite element method (FEM has been chosen as an analysis tool. BFGS method is one of Quasi Newton methods and is counted in classic approaches. Classic optimization methods are appropriate when FEM is applied as an analysis tool and objective function isn’t expressed in closed form in terms of optimization variables.

  1. [Design and validation of a questionnaire for psychosocial nursing diagnosis in Primary Care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito-Brito, Pedro Ruymán; Rodríguez-Álvarez, Cristobalina; Sierra-López, Antonio; Rodríguez-Gómez, José Ángel; Aguirre-Jaime, Armando

    2012-01-01

    To develop a valid, reliable and easy-to-use questionnaire for a psychosocial nursing diagnosis. The study was performed in two phases: first phase, questionnaire design and construction; second phase, validity and reliability tests. A bank of items was constructed using the NANDA classification as a theoretical framework. Each item was assigned a Likert scale or dichotomous response. The combination of responses to the items constituted the diagnostic rules to assign up to 28 labels. A group of experts carried out the validity test for content. Other validated scales were used as reference standards for the criterion validity tests. Forty-five nurses provided the questionnaire to the patients on three separate occasions over a period of three weeks, and the other validated scales only once to 188 randomly selected patients in Primary Care centres in Tenerife (Spain). Validity tests for construct confirmed the six dimensions of the questionnaire with 91% of total variance explained. Validity tests for criterion showed a specificity of 66%-100%, and showed high correlations with the reference scales when the questionnaire was assigning nursing diagnoses. Reliability tests showed agreement of 56%-91% (PQuestionnaire for Psychosocial Nursing Diagnosis was called CdePS, and included 61 items. The CdePS is a valid, reliable and easy-to-use tool in Primary Care centres to improve the assigning of a psychosocial nursing diagnosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of a fuzzy logic method to build objective functions in optimization problems: application to BWR fuel lattice design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-del-Campo, C.; Francois, J.L.; Barragan, A.M.; Palomera, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we develop a methodology based on the use of the Fuzzy Logic technique to build multi-objective functions to be used in optimization processes applied to in-core nuclear fuel management. As an example, we selected the problem of determining optimal radial fuel enrichment and gadolinia distributions in a typical 'Boiling Water Reactor (BWR)' fuel lattice. The methodology is based on the use of the mathematical capability of Fuzzy Logic to model nonlinear functions of arbitrary complexity. The utility of Fuzzy Logic is to map an input space into an output space, and the primary mechanism for doing this is a list of if-then statements called rules. The rules refer to variables and adjectives that describe those variables and, the Fuzzy Logic technique interprets the values in the input vectors and, based on the set of rules assigns values to the output vector. The methodology was developed for the radial optimization of a BWR lattice where the optimization algorithm employed is Tabu Search. The global objective is to find the optimal distribution of enrichments and burnable poison concentrations in a 10*10 BWR lattice. In order to do that, a fuzzy control inference system was developed using the Fuzzy Logic Toolbox of Matlab and it has been linked to the Tabu Search optimization process. Results show that Tabu Search combined with Fuzzy Logic performs very well, obtaining lattices with optimal fuel utilization. (authors)

  3. A Dynamic Design Space for Primary Drying During Batch Freeze-Drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortier, Séverine Thérèse F C; Van Bockstal, Pieter Jan; Nopens, Ingmar

    2016-01-01

    Biopharmaceutical products are emerging within the pharmaceutical industry. However, biopharmaceuticals are often unstable in aqueous solution. Freeze-drying (lyophilisation) is the preferred method to achieve a stable product with an increased shelf-life. During batch freeze-drying, there are only...... two adaptable process variables, i.e. the shelf temperature and the pressure in the drying chamber. The value of both should be optimized, preferably in a dynamic way, to minimise the primary drying time while respecting process and equipment constraints and ensuring end product quality. A mechanistic...... model is used to determine the optimal values for the adaptable variables, hereby accounting for the uncertainty in all involved model parameters. A dynamic Design Space was constructed with a risk of failure acceptance level of 0.01%, i.e. a 'zero-failure' situation. Even for a risk of failure of 0...

  4. Geographical and organisational variation in the structure of primary care services: implications for study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Geoffrey; Gulliford, Martin; Ukoumunne, Obioha; Chinn, Susan; Campbell, Michael

    2003-04-01

    To evaluate the extent to which structural variation between English general practices is accounted for at higher organisational levels in the National Health Service (NHS). We analysed data for 11 structural characteristics of all general practices in England. These included characteristics of general practitioners (GPs), the practice list and the services provided by practices. A four-level random effects model was used for analysis and components of variance were estimated at the levels of practice, primary care group (PCG), health authority and region. The proportion of single-handed practices ranged from 0% to 74% at PCG level and from 14% to 43% in different regions. The proportion of practices providing diabetes services ranged from 0% to 100% at PCG level and from 71% to 96% in different regions. The list size per GP ranged from 1314 to 2704 patients per GP at PCG level and from 1721 to 2225 at regional level. Across the 11 variables analysed, components of variance at general practice level accounted for between 43% and 95% of the total variance. The PCG level accounted for between 1% and 29%, the health authority level for between 2% and 15% and the regional level for between 0% and 13% of the total variance. Adjusting for an index of deprivation and the supply of GPs gave a median 8% decrease in the sum of variance components. Geographical and organisational variation in the structure of primary care services should be considered in designing studies in health systems such as the English NHS. Stratified designs may be used to increase study efficiency, but variation between areas may sometimes compromise generalisability.

  5. DAKOTA : a multilevel parallel object-oriented framework for design optimization, parameter estimation, uncertainty quantification, and sensitivity analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldred, Michael Scott; Vigil, Dena M.; Dalbey, Keith R.; Bohnhoff, William J.; Adams, Brian M.; Swiler, Laura Painton; Lefantzi, Sophia (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Hough, Patricia Diane (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Eddy, John P.

    2011-12-01

    The DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications) toolkit provides a flexible and extensible interface between simulation codes and iterative analysis methods. DAKOTA contains algorithms for optimization with gradient and nongradient-based methods; uncertainty quantification with sampling, reliability, and stochastic expansion methods; parameter estimation with nonlinear least squares methods; and sensitivity/variance analysis with design of experiments and parameter study methods. These capabilities may be used on their own or as components within advanced strategies such as surrogate-based optimization, mixed integer nonlinear programming, or optimization under uncertainty. By employing object-oriented design to implement abstractions of the key components required for iterative systems analyses, the DAKOTA toolkit provides a flexible and extensible problem-solving environment for design and performance analysis of computational models on high performance computers. This report serves as a theoretical manual for selected algorithms implemented within the DAKOTA software. It is not intended as a comprehensive theoretical treatment, since a number of existing texts cover general optimization theory, statistical analysis, and other introductory topics. Rather, this manual is intended to summarize a set of DAKOTA-related research publications in the areas of surrogate-based optimization, uncertainty quantification, and optimization under uncertainty that provide the foundation for many of DAKOTA's iterative analysis capabilities.

  6. Process Management and Exception Handling in Multiprocessor Operating Systems Using Object-Oriented Design Techniques. Revised Sep. 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Vincent; Johnston, Gary; Campbell, Roy

    1988-01-01

    The programming of the interrupt handling mechanisms, process switching primitives, scheduling mechanism, and synchronization primitives of an operating system for a multiprocessor require both efficient code in order to support the needs of high- performance or real-time applications and careful organization to facilitate maintenance. Although many advantages have been claimed for object-oriented class hierarchical languages and their corresponding design methodologies, the application of these techniques to the design of the primitives within an operating system has not been widely demonstrated. To investigate the role of class hierarchical design in systems programming, the authors have constructed the Choices multiprocessor operating system architecture the C++ programming language. During the implementation, it was found that many operating system design concerns can be represented advantageously using a class hierarchical approach, including: the separation of mechanism and policy; the organization of an operating system into layers, each of which represents an abstract machine; and the notions of process and exception management. In this paper, we discuss an implementation of the low-level primitives of this system and outline the strategy by which we developed our solution.

  7. Dakota, a multilevel parallel object-oriented framework for design optimization, parameter estimation, uncertainty quantification, and sensitivity analysis :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Brian M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ebeida, Mohamed Salah [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Eldred, Michael S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jakeman, John Davis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swiler, Laura Painton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stephens, John Adam [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vigil, Dena M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wildey, Timothy Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bohnhoff, William J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Eddy, John P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hu, Kenneth T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dalbey, Keith R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bauman, Lara E [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hough, Patricia Diane [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The Dakota (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications) toolkit provides a exible and extensible interface between simulation codes and iterative analysis methods. Dakota contains algorithms for optimization with gradient and nongradient-based methods; uncertainty quanti cation with sampling, reliability, and stochastic expansion methods; parameter estimation with nonlinear least squares methods; and sensitivity/variance analysis with design of experiments and parameter study methods. These capabilities may be used on their own or as components within advanced strategies such as surrogate-based optimization, mixed integer nonlinear programming, or optimization under uncertainty. By employing object-oriented design to implement abstractions of the key components required for iterative systems analyses, the Dakota toolkit provides a exible and extensible problem-solving environment for design and performance analysis of computational models on high performance computers. This report serves as a user's manual for the Dakota software and provides capability overviews and procedures for software execution, as well as a variety of example studies.

  8. Design of a Fractional Order Frequency PID Controller for an Islanded Microgrid: A Multi-Objective Extremal Optimization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Fractional order proportional-integral-derivative(FOPID controllers have attracted increasing attentions recently due to their better control performance than the traditional integer-order proportional-integral-derivative (PID controllers. However, there are only few studies concerning the fractional order control of microgrids based on evolutionary algorithms. From the perspective of multi-objective optimization, this paper presents an effective FOPID based frequency controller design method called MOEO-FOPID for an islanded microgrid by using a Multi-objective extremal optimization (MOEO algorithm to minimize frequency deviation and controller output signal simultaneously in order to improve finally the efficient operation of distributed generations and energy storage devices. Its superiority to nondominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II based FOPID/PID controllers and other recently reported single-objective evolutionary algorithms such as Kriging-based surrogate modeling and real-coded population extremal optimization-based FOPID controllers is demonstrated by the simulation studies on a typical islanded microgrid in terms of the control performance including frequency deviation, deficit grid power, controller output signal and robustness.

  9. Designing a Primary Science Curriculum in a Globalizing World: How Do Social Constructivism and Vietnamese Culture Meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    H?ng, Ngô Vu Thu; Meijer, Marijn Roland; Bulte, Astrid M. W.; Pilot, Albert

    2017-01-01

    The implementation of social constructivist approaches to learning science in primary education in Vietnamese culture as an example of Confucian heritage culture remains challenging and problematic. This theoretical paper focuses on the initial phase of a design-based research approach; that is, the description of the design of a formal, written…

  10. Observing how others lift light or heavy objects: which visual cues mediate the encoding of muscular force in the primary motor cortex?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaerts, Kaat; Swinnen, Stephan P; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2010-06-01

    Observers are able to judge quite accurately the weights lifted by others. Only recently, neuroscience has focused on the role of the motor system to accomplish this task. In this respect, a previous transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) study showed that the muscular force requirements of an observed action are encoded by the primary motor cortex (M1). Overall, three distinct visual sources may provide information on the applied force of an observed lifting action, namely, (i) the perceived kinematics, (ii) the hand contraction state and finally (iii) intrinsic object properties. The principal aim of the present study was to disentangle these three visual sources and to explore their importance in mediating the encoding of muscular force requirements in the observer's motor system. A series of experiments are reported in which TMS was used to measure 'force-related' responses from the hand representation in left M1 while subjects observed distinct action-stimuli. Overall, results indicated that observation-induced activity in M1 reflects the level of observed force when kinematic cues of the lift (exp. 1) or cues on the hand contraction state (exp. 2) are available. Moreover, when kinematic cues and intrinsic object properties provide distinct information on the force requirements of an observed lifting action, results from experiment 3 indicated a strong preference for the use of kinematic features in mapping the force requirements of the observed action. In general, these findings support the hypothesis that the primary motor cortex contributes to action observation by mapping the muscle-related features of observed actions. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Object-oriented philosophy in designing adaptive finite-element package for 3D elliptic deferential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhengyong, R.; Jingtian, T.; Changsheng, L.; Xiao, X.

    2007-12-01

    Although adaptive finite-element (AFE) analysis is becoming more and more focused in scientific and engineering fields, its efficient implementations are remain to be a discussed problem as its more complex procedures. In this paper, we propose a clear C++ framework implementation to show the powerful properties of Object-oriented philosophy (OOP) in designing such complex adaptive procedure. In terms of the modal functions of OOP language, the whole adaptive system is divided into several separate parts such as the mesh generation or refinement, a-posterior error estimator, adaptive strategy and the final post processing. After proper designs are locally performed on these separate modals, a connected framework of adaptive procedure is formed finally. Based on the general elliptic deferential equation, little efforts should be added in the adaptive framework to do practical simulations. To show the preferable properties of OOP adaptive designing, two numerical examples are tested. The first one is the 3D direct current resistivity problem in which the powerful framework is efficiently shown as only little divisions are added. And then, in the second induced polarization£¨IP£©exploration case, new adaptive procedure is easily added which adequately shows the strong extendibility and re-usage of OOP language. Finally we believe based on the modal framework adaptive implementation by OOP methodology, more advanced adaptive analysis system will be available in future.

  12. Maximization of primary energy savings of solar heating and cooling systems by transient simulations and computer design of experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calise, F.; Palombo, A.; Vanoli, L.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the simulation of the performance of solar-assisted heating and cooling systems is analyzed. Three different plant layouts are considered: (i) the first one consists of evacuated solar collectors and a single-stage LiBr-H 2 O absorption chiller; here in order to integrate the system in case of insufficient solar radiation, an electric water-cooled chiller is activated; (ii) configuration of the secondly considered system is similar to the first one, but the absorption chiller and the solar collector area are sized for balancing about 30% of the building cooling load only; (iii) the layout of the thirdly considered system differs from the first one since the auxiliary electric chiller is replaced by a gas-fired heater. Such system configurations also include: circulation pumps, storage tanks, feedback controllers, mixers, diverters and on/off hysteresis controllers. All such devices are modelled for maximizing the system energy efficiency. In order to simulate the systems' performance for dynamic heating/cooling loads, a single-lumped capacitance building is also modelled and implemented in the computer code. A cost model is also developed in order to calculate the systems' operating and capital costs. All the models and the relative simulations are carried out by TRNSYS. A design of experiment procedure is also included. By such tool the effects of the system operating parameters' variation on the relative energy efficiency are analyzed. In addition, the set of synthesis/design variables maximizing the system's energetic performance can be also identified. The annual primary energy saving is chosen as the optimization objective function, whereas collector slope, pump flows, set-point temperatures and tank volume are selected as optimizing system design variables. A case study was developed for an office building located in South Italy. Here, the energetic and the economic analysis for all the three considered system layouts are carried out. The

  13. Multi-objective optimal design of magnetorheological engine mount based on an improved non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ling; Duan, Xuwei; Deng, Zhaoxue; Li, Yinong

    2014-03-01

    A novel flow-mode magneto-rheological (MR) engine mount integrated a diaphragm de-coupler and the spoiler plate is designed and developed to isolate engine and the transmission from the chassis in a wide frequency range and overcome the stiffness in high frequency. A lumped parameter model of the MR engine mount in single degree of freedom system is further developed based on bond graph method to predict the performance of the MR engine mount accurately. The optimization mathematical model is established to minimize the total of force transmissibility over several frequency ranges addressed. In this mathematical model, the lumped parameters are considered as design variables. The maximum of force transmissibility and the corresponding frequency in low frequency range as well as individual lumped parameter are limited as constraints. The multiple interval sensitivity analysis method is developed to select the optimized variables and improve the efficiency of optimization process. An improved non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) is used to solve the multi-objective optimization problem. The synthesized distance between the individual in Pareto set and the individual in possible set in engineering is defined and calculated. A set of real design parameters is thus obtained by the internal relationship between the optimal lumped parameters and practical design parameters for the MR engine mount. The program flowchart for the improved non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) is given. The obtained results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed optimization approach in minimizing the total of force transmissibility over several frequency ranges addressed.

  14. The Tennessee Children's Respiratory Initiative: Objectives, design and recruitment results of a prospective cohort study investigating infant viral respiratory illness and the development of asthma and allergic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartert, Tina V; Carroll, Kecia; Gebretsadik, Tebeb; Woodward, Kimberly; Minton, Patricia

    2010-05-01

    The 'attack rate' of asthma following viral lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) is about 3-4 fold higher than that of the general population; however, the majority of children who develop viral LRTI during infancy do not develop asthma, and asthma incidence has been observed to continuously decrease with age. Thus, we do not understand how viral LRTI either predispose or serve as a marker of children to develop asthma. The Tennessee Children's Respiratory Initiative has been established as a longitudinal prospective investigation of infants and their biological mothers. The primary goals are to investigate both the acute and the long-term health consequences of varying severity and aetiology of clinically significant viral respiratory tract infections on early childhood outcomes. Over four respiratory viral seasons, 2004–2008, term, predominantly non-low weight previously healthy infants and their biological mothers were enrolled during an infant's acute viral respiratory illness.Longitudinal follow up to age 6 years is ongoing [corrected]. This report describes the study objectives, design and recruitment results of the over 650 families enrolled in this longitudinal investigation. The Tennessee Children's Respiratory Initiative is additionally unique because it is designed in parallel with a large retrospective birth cohort of over 95,000 mother-infant dyads with similar objectives to investigate the role of respiratory viral infection severity and aetiology in the development of asthma. Future reports from this cohort will help to clarify the complex relationship between infant respiratory viral infection severity, aetiology, atopic predisposition and the subsequent development of early childhood asthma and atopic diseases.

  15. Conceptual Design on Primary Control Rod Drive Mechanism of a Prototype Gen-IV SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Han; Koo, Gyeong Hoi

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the key concept of the drive mechanism, and suggests a required motor power and reducer gears to meet the functional design requirements, and a seismic response analysis of CRDM housing is performed to check its structural integrity. An AC servo motor is selected as a CRA driving power because it uses permanent magnets and is brushless type while DC motor needs a brush and a coil rotates. The control shim motor size is constrained by a housing diameter of 250mm. The driving system has several design requirements. To calculate the motor power, the drive shaft torque is needed. One part of the drive shaft has a lead screw, driving by a ball-nut. The ball screw driver torque (Tr) is calculated by some equations as follow; A servo motor with a nominal power of 100W, a nominal torque of 0.32 N-m (max. 0.48N-m) is selected considering a safety margin. Its diameter is about 50mm. The fast drive-in motor needs a strong power to insert enforcedly the stuck CRA into core within a required time. The motor sizes are calculated by the same procedure. The diameters are in the range of 80mm to 110mm by the insertion time (10 ∼ 24 seconds). The prototype Gen-IV SFR (sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) is of 150MWe capacity. The reactor has six primary control rod assemblies(CRAs). The primary control rod is used for power control, burn-up compensation and reactor shutdown in response to demands from the plant control or protection systems. The control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) consists of the drive motor assembly, the driveline, and its housing. The driveline consists of three concentric members of a drive shaft, a tension tube, and a position indicator rod, and it connects the drive motor assembly to the CRA. Main issue is that these many driving parts shall be enclosed within a limited housing diameter because the available pitch of CRDMs is limited by 300mm

  16. Conceptual Design on Primary Control Rod Drive Mechanism of a Prototype Gen-IV SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Han; Koo, Gyeong Hoi [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    This paper describes the key concept of the drive mechanism, and suggests a required motor power and reducer gears to meet the functional design requirements, and a seismic response analysis of CRDM housing is performed to check its structural integrity. An AC servo motor is selected as a CRA driving power because it uses permanent magnets and is brushless type while DC motor needs a brush and a coil rotates. The control shim motor size is constrained by a housing diameter of 250mm. The driving system has several design requirements. To calculate the motor power, the drive shaft torque is needed. One part of the drive shaft has a lead screw, driving by a ball-nut. The ball screw driver torque (Tr) is calculated by some equations as follow; A servo motor with a nominal power of 100W, a nominal torque of 0.32 N-m (max. 0.48N-m) is selected considering a safety margin. Its diameter is about 50mm. The fast drive-in motor needs a strong power to insert enforcedly the stuck CRA into core within a required time. The motor sizes are calculated by the same procedure. The diameters are in the range of 80mm to 110mm by the insertion time (10 ∼ 24 seconds). The prototype Gen-IV SFR (sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) is of 150MWe capacity. The reactor has six primary control rod assemblies(CRAs). The primary control rod is used for power control, burn-up compensation and reactor shutdown in response to demands from the plant control or protection systems. The control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) consists of the drive motor assembly, the driveline, and its housing. The driveline consists of three concentric members of a drive shaft, a tension tube, and a position indicator rod, and it connects the drive motor assembly to the CRA. Main issue is that these many driving parts shall be enclosed within a limited housing diameter because the available pitch of CRDMs is limited by 300mm.

  17. The design and rationale of the primary angioplasty registry of Kerala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabir A

    2017-11-01

    Conclusions: The primary angioplasty registry of Kerala would help analyze the quality and outcomes of primary PCI services in Kerala, thereby yielding insights that can help limit unacceptable procedural variations in the performance of primary PCI. Identifying deviations from guideline based therapies can form the basis of quality improvement programs, which in turn will enable hospitals to achieve better patient outcomes.

  18. Multi-Objective Optimal Design of Stand-Alone Hybrid Energy System Using Entropy Weight Method Based on HOMER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxin Lu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of hybrid energy system (HES is generally considered as a promising way to satisfy the electrification requirements for remote areas. In the present study, a novel decision making methodology is proposed to identify the best compromise configuration of HES from a set of feasible combinations obtained from HOMER. For this purpose, a multi-objective function, which comprises four crucial and representative indices, is formulated by applying the weighted sum method. The entropy weight method is employed as a quantitative methodology for weighting factors calculation to enhance the objectivity of decision-making. Moreover, the optimal design of a stand-alone PV/wind/battery/diesel HES in Yongxing Island, China, is conducted as a case study to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Both the simulation and optimization results indicate that, the optimization method is able to identify the best trade-off configuration among system reliability, economy, practicability and environmental sustainability. Several useful conclusions are given by analyzing the operation of the best configuration.

  19. Designing a primary science curriculum in a globalizing world: How do social constructivism and Vietnamese culture meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hằng, Ngô Vũ Thu; Meijer, Marijn Roland; Bulte, Astrid M. W.; Pilot, Albert

    2017-09-01

    The implementation of social constructivist approaches to learning science in primary education in Vietnamese culture as an example of Confucian heritage culture remains challenging and problematic. This theoretical paper focuses on the initial phase of a design-based research approach; that is, the description of the design of a formal, written curriculum for primary science education in which features of social constructivist approaches to learning are synthesized with essential aspects of Vietnamese culture. The written design comprises learning aims, a framework that is the synthesis of learning functions, learning settings and educational expectations for learning phases, and exemplary curriculum units. Learning aims are formulated to comprehensively develop scientific knowledge, skills, and attitudes toward science for primary students. Derived from these learning aims, the designed framework consists of four learning phases respectively labeled as Engagement, Experience, Exchange, and Follow-up. The designed framework refers to knowledge of the "nature of science" education and characteristics of Vietnamese culture as an example of Confucian heritage culture. The curriculum design aims to serve as an educational product that addresses previously analyzed problems of primary science education in the Vietnamese culture in a globalizing world.

  20. Multi-physics and multi-objective design of heterogeneous SFR core: development of an optimization method under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammar, Karim

    2014-01-01

    Since Phenix shutting down in 2010, CEA does not have Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) in operating condition. According to global energetic challenge and fast reactor abilities, CEA launched a program of industrial demonstrator called ASTRID (Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial Demonstration), a reactor with electric power capacity equal to 600 MW. Objective of the prototype is, in first to be a response to environmental constraints, in second demonstrates the industrial viability of SFR reactor. The goal is to have a safety level at least equal to 3. generation reactors. ASTRID design integrates Fukushima feedback; Waste reprocessing (with minor actinide transmutation) and it linked industry. Installation safety is the priority. In all cases, no radionuclide should be released into environment. To achieve this objective, it is imperative to predict the impact of uncertainty sources on reactor behaviour. In this context, this thesis aims to develop new optimization methods for SFR cores. The goal is to improve the robustness and reliability of reactors in response to existing uncertainties. We will use ASTRID core as reference to estimate interest of new methods and tools developed. The impact of multi-Physics uncertainties in the calculation of the core performance and the use of optimization methods introduce new problems: How to optimize 'complex' cores (i.e. associated with design spaces of high dimensions with more than 20 variable parameters), taking into account the uncertainties? What is uncertainties behaviour for optimization core compare to reference core? Taking into account uncertainties, optimization core are they still competitive? Optimizations improvements are higher than uncertainty margins? The thesis helps to develop and implement methods necessary to take into account uncertainties in the new generation of simulation tools. Statistical methods to ensure consistency of complex multi-Physics simulation results are also

  1. Techno–economic design of hybrid electric vehicles and possibilities of the multi-objective optimization structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrova, Zlatina; Maréchal, François

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The full hybrid electric vehicle suits for sustainable urban mobility and customer investment. • The full hybrid electric urban vehicle is efficient, with consumption less than 2 L/100 km. • The range extender vehicle is a technology for low CO_2 emissions – less than 20 g/km CO_2_. • The total CO_2 emissions for range extender and plug-in vehicles are sensitive to the use place. - Abstract: The design criteria for modern sustainable development of vehicle powertrain are the high energy efficiency of the conversion system, the competitive cost and the lowest possible environmental impacts. In this article a multi-objective optimization methodology is applied on hybrid electric vehicles study in order to define the optimal powertrain configurations of the vehicle, estimate the cost of the powertrain equipment and show the environmental impact of the technical choices on the lifecycle perspective of the vehicle. The study illustrates optimal design solutions for low fuel consumption vehicles – between 2 L/100 km and 3 L/100 km. For that a simulation model of a hybrid electric vehicle is made. This model is coupled with a cost model for the vehicle. The techno–economic optimizations are performed for two case studies, illustrating the possibilities of the optimization superstructure. Firstly the life cycle inventory is written as a function of the parameters of the techno–economic model. In this way, the obtained environmental indicators from the life cycle assessment are calculated as a function of the decision variables for the vehicle design. In the second example the parameters of the energy distribution function are included as decision variables in the techno–economic optimization and are simultaneously optimized.

  2. DESIGNING EDUCATIONAL PROCESS OF FORMING SOCIAL AND PEDAGOGICAL COMPETENCE OF FUTURE PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IN INCLUSIVE SECONDARY SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoia Shevtsiv

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the issue of social and pedagogical competence of future primary school teacher in inclusive secondary schools. The aim of the article is to define the concept “design” and “pedagogical design”; to disclose methodological approaches and main features of pedagogical design of forming of social and pedagogical competence of future primary school teacher in inclusive secondary schools; to identify structural elements of social and pedagogical competence. The article analyzes the essence of the concept “design”. The process of designing educational system of social and pedagogical competence of future primary school teacher in inclusive secondary school is based on several interrelated methodological approaches, including systematic, axiological, active, person-centered, contextual acmeological, and competential ones. Important factors and theoretical starting positions are designing general principles of education: humanism and democracy; principles of teaching, scientific, professional orientation, integrity, communication theory and practice, consistency and systematic, variability, pedagogical creativity. The special principles are the following: problematic, technologizing, dialogization, and competence ones. Social and pedagogical competence of future primary school teachers in inclusive secondary school is structured by the cognitive, active, professional and personal components. Structure components are defined as a synthesis of social and pedagogical competences, educational and developmental, communicative, diagnostic, organizational, predictive, preventive, security and defense, correctional and rehabilitation, adaptation items. Established continuity of the educational process of forming social and pedagogical competence of future primary school teacher in inclusive secondary school takes place during the period of study in higher education establishments. The following conclusions are drawn that

  3. Objective and subjective image quality of primary and recurrent squamous cell carcinoma on head and neck low-tube-voltage 80-kVp computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholtz, Jan-Erik; Kaup, Moritz; Kraft, Johannes; Noeske, Eva-Maria; Schulz, Boris; Burck, Iris; Kerl, J.M.; Bauer, Ralf W.; Lehnert, Thomas; Vogl, Thomas J.; Wichmann, Julian L. [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Scheerer, Friedrich [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Cranio-Maxillofacial and Plastic Facial Surgery, Frankfurt (Germany); Wagenblast, Jens [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2015-03-26

    To investigate low-tube-voltage 80-kVp computed tomography (CT) of head and neck primary and recurrent squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) regarding objective and subjective image quality. We retrospectively evaluated 65 patients (47 male, 18 female; mean age: 62.1 years) who underwent head and neck dual-energy CT (DECT) due to biopsy-proven primary (n = 50) or recurrent (n = 15) SCC. Eighty peak kilovoltage and standard blended 120-kVp images were compared. Attenuation and noise of malignancy and various soft tissue structures were measured. Tumor signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated. Subjective image quality was rated by three reviewers using 5-point grading scales regarding overall image quality, lesion delineation, image sharpness, and image noise. Radiation dose was assessed as CT dose index volume (CTDI{sub vol}). Interobserver agreement was calculated using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Mean tumor attenuation (153.8 Hounsfield unit (HU) vs. 97.1 HU), SNR (10.7 vs. 8.3), CNR (8.1 vs. 4.8), and subjective tumor delineation (score, 4.46 vs. 4.13) were significantly increased (all P < 0.001) with 80-kVp acquisition compared to standard blended 120-kVp images. Noise of all measured structures was increased in 80-kVp acquisition (P < 0.001). Overall interobserver agreement was good (ICC, 0.86; 95 % confidence intervals: 0.82-0.89). CTDI{sub vol} was reduced by 48.7 % with 80-kVp acquisition compared to standard DECT (4.85 ± 0.51 vs. 9.94 ± 0.81 mGy cm, P < 0.001). Head and neck CT with low-tube-voltage 80-kVp acquisition provides increased tumor delineation, SNR, and CNR for CT imaging of primary and recurrent SCC compared to standard 120-kVp acquisition with an accompanying significant reduction of radiation exposure. (orig.)

  4. Added value of integrated circuit detector in head CT: objective and subjective image quality in comparison to conventional detector design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Andreas; Bender, Benjamin; Spira, Daniel; Schabel, Christoph; Bhadelia, Rafeeque; Claussen, Claus; Ernemann, Ulrike; Brodoefel, Harald

    2014-12-01

    A new computed tomography (CT) detector with integrated electric components and shorter conducting pathways has recently been introduced to decrease system inherent electronic noise. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential benefit of such integrated circuit detector (ICD) in head CT by comparing objective and subjective image quality in low-dose examinations with a conventional detector design. Using a conventional detector, reduced-dose noncontrast head CT (255 mAs; effective dose, 1.7 mSv) was performed in 25 consecutive patients. Following transition to ICD, 25 consecutive patients were scanned using identical imaging parameters. Images in both groups were reconstructed with iterative reconstruction (IR) and filtered back projection (FBP) and assessed in terms of quantitative and qualitative image quality. Acquisition of head CT using ICD increased signal-to-noise ratio of gray and white matter by 14% (10.0 ± 1.6 vs. 11.4 ± 2.5; P = .02) and 17% (8.2 ± 0.8 vs. 9.6 ± 1.5; P = .000). The associated improvement in contrast-to-noise ratio was 12% (2.0 ± 0.5 vs. 2.2 ± 0.6; P = .121). In addition, there was a 51% increase in objective image sharpness (582 ± 85 vs. 884.5 ± 191; change in HU/Pixel; P < .000). Compared to standard acquisitions, subjective grading of noise and overall image quality scores were significantly improved with ICD (2.1 ± 0.3 vs. 1.6 ± 0.3; P < .000; 2.0 ± 0.5 vs. 1.6 ± 0.3; P = .001). Moreover, streak artifacts in the posterior fossa were substantially reduced (2.3 ± 0.7 vs. 1.7 ± 0.5; P = .004). At the same radiation level, acquisition of head CT with ICD achieves superior objective and subjective image quality and provides potential for significant dose reduction. Copyright © 2014 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Design of the Building Envelope: A Novel Multi-Objective Approach for the Optimization of Energy Performance and Thermal Comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Ascione

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the increasing worldwide attention to energy and the environmental performance of the building sector, building energy demand should be minimized by considering all energy uses. In this regard, the development of building components characterized by proper values of thermal transmittance, thermal capacity, and radiative properties is a key strategy to reduce the annual energy need for the microclimatic control. However, the design of the thermal characteristics of the building envelope is an arduous task, especially in temperate climates where the energy demands for space heating and cooling are balanced. This study presents a novel methodology for optimizing the thermo-physical properties of the building envelope and its coatings, in terms of thermal resistance, capacity, and radiative characteristics of exposed surfaces. A multi-objective approach is adopted in order to optimize energy performance and thermal comfort. The optimization problem is solved by means of a Genetic Algorithm implemented in MATLAB®, which is coupled with EnergyPlus for performing dynamic energy simulations. For demonstration, the methodology is applied to a residential building for two different Mediterranean climates: Naples and Istanbul. The results show that for Naples, because of the higher incidence of cooling demand, cool external coatings imply significant energy savings, whereas the insulation of walls should be high but not excessive (no more than 13–14 cm. The importance of high-reflective coating is clear also in colder Mediterranean climates, like Istanbul, although the optimal thicknesses of thermal insulation are higher (around 16–18 cm. In both climates, the thermal envelope should have a significant mass, obtainable by adopting dense and/or thick masonry layers. Globally, a careful design of the thermal envelope is always necessary in order to achieve high-efficiency buildings.

  6. Development, implementation, and evaluation of an integrated multidisciplinary Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in primary health care settings within limited resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaziz, Adel; Hany, Mohamed; Atwa, Hani; Talaat, Wagdy; Hosny, Somaya

    2016-01-01

    In ordinary circumstances, objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) is a resource-intensive assessment method. In case of developing and implementing multidisciplinary OSCE, there is no doubt that the cost will be greater. Through this study a research project was conducted to develop, implement and evaluate a multidisciplinary OSCE model within limited resources. This research project went through the steps of blueprinting, station writing, resources reallocation, implementation and finally evaluation. The developed model was implemented in the Primary Health Care (PHC) program which is one of the pillars of the Community-Based undergraduate curriculum of the Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University (FOM-SCU). Data for evaluation of the implemented OSCE model were derived from two resources. First, feedback of the students and assessors through self-administered questionnaires was obtained. Second, evaluation of the OSCE psychometrics was done. The deliverables of this research project included a set of validated integrated multi-disciplinary and low cost OSCE stations with an estimated reliability index of 0.6. After having this experience, we have a critical mass of faculty members trained on blueprinting and station writing and a group of trained assessors, facilitators and role players. Also there is a state of awareness among students on how to proceed in this type of OSCE which renders future implementation more feasible.

  7. Classroom observation data and instruction in primary mathematics education: improving design and rigour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Carla J.; Davis, Sandra B.

    2014-06-01

    The use of formal observation in primary mathematics classrooms is supported in the literature as a viable method of determining effective teaching strategies and appropriate tasks for inclusion in the early years of mathematics learning. The twofold aim of this study was to (a) investigate predictive relationships between primary mathematics classroom observational data and student achievement data, and (b) to examine the impact of providing periodic classroom observational data feedback to teachers using a Relational-Feedback-Intervention (RFI) Database Model. This observational research effort focused on an empirical examination of student engagement levels in time spent on specific learning activities observed in primary mathematics classrooms as predictors of student competency outcomes in mathematics. Data were collected from more than 2,000 primary classroom observations in 17 primary schools during 2009-2011 and from standardised end-of-year tests for mathematics achievement. Results revealed predictive relationships among several types of teaching and learning tasks with student achievement. Specifically, the use of mathematics concepts, technology and hands-on materials in primary mathematics classrooms was found to produce substantive predictors of increased student mathematics achievement. Additional findings supported the use of periodic classroom observation data reporting as a positive influence on teachers' decisions in determining instructional tasks for inclusion in primary mathematics classrooms. Study results indicate classroom observational research involving a RFI Database Model is a productive tool for improving teaching and learning in primary mathematics classrooms.

  8. Designing a primary science curriculum in a globalizing world: how do social constructivism and Vietnamese culture meet?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vu Thu Hang, N.; Meijer, M.R.; Bulte, A.M.W.; Pilot, A.

    2017-01-01

    The implementation of social constructivist approaches to learning science in primary education in Vietnamese culture as an example of Confucian heritage culture (CHC) remains challenging and problematic. This theoretical paper focuses on the initial phase of a design-based research approach; that

  9. Incorporating location, routing, and inventory decisions in a bi-objective supply chain design problem with risk-pooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakkoli-Moghaddam, Reza; Forouzanfar, Fateme; Ebrahimnejad, Sadoullah

    2013-07-01

    This paper considers a single-sourcing network design problem for a three-level supply chain. For the first time, a novel mathematical model is presented considering risk-pooling, the inventory existence at distribution centers (DCs) under demand uncertainty, the existence of several alternatives to transport the product between facilities, and routing of vehicles from distribution centers to customer in a stochastic supply chain system, simultaneously. This problem is formulated as a bi-objective stochastic mixed-integer nonlinear programming model. The aim of this model is to determine the number of located distribution centers, their locations, and capacity levels, and allocating customers to distribution centers and distribution centers to suppliers. It also determines the inventory control decisions on the amount of ordered products and the amount of safety stocks at each opened DC, selecting a type of vehicle for transportation. Moreover, it determines routing decisions, such as determination of vehicles' routes starting from an opened distribution center to serve its allocated customers and returning to that distribution center. All are done in a way that the total system cost and the total transportation time are minimized. The Lingo software is used to solve the presented model. The computational results are illustrated in this paper.

  10. Do primary health centres and hospitals contribute equally towards achievement of the transversal clinical competencies of medical students? Performance on the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in competency acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-González, Jorge; Buti, Miquel; Boada, Jordi; Ayala, Victoria; Peñascal, Eduard; Rodriguez, Toni

    2016-01-01

    The adaptation of the educational programmes of European faculties of medicine to the European Higher Education Area guidelines has focused curricula design on competence acquisition. Competencies are defined as the achievements of a predetermined level of efficacy in real-world scenarios. Our objective was to assess whether performance on a common competence evaluation test, the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE), resulted in different scores for second-year students after a practical medical training course took place in a primary health centre (PHC) or in a hospital. A descriptive study was conducted during the 2010-2014 academic year of the OSCE test scores obtained by all second-year students. Faculty of Medicine at the University of Lleida (Catalonia, Spain). We performed a correlation analysis between students who completed their practical medical training at the PHC and hospitals utilising Student's t-test for comparison of means. 423 students who completed internships at the PHC and at hospitals obtained OSCE mean scores of 7.32 (SD; IC) (0.82; 7.18-7.47) points and 7.17 (0.83; 6.07-7.26) points, respectively (p=0.07). Second-year medical students acquired similar competency levels in the two analysed training scenarios. The two areas both serve their teaching purpose. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Primary care physicians' perceived barriers and facilitators to conservative care for older adults with chronic kidney disease: design of a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam-Tham, Helen; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Campbell, David; Thomas, Chandra; Quinn, Robert; Fruetel, Karen; King-Shier, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Guideline committees have identified the need for research to inform the provision of conservative care for older adults with stage 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD) who have a high burden of comorbidity or functional impairment. We will use both qualitative and quantitative methodologies to provide a comprehensive understanding of barriers and facilitators to care for these patients in primary care. Our objectives are to (1) interview primary care physicians to determine their perspectives of conservative care for older adults with stage 5 CKD and (2) survey primary care physicians to determine the prevalence of key barriers and facilitators to provision of conservative care for older adults with stage 5 CKD. A sequential exploratory mixed methods design was adopted for this study. The first phase of the study will involve fundamental qualitative description and the second phase will be a cross-sectional population-based survey. The research is conducted in Alberta, Canada. The participants are primary care physicians with experience in providing care for older adults with stage 5 CKD not planning on initiating dialysis. The first objective will be achieved by undertaking interviews with primary care physicians from southern Alberta. Participants will be selected purposively to include physicians with a range of characteristics (e.g., age, gender, and location of clinical practice). Interviews will be recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using conventional content analysis to generate themes. The second objective will be achieved by undertaking a population-based survey of primary care physicians in Alberta. The questionnaire will be developed based on the findings from the qualitative interviews and pilot tested for face and content validity. Physicians will be provided multiple options to complete the questionnaire including mail, fax, and online methods. Descriptive statistics and associations between demographic factors and barriers and facilitators to

  12. Multi-objective optimization of a compact pressurized water nuclear reactor computational model for biological shielding design using innovative materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunes, M.A., E-mail: matheus.tunes@usp.br [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Escola Politécnica da Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Prof. Mello Moraes, 2463 – CEP 05508 – 030 São Paulo (Brazil); Oliveira, C.R.E. de, E-mail: cassiano@unm.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, The University of New Mexico, Farris Engineering Center, 221, Albuquerque, NM 87131-1070 (United States); Schön, C.G., E-mail: schoen@usp.br [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Escola Politécnica da Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Prof. Mello Moraes, 2463 – CEP 05508 – 030 São Paulo (Brazil)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Use of two n-γ transport codes leads to optimized model of compact nuclear reactor. • It was possible to safely reduce both weight and volume of the biological shielding. • Best configuration obtained by using new composites for both γ and n attenuation. - Abstract: The aim of the present work is to develop a computational model of a compact pressurized water nuclear reactor (PWR) to investigate the use of innovative materials to enhance the biological shielding effectiveness. Two radiation transport codes were used: the first one – MCNP – for the PWR design and the GEM/EVENT to simulate (in a 1D slab) the behavior of several materials and shielding thickness on gamma and neutron radiation. Additionally MATLAB Optimization Toolbox was used to provide new geometric configurations of the slab aiming at reducing the volume and weight of the walls by means of a cost/objective function. It is demonstrated in the reactor model that the dose rate outside biological shielding has been reduced by one order of magnitude for the optimized model compared with the initial configuration. Volume and weight of the shielding walls were also reduced. The results indicated that one-dimensional deterministic code to reach an optimized geometry and test materials, combined with a three-dimensional model of a compact nuclear reactor in a stochastic code, is a fast and efficient procedure to test shielding performance and optimization before the experimental assessment. A major outcome of this research is that composite materials (ECOMASS 2150TU96) may replace (with advantages) traditional shielding materials without jeopardizing the nuclear power plant safety assurance.

  13. Evaluation of scalarization methods and NSGA-II/SPEA2 genetic algorithms for multi-objective optimization of green supply chain design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. van der Plas (Corne); T. Tervonen (Tommi); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis paper considers supply chain design in green logistics. We formulate the choice of an environmentally conscious chain design as a multi-objective optimization (MOO) problem and approximate the Pareto front using the weighted sum and epsilon constraint scalarization methods as well

  14. Components of the primary circuit of LWRs. Design, construction and calculation. Komponenten des Primaerkreises von Leichtwasserreaktoren. Auslegung, Konstruktion und Berechnung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This standard is to be applied to components made of metallic materials, operated at design temperatures of up to 673 K (400 C). The primary circuit as the pressure containment of the reactor coolant comprises: Reactor pressure vessel (without internals), steam generator (primary loop), pressurizer, reactor coolant pump housing, interconnecting pipings between the components mentioned above and appropriate various valve and instrument casings, pipings branding from the above components and interconnecting pipings, including the appropriate instrument casings, up to and including the first isolating valve, pressure shielding of control rod drives.

  15. Brief cognitive behavioral therapy in primary care: a hybrid type 2 patient-randomized effectiveness-implementation design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cully, Jeffrey A; Armento, Maria E A; Mott, Juliette; Nadorff, Michael R; Naik, Aanand D; Stanley, Melinda A; Sorocco, Kristen H; Kunik, Mark E; Petersen, Nancy J; Kauth, Michael R

    2012-07-11

    Despite the availability of evidence-based psychotherapies for depression and anxiety, they are underused in non-mental health specialty settings such as primary care. Hybrid effectiveness-implementation designs have the potential to evaluate clinical and implementation outcomes of evidence-based psychotherapies to improve their translation into routine clinical care practices. This protocol article discusses the study methodology and implementation strategies employed in an ongoing, hybrid, type 2 randomized controlled trial with two primary aims: (1) to determine whether a brief, manualized cognitive behavioral therapy administered by Veterans Affairs Primary Care Mental Health Integration program clinicians is effective in treating depression and anxiety in a sample of medically ill (chronic cardiopulmonary diseases) primary care patients and (2) to examine the acceptability, feasibility, and preliminary outcomes of a focused implementation strategy on improving adoption and fidelity of brief cognitive behavioral therapy at two Primary Care-Mental Health Integration clinics. The study uses a hybrid type 2 effectiveness/implementation design to simultaneously test clinical effectiveness and to collect pilot data on a multifaceted implementation strategy that includes an online training program, audit and feedback of session content, and internal and external facilitation. Additionally, the study engages the participation of an advisory council consisting of stakeholders from Primary Care-Mental Health Integration, as well as regional and national mental health leaders within the Veterans Administration. It targets recruitment of 320 participants randomized to brief cognitive behavioral therapy (n = 200) or usual care (n = 120). Both effectiveness and implementation outcomes are being assessed using mixed methods, including quantitative evaluation (e.g., intent-to-treat analyses across multiple time points) and qualitative methods (e.g., focus interviews

  16. Brief cognitive behavioral therapy in primary care: a hybrid type 2 patient-randomized effectiveness-implementation design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cully Jeffrey A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the availability of evidence-based psychotherapies for depression and anxiety, they are underused in non-mental health specialty settings such as primary care. Hybrid effectiveness-implementation designs have the potential to evaluate clinical and implementation outcomes of evidence-based psychotherapies to improve their translation into routine clinical care practices. Methods This protocol article discusses the study methodology and implementation strategies employed in an ongoing, hybrid, type 2 randomized controlled trial with two primary aims: (1 to determine whether a brief, manualized cognitive behavioral therapy administered by Veterans Affairs Primary Care Mental Health Integration program clinicians is effective in treating depression and anxiety in a sample of medically ill (chronic cardiopulmonary diseases primary care patients and (2 to examine the acceptability, feasibility, and preliminary outcomes of a focused implementation strategy on improving adoption and fidelity of brief cognitive behavioral therapy at two Primary Care-Mental Health Integration clinics. The study uses a hybrid type 2 effectiveness/implementation design to simultaneously test clinical effectiveness and to collect pilot data on a multifaceted implementation strategy that includes an online training program, audit and feedback of session content, and internal and external facilitation. Additionally, the study engages the participation of an advisory council consisting of stakeholders from Primary Care-Mental Health Integration, as well as regional and national mental health leaders within the Veterans Administration. It targets recruitment of 320 participants randomized to brief cognitive behavioral therapy (n = 200 or usual care (n = 120. Both effectiveness and implementation outcomes are being assessed using mixed methods, including quantitative evaluation (e.g., intent-to-treat analyses across multiple time points and

  17. 3. Workshop for IAEA ICSP on Integral PWR Design Natural Circulation Flow Stability and Thermo-hydraulic Coupling of Containment and Primary System during Accidents. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-04-01

    Most advanced nuclear power plant designs adopted several kinds of passive systems. Natural circulation is used as a key driving force for many passive systems and even for core heat removal during normal operation such as NuScale, CAREM, ESBWR and Indian AHWR designs. Simulation of natural circulation phenomena is very challenging since the driving force of it is weak compared to forced circulation and involves a coupling between primary system and containment for integral type reactor. The IAEA ICSP (International Collaborative Standard Problem) on 'Integral PWR Design Natural Circulation Flow Stability and Thermo-hydraulic Coupling of Containment and Primary System during Accidents' was proposed within the CRP on 'Natural Circulation Phenomena, Modelling, and Reliability of Passive Systems that utilize Natural Circulation'. Oregon State University (OSU) of USA offered to host this ICSP. This ICSP plans to conduct the following experiments and blind/open simulations with system codes: 1. Quasi-steady state operation with different core power levels: Conduct quasi-steady state operation with step-wise increase of core power level in order to observe single phase natural circulation flow according to power level. The experimental facility and operating conditions for an integral PWR will be used. 2. Thermo-hydraulic Coupling between Primary system and Containment: Conduct a loss of feedwater transient with subsequent ADS blowdown and long term cooling to determine the progression of a loss of feedwater transient by natural circulation through primary and containment systems. These tests would examine the blowdown phase as well as the long term cooling using sump natural circulation by coupling the primary to containment systems. This data could be used for the evaluation of system codes to determine if they model specific phenomena in an accurate manner. OSU completed planned two ICSP tests in July 2011 and real initial and boundary conditions measured from the

  18. Design Elements and Feasibility of an Organized Multiplayer Mobile Active Videogame for Primary School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Sophie; Bangay, Shaun; Barnett, Lisa M; Ridgers, Nicola D; Salmon, Jo

    2014-12-01

    This article describes the design, development, and implementation feasibility of a purpose-built mobile active videogame (M-AVG) named "Pirate Adventure," which was designed for primary school-aged children to engage in physical activity (PA) and fundamental movement skills (FMS), such as hopping, sidestepping, jumping, or running, in an afterschool setting. The design of "Pirate Adventure" was the result of a collaboration between games designers and health researchers. "Pirate Adventure" was designed and developed using Android(®) (Google, Mountain View, CA) phone sensors to respond to player actions within a playground environment. Using an interactive game framework, players solve clues and complete PA and FMS challenges via sensing the physical world through marked-out key game locations. Fourteen primary school-aged children participated in the feasibility evaluation, which took place in four afternoon sessions. The game was evaluated using Android phone telemetry data and a post-gameplay survey for children on their opinions and enjoyment of the game. The "Pirate Adventure" game design facilitated an enjoyable treasure hunt game (average of 11 minutes of activity per game) with narrative elements supporting children's engagement with movement activities. The majority of children (n=9/13) reported that they would like to play the game again. Combining real world and virtual world content through "Pirate Adventure" was moderately successful, with multiple gameplay sessions occurring. Further implementation feasibility testing, under more controlled conditions, needs to be conducted to assert the benefits of using a M-AVG for children's PA and FMS.

  19. Collaborative stepped care for anxiety disorders in primary care: aims and design of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spinhoven Philip

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Panic disorder (PD and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD are two of the most disabling and costly anxiety disorders seen in primary care. However, treatment quality of these disorders in primary care generally falls beneath the standard of international guidelines. Collaborative stepped care is recommended for improving treatment of anxiety disorders, but cost-effectiveness of such an intervention has not yet been assessed in primary care. This article describes the aims and design of a study that is currently underway. The aim of this study is to evaluate effects and costs of a collaborative stepped care approach in the primary care setting for patients with PD and GAD compared with care as usual. Methods/design The study is a two armed, cluster randomized controlled trial. Care managers and their primary care practices will be randomized to deliver either collaborative stepped care (CSC or care as usual (CAU. In the CSC group a general practitioner, care manager and psychiatrist work together in a collaborative care framework. Stepped care is provided in three steps: 1 guided self-help, 2 cognitive behavioral therapy and 3 antidepressant medication. Primary care patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of PD and/or GAD will be included. 134 completers are needed to attain sufficient power to show a clinically significant effect of 1/2 SD on the primary outcome measure, the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI. Data on anxiety symptoms, mental and physical health, quality of life, health resource use and productivity will be collected at baseline and after three, six, nine and twelve months. Discussion It is hypothesized that the collaborative stepped care intervention will be more cost-effective than care as usual. The pragmatic design of this study will enable the researchers to evaluate what is possible in real clinical practice, rather than under ideal circumstances. Many requirements for a high quality trial are being met. Results of

  20. Using multimedia cases for educating the primary school mathematics teacher educator: a design study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolk, M.L.A.M.; Hertog, den J.B.; Gravemeijer, K.P.E.

    2002-01-01

    The overarching goal of this chapter is to better understand how multimedia video case studies can support the professionalization of primary-school-mathematics teacher educators. We investigate the use of multimedia cases to support teacher educators in learning to mathematize and didactize and to

  1. Design of a social constructivism-based curriculum for primary science education in Confucian heritage culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vu Thu Hang, N.

    2014-01-01

    This study is about the application of social constructivism in primary science curriculum in Confucian heritage culture. It was found that the implementation of social constructivism in Confucian heritage culture was low and influenced by cultural divergences between Confucian cultural philosophy

  2. Development of new design mechanical seal tester for Primary Loop Recirculation Pump (PLR Pump)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Naoki; Koshiba, Koremutsu

    1995-01-01

    The mechanical seal for a Primary Loop Recirculation Pump (PLR Pump) is an important part of a BWR plant. This study describes a new mechanical seal tester developed to certify mechanical seal performance before installation in a PLR Pump on site. (author)

  3. Utilities objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousin, Y.; Fabian, H.U.

    1996-01-01

    The policy of French and german utilities is to make use of nuclear energy as a long term, competitive and environmentally friendly power supply. The world electricity generation is due to double within the next 30 years. In the next 20 to 30 years the necessity of nuclear energy will be broadly recognized. More than for most industries, to deal properly with nuclear energy requires the combination of a consistent political will, of a proper institutional framework, of strong and legitimate control authorities, of a sophisticated industry and of operators with skilled management and human resources. One of the major risk facing nuclear energy is the loss of competitiveness. This can be achieved only through the combination of an optimized design, a consistent standardization, a proper industrial partnership and a stable long term strategy. Although the existing plants in Western Europe are already very safe, the policy is clearly to enhance the safety of the next generation of nuclear plants which are designing today. The French and German utilities have chosen an evolutionary approach based on experience and proven technologies, with an enhanced defense in depth and an objective of easier operation and maintenance. The cost objective is to maintain and improve what has been achieved in the best existing power plants in both countries. This calls for rational choices and optimized design to meet the safety objectives, a strong standardization policy, short construction times, high availability and enough flexibility to enable optimization of the fuel cycle throughout the lifetime of the plants. The conceptual design phase has proven that the French and German teams from industry and from the utilities are able to pursue both the safety and the cost objectives, basing their decision on a rational approach which could be accepted by the safety authorities. (J.S.)

  4. Assertion based verification methodology for HDL designs of primary sodium pump speed and eddy current flow measurement systems of PFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, M.K.; Menon, Saritha P.; Thirugnana Murthy, D.

    2013-01-01

    With the growing complexity and size of digital designs, functional verification has become a huge challenge. The validation and testing process accounts for a significant percentage of the overall development effort and cost for electronic systems. Many studies have shown that up to 70% of the design development time and resources are spent on functional verification. Functional errors manifest themselves very early in the design flow, and unless they are detected upfront, they can result in severe consequences - both financially and from a safety viewpoint. This paper covers the various types of verification methodologies and focuses on Assertion Based Verification Methodology for HDL designs, taking as case studies, the Primary Sodium Pump Speed and Eddy Current Flow Measurement Systems of PFBR. (author)

  5. AN EVALUATION OF PRIMARY DATA-COLLECTION MODES IN AN ADDRESS-BASED SAMPLING DESIGN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, Ashley; Leclere, Felicia; Carris, Kari; Liao, Youlian

    2015-01-01

    As address-based sampling becomes increasingly popular for multimode surveys, researchers continue to refine data-collection best practices. While much work has been conducted to improve efficiency within a given mode, additional research is needed on how multimode designs can be optimized across modes. Previous research has not evaluated the consequences of mode sequencing on multimode mail and phone surveys, nor has significant research been conducted to evaluate mode sequencing on a variety of indicators beyond response rates. We conducted an experiment within the Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health across the U.S. Risk Factor Survey (REACH U.S.) to evaluate two multimode case-flow designs: (1) phone followed by mail (phone-first) and (2) mail followed by phone (mail-first). We compared response rates, cost, timeliness, and data quality to identify differences across case-flow design. Because surveys often differ on the rarity of the target population, we also examined whether changes in the eligibility rate altered the choice of optimal case flow. Our results suggested that, on most metrics, the mail-first design was superior to the phone-first design. Compared with phone-first, mail-first achieved a higher yield rate at a lower cost with equivalent data quality. While the phone-first design initially achieved more interviews compared to the mail-first design, over time the mail-first design surpassed it and obtained the greatest number of interviews.

  6. Conceptual Design of Object Oriented Program (OOP) for Pilot Code of Two-Fluid, Three-field Model with C++ 6.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Bub Dong; Lee, Young Jin

    2006-01-01

    Engineering software for design purpose in nuclear industries have been developed since early 1970s, and well established in 1980s. The most popular and common language for the software development has been FORTRAN series, until the more sophisticated GUI and software coupling is needed. The advanced computer language, such as C++, C has been developed to help the programming for the easy GUI need and reuse of well developed routines, with adopting the objective oriented program. A recent trend of programming becomes objective-oriented since the results are often more intuitive and easier to maintain than procedure program. The main motivation of this work is to capture objective oriented concepts for conventional safety analysis programs which consist of many functions and procedure oriented structures. In this work, the new objective programming with C++ 6.0 language has been tried for the PILOT code written in FORTRAN language, and conceptual OOP design of the system safety analysis code has been done

  7. What Level Design Elements Determine Flow? : How Light and Objects Guide the Player in Overwatch and Doom

    OpenAIRE

    Eliasson, David

    2017-01-01

    This thesis presents a comparative study between Overwatch (2016) and Doom (2016) to determine how these fast-paced games facilitate flow in their gameplay. The second chapter looks at formal definitions of flow and level design to establish a vocabulary for following chapters. Through formal analysis the level designs of both games are then examined to establish what elements in them guide players and keep the flow in gameplay. The thesis also examines how the initial gameplay design princip...

  8. Tactical Approaches for Trading Science Objectives Against Measurements and Mission Design: Science Traceability Techniques at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, A. E., III

    2017-12-01

    The most common approaches to identifying the most effective mission design to maximize science return from a potential set of competing alternative design approaches are often inefficient and inaccurate. Recently, Team-X at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory undertook an effort to improve both the speed and quality of science - measurement - mission design trade studies. We will report on the methodology & processes employed and their effectiveness in trade study speed and quality. Our results indicate that facilitated subject matter expert peers are the keys to speed and quality improvements in the effectiveness of science - measurement - mission design trade studies.

  9. Primary healthcare-based diabetes registry in Puducherry: Design and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subitha Lakshminarayanan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes registries monitor the population prevalence and incidence of diabetes, monitor diabetes control program, provide information of quality of care to health service providers, and provide a sampling frame for interventional studies. This study documents the process of establishing a prospective diabetes registry in a primary health-care setting in Puducherry. Methods: This is a facility-based prospective registry conducted in six randomly selected urban health centers in Puducherry, with enrollment of all known patients with diabetes attending chronic disease clinics. Administrative approvals were obtained from Government Health Services. Manuals for training of medical officers, health-care workers, and case report forms were developed. Diabetes registry was prepared using Epi Info software. Results: In the first phase, demographic characteristics, risk factors, complications, coexisting chronic conditions, lifestyle and medical management, and clinical outcomes were recorded. Around 2177 patients with diabetes have been registered in six Primary Health Centres out of a total of 2948 participants seeking care from chronic disease clinic. Registration coverage ranges from 61% to 105% in these centers. Conclusion: This study has documented methodological details, and learning experiences gained while developing a diabetes registry at the primary health care level and the scope for upscaling to a Management Information System for Diabetes and a State-wide Registry. Improvement in patient care through needs assessment and quality assurance in service delivery is an important theme envisioned by this registry.

  10. Shlaer-Mellor object-oriented analysis and recursive design, an effective modern software development method for development of computing systems for a large physics detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, T.; Carey, T.A.; Maguire, C.F.

    1995-01-01

    After evaluation of several modern object-oriented methods for development of the computing systems for the PHENIX detector at RHIC, we selected the Shlaer-Mellor Object-Oriented Analysis and Recursive Design method as the most appropriate for the needs and development environment of a large nuclear or high energy physics detector. This paper discusses our specific needs and environment, our method selection criteria, and major features and components of the Shlaer-Mellor method

  11. Advanced composites structural concepts and materials technologies for primary aircraft structures: Design/manufacturing concept assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Robert L.; Bayha, Tom D.; Davis, HU; Ingram, J. ED; Shukla, Jay G.

    1992-01-01

    Composite Wing and Fuselage Structural Design/Manufacturing Concepts have been developed and evaluated. Trade studies were performed to determine how well the concepts satisfy the program goals of 25 percent cost savings, 40 percent weight savings with aircraft resizing, and 50 percent part count reduction as compared to the aluminum Lockheed L-1011 baseline. The concepts developed using emerging technologies such as large scale resin transfer molding (RTM), automatic tow placed (ATP), braiding, out-of-autoclave and automated manufacturing processes for both thermoset and thermoplastic materials were evaluated for possible application in the design concepts. Trade studies were used to determine which concepts carry into the detailed design development subtask.

  12. Pro Objective-C Design Patterns for iOS Best Practices for iPhone and iPad App Development

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    It's time to capitalize on your mastery of Cocoa with Pro Objective-C Design Patterns for iOS. You've developed apps that impressed and performed, and now you're ready to jump into development practices that will leave you with more effective, efficient, and professional level apps. This book is the element you need to make the jump from journeyman to master. All too often, developers grind through building good apps on willpower and a vigorous focus on code development, leaving them unaware of and unable to benefit from the underlying structural and functional design patterns. Pro Objective-C

  13. 30 CFR 250.916 - What are the CVA's primary duties during the design phase?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Stress analyses; (vi) Material designations; (vii) Soil and foundation conditions; (viii) Safety factors... center of gravity, etc., have been met. The CVA must also consider: (i) Drilling, production, and...

  14. Optimal design and management of chlorination in drinking water networks: a multi-objective approach using Genetic Algorithms and the Pareto optimality concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouiri, Issam

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents the development of multi-objective Genetic Algorithms to optimize chlorination design and management in drinking water networks (DWN). Three objectives have been considered: the improvement of the chlorination uniformity (healthy objective), the minimization of chlorine booster stations number, and the injected chlorine mass (economic objectives). The problem has been dissociated in medium and short terms ones. The proposed methodology was tested on hypothetical and real DWN. Results proved the ability of the developed optimization tool to identify relationships between the healthy and economic objectives as Pareto fronts. The proposed approach was efficient in computing solutions ensuring better chlorination uniformity while requiring the weakest injected chlorine mass when compared to other approaches. For the real DWN studied, chlorination optimization has been crowned by great improvement of free-chlorine-dosing uniformity and by a meaningful chlorine mass reduction, in comparison with the conventional chlorination.

  15. Analysis and primary design of the I and C system architecture for HTGR-10 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zijue; Zhao Guoji

    1993-01-01

    The consideration of making good use of the-state-of-the-arts technology in designing advanced Instrumentation and Control System architecture is discussed. A fully distributed and fully micro-computerized, local network based Instrumentation and Control System is designed for the HTR-10 reactor. The advantages of the system architecture include high reliability and availability, flexibility, economics, etc. It also fits for other production processes

  16. On the design and operation of primary settling tanks in state of the art wastewater treatment and water resources recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patziger, Miklos; Günthert, Frank Wolfgang; Jardin, Norbert; Kainz, Harald; Londong, Jörg

    2016-11-01

    In state of the art wastewater treatment, primary settling tanks (PSTs) are considered as an integral part of the biological wastewater and sludge treatment process, as well as of the biogas and electric energy production. Consequently they strongly influence the efficiency of the entire wastewater treatment plant. However, in the last decades the inner physical processes of PSTs, largely determining their efficiency, have been poorly addressed. In common practice PSTs are still solely designed and operated based on the surface overflow rate and the hydraulic retention time (HRT) as a black box. The paper shows the results of a comprehensive investigation programme, including 16 PSTs. Their removal efficiency and inner physical processes (like the settling process of primary sludge), internal flow structures within PSTs and their impact on performance were investigated. The results show that: (1) the removal rates of PSTs are generally often underestimated in current design guidelines, (2) the removal rate of different PSTs shows a strongly fluctuating pattern even in the same range of the HRT, and (3) inlet design of PSTs becomes highly relevant in the removal efficiency at rather high surface overflow rates, above 5 m/h, which is the upper design limit of PSTs for dry weather load.

  17. Designing Clinical Space for the Delivery of Integrated Behavioral Health and Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Rose; Davis, Melinda M; Hall, Jennifer; Heintzman, John; Muench, John; Smeds, Brianna; Miller, Benjamin F; Miller, William L; Gilchrist, Emma; Brown Levey, Shandra; Brown, Jacqueline; Wise Romero, Pam; Cohen, Deborah J

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to describe features of the physical space in which practices integrating primary care and behavioral health care work and to identify the arrangements that enable integration of care. We conducted an observational study of 19 diverse practices located across the United States. Practice-level data included field notes from 2-4-day site visits, transcripts from semistructured interviews with clinicians and clinical staff, online implementation diary posts, and facility photographs. A multidisciplinary team used a 4-stage, systematic approach to analyze data and identify how physical layout enabled the work of integrated care teams. Two dominant spatial layouts emerged across practices: type-1 layouts were characterized by having primary care clinicians (PCCs) and behavioral health clinicians (BHCs) located in separate work areas, and type-2 layouts had BHCs and PCCs sharing work space. We describe these layouts and the influence they have on situational awareness, interprofessional "bumpability," and opportunities for on-the-fly communication. We observed BHCs and PCCs engaging in more face-to-face methods for coordinating integrated care for patients in type 2 layouts (41.5% of observed encounters vs 11.7%; P < .05). We show that practices needed to strike a balance between professional proximity and private work areas to accomplish job tasks. Private workspace was needed for focused work, to see patients, and for consults between clinicians and clinical staff. We describe the ways practices modified and built new space and provide 2 recommended layouts for practices integrating care based on study findings. Physical layout and positioning of professionals' workspace is an important consideration in practices implementing integrated care. Clinicians, researchers, and health-care administrators are encouraged to consider the role of professional proximity and private working space when creating new facilities or redesigning existing space to foster

  18. Object and Objective Lost?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the erosion and problematization of ‘the organization’ as a demarcated entity. Utilizing Foucault's reflections on ‘state-phobia’ as a source of inspiration, I show how an organization-phobia has gained a hold within Organization Theory (OT). By attending to the history...... of this organization-phobia, the paper argues that OT has become increasingly incapable of speaking about its core object. I show how organizations went from being conceptualized as entities of major importance to becoming theoretically deconstructed and associated with all kinds of ills. Through this history......, organizations as distinct entities have been rendered so problematic that they have gradually come to be removed from the center of OT. The costs of this have been rather significant. Besides undermining the grounds that gave OT intellectual credibility and legitimacy to begin with, the organization-phobia...

  19. Conceptual design of primary coolant purification system using cylindrical membrane for nuclear energy system base on HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piping Supriatna

    2011-01-01

    The recent progress of reactor technology design for next generation reactor will be implemented on cogeneration reactor, which the aim of reactor operation not only for generating electrical energy, but also for other application like desalination, industrial manufacturing process, hydrogen production, Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR), etc. The cogeneration reactor concept developed for generate energy effectively, efficiently and sustainable, which reserve of uranium and thorium nuclear fuel for cogeneration reactor is supply able for world energy demand until next thousand years. The cogeneration reactor produce temperature output higher than commonly Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), and need special Heat Exchanger with helium gas as coolant. In order to preserve heat transfer with high efficiency, constant purity of the gas must be maintained as well as possible, especially contamination from its impurities. In this research has been designed modeling and assessment of primary coolant gas purification system with purify and fill up helium gas continuously, by using Cylindrical Helium Splitting Membrane and helium gas inventory system. The result of flow rate helium assessment for the purification system is 0.844x10 -3 kg/sec, where helium flow rate of reactor primary coolant is 120 kg/sec. The result of study show that the Primary Coolant Gas Purification System is enable to be implemented on Cogeneration Reactor HTGR200C. (author)

  20. Robust Optimization Approach for Design for a Dynamic Cell Formation Considering Labor Utilization: Bi-objective Mathematical Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiwa Farughi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, robust optimization of a bi-objective mathematical model in a dynamic cell formation problem considering labor utilization with uncertain data is carried out. The robust approach is used to reduce the effects of fluctuations of the uncertain parameters with regards to all the possible future scenarios. In this research, cost parameters of the cell formation and demand fluctuations are subject to uncertainty and a mixed-integer programming (MIP model is developed to formulate the related robust dynamic cell formation problem. Then the problem is transformed into a bi-objective linear one. The first objective function seeks to minimize relevant costs of the problem including machine procurement and relocation costs, machine variable cost, inter-cell movement and intra-cell movement costs, overtime cost and labor shifting cost between cells, machine maintenance cost, inventory, holding part cost. The second objective function seeks to minimize total man-hour deviations between cells or indeed labor utilization of the modeled.

  1. Different Modes of Digital Learning Object Use in School Settings: Do We Design for Individual or Collaborative Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Yavuz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the studies reported in this paper is to gain classroom based empirical evidence on the learning effectiveness of learning objects used in two types of study settings: Collaborative and individual. A total of 127 seventh and ninth grade students participated in the experiments. They were assigned into one of the study modes and worked…

  2. Research on optimization design of conformal cooling channels in hot stamping tool based on response surface methodology and multi-objective optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Bin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to optimize the layout of the conformal cooling channels in hot stamping tools, a response surface methodology and multi-objective optimization technique are proposed. By means of an Optimal Latin Hypercube experimental design method, a design matrix with 17 factors and 50 levels is generated. Three kinds of design variables, the radius Rad of the cooling channel, the distance H from the channel center to tool work surface and the ratio rat of each channel center, are optimized to determine the layout of cooling channels. The average temperature and temperature deviation of work surface are used to evaluate the cooling performance of hot stamping tools. On the basis of the experimental design results, quadratic response surface models are established to describe the relationship between the design variables and the evaluation objectives. The error analysis is performed to ensure the accuracy of response surface models. Then the layout of the conformal cooling channels is optimized in accordance with a multi-objective optimization method to find the Pareto optimal frontier which consists of some optimal combinations of design variables that can lead to an acceptable cooling performance.

  3. The Design and Development of a Simulation to Teach Water Conservation to Primary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lee

    2004-01-01

    Information and Communications Technology (ICT) plays a dominant role in enhancing teaching and learning. Similar advances have been made in the use of multimedia in the classroom. These advances are coupled with newer developmental tools and techniques. This paper examines the design and development of a simulation on water conservation. Science…

  4. Engineering Design in the Primary School: Applying STEM Concepts to Build an Optical Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Donna; English, Lyn D.

    2016-01-01

    Internationally there is a need for research that focuses on STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) education to equip students with the skills needed for a rapidly changing future. One way to do this is through designing engineering activities that reflect real-world problems and contextualise students' learning of STEM concepts.…

  5. 30 CFR 285.707 - What are the CVA's primary duties for facility design review?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (b) The CVA must conduct an independent assessment of all proposed: (1) Planning criteria; (2) Operational requirements; (3) Environmental loading data; (4) Load determinations; (5) Stress analyses; (6) Material designations; (7) Soil and foundation conditions; (8) Safety factors; and (9) Other pertinent...

  6. The Design of English Elementary and Primary Schools. A Select Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicholas, John, Comp.

    School building design in this publication is interpreted as meaning layout and arrangement of rooms rather than as architectural style. Citations are organized under (1) central authority publications, (2) local authority publications, (3) general works, (4) articles in periodicals, and (5) unpublished theses. (Author/MLF)

  7. An Intervention Framework Designed to Develop the Collaborative Problem-Solving Skills of Primary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaoqing; Chen, Shan; Zhu, Wenbo; Lin, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Considerable effort has been invested in innovative learning practices such as collaborative inquiry. Collaborative problem solving is becoming popular in school settings, but there is limited knowledge on how to develop skills crucial in collaborative problem solving in students. Based on the intervention design in social interaction of…

  8. The influence of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex on attentional behavior and decision making. A t-DCS study on emotionally vs. functionally designed objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Barbara; Balzarotti, Stefania; Mazzucchelli, Nicla

    2016-04-01

    Prior research has shown that right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex may be crucial in cognitive control of affective impulses during decision making. The present study examines whether modulation of r-DLPFC with transcranial direct current stimulation influences attentional behavior and decision-making in a purchase task requiring participants to choose either emotional/attractive or functional/useful objects. 30 participants were shown sixteen pairs of emotionally or functionally designed products while their eye-movements were recorded. Participants were asked to judge aesthetics and usefulness of each object, and to decide which object of each pair they would buy. Results revealed that participants decided to buy the functionally designed objects more often regardless of condition; however, participants receiving anodal stimulation were faster in decision making. Although stimulation of r-DLPFC did not affect the actual purchasing choice and had little effect on visual exploration during decision making, it influenced perceived usefulness and attractiveness, with temporary inhibition of r-DLPFC leading to evaluate functional objects as less attractive. Finally, anodal stimulation led to judge the objects as more useful. The implications of these results are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Japanese contribution to the design of primary module of shielding blanket in ITER-FEAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Toshimasa; Hatano, Toshihisa; Miki, Nobuharu; Hiroki, Seiji; Enoeda, Mikio; Ohmori, Junji; Akiba, Masato

    2003-02-01

    Japanese contributions to the design activity on the shielding blanket module consisting of the separable first wall and the shield block for ITER-FEAT are compiled. Temperature and stress distributions in the first wall and the shield block are analyzed and evaluated with 2-D and 3-D models for steady state and also for transient condition according to plasma ramp-up and ramp-down. While temperatures and stresses in the first wall satisfy their allowable values, those in a front part of the shield block exceed the allowable guideline. Based on this result, design improvements are suggested. Coolant flow and pressure distributions along the complicated coolant channel in the shield block are preliminary analyzed. Though heat removal is satisfactory in all coolant channels, back flows due to choking in coolant collectors are found. Design improvements to avoid the choking are suggested. Electromagnetic forces acting on blanket modules are analyzed with detailed 3-D models of solid elements for different disruption scenarios. The maximum moment around radial axis is 1.36 MNm on module no.5 under fast upward VDE, and the maximum moment around vertical axis is 1.47 MNm on module no.1 under fast downward VDE. The supporting beam of the first wall with welded attachment to the shield block is designed. Required welding thickness and support conditions to withstand electromagnetic forces are estimated. Strength of the shield block at the region mating the flexible cartridge is also estimated. Though the shield block surface attached by the flexible cartridge shows sufficient strength, the internal thread mating the Inconel bolt would need more length. In addition, water-to-water leak detection system in case main supply/return manifolds are located within the vacuum vessel is designed. By using Kr as the tracer material, the possibility of water-to-water leak detection and the concept of the detection system are shown. The design of the shielding blanket of ITER-FEAT has

  10. Towards an advanced design for MYRRHA. Development of the primary system is progressively taking shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN has been developing a versatile irradiation facility, which will replace the current BR2 research reactor in the future. This 'Multi-purpose hYbrid Research Reactor for High-tech Applications', MYRRHA for short, is designed to be a system driven by an accelerator (Advanced Nuclear System or ADS). Such an ADS consists of a particle accelerator linked to a subcritical reactor. MYRRHA is also able to operate in critical mode like a classic reactor. Scientists and engineers have been working on the development of the MYRRHA reactor without interruption since 1998. A new revision in 2014 again brought them a step closer to completion. The article discusses the current status and several challenges, related to both the budget and the technical aspects of the design.

  11. Supporting primary-level mathematics teachers’ collaboration in designing and using technology-based scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misfeldt, Morten; Zacho, Lis

    2016-01-01

    development and testing through qualitative means, aiming to describe the teachers’ appropriation of (1) GeoGebra as a tool for doing and teaching mathematics, and (2) game as a metaphor supporting open-ended projects addressing creativity and innovation in the classroom. The data from the project suggest......In this article, we address how the design of educational scenarios can support teachers’ adoption of both technology and open-ended projects indorsing creativity and innovation. We do that by describing how groups of teachers develop digital learning environments supporting using a combination...... of GeoGebra and Google sites. Both teachers and pupils work with the concept of “game” as something they design, and furthermore, the pupils immerse themselves into the scenarios that the teachers create in a way similar to “playing a game.” We investigate teachers participation in collaborative...

  12. Research and Development Projects with ICT and students as learning designers in Primary Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Karin; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm; Tosca, Susana

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present some methodological challenges that emerged during the process of shaping the research design for the comprehensive and complex research project Children as learning designers in a digital school. The project is the realization of our proposal to a research call from...... to the need to strengthen the populations’ digital literacy and 21st century competencies. The call’s scope was research and development projects as pilot school experiments in relation to five selected areas. The selected projects should contribute with new generalizable and practice oriented knowledge...... of how: • ICT supports students learning, • ICT release time for more teaching, and • teachers digital literacy impact on the role of ICT in the educational practice. Further the call required collaboration between universities and university colleges in order to disseminate knowledge and new practices...

  13. Primary heat transfer loop design for the Cascade inertial confinement fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, K.A.; McDowell, M.W.

    1984-05-01

    This study investigates a heat exchanger and balance of plant design to accompany the Cascade inertial confinement fusion reaction chamber concept. The concept uses solid Li 2 O or other lithium-ceramic granules, held to the wall of a rotating reaction chamber by centrifugal action, as a tritium breeding blanket and first wall protection. The Li 2 O granules enter the chamber at 800 K and exit at 1200 K after absorbing the thermal energy produced by the fusion process

  14. Forest landscape analysis and design: a process for developing and implementing land management objectives for landscape patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy Diaz; Dean. Apostol

    1992-01-01

    This publication presents a Landscape Design and Analysis Process, along with some simple methods and tools for describing landscapes and their function. The information is qualitative in nature and highlights basic concepts, but does not address landscape ecology in great depth. Readers are encouraged to consult the list of selected references in Chapter 2 if they...

  15. Assessing Online Learning Objects: Student Evaluation of a Guide on the Side Interactive Learning Tutorial Designed by SRJC Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtue, Alicia; Dean, Ellen; Matheson, Molly

    2014-01-01

    More and more of today's scholars conduct their research in a digital realm rather than using a print collection. The University of Arizona Libraries Guide on the Side tutorial software offers an opportunity to apply the principles of active learning with real world research scenarios. This paper reports on the design and introduction of…

  16. Optimal design approach for heating irregular-shaped objects in three-dimensional radiant furnaces using a hybrid genetic algorithm-artificial neural network method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvishvand, Leila; Kamkari, Babak; Kowsary, Farshad

    2018-03-01

    In this article, a new hybrid method based on the combination of the genetic algorithm (GA) and artificial neural network (ANN) is developed to optimize the design of three-dimensional (3-D) radiant furnaces. A 3-D irregular shape design body (DB) heated inside a 3-D radiant furnace is considered as a case study. The uniform thermal conditions on the DB surfaces are obtained by minimizing an objective function. An ANN is developed to predict the objective function value which is trained through the data produced by applying the Monte Carlo method. The trained ANN is used in conjunction with the GA to find the optimal design variables. The results show that the computational time using the GA-ANN approach is significantly less than that of the conventional method. It is concluded that the integration of the ANN with GA is an efficient technique for optimization of the radiant furnaces.

  17. A preliminary investigation of the imaging performance of photostimulable phosphor computed radiography using a new design of mammographic quality control test object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowen, A.R.; Brettle, D.S.; Coleman, N.J.; Parkin, G.J.S.

    1992-01-01

    Leeds Test Object TOR[MAM] has been designed to supplement the current FAXIL mammography test object TOR[MAX]. It contains a range of details that have a more natural radiographic appearance and has been designed as a test that more closely approximates the image quality achieved in clinical mammography. Physical aspects of the design and implementation of TOR[MAM] are presented. The TOR[MAM] has been used in a preliminary physical evaluation of the comparative image qualities produced by conventional (screen-film) and phostostimulable phosphor computed mammography and the results are discussed. TOR[MAX] results are also presented. The influence of digital image processing (enhancement) on the image quality of computed mammograms is also considered. The results presented indicate the sensitivity of TOR[MAM]. (author)

  18. Topics in Analysis and Design of Primary Parallel Isolated Boost Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sen, Gokhan

    Efficient power processing through power electronics circuits has been a popular academic field for the past decades, especially after “green” vehicle applications based on fuel cells, batteries and super-capacitors emerged as alternative sources of propulsion for transportation. Dc-to-dc convert......Efficient power processing through power electronics circuits has been a popular academic field for the past decades, especially after “green” vehicle applications based on fuel cells, batteries and super-capacitors emerged as alternative sources of propulsion for transportation. Dc...... for such applications due to its simplicity and ability to handle higher currents. Design of magnetic structures like transformers and inductors is part of power electronics engineering in which trade-offs exist between size, price and losses. In higher currents this becomes even more challenging since conventional...... wire wound design approach has some shortcomings. It is possible to use copper foil in windings however this will increase the amount of handcraft during manufacturing; so academic attention was needed for this part of low voltage high current switching converter design. Planar magnetics...

  19. Sources of variation in primary care clinical workflow: implications for the design of cognitive support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Militello, Laura G; Arbuckle, Nicole B; Saleem, Jason J; Patterson, Emily; Flanagan, Mindy; Haggstrom, David; Doebbeling, Bradley N

    2014-03-01

    This article identifies sources of variation in clinical workflow and implications for the design and implementation of electronic clinical decision support. Sources of variation in workflow were identified via rapid ethnographic observation, focus groups, and interviews across a total of eight medical centers in both the Veterans Health Administration and academic medical centers nationally regarded as leaders in developing and using clinical decision support. Data were reviewed for types of variability within the social and technical subsystems and the external environment as described in the sociotechnical systems theory. Two researchers independently identified examples of variation and their sources, and then met with each other to discuss them until consensus was reached. Sources of variation were categorized as environmental (clinic staffing and clinic pace), social (perception of health information technology and real-time use with patients), or technical (computer access and information access). Examples of sources of variation within each of the categories are described and discussed in terms of impact on clinical workflow. As technologies are implemented, barriers to use become visible over time as users struggle to adapt workflow and work practices to accommodate new technologies. Each source of variability identified has implications for the effective design and implementation of useful health information technology. Accommodating moderate variability in workflow is anticipated to avoid brittle and inflexible workflow designs, while also avoiding unnecessary complexity for implementers and users.

  20. Primary small bowel anastomosis in generalised peritonitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deGraaf, JS; van Goor, Harry; Bleichrodt, RP

    Objective: To find out if primary small bowel anastomosis of the bowel is safe in patients with generalised peritonitis who are treated by planned relaparotomies. Design: Retrospective study. Setting: University hospital, The Netherlands. Subjects. 10 Patients with generalised purulent peritonitis