WorldWideScience

Sample records for primary dependent variable

  1. Reward-dependent modulation of movement variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekny, Sarah E; Izawa, Jun; Shadmehr, Reza

    2015-03-04

    Movement variability is often considered an unwanted byproduct of a noisy nervous system. However, variability can signal a form of implicit exploration, indicating that the nervous system is intentionally varying the motor commands in search of actions that yield the greatest success. Here, we investigated the role of the human basal ganglia in controlling reward-dependent motor variability as measured by trial-to-trial changes in performance during a reaching task. We designed an experiment in which the only performance feedback was success or failure and quantified how reach variability was modulated as a function of the probability of reward. In healthy controls, reach variability increased as the probability of reward decreased. Control of variability depended on the history of past rewards, with the largest trial-to-trial changes occurring immediately after an unrewarded trial. In contrast, in participants with Parkinson's disease, a known example of basal ganglia dysfunction, reward was a poor modulator of variability; that is, the patients showed an impaired ability to increase variability in response to decreases in the probability of reward. This was despite the fact that, after rewarded trials, reach variability in the patients was comparable to healthy controls. In summary, we found that movement variability is partially a form of exploration driven by the recent history of rewards. When the function of the human basal ganglia is compromised, the reward-dependent control of movement variability is impaired, particularly affecting the ability to increase variability after unsuccessful outcomes. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/354015-10$15.00/0.

  2. Problems Identifying Independent and Dependent Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatham, Keith R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses one step from the scientific method--that of identifying independent and dependent variables--from both scientific and mathematical perspectives. It begins by analyzing an episode from a middle school mathematics classroom that illustrates the need for students and teachers alike to develop a robust understanding of…

  3. Benford's law and continuous dependent random variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Thealexa; Burt, David; Corcoran, Taylor C.; Greaves-Tunnell, Alec; Iafrate, Joseph R.; Jing, Joy; Miller, Steven J.; Porfilio, Jaclyn D.; Ronan, Ryan; Samranvedhya, Jirapat; Strauch, Frederick W.; Talbut, Blaine

    2018-01-01

    Many mathematical, man-made and natural systems exhibit a leading-digit bias, where a first digit (base 10) of 1 occurs not 11% of the time, as one would expect if all digits were equally likely, but rather 30%. This phenomenon is known as Benford's Law. Analyzing which datasets adhere to Benford's Law and how quickly Benford behavior sets in are the two most important problems in the field. Most previous work studied systems of independent random variables, and relied on the independence in their analyses. Inspired by natural processes such as particle decay, we study the dependent random variables that emerge from models of decomposition of conserved quantities. We prove that in many instances the distribution of lengths of the resulting pieces converges to Benford behavior as the number of divisions grow, and give several conjectures for other fragmentation processes. The main difficulty is that the resulting random variables are dependent. We handle this by using tools from Fourier analysis and irrationality exponents to obtain quantified convergence rates as well as introducing and developing techniques to measure and control the dependencies. The construction of these tools is one of the major motivations of this work, as our approach can be applied to many other dependent systems. As an example, we show that the n ! entries in the determinant expansions of n × n matrices with entries independently drawn from nice random variables converges to Benford's Law.

  4. DPOAE generation dependence on primary frequencies ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botti, Teresa; Sisto, Renata; Moleti, Arturo; D'Amato, Luisa; Sanjust, Filippo

    2015-12-01

    Two different mechanisms are responsible for the DPOAE generation. The nonlinear distortion wave-fixed mechanism generates the DPOAE Zero-Latency (ZL) component, as a backward traveling wave from the "overlap" region. Linear reflection of the forward DP wave (IDP) generates the DPOAE Long-Latency (LL) component through a place-fixed mechanism. ZL and LL components add up vectorially to generate the DPOAE recorded in the ear canal. The 2f1 - f2 and 2f2 - f1 DPOAE intensity depends on the stimulus level and on the primary frequency ratio r = f2/f1, where f1 and f2 are the primary stimuli frequencies. Here we study the behavior of the ZL and LL DPOAE components as a function of r by both numerical and laboratory experiments, measuring DPAOEs with an equal primary levels (L1 = L2) paradigm in the range [35, 75] dB SPL, with r ranging in [1.1, 1.45]. Numerical simulations of a nonlocal nonlinear model have been performed without cochlear roughness, to suppress the linear reflection mechanism. In this way the model solution at the base represents the DPOAE ZL component, and the solution at the corresponding DPOAE tonotopic place corresponds to the IDP. This technique has been not effectual to study the 2f2 - f1 DPOAE, as a consequence of its generation mechanism. While the 2f1 - f2 generation place is known to be the tonotopic place x(f2), the 2f2 - f1 DPOAE one has to be assumed basal to its corresponding reflection place. That is because ZL components generated in x(f2) cannot significantly pass through their resonant place. Moreover increasing the ratio r, 2f2 - f1 ZL and LL generation place approach each other, because the overlap region of primary tones decreases. Consequently, the distinction between the two places becomes complicated. DPOAEs have been measured in six young normal-hearing subjects. DPOAE ZL and LL components have been separated by a time-frequency filtering method based on the wavelet transform 1. due to their different phase gradient delay

  5. Age dependant somatometric and cephalometric variables among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The process of growth passes through stages of developmental processes. This stage is the age. Age is known to affect many parameters in the body and this includes somatometric and cephalometric variables. Methods: The study was conducted with a total number of 409 students of university of Jos, ...

  6. Maximal Inequalities for Dependent Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jorgensen, Jorgen

    2016-01-01

    Maximal inequalities play a crucial role in many probabilistic limit theorem; for instance, the law of large numbers, the law of the iterated logarithm, the martingale limit theorem and the central limit theorem. Let X-1, X-2,... be random variables with partial sums S-k = X-1 + ... + X-k. Then a......Maximal inequalities play a crucial role in many probabilistic limit theorem; for instance, the law of large numbers, the law of the iterated logarithm, the martingale limit theorem and the central limit theorem. Let X-1, X-2,... be random variables with partial sums S-k = X-1 + ... + X......-k. Then a maximal inequality gives conditions ensuring that the maximal partial sum M-n = max(1) (...

  7. Future-dependent Flow Policies with Prophetic Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ximeng; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2016-01-01

    future-dependent flow policies- policies that can depend on not only the current values of variables, but also their final values. The final values are referred to using what we call prophetic variables, just as the initial values can be referenced using logical variables in Hoare logic. We develop...... and enforce a notion of future-dependent security for open systems, in the spirit of "non-deducibility on strategies". We also illustrate our approach in scenarios where future-dependency has advantages over present-dependency and avoids mixtures of upgradings and downgradings....

  8. Validity of a Residualized Dependent Variable after Pretest Covariance Adjustments: Still the Same Variable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimon, Kim; Henson, Robin K.

    2015-01-01

    The authors empirically examined whether the validity of a residualized dependent variable after covariance adjustment is comparable to that of the original variable of interest. When variance of a dependent variable is removed as a result of one or more covariates, the residual variance may not reflect the same meaning. Using the pretest-posttest…

  9. Patient-centered variables in primary and team nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamera, E; O'Connell, K A

    1981-03-01

    Patient-centered variables and their relationship to primary and team nursing have rarely been studied. In the present study the investigation focused on the following patient-centered variables: nurturance received, patient involvement, and frequency of nurse-patient contacts. Baseline observational data were collected on 12 adult medical patients experiencing team nursing care. A primary nursing care approach was then implemented on the same nursing unit, and 6 months later 12 patients were observed under this system. Patients were directly observed 24 hours a day for 5 days of hospitalization and audiotaped, using a specimen record method. This method produced transcripts that were coded for nurturance, involvement, and nurse-patient contacts. Results of the study showed that there were no differences between primary and team nursing care groups in the number of contacts, nurturance, or patient involvement with all nursing personnel or with professional nurses. However, when the primary group was adjusted to include only those patients for whom primary nursing care was fully implemented, the primary group received more nurturance (p less than .05) and had a tendency to be more active involved than did the team group (p less than .10). These findings indicate that the institution of primary nursing care is related to increased quality of nursing care.

  10. Fixed transaction costs and modelling limited dependent variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hempenius, A.L.

    1994-01-01

    As an alternative to the Tobit model, for vectors of limited dependent variables, I suggest a model, which follows from explicitly using fixed costs, if appropriate of course, in the utility function of the decision-maker.

  11. Hoeffding’s Inequality for Sums of Dependent Random Variables

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pelekis, Christos; Ramon, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 6 (2017), č. článku 243. ISSN 1660-5446 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : dependent random variables * Hoeffding’s inequality * k-wise independent random variables * martingale differences Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.868, year: 2016

  12. Blood pressure variability in children with primary vs secondary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisman, Daniel; Meyers, Melissa; Schnall, Jeremy; Chorny, Nataliya; Frank, Rachel; Infante, Lulette; Sethna, Christine B

    2014-06-01

    Increased blood pressure variability (BPV) is correlated with adverse cardiovascular (CV) events in adults. However, there has been limited research on its effect in the pediatric population. Additionally, BPV differences between primary and secondary hypertension (HTN) are not known. Children with primary and secondary HTN underwent 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and echocardiography studies. BPV measures of standard deviation (SD), average real variability (ARV), and range were calculated for the 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime periods. Seventy-four patients (median age, 13.5 years; 74% boys) were examined, 40 of whom had primary HTN. Body mass index z score and age were independent predictors of systolic ARV (R(2) =0.14) and SD (R(2) =0.39). There were no statistically significant differences in overall or wake period BPV measures between secondary or primary HTN groups, but sleep period diastolic SD was significantly greater in the secondary HTN group (9.26±3.8 vs 7.1±2.8, P=.039). On multiple regression analysis, secondary HTN was associated with increased sleep period diastolic SD (P=.025). No metrics of BPV in the overall, wake, and sleep periods were found to be significantly associated with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). The results of this study do not show a strong relationship between overall or wake BPV with primary vs secondary HTN, but the association of secondary HTN with sleep period diastolic BPV deserves further exploration. Contrary to expectation, the findings of this study failed to indicate a relationship between BPV and LVH for all patients as well for primary hypertensive and secondary hypertensive patients. ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Statistical Dependence of Pipe Breaks on Explanatory Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Gómez-Martínez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aging infrastructure is the main challenge currently faced by water suppliers. Estimation of assets lifetime requires reliable criteria to plan assets repair and renewal strategies. To do so, pipe break prediction is one of the most important inputs. This paper analyzes the statistical dependence of pipe breaks on explanatory variables, determining their optimal combination and quantifying their influence on failure prediction accuracy. A large set of registered data from Madrid water supply network, managed by Canal de Isabel II, has been filtered, classified and studied. Several statistical Bayesian models have been built and validated from the available information with a technique that combines reference periods of time as well as geographical location. Statistical models of increasing complexity are built from zero up to five explanatory variables following two approaches: a set of independent variables or a combination of two joint variables plus an additional number of independent variables. With the aim of finding the variable combination that provides the most accurate prediction, models are compared following an objective validation procedure based on the model skill to predict the number of pipe breaks in a large set of geographical locations. As expected, model performance improves as the number of explanatory variables increases. However, the rate of improvement is not constant. Performance metrics improve significantly up to three variables, but the tendency is softened for higher order models, especially in trunk mains where performance is reduced. Slight differences are found between trunk mains and distribution lines when selecting the most influent variables and models.

  14. How a dependent's variable non-randomness affects taper equation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to apply the least squares method in regression analysis, the values of the dependent variable Y should be random. In an example of regression analysis linear and nonlinear taper equations, which estimate the diameter of the tree dhi at any height of the tree hi, were compared. For each tree the diameter at the ...

  15. Natural circulation under variable primary mass inventories at BETHSY facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazin, P.; Clement, P.; Deruaz, R.

    1989-01-01

    BETHSY is a high pressure integral test facility which models a 3 loop Framatome PWR with the intent of studying PWR accidents. The BETHSY programme includes both accident transients and tests under successive steady state conditions. So far, tests of the latter type have been especially devoted to situations where natural circulation takes place in the primary coolant system (PCS). Tests 4.1a and 4.1a TC, the results of which are introduced, deal with PCS natural circulation patterns and related heat transport mechanisms under two different core power levels (2 and 5% of nominal power), variable primary mass inventory (100% to 30-40% according to core power) and at two different steam generator liquid levels (standard value and 1 meter). (orig.)

  16. What variables should be considered in allocating Primary health care Pharmaceutical budgets to districts in Uganda?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujasi, Paschal N; Puig-Junoy, Jaume

    2015-01-01

    A key policy question for the government of Uganda is how to equitably allocate primary health care pharmaceutical budgets to districts. This paper seeks to identify variables influencing current primary health care pharmaceutical expenditure and their usefulness in allocating prospective pharmaceutical budgets to districts. This was a cross sectional, retrospective observational study using secondary administrative data. We collected data on the value of pharmaceuticals procured by primary health care facilities in each district from National Medical Stores for the financial year 2011/2012. The dependent variable was expressed as per capita district pharmaceutical expenditure. By reviewing literature we identified 26 potential explanatory variables. They include supply, need and demand, and health system organization variables that may influence the demand and supply of health services and the corresponding pharmaceutical expenditure. We collected secondary data for these variables for all the districts in Uganda (n = 112). We performed econometric analysis to estimate parameters of various regression models. There is a significant correlation between per capita district pharmaceutical expenditure and total district population, rural poverty, access to drinking water and outpatient department (OPD) per capita utilisation.(P Uganda (Adjusted R(2) = 0.528). All variables in the model are significant (p Uganda are: district outpatient department attendance per capita, total district population, total number of government health facilities in the district and the district human poverty index.

  17. The discovery of timescale-dependent color variability of quasars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yu-Han; Wang, Jun-Xian; Chen, Xiao-Yang [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zheng, Zhen-Ya, E-mail: sunyh92@mail.ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: jxw@ustc.edu.cn [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Quasars are variable on timescales from days to years in UV/optical and generally appear bluer while they brighten. The physics behind the variations in fluxes and colors remains unclear. Using Sloan Digital Sky Survey g- and r-band photometric monitoring data for quasars in Stripe 82, we find that although the flux variation amplitude increases with timescale, the color variability exhibits the opposite behavior. The color variability of quasars is prominent at timescales as short as ∼10 days, but gradually reduces toward timescales up to years. In other words, the variable emission at shorter timescales is bluer than that at longer timescales. This timescale dependence is clearly and consistently detected at all redshifts from z = 0 to 3.5; thus, it cannot be due to contamination to broadband photometry from emission lines that do not respond to fast continuum variations. The discovery directly rules out the possibility that simply attributes the color variability to contamination from a non-variable redder component such as the host galaxy. It cannot be interpreted as changes in global accretion rate either. The thermal accretion disk fluctuation model is favored in the sense that fluctuations in the inner, hotter region of the disk are responsible for short-term variations, while longer-term and stronger variations are expected from the larger and cooler disk region. An interesting implication is that one can use quasar variations at different timescales to probe disk emission at different radii.

  18. Quadratic time dependent Hamiltonians and separation of variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzaldo-Meneses, A.

    2017-01-01

    Time dependent quantum problems defined by quadratic Hamiltonians are solved using canonical transformations. The Green’s function is obtained and a comparison with the classical Hamilton–Jacobi method leads to important geometrical insights like exterior differential systems, Monge cones and time dependent Gaussian metrics. The Wei–Norman approach is applied using unitary transformations defined in terms of generators of the associated Lie groups, here the semi-direct product of the Heisenberg group and the symplectic group. A new explicit relation for the unitary transformations is given in terms of a finite product of elementary transformations. The sequential application of adequate sets of unitary transformations leads naturally to a new separation of variables method for time dependent Hamiltonians, which is shown to be related to the Inönü–Wigner contraction of Lie groups. The new method allows also a better understanding of interacting particles or coupled modes and opens an alternative way to analyze topological phases in driven systems. - Highlights: • Exact unitary transformation reducing time dependent quadratic quantum Hamiltonian to zero. • New separation of variables method and simultaneous uncoupling of modes. • Explicit examples of transformations for one to four dimensional problems. • New general evolution equation for quadratic form in the action, respectively Green’s function.

  19. Achievable data rate in spectrum-sharing channels with variable-rate variable-power primary users

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuli; Aï ssa, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we propose a transmission strategy for secondary users (SUs) within a cognitive radio network where primary users (PUs) exploit variable-rate variable-power modulation. By monitoring the PU's transmissions, the SU adjusts its transmit

  20. Quadratic time dependent Hamiltonians and separation of variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzaldo-Meneses, A.

    2017-06-01

    Time dependent quantum problems defined by quadratic Hamiltonians are solved using canonical transformations. The Green's function is obtained and a comparison with the classical Hamilton-Jacobi method leads to important geometrical insights like exterior differential systems, Monge cones and time dependent Gaussian metrics. The Wei-Norman approach is applied using unitary transformations defined in terms of generators of the associated Lie groups, here the semi-direct product of the Heisenberg group and the symplectic group. A new explicit relation for the unitary transformations is given in terms of a finite product of elementary transformations. The sequential application of adequate sets of unitary transformations leads naturally to a new separation of variables method for time dependent Hamiltonians, which is shown to be related to the Inönü-Wigner contraction of Lie groups. The new method allows also a better understanding of interacting particles or coupled modes and opens an alternative way to analyze topological phases in driven systems.

  1. Primary Commodity Dependency: A Limiting Factor for Achieving Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    two ~gricultural crops, minerals, petroleum, or fisheries can be considered primary commodity dependent. Tea, coffee, and cocoa ; peanuts and cotton...Rostow’s Development Model Pre-conditions for take-off mass consumption democracy. In 1960s, economists, associated democratization to a developmental...Commodities can be renewable or non-renewable. Petroleum, diamonds, cocoa , bananas, coffee, and timber are just a few of the commodities that have

  2. Exercise training improves heart rate variability after methamphetamine dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolezal, Brett Andrew; Chudzynski, Joy; Dickerson, Daniel; Mooney, Larissa; Rawson, Richard A; Garfinkel, Alan; Cooper, Christopher B

    2014-06-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) reflects a healthy autonomic nervous system and is increased with physical training. Methamphetamine dependence (MD) causes autonomic dysfunction and diminished HRV. We compared recently abstinent methamphetamine-dependent participants with age-matched, drug-free controls (DF) and also investigated whether HRV can be improved with exercise training in the methamphetamine-dependent participants. In 50 participants (MD = 28; DF = 22), resting heart rate (HR; R-R intervals) was recorded over 5 min while seated using a monitor affixed to a chest strap. Previously reported time domain (SDNN, RMSSD, pNN50) and frequency domain (LFnu, HFnu, LF/HF) parameters of HRV were calculated with customized software. MD were randomized to thrice-weekly exercise training (ME = 14) or equal attention without training (MC = 14) over 8 wk. Groups were compared using paired and unpaired t-tests. Statistical significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Participant characteristics were matched between groups (mean ± SD): age = 33 ± 6 yr; body mass = 82.7 ± 12 kg, body mass index = 26.8 ± 4.1 kg·min. Compared with DF, the MD group had significantly higher resting HR (P HRV indices were similar between ME and MC groups. However, after training, the ME group significantly (all P HRV, based on several conventional indices, was diminished in recently abstinent, methamphetamine-dependent individuals. Moreover, physical training yielded a marked increase in HRV, representing increased vagal modulation or improved autonomic balance.

  3. Value of Construction Company and its Dependence on Significant Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vítková, E.; Hromádka, V.; Ondrušková, E.

    2017-10-01

    The paper deals with the value of the construction company assessment respecting usable approaches and determinable variables. The reasons of the value of the construction company assessment are different, but the most important reasons are the sale or the purchase of the company, the liquidation of the company, the fusion of the company with another subject or the others. According the reason of the value assessment it is possible to determine theoretically different approaches for valuation, mainly it concerns about the yield method of valuation and the proprietary method of valuation. Both approaches are dependant of detailed input variables, which quality will influence the final assessment of the company´s value. The main objective of the paper is to suggest, according to the analysis, possible ways of input variables, mainly in the form of expected cash-flows or the profit, determination. The paper is focused mainly on methods of time series analysis, regression analysis and mathematical simulation utilization. As the output, the results of the analysis on the case study will be demonstrated.

  4. Punishment induced behavioural and neurophysiological variability reveals dopamine-dependent selection of kinematic movement parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, Joseph M.; Ruge, Diane; Buijink, Arthur; Bestmann, Sven; Rothwell, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Action selection describes the high-level process which selects between competing movements. In animals, behavioural variability is critical for the motor exploration required to select the action which optimizes reward and minimizes cost/punishment, and is guided by dopamine (DA). The aim of this study was to test in humans whether low-level movement parameters are affected by punishment and reward in ways similar to high-level action selection. Moreover, we addressed the proposed dependence of behavioural and neurophysiological variability on DA, and whether this may underpin the exploration of kinematic parameters. Participants performed an out-and-back index finger movement and were instructed that monetary reward and punishment were based on its maximal acceleration (MA). In fact, the feedback was not contingent on the participant’s behaviour but pre-determined. Blocks highly-biased towards punishment were associated with increased MA variability relative to blocks with either reward or without feedback. This increase in behavioural variability was positively correlated with neurophysiological variability, as measured by changes in cortico-spinal excitability with transcranial magnetic stimulation over the primary motor cortex. Following the administration of a DA-antagonist, the variability associated with punishment diminished and the correlation between behavioural and neurophysiological variability no longer existed. Similar changes in variability were not observed when participants executed a pre-determined MA, nor did DA influence resting neurophysiological variability. Thus, under conditions of punishment, DA-dependent processes influence the selection of low-level movement parameters. We propose that the enhanced behavioural variability reflects the exploration of kinematic parameters for less punishing, or conversely more rewarding, outcomes. PMID:23447607

  5. Human phoneme recognition depending on speech-intrinsic variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Bernd T; Jürgens, Tim; Wesker, Thorsten; Brand, Thomas; Kollmeier, Birger

    2010-11-01

    The influence of different sources of speech-intrinsic variation (speaking rate, effort, style and dialect or accent) on human speech perception was investigated. In listening experiments with 16 listeners, confusions of consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) and vowel-consonant-vowel (VCV) sounds in speech-weighted noise were analyzed. Experiments were based on the OLLO logatome speech database, which was designed for a man-machine comparison. It contains utterances spoken by 50 speakers from five dialect/accent regions and covers several intrinsic variations. By comparing results depending on intrinsic and extrinsic variations (i.e., different levels of masking noise), the degradation induced by variabilities can be expressed in terms of the SNR. The spectral level distance between the respective speech segment and the long-term spectrum of the masking noise was found to be a good predictor for recognition rates, while phoneme confusions were influenced by the distance to spectrally close phonemes. An analysis based on transmitted information of articulatory features showed that voicing and manner of articulation are comparatively robust cues in the presence of intrinsic variations, whereas the coding of place is more degraded. The database and detailed results have been made available for comparisons between human speech recognition (HSR) and automatic speech recognizers (ASR).

  6. Treating opioid dependence. Growing implications for primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, Mori J; Mehler, Philip S

    2004-02-09

    Almost 3 million Americans have abused heroin. The most effective treatment for this concerning epidemic is opioid replacement therapy. Although, from a historical perspective, acceptance of this therapy has been slow, growing evidence supports its efficacy. There are 3 approved medications for opioid maintenance therapy: methadone hydrochloride, levomethadyl acetate, and buprenorphine hydrochloride. Each has unique characteristics that determine its suitability for an individual patient. Cardiac arrhythmias have been reported with methadone and levomethadyl, but not with buprenorphine. Due to concerns about cardiac risk, levomethadyl use has declined and the product may ultimately be discontinued. These recent safety concerns, specifics about opioid detoxification and maintenance, and new federal initiatives were studied. Opioid detoxification has a role in both preventing acute withdrawal and maintaining long-term abstinence. Although only a minority of eligible patients are engaged in treatment, opioid maintenance therapy appears to offer the greatest public health benefits. There is growing interest in expanding treatment into primary care, allowing opioid addiction to be managed like other chronic illnesses. This model has gained wide acceptance in Europe and is now being implemented in the United States. The recent Drug Addiction Treatment Act enables qualified physicians to treat opioid-dependent patients with buprenorphine in an office-based setting. Mainstreaming opioid addiction treatment has many advantages; its success will depend on resolution of ethical and delivery system issues as well as improved and expanded training of physicians in addiction medicine.

  7. Investigation of Primary School Teachers' Conflict Resolution Skills in Terms of Different Variable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayraktar, Hatice Vatansever; Yilmaz, Kamile Özge

    2016-01-01

    In this study, it is aimed to determine the level of conflict resolution skills of primary school teachers and whether they vary by different variables. The study was organised in accordance with the scanning model. The universe of the study consists of primary school teachers working at 14 primary schools, two from each of the seven geographical…

  8. Variability of interconnected wind plants: correlation length and its dependence on variability time scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Martin, Clara M.; Lundquist, Julie K.; Handschy, Mark A.

    2015-04-01

    The variability in wind-generated electricity complicates the integration of this electricity into the electrical grid. This challenge steepens as the percentage of renewably-generated electricity on the grid grows, but variability can be reduced by exploiting geographic diversity: correlations between wind farms decrease as the separation between wind farms increases. But how far is far enough to reduce variability? Grid management requires balancing production on various timescales, and so consideration of correlations reflective of those timescales can guide the appropriate spatial scales of geographic diversity grid integration. To answer ‘how far is far enough,’ we investigate the universal behavior of geographic diversity by exploring wind-speed correlations using three extensive datasets spanning continents, durations and time resolution. First, one year of five-minute wind power generation data from 29 wind farms span 1270 km across Southeastern Australia (Australian Energy Market Operator). Second, 45 years of hourly 10 m wind-speeds from 117 stations span 5000 km across Canada (National Climate Data Archive of Environment Canada). Finally, four years of five-minute wind-speeds from 14 meteorological towers span 350 km of the Northwestern US (Bonneville Power Administration). After removing diurnal cycles and seasonal trends from all datasets, we investigate dependence of correlation length on time scale by digitally high-pass filtering the data on 0.25-2000 h timescales and calculating correlations between sites for each high-pass filter cut-off. Correlations fall to zero with increasing station separation distance, but the characteristic correlation length varies with the high-pass filter applied: the higher the cut-off frequency, the smaller the station separation required to achieve de-correlation. Remarkable similarities between these three datasets reveal behavior that, if universal, could be particularly useful for grid management. For high

  9. Solute transport modelling with the variable temporally dependent ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pintu Das

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... in a finite domain with time-dependent sources and dis- tance-dependent dispersivities. Also, existing ... solute transport in multi-layered porous media using gen- eralized integral transform technique with .... methods for solving the fractional reaction-–sub-diffusion equation. To solve numerically the Eqs.

  10. Primary caregivers of schizophrenia outpatients: burden and predictor variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandón, Pamela; Jenaro, Cristina; Lemos, Serafín

    2008-04-15

    This article explores family burden in relation to relatives' coping strategies and social networks, as well as in relation to the patients' severity of positive and negative symptoms. Data on the severity of symptoms (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for Schizophrenia [PANSS]), social functioning (Social Functioning Scale [SFS]), caregivers burden (Interview on Objective and Subjective Family Burden or Entrevista de Carga Familiar Objetiva y Subjetiva [ECFOS]), coping skills (Family Coping Questionnaire [FCQ]), and social support (Social Network Questionnaire [SNQ]) were gathered from a randomized sample of 101 Chilean outpatients and their primary caregivers, mostly mothers. Low levels of burden were typically found, with the exception of moderate levels on general concerns for the ill relative. A hierarchical regression analysis with four blocks showed that clinical characteristics, such as higher frequency of relapses, more positive symptoms and lower independence-performance, together with lower self-control attributed to the patient, decrease in social interests, and less affective support, predict burden. The results support the relevance of psychoeducational interventions where families' needs are addressed.

  11. Population and prehistory III: food-dependent demography in variable environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Charlotte T; Puleston, Cedric O; Tuljapurkar, Shripad

    2009-11-01

    The population dynamics of preindustrial societies depend intimately on their surroundings, and food is a primary means through which environment influences population size and individual well-being. Food production requires labor; thus, dependence of survival and fertility on food involves dependence of a population's future on its current state. We use a perturbation approach to analyze the effects of random environmental variation on this nonlinear, age-structured system. We show that in expanding populations, direct environmental effects dominate induced population fluctuations, so environmental variability has little effect on mean hunger levels, although it does decrease population growth. The growth rate determines the time until population is limited by space. This limitation introduces a tradeoff between population density and well-being, so population effects become more important than the direct effects of the environment: environmental fluctuation increases mortality, releasing density dependence and raising average well-being for survivors. We discuss the social implications of these findings for the long-term fate of populations as they transition from expansion into limitation, given that conditions leading to high well-being during growth depress well-being during limitation.

  12. On Direction of Dependence in Latent Variable Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Eye, Alexander; Wiedermann, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Approaches to determining direction of dependence in nonexperimental data are based on the relation between higher-than second-order moments on one side and correlation and regression models on the other. These approaches have experienced rapid development and are being applied in contexts such as research on partner violence, attention deficit…

  13. Relationships between Teacher Organizational Commitment, Psychological Hardiness and Some Demographic Variables in Turkish Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezgin, Ferudun

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships between teachers' organizational commitment perceptions and both their psychological hardiness and some demographic variables in a sample of Turkish primary schools. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 405 randomly selected teachers working at primary schools in Ankara…

  14. Net primary productivity of subalpine meadows in Yosemite National Park in relation to climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peggy E. Moore; Jan W. van Wagtendonk; Julie L. Yee; Mitchel P. McClaran; David N. Cole; Neil K. McDougald; Matthew L. Brooks

    2013-01-01

    Subalpine meadows are some of the most ecologically important components of mountain landscapes, and primary productivity is important to the maintenance of meadow functions. Understanding how changes in primary productivity are associated with variability in moisture and temperature will become increasingly important with current and anticipated changes in climate....

  15. Energy decay of a variable-coefficient wave equation with nonlinear time-dependent localized damping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieqiong Wu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the energy decay for the Cauchy problem of the wave equation with nonlinear time-dependent and space-dependent damping. The damping is localized in a bounded domain and near infinity, and the principal part of the wave equation has a variable-coefficient. We apply the multiplier method for variable-coefficient equations, and obtain an energy decay that depends on the property of the coefficient of the damping term.

  16. Variability in the primary emissions and secondary gas and particle formation from vehicles using bioethanol mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramsch, E; Papapostolou, V; Reyes, F; Vásquez, Y; Castillo, M; Oyola, P; López, G; Cádiz, A; Ferguson, S; Wolfson, M; Lawrence, J; Koutrakis, P

    2018-04-01

    Bioethanol for use in vehicles is becoming a substantial part of global energy infrastructure because it is renewable and some emissions are reduced. Carbon monoxide (CO) emissions and total hydrocarbons (THC) are reduced, but there is still controversy regarding emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x ), aldehydes, and ethanol; this may be a concern because all these compounds are precursors of ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA). The amount of emissions depends on the ethanol content, but it also may depend on the engine quality and ethanol origin. Thus, a photochemical chamber was used to study secondary gas and aerosol formation from two flex-fueled vehicles using different ethanol blends in gasoline. One vehicle and the fuel used were made in the United States, and the others were made in Brazil. Primary emissions of THC, CO, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), and nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) from both vehicles decreased as the amount of ethanol in gasoline increased. NO x emissions in the U.S. and Brazilian cars decreased with ethanol content. However, emissions of THC, CO, and NO x from the Brazilian car were markedly higher than those from the U.S. car, showing high variability between vehicle technologies. In the Brazilian car, formation of secondary nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and ozone (O 3 ) was lower for higher ethanol content in the fuel. In the U.S. car, NO 2 and O 3 had a small increase. Secondary particle (particulate matter [PM]) formation in the chamber decreased for both vehicles as the fraction of ethanol in fuel increased, consistent with previous studies. Secondary to primary PM ratios for pure gasoline is 11, also consistent with previous studies. In addition, the time required to form secondary PM is longer for higher ethanol blends. These results indicate that using higher ethanol blends may have a positive impact on air quality. The use of bioethanol can significantly reduce petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. Given the extent of

  17. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring-derived short-term blood pressure variability in primary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concistrè, A; Grillo, A; La Torre, G; Carretta, R; Fabris, B; Petramala, L; Marinelli, C; Rebellato, A; Fallo, F; Letizia, C

    2018-04-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism is associated with a cluster of cardiovascular manifestations, including hypertension, leading to increased cardiovascular risk. The aim of our study was to investigate the ambulatory blood pressure monitoring-derived short-term blood pressure variability in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, in comparison with patients with essential hypertension and normotensive controls. Twenty-five patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (7 normotensive,18 hypertensive) underwent ambulatory blood pressure monitoring at diagnosis, and fifteen out of them were re-evaluated after parathyroidectomy. Short-term-blood pressure variability was derived from ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and calculated as the following: 1) Standard Deviation of 24-h, day-time and night-time-BP; 2) the average of day-time and night-time-Standard Deviation, weighted for the duration of the day and night periods (24-h "weighted" Standard Deviation of BP); 3) average real variability, i.e., the average of the absolute differences between all consecutive BP measurements. Baseline data of normotensive and essential hypertension patients were matched for age, sex, BMI and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring values with normotensive and hypertensive-primary hyperparathyroidism patients, respectively. Normotensive-primary hyperparathyroidism patients showed a 24-h weighted Standard Deviation (P blood pressure higher than that of 12 normotensive controls. 24-h average real variability of systolic BP, as well as serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels, were reduced in operated patients (P blood pressure variability is increased in normotensive patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and is reduced by parathyroidectomy, and may potentially represent an additional cardiovascular risk factor in this disease.

  18. Attitudinal Variables Affecting Education Reforms and Quality of Primary Education in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyenje, Aida; Nkata, James

    2016-01-01

    This paper establishes the extent to which attitudinal variables affect the education reforms and subsequently the quality of primary education in Uganda. The paper is based on the views of a wide spectrum of different education stakeholders including: policy analysts, Members of Parliament (MPs), education officers, Headteachers, teaching staff,…

  19. Control Method for Variable Speed Wind Turbines to Support Temporary Primary Frequency Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Haijiao; Chen, Zhe; Jiang, Quanyuan

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops a control method for variable speed wind turbines (VSWTs) to support temporary primary frequency control of power system. The control method contains two parts: (1) up-regulate support control when a frequency drop event occurs; (2) down-regulate support control when a frequen...

  20. Analysis of Primary School Student's Science Learning Anxiety According to Some Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaya, Ferhat; Avgin, Sakine Serap; Kumperli, Ethem

    2016-01-01

    On this research, it is analyzed if the science learning anxiety level shows difference according to variables which are gender, grade level, science lesson grade, mother education, father education level. Scanning Design is used for this study. Research working group is consisted of 294 primary school from 6th, 7th and 8th graders on 2015-2016…

  1. Sternal wound complications after primary isolated myocardial revascularization: the importance of the post-operative variables.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noyez, L.; Druten, J.A.M. van; Mulder, J.; Schroen, A.M.; Skotnicki, S.H.; Brouwer, R.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Select pre-, peri-, and post-operative variables, predictive for sternal wound complications (SWC), in a clinical setting. METHODS: We analyzed pre-, peri-, and post-operative data of 3815 patients who underwent a primary isolated bypass grafting. 100 patients (2.6%) had post-operative

  2. Self-Concept among Primary School Students According to Gender and Academic Achievement Variables in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Srour, Nadia Hayel; Al-Ali, Safa Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the level of self-concept among primary school students according to gender and academic achievement variables in Amman. A random sample was chosen from fourth, fifth and sixth grades in private schools in Amman city. The sample of the study consisted of (365) male and female students, (177) males and (188)…

  3. Variables that predict academic procrastination behavior in prospective primary school teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuman Seda SARACALOĞLU

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the variables predicting academic procrastination behavior of prospective primary school teachers and is conducted using the correlational survey model. The study group is composed of 294 undergraduate students studying primary school teaching programs in faculties of education at Adnan Menderes, Pamukkale, and Muğla Sıtkı Koçman Universities in Turkey. The data collection instruments used were the Procrastination Assessment Scale Students (PASS, Academic Self-Efficacy Scale (ASES, and Academic Motivation Scale (AMS. While analyzing the gathered data, descriptive analysis techniques were utilized. Moreover, while analyzing the data, power of variables namely reasons of academic procrastination, academic motivation, and academic efficacy to predict prospective primary school teachers’ academic procrastination tendencies were tested. For that purpose, stepwise regression analysis was employed. It was found that nearly half of the prospective primary school teachers displayed no academic procrastination behavior. Participants’ reasons for procrastination were fear of failure, laziness, taking risks, and rebellion against control. An average level significant correlation was found between participants’ academic procrastination and other variables. As a result, it was identified that prospective primary school teachers had less academic procrastination than reported in literature and laziness, fear of failure, academic motivation predicted academic procrastination.

  4. Achievable data rate in spectrum-sharing channels with variable-rate variable-power primary users

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuli

    2012-08-01

    In this work, we propose a transmission strategy for secondary users (SUs) within a cognitive radio network where primary users (PUs) exploit variable-rate variable-power modulation. By monitoring the PU\\'s transmissions, the SU adjusts its transmit power based on the gap between the PU\\'s received effective signal-to-noise power ratio (SNR) and the lower SNR boundary for the modulation mode that is being used in the primary link. Thus, at the SU\\'s presence, the PU\\'s quality of service (QoS) is guaranteed without increasing its processing complexity thanks to no interference cancellation required in the PU\\'s operation. To demonstrate the advantage of our proposed transmission strategy, we analyze the secondary user\\'s achievable data rate by taking into account different transmission capabilities for the secondary transmitter. The corresponding numerical results not only prove the validity of our derivations but also provide a convenient tool for the network design with the proposed transmission strategy. © 2012 IEEE.

  5. Non-uniform approximations for sums of discrete m-dependent random variables

    OpenAIRE

    Vellaisamy, P.; Cekanavicius, V.

    2013-01-01

    Non-uniform estimates are obtained for Poisson, compound Poisson, translated Poisson, negative binomial and binomial approximations to sums of of m-dependent integer-valued random variables. Estimates for Wasserstein metric also follow easily from our results. The results are then exemplified by the approximation of Poisson binomial distribution, 2-runs and $m$-dependent $(k_1,k_2)$-events.

  6. Using k-dependence causal forest to mine the most significant dependency relationships among clinical variables for thyroid disease diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LiMin Wang

    Full Text Available Numerous data mining models have been proposed to construct computer-aided medical expert systems. Bayesian network classifiers (BNCs are more distinct and understandable than other models. To graphically describe the dependency relationships among clinical variables for thyroid disease diagnosis and ensure the rationality of the diagnosis results, the proposed k-dependence causal forest (KCF model generates a series of submodels in the framework of maximum spanning tree (MST and demonstrates stronger dependence representation. Friedman test on 12 UCI datasets shows that KCF has classification accuracy advantage over the other state-of-the-art BNCs, such as Naive Bayes, tree augmented Naive Bayes, and k-dependence Bayesian classifier. Our extensive experimental comparison on 4 medical datasets also proves the feasibility and effectiveness of KCF in terms of sensitivity and specificity.

  7. [Depression and burden on primary caregivers of elderly persons with physical dependence of the UMF 171].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Sandoval, Cristina; Uriostegui-Espíritu, Lizbeth Carlota; Delgado-Quiñones, Edna Gabriela; Sahagún-Cuevas, Minerva Natalia

    2017-01-01

    According to the National Health and Nutrition Survey of 2012, more than a quarter of older adults (26.9%) have some degree of disability, requiring a primary caregiver to perform basic activities of daily living. The aim is to determine the prevalence of depression and burden on primary caregivers of elderly persons with physical dependence. A descriptive cross-sectional study with non-probability sampling that included the primary caregivers of elderly patients with physical dependence. Barthel scale was applied as a tool to measure the level of physical dependence in elderly patients; while the primary caregivers were applied to the Beck Depression and Zarit scale for assessing the level of caregiver burden. A sample of 76 primary caregivers was calculated and descriptive statistical analysis was performed. Of the 76 primary caregivers, 55.3% were without depression, 32.9% had mild depression, and 11.8% with moderate depression. According to the Zarit scale, 40.8% had no burden, 44.7% had burden light, and 14.5% intense burden. The role of primary caregiver is a stressful task which can interfere with their family health; so our role is to provide care not only to the geriatric dependent patients, but also to their caregiver.

  8. Equivalent conditions of complete moment convergence for extended negatively dependent random variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qunying Wu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we study the equivalent conditions of complete moment convergence for sequences of identically distributed extended negatively dependent random variables. As a result, we extend and generalize some results of complete moment convergence obtained by Chow (Bull. Inst. Math. Acad. Sin. 16:177-201, 1988 and Li and Spătaru (J. Theor. Probab. 18:933-947, 2005 from the i.i.d. case to extended negatively dependent sequences.

  9. Alaskan soil carbon stocks: spatial variability and dependence on environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Mishra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The direction and magnitude of soil organic carbon (SOC changes in response to climate change depend on the spatial and vertical distributions of SOC. We estimated spatially resolved SOC stocks from surface to C horizon, distinguishing active-layer and permafrost-layer stocks, based on geospatial analysis of 472 soil profiles and spatially referenced environmental variables for Alaska. Total Alaska state-wide SOC stock was estimated to be 77 Pg, with 61% in the active-layer, 27% in permafrost, and 12% in non-permafrost soils. Prediction accuracy was highest for the active-layer as demonstrated by highest ratio of performance to deviation (1.5. Large spatial variability was predicted, with whole-profile, active-layer, and permafrost-layer stocks ranging from 1–296 kg C m−2, 2–166 kg m−2, and 0–232 kg m−2, respectively. Temperature and soil wetness were found to be primary controllers of whole-profile, active-layer, and permafrost-layer SOC stocks. Secondary controllers, in order of importance, were found to be land cover type, topographic attributes, and bedrock geology. The observed importance of soil wetness rather than precipitation on SOC stocks implies that the poor representation of high-latitude soil wetness in Earth system models may lead to large uncertainty in predicted SOC stocks under future climate change scenarios. Under strict caveats described in the text and assuming temperature changes from the A1B Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change emissions scenario, our geospatial model indicates that the equilibrium average 2100 Alaska active-layer depth could deepen by 11 cm, resulting in a thawing of 13 Pg C currently in permafrost. The equilibrium SOC loss associated with this warming would be highest under continuous permafrost (31%, followed by discontinuous (28%, isolated (24.3%, and sporadic (23.6% permafrost areas. Our high-resolution mapping of soil carbon stock reveals the

  10. Motivation as an independent and a dependent variable in medical education: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusurkar, R A; Ten Cate, Th J; van Asperen, M; Croiset, G

    2011-01-01

    Motivation in learning behaviour and education is well-researched in general education, but less in medical education. To answer two research questions, 'How has the literature studied motivation as either an independent or dependent variable? How is motivation useful in predicting and understanding processes and outcomes in medical education?' in the light of the Self-determination Theory (SDT) of motivation. A literature search performed using the PubMed, PsycINFO and ERIC databases resulted in 460 articles. The inclusion criteria were empirical research, specific measurement of motivation and qualitative research studies which had well-designed methodology. Only studies related to medical students/school were included. Findings of 56 articles were included in the review. Motivation as an independent variable appears to affect learning and study behaviour, academic performance, choice of medicine and specialty within medicine and intention to continue medical study. Motivation as a dependent variable appears to be affected by age, gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, personality, year of medical curriculum and teacher and peer support, all of which cannot be manipulated by medical educators. Motivation is also affected by factors that can be influenced, among which are, autonomy, competence and relatedness, which have been described as the basic psychological needs important for intrinsic motivation according to SDT. Motivation is an independent variable in medical education influencing important outcomes and is also a dependent variable influenced by autonomy, competence and relatedness. This review finds some evidence in support of the validity of SDT in medical education.

  11. Construction of adjoint operators for coupled equations depending on different variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoogenboom, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    A procedure is described for the construction of the adjoint operator matrix in case of coupled equations defining quantities that depend on different sets of variables. This case is not properly treated in the literature. From this procedure a simple rule can be deduced for the construction of such adjoint operator matrices

  12. Panel data models extended to spatial error autocorrelation or a spatially lagged dependent variable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, J. Paul

    2001-01-01

    This paper surveys panel data models extended to spatial error autocorrelation or a spatially lagged dependent variable. In particular, it focuses on the specification and estimation of four panel data models commonly used in applied research: the fixed effects model, the random effects model, the

  13. Human Performance Technology (HPT): An Examination of Definitions through Dependent and Independent Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irlbeck, Sonja A.

    2002-01-01

    Provides a chronological perspective of human performance technology (HPT) definitions and an evaluation of them in terms of independent and dependent variables. Discusses human competence and performance technology and compares the definitions with the goals that have been articulated for HPT. (Author/LRW)

  14. Central limit theorem for the Banach-valued weakly dependent random variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrovskij, V.A.; Ermakov, S.V.; Ostrovskij, E.I.

    1983-01-01

    The central limit theorem (CLT) for the Banach-valued weakly dependent random variables is proved. In proving CLT convergence of finite-measured (i.e. cylindrical) distributions is established. A weak compactness of the family of measures generated by a certain sequence is confirmed. The continuity of the limiting field is checked

  15. Short-term to seasonal variability in factors driving primary productivity in a shallow estuary: Implications for modeling production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canion, Andy; MacIntyre, Hugh L.; Phipps, Scott

    2013-10-01

    The inputs of primary productivity models may be highly variable on short timescales (hourly to daily) in turbid estuaries, but modeling of productivity in these environments is often implemented with data collected over longer timescales. Daily, seasonal, and spatial variability in primary productivity model parameters: chlorophyll a concentration (Chla), the downwelling light attenuation coefficient (kd), and photosynthesis-irradiance response parameters (Pmchl, αChl) were characterized in Weeks Bay, a nitrogen-impacted shallow estuary in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Variability in primary productivity model parameters in response to environmental forcing, nutrients, and microalgal taxonomic marker pigments were analysed in monthly and short-term datasets. Microalgal biomass (as Chla) was strongly related to total phosphorus concentration on seasonal scales. Hourly data support wind-driven resuspension as a major source of short-term variability in Chla and light attenuation (kd). The empirical relationship between areal primary productivity and a combined variable of biomass and light attenuation showed that variability in the photosynthesis-irradiance response contributed little to the overall variability in primary productivity, and Chla alone could account for 53-86% of the variability in primary productivity. Efforts to model productivity in similar shallow systems with highly variable microalgal biomass may benefit the most by investing resources in improving spatial and temporal resolution of chlorophyll a measurements before increasing the complexity of models used in productivity modeling.

  16. [Psychological distress and personality characteristics among individuals with primary exercise dependence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi, Jenni; Clementi, Cecilia; Grandi, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess both psychological distress and personality characteristics associat with primary exercise dependence. A cross-sectional study was carried out with adult habitual physical exercisers. A total of 79 participants voluntarily completed a package of self-report questionnaires including the Exercise Dependence Questionnaire (EDQ), the Eating Disorder Inventory II (EDI-2), the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), the Attitude Toward Self scale (ATS), Muscle Dysmorphia Questionnaire (MDQ), and the Symptom Questionnaire (SQ). Significant differences were found in the EDQ exercise for weight control subscale with regard to gender, as well as in the EDI-2 total score and 5 of its subscales, with higher scores for females compared to males. Participants reporting primary exercise dependence (n=32) were more likely to present with disordered eating patterns than controls (n=47). They also showed higher levels of harm avoidance and persistence on the TCI, as well as lower self-directness. Furthermore, primary exercise dependents scored higher on the ATS dysmorphophobia subscale, as well as on the MDQ total score and the anxiety and hostility subscales of the SQ compared to controls. These findings highlight the importance of performing a clinical assessment of psychological symptoms and personality characteristics that might be associated with primary exercise dependence.

  17. A Study on Variables that Affect Class Scores of Primary Education Students in Placement Test

    OpenAIRE

    Yavuz, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to determine the variables that predict class scores which are obtained by adding 70 % of the Placement Test (PT) scores of the primary education sixth and seventh grade students who took it for the first time in the 2007-2008 academic year within the framework of the system of passing to secondary education reorganized by the MNE, 25 % of their end-of-the-year passing grades. The study is of general survey model. The study group consists of students who took the PT in the 200...

  18. Predicting suicidal ideation in primary care: An approach to identify easily assessable key variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Pascal; Shedden-Mora, Meike C; Löwe, Bernd

    To obtain predictors of suicidal ideation, which can also be used for an indirect assessment of suicidal ideation (SI). To create a classifier for SI based on variables of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) and sociodemographic variables, and to obtain an upper bound on the best possible performance of a predictor based on those variables. From a consecutive sample of 9025 primary care patients, 6805 eligible patients (60% female; mean age = 51.5 years) participated. Advanced methods of machine learning were used to derive the prediction equation. Various classifiers were applied and the area under the curve (AUC) was computed as a performance measure. Classifiers based on methods of machine learning outperformed ordinary regression methods and achieved AUCs around 0.87. The key variables in the prediction equation comprised four items - namely feelings of depression/hopelessness, low self-esteem, worrying, and severe sleep disturbances. The generalized anxiety disorder scale (GAD-7) and the somatic symptom subscale (PHQ-15) did not enhance prediction substantially. In predicting suicidal ideation researchers should refrain from using ordinary regression tools. The relevant information is primarily captured by the depression subscale and should be incorporated in a nonlinear model. For clinical practice, a classification tree using only four items of the whole PHQ may be advocated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Dominant role of plant physiology in trend and variability of gross primary productivity in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sha; Zhang, Yao; Ciais, Philippe; Xiao, Xiangming; Luo, Yiqi; Caylor, Kelly K.; Huang, Yuefei; Wang, Guangqian

    2017-02-01

    Annual gross primary productivity (GPP) varies considerably due to climate-induced changes in plant phenology and physiology. However, the relative importance of plant phenology and physiology on annual GPP variation is not clear. In this study, a Statistical Model of Integrated Phenology and Physiology (SMIPP) was used to evaluate the relative contributions of maximum daily GPP (GPPmax) and the start and end of growing season (GSstart and GSend) to annual GPP variability, using a regional GPP product in North America during 2000-2014 and GPP data from 24 AmeriFlux sites. Climatic sensitivity of the three indicators was assessed to investigate the climate impacts on plant phenology and physiology. The SMIPP can explain 98% of inter-annual variability of GPP over mid- and high latitudes in North America. The long-term trend and inter-annual variability of GPP are dominated by GPPmax both at the ecosystem and regional scales. During warmer spring and autumn, GSstart is advanced and GSend delayed, respectively. GPPmax responds positively to summer temperature over high latitudes (40-80°N), but negatively in mid-latitudes (25-40°N). This study demonstrates that plant physiology, rather than phenology, plays a dominant role in annual GPP variability, indicating more attention should be paid to physiological change under futher climate change.

  20. Climate dependence of the CO2 fertilization effect on terrestrial net primary production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrov, G.A.; Yamagata, Y.; Oikawa, T.

    2003-01-01

    The quantitative formulation of the fertilization effect of CO 2 enrichment on net primary production (NPP) introduced by Keeling and Bacastow in 1970s (known as Keeling's formula) has been recognized as a summary of experimental data and has been used in various assessments of the industrial impact on atmospheric chemistry. Nevertheless, the magnitude of the formula's key coefficient, the so-called growth factor, has remained open to question. Some of the global carbon cycle modelers avoid this question by tuning growth factor and choosing the value that fits the observed course of atmospheric CO 2 changes. However, for mapping terrestrial sinks induced by the CO 2 fertilization effect one needs a geographical pattern of the growth factor rather than its globally averaged value. The earlier approach to this problem involved formulating the climate dependence of the growth factor and the derivation of its global pattern from climatic variables (whose geographical distribution is known). We use a process-based model (TsuBiMo) for this purpose and derive the values of growth factor for major biomes for comparison our approach with the earlier studies. Contrary to the earlier prevailing opinion, TsuBiMo predicts that these values decrease with mean annual temperature (excluding biomes of limited water supply). We attribute this result to the effect of light limitation caused by mutual shading inside a canopy, which was considered earlier as unimportant, and conclude that current hypotheses about CO 2 fertilization effect (and thus projections of the related carbon sink) are very sensitive to the choice of driving forces taken into account

  1. Method of nuclear reactor control using a variable temperature load dependent set point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.J.; Rambo, G.E.

    1982-01-01

    A method and apparatus for controlling a nuclear reactor in response to a variable average reactor coolant temperature set point is disclosed. The set point is dependent upon percent of full power load demand. A manually-actuated ''droop mode'' of control is provided whereby the reactor coolant temperature is allowed to drop below the set point temperature a predetermined amount wherein the control is switched from reactor control rods exclusively to feedwater flow

  2. TWO MEASURES OF THE DEPENDENCE OF PREFERENTIAL RANKINGS ON CATEGORICAL VARIABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lissowski Grzegorz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to apply a general methodology for constructing statistical methods, which is based on decision theory, to give a statistical description of preferential rankings, with a focus on the rankings’ dependence on categorical variables. In the paper, I use functions of description errors that are based on the Kemeny and Hamming distances between preferential orderings, but the proposed methodology can also be applied to other methods of estimating description errors.

  3. An edgeworth expansion for a sum of M-Dependent random variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Soo Rhee

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Given a sequence X1,X2,…,Xn of m-dependent random variables with moments of order 3+α (0<α≦1, we give an Edgeworth expansion of the distribution of Sσ−1(S=X1+X2+…+Xn, σ2=ES2 under the assumption that E[exp(it Sσ1] is small away from the origin. The result is of the best possible order.

  4. ABCB1 genetic variability and methadone dosage requirements in opioid-dependent individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coller, Janet K; Barratt, Daniel T; Dahlen, Karianne; Loennechen, Morten H; Somogyi, Andrew A

    2006-12-01

    The most common treatment for opioid dependence is substitution therapy with another opioid such as methadone. The methadone dosage is individualized but highly variable, and program retention rates are low due in part to nonoptimal dosing resulting in withdrawal symptoms and further heroin craving and use. Methadone is a substrate for the P-glycoprotein transporter, encoded by the ABCB1 gene, which regulates central nervous system exposure. This retrospective study aimed to investigate the influence of ABCB1 genetic variability on methadone dose requirements. Genomic deoxyribonucleic acid was isolated from opioid-dependent subjects (n = 60) and non-opioid-dependent control subjects (n = 60), and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and allele-specific polymerase chain reaction were used to determine the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms at positions 61, 1199, 1236, 2677, and 3435. ABCB1 haplotypes were inferred with PHASE software (version 2.1). There were no significant differences in the allele or genotype frequencies of the individual single nucleotide polymorphisms or haplotypes between the 2 populations. ABCB1 genetic variability influenced daily methadone dose requirements, such that subjects carrying 2 copies of the wild-type haplotype required higher doses compared with those with 1 copy and those with no copies (98.3 +/- 10.4, 58.6 +/- 20.9, and 55.4 +/- 26.1 mg/d, respectively; P = .029). In addition, carriers of the AGCTT haplotype required significantly lower doses than noncarriers (38.0 +/- 16.8 and 61.3 +/- 24.6 mg/d, respectively; P = .04). Although ABCB1 genetic variability is not related to the development of opioid dependence, identification of variant haplotypes may, after larger prospective studies have been performed, provide clinicians with a tool for methadone dosage individualization.

  5. Energy saving opportunity with variable speed drive in primary air-handling unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.S.M.

    2007-01-01

    Air conditioners used in the court buildings in Kowloon City, Hong Kong were retrofitted with variable speed drives in the primary air handling unit (PAU) in an effort to reduce energy consumption. The initial effect of this retrofit was investigated along with the feasibility of using a carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) based demand control ventilation to reduce energy consumption while optimizing indoor air quality. The air flow in most air conditioning fans is either constant or controlled by motorized inlet guide vanes. Although this controls the flow and may reduce the load on the fan, this constriction adds an energy loss, resulting in inefficient operation. Variable speed drives should be used on the PAU in order to maintain system efficiency. As the speed of the fans are reduced, the flow will decrease proportionally, while the power required by the fan will reduce the cube of the speed. Therefore, if the fresh air supply can be controlled by reducing the speed of the fan motor, then flow control would be more efficient. The energy saving associated with variable fresh air supply flow rate was evaluated along with the cost to building owners. This paper presented the results of the potential energy and cost savings associated with this retrofit, and included implementation cost and pay back period. It was estimated that about 20 per cent of power consumption and electricity costs can be saved per year, with a simple payback period of 2 years. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  6. Temperature dependence of CO2-enhanced primary production in the European Arctic Ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Holding, J. M.

    2015-08-31

    The Arctic Ocean is warming at two to three times the global rate1 and is perceived to be a bellwether for ocean acidification2, 3. Increased CO2 concentrations are expected to have a fertilization effect on marine autotrophs4, and higher temperatures should lead to increased rates of planktonic primary production5. Yet, simultaneous assessment of warming and increased CO2 on primary production in the Arctic has not been conducted. Here we test the expectation that CO2-enhanced gross primary production (GPP) may be temperature dependent, using data from several oceanographic cruises and experiments from both spring and summer in the European sector of the Arctic Ocean. Results confirm that CO2 enhances GPP (by a factor of up to ten) over a range of 145–2,099 μatm; however, the greatest effects are observed only at lower temperatures and are constrained by nutrient and light availability to the spring period. The temperature dependence of CO2-enhanced primary production has significant implications for metabolic balance in a warmer, CO2-enriched Arctic Ocean in the future. In particular, it indicates that a twofold increase in primary production during the spring is likely in the Arctic.

  7. An Investigation on Primary School Teachers’ Perceptions of Effective Citizenship Proficiency byCertain Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil İbrahim SAĞLAM

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Citizenship can be defined as political belonging to the state. Citizenship consists of relationships between the state and the individuals. In order to maintain the relationships between the state and the citizens wholesomely, it is necessary to fulfill rights and responsibilities mutually. Thanks to this fact, citizenship education has become common interest of whole humanity. In this sense; primary education is a crucial step in developing citizenship consciousness. The fact that students in this level are proned to pattern themselves after their teacher and that teacher are perceived as professionalists followed by society further increase the significance of effective citizenship proficiency levels of teachers. Consequently, determining effective citizenship proficiency levels of the teachers who work in primary education constitutes the main purpose of this study. In addition, it is aimed to determine whether the teachers’ gender, field of study, marital status, length of service, whether they prefer teaching profession willingfully and whether they are pleased with teachership or not lead to differentiation in their “effective proficiency levels”.The purpose of this study is to reveal primary school teachers’ effective citizenship proficiencies. The study employed a 23-item inventory of effective citizenship proficiencies, which consisted of two sub-dimensions, namely “citizenship values” and “citizenship knowledge and skills”. The inner consistency coefficient of the inventory is 0.89. The study was conducted on a total of 214 teachers, 108 of them being female (50.5% and the remaining 106 of them (49.5% being male, during the Spring Term of the Educational Year 2010-2011. The level of significance for data analysis was accepted as 0.50. The data were analyzed in accordance with the sub-dimensions. Firstly, the normality of the distribution of the variables was studied through the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test in an attempt to

  8. Personality characteristics and psychological distress associated with primary exercise dependence: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandi, Silvana; Clementi, Cecilia; Guidi, Jenny; Benassi, Mariagrazia; Tossani, Eliana

    2011-09-30

    The aim of this study was to assess personality characteristics and psychological distress associated with primary exercise dependence (ExeDepI) in a mixed gender sample. A cross-sectional study was carried out with adult habitual physical exercisers. A total of 79 participants voluntarily completed a package of self-report questionnaires including the Exercise Dependence Questionnaire (EDQ), the Eating Disorder Inventory II (EDI-2), the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), the Attitude Toward Self scale (ATS), and the Symptom Questionnaire (SQ). Significant differences were found on the EDQ exercise for weight control subscale with regard to gender, as well as on the EDI-2 total score and five of its subscales, with higher scores for females compared to males. Participants reporting primary exercise dependence (N=32) were more likely to present with disordered eating patterns than controls (N=47). They also showed higher levels of harm avoidance and persistence on the TCI, but lower self-directness and less mature character. Furthermore, ExeDepI group scored higher on the ATS dysmorphophobia subscale, as well as on the anxiety and hostility subscales of the SQ compared to the control group. These findings provide support to the idea that primary exercise dependence can be considered as a clinical syndrome associated with certain personality characteristics and psychological symptoms that might be accurately assessed in clinical settings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. BAYESIAN TECHNIQUES FOR COMPARING TIME-DEPENDENT GRMHD SIMULATIONS TO VARIABLE EVENT HORIZON TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Junhan; Marrone, Daniel P.; Chan, Chi-Kwan; Medeiros, Lia; Özel, Feryal; Psaltis, Dimitrios, E-mail: junhankim@email.arizona.edu [Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) is a millimeter-wavelength, very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) experiment that is capable of observing black holes with horizon-scale resolution. Early observations have revealed variable horizon-scale emission in the Galactic Center black hole, Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*). Comparing such observations to time-dependent general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations requires statistical tools that explicitly consider the variability in both the data and the models. We develop here a Bayesian method to compare time-resolved simulation images to variable VLBI data, in order to infer model parameters and perform model comparisons. We use mock EHT data based on GRMHD simulations to explore the robustness of this Bayesian method and contrast it to approaches that do not consider the effects of variability. We find that time-independent models lead to offset values of the inferred parameters with artificially reduced uncertainties. Moreover, neglecting the variability in the data and the models often leads to erroneous model selections. We finally apply our method to the early EHT data on Sgr A*.

  10. Self Efficacy and Some Demographic Variables as Predictors of Occupational Stress among Primary School Teachers in Delta State of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpochafo, G. O.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated self efficacy and some demographic variables as predictors of occupational stress among primary school teachers in Delta State. Three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The study adopted a descriptive survey design that utilized an expost-facto research type. A sample of one hundred and twenty primary school…

  11. Distance and Azimuthal Dependence of Ground‐Motion Variability for Unilateral Strike‐Slip Ruptures

    KAUST Repository

    Vyas, Jagdish Chandra

    2016-06-21

    We investigate near‐field ground‐motion variability by computing the seismic wavefield for five kinematic unilateral‐rupture models of the 1992 Mw 7.3 Landers earthquake, eight simplified unilateral‐rupture models based on the Landers event, and a large Mw 7.8 ShakeOut scenario. We include the geometrical fault complexity and consider different 1D velocity–density profiles for the Landers simulations and a 3D heterogeneous Earth structure for the ShakeOut scenario. For the Landers earthquake, the computed waveforms are validated using strong‐motion recordings. We analyze the simulated ground‐motion data set in terms of distance and azimuth dependence of peak ground velocity (PGV). Our simulations reveal that intraevent ground‐motion variability Graphic is higher in close distances to the fault (<20  km) and decreases with increasing distance following a power law. This finding is in stark contrast to constant sigma‐values used in empirical ground‐motion prediction equations. The physical explanation of a large near‐field Graphic is the presence of strong directivity and rupture complexity. High values of Graphic occur in the rupture‐propagation direction, but small values occur in the direction perpendicular to it. We observe that the power‐law decay of Graphic is primarily controlled by slip heterogeneity. In addition, Graphic, as function of azimuth, is sensitive to variations in both rupture speed and slip heterogeneity. The azimuth dependence of the ground‐motion mean μln(PGV) is well described by a Cauchy–Lorentz function that provides a novel empirical quantification to model the spatial dependency of ground motion. Online Material: Figures of slip distributions, residuals to ground‐motion prediction equations (GMPEs), distance and azimuthal dependence, and directivity predictor of ground‐motion variability for different source models.

  12. Extreme intrafamilial variability of Saudi brothers with primary hyperoxaluria type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfadhel M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Majid Alfadhel,1 Khalid A Alhasan,2 Mohammed Alotaibi,3 Khalid Al Fakeeh41Division of Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Division of Nephrology Department of Pediatrics, King Saud University King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Radiology, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4Division of Nephrology, Department of Pediatrics, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1 is characterized by progressive renal insufficiency culminating in end-stage renal disease, and a wide range of clinical features related to systemic oxalosis in different organs. It is caused by autosomal recessive deficiency of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase due to a defect in AGXT gene.Case report: Two brothers (one 6 months old; the other 2 years old presented with acute renal failure and urinary tract infection respectively. PH1 was confirmed by high urinary oxalate level, demonstration of oxalate crystals in bone biopsy, and pathogenic homozygous known AGXT gene mutation. Despite the same genetic background, same sex, and shared environment, the outcome of the two siblings differs widely. While one of them died earlier with end-stage renal disease and multiorgan failure caused by systemic oxalosis, the older brother is pyridoxine responsive with normal development and renal function.Conclusion: Clinicians should be aware of extreme intrafamilial variability of PH1 and international registries are needed to characterize the genotype-phenotype correlation in such disorder.Keywords: primary hyperoxaluria, oxalosis, PH1, intrafamilial variability

  13. Biophysical drivers of seasonal variability in Sphagnum gross primary production in a northern temperate bog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Anthony P.; Carter, Kelsey R.; Gu, Lianhong; Hanson, Paul J.; Malhotra, Avni; Norby, Richard J.; Sebestyen, Stephen D.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Weston, David J.

    2017-05-01

    Sphagnum mosses are the keystone species of peatland ecosystems. With rapid rates of climate change occurring in high latitudes, vast reservoirs of carbon accumulated over millennia in peatland ecosystems are potentially vulnerable to rising temperature and changing precipitation. We investigate the seasonal drivers of Sphagnum gross primary production (GPP)—the entry point of carbon into wetland ecosystems. Continuous flux measurements and flux partitioning show a seasonal cycle of Sphagnum GPP that peaked in the late summer, well after the peak in photosynthetically active radiation. Wavelet analysis showed that water table height was the key driver of weekly variation in Sphagnum GPP in the early summer and that temperature was the primary driver of GPP in the late summer and autumn. Flux partitioning and a process-based model of Sphagnum photosynthesis demonstrated the likelihood of seasonally dynamic maximum rates of photosynthesis and a logistic relationship between the water table and photosynthesizing tissue area when the water table was at the Sphagnum surface. The model also suggested that variability in internal resistance to CO2 transport, a function of Sphagnum water content, had minimal effect on GPP. To accurately model Sphagnum GPP, we recommend the following: (1) understanding seasonal photosynthetic trait variation and its triggers in Sphagnum; (2) characterizing the interaction of Sphagnum photosynthesizing tissue area with water table height; (3) modeling Sphagnum as a "soil" layer for consistent simulation of water dynamics; and (4) measurement of Sphagnum "canopy" properties: extinction coefficient (k), clumping (Ω), and maximum stem area index (SAI).

  14. Evaluating the Impact of Antibiotic Exposures as Time-Dependent Variables on the Acquisition of Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Price, L Silvia; Rosa, Rossana; Castro, Jose G; Laowansiri, Panthipa; Latibeaudiere, Rachel; Namias, Nicholas; Tarima, Sergey

    2016-10-01

    To determine the time-dependent effect of antibiotics on the initial acquisition of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Retrospective cohort study. Forty-bed trauma ICU in Miami, FL. All consecutive patients admitted to the unit from November 1, 2010, to November 30, 2011. None. Patients underwent surveillance cultures at admission to the unit and weekly thereafter. The primary outcome was the acquisition of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii on surveillance cultures. Daily antibiotic exposures during the time of observation were used to construct time-dependent variables, including cumulative exposures (in grams and daily observed doses [defined daily doses]). Among 360 patients, 45 (12.5%) became colonized with carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii. Adjusted Cox models showed that each additional point in the Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation score increased the hazard by 4.8% (hazard ratio, 1.048; 95% CI, 1.010-1.087; p = 0.0124) and time-dependent exposure to carbapenems quadrupled the hazard (hazard ratio, 4.087; 95% CI, 1.873-8.920; p = 0.0004) of acquiring carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii. Additionally, adjusted Cox models determined that every additional carbapenem defined daily dose increased the hazard of acquiring carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii by 5.1% (hazard ratio, 1.051; 95% CI, 1.007-1.093; p = 0.0243). Carbapenem exposure quadrupled the hazards of acquiring A. baumannii even after controlling for severity of illness.

  15. [Drug expenditure in primary care: associated variables and allocation of drug budgets according to health district].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sempere, A; Peiró, S

    2001-01-01

    Identify factors explaining variability in prescribing costs after reviewing ecological data related to costs and socio-demographic characteristics of the health care zones in the autonomous region of Valencia, and explore the usefulness of using the model to set prescribing budgets in basic healthcare zones. An ecological analysis of the value socio-demographic characteristics and use of healthcare services to explain prescribing costs in 1997. Development of a prediction model based on multiple linear regression in data for prescribing costs in 1997 and validation in data for 1998. Factors that correlated positively with prescribing costs were the percentage of inhabitants over the age of 80, the death rate, the percentage of inhabitants with only primary education or less, the percentage of inhabitants between the ages of 65 and 79 and the distance from the capital city. A multivariate model including the death rate, the percentage of inhabitants 80 years of age and older, the number of cars per 100 inhabitants and number of visits per inhabitant accounted for 44.5% of the variations in prescribing costs in 1997 and 32% in 1998. Socio-demographic factors and certain variables associated with health care utilization can be applied, within certain limitations, to set prescribing budgets in basic healthcare zones.

  16. Defect occurrence, detection, location and characterization; essential variables of the LBB concept application to primary piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crutzen, S.; Koble, T.D.; Lemaitre, P. [and others

    1997-04-01

    Applications of the Leak Before Break (LBB) concept involve the knowledge of flaw presence and characteristics. In Service Inspection is given the responsibility of detecting flaws of a determined importance to locate them precisely and to classify them in broad families. Often LBB concepts application imply the knowledge of flaw characteristics such as through wall depth; length at the inner diameter (ID) or outer diameter (OD) surface; orientation or tilt and skew angles; branching; surface roughness; opening or width; crack tip aspect. Besides detection and characterization, LBB evaluations consider important the fact that a crack could be in the weld material or in the base material or in the heat affected zone. Cracks in tee junctions, in homogenous simple welds and in elbows are not considered in the same way. Essential variables of a flaw or defect are illustrated, and examples of flaws found in primary piping as reported by plant operators or service vendors are given. If such flaw variables are important in the applications of LBB concepts, essential is then the knowledge of the performance achievable by NDE techniques, during an ISI, in detecting such flaws, in locating them and in correctly evaluating their characteristics.

  17. Radon in indoor air of primary schools: determinant factors, their variability and effective dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madureira, Joana; Paciência, Inês; Rufo, João; Moreira, André; de Oliveira Fernandes, Eduardo; Pereira, Alcides

    2016-04-01

    Radon is a radioactive gas, abundant in granitic areas, such as in the city of Porto at the north-east of Portugal. This gas is a recognized carcinogenic agent, being appointed by the World Health Organization as the leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. The aim of this preliminary survey was to determine indoor radon concentrations in public primary schools, to analyse the main factors influencing their indoor concentration levels and to estimate the effective dose in students and teachers in primary schools. Radon concentrations were measured in 45 classrooms from 13 public primary schools located in Porto, using CR-39 passive radon detectors for about 2-month period. In all schools, radon concentrations ranged from 56 to 889 Bq/m(3) (mean = 197 Bq/m(3)). The results showed that the limit of 100 Bq/m(3) established by WHO IAQ guidelines was exceeded in 92 % of the measurements, as well as 8 % of the measurements exceeded the limit of 400 Bq/m(3) established by the national legislation. Moreover, the mean annual effective dose was calculated as 1.25 mSv/y (ranging between 0.58 and 3.07 mSv/y), which is below the action level (3-10 mSv). The considerable variability of radon concentration observed between and within floors indicates a need to monitor concentrations in several rooms for each floor. A single radon detector for each room can be used, provided that the measurement error is considerably lower than variability of radon concentration between rooms. The results of the present survey will provide useful baseline data for adopting safety measures and dealing effectively with radiation emergencies. In particular, radon remediation techniques should be used in buildings located in the highest radon risk areas of Portugal. The results obtained in the current study concerning radon levels and their variations will be useful to optimize the design of future research surveys.

  18. Degree of multicollinearity and variables involved in linear dependence in additive-dominant models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Petrini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the degree of multicollinearity and to identify the variables involved in linear dependence relations in additive-dominant models. Data of birth weight (n=141,567, yearling weight (n=58,124, and scrotal circumference (n=20,371 of Montana Tropical composite cattle were used. Diagnosis of multicollinearity was based on the variance inflation factor (VIF and on the evaluation of the condition indexes and eigenvalues from the correlation matrix among explanatory variables. The first model studied (RM included the fixed effect of dam age class at calving and the covariates associated to the direct and maternal additive and non-additive effects. The second model (R included all the effects of the RM model except the maternal additive effects. Multicollinearity was detected in both models for all traits considered, with VIF values of 1.03 - 70.20 for RM and 1.03 - 60.70 for R. Collinearity increased with the increase of variables in the model and the decrease in the number of observations, and it was classified as weak, with condition index values between 10.00 and 26.77. In general, the variables associated with additive and non-additive effects were involved in multicollinearity, partially due to the natural connection between these covariables as fractions of the biological types in breed composition.

  19. The dependence of J/ψ-nucleon inelastic cross section on the Feynman variable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Chungui; Liu Na; Miao Wendan

    2011-01-01

    By means of two typical sets of nuclear parton distribution functions, meanwhile taking account of the energy loss of the beam proton and the nuclear absorption of the charmonium states traversing the nuclear matter in the uniform framework of the Glauber model, a leading order phenomenological analysis is given in the color evaporation model of the E866 experimental data on J/ψ production differential cross section ratios R Fe/Be (x F ). It is shown that the energy loss effect of beam proton on R Fe/Be (x F ) is more important than the nuclear effects on parton distribution functions in the high Feynman variable x F region. It is found that the J/ψ-nucleon inelastic cross section depends on the Feynman variable x F and increases linearly with x F in the region x F > 0.2. (authors)

  20. Building the nodal nuclear data dependences in a many-dimensional state-variable space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufek, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The Abstract and Introduction are revised to reflect reviewers' comments. → Section is revised and simplified. → The third paragraph in Section is revised. → All typos are fixed. - Abstract: We present new methods for building the polynomial-regression based nodal nuclear data models. The data models can reflect dependences on a large number of state variables, and they can consider various history effects. Suitable multivariate polynomials that approximate the nodal data dependences are identified efficiently in an iterative manner. The history effects are analysed using a new sampling scheme for lattice calculations where the traditional base burnup and branch calculations are replaced by a large number of diverse burnup histories. The total number of lattice calculations is controlled so that the data models are built to a required accuracy.

  1. Memory effects, two color percolation, and the temperature dependence of Mott variable-range hopping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agam, Oded; Aleiner, Igor L.

    2014-06-01

    There are three basic processes that determine hopping transport: (a) hopping between normally empty sites (i.e., having exponentially small occupation numbers at equilibrium), (b) hopping between normally occupied sites, and (c) transitions between normally occupied and unoccupied sites. In conventional theories all these processes are considered Markovian and the correlations of occupation numbers of different sites are believed to be small (i.e., not exponential in temperature). We show that, contrary to this belief, memory effects suppress the processes of type (c) and manifest themselves in a subleading exponential temperature dependence of the variable-range hopping conductivity. This temperature dependence originates from the property that sites of type (a) and (b) form two independent resistor networks that are weakly coupled to each other by processes of type (c). This leads to a two-color percolation problem which we solve in the critical region.

  2. Parental Decisional Regret after Primary Distal Hypospadias Repair: Family and Surgery Variables, and Repair Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghidini, Filippo; Sekulovic, Sasa; Castagnetti, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Decisional regret is defined as distress after making a health care choice and can be an issue for parents electing distal hypospadias repair for their sons. We assessed the influence on decisional regret of variables related to the family, surgery and outcomes. Charts for 372 patients undergoing primary distal hypospadias repair between 2005 and 2012 were reviewed, and validated questionnaires, including the Decisional Regret Scale, Pediatric Penile Perception Score and Dysfunctional Voiding and Incontinence Scoring System, were administered to parents. Data were available for 172 of 372 families (response rate 46.2%). Of 323 parents 128 (39.6%) presented with moderately strong decisional regret, with good agreement within couples. Predictors of decisional regret included intermediate parental educational level (OR 3.19, 95% CI 1.52-6.69), patient not being the first born (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.07-3.78), family history of hypospadias (OR 4.42, 95% CI 1.96-9.97), initial desire to avoid surgery (OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.04-4.12), younger age at followup (OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.72-0.91), presence of lower urinary tract symptoms (OR 4.92, 95% CI 1.53-15.81) and lower Pediatric Penile Perception Score (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.75-0.99). Decisional regret was unrelated to parental desire to avoid circumcision, surgical variables, development of complications and duration of followup. Decisional regret is a problem in a significant proportion of parents electing distal hypospadias repair for their sons. In our experience family variables seemed to be predictors of decisional regret, while surgical variables did not. Predictors of decisional regret included worse parental perception of penile appearance and the presence of lower urinary tract symptoms. However, the latter could be unrelated to surgery. Irrespective of the duration of followup, decisional regret seems decreased in parents of older patients. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc

  3. Numerical Solution of the Time-Dependent Navier–Stokes Equation for Variable Density–Variable Viscosity. Part I

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Axelsson, Owe; Xin, H.; Neytcheva, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2015), s. 232-260 ISSN 1392-6292 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : variable density * phase-field model * Navier-Stokes equations * preconditioning * variable viscosity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.468, year: 2015 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3846/13926292.2015.1021395

  4. Time dependence of risks and benefits in pediatric primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Elizabeth S; Triedman, John K; Cecchin, Frank; Mah, Doug Y; Abrams, Dominic J; Walsh, Edward P; Gauvreau, Kimberlee; Alexander, Mark E

    2014-12-01

    Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) used to prevent sudden cardiac arrest in children not only provide appropriate therapy in 25% of patients but also result in a significant incidence of inappropriate shocks and other device complications. ICDs placed for secondary prevention have higher rates of appropriate therapy than those placed for primary prevention. Pediatric patients with primary prevention ICDs were studied to determine time-dependent incidence of appropriate use and adverse events. A total of 140 patients aged prevention were retrospectively identified. Demographics and times to first appropriate shock; adverse events (including inappropriate shock, lead failure, reintervention, and complication); generator replacement and follow-up were noted. During mean follow-up of 4 years, appropriate shock occurred in 19% patients and first adverse event (excluding death/transplant) occurred in 36%. Risk of death or transplant was ≈1% per year and was not related to receiving appropriate therapy. Conditional survival analysis showed rates of appropriate therapy and adverse events decrease soon after implantation, but adverse events are more frequent than appropriate therapy throughout follow-up. Primary prevention ICDs were associated with appropriate therapy in 19% and adverse event in 36% in this cohort. The incidence of both first appropriate therapy and device-related adverse events decreased during longer periods of follow-up after implantation. This suggests that indications for continued device therapy in pediatric primary prevention ICD patients might be reconsidered after a period of nonuse. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Size-dependent cytotoxicity of yttrium oxide nanoparticles on primary osteoblasts in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Guoqiang, E-mail: zhougq1982@163.com; Li, Yunfei; Ma, Yanyan; Liu, Zhu; Cao, Lili; Wang, Da; Liu, Sudan; Xu, Wenshi; Wang, Wenying [Hebei University, Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Diagnosis of Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology of Hebei Province, College of Chemistry and Environmental Science (China)

    2016-05-15

    Yttrium oxide nanoparticles are an excellent host material for the rare earth metals and have high luminescence efficiency providing a potential application in photodynamic therapy and biological imaging. In this study, the effects of yttrium oxide nanoparticles with four different sizes were investigated using primary osteoblasts in vitro. The results demonstrated that the cytotoxicity generated by yttrium oxide nanoparticles depended on the particle size, and smaller particles possessed higher toxicological effects. For the purpose to elucidate the relationship between reactive oxygen species generation and cell damage, cytomembrane integrity, intracellular reactive oxygen species level, mitochondrial membrane potential, cell apoptosis rate, and activity of caspase-3 in cells were then measured. Increased reactive oxygen species level was also observed in a size-dependent way. Thus, our data demonstrated that exposure to yttrium oxide nanoparticles resulted in a size-dependent cytotoxicity in cultured primary osteoblasts, and reactive oxygen species generation should be one possible damage pathway for the toxicological effects produced by yttrium oxide particles. The results may provide useful information for more rational applications of yttrium oxide nanoparticles in the future.

  6. Expression profiling of interindividual variability following xenobiotic exposures in primary human hepatocyte cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyak, Katy M.O.; Johnson, Mary C.; Strom, Stephen C.; Omiecinski, Curtis J.

    2008-01-01

    To examine the magnitude of human variability across the entire transcriptome after chemical challenge, we profiled gene expression responses to three different prototypic chemical inducers in primary human hepatocyte cultures from ten independent donors. Correlation between basal expression in any two hepatocyte donors ranged from r 2 values of 0.967 to 0.857, and chemical treatment tended to negatively impact correlation between donors. Including anticipated target genes, 10,812, 8373, and 7847 genes were changed in at least one donor by Aroclor 1254 (A1254), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and phenobarbital (PB), respectively. A subset of these gene targets (n = 41) were altered with a high level of reproducibility in at least 9 donors, gene responses that correlated well with literature-reported mechanism of action. Filtering responses to the level of gene subsets clarified the biological impact associated with the respective chemical effectors, in lieu of substantial interindividual variation among donor responses. In these respects, the use of hierarchical clustering methods successfully grouped seven of the ten donors into chemical-specific rather than donor-specific clusters. However, at the whole-genome level, the magnitude of conserved gene expression changes among donors was surprisingly small, with fewer than 50% of the gene responses altered by a single chemical conserved in more than one donor. The use of higher level descriptors, such as those defined by the PANTHER classification system, may enable more consistent categorization of gene expression changes across individuals, as increased reproducibility was identified using this method

  7. Updating prognosis in primary biliary cirrhosis using a time-dependent Cox regression model. PBC1 and PBC2 trial groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, E; Altman, D G; Neuberger, J

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The precision of current prognostic models in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is rather low, partly because they are based on data from just one time during the course of the disease. The aim of this study was to design a new, more precise prognostic model by incorporating follow......-up data in the development of the model. METHODS: We have performed Cox regression analyses with time-dependent variables in 237 PBC patients followed up regularly for up to 11 years. The validity of the obtained models was tested by comparing predicted and observed survival in 147 independent PBC...... patients followed for up to 6 years. RESULTS: In the obtained model the following time-dependent variables independently indicated a poor prognosis: high bilirubin, low albumin, ascites, gastrointestinal bleeding, and old age. When including histological variables, cirrhosis, central cholestasis, and low...

  8. Uncovering state-dependent relationships in shallow lakes using Bayesian latent variable regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitense, Kelsey; Hanson, Mark A; Herwig, Brian R; Zimmer, Kyle D; Fieberg, John

    2018-03-01

    Ecosystems sometimes undergo dramatic shifts between contrasting regimes. Shallow lakes, for instance, can transition between two alternative stable states: a clear state dominated by submerged aquatic vegetation and a turbid state dominated by phytoplankton. Theoretical models suggest that critical nutrient thresholds differentiate three lake types: highly resilient clear lakes, lakes that may switch between clear and turbid states following perturbations, and highly resilient turbid lakes. For effective and efficient management of shallow lakes and other systems, managers need tools to identify critical thresholds and state-dependent relationships between driving variables and key system features. Using shallow lakes as a model system for which alternative stable states have been demonstrated, we developed an integrated framework using Bayesian latent variable regression (BLR) to classify lake states, identify critical total phosphorus (TP) thresholds, and estimate steady state relationships between TP and chlorophyll a (chl a) using cross-sectional data. We evaluated the method using data simulated from a stochastic differential equation model and compared its performance to k-means clustering with regression (KMR). We also applied the framework to data comprising 130 shallow lakes. For simulated data sets, BLR had high state classification rates (median/mean accuracy >97%) and accurately estimated TP thresholds and state-dependent TP-chl a relationships. Classification and estimation improved with increasing sample size and decreasing noise levels. Compared to KMR, BLR had higher classification rates and better approximated the TP-chl a steady state relationships and TP thresholds. We fit the BLR model to three different years of empirical shallow lake data, and managers can use the estimated bifurcation diagrams to prioritize lakes for management according to their proximity to thresholds and chance of successful rehabilitation. Our model improves upon

  9. Seasonal variability of mixed layer in the central Arabian Sea and its implication on nutrients and primary productivity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Narvekar, J.

    -1 Seasonal variability of mixed layer in the central Arabian Sea and its implication on nutrients and primary productivity S. Prasanna Kumar and Jayu Narvekar National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa-403 004, India... on a 2? x 4? grids up to a depth of 500m. Monthly mean temperature and salinity data were used to calculate the sigma-t values (UNESCO, 1981). We also used nitrate, chlorophyll a and primary productivity data in the upper 120m water column...

  10. Characterizing isotopic variability of primary production and consumers in Great Plains ecosystems during protracted regional drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haveles, A. W.; Fox-Dobbs, K.; Talmadge, K. A.; Fetrow, A.; Fox, D. L.

    2012-12-01

    Over the last few years (2010-2012), the Great Plains of the central USA experienced protracted drought conditions, including historically severe drought during Summer, 2011. Drought severity in the region generally decreases with increasing latitude, but episodic drought is a fundamental trait of grassland ecosystems. Documenting above ground energy and nutrient flow with current drought is critical to understanding responses of grassland ecosystems in the region to predicted increased episodicity of rainfall and recurrence of drought due to anthropogenic climate change. Characterization of biogeochemical variability of modern ecosystems at the microhabitat, local landscape, and regional scales is also necessary to interpret biogeochemical records of ancient grasslands based on paleosols and fossil mammals. Here, we characterize three grassland ecosystems that span the drought gradient in the Great Plains (sites in the Texas panhandle, southwest Kansas, and northwest Nebraska). We measured δ13C and δ15N values of plants and consumers to characterize the biogeochemical variability within each ecosystem. Vegetation at each site is a mix of trees, shrubs, herbs, and cool- and warm-growing season grasses (C3 and C4, respectively). Thus, consumers have access to isotopically distinct sources of forage that vary in abundance with microhabitat (e.g., open grassland, shrub thicket, riparian woodland). Observations indicate herbivorous arthropod (grasshoppers and crickets) abundance follows drought severity, with high abundance of many species in Texas, and low abundance of few species in Nebraska. Small mammal (rodents) abundance follows the inverse pattern with 0.8%, 3.2% and 17.2% capture success in Texas, Kansas and Nebraska, respectively. The inverse abundance patterns of consumer groups may result from greater sensitivity of small mammal consumers with high metabolic needs to lower local net primary productivity and forage quality under drought conditions. As a

  11. [Correlation coefficient-based classification method of hydrological dependence variability: With auto-regression model as example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu Xi; Xie, Ping; Sang, Yan Fang; Wu, Zi Yi

    2018-04-01

    Hydrological process evaluation is temporal dependent. Hydrological time series including dependence components do not meet the data consistency assumption for hydrological computation. Both of those factors cause great difficulty for water researches. Given the existence of hydrological dependence variability, we proposed a correlationcoefficient-based method for significance evaluation of hydrological dependence based on auto-regression model. By calculating the correlation coefficient between the original series and its dependence component and selecting reasonable thresholds of correlation coefficient, this method divided significance degree of dependence into no variability, weak variability, mid variability, strong variability, and drastic variability. By deducing the relationship between correlation coefficient and auto-correlation coefficient in each order of series, we found that the correlation coefficient was mainly determined by the magnitude of auto-correlation coefficient from the 1 order to p order, which clarified the theoretical basis of this method. With the first-order and second-order auto-regression models as examples, the reasonability of the deduced formula was verified through Monte-Carlo experiments to classify the relationship between correlation coefficient and auto-correlation coefficient. This method was used to analyze three observed hydrological time series. The results indicated the coexistence of stochastic and dependence characteristics in hydrological process.

  12. [Coping and subjective burden in primary caregivers of dependent elderly relatives in Andalusia, Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Cruz, Margarita; Muñoz-Martínez, M Ángeles; Parra-Anguita, Laura; Del-Pino-Casado, Rafael

    To analyse the relationship between the type of coping and subjective burden in caregivers of dependent elderly relatives in Andalusia (Spain). Cross-sectional study. Primary Health Care (autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain). A convenience sample of 198 primary caregivers of dependent elderly relatives. Coping (Brief COPE), subjective burden (caregiver stress index), objective burden (functional capacity [Barthel Index], cognitive impairment [Pfeiffer Test], behavioural problems of the care recipient [Neuropsychiatric Inventory], and caregivers' dedication to caring), gender and kinship. Most caregivers were women (89.4%), daughters of the care recipient (57.1%), and shared home with him/her (69.7%). On controlling for objective burden, gender and kinship, it was found that subjective burden was positively associated with dysfunctional coping (β=0.28; P<.001) and negatively with emotion-focused coping (β=-0.25; P=.001), while no association was found with problem-focused coping. Dysfunctional coping may be a risk factor for subjective burden, and emotion-focused coping may be a protective factor for that subjective burden regardless of the objective burden, and gender and kinship of the caregivers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Role of Primary Care Providers in Tobacco Cessation, Tobacco Dependence Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohini Ruhil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco use is very common among Indian society. In fact, tobacco use is responsible for majority of morbidity and mortality in India and worldwide. Tobacco has been identified as “addictive” and tobacco dependence has been defined as a health problem in ICD-10. Aims & Objectives: This review article aims to emphasize the role of primary health care providers in tobacco cessation and to give recommendations after identifying barriers and exploring the present scenario. Material Methods: Several studies, journals and web-based articles have been referred to support the evidence that a brief tobacco cessation advice from physicians could help the patient quit. Result: Studies show that there is lack of participation from primary health care providers for tobacco cessation. Several barriers have been identified in many studies and also there exist some solutions to these barriers. Conclusion: It has been concluded in the article that primary health care providers should be trained and supported with all possible resources so that they can screen tobacco use in patients and could help them quit.

  14. Primary and secondary exercise dependence in a community-based sample of road race runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Brian; Karr, Trisha M; Zunker, Christie; Mitchell, James E; Thompson, Ron; Sherman, Roberta; Crosby, Ross D; Cao, Li; Erickson, Ann; Wonderlich, Stephen A

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of our study was to examine exercise dependence (EXD) in a large community-based sample of runners. The secondary purpose of this study was to examine differences in EXD symptoms between primary and secondary EXD. Our sample included 2660 runners recruited from a local road race (M age = 38.78 years, SD = 10.80; 66.39% women; 91.62% Caucasian) who completed all study measures online within 3 weeks of the race. In this study, EXD prevalence was lower than most previously reported rates (gamma = .248, p < .001) and individuals in the at-risk for EXD category participated in longer distance races, F(8,1) = 14.13, p = .01, partial eta squared = .05. Group differences were found for gender, F(1,1921) 8.08, p = .01, partial eta squared = .004, and primary or secondary group status, F(1,1921) 159.53, p = .01, partial eta squared = .077. Implications of primary and secondary EXD differences and future research are discussed.

  15. Variability and Changes in Climate, Phenology, and Gross Primary Production of an Alpine Wetland Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Kang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the variability and changes in phenology and gross primary production (GPP of alpine wetlands in the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau under climate change is essential for assessing carbon (C balance dynamics at regional and global scales. In this study, in situ eddy covariance (EC flux tower observations and remote sensing data were integrated with a modified, satellite-based vegetation photosynthesis model (VPM to investigate the variability in climate change, phenology, and GPP of an alpine wetland ecosystem, located in Zoige, southwestern China. Two-year EC data and remote sensing vegetation indices showed that warmer temperatures corresponded to an earlier start date of the growing season, increased GPP, and ecosystem respiration, and hence increased the C sink strength of the alpine wetlands. Twelve-year long-term simulations (2000–2011 showed that: (1 there were significantly increasing trends for the mean annual enhanced vegetation index (EVI, land surface water index (LSWI, and growing season GPP (R2 ≥ 0.59, p < 0.01 at rates of 0.002, 0.11 year−1 and 16.32 g·C·m−2·year−1, respectively, which was in line with the observed warming trend (R2 = 0.54, p = 0.006; (2 the start and end of the vegetation growing season (SOS and EOS experienced a continuous advancing trend at a rate of 1.61 days·year−1 and a delaying trend at a rate of 1.57 days·year−1 from 2000 to 2011 (p ≤ 0.04, respectively; and (3 with increasing temperature, the advanced SOS and delayed EOS prolonged the wetland’s phenological and photosynthetically active period and, thereby, increased wetland productivity by about 3.7–4.2 g·C·m−2·year−1 per day. Furthermore, our results indicated that warming and the extension of the growing season had positive effects on carbon uptake in this alpine wetland ecosystem.

  16. Variability of Surface Reflection Amplitudes of GPR Horn Antenna Depending on Distance between Antenna and Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komačka Jozef

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The study focused on variability of surface reflections amplitudes of GPR horn antenna in relation to distance between an antenna and a surface is presented in the paper. The air-coupled antenna with the central frequency of 1 GHz was used in the investigation. Four types of surfaces (dry pavement, wet pavement, metal plate and composite layer from gypsum and wood were tested. The distance of antenna above the surfaces was changed in the range from 37.5 cm to 53.5 cm. The amplitudes of negative and positive peaks and their variability were analysed in relation to the distance of antenna above the surfaces. Moreover, the influence of changes in the peaks of negative and positive amplitudes on the total amplitudes was assessed. It was found out the amplitudes of negative peaks for all investigated surfaces were relatively consistent in the range from 40.5 cm to 48.5 cm and the moderate decline was identified in the case of amplitudes of positive peaks in the range of distances from 37.5 cm to 51.5 cm. This decline influences the tendency of total amplitudes. Based on the results of analysis it can be stated the distance of air-coupled antenna above the surface can influence the value of total amplitude and the differences depend on the type of surface.

  17. Examination of Stress-Coping Methods of Primary School Teachers in Terms of Different Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayraktar, Hatice Vatansever; Yilmaz, Kamile Özge

    2016-01-01

    This research is a study that aims to reveal whether there is a significant difference between primary school teachers' stress-coping methods and their demographic features, and if any, whether it is negative or positive. The study consists of 191 primary school teachers working in 14 primary schools in seven geographical regions. The…

  18. The Attentional Dependence of Emotion Cognition is Variable with the Competing Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between emotion and attention has fascinated researchers for decades. Many previous studies have used eye-tracking, ERP, MEG and fMRI to explore this issue but have reached different conclusions: some researchers hold that emotion cognition is an automatic process and independent of attention, while some others believed that emotion cognition is modulated by attentional resources and is a type of controlled processing. The present research aimed to investigate this controversy, and we hypothesized that the attentional dependence of emotion cognition is variable with the competing task. Eye-tracking technology and a dual-task paradigm were adopted, and subjects’ attention was manipulated to fixate at the central task to investigate whether subjects could detect the emotional faces presented in the peripheral area with a decrease or near-absence of attention. The results revealed that when the peripheral task was emotional face discrimination but the central attention-demanding task was different, subjects performed well in the peripheral task, which means that emotional information can be processed in parallel with other stimuli, and there may be a specific channel in the human brain for processing emotional information. However, when the central and peripheral tasks were both emotional face discrimination, subjects could not perform well in the peripheral task, indicating that the processing of emotional information required attentional resources and that it is a type of controlled processing. Therefore, we concluded that the attentional dependence of emotion cognition varied with the competing task.

  19. Two functionally distinct NADP+-dependent ferredoxin oxidoreductases maintain the primary redox balance of Pyrococcus furiosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Diep M N; Schut, Gerrit J; Zadvornyy, Oleg A; Tokmina-Lukaszewska, Monika; Poudel, Saroj; Lipscomb, Gina L; Adams, Leslie A; Dinsmore, Jessica T; Nixon, William J; Boyd, Eric S; Bothner, Brian; Peters, John W; Adams, Michael W W

    2017-09-01

    Electron bifurcation has recently gained acceptance as the third mechanism of energy conservation in which energy is conserved through the coupling of exergonic and endergonic reactions. A structure-based mechanism of bifurcation has been elucidated recently for the flavin-based enzyme NADH-dependent ferredoxin NADP + oxidoreductase I (NfnI) from the hyperthermophillic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. NfnI is thought to be involved in maintaining the cellular redox balance, producing NADPH for biosynthesis by recycling the two other primary redox carriers, NADH and ferredoxin. The P. furiosus genome encodes an NfnI paralog termed NfnII, and the two are differentially expressed, depending on the growth conditions. In this study, we show that deletion of the genes encoding either NfnI or NfnII affects the cellular concentrations of NAD(P)H and particularly NADPH. This results in a moderate to severe growth phenotype in deletion mutants, demonstrating a key role for each enzyme in maintaining redox homeostasis. Despite their similarity in primary sequence and cofactor content, crystallographic, kinetic, and mass spectrometry analyses reveal that there are fundamental structural differences between the two enzymes, and NfnII does not catalyze the NfnI bifurcating reaction. Instead, it exhibits non-bifurcating ferredoxin NADP oxidoreductase-type activity. NfnII is therefore proposed to be a bifunctional enzyme and also to catalyze a bifurcating reaction, although its third substrate, in addition to ferredoxin and NADP(H), is as yet unknown. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Task-dependent engagements of the primary visual cortex during kinesthetic and visual motor imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuguchi, Nobuaki; Nakamura, Maiko; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2017-01-01

    Motor imagery can be divided into kinesthetic and visual aspects. In the present study, we investigated excitability in the corticospinal tract and primary visual cortex (V1) during kinesthetic and visual motor imagery. To accomplish this, we measured motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and probability of phosphene occurrence during the two types of motor imageries of finger tapping. The MEPs and phosphenes were induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation to the primary motor cortex and V1, respectively. The amplitudes of MEPs and probability of phosphene occurrence during motor imagery were normalized based on the values obtained at rest. Corticospinal excitability increased during both kinesthetic and visual motor imagery, while excitability in V1 was increased only during visual motor imagery. These results imply that modulation of cortical excitability during kinesthetic and visual motor imagery is task dependent. The present finding aids in the understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying motor imagery and provides useful information for the use of motor imagery in rehabilitation or motor imagery training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Dependence of Cloud Particle Size on Non-Aerosol-Loading Related Variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, H.; Liu, G.

    2005-03-18

    An enhanced concentration of aerosol may increase the number of cloud drops by providing more cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), which in turn results in a higher cloud albedo at a constant cloud liquid water path. This process is often referred to as the aerosol indirect effect (AIE). Many in situ and remote sensing observations support this hypothesis (Ramanathan et al. 2001). However, satellite observed relations between aerosol concentration and cloud drop size are not always in agreement with the AIE. Based on global analysis of cloud effective radius (r{sub e}) and aerosol number concentration (N{sub a}) derived from satellite data, Sekiguchi et al. (2003) found that the correlations between the two variables can be either negative, or positive, or none, depending on the location of the clouds. They discovered that significantly negative r{sub e} - N{sub a} correlation can only be identified along coastal regions of the continents where abundant continental aerosols inflow from land, whereas Feingold et al. (2001) found that the response of r{sub e} to aerosol loading is the greatest in the region where aerosol optical depth ({tau}{sub a}) is the smallest. The reason for the discrepancy is likely due to the variations in cloud macroscopic properties such as geometrical thickness (Brenguier et al. 2003). Since r{sub e} is modified not only by aerosol but also by cloud geometrical thickness (H), the correlation between re and {tau}{sub a} actually reflects both the aerosol indirect effect and dependence of H. Therefore, discussing AIE based on the r{sub e}-{tau}{sub a} correlation without taking into account variations in cloud geometrical thickness may be misleading. This paper is motivated to extract aerosols' effect from overall effects using the independent measurements of cloud geometrical thickness, {tau}{sub a} and r{sub e}.

  2. Time-dependence in relativistic collisionless shocks: theory of the variable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitkovsky, A

    2004-02-05

    We describe results from time-dependent numerical modeling of the collisionless reverse shock terminating the pulsar wind in the Crab Nebula. We treat the upstream relativistic wind as composed of ions and electron-positron plasma embedded in a toroidal magnetic field, flowing radially outward from the pulsar in a sector around the rotational equator. The relativistic cyclotron instability of the ion gyrational orbit downstream of the leading shock in the electron-positron pairs launches outward propagating magnetosonic waves. Because of the fresh supply of ions crossing the shock, this time-dependent process achieves a limit-cycle, in which the waves are launched with periodicity on the order of the ion Larmor time. Compressions in the magnetic field and pair density associated with these waves, as well as their propagation speed, semi-quantitatively reproduce the behavior of the wisp and ring features described in recent observations obtained using the Hubble Space Telescope and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. By selecting the parameters of the ion orbits to fit the spatial separation of the wisps, we predict the period of time variability of the wisps that is consistent with the data. When coupled with a mechanism for non-thermal acceleration of the pairs, the compressions in the magnetic field and plasma density associated with the optical wisp structure naturally account for the location of X-ray features in the Crab. We also discuss the origin of the high energy ions and their acceleration in the equatorial current sheet of the pulsar wind.

  3. Nanostructures study of CNT nanofluids transport with temperature-dependent variable viscosity in a muscular tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Noreen Sher; Abid, Syed Ali; Tripathi, Dharmendra; Mir, Nazir Ahmed

    2017-03-01

    The transport of single-wall carbon nanotube (CNT) nanofluids with temperature-dependent variable viscosity is analyzed by peristaltically driven flow. The main flow problem has been modeled using cylindrical coordinates and flow equations are simplified to ordinary differential equations using long wavelength and low Reynolds' number approximation. Analytical solutions have been obtained for axial velocity, pressure gradient and temperature. Results acquired are discussed graphically for better understanding. It is observed that with an increment in the Grashof number the velocity of the governing fluids starts to decrease significantly and the pressure gradient is higher for pure water as compared to single-walled carbon nanotubes due to low density. As the specific heat is very high for pure water as compared to the multi-wall carbon nanotubes, it raises temperature of the muscles, in the case of pure water, as compared to the multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Furthermore, it is noticed that the trapped bolus starts decreasing in size as the buoyancy forces are dominant as compared to viscous forces. This model may be applicable in biomedical engineering and nanotechnology to design the biomedical devices.

  4. Audiovisual Modulation in Mouse Primary Visual Cortex Depends on Cross-Modal Stimulus Configuration and Congruency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Guido T; Montijn, Jorrit S; Pennartz, Cyriel M A; Lansink, Carien S

    2017-09-06

    The sensory neocortex is a highly connected associative network that integrates information from multiple senses, even at the level of the primary sensory areas. Although a growing body of empirical evidence supports this view, the neural mechanisms of cross-modal integration in primary sensory areas, such as the primary visual cortex (V1), are still largely unknown. Using two-photon calcium imaging in awake mice, we show that the encoding of audiovisual stimuli in V1 neuronal populations is highly dependent on the features of the stimulus constituents. When the visual and auditory stimulus features were modulated at the same rate (i.e., temporally congruent), neurons responded with either an enhancement or suppression compared with unisensory visual stimuli, and their prevalence was balanced. Temporally incongruent tones or white-noise bursts included in audiovisual stimulus pairs resulted in predominant response suppression across the neuronal population. Visual contrast did not influence multisensory processing when the audiovisual stimulus pairs were congruent; however, when white-noise bursts were used, neurons generally showed response suppression when the visual stimulus contrast was high whereas this effect was absent when the visual contrast was low. Furthermore, a small fraction of V1 neurons, predominantly those located near the lateral border of V1, responded to sound alone. These results show that V1 is involved in the encoding of cross-modal interactions in a more versatile way than previously thought. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The neural substrate of cross-modal integration is not limited to specialized cortical association areas but extends to primary sensory areas. Using two-photon imaging of large groups of neurons, we show that multisensory modulation of V1 populations is strongly determined by the individual and shared features of cross-modal stimulus constituents, such as contrast, frequency, congruency, and temporal structure. Congruent

  5. MIRU-VNTR allelic variability depends on Mycobacterium bovis clonal group identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauer, Amandine; Michelet, Lorraine; De Cruz, Krystel; Cochard, Thierry; Branger, Maxime; Karoui, Claudine; Henault, Sylvie; Biet, Franck; Boschiroli, María Laura

    2016-11-01

    The description of the population of M. bovis strains circulating in France from 1978 to 2013 has highlighted the discriminating power of the MLVA among predominant spoligotype groups. In the present study we aimed to characterize clonal groups via MLVA and to better understand the strain's population structure. MLVA was performed with eight MIRU-VNTR loci, most of them defined by the Venomyc European consortium. The discriminatory index of each MLVA loci was calculated for SB0120, SB0134, SB0121 and the "F4-family", the main spoligotype groups in France. Differences in global DI per spoligotype, but also by locus within each spoligotype, were observed, which strongly suggest the clonal complex nature of these major groups. These MLVA results were compared to those of other European countries where strain collections had been characterized (Spain, Portugal, Italy, Northern Ireland and Belgium). Overall, QUB 3232 and ETR D are respectively the most and the least discriminative loci, regardless of the strains geographical origin. However, marked DI differences are observed in the rest of the MIRU-VNTR loci, again highlighting that strain genetic variability in a country depends on the dominant existing clonal complexes. A web application for M. bovis, including spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR typing data, was developed to allow inter-laboratory comparison of field isolates. In conclusion, combination of typing methods is required for M. bovis optimum discrimination and differentiation of groups of strains. Thus, the loci employed for MLVA in a country should be those which are the most discriminative for the clonal complexes which characterize their M. bovis population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Teacher Variables As Predictors of Academic Achievement of Primary School Pupils Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adedeji TELLA

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between Teacher self- efficacy, interest, attitude, qualification, experience and pupils’ academic achievement in primary school mathematics. The participants of the study comprises of 254 primary school teachers and 120 primary school pupils. Data collected on the study were analysed using a stepwise multiple regression analysis. The results reveals that teacher self – efficacy and interest had significant correlation with pupils achievement scores. Teacher’s self-efficacy being the best predictor of pupils’ academic achievement in mathematics was followed by teacher’s interest. Attitude, qualification and experience were not significant correlation with pupil’s achievement in mathematics. The study recommended that it is high time for primary school mathematics teachers to have a change of attitude towards the teaching of the subject so that the achievement of universal basic education will not be hindered. Furthermore, primary school educational authorities were called upon to ensure that only teachers who are qualified to teach the subject are employed. Not these alone, their attention was also drawn to the fact that they should design educational programmes that will enhance the teacher self- efficacy for a better prediction of pupils’ achievement in mathematics.

  7. Conductance of partially disordered graphene: crossover from temperature-dependent to field-dependent variable-range hopping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheah, C Y; Jaurigue, L C; Kaiser, A B; Gómez-Navarro, C

    2013-01-01

    We report an analysis of low-temperature measurements of the conductance of partially disordered reduced graphene oxide, finding that the data follow a simple crossover scenario. At room temperature, the conductance is dominated by two-dimensional (2D) electric field-assisted, thermally driven (Pollak–Riess) variable-range hopping (VRH) through highly disordered regions. However, at lower temperatures T, we find a smooth crossover to follow the exp(−E 0 /E) 1/3 field-driven (Shklovskii) 2D VRH conductance behaviour when the electric field E exceeds a specific crossover value E C (T) 2D =(E a E 0 1/3 /3) 3/4 determined by the scale factors E 0 and E a for the high-field and intermediate-field regimes respectively. Our crossover scenario also accounts well for experimental data reported by other authors for three-dimensional disordered carbon networks, suggesting wide applicability. (paper)

  8. Polarization leakage in epoch of reionization windows - II. Primary beam model and direction-dependent calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asad, K. M. B.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Jelić, V.; Ghosh, A.; Abdalla, F. B.; Brentjens, M. A.; de Bruyn, A. G.; Ciardi, B.; Gehlot, B. K.; Iliev, I. T.; Mevius, M.; Pandey, V. N.; Yatawatta, S.; Zaroubi, S.

    2016-11-01

    Leakage of diffuse polarized emission into Stokes I caused by the polarized primary beam of the instrument might mimic the spectral structure of the 21-cm signal coming from the epoch of reionization (EoR) making their separation difficult. Therefore, understanding polarimetric performance of the antenna is crucial for a successful detection of the EoR signal. Here, we have calculated the accuracy of the nominal model beam of Low Frequency ARray (LOFAR) in predicting the leakage from Stokes I to Q, U by comparing them with the corresponding leakage of compact sources actually observed in the 3C 295 field. We have found that the model beam has errors of ≤10 per cent on the predicted levels of leakage of ˜1 per cent within the field of view, I.e. if the leakage is taken out perfectly using this model the leakage will reduce to 10-3 of the Stokes I flux. If similar levels of accuracy can be obtained in removing leakage from Stokes Q, U to I, we can say, based on the results of our previous paper, that the removal of this leakage using this beam model would ensure that the leakage is well below the expected EoR signal in almost the whole instrumental k-space of the cylindrical power spectrum. We have also shown here that direction-dependent calibration can remove instrumentally polarized compact sources, given an unpolarized sky model, very close to the local noise level.

  9. Insulin secretion and insulin action in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: which defect is primary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaven, G M

    1984-01-01

    Defects in both insulin secretion and insulin action exist in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). The loss of the acute plasma insulin response to intravenous glucose is seen in patients with relatively mild degrees of fasting hyperglycemia, but patients with severe fasting hyperglycemia also demonstrate absolute hypoinsulinemia in response to an oral glucose challenge. In contrast, day-long circulating insulin levels are within normal limits even in severely hyperglycemic patients with NIDDM. The relationship between NIDDM and insulin action in NIDDM is less complex, and is a characteristic feature of the syndrome. This metabolic defect is independent of obesity, and the severity of the resistance to insulin-stimulated glucose uptake increases with magnitude of hyperglycemia. Control of hyperglycemia with exogenous insulin ameliorates the degree of insulin resistance, and reduction of insulin resistance with weight loss in obese patients with NIDDM leads to an enhanced insulin response. Since neither therapeutic intervention is capable of restoring all metabolic abnormalities to normal, these observations do not tell us which of these two defects is primarily responsible for the development of NIDDM. Similarly, the observation that most patients with impaired glucose tolerance are hyperinsulinemic and insulin resistant does not prove that insulin resistance is the primary defect in NIDDM. In conclusion, reduction in both insulin secretion and action is seen in patients with NIDDM, and the relationship between these two metabolic abnormalities is very complex.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Learning-induced Dependence of Neuronal Activity in Primary Motor Cortex on Motor Task Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, X; Shimansky, Y; He, Jiping

    2005-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) system such as a cortically controlled robotic arm must have a capacity of adjusting its function to a specific environmental condition. We studied this capacity in non-human primates based on chronic multi-electrode recording from the primary motor cortex of a monkey during the animal's performance of a center-out 3D reaching task and adaptation to external force perturbations. The main condition-related feature of motor cortical activity observed before the onset of force perturbation was a phasic raise of activity immediately before the perturbation onset. This feature was observed during a series of perturbation trials, but were absent under no perturbations. After adaptation has been completed, it usually was taking the subject only one trial to recognize a change in the condition to switch the neuronal activity accordingly. These condition-dependent features of neuronal activity can be used by a BCI for recognizing a change in the environmental condition and making corresponding adjustments, which requires that the BCI-based control system possess such advanced properties of the neural motor control system as capacity to learn and adapt.

  11. Primary Dysmenorrhea, Educational Performance, and Cognitive and Affective Variables in Adolescent Schoolgirls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, D.; Rees, Valerie

    1982-01-01

    Research among adolescent English schoolgirls indicated that although girls with primary dysmenorrhea appeared to be more neurotic than those who did not experience menstrual distress, there was no apparent difference between the two groups on cognitive and academic performance measures or in school attendance. (Author/MJL)

  12. State Variability in Supply of Office-based Primary Care Providers: United States, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Policy Forum, The George Washington University. 2010. Paradise J, Dark C, Bitler N. Improving access to adult primary care in Medicaid: Exploring the potential role of nurse practitioners and physician assistants. Issue paper. Washington, DC: Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the ...

  13. The Relationship of Field Dependent/Independent Cognitive Styles, Stimuli Variability and Time Factor on Student Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atang, Christopher I.

    The effects of black and white and color illustrations on student achievement were studied to investigate the relationships between cognitive styles and instructional design. Field dependence (FD) and field independence (FI) were chosen as the cognitive style variables. Subjects were 85 freshman students in the Iowa State University Psychology…

  14. Precipitation and Carbon-Water Coupling Jointly Control the Interannual Variability of Global Land Gross Primary Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao; Xiao, Xiangming; Guanter, Luis; Zhou, Sha; Ciais, Philippe; Joiner, Joanna; Sitch, Stephen; Wu, Xiaocui; Nabel, Julian; Dong, Jinwei; hide

    2016-01-01

    Carbon uptake by terrestrial ecosystems is increasing along with the rising of atmospheric CO2 concentration. Embedded in this trend, recent studies suggested that the interannual variability (IAV) of global carbon fluxes may be dominated by semi-arid ecosystems, but the underlying mechanisms of this high variability in these specific regions are not well known. Here we derive an ensemble of gross primary production (GPP) estimates using the average of three data-driven models and eleven process-based models. These models are weighted by their spatial representativeness of the satellite-based solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF). We then use this weighted GPP ensemble to investigate the GPP variability for different aridity regimes. We show that semi-arid regions contribute to 57% of the detrended IAV of global GPP. Moreover, in regions with higher GPP variability, GPP fluctuations are mostly controlled by precipitation and strongly coupled with evapotranspiration (ET). This higher GPP IAV in semi-arid regions is co-limited by supply (precipitation)-induced ET variability and GPP-ET coupling strength. Our results demonstrate the importance of semi-arid regions to the global terrestrial carbon cycle and posit that there will be larger GPP and ET variations in the future with changes in precipitation patterns and dryland expansion.

  15. Time-Dependent Drug Administration in Hypertension and its Effect on Blood Pressure Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdás Annamária

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Optimizing blood pressure variability seems to represent a new therapeutic target in the management of hypertension. It is emphasized that scheduling at least one antihypertensive agent at bedtime, has the ability to reduce blood pressure.

  16. Time-Dependent Drug Administration in Hypertension and its Effect on Blood Pressure Variability

    OpenAIRE

    Magdás Annamária; Podoleanu Cristian; Tusa Anna-Boróka; Găburoi Adina; Incze Alexandru

    2017-01-01

    Background: Optimizing blood pressure variability seems to represent a new therapeutic target in the management of hypertension. It is emphasized that scheduling at least one antihypertensive agent at bedtime, has the ability to reduce blood pressure.

  17. Analysis of T cell receptor alpha beta variability in lymphocytes infiltrating melanoma primary tumours and metastatic lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøller, J; thor Straten, P; Jakobsen, Annette Birck

    1994-01-01

    The T cell receptor (TCR) alpha beta variable (V) gene family usage of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in four different primary human malignant melanomas and their corresponding metastatic lesions was characterized using a recently developed method based on the reverse-transcription-couple......The T cell receptor (TCR) alpha beta variable (V) gene family usage of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in four different primary human malignant melanomas and their corresponding metastatic lesions was characterized using a recently developed method based on the reverse...... usage of the TCR V gene families V alpha 4, V alpha 5, V alpha 22 and V beta 8, whereas the V beta 3 gene family appeared to be expressed together with HLA-A1. Other highly expressed V gene families, apparently not restricted to either HLA-A1 or -A2, were V alpha 1 (expressed in three of four primary...... tumours) and V alpha 21 (expressed in two of four tumours). We found no evidence suggesting any correlations between the haplotypes HLA-A1 and -A2 and preferential V gene family expression in the metastatic lesions, and the only common feature was V alpha 8, which was found to be highly expressed in two...

  18. The Variability of Atmospheric Deuterium Brightness at Mars: Evidence for Seasonal Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayyasi, Majd; Clarke, John; Bhattacharyya, Dolon; Deighan, Justin; Jain, Sonal; Chaffin, Michael; Thiemann, Edward; Schneider, Nick; Jakosky, Bruce

    2017-10-01

    The enhanced ratio of deuterium to hydrogen on Mars has been widely interpreted as indicating the loss of a large column of water into space, and the hydrogen content of the upper atmosphere is now known to be highly variable. The variation in the properties of both deuterium and hydrogen in the upper atmosphere of Mars is indicative of the dynamical processes that produce these species and propagate them to altitudes where they can escape the planet. Understanding the seasonal variability of D is key to understanding the variability of the escape rate of water from Mars. Data from a 15 month observing campaign, made by the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph high-resolution echelle channel, are used to determine the brightness of deuterium as observed at the limb of Mars. The D emission is highly variable, with a peak in brightness just after southern summer solstice. The trends of D brightness are examined against extrinsic as well as intrinsic sources. It is found that the fluctuations in deuterium brightness in the upper atmosphere of Mars (up to 400 km), corrected for periodic solar variations, vary on timescales that are similar to those of water vapor fluctuations lower in the atmosphere (20-80 km). The observed variability in deuterium may be attributed to seasonal factors such as regional dust storm activity and subsequent circulation lower in the atmosphere.

  19. Placebo-controlled comparison of captopril, metoprolol, and hydrochlorothiazide therapy in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients with primary hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gall, M A; Rossing, P; Skøtt, P

    1992-01-01

    The antihypertensive effect of captopril, metoprolol, and hydrochlorothiazide was compared in 23 non-insulin-dependent (NIDDM) diabetic patients less than or equal to 75 years of age, with borderline to moderate primary hypertension. In a double blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trial...

  20. Effects of a Psychological Intervention in a Primary Health Care Center for Caregivers of Dependent Relatives: A Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Sanchez, Emiliano; Patino-Alonso, Maria C.; Mora-Simon, Sara; Gomez-Marcos, Manuel A.; Perez-Penaranda, Anibal; Losada-Baltar, Andres; Garcia-Ortiz, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To assess, in the context of Primary Health Care (PHC), the effect of a psychological intervention in mental health among caregivers (CGs) of dependent relatives. Design and Methods: Randomized multicenter, controlled clinical trial. The 125 CGs included in the trial were receiving health care in PHC. Inclusion criteria: Identifying…

  1. How can we increase the involvement of primary health care in the treatment of tobacco dependence? A meta-analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, P.D.; Jané Llopis, E.

    2004-01-01

    AIMS: A systematic review of studies testing the effectiveness of educational and practice base strategies to increase the involvement of primary health-care practitioners in the treatment of tobacco dependence. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library (1966-2001). Selection

  2. On history dependence of stress-strain diagrams and creep curves under variable repeated loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokhfeld, D.A.; Sadakov, O.S.; Martynenko, M.E.

    1979-01-01

    The ability of structural alloys to 'keep in memory' the loading prehistory becomes of special importance when inelastic variable repeated loading is considered. There are two main approaches to the development of the mathematical description of this phenomenon: the inclusion of hidden state variables in the incremental theory constitutive equations (a) and construction of proper hereditary functionals (b). In this respect the assumption that the 'memory' regarding the previous deformation history is due to structural nonhomogeneity of actual materials proves to be fruitful. (orig.)

  3. Spanish adaptation of the NDSS (Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale) and assessment of nicotine-dependent individuals at primary care health centers in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becoña, Elisardo; López, Ana; Fernández del Río, Elena; Míguez, Ma Carmen; Castro, Josefina

    2010-11-01

    The availability of adequate instruments for the assessment of nicotine dependence is an important factor that is relevant in the area of tobacco addiction. In this study, we present a Spanish validation of the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS) (Shiffman, Waters, & Hickcox, 2004). The sample was composed ofpatients, all daily smokers, who visited their General Practitioner (GP) at five Primary Health Care Centers in different cities of Spain (N = 637). The results indicated adequate reliability for the general factor that assesses nicotine dependence (NDSS-Total) (Cronbach's alpha = .76). Factor analysis confirms the five factors of the original validation: Drive, Continuity, Stereotypy, Priority, and Tolerance. It must be noted that reliability is adequate for the first, and moderate or low for the rest. The NDSS-T and its scales correlate significantly with the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), with the nicotine dependence criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSM-IV) as assessed through the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID), with carbon monoxide levels in expired air (CO), and with the number of cigarettes smoked. The ROC curve indicates that the NDSS-T has a score of .79 which is under the curve (.69 for the FTND), thus the prediction of nicotine dependence is adequate. We conclude that this instrument is useful (in terms of its total score NDSS-T) for assessing nicotine dependence for Spanish smokers (in Spain), as has been found in other countries, language groups, and cultures.

  4. The Impacts of ALMA Primary Variables on Profitability An Empirical Study of Indonesian Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapto Jumono

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the impact of liquidity on BEP and ROE in Indonesian banking industry. The supporting theory in this study is ALMA theory. Based on annual data for the period 2001-2014 and following purposive sampling technique, the acquired amount of sample study is 97 banks. The data is analyzed using panel data regression of GMM Arrelano Bond, as a novelty in data processing, therefore the speed of adjustment can be known. The ALMA variables such as LAR, capital, leverage, operating expenses, interest income, and CAR sensitivity have a significant effect on BEP and ROE. Meanwhile LDR, NPL, the FBI have no impact on profitability. The implication of this study is the fact that banking performance in Indonesia can be leveled up through the reduction in mortgage interest rates and increment of credit volume and FBI.

  5. Distance and Azimuthal Dependence of Ground‐Motion Variability for Unilateral Strike‐Slip Ruptures

    KAUST Repository

    Vyas, Jagdish Chandra; Mai, Paul Martin; Galis, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We investigate near‐field ground‐motion variability by computing the seismic wavefield for five kinematic unilateral‐rupture models of the 1992 Mw 7.3 Landers earthquake, eight simplified unilateral‐rupture models based on the Landers event, and a

  6. Phase dependence of transport-aperture coordination variability reveals control strategy of reach-to-grasp movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Miya K; Shimansky, Y P; Hossain, Abul B M I; Stelmach, George E

    2010-11-01

    Based on an assumption of movement control optimality in reach-to-grasp movements, we have recently developed a mathematical model of transport-aperture coordination (TAC), according to which the hand-target distance is a function of hand velocity and acceleration, aperture magnitude, and aperture velocity and acceleration (Rand et al. in Exp Brain Res 188:263-274, 2008). Reach-to-grasp movements were performed by young adults under four different reaching speeds and two different transport distances. The residual error magnitude of fitting the above model to data across different trials and subjects was minimal for the aperture-closure phase, but relatively much greater for the aperture-opening phase, indicating considerable difference in TAC variability between those phases. This study's goal is to identify the main reasons for that difference and obtain insights into the control strategy of reach-to-grasp movements. TAC variability within the aperture-opening phase of a single trial was found minimal, indicating that TAC variability between trials was not due to execution noise, but rather a result of inter-trial and inter-subject variability of motor plan. At the same time, the dependence of the extent of trial-to-trial variability of TAC in that phase on the speed of hand transport was sharply inconsistent with the concept of speed-accuracy trade-off: the lower the speed, the larger the variability. Conversely, the dependence of the extent of TAC variability in the aperture-closure phase on hand transport speed was consistent with that concept. Taking into account recent evidence that the cost of neural information processing is substantial for movement planning, the dependence of TAC variability in the aperture-opening phase on task performance conditions suggests that it is not the movement time that the CNS saves in that phase, but the cost of neuro-computational resources and metabolic energy required for TAC regulation in that phase. Thus, the CNS

  7. Standardized FDG uptake as a prognostic variable and as a predictor of incomplete cytoreduction in primary advanced ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Signe; Jakobsen, Annika Loft; Høgdall, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction. In patients with advanced ovarian cancer undergoing preoperative PET/CT, we investigated the prognostic value of SUV in the primary tumor and we evaluated the value of SUV for predicting incomplete primary cytoreduction (macroscopic residual tumor). Material and methods. From...... debulking (no macroscopic residual tumor); median SUV(max) was 13.5 (range 2.5-39.0). Median follow-up was 30.2 months. At follow-up 57% (34/60) were alive and 43% (26/60) had died from ovarian cancer. SUV(max) in patients alive was not statistically different from SUV(max) in dead patients (p=0.......69), and SUV(max) was not correlated with the amount of residual tumor after surgery (p=0.19). Using univariate Cox regression analysis, residual tumor was a significant prognostic variable (p=0.001); SUV(max) was not a statistically significant prognostic variable (p=0.86). Discussion. FDG uptake (SUV...

  8. The primary role of the SW Sextantis stars in the evolution of cataclysmic variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Manuel; Gaensicke, Boris; Rodriguez-Gil, Pablo; Long, Knox; Marsh, Tom; Steeghs, Danny; Munoz-Darias, Teodoro; Shahbaz, Tariq; Schmidtobreick, Linda; Schreiber, Matthias

    2009-02-01

    SW Sextantis stars are a relatively large group of cataclysmic variables (CVs) which plays a fundamental role in our understanding of CV structure and evolution. Very little is known about the properties of their accreting white dwarfs and their donor stars, as the stellar components are usually outshone by an extremely bright accretion flow. Consequently, a proper assesment of their evolutionary state is illusionary. We are monitoring the brightness of a number of SW Sex stars and request here Gemini/GMOS-N ToO time to obtain orbital phase-resolved spectroscopy if one of them enters a low state, since this is the only opportunity for studying the stellar components individually. These data will be used to accurately measure the binary parameters, white dwarf temperature, and distance to the system for a SW Sex star for the first time. The measured stellar masses and radii will especially be a precious input to the theory of compact binary evolution as a whole.

  9. Morphometric variability of mandible linear characteristics depending on level of teeth alveolus position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Yu. Aleshkina

    2017-05-01

    Results and Conclusion ― The highest altitude was marked at levels of incisors and 3rd molar, the smallest one – at level of 1st and 2nd molars; maximum mandible thickness was defined at level of 2nd molar, minimum – at levels of canine and 1st – 2nd premolars on both sides of mandible; average thickness was revealed at levels of incisors, 1st and 2nd molars and had the same statistical values. Bilateral variability of thickness was significantly dominating on the right side and only at levels of 1st – 2nd premolars and 1st molar. Average values of altitude and thickness from both sides of mandible and at all levels had medium degree of variability.

  10. Scale-dependent spatial variability in peatland lead pollution in the southern Pennines, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothwell, James J.; Evans, Martin G.; Lindsay, John B.; Allott, Timothy E.H.

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, within-site and regional comparisons of peatland lead pollution have been undertaken using the inventory approach. The peatlands of the Peak District, southern Pennines, UK, have received significant atmospheric inputs of lead over the last few hundred years. A multi-core study at three peatland sites in the Peak District demonstrates significant within-site spatial variability in industrial lead pollution. Stochastic simulations reveal that 15 peat cores are required to calculate reliable lead inventories at the within-site and within-region scale for this highly polluted area of the southern Pennines. Within-site variability in lead pollution is dominant at the within-region scale. The study demonstrates that significant errors may be associated with peatland lead inventories at sites where only a single peat core has been used to calculate an inventory. Meaningful comparisons of lead inventories at the regional or global scale can only be made if the within-site variability of lead pollution has been quantified reliably. - Multiple peat cores are required for accurate peatland Pb inventories

  11. Scale-dependent spatial variability in peatland lead pollution in the southern Pennines, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, James J; Evans, Martin G; Lindsay, John B; Allott, Timothy E H

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, within-site and regional comparisons of peatland lead pollution have been undertaken using the inventory approach. The peatlands of the Peak District, southern Pennines, UK, have received significant atmospheric inputs of lead over the last few hundred years. A multi-core study at three peatland sites in the Peak District demonstrates significant within-site spatial variability in industrial lead pollution. Stochastic simulations reveal that 15 peat cores are required to calculate reliable lead inventories at the within-site and within-region scale for this highly polluted area of the southern Pennines. Within-site variability in lead pollution is dominant at the within-region scale. The study demonstrates that significant errors may be associated with peatland lead inventories at sites where only a single peat core has been used to calculate an inventory. Meaningful comparisons of lead inventories at the regional or global scale can only be made if the within-site variability of lead pollution has been quantified reliably.

  12. COMMUNICATION: On variability and use of rat primary motor cortex responses in behavioral task discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Winnie; Rousche, Patrick J.

    2006-03-01

    The success of a cortical motor neuroprosthetic system will rely on the system's ability to effectively execute complex motor tasks in a changing environment. Invasive, intra-cortical electrodes have been successfully used to predict joint movement and grip force of a robotic arm/hand with a non-human primate (Chapin J K, Moxon K A, Markowitz R S and Nicolelis M A L 1999 Real-time control of a robotic arm using simultaneously recorded neurons in the motor cortex Nat. Neurosci. 2 664-70). It is well known that cortical encoding occurs with a high degree of cortical plasticity and depends on both the functional and behavioral context. Questions on the expected robustness of future motor prosthesis systems therefore still remain. The objective of the present work was to study the effect of minor changes in functional movement strategies on the M1 encoding. We compared the M1 encoding in freely moving, non-constrained animals that performed two similar behavioral tasks with the same end-goal, and investigated if these behavioral tasks could be discriminated based on the M1 recordings. The rats depressed a response paddle either with a set of restrictive bars ('WB') or without the bars ('WOB') placed in front of the paddle. The WB task required changes in the motor strategy to complete the paddle press and resulted in highly stereotyped movements, whereas in the WOB task the movement strategy was not restricted. Neural population activity was recorded from 16-channel micro-wire arrays and data up to 200 ms before a paddle hit were analyzed off-line. The analysis showed a significant neural firing difference between the two similar WB and WOB tasks, and using principal component analysis it was possible to distinguish between the two tasks with a best classification at 76.6%. While the results are dependent upon a small, randomly sampled neural population, they indicate that information about similar behavioral tasks may be extracted from M1 based on relatively few

  13. Natural variability of biochemical biomarkers in the macro-zoobenthos: Dependence on life stage and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarduelli, Lucia; Giacchini, Roberto; Parenti, Paolo; Migliorati, Sonia; Di Brisco, Agnese Maria; Vighi, Marco

    2017-11-01

    Biomarkers are widely used in ecotoxicology as indicators of exposure to toxicants. However, their ability to provide ecologically relevant information remains controversial. One of the major problems is understanding whether the measured responses are determined by stress factors or lie within the natural variability range. In a previous work, the natural variability of enzymatic levels in invertebrates sampled in pristine rivers was proven to be relevant across both space and time. In the present study, the experimental design was improved by considering different life stages of the selected taxa and by measuring more environmental parameters. The experimental design considered sampling sites in 2 different rivers, 8 sampling dates covering the whole seasonal cycle, 4 species from 3 different taxonomic groups (Plecoptera, Perla grandis; Ephemeroptera, Baetis alpinus and Epeorus alpicula; Tricoptera, Hydropsyche pellucidula), different life stages for each species, and 4 enzymes (acetylcholinesterase, glutathione S-transferase, alkaline phosphatase, and catalase). Biomarker levels were related to environmental (physicochemical) parameters to verify any kind of dependence. Data were statistically elaborated using hierarchical multilevel Bayesian models. Natural variability was found to be relevant across both space and time. The results of the present study proved that care should be paid when interpreting biomarker results. Further research is needed to better understand the dependence of the natural variability on environmental parameters. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:3158-3167. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  14. Climate-induced interannual variability of marine primary and export production in three global coupled climate carbon cycle models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Schneider

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Fully coupled climate carbon cycle models are sophisticated tools that are used to predict future climate change and its impact on the land and ocean carbon cycles. These models should be able to adequately represent natural variability, requiring model validation by observations. The present study focuses on the ocean carbon cycle component, in particular the spatial and temporal variability in net primary productivity (PP and export production (EP of particulate organic carbon (POC. Results from three coupled climate carbon cycle models (IPSL, MPIM, NCAR are compared with observation-based estimates derived from satellite measurements of ocean colour and results from inverse modelling (data assimilation. Satellite observations of ocean colour have shown that temporal variability of PP on the global scale is largely dominated by the permanently stratified, low-latitude ocean (Behrenfeld et al., 2006 with stronger stratification (higher sea surface temperature; SST being associated with negative PP anomalies. Results from all three coupled models confirm the role of the low-latitude, permanently stratified ocean for anomalies in globally integrated PP, but only one model (IPSL also reproduces the inverse relationship between stratification (SST and PP. An adequate representation of iron and macronutrient co-limitation of phytoplankton growth in the tropical ocean has shown to be the crucial mechanism determining the capability of the models to reproduce observed interactions between climate and PP.

  15. Variable penetration of primary angioplasty in Europe--what determines the implementation rate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Steen D; Laut, Kristina G; Kaifoszova, Zuzana; Widimsky, Petr

    2012-08-01

    Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) is the recommended treatment for patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). A survey conducted in 2008 in the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) countries reported that the annual incidence of hospital admissions for acute STEMI is around 800 patients per million inhabitants. The survey also showed that STEMI patients' access to reperfusion therapy and the use of PPCI or thrombolytic therapy (TT) vary considerably among countries. Northern, Western and Central Europe already had well-developed PPCI services, offering PPCI to 60-90% of all STEMI patients. Southern Europe and the Balkans were still predominantly using TT and had a higher proportion of patients who were left without any reperfusion treatment. The survey concluded that a nationwide PPCI strategy results in more patients being offered reperfusion therapy. To address the inequalities in STEMI patients' access to life-saving PPCI and to support the implementation of the ESC STEMI treatment guidelines in Europe, the Stent for Life (SFL) Initiative was launched jointly by the European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions (EAPCI) and EuroPCR in 2008. The aim of the SFL Initiative is to improve the delivery of life-saving PPCI for STEMI patients. Currently, 10 national cardiac societies support the SFL Initiative in their respective countries. SFL national action programmes have been developed and are being implemented in several countries. The formation of regional PPCI networks involving emergency medical services, non-PPCI hospitals and PPCI centres is considered to be a critical factor in implementing PPCI services effectively. Better monitoring of STEMI incidence and prospective registration of PPCI in all countries is required to document improvements in health care and to identify areas where further effort is required. Furthermore, studies on potential factors or characteristics that explain the

  16. Assessment of variability in the hydrological cycle of the Loess Plateau, China: examining dependence structures of hydrological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, A.; Wang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Investigating variability in dependence structures of hydrological processes is of critical importance for developing an understanding of mechanisms of hydrological cycles in changing environments. In focusing on this topic, present work involves the following: (1) identifying and eliminating serial correlation and conditional heteroscedasticity in monthly streamflow (Q), precipitation (P) and potential evapotranspiration (PE) series using the ARMA-GARCH model (ARMA: autoregressive moving average; GARCH: generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity); (2) describing dependence structures of hydrological processes using partial copula coupled with the ARMA-GARCH model and identifying their variability via copula-based likelihood-ratio test method; and (3) determining conditional probability of annual Q under different climate scenarios on account of above results. This framework enables us to depict hydrological variables in the presence of conditional heteroscedasticity and to examine dependence structures of hydrological processes while excluding the influence of covariates by using partial copula-based ARMA-GARCH model. Eight major catchments across the Loess Plateau (LP) are used as study regions. Results indicate that (1) The occurrence of change points in dependence structures of Q and P (PE) varies across the LP. Change points of P-PE dependence structures in all regions almost fully correspond to the initiation of global warming, i.e., the early 1980s. (3) Conditional probabilities of annual Q under various P and PE scenarios are estimated from the 3-dimensional joint distribution of (Q, P and PE) based on the above change points. These findings shed light on mechanisms of the hydrological cycle and can guide water supply planning and management, particularly in changing environments.

  17. Primary drainage in geological fractures: Effects of aperture variability and wettability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z.; Méheust, Y.; Neuweiler, I.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding and controlling fluid-fluid displacement in porous and fractured media is a key asset for many practical applications, such as the geological storage of CO2, hydrocarbon recovery, groundwater remediation, etc. We numerically investigate fluid-fluid displacement in rough-walled fractures with a focus on the combined effect of wettability, the viscous contrast between the two fluids, and fracture surface topography on drainage patterns and interface growth. A model has been developed to simulate the dynamic displacement of one fluid by another immiscible one in a rough geological fracture; the model takes both capillary and viscous forces into account. Capillary pressures at the fluid-fluid interface are calculated based on the Young-Laplace equation using the two principal curvatures (aperture-induced curvature and in-plane curvature) [1], while viscous forces are calculated by continuously solving the fluid pressure field in the fracture. The aperture field of a fracture is represented by a spatially correlated random field, with a power spectral density of the fracture wall topographies scaling as a power law, and a cutoff wave-length above which the Fourier modes of the two walls are identical [2]. We consider flow scenarios with both rectangular and radial configurations. Results show that the model is able to produce displacement patterns of compact displacement, capillary fingering, and viscous fingering, as well as the transitions between them. Both reducing the aperture variability and increasing the contact angle (from drainage to weak imbibition) can stabilize the displacement due to the influence of the in-plane curvature, an effect analogous to that of the cooperative pore filling in porous media. These results suggest that for geometries typical of geological fractures we can extend the phase diagram in the parameter space of capillary number and mobility ratio by another dimension to take into account the combined effect of wettability

  18. Time-dependent inelastic analysis of metallic media using constitutive relations with state variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, V; Mukherjee, S [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N.Y. (USA)

    1977-03-01

    A computational technique in terms of stress, strain and displacement rates is presented for the solution of boundary value problems for metallic structural elements at uniform elevated temperatures subjected to time varying loads. This method can accommodate any number of constitutive relations with state variables recently proposed by other researchers to model the inelastic deformation of metallic media at elevated temperatures. Numerical solutions are obtained for several structural elements subjected to steady loads. The constitutive relations used for these numerical solutions are due to Hart. The solutions are discussed in the context of the computational scheme and Hart's theory.

  19. SECOND ORDER LEAST SQUARE ESTIMATION ON ARCH(1 MODEL WITH BOX-COX TRANSFORMED DEPENDENT VARIABLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herni Utami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Box-Cox transformation is often used to reduce heterogeneity and to achieve a symmetric distribution of response variable. In this paper, we estimate the parameters of Box-Cox transformed ARCH(1 model using second-order leastsquare method and then we study the consistency and asymptotic normality for second-order least square (SLS estimators. The SLS estimation was introduced byWang (2003, 2004 to estimate the parameters of nonlinear regression models with independent and identically distributed errors

  20. THE DIFFERENCES IN MORAL, GROUP IDENTITY AND THE PERCON’S VARIABILITY DEPENDING ON THE EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Aleksandrobna Kolinichenko

    2017-06-01

    Results. The results of the study have revealed the dominance of all specified assessment parameters in the group of test subjects with incomplete higher education: higher level of moral development in all dilemmas (the opposition of life values (compassion and following the law, self-interest – the interests of the city (law, business (benefit and law, personal interests (career and the freedom of another person, except for the dilemma of the opposition between the interests of a majority and a single person. The differences have also been revealed between the two groups of test subjects according to the group identity, group variability, the desirability of the common categories of identity.

  1. Dependence of conductivity on thickness within the variable-range hopping regime for Coulomb glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Caravaca

    Full Text Available In this paper, we provide some computational evidence concerning the dependence of conductivity on the system thickness for Coulomb glasses. We also verify the Efros–Shklovskii law and deal with the calculation of its characteristic parameter as a function of the thickness. Our results strengthen the link between theoretical and experimental fields. Keywords: Coulomb glass, Conductivity, Density of states, Efros–Shklovskii law

  2. Temperature-dependent behaviours are genetically variable in the nematode Caenorhabditis briggsae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegeman, Gregory W; de Mesquita, Matthew Bueno; Ryu, William S; Cutter, Asher D

    2013-03-01

    Temperature-dependent behaviours in Caenorhabditis elegans, such as thermotaxis and isothermal tracking, are complex behavioural responses that integrate sensation, foraging and learning, and have driven investigations to discover many essential genetic and neural pathways. The ease of manipulation of the Caenorhabditis model system also has encouraged its application to comparative analyses of phenotypic evolution, particularly contrasts of the classic model C. elegans with C. briggsae. And yet few studies have investigated natural genetic variation in behaviour in any nematode. Here we measure thermotaxis and isothermal tracking behaviour in genetically distinct strains of C. briggsae, further motivated by the latitudinal differentiation in C. briggsae that is associated with temperature-dependent fitness differences in this species. We demonstrate that C. briggsae performs thermotaxis and isothermal tracking largely similar to that of C. elegans, with a tendency to prefer its rearing temperature. Comparisons of these behaviours among strains reveal substantial heritable natural variation within each species that corresponds to three general patterns of behavioural response. However, intraspecific genetic differences in thermal behaviour often exceed interspecific differences. These patterns of temperature-dependent behaviour motivate further development of C. briggsae as a model system for dissecting the genetic underpinnings of complex behavioural traits.

  3. Performance prediction for silicon photonics integrated circuits with layout-dependent correlated manufacturing variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zeqin; Jhoja, Jaspreet; Klein, Jackson; Wang, Xu; Liu, Amy; Flueckiger, Jonas; Pond, James; Chrostowski, Lukas

    2017-05-01

    This work develops an enhanced Monte Carlo (MC) simulation methodology to predict the impacts of layout-dependent correlated manufacturing variations on the performance of photonics integrated circuits (PICs). First, to enable such performance prediction, we demonstrate a simple method with sub-nanometer accuracy to characterize photonics manufacturing variations, where the width and height for a fabricated waveguide can be extracted from the spectral response of a racetrack resonator. By measuring the spectral responses for a large number of identical resonators spread over a wafer, statistical results for the variations of waveguide width and height can be obtained. Second, we develop models for the layout-dependent enhanced MC simulation. Our models use netlist extraction to transfer physical layouts into circuit simulators. Spatially correlated physical variations across the PICs are simulated on a discrete grid and are mapped to each circuit component, so that the performance for each component can be updated according to its obtained variations, and therefore, circuit simulations take the correlated variations between components into account. The simulation flow and theoretical models for our layout-dependent enhanced MC simulation are detailed in this paper. As examples, several ring-resonator filter circuits are studied using the developed enhanced MC simulation, and statistical results from the simulations can predict both common-mode and differential-mode variations of the circuit performance.

  4. Treating tobacco dependence: guidance for primary care on life-saving interventions. Position statement of the IPCRG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Schayck, O C P; Williams, S; Barchilon, V; Baxter, N; Jawad, M; Katsaounou, P A; Kirenga, B J; Panaitescu, C; Tsiligianni, I G; Zwar, N; Ostrem, A

    2017-06-09

    Tobacco smoking is the world's leading cause of premature death and disability. Global targets to reduce premature deaths by 25% by 2025 will require a substantial increase in the number of smokers making a quit attempt, and a significant improvement in the success rates of those attempts in low, middle and high income countries. In many countries the only place where the majority of smokers can access support to quit is primary care. There is strong evidence of cost-effective interventions in primary care yet many opportunities to put these into practice are missed. This paper revises the approach proposed by the International Primary Care Respiratory Group published in 2008 in this journal to reflect important new evidence and the global variation in primary-care experience and knowledge of smoking cessation. Specific for primary care, that advocates for a holistic, bio-psycho-social approach to most problems, the starting point is to approach tobacco dependence as an eminently treatable condition. We offer a hierarchy of interventions depending on time and available resources. We present an equitable approach to behavioural and drug interventions. This includes an update to the evidence on behaviour change, gender difference, comparative information on numbers needed to treat, drug safety and availability of drugs, including the relatively cheap drug cytisine, and a summary of new approaches such as harm reduction. This paper also extends the guidance on special populations such as people with long-term conditions including tuberculosis, human immunodeficiency virus, cardiovascular disease and respiratory disease, pregnant women, children and adolescents, and people with serious mental illness. We use expert clinical opinion where the research evidence is insufficient or inconclusive. The paper describes trends in the use of waterpipes and cannabis smoking and offers guidance to primary-care clinicians on what to do faced with uncertain evidence. Throughout, it

  5. The Examination of the Views of Primary School Teachers and Pre-Service Primary Teachers on European Union Citizenship from the Point of Different Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üner, Sadik Selman; Yesil, Rüstü

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the view of primary school teachers and pre-service primary teachers on European Union citizenship. This study is a descriptive and quantitative research in survey methodology. The data of the research was collected from 207 primary school teachers teaching in 22 primary school in the city center of Kirsehir…

  6. Saddlepoint expansions for sums of Markov dependent variables on a continuous state space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Based on the conjugate kernel studied in Iscoe et al. (1985) we derive saddlepoint expansions for either the density or distribution function of a sum f(X1)+...+f(Xn), where the Xi's constitute a Markov chain. The chain is assumed to satisfy a strong recurrence condition which makes the results...... here very similar to the classical results for i.i.d. variables. In particular we establish also conditions under which the expansions hold uniformly over the range of the saddlepoint. Expansions are also derived for sums of the form f(X1, X0)+f(X2, X1)+...+f(Xn, Xn-1) although the uniformity result...

  7. The Assessment of Primary Education First Grade Turkish Coursebook, Student's Workbook and Teacher's Book Depending on Teachers' Opinions

    OpenAIRE

    Ayfer ŞAHİN

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the Turkish coursebook, student's workbook and the teacher's book that is delivered unpaid by the Ministry of Education to the teachers and students in primary education, first classes in 2007-2008 educational year; It is assessed depending on the teachers' opinions, the scale developed according to the criterias that has to be in the coursebooks which are determined in the instruction relating to the study and evaluation of Ministry of Education coursebooks and educational mea...

  8. Common variable immunodeficiency in horses is characterized by B cell depletion in primary and secondary lymphoid tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaminio, M Julia B F; Tallmadge, Rebecca L; Salles-Gomes, Cristina O M; Matychak, Mary Beth

    2009-01-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) in horse patients is characterized by late-onset B cell lymphopenia or depletion, hypo- or agammaglobulinemia, impaired humoral response to tetanus toxoid vaccination, and recurrent fevers and bacterial infections. This study describes the clinical and immunologic findings of 14 affected horses (average age 10.7 +/- 4.4 years) of both genders (six females, eight males) and different breeds (eight Thoroughbreds, four Quarter Horses, one Warmblood, one Pony). Serial immunological testing in peripheral blood revealed persistent, severe B cell lymphopenia (mean 1.3 +/- 2.3% positive cells) in all patients. Serum IgG (range horses. Serum IgA concentrations declined with time. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry revealed absence of lymphoid follicles and B cells in primary and secondary lymphoid tissues. CVID is a cause of recurrent pneumonia, septicemia, and meningitis in adult horses and has a grave prognosis for clinical management and survival.

  9. Strategies for B-cell receptor repertoire analysis in Primary Immunodeficiencies:From severe combined immunodeficiency to common variable immunodeficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna eIJspeert

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The antigen receptor repertoires of B and T cells form the basis of the adaptive immune response. The repertoires should be sufficiently diverse to recognize all possible pathogens. However, careful selection is needed to prevent responses to self or harmless antigens. Limited antigen receptor repertoire diversity leads to immunodeficiency, whereas unselected or misdirected repertoires can result in autoimmunity. The antigen receptor repertoire harbors information about abnormalities in many immunological disorders. Recent developments in next generation sequencing allow the analysis of the antigen receptor repertoire in much greater detail than ever before. Analyzing the antigen receptor repertoire in patients with mutations in genes responsible for the generation of the antigen receptor repertoire will give new insights into repertoire formation and selection. In this perspective we describe strategies and considerations for analysis of the naive and antigen selected B-cell repertoires in primary immunodeficiency (PID patients with a focus on severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID and common variable immunodeficiency (CVID.

  10. Effects of Variable Production Rate and Time-Dependent Holding Cost for Complementary Products in Supply Chain Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitali Sarkar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a major trend is going to redesign a production system by controlling or making variable the production rate within some fixed interval to maintain the optimal level. This strategy is more effective when the holding cost is time-dependent as it is interrelated with holding duration of products and rate of production. An effort is made to make a supply chain model (SCM to show the joint effect of variable production rate and time-varying holding cost for specific type of complementary products, where those products are made by two different manufacturers and a common retailer makes them bundle and sells bundles to end customers. Demand of each product is specified by stochastic reservation prices with a known potential market size. Those players of the SCM are considered with unequal power. Stackelberg game approach is employed to obtain global optimum solution of the model. An illustrative numerical example, graphical representation, and managerial insights are given to illustrate the model. Results prove that variable production rate and time-dependent holding cost save more than existing literature.

  11. The Impact of Variable Phytoplankton Stoichiometry on Projections of Primary Production, Food Quality, and Carbon Uptake in the Global Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Lester; Aumont, Olivier; Bopp, Laurent; Ciais, Philippe

    2018-04-01

    Ocean biogeochemical models are integral components of Earth system models used to project the evolution of the ocean carbon sink, as well as potential changes in the physical and chemical environment of marine ecosystems. In such models the stoichiometry of phytoplankton C:N:P is typically fixed at the Redfield ratio. The observed stoichiometry of phytoplankton, however, has been shown to considerably vary from Redfield values due to plasticity in the expression of phytoplankton cell structures with different elemental compositions. The intrinsic structure of fixed C:N:P models therefore has the potential to bias projections of the marine response to climate change. We assess the importance of variable stoichiometry on 21st century projections of net primary production, food quality, and ocean carbon uptake using the recently developed Pelagic Interactions Scheme for Carbon and Ecosystem Studies Quota (PISCES-QUOTA) ocean biogeochemistry model. The model simulates variable phytoplankton C:N:P stoichiometry and was run under historical and business-as-usual scenario forcing from 1850 to 2100. PISCES-QUOTA projects similar 21st century global net primary production decline (7.7%) to current generation fixed stoichiometry models. Global phytoplankton N and P content or food quality is projected to decline by 1.2% and 6.4% over the 21st century, respectively. The largest reductions in food quality are in the oligotrophic subtropical gyres and Arctic Ocean where declines by the end of the century can exceed 20%. Using the change in the carbon export efficiency in PISCES-QUOTA, we estimate that fixed stoichiometry models may be underestimating 21st century cumulative ocean carbon uptake by 0.5-3.5% (2.0-15.1 PgC).

  12. Age dependency of primary tumor sites and metastases in patients with Ewing sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worch, Jennifer; Ranft, Andreas; DuBois, Steven G; Paulussen, Michael; Juergens, Heribert; Dirksen, Uta

    2018-06-01

    The median age of patients with Ewing sarcoma (EwS) at diagnosis is around 14-15 years. Older age is associated with a worse outcome. The correlation of age at diagnosis on sites of disease has not been fully described. The goal of this study was to evaluate the differences in sites of primary tumor and metastatic tumor involvement according to age groups. EwS data from the Gesellschaft für Pädiatrische Onkologie und Hämatology (GPOH) database of the Cooperative Ewing Sarcoma Study (CESS) 81/86 and the European Intergroup Cooperative Ewing's Sarcoma Study EICESS 92 and the EUROpean Ewing tumor Working Initiative of National Groups-99-Protocol (EURO-E.W.I.N.G.-99) study were analyzed. Patient and tumor characteristics were evaluated statistically using chi square tests. The study population included 2,635 patients with bone EwS. Sites of primary and metastatic tumors differed according to the age groups of young children (0-9 years), early adolescence (10-14 years), late adolescence (15-19 years), young adults (20-24 years), and adults (more than 24 years). Young children demonstrated the most striking differences in site of disease with a lower proportion of pelvic primary and axial tumors. They presented less often with metastatic disease at diagnosis. Site of primary and metastatic tumor involvement in EwS differs according to patient age. The biological and developmental etiology for these differences requires further investigations. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Temperature dependence of CO2-enhanced primary production in the European Arctic Ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Holding, J. M.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Sanz-Martí n, M.; Mesa, E.; Arrieta, J M; Chierici, M.; Hendriks, I.  E.; Garcí a-Corral, L. S.; Regaudie-de-Gioux, A.; Delgado, A.; Reigstad, M.; Wassmann, P.; Agusti, Susana

    2015-01-01

    production (GPP) may be temperature dependent, using data from several oceanographic cruises and experiments from both spring and summer in the European sector of the Arctic Ocean. Results confirm that CO2 enhances GPP (by a factor of up to ten) over a range

  14. Use of AUDIT-based measures to identify unhealthy alcohol use and alcohol dependence in primary care: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J Aaron; Lee, Anna; Vinson, Daniel; Seale, J Paul

    2013-01-01

    As programs for screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) for unhealthy alcohol use disseminate, evidence-based approaches for identifying patients with unhealthy alcohol use and alcohol dependence (AD) are needed. While the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Clinician Guide suggests use of a single alcohol screening question (SASQ) for screening and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual checklists for assessment, many SBIRT programs use alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) "zones" for screening and assessment. Validation data for these zones are limited. This study used primary care data from a bi-ethnic southern U.S. population to examine the ability of the AUDIT zones and other AUDIT-based approaches to identify unhealthy alcohol use and dependence. Existing data were analyzed from interviews with 625 female and male adult drinkers presenting to 5 southeastern primary care practices. Timeline follow-back was used to identify at-risk drinking, and diagnostic interview schedule was used to identify alcohol abuse and dependence. Validity measures compared performance of AUDIT, AUDIT-C, and AUDIT dependence domains scores, with and without a 30-day binge drinking measure, for detecting unhealthy alcohol use and dependence. Optimal AUDIT scores for detecting unhealthy alcohol use were lower than current commonly used cutoffs (5 for men, 3 for women). Improved performance was obtained by combining AUDIT cutoffs of 6 for men and 4 for women with a 30-day binge drinking measure. AUDIT scores of 15 for men and 13 for women detected AD with 100% specificity but low sensitivity (20 and 18%, respectively). AUDIT dependence subscale scores of 2 or more showed similar specificity (99%) and slightly higher sensitivity (31% for men, 24% for women). Combining lower AUDIT cutoff scores and binge drinking measures may increase the detection of unhealthy alcohol use in primary care. Use of lower cutoff scores and dependence subscale

  15. ENERGY-DEPENDENT POWER SPECTRAL STATES AND ORIGIN OF APERIODIC VARIABILITY IN BLACK HOLE BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Wenfei; Zhang Wenda

    2013-01-01

    We found that the black hole candidate MAXI J1659–152 showed distinct power spectra, i.e., power-law noise (PLN) versus band-limited noise (BLN) plus quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) below and above about 2 keV, respectively, in observations with Swift and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer during the 2010 outburst, indicating a high energy cutoff of the PLN and a low energy cutoff of the BLN and QPOs around 2 keV. The emergence of the PLN and the fading of the BLN and QPOs initially took place below 2 keV when the source entered the hard intermediate state and settled in the soft state three weeks later. The evolution was accompanied by the emergence of the disk spectral component and decreases in the amplitudes of variability in the soft and hard X-ray bands. Our results indicate that the PLN is associated with an optically thick disk in both hard and intermediate states, and the power spectral state is independent of the X-ray energy spectral state in a broadband view. We suggest that in the hard or intermediate state, the BLN and QPOs emerge from the innermost hot flow subjected to Comptonization, while the PLN originates from the optically thick disk farther out. The energy cutoffs of the PLN and the BLN or QPOs then follow the temperature of the seed photons from the inner edge of the optically thick disk, while the high frequency cutoff of the PLN follows the orbital frequency of the inner edge of the optically thick disk as well.

  16. Isolation of primary microglia from the human post-mortem brain: effects of ante- and post-mortem variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizee, Mark R; Miedema, Suzanne S M; van der Poel, Marlijn; Adelia; Schuurman, Karianne G; van Strien, Miriam E; Melief, Jeroen; Smolders, Joost; Hendrickx, Debbie A; Heutinck, Kirstin M; Hamann, Jörg; Huitinga, Inge

    2017-02-17

    Microglia are key players in the central nervous system in health and disease. Much pioneering research on microglia function has been carried out in vivo with the use of genetic animal models. However, to fully understand the role of microglia in neurological and psychiatric disorders, it is crucial to study primary human microglia from brain donors. We have developed a rapid procedure for the isolation of pure human microglia from autopsy tissue using density gradient centrifugation followed by CD11b-specific cell selection. The protocol can be completed in 4 h, with an average yield of 450,000 and 145,000 viable cells per gram of white and grey matter tissue respectively. This method allows for the immediate phenotyping of microglia in relation to brain donor clinical variables, and shows the microglia population to be distinguishable from autologous choroid plexus macrophages. This protocol has been applied to samples from over 100 brain donors from the Netherlands Brain Bank, providing a robust dataset to analyze the effects of age, post-mortem delay, brain acidity, and neurological diagnosis on microglia yield and phenotype. Our data show that cerebrospinal fluid pH is positively correlated to microglial cell yield, but donor age and post-mortem delay do not negatively affect viable microglia yield. Analysis of CD45 and CD11b expression showed that changes in microglia phenotype can be attributed to a neurological diagnosis, and are not influenced by variation in ante- and post-mortem parameters. Cryogenic storage of primary microglia was shown to be possible, albeit with variable levels of recovery and effects on phenotype and RNA quality. Microglial gene expression substantially changed due to culture, including the loss of the microglia-specific markers, showing the importance of immediate microglia phenotyping. We conclude that primary microglia can be isolated effectively and rapidly from human post-mortem brain tissue, allowing for the study of the

  17. Dark focus of accommodation as dependent and independent variables in visual display technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sherrie; Kennedy, Robert; Harm, Deborah

    1992-01-01

    When independent stimuli are available for accommodation, as in the dark or under low contrast conditions, the lens seeks its resting position. Individual differences in resting positions are reliable, under autonomic control, and can change with visual task demands. We hypothesized that motion sickness in a flight simulator might result in dark focus changes. Method: Subjects received training flights in three different Navy flight simulators. Two were helicopter simulators entailed CRT presentation using infinity optics, one involved a dome presentation of a computer graphic visual projection system. Results: In all three experiments there were significant differences between dark focus activity before and after simulator exposure when comparisons were made between sick and not-sick pilot subjects. In two of these experiments, the average shift in dark focus for the sick subjects was toward increased myopia when each subject was compared to his own baseline. In the third experiment, the group showed an average shift outward of small amount and the subjects who were sick showed significantly less outward movement than those who were symptom free. Conclusions: Although the relationship is not a simple one, dark focus changes in simulator sickness imply parasympathetic activity. Because changes can occur in relation to endogenous and exogenous events, such measurement may have useful applications as dependent measures in studies of visually coupled systems, virtual reality systems, and space adaptation syndrome.

  18. Modeling Time-Dependent Behavior of Concrete Affected by Alkali Silica Reaction in Variable Environmental Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnaggar, Mohammed; Di Luzio, Giovanni; Cusatis, Gianluca

    2017-04-28

    Alkali Silica Reaction (ASR) is known to be a serious problem for concrete worldwide, especially in high humidity and high temperature regions. ASR is a slow process that develops over years to decades and it is influenced by changes in environmental and loading conditions of the structure. The problem becomes even more complicated if one recognizes that other phenomena like creep and shrinkage are coupled with ASR. This results in synergistic mechanisms that can not be easily understood without a comprehensive computational model. In this paper, coupling between creep, shrinkage and ASR is modeled within the Lattice Discrete Particle Model (LDPM) framework. In order to achieve this, a multi-physics formulation is used to compute the evolution of temperature, humidity, cement hydration, and ASR in both space and time, which is then used within physics-based formulations of cracking, creep and shrinkage. The overall model is calibrated and validated on the basis of experimental data available in the literature. Results show that even during free expansions (zero macroscopic stress), a significant degree of coupling exists because ASR induced expansions are relaxed by meso-scale creep driven by self-equilibriated stresses at the meso-scale. This explains and highlights the importance of considering ASR and other time dependent aging and deterioration phenomena at an appropriate length scale in coupled modeling approaches.

  19. Single genome retrieval of context-dependent variability in mutation rates for human germline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahakyan, Aleksandr B; Balasubramanian, Shankar

    2017-01-13

    Accurate knowledge of the core components of substitution rates is of vital importance to understand genome evolution and dynamics. By performing a single-genome and direct analysis of 39,894 retrotransposon remnants, we reveal sequence context-dependent germline nucleotide substitution rates for the human genome. The rates are characterised through rate constants in a time-domain, and are made available through a dedicated program (Trek) and a stand-alone database. Due to the nature of the method design and the imposed stringency criteria, we expect our rate constants to be good estimates for the rates of spontaneous mutations. Benefiting from such data, we study the short-range nucleotide (up to 7-mer) organisation and the germline basal substitution propensity (BSP) profile of the human genome; characterise novel, CpG-independent, substitution prone and resistant motifs; confirm a decreased tendency of moieties with low BSP to undergo somatic mutations in a number of cancer types; and, produce a Trek-based estimate of the overall mutation rate in human. The extended set of rate constants we report may enrich our resources and help advance our understanding of genome dynamics and evolution, with possible implications for the role of spontaneous mutations in the emergence of pathological genotypes and neutral evolution of proteomes.

  20. Spatio-temporal dependencies between hospital beds, physicians and health expenditure using visual variables and data classification in statistical table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medyńska-Gulij, Beata; Cybulski, Paweł

    2016-06-01

    This paper analyses the use of table visual variables of statistical data of hospital beds as an important tool for revealing spatio-temporal dependencies. It is argued that some of conclusions from the data about public health and public expenditure on health have a spatio-temporal reference. Different from previous studies, this article adopts combination of cartographic pragmatics and spatial visualization with previous conclusions made in public health literature. While the significant conclusions about health care and economic factors has been highlighted in research papers, this article is the first to apply visual analysis to statistical table together with maps which is called previsualisation.

  1. Spatio-temporal dependencies between hospital beds, physicians and health expenditure using visual variables and data classification in statistical table

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medyńska-Gulij Beata

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the use of table visual variables of statistical data of hospital beds as an important tool for revealing spatio-temporal dependencies. It is argued that some of conclusions from the data about public health and public expenditure on health have a spatio-temporal reference. Different from previous studies, this article adopts combination of cartographic pragmatics and spatial visualization with previous conclusions made in public health literature. While the significant conclusions about health care and economic factors has been highlighted in research papers, this article is the first to apply visual analysis to statistical table together with maps which is called previsualisation.

  2. The Dependencies of Ecosystem Pattern, Structure, and Dynamics on Climate, Climate Variability, and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, S.; Hurtt, G. C.; Fisk, J. P.; Rourke, O.

    2012-12-01

    A robust understanding of the sensitivity of the pattern, structure, and dynamics of ecosystems to climate, climate variability, and climate change is needed to predict ecosystem responses to current and projected climate change. We present results of a study designed to first quantify the sensitivity of ecosystems to climate through the use of climate and ecosystem data, and then use the results to test the sensitivity of the climate data in a state-of the art ecosystem model. A database of available ecosystem characteristics such as mean canopy height, above ground biomass, and basal area was constructed from sources like the National Biomass and Carbon Dataset (NBCD). The ecosystem characteristics were then paired by latitude and longitude with the corresponding climate characteristics temperature, precipitation, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and dew point that were retrieved from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR). The average yearly and seasonal means of the climate data, and their associated maximum and minimum values, over the 1979-2010 time frame provided by NARR were constructed and paired with the ecosystem data. The compiled results provide natural patterns of vegetation structure and distribution with regard to climate data. An advanced ecosystem model, the Ecosystem Demography model (ED), was then modified to allow yearly alterations to its mechanistic climate lookup table and used to predict the sensitivities of ecosystem pattern, structure, and dynamics to climate data. The combined ecosystem structure and climate data results were compared to ED's output to check the validity of the model. After verification, climate change scenarios such as those used in the last IPCC were run and future forest structure changes due to climate sensitivities were identified. The results of this study can be used to both quantify and test key relationships for next generation models. The sensitivity of ecosystem characteristics to climate data

  3. Deficient plasticity in the primary visual cortex of alpha-calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, J A; Cioffi, D; Silva, A J; Stryker, M P

    1996-09-01

    The recent characterization of plasticity in the mouse visual cortex permits the use of mutant mice to investigate the cellular mechanisms underlying activity-dependent development. As calcium-dependent signaling pathways have been implicated in neuronal plasticity, we examined visual cortical plasticity in mice lacking the alpha-isoform of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (alpha CaMKII). In wild-type mice, brief occlusion of vision in one eye during a critical period reduces responses in the visual cortex. In half of the alpha CaMKII-deficient mice, visual cortical responses developed normally, but visual cortical plasticity was greatly diminished. After intensive training, spatial learning in the Morris water maze was severely impaired in a similar fraction of mutant animals. These data indicate that loss of alpha CaMKII results in a severe but variable defect in neuronal plasticity.

  4. Extracellular vesicles have variable dose-dependent effects on cultured draining cells in the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Saray; Schreiber-Avissar, Sofia; Beit-Yannai, Elie

    2018-03-01

    The role of extracellular vesicles (EVs) as signal mediators has been described in many biological fields. How many EVs are needed to deliver the desired physiological signal is yet unclear. Using a normal trabecular meshwork (NTM) cell culture exposed to non-pigmented ciliary epithelium (NPCE)-derived EVs, a relevant model for studying the human ocular drainage system, we addressed the EVs dose-response effects on the Wnt signaling. The objective of the study was to investigate the dosing effects of NPCE-derived EVs on TM Wnt signaling. EVs were isolated by PEG 8000 method from NPCE and RPE cells (used as controls) conditioned media. Concentrations were determined by Tunable Resistive Pulse Sensing method. Various exosomes concentration were incubated with TM cells, for the determination of mRNA (β-Catenin, Axin2 and LEF1) and protein (β-Catenin, GSK-3β) expression using real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot, respectively. Exposure of NTM cells for 8 hrs to low EVs concentrations was associated with a significant decreased expression of β-Catenin, GSK-3β, as opposed to exposure to high exosomal concentrations. Pro-MMP9 and MMP9 activities were significantly enhanced in NTM cells treated with high EV concentrations of (X10) as compared to low EV concentrations of either NPCE- or RPE-derived EVs and to untreated control. Our data support the concept that EVs biological effects are concentration-dependent at their target site. Specifically in the present study, we described a general dose-response at the gene and MMPs activity and a different dose-response regarding key canonical Wnt proteins expression. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  5. Insulin-dependent glucose metabolism in dairy cows with variable fat mobilization around calving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, C; Schäff, C T; Kautzsch, U; Börner, S; Erdmann, S; Görs, S; Röntgen, M; Sauerwein, H; Bruckmaier, R M; Metges, C C; Kuhla, B; Hammon, H M

    2016-08-01

    clamps, pp nonesterified fatty acid concentrations did not reach the ap levels. The study demonstrated a minor influence of different degrees of body fat mobilization on insulin metabolism in cows during the transition period. The distinct decrease in the glucose-dependent release of insulin pp is the most striking finding that explains the impaired insulin action after calving, but does not explain differences in body fat mobilization between HLFC and LLFC cows. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. CMS-dependent prognostic impact of KRAS and BRAFV600E mutations in primary colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeby, J; Sveen, A; Merok, M A; Danielsen, S A; Eilertsen, I A; Guren, M G; Dienstmann, R; Nesbakken, A; Lothe, R A

    2018-05-01

    The prognostic impact of KRAS and BRAFV600E mutations in primary colorectal cancer (CRC) varies with microsatellite instability (MSI) status. The gene expression-based consensus molecular subtypes (CMSs) of CRC define molecularly and clinically distinct subgroups, and represent a novel stratification framework in biomarker analysis. We investigated the prognostic value of these mutations within the CMS groups. Totally 1197 primary tumors from a Norwegian series of CRC stage I-IV were analyzed for MSI and mutation status in hotspots in KRAS (codons 12, 13 and 61) and BRAF (codon 600). A subset was analyzed for gene expression and confident CMS classification was obtained for 317 samples. This cohort was expanded with clinical and molecular data, including CMS classification, from 514 patients in the publically available dataset GSE39582. Gene expression signatures associated with KRAS and BRAFV600E mutations were used to evaluate differential impact of mutations on gene expression among the CMS groups. BRAFV600E and KRAS mutations were both associated with inferior 5-year overall survival (OS) exclusively in MSS tumors (BRAFV600E mutation versus KRAS/BRAF wild-type: Hazard ratio (HR) 2.85, P CMS1, leading to negative prognostic impact in this subtype (OS: BRAFV600E mutation versus wild-type: HR 7.73, P = 0.001). In contrast, the poor prognosis of KRAS mutations was limited to MSS tumors with CMS2/CMS3 epithelial-like gene expression profiles (OS: KRAS mutation versus wild-type: HR 1.51, P = 0.011). The subtype-specific prognostic associations were substantiated by differential effects of BRAFV600E and KRAS mutations on gene expression signatures according to the MSI status and CMS group. BRAFV600E mutations are enriched and associated with metastatic disease in CMS1 MSS tumors, leading to poor prognosis in this subtype. KRAS mutations are associated with adverse outcome in epithelial (CMS2/CMS3) MSS tumors.

  7. TU-H-CAMPUS-JeP2-02: Interobserver Variability of CT, PET-CT and MRI Based Primary Tumor Delineation for Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karki, K; Hugo, G; Saraiya, S; Jan, N; Schuster, J; Schutzer, M; Fahrner, L; Groves, R; Ford, J; Weiss, E [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Target delineation in lung cancer radiotherapy has, in general, large variability. MRI has so far not been investigated in detail for lung cancer delineation variability. The purpose of this study is to investigate delineation variability for lung tumors using MRI and compare it to CT alone and PET-CT based delineations. Methods: Seven physicians delineated the primary tumor volumes of nine patients for the following scenarios: (1) CT only; (2) post-contrast T1-weighted MRI registered with diffusion-weighted MRI; and (3) PET-CT fusion images. To compute interobserver variability, the median surface was generated from all observers’ contours and used as the reference surface. A single physician labeled the interface types (tumor to lung, atelectasis (collapsed lung), hilum, mediastinum, or chest-wall) on the median surface. Volume variation (normalized to PET-CT volume), minimum distance (MD), and bidirectional local distance (BLD) between individual observers’ contours and the reference contour were measured. Results: CT- and MRI-based normalized volumes were 1.61±0.76 (mean±SD) and 1.38±0.44, respectively, both significantly larger than PET-CT (p<0.05, paired t-test). The overall uncertainty (root mean square of SD values over all points) of both BLD and MD measures of the observers for the interfaces were not significantly different (p>0.05, two-samples t-test) for all imaging modalities except between tumor-mediastinum and tumor-atelectasis in PET-CT. The largest mean overall uncertainty was observed for tumor-atelectasis interface, the smallest for tumor-mediastinum and tumor-lung interfaces for all modalities. The whole tumor uncertainties for both BLD and MD were not significantly different between any two modalities (p>0.05, paired t-test). Overall uncertainties for the interfaces using BLD were similar to using MD. Conclusion: Large volume variations were observed between the three imaging modalities. Contouring variability appeared to

  8. Nonlinear primary resonance of micro/nano-beams made of nanoporous biomaterials incorporating nonlocality and strain gradient size dependency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahmani, S.; Aghdam, M. M.

    2018-03-01

    A wide range of biological applications such as drug delivery, biosensors and hemodialysis can be provided by nanoporous biomaterials due to their uniform pore size as well as considerable pore density. In the current study, the size dependency in the nonlinear primary resonance of micro/nano-beams made of nanoporous biomaterials is anticipated. To accomplish this end, a refined truncated cube is introduced to model the lattice structure of nanoporous biomaterial. Accordingly, analytical expressions for the mechanical properties of material are derived as functions of pore size. After that, based upon a nonlocal strain gradient beam model, the size-dependent nonlinear Duffing type equation of motion is constructed. The Galerkin technique together with the multiple time-scales method is employed to obtain the nonlocal strain gradient frequency-response and amplitude-response related to the nonlinear primary resonance of a micro/nano-beam made of the nanoporous biomaterial with different pore sizes. It is indicated that the nonlocality causes to decrease the response amplitudes associated with the both bifurcation points of the jump phenomenon, while the strain gradient size dependency causes to increase them. Also, it is found that increasing the pore size leads to enhance the nonlinearity, so the maximum deflection of response occurs at higher excitation frequency.

  9. Msd1/SSX2IP-dependent microtubule anchorage ensures spindle orientation and primary cilia formation

    OpenAIRE

    Hori, Akiko; Ikebe, Chiho; Tada, Masazumi; Toda, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Anchoring microtubules to the centrosome is critical for cell geometry and polarity, yet the molecular mechanism remains unknown. Here we show that the conserved human Msd1/SSX2IP is required for microtubule anchoring. hMsd1/SSX2IP is delivered to the centrosome in a centriolar satellite-dependent manner and binds the microtubule-nucleator ?-tubulin complex. hMsd1/SSX2IP depletion leads to disorganised interphase microtubules and misoriented mitotic spindles with reduced length and intensity....

  10. Variability in colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and its effect on mycorrhizal dependency of improved and unimproved soybean cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, M S; Guzzo, M C; Velazquez, M S; Sagadin, M B; Luna, C M

    2016-12-01

    Breeding selection of germplasm under fertilized conditions may reduce the frequency of genes that promote mycorrhizal associations. This study was developed to compare variability in mycorrhizal colonization and its effect on mycorrhizal dependency (MD) in improved soybean genotypes (I-1 and I-2) with differential tolerance to drought stress, and in unimproved soybean genotypes (UI-3 and UI-4). As inoculum, a mixed native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was isolated from soybean roots, showing spores mostly of the species Funneliformis mosseae. At 20 days, unimproved genotypes followed by I-2, showed an increase in arbuscule formation, but not in I-1. At 40 days, mycorrhizal plants showed an increase in nodulation, this effect being more evident in unimproved genotypes. Mycorrhizal dependency, evaluated as growth and biochemical parameters from oxidative stress was increased in unimproved and I-2 since 20 days, whereas in I-1, MD increased at 40 days. We cannot distinguish significant differences in AMF colonization and MD between unimproved and I-2. However, variability among improved genotypes was observed. Our results suggest that selection for improved soybean genotypes with good and rapid AMF colonization, particularly high arbuscule/hyphae ratio could be a useful strategy for the development of genotypes that optimize AMF contribution to cropping systems.

  11. Chemical Variability and Biological Activities of Brassica rapa var. rapifera Parts Essential Oils Depending on Geographic Variation and Extraction Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saka, Boualem; Djouahri, Abderrahmane; Djerrad, Zineb; Terfi, Souhila; Aberrane, Sihem; Sabaou, Nasserdine; Baaliouamer, Aoumeur; Boudarene, Lynda

    2017-06-01

    In the present work, the Brassica rapa var. rapifera parts essential oils and their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were investigated for the first time depending on geographic origin and extraction technique. Gas-chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectrometry (MS) analyses showed several constituents, including alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ketones, norisoprenoids, terpenic, nitrogen and sulphur compounds, totalizing 38 and 41 compounds in leaves and root essential oils, respectively. Nitrogen compounds were the main volatiles in leaves essential oils and sulphur compounds were the main volatiles in root essential oils. Qualitative and quantitative differences were found among B. rapa var. rapifera parts essential oils collected from different locations and extracted by hydrodistillation and microwave-assisted hydrodistillation techniques. Furthermore, our findings showed a high variability for both antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The highlighted variability reflects the high impact of plant part, geographic variation and extraction technique on chemical composition and biological activities, which led to conclude that we should select essential oils to be investigated carefully depending on these factors, in order to isolate the bioactive components or to have the best quality of essential oil in terms of biological activities and preventive effects in food. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  12. Variation in U.V. primary fluorescence-intensity of vital cells depending on 60Co γ-radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkle, K.

    1978-01-01

    Using impulse-cytofluorophotometry in the ultra-violet spectral region it has been shown on vital, unstained Ehrlich ascites tumour cells that the primary fluorescence intensity of this tumour was on day 11 after transplantation 20 per cent higher than on day 8. Storage of the vital cells for 25 min at 20 0 C had no effect on this result. When the cells were exposed to 60 Co γ-radiation on day 6, a new stable fluorescence level was established after 20 hours. Measurements of the primary fluorescence intensity depending on dose have shown a significant rise starting from 75 rad at 48 hours after irradiation. The fluorescence intensity rose by 42.5 per cent of the control value at 3000 rad, but only by 31.5 per cent on exposure to 4000 rad. (author)

  13. Active listening: task-dependent plasticity of spectrotemporal receptive fields in primary auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Jonathan; Elhilali, Mounya; Shamma, Shihab

    2005-08-01

    Listening is an active process in which attentive focus on salient acoustic features in auditory tasks can influence receptive field properties of cortical neurons. Recent studies showing rapid task-related changes in neuronal spectrotemporal receptive fields (STRFs) in primary auditory cortex of the behaving ferret are reviewed in the context of current research on cortical plasticity. Ferrets were trained on spectral tasks, including tone detection and two-tone discrimination, and on temporal tasks, including gap detection and click-rate discrimination. STRF changes could be measured on-line during task performance and occurred within minutes of task onset. During spectral tasks, there were specific spectral changes (enhanced response to tonal target frequency in tone detection and discrimination, suppressed response to tonal reference frequency in tone discrimination). However, only in the temporal tasks, the STRF was changed along the temporal dimension by sharpening temporal dynamics. In ferrets trained on multiple tasks, distinctive and task-specific STRF changes could be observed in the same cortical neurons in successive behavioral sessions. These results suggest that rapid task-related plasticity is an ongoing process that occurs at a network and single unit level as the animal switches between different tasks and dynamically adapts cortical STRFs in response to changing acoustic demands.

  14. Experimental population dynamics of Rhabdias bufonis (Nematoda) in toads (Bufo bufo): density-dependence in the primary infection

    OpenAIRE

    Goater, C. P.

    2017-01-01

    Density-dependence in worm establishment, numbers, biomass and larval production were examined in primary infections of 0, 10, 40, 80 and 160 larvae of the lung nematode, Rhabdias bufonis in the common toad, Bufo bufo. The infection procedure established 4 non-overlapping levels of infection which persisted until 6 weeks post-infection (p.i.), after which there was an overall decline up to 12 weeks p.i. Worm numbers had no direct effect on adult worm survival but temporal changes in worm weig...

  15. Demographic models reveal the shape of density dependence for a specialist insect herbivore on variable host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Tom E X

    2007-07-01

    1. It is widely accepted that density-dependent processes play an important role in most natural populations. However, persistent challenges in our understanding of density-dependent population dynamics include evaluating the shape of the relationship between density and demographic rates (linear, concave, convex), and identifying extrinsic factors that can mediate this relationship. 2. I studied the population dynamics of the cactus bug Narnia pallidicornis on host plants (Opuntia imbricata) that varied naturally in relative reproductive effort (RRE, the proportion of meristems allocated to reproduction), an important plant quality trait. I manipulated per-plant cactus bug densities, quantified subsequent dynamics, and fit stage-structured models to the experimental data to ask if and how density influences demographic parameters. 3. In the field experiment, I found that populations with variable starting densities quickly converged upon similar growth trajectories. In the model-fitting analyses, the data strongly supported a model that defined the juvenile cactus bug retention parameter (joint probability of surviving and not dispersing) as a nonlinear decreasing function of density. The estimated shape of this relationship shifted from concave to convex with increasing host-plant RRE. 4. The results demonstrate that host-plant traits are critical sources of variation in the strength and shape of density dependence in insects, and highlight the utility of integrated experimental-theoretical approaches for identifying processes underlying patterns of change in natural populations.

  16. Calcium ion dependency of ethylene production in segments of primary roots of Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenstein, K. H.; Evans, M. L.

    1986-01-01

    We investigated the effect of Ca2+ on ethylene production in 2-cm long apical segments from primary roots of corn (Zea mays L., B73 x Missouri 17) seedlings. The seedlings were raised under different conditions of Ca2+ availability. Low-Ca and high-Ca seedlings were raised by soaking the grains and watering the seedlings with distilled water or 10 mM CaCl2, respectively. Segments from high-Ca roots produced more than twice as much ethylene as segments from low-Ca roots. Indoleacetic acid (IAA; 1 micromole) enhanced ethylene production in segments from both low-Ca and high-Ca roots but auxin-induced promotion of ethylene production was consistently higher in segments from high-Ca roots. Addition of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) to root segments from low-Ca seedlings doubled total ethylene production and the rate of production remained fairly constant during a 24 h period of monitoring. In segments from high-Ca seedlings ACC also increased total ethylene production but most of the ethylene was produced within the first 6 h. The data suggest that Ca2+ enhances the conversion of ACC to ethylene. The terminal 2 mm of the root tip were found to be especially important to ethylene biosynthesis by apical segments and, experiments using 45Ca2+ as tracer indicated that the apical 2 mm of the root is the region of strongest Ca2+ accumulation. Other cations such as Mn2+, Mg2+, and K+ could largely substitute for Ca2+. The significance of these findings is discussed with respect to recent evidence for gravity-induced Ca2+ redistribution and its relationship to the establishment of asymmetric growth during gravitropic curvature.

  17. Foxp3-dependent transformation of human primary CD4+ T lymphocytes by the retroviral protein tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Liu, Dan; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Huan; Cheng, Hua

    2015-10-23

    The retroviral Tax proteins of human T cell leukemia virus type 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and -2) are highly homologous viral transactivators. Both viral proteins can immortalize human primary CD4+ memory T cells, but when expressed alone they rarely transform T cells. In the present study, we found that the Tax proteins displayed a differential ability to immortalize human CD4+Foxp3+ T cells with characteristic expression of CTLA-4 and GITR. Because epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was reportedly expressed and activated in a subset of CD4+Foxp3+ T cells, we introduced an activated EGFR into Tax-immortalized CD4+Foxp3+ T cells. We observed that these modified cells were grown independently of exogenous IL-2, correlating with a T cell transformation phenotype. In Tax-immortalized CD4+Foxp3- T cells, ectopic expression of Foxp3 was a prerequisite for Tax transformation of T cells. Accordingly, treatment of the transformed T cells with erlotinib, a selective inhibitor of EGFR, induced degradation of EGFR in lysosome, consequently causing T cell growth inhibition. Further, we identified autophagy as a crucial cellular survival pathway for the transformed T cells. Silencing key autophagy molecules including Beclin1, Atg5 and PI3 kinase class III (PI3KC3) resulted in drastic impairment of T cell growth. Our data, therefore, unveiled a previously unidentified role of Foxp3 in T cell transformation, providing a molecular basis for HTLV-1 transformation of CD4+Foxp3+ T cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Normal variability of children's scaled scores on subtests of the Dutch Wechsler Preschool and Primary scale of Intelligence - third edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurks, P P M; Hendriksen, J G M; Dek, J E; Kooij, A P

    2013-01-01

    Intelligence tests are included in millions of assessments of children and adults each year (Watkins, Glutting, & Lei, 2007a , Applied Neuropsychology, 14, 13). Clinicians often interpret large amounts of subtest scatter, or large differences between the highest and lowest scaled subtest scores, on an intelligence test battery as an index for abnormality or cognitive impairment. The purpose of the present study is to characterize "normal" patterns of variability among subtests of the Dutch Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence - Third Edition (WPPSI-III-NL; Wechsler, 2010 ). Therefore, the frequencies of WPPSI-III-NL scaled subtest scatter were reported for 1039 healthy children aged 4:0-7:11 years. Results indicated that large differences between highest and lowest scaled subtest scores (or subtest scatter) were common in this sample. Furthermore, degree of subtest scatter was related to: (a) the magnitude of the highest scaled subtest score, i.e., more scatter was seen in children with the highest WPPSI-III-NL scaled subtest scores, (b) Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) scores, i.e., higher FSIQ scores were associated with an increase in subtest scatter, and (c) sex differences, with boys showing a tendency to display more scatter than girls. In conclusion, viewing subtest scatter as an index for abnormality in WPPSI-III-NL scores is an oversimplification as this fails to recognize disparate subtest heterogeneity that occurs within a population of healthy children aged 4:0-7:11 years.

  19. Resistor capacitor, primitive variable solution of buoyant fluid flow within an enclosure with highly temperature dependent viscosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, S.P. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States); Gianoulakis, S.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-07-01

    A numerical solution for buoyant natural convection within a square enclosure containing a fluid with highly temperature dependent viscosity is presented. Although the fluid properties employed do not represent any real fluid, the large variation in the fluid viscosity with temperature is characteristic of turbulent flow modeling with eddy-viscosity concepts. Results are obtained using a primitive variable formulation and the resistor method. The results presented include velocity, temperature and pressure distributions within the enclosure as well as shear stress and heat flux distributions along the enclosure walls. Three mesh refinements were employed and uncertainty values are suggested for the final mesh refinement. These solutions are part of a contributed benchmark solution set for the subject problem.

  20. A composition dependent energy scale and the determination of the cosmic ray primary mass in the ankle region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supanitsky, A. D.; Etchegoyen, A.; Melo, D.; Sanchez, F.

    2015-08-01

    At present there are still several open questions about the origin of the ultra high energy cosmic rays. However, great progress in this area has been made in recent years due to the data collected by the present generation of ground based detectors like the Pierre Auger Observatory and Telescope Array. In particular, it is believed that the study of the composition of the cosmic rays as a function of energy can play a fundamental role for the understanding of the origin of the cosmic rays. The observatories belonging to this generation are composed of arrays of surface detectors and fluorescence telescopes. The duty cycle of the fluorescence telescopes is ∼10% in contrast with the ∼100% of the surface detectors. Therefore, the energy calibration of the events observed by the surface detectors is performed by using a calibration curve obtained from a set of high quality events observed in coincidence by both types of detectors. The advantage of this method is that the reconstructed energy of the events observed by the surface detectors becomes almost independent of simulations of the showers because just a small part of the reconstructed energy (the missing energy), obtained from the fluorescence telescopes, comes from simulations. However, the calibration curve obtained in this way depends on the composition of the cosmic rays, which can introduce biases in composition analyses when parameters with a strong dependence on primary energy are considered. In this work we develop an analytical method to study these effects. We consider AMIGA (Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array), the low energy extension of the Pierre Auger Observatory corresponding to the surface detectors, to illustrate the use of the method. In particular, we study the biases introduced by an energy calibration dependent on composition on the determination of the mean value of the number of muons, at a given distance to the showers axis, which is one of the parameters most sensitive to

  1. Primary caregivers of in-home oxygen-dependent children: predictors of stress based on characteristics, needs and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai-Wei K; Lin, Hung-Ching; Lee, Chin-Ting; Lee, Kuo-Sheng

    2016-07-01

    To identify the predictors of primary caregivers' stress in caring for in-home oxygen-dependent children by examining the association between their levels of stress, caregiver needs and social support. Increasing numbers of primary caregivers of oxygen-dependent children experience caregiving stress that warrants investigation. The study used a cross-sectional design with three psychometric scales - Modified-Parenting Stress Index, Caregiver Needs Scale and Social Support Index. The data collected during 2010-2011 were from participants who were responsible for their child's care that included oxygen therapy for ≧6 hours/day; the children's ages ranged from 3 months-16 years. Descriptive statistics and multivariable linear regression were used. A total of 104 participants (M = 34, F = 70) were recruited, with an average age of 39·7 years. The average age of the oxygen-dependent children was 6·68 years and their daily use of oxygen averaged 11·39 hours. The caregivers' overall levels of stress were scored as high and information needs were scored as the highest. The most available support from family and friends was emotional support. Informational support was mostly received from health professionals, but both instrumental and emotional support were important. Levels of stress and caregiver needs were significantly correlated. Multivariable linear regression analyses identified three risk factors predicting stress, namely, the caregiver's poor health status, the child's male gender and the caregiver's greater financial need. To support these caregivers, health professionals can maintain their health status and provide instrumental, emotional, informational and financial support. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Dependency of global primary bioenergy crop potentials in 2050 on food systems, yields, biodiversity conservation and political stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erb, Karl-Heinz; Haberl, Helmut; Plutzar, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    The future bioenergy crop potential depends on (1) changes in the food system (food demand, agricultural technology), (2) political stability and investment security, (3) biodiversity conservation, (4) avoidance of long carbon payback times from deforestation, and (5) energy crop yields. Using a biophysical biomass-balance model, we analyze how these factors affect global primary bioenergy potentials in 2050. The model calculates biomass supply and demand balances for eleven world regions, eleven food categories, seven food crop types and two livestock categories, integrating agricultural forecasts and scenarios with a consistent global land use and NPP database. The TREND scenario results in a global primary bioenergy potential of 77 EJ/yr, alternative assumptions on food-system changes result in a range of 26–141 EJ/yr. Exclusion of areas for biodiversity conservation and inaccessible land in failed states reduces the bioenergy potential by up to 45%. Optimistic assumptions on future energy crop yields increase the potential by up to 48%, while pessimistic assumptions lower the potential by 26%. We conclude that the design of sustainable bioenergy crop production policies needs to resolve difficult trade-offs such as food vs. energy supply, renewable energy vs. biodiversity conservation or yield growth vs. reduction of environmental problems of intensive agriculture. - Highlights: ► Global energy crop potentials in 2050 are calculated with a biophysical biomass-balance model. ► The study is focused on dedicated energy crops, forestry and residues are excluded. ► Depending on food-system change, global energy crop potentials range from 26–141 EJ/yr. ► Exclusion of protected areas and failed states may reduce the potential up to 45%. ► The bioenergy potential may be 26% lower or 45% higher, depending on energy crop yields.

  3. PN G068.1+11.0: A young pre-cataclysmic variable with an extremely hot primary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanova, A. A.; Shimansky, V. V.; Borisov, N. V.; Spiridonova, O. I.; Gabdeev, M. M.

    2016-02-01

    An analysis of spectroscopic and photometric data for the young pre-cataclysmic variable (PCV) PN G068.1+11.0, which passed through its common-envelope stage relatively recently, is presented. The spectroscopic and photometric data were obtained with the 6-m telescope and Zeiss-1000 telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory. The light curves show sinusoidal brightness variations with the orbital-period time scale and brightness-variation amplitudes of Δ m = 1. m41, 1. m62, and 1. m57 in the B, V, and R bands, respectively. The system's spectrum exhibits weak HI (H β-H δ) andHeII λλ4541, 4686, 5411 Å absorption lines during the phases of minimum brightness, as well as HI, HeII, CIII, CIV, NIII, and OII emission lines whose intensity variations are synchronized with variations of the integrated brightness of the system. The emission-line formation in the spectra can be fully explained by the effects of fluorescence of the ultraviolet light from the primary at the surface of the cool star. All the characteristics of the optical light of PN G068.1+11.0 confirm that it is a young PCV containing sdO subdwarf. The radial velocities were measured from a blend of lines of moderately light elements, CIII+NIII λ4640 Å, which is formed at the surface of the secondary due to reflection effects. The ephemeris of the system has been improved through a joint analysis of the radial-velocity curves and light curves of pre-cataclysmic variable, using modelling of the reflection effects. The fundamental parameters of PN G068.1+11.0 have been determined using two evolutionary tracks for planetary-nebula nuclei of different masses (0.7 M ⊙and 0.78 M ⊙). The model spectra for the system and a comparison with the observations demonstrate the possibility of refining the components' effective temperatures if the quality of the spectra used is improved.

  4. Outer membrane targeting of Pseudomonas aeruginosa proteins shows variable dependence on the components of Bam and Lol machineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Hanh H; Nickerson, Nicholas N; Lee, Vincent T; Kazimirova, Anastasia; Chami, Mohamed; Pugsley, Anthony P; Lory, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    In Gram-negative bacteria, the Lol and Bam machineries direct the targeting of lipidated and nonlipidated proteins, respectively, to the outer membrane (OM). Using Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains with depleted levels of specific Bam and Lol proteins, we demonstrated a variable dependence of different OM proteins on these targeting pathways. Reduction in the level of BamA significantly affected the ability of the β-barrel membrane protein OprF to localize to the OM, while the targeting of three secretins that are functionally related OM proteins was less affected (PilQ and PscC) or not at all affected (XcpQ). Depletion of LolB affected all lipoproteins examined and had a variable effect on the nonlipidated proteins. While the levels of OprF, PilQ, and PscC were significantly reduced by LolB depletion, XcpQ was unaffected and was correctly localized to the OM. These results suggest that certain β-barrel proteins such as OprF primarily utilize the complete Bam machinery. The Lol machinery participates in the OM targeting of secretins to variable degrees, likely through its involvement in the assembly of lipidated Bam components. XcpQ, but not PilQ or PscC, was shown to assemble spontaneously into liposomes as multimers. This work raises the possibility that there is a gradient of utilization of Bam and Lol insertion and targeting machineries. Structural features of individual proteins, including their β-barrel content, may determine the propensity of these proteins for folding (or misfolding) during periplasmic transit and OM insertion, thereby influencing the extent of utilization of the Bam targeting machinery, respectively. Targeting of lipidated and nonlipidated proteins to the outer membrane (OM) compartment in Gram-negative bacteria involves the transfer across the periplasm utilizing the Lol and Bam machineries, respectively. We show that depletion of Bam and Lol components in Pseudomonas aeruginosa does not lead to a general OM protein translocation defect

  5. Primary cilia utilize glycoprotein-dependent adhesion mechanisms to stabilize long-lasting cilia-cilia contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ott Carolyn

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The central tenet of cilia function is sensing and transmitting information. The capacity to directly contact extracellular surfaces would empower primary cilia to probe the environment for information about the nature and location of nearby surfaces. It has been well established that flagella and other motile cilia perform diverse cellular functions through adhesion. We hypothesized that mammalian primary cilia also interact with the extracellular environment through direct physical contact. Methods We identified cilia in rod photoreceptors and cholangiocytes in fixed mouse tissues and examined the structures that these cilia contact in vivo. We then utilized an MDCK cell culture model to characterize the nature of the contacts we observed. Results In retina and liver tissue, we observed that cilia from nearby cells touch one another. Using MDCK cells, we found compelling evidence that these contacts are stable adhesions that form bridges between two cells, or networks between many cells. We examined the nature and duration of the cilia-cilia contacts and discovered primary cilia movements that facilitate cilia-cilia encounters. Stable adhesions form as the area of contact expands from a single point to a stretch of tightly bound, adjacent cilia membranes. The cilia-cilia contacts persisted for hours and were resistant to several harsh treatments such as proteases and DTT. Unlike many other cell adhesion mechanisms, calcium was not required for the formation or maintenance of cilia adhesion. However, swainsonine, which blocks maturation of N-linked glycoproteins, reduced contact formation. We propose that cellular control of adhesion maintenance is active because cilia adhesion did not prevent cell division; rather, contacts dissolved during mitosis as cilia were resorbed. Conclusions The demonstration that mammalian primary cilia formed prolonged, direct, physical contacts supports a novel paradigm: that mammalian primary

  6. The architecture and ppGpp-dependent expression of the primary transcriptome of Salmonella Typhimurium during invasion gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Vinoy K

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Invasion of intestinal epithelial cells by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium requires expression of the extracellular virulence gene expression programme (STEX, activation of which is dependent on the signalling molecule guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp. Recently, next-generation transcriptomics (RNA-seq has revealed the unexpected complexity of bacterial transcriptomes and in this report we use differential RNA sequencing (dRNA-seq to define the high-resolution transcriptomic architecture of wild-type S. Typhimurium and a ppGpp null strain under growth conditions which model STEX. In doing so we show that ppGpp plays a much wider role in regulating the S. Typhimurium STEX primary transcriptome than previously recognised. Results Here we report the precise mapping of transcriptional start sites (TSSs for 78% of the S. Typhimurium open reading frames (ORFs. The TSS mapping enabled a genome-wide promoter analysis resulting in the prediction of 169 alternative sigma factor binding sites, and the prediction of the structure of 625 operons. We also report the discovery of 55 new candidate small RNAs (sRNAs and 302 candidate antisense RNAs (asRNAs. We discovered 32 ppGpp-dependent alternative TSSs and determined the extent and level of ppGpp-dependent coding and non-coding transcription. We found that 34% and 20% of coding and non-coding RNA transcription respectively was ppGpp-dependent under these growth conditions, adding a further dimension to the role of this remarkable small regulatory molecule in enabling rapid adaptation to the infective environment. Conclusions The transcriptional architecture of S. Typhimurium and finer definition of the key role ppGpp plays in regulating Salmonella coding and non-coding transcription should promote the understanding of gene regulation in this important food borne pathogen and act as a resource for future research.

  7. Hospitalizations for ambulatory care sensitive conditions and quality of primary care: their relation with socioeconomic and health care variables in the Madrid regional health service (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magán, Purificación; Alberquilla, Angel; Otero, Angel; Ribera, José Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Hospitalizations for ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSH) have been proposed as an indirect indicator of the effectiveness and quality of care provided by primary health care. To investigate the association of ACSH rates with population socioeconomic factors and with characteristics of primary health care. Cross-sectional, ecologic study. Using hospital discharge data, ACSH were selected from the list of conditions validated for Spain. All 34 health districts in the Region of Madrid, Spain. Individuals aged 65 years or older residing in the region of Madrid between 2001 and 2003, inclusive. Age- and gender-adjusted ACSH rates in each health district. The adjusted ACSH rate per 1000 population was 35.37 in men and 20.45 in women. In the Poisson regression analysis, an inverse relation was seen between ACSH rates and the socioeconomic variables. Physician workload was the only health care variable with a statistically significant relation (rate ratio of 1.066 [95% CI; 1.041-1.091]). These results were similar in the analyses disaggregated by gender. In the multivariate analyses that included health care variables, none of the health care variables were statistically significant. ACSH may be more closely related with socioeconomic variables than with characteristics of primary care activity. Therefore, other factors outside the health system must be considered to improve health outcomes in the population.

  8. Human herpesvirus 6A induces apoptosis of primary human fetal astrocytes via both caspase-dependent and -independent pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Bin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6 is a T-lymphtropic and neurotropic virus that can infect various types of cells. Sequential studies reported that apoptosis of glia and neurons induced by HHV-6 might act a potential trigger for some central nervous system (CNS diseases. HHV-6 is involved in the pathogenesis of encephalitis, multiple sclerosis (MS and fatigue syndrome. However, the mechanisms responsible for the apoptosis of infected CNS cells induced by HHV-6 are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the cell death processes of primary human fetal astrocytes (PHFAs during productive HHV-6A infection and the underlying mechanisms. Results HHV-6A can cause productive infection in primary human fetal astrocytes. Annexin V-PI staining and electron microscopic analysis indicated that HHV-6A was an inducer of apoptosis. The cell death was associated with activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP, which is known to be an important substrate for activated caspase-3. Caspase-8 and -9 were also significantly activated in HHV-6A-infected cells. Moreover, HHV-6A infection led to Bax up-regulation and Bcl-2 down-regulation. HHV-6A infection increased the release of Smac/Diablo, AIF and cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol, which induced apoptosis via the caspase-dependent and -independent pathways. In addition, we also found that anti-apoptotic factors such as IAPs and NF-κB decreased in HHV-6A infected PHFAs. Conclusion This is the first demonstration of caspase-dependent and -independent apoptosis in HHV-6A-infected glial cells. These findings would be helpful in understanding the mechanisms of CNS diseases caused by HHV-6.

  9. Free energy of activation. Definition, properties, and dependent variables with special reference to linear free energy relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    The reaction rate constant is expressed as Z exp(-G/sub a//RT). Z is the binary collision frequency. G/sub a/, the free energy of activation, is shown to be the difference between the free energy of the reactive reactants and the free energy of all reactants. The results are derived from both a statistical mechanical and a collision theoretic point of view. While the later is more suitable for an ab-initio computation of the reaction rate, it is the former that lends itself to the search of systematics and of correlations and to compaction of data. Different thermodynamic-like routes to the characterization of G/sub a/ are thus explored. The two most promising ones appear to be the use of thermodynamic type cycles and the changes of dependent variables using the Legendre transform technique. The dependence of G/sub a/ on ΔG 0 , the standard free energy change in the reaction, is examined from the later point of view. It is shown that one can rigorously express this dependence as G/sub a/ = αΔG 0 + G/sub a/ 0 M(α). Here α is the Bronsted slope, α = -par. delta ln k(T)/par. delta(ΔG 0 /RT), G/sub a/ 0 is independent of ΔG 0 and M(α), the Legendre transform of G/sub a/, is a function only of α. For small changes in ΔG 0 , the general result reduces to the familiar ''linear'' free energy relation delta G/sub a/ = α delta ΔG 0 . It is concluded from general considerations that M(α) is a symmetric, convex function of α and hence that α is a monotonically increasing function of ΔG 0 . Experimental data appear to conform well to the form α = 1/[1 + exp(-ΔG 0 /G/sub s/ 0 )]. A simple interpretation of the ΔG 0 dependence of G/sub a/, based on an interpolation of the free energy from that of the reagents to that of the products, is offered. 4 figures, 69 references

  10. Dependency of global primary bioenergy crop potentials in 2050 on food systems, yields, biodiversity conservation and political stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, Karl-Heinz; Haberl, Helmut; Plutzar, Christoph

    2012-08-01

    The future bioenergy crop potential depends on (1) changes in the food system (food demand, agricultural technology), (2) political stability and investment security, (3) biodiversity conservation, (4) avoidance of long carbon payback times from deforestation, and (5) energy crop yields. Using a biophysical biomass-balance model, we analyze how these factors affect global primary bioenergy potentials in 2050. The model calculates biomass supply and demand balances for eleven world regions, eleven food categories, seven food crop types and two livestock categories, integrating agricultural forecasts and scenarios with a consistent global land use and NPP database. The TREND scenario results in a global primary bioenergy potential of 77 EJ/yr, alternative assumptions on food-system changes result in a range of 26-141 EJ/yr. Exclusion of areas for biodiversity conservation and inaccessible land in failed states reduces the bioenergy potential by up to 45%. Optimistic assumptions on future energy crop yields increase the potential by up to 48%, while pessimistic assumptions lower the potential by 26%. We conclude that the design of sustainable bioenergy crop production policies needs to resolve difficult trade-offs such as food vs. energy supply, renewable energy vs. biodiversity conservation or yield growth vs. reduction of environmental problems of intensive agriculture.

  11. Variability of Pinus halepensis Mill. Essential Oils and Their Antioxidant Activities Depending on the Stage of Growth During Vegetative Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djerrad, Zineb; Djouahri, Abderrahmane; Kadik, Leila

    2017-04-01

    The impact of growth stages during vegetative cycle (B 0  - B 5 ) on chemical composition and antioxidant activities of Pinus halepensis Mill. needles essential oils was investigated for the first time. GC and GC/MS analyses pointed to a quantitative variability of components; terpene hydrocarbons derivatives, represented by α-pinene (8.5 - 12.9%), myrcene (17.5 - 21.6%), p-cymene (7.9 - 11.9%) and (Z)-β-caryophyllene (17.3 - 21.2%) as major components, decreased from 88.9% at B 0 growth stage to 66.9% at B 5 growth stage, whereas oxygenated derivatives, represented by caryophyllene oxide (5.4 - 12.6%) and terpinen-4-ol (0.4 - 3.3%) as major components, increased from 7% at B 0 growth stage to 28.4% at B 5 growth stage. Furthermore, our findings showed that essential oil of P. halepensis needles collected at B 5 growth stage possess higher antioxidant activities by four different testing systems than those collected at B 0  - B 4 growth stages. This highlighted variability led to conclude that we should select essential oils to be investigated carefully depending on growth stage, in order to have the highest effectiveness of essential oil in terms of biological activities for human health purposes. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  12. Influence of Flow Sequencing Attributed to Climate Change and Climate Variability on the Assessment of Water-dependent Ecosystem Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Nathan, R.; Horne, A.

    2017-12-01

    Traditional approaches to characterize water-dependent ecosystem outcomes in response to flow have been based on time-averaged hydrological indicators, however there is increasing recognition for the need to characterize ecological processes that are highly dependent on the sequencing of flow conditions (i.e. floods and droughts). This study considers the representation of flow regimes when considering assessment of ecological outcomes, and in particular, the need to account for sequencing and variability of flow. We conducted two case studies - one in the largely unregulated Ovens River catchment and one in the highly regulated Murray River catchment (both located in south-eastern Australia) - to explore the importance of flow sequencing to the condition of a typical long-lived ecological asset in Australia, the River Red Gum forests. In the first, the Ovens River case study, the implications of representing climate change using different downscaling methods (annual scaling, monthly scaling, quantile mapping, and weather generator method) on the sequencing of flows and resulting ecological outcomes were considered. In the second, the Murray River catchment, sequencing within a historic drought period was considered by systematically making modest adjustments on an annual basis to the hydrological records. In both cases, the condition of River Red Gum forests was assessed using an ecological model that incorporates transitions between ecological conditions in response to sequences of required flow components. The results of both studies show the importance of considering how hydrological alterations are represented when assessing ecological outcomes. The Ovens case study showed that there is significant variation in the predicted ecological outcomes when different downscaling techniques are applied. Similarly, the analysis in the Murray case study showed that the drought as it historically occurred provided one of the best possible outcomes for River Red Gum

  13. Strain-dependent augmentation of tight-junction barrier function in human primary epidermal keratinocytes by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium lysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Reshma; McBain, Andrew J; O'Neill, Catherine A

    2013-08-01

    In this study, we investigated whether probiotic lysates can modify the tight-junction function of human primary keratinocytes. The keratinocytes were grown on cell culture inserts and treated with lysates from Bifidobacterium longum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus fermentum, or Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. With the exception of L. fermentum (which decreased cell viability), all strains markedly enhanced tight-junction barrier function within 24 h, as assessed by measurements of transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER). However, B. longum and L. rhamnosus GG were the most efficacious, producing dose-dependent increases in resistance that were maintained for 4 days. These increases in TEER correlated with elevated expression of tight-junction protein components. Neutralization of Toll-like receptor 2 abolished both the increase in TEER and expression of tight-junction proteins induced by B. longum, but not L. rhamnosus GG. These data suggest that some bacterial strains increase tight-junction function via modulation of protein components but the different pathways involved may vary depending on the bacterial strain.

  14. Expressive writing for high-risk drug dependent patients in a primary care clinic: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wedgwood Lucinda

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has shown that expressive writing is beneficial in terms of both physical and emotional health outcomes. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness and acceptability of a brief expressive writing intervention for high-risk drug dependent patients in a primary care clinic, and to determine the relationship between linguistic features of writing and health outcomes. Methods Participants completed four 15-minute expressive writing tasks over a week, in which they described their thoughts and feelings about a recent stressful event. Self-report measures of physical (SF-12 and psychological health (DASS-21 were administered at baseline and at a two-week follow-up. Fifty-three participants were recruited and 14 (26% completed all measures. Results No statistically significant benefits in physical or psychological health were found, although all outcomes changed in the direction of improvement. The intervention was well-received and was rated as beneficial by participants. The use of more positive emotion words in writing was associated with improvements in depression and stress, and flexibility in first person pronoun use was associated with improvements in anxiety. Increasing use of cognitive process words was associated with worsening depressive mood. Conclusion Although no significant benefits in physical and psychological health were found, improvements in psychological wellbeing were associated with certain writing styles and expressive writing was deemed acceptable by high-risk drug dependent patients. Given the difficulties in implementing psychosocial interventions in this population, further research using a larger sample is warranted.

  15. Economic burden associated with alcohol dependence in a German primary care sample: a bottom-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Manthey

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A considerable economic burden has been repeatedly associated with alcohol dependence (AD – mostly calculated using aggregate data and alcohol-attributable fractions (top-down approach. However, this approach is limited by a number of assumptions, which are hard to test. Thus, cost estimates should ideally be validated with studies using individual data to estimate the same costs (bottom-up approach. However, bottom-up studies on the economic burden associated with AD are lacking. Our study aimed to fill this gap using the bottom-up approach to examine costs for AD, and also stratified the results by the following subgroups: sex, age, diagnostic approach and severity of AD, as relevant variations could be expected by these factors. Methods Sample: 1356 primary health care patients, representative for two German regions. AD was diagnosed by a standardized instrument and treating physicians. Individual costs were calculated by combining resource use and productivity data representing a period of six months prior to the time of interview, with unit costs derived from the literature or official statistics. The economic burden associated with AD was determined via excess costs by comparing utilization of various health care resources and impaired productivity between people with and without AD, controlling for relevant confounders. Additional analyses for several AD characteristics were performed. Results Mean costs among alcohol dependent patients were 50 % higher compared to the remaining patients, resulting in 1836 € excess costs per alcohol dependent patient in 6 months. More than half of these excess costs incurred through increased productivity loss among alcohol dependent patients. Treatment for alcohol problems represents only 6 % of these costs. The economic burden associated with AD incurred mainly among males and among 30 to 49 year old patients. Both diagnostic approaches were significantly related to the

  16. Anodal tDCS over the Primary Motor Cortex Facilitates Long-Term Memory Formation Reflecting Use-Dependent Plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orjon Rroji

    Full Text Available Previous research suggests that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS over the primary motor cortex (M1 modulates NMDA receptor dependent processes that mediate synaptic plasticity. Here we test this proposal by applying anodal versus sham tDCS while subjects practiced to flex the thumb as fast as possible (ballistic movements. Repetitive practice of this task has been shown to result in performance improvements that reflect use-dependent plasticity resulting from NMDA receptor mediated, long-term potentiation (LTP-like processes. Using a double-blind within-subject cross-over design, subjects (n=14 participated either in an anodal or a sham tDCS session which were at least 3 months apart. Sham or anodal tDCS (1 mA was applied for 20 min during motor practice and retention was tested 30 min, 24 hours and one week later. All subjects improved performance during each of the two sessions (p < 0.001 and learning gains were similar. Our main result is that long term retention performance (i.e. 1 week after practice was significantly better when practice was performed with anodal tDCS than with sham tDCS (p < 0.001. This effect was large (Cohen's d=1.01 and all but one subject followed the group trend. Our data strongly suggest that anodal tDCS facilitates long-term memory formation reflecting use-dependent plasticity. Our results support the notion that anodal tDCS facilitates synaptic plasticity mediated by an LTP-like mechanism, which is in accordance with previous research.

  17. Inference for binomial probability based on dependent Bernoulli random variables with applications to meta‐analysis and group level studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakbergenuly, Ilyas; Morgenthaler, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    We study bias arising as a result of nonlinear transformations of random variables in random or mixed effects models and its effect on inference in group‐level studies or in meta‐analysis. The findings are illustrated on the example of overdispersed binomial distributions, where we demonstrate considerable biases arising from standard log‐odds and arcsine transformations of the estimated probability p^, both for single‐group studies and in combining results from several groups or studies in meta‐analysis. Our simulations confirm that these biases are linear in ρ, for small values of ρ, the intracluster correlation coefficient. These biases do not depend on the sample sizes or the number of studies K in a meta‐analysis and result in abysmal coverage of the combined effect for large K. We also propose bias‐correction for the arcsine transformation. Our simulations demonstrate that this bias‐correction works well for small values of the intraclass correlation. The methods are applied to two examples of meta‐analyses of prevalence. PMID:27192062

  18. HEART RATE VARIABILITY PARAMETERS IN PATIENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION IN DEPENDENCE ON THE TYPE OF DAILY BLOOD PRESSURE PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. B. K. Gorantla

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Violation of functioning of the autonomic nervous system is an important factor in the formation and progression of arterial hypertension (AH. Abnormal nocturnal blood pressure (BP reduction is regarded as an independent prognostic factor for cardiovascular complications in patients with AH. One of the possible factors that determine the violation of BP circadian rhythm can be imbalance of different parts of autonomic nervous system. The aim of our study was to study heart rate variability (HRV in patients with AH, dependently of BP profile. 72 patients with AH were examined. Average age was 57 ± 11 years. All patients underwent ambulatory BP (ABPM and ECG monitoring. To define the daily profile the nocturnal BP dip was quantified and for HRV evaluation the frequency analysis method was used. HRV changes in patients with AH present with reduced total power and with a violation in the ratio of the powers of very low, low and high frequencies, enhanced sympathycotension and influence of humoral factors. Violations of systolic BP (SBP daily profile was mainly characterized by an increase in the power of low frequency waves, which indicates an intensification of sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic influences. Violations of diastolic BP (DBP daily profile were mainly characterized by a relative increase in the power of very low frequency waves. The obtained results showed that in the management of patients with AH it is important not only to control the circadian SBP and DBP profiles, but the evaluation of HRV also.

  19. Inference for binomial probability based on dependent Bernoulli random variables with applications to meta-analysis and group level studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakbergenuly, Ilyas; Kulinskaya, Elena; Morgenthaler, Stephan

    2016-07-01

    We study bias arising as a result of nonlinear transformations of random variables in random or mixed effects models and its effect on inference in group-level studies or in meta-analysis. The findings are illustrated on the example of overdispersed binomial distributions, where we demonstrate considerable biases arising from standard log-odds and arcsine transformations of the estimated probability p̂, both for single-group studies and in combining results from several groups or studies in meta-analysis. Our simulations confirm that these biases are linear in ρ, for small values of ρ, the intracluster correlation coefficient. These biases do not depend on the sample sizes or the number of studies K in a meta-analysis and result in abysmal coverage of the combined effect for large K. We also propose bias-correction for the arcsine transformation. Our simulations demonstrate that this bias-correction works well for small values of the intraclass correlation. The methods are applied to two examples of meta-analyses of prevalence. © 2016 The Authors. Biometrical Journal Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  20. A numerical model for density-and-viscosity-dependent flows in two-dimensional variably saturated porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufadel, Michel C.; Suidan, Makram T.; Venosa, Albert D.

    1999-04-01

    We present a formulation for water flow and solute transport in two-dimensional variably saturated media that accounts for the effects of the solute on water density and viscosity. The governing equations are cast in a dimensionless form that depends on six dimensionless groups of parameters. These equations are discretized in space using the Galerkin finite element formulation and integrated in time using the backward Euler scheme with mass lumping. The modified Picard method is used to linearize the water flow equation. The resulting numerical model, the MARUN model, is verified by comparison to published numerical results. It is then used to investigate beach hydraulics at seawater concentration (about 30 g l -1) in the context of nutrients delivery for bioremediation of oil spills on beaches. Numerical simulations that we conducted in a rectangular section of a hypothetical beach revealed that buoyancy in the unsaturated zone is significant in soils that are fine textured, with low anisotropy ratio, and/or exhibiting low physical dispersion. In such situations, application of dissolved nutrients to a contaminated beach in a freshwater solution is superior to their application in a seawater solution. Concentration-engendered viscosity effects were negligible with respect to concentration-engendered density effects for the cases that we considered.

  1. The effects of precipitation variability on C4 photosynthesis, net primary production and soil respiration in a Chihuahuan desert grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michell L. Thomey

    2012-01-01

    Although the Earth's climate system has always been inherently variable, the magnitude and rate of anthropogenic climate change is subjecting ecosystems and the populations that they contain to novel environmental conditions. Because water is the most limiting resource, arid-semiarid ecosystems are likely to be highly responsive to future climate variability. The...

  2. Oxygen-Dependent Cell-to-Cell Variability in the Output of the Escherichia coli Tor Phosphorelay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggiani, Manuela; Goulian, Mark

    2015-06-15

    Escherichia coli senses and responds to trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) in the environment through the TorT-TorS-TorR signal transduction system. The periplasmic protein TorT binds TMAO and stimulates the hybrid kinase TorS to phosphorylate the response regulator TorR through a phosphorelay. Phosphorylated TorR, in turn, activates transcription of the torCAD operon, which encodes the proteins required for anaerobic respiration via reduction of TMAO to trimethylamine. Interestingly, E. coli respires TMAO in both the presence and absence of oxygen, a behavior that is markedly different from the utilization of other alternative electron acceptors by this bacterium. Here we describe an unusual form of regulation by oxygen for this system. While the average level of torCAD transcription is the same for aerobic and anaerobic cultures containing TMAO, the behavior across the population of cells is strikingly different under the two growth conditions. Cellular levels of torCAD transcription in aerobic cultures are highly heterogeneous, in contrast to the relatively homogeneous distribution in anaerobic cultures. Thus, oxygen regulates the variance of the output but not the mean for the Tor system. We further show that this oxygen-dependent variability stems from the phosphorelay. Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is utilized by numerous bacteria as an electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration. In E. coli, expression of the proteins required for TMAO respiration is tightly regulated by a signal transduction system that is activated by TMAO. Curiously, although oxygen is the energetically preferred electron acceptor, TMAO is respired even in the presence of oxygen. Here we describe an interesting and unexpected form of regulation for this system in which oxygen produces highly variable expression of the TMAO utilization proteins across a population of cells without affecting the mean expression of these proteins. To our knowledge, this is the first reported example of a stimulus

  3. Efavirenz and 8-hydroxyefavirenz induce cell death via a JNK- and BimEL-dependent mechanism in primary human hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bumpus, Namandje N., E-mail: nbumpus1@jhmi.edu

    2011-12-15

    Chronic use of efavirenz (EFV) has been linked to incidences of hepatotoxicity in patients receiving EFV to treat HIV-1. While recent studies have demonstrated that EFV stimulates hepatic cell death a role for the metabolites of efavirenz in this process has yet to be examined. In the present study, incubation of primary human hepatocytes with synthetic 8-hydroxyEFV (8-OHEFV), which is the primary metabolite of EFV, resulted in cell death, caspase-3 activation and reactive oxygen species formation. The metabolite exerted these effects at earlier time points and using lower concentrations than were required for the parent compound. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of cytochrome P450-dependent metabolism of EFV using 1-aminobenzotriazole markedly decreased reactive oxygen species formation and cell death. Treatment of primary human hepatocytes with EFV and 8-OHEFV also stimulated phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) as well as phosphorylation of the JNK substrate c-Jun. Further, the mRNA and protein expression of an isoform of Bim (Bcl-2 interacting mediator of cell death) denoted as BimEL, which is proapoptotic and has been shown to be modulated by JNK, was increased. Inhibition of JNK using SP600125 prevented the EFV- and 8-OHEFV-mediated cell death. Silencing of Bim using siRNA transfected into hepatocytes also prevented cell death resulting from 8-OHEFV-treatment. These data suggest that the oxidative metabolite 8-OHEFV is a more potent inducer of hepatic cell death than the parent compound EFV. Further, activation of the JNK signaling pathway and BimEL mRNA expression appear to be required for EFV- and 8-OHEFV-mediated hepatocyte death. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 8-Hydroxyefavirenz is a more potent stimulator of cell death than efavirenz. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Efavirenz and 8-hydroxyefavirenz increase JNK activity and BimEL mRNA expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer JNK and Bim are required for efavirenz- and 8

  4. Menopausal status dependence of the timing of breast cancer recurrence after surgical removal of the primary tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demicheli, Romano; Bonadonna, Gianni; Hrushesky, William JM; Retsky, Michael W; Valagussa, Pinuccia

    2004-01-01

    Information on the metastasis process in breast cancer patients undergoing primary tumour removal may be extracted from an analysis of the timing of clinical recurrence. The hazard rate for local-regional and/or distant recurrence as the first event during the first 4 years after surgery was studied in 1173 patients undergoing mastectomy alone as primary treatment for operable breast cancer. Subset analyses were performed according to tumour size, axillary nodal status and menopausal status. A sharp two-peaked hazard function was observed for node-positive pre-menopausal patients, whereas results from node-positive post-menopausal women always displayed a single broad peak. The first narrow peak among pre-menopausal women showed a very steep rise to a maximum about 8–10 months after mastectomy. The second peak was considerably broader, reaching its maximum at 28–30 months. Post-menopausal patients displayed a wide, nearly symmetrical peak with maximum risk at about 18–20 months. Peaks displayed increasing height with increasing axillary lymph node involvement. No multi-peaked pattern was evident for either pre-menopausal or post-menopausal node-negative patients; however, this finding should be considered cautiously because of the limited number of events. Tumour size influenced recurrence risk but not its timing. Findings resulting from the different subsets of patients were remarkably coherent and each observed peak maintained the same position on the time axis in all analysed subsets. The risk of early recurrence for node positive patients is dependent on menopausal status. The amount of axillary nodal involvement and the tumour size modulate the risk value at any given time. For pre-menopausal node-positive patients, the abrupt increase of the first narrow peak of the recurrence risk suggests a triggering event that synchronises early risk. We suggest that this event is the surgical removal of the primary tumour. The later, broader, more symmetrical risk

  5. Late holocene primary productivity and sea surface temperature variations in the northeastern Arabian Sea: Implications for winter monsoon variability.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Boll, A.; Luckge, A.; Munz, P.; Forke, S.; Schulz, H.; Ramaswamy, V.; Rixen, T.; Gaye, B.; Emeis, K.-C.

    changes in winter monsoon strength with winds from the northeast that drive convective mixing and high surface ocean productivity in the northeastern Arabian Sea. To establish a high-resolution record of winter monsoon variability for the late Holocene, we...

  6. Modeling the Response of Primary Production and Sedimentation to Variable Nitrate Loading in the Mississippi River Plume

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Green, Rebecca E; Breed, Greg A; Dagg, Michael J; Lohrenz, Steven E

    2008-01-01

    ...% reduction in annual nitrogen discharge into the Gulf of Mexico. We developed an ecosystem model for the Mississippi River plume to investigate the response of organic matter production and sedimentation to variable nitrate loading...

  7. Diurnal and seasonal variability in size-dependent atmospheric deposition fluxes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in an urban center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Bao-Zhong; Li, Shao-Meng; Zhang, Lei-Ming; Staebler, Ralf; Zeng, Eddy Y.

    2012-09-01

    Atmospheric gaseous and size-segregated particle samples were collected from urban Guangzhou at the heights of 100 and 150 m above the ground in daytime and at night in August and December 2010, and were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Particulate PAHs were more abundant at night than in daytime, and significantly higher in winter than in summer. The observed vertical, diurnal, and seasonal variability in the occurrences of PAH were attributed to varying meteorological conditions and atmospheric boundary layers. More than 60% of the particulate PAHs were contained in particles in the accumulation mode with an aerodynamic diameter (Dp) in the range of 0.1-1.8 μm. Different mass transfer velocities by volatilization and condensation are considered the main causes for the different particle size distributions among individual PAHs, while combustion at different temperatures and atmospheric transport were probable causes of the observed seasonal variation in the size distribution of PAHs. Based on the modeled size-dependent dry deposition velocities, daily mean dry deposition fluxes of particulate PAHs ranged from 604 to 1190 ng m-2 d-1, with PAHs in coarse particles (Dp > 1.8 μm) accounting for 55-95% of the total fluxes. In addition, gaseous PAHs were estimated to contribute 0.6-3.1% to the total dry deposition fluxes if a conservative dry deposition velocity for gaseous species (2 × 10-4 m s-1) were used. Finally, disequilibrium phase partitioning, meteorological conditions and atmospheric transport were regarded as the main reasons for the variances in dry deposition velocities of individual PAHs.

  8. Temperature-dependent, behavioural, and transcriptional variability of a tritrophic interaction consisting of bean, herbivorous mite, and predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Rika; Nishimura, Osamu; Yazawa, Shigenobu; Muroi, Atsushi; Takabayashi, Junji; Arimura, Gen-ichiro

    2012-11-01

    Different organisms compensate for, and adapt to, environmental changes in different ways. In this way, environmental changes affect animal-plant interactions. In this study, we assessed the effect of temperature on a tritrophic system of the lima bean, the herbivorous spider mite Tetranychus urticae and the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. In this system, the plant defends itself against T. urticae by emitting volatiles that attract P. persimilis. Over 20-40 °C, the emission of volatiles by infested plants and the subsequent attraction of P. persimilis peaked at 30 °C, but the number of eggs laid by T. urticae adults and the number of eggs consumed by P. persimilis peaked at 35 °C. This indicates that the spider mites and predatory mites performed best at a higher temperature than that at which most volatile attractants were produced. Our data from transcriptome pyrosequencing of the mites found that P. persimilis up-regulated gene families for heat shock proteins (HSPs) and ubiquitin-associated proteins, whereas T. urticae did not. RNA interference-mediated gene suppression in P. persimilis revealed differences in temperature responses. Predation on T. urticae eggs by P. persimilis that had been fed PpHsp70-1 dsRNA was low at 35 °C but not at 25 °C when PpHsp70-1 expression was very high. Overall, our molecular and behavioural approaches revealed that the mode and tolerance of lima bean, T. urticae and P. persimilis are distinctly affected by temperature variability, thereby making their tritrophic interactions temperature dependent. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Systematic Multi-variable H-infinity Control Design for Primary Frequency Regulation in Stand-alone Microgrids with High Penetration of Renewable Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Lam , Quang Linh; Bratcu , Antoneta Iuliana; Riu , Delphine

    2016-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, a systematic design of a robust multi-variable control structure for primary frequency regulation in microgrids with high rate of renewable source penetration is proposed. The considered microgrid represents a diesel-photovoltaic-supercapacitor hybrid power generation system operating in stand-alone mode. The proposed control structure relies on a two-level architecture: classical PI-based current tracking controllers are placed on the low control level ...

  10. Tubulation of Class II MHC Compartments Is Microtubule Dependent and Involves Multiple Endolysosomal Membrane Proteins in Primary Dendritic Cells1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Jatin M.; Kim, You-Me; Artavanis-Tsakonas, Katerina; Love, J. Christopher; Van der Veen, Annemarthe G.; Ploegh, Hidde L.

    2009-01-01

    Immature dendritic cells (DCs) capture exogenous Ags in the periphery for eventual processing in endolysosomes. Upon maturation by TLR agonists, DCs deliver peptide-loaded class II MHC molecules from these compartments to the cell surface via long tubular structures (endolysosomal tubules). The nature and rules that govern the movement of these DC compartments are unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that the tubules contain multiple proteins including the class II MHC molecules and LAMP1, a lysosomal resident protein, as well as CD63 and CD82, members of the tetraspanin family. Endolysosomal tubules can be stained with acidotropic dyes, indicating that they are extensions of lysosomes. However, the proper trafficking of class II MHC molecules themselves is not necessary for endolysosomal tubule formation. DCs lacking MyD88 can also form endolysosomal tubules, demonstrating that MyD88-dependent TLR activation is not necessary for the formation of this compartment. Endolysosomal tubules in DCs exhibit dynamic and saltatory movement, including bidirectional travel. Measured velocities are consistent with motor-based movement along microtubules. Indeed, nocodazole causes the collapse of endolysosomal tubules. In addition to its association with microtubules, endolysosomal tubules follow the plus ends of microtubules as visualized in primary DCs expressing end binding protein 1 (EB1)-enhanced GFP. PMID:17513769

  11. Tubulation of class II MHC compartments is microtubule dependent and involves multiple endolysosomal membrane proteins in primary dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Jatin M; Kim, You-Me; Artavanis-Tsakonas, Katerina; Love, J Christopher; Van der Veen, Annemarthe G; Ploegh, Hidde L

    2007-06-01

    Immature dendritic cells (DCs) capture exogenous Ags in the periphery for eventual processing in endolysosomes. Upon maturation by TLR agonists, DCs deliver peptide-loaded class II MHC molecules from these compartments to the cell surface via long tubular structures (endolysosomal tubules). The nature and rules that govern the movement of these DC compartments are unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that the tubules contain multiple proteins including the class II MHC molecules and LAMP1, a lysosomal resident protein, as well as CD63 and CD82, members of the tetraspanin family. Endolysosomal tubules can be stained with acidotropic dyes, indicating that they are extensions of lysosomes. However, the proper trafficking of class II MHC molecules themselves is not necessary for endolysosomal tubule formation. DCs lacking MyD88 can also form endolysosomal tubules, demonstrating that MyD88-dependent TLR activation is not necessary for the formation of this compartment. Endolysosomal tubules in DCs exhibit dynamic and saltatory movement, including bidirectional travel. Measured velocities are consistent with motor-based movement along microtubules. Indeed, nocodazole causes the collapse of endolysosomal tubules. In addition to its association with microtubules, endolysosomal tubules follow the plus ends of microtubules as visualized in primary DCs expressing end binding protein 1 (EB1)-enhanced GFP.

  12. Thiol dioxygenase turnover yields benzothiazole products from 2-mercaptoaniline and O2-dependent oxidation of primary alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, William P; Sardar, Sinjinee; Thapa, Pawan; Hossain, Mohammad S; Foss, Frank W; Pierce, Brad S

    2017-10-01

    Thiol dioxygenases are non-heme mononuclear iron enzymes that catalyze the O 2 -dependent oxidation of free thiols (-SH) to produce the corresponding sulfinic acid (-SO 2 - ). Previous chemical rescue studies identified a putative Fe III -O 2 - intermediate that precedes substrate oxidation in Mus musculus cysteine dioxygenase (Mm CDO). Given that a similar reactive intermediate has been identified in the extradiol dioxygenase 2, 3-HCPD, it is conceivable that these enzymes share other mechanistic features with regard to substrate oxidation. To explore this possibility, enzymatic reactions with Mm CDO (as well as the bacterial 3-mercaptopropionic acid dioxygenase, Av MDO) were performed using a substrate analogue (2-mercaptoaniline, 2ma). This aromatic thiol closely approximates the catecholic substrate of homoprotocatechuate of 2, 3-HPCD while maintaining the 2-carbon thiol-amine separation preferred by Mm CDO. Remarkably, both enzymes exhibit 2ma-gated O 2 -consumption; however, none of the expected products for thiol dioxygenase or intra/extradiol dioxygenase reactions were observed. Instead, benzothiazoles are produced by the condensation of 2ma with aldehydes formed by an off-pathway oxidation of primary alcohols added to aqueous reactions to solubilize the substrate. The observed oxidation of 1º-alcohols in 2ma-reactions is consistent with the formation of a high-valent intermediate similar to what has been reported for cytochrome P450 and mononuclear iron model complexes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Long-term mortality after primary PCI for STEMI in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatanović Petar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Primary PCI (pPCI is the gold standard in the treatment of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI with ST elevation (STEMI. Aim: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of diabetic status upon arrival at five year survival in patients with STEMI that were treated with pPCI. Material and methods: Consecutive data for 2087 patients admitted in the period from 1st of January 2009. to 31st of December 2010. with diagnosis of acute STEMI were collected from catheterisation laboratory cardiology clinic CCS electronic database. Patients were divided into 3 groups: those without diabetes mellitus (DM, IDDM (insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, NIDDM (non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Results: 1664 patients (79.7% did not have DM, 98 (4.7% had IDDM and 325 (15.6% had NIDDM. There was a statistically significant difference in mortality rate among three groups after 30 days, one year and five years after intervention, and the highest rates were recorded at the IDDM patients, then at the NIDDM and the lowest in patients without DM (15.3% vs 8.3% vs 5.9 %, p < 0.001 after 30 days; 21.4% vs 15.4% vs 10.9%, p < 0.001 after one year and 32.7% vs 24.3% vs 18%, p < 0.001 after 5 years. Also, there was a highly statistically significant difference in five-year mortality rate between patients with and without DM (26.2 % vs 17.6%, p < 0.001. IDDM was a independent factor when it comes to predicting five-year mortality (HR = 1.58, 95% CI 1.07-2.32, p = 0.02 whereas NIDDM was not (HR = 1.24, 95% CI 0.95-1.63, p = 0.12. Conclusion: Diabetic patients had an increased risk of mortality in the short and long-term follow-up after pPCI. Insulin-dependent was a single predicting factor after five year follow-up.

  14. Variable compensation in Primary Healthcare: a report on the experience in Curitiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and Lisbon, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli Neto, Paulo; Faoro, Nilza Teresinha; Prado Júnior, José Carlos do; Pisco, Luís Augusto Coelho

    2016-05-01

    How professionals are compensated may affect how they perform their tasks. Fixed compensation may take the form of wages, payment for productivity or capitation. In addition to fixed compensation, there are numerous mechanisms for variable compensation. This article describes the experience of Curitiba and Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, and Lisbon in Portugal, using different models of performance-based compensation. In all three of these examples, management felt the need to offer monetary reward to achieve certain goals. The indicators analyzed the structure, processes and outcomes, and assessed professionals individual and as part of healthcare teams. In Lisbon, variable compensation can be as high as 40% of the base wage, while in Curitiba and Rio de Janeiro it is limited to 10%. Despite the growing use of this management tool in Brazil and the world, further studies are required to analyze the effectiveness of variable compensation.

  15. Short-Term Blood Pressure Variability Relates to the Presence of Subclinical Brain Small Vessel Disease in Primary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filomena, Josefina; Riba-Llena, Iolanda; Vinyoles, Ernest; Tovar, José L; Mundet, Xavier; Castañé, Xavier; Vilar, Andrea; López-Rueda, Antonio; Jiménez-Baladó, Joan; Cartanyà, Anna; Montaner, Joan; Delgado, Pilar

    2015-09-01

    Blood pressure (BP) variability is associated with stroke risk, but less is known about subclinical cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD). We aimed to determine whether CSVD relates to short-term BP variability independently of BP levels and also, whether they improve CSVD discrimination beyond clinical variables and office BP levels. This was a cohort study on asymptomatic hypertensives who underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging and 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring. Office and average 24-hour, daytime and nighttime BP levels, and several metrics of BP variability (SD, weighted SD, coefficient of variation, and average real variability [ARV]) were calculated. Definition of CSVD was based on the presence of lacunar infarcts and white matter hyperintensity grades. Multivariate analysis and integrated discrimination improvement were performed to assess whether BP variability and levels were independently associated with CSVD and improved its discrimination. Four hundred eighty-seven individuals participated (median age, 64; 47% women). CSVD was identified in 18.9%, related to age, male sex, diabetes mellitus, use of treatment, ambulatory BP monitoring-defined BP levels, and ARV of systolic BP at any period. The highest prevalence (33.7%) was found in subjects with both 24-hour BP levels and ARV elevated. BP levels at any period and ARV (24 hours and nocturnal) emerged as independent predictors of CSVD, and discrimination was incrementally improved although not to a clinically significant extent (integrated discrimination improvement, 5.31%, 5.17% to 5.4%). Ambulatory BP monitoring-defined BP levels and ARV of systolic BP relate to subclinical CSVD in hypertensive individuals. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. An Analysis of Some Variables Affecting the Internet Dependency Level of Turkish Adolescents by Using Decision Tree Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayri, Murat; Gunuc, Selim

    2010-01-01

    Internet dependency is going to expand into social life in wide area whereas it has been accepted as a pathological and psychological disease. Knowing the basic effects of internet dependency is an inevitable approach to use the internet technology healthy. In this study, internet dependency levels of 754 students were examined with the Internet…

  17. Analyzing Entrepreneurship Skill Levels of the 3rd Grade Primary School Students in Life Sciences Course Based on Different Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Hüseyin

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate Life Sciences course entrepreneurship skills of the 3rd grade primary school students as evaluated by their parents. The study was conducted with the screening model. The participants of the study were the parents (47 mothers and 23 fathers) of the students (32 girls, 38 boys) who study in the center of…

  18. An Investigation on the Level of Conscious Consumerism of Primary School Students in Terms of Various Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saglam, Halil Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this is study is to analyze the level of conscious consumerism of primary school students. For that purpose, a 19-item scale consisting of three sub-dimensions was developed. In order to test conduct validity and reliability, the scale was administered on 113 students studying in Sakarya. In accordance with the data obtained, an…

  19. A Qualitative Evaluation of Instructors' Exam Questions at a Primary Education Department in Terms of Certain Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Mehmet Kaan; Eryaman, Mustafa Yunus

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative research study is to analyze instructors' exam questions at a Primary Education Department in terms of the exam's period, the comprehensibility of the instructions, cognitive level, and the appropriateness to the critical thinking. This qualitative study is based on document analysis method. 100 randomly selected…

  20. Signal or noise? Separating grain size-dependent Nd isotope variability from provenance shifts in Indus delta sediments, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonell, T. N.; Li, Y.; Blusztajn, J.; Giosan, L.; Clift, P. D.

    2017-12-01

    Rare earth element (REE) radioisotope systems, such as neodymium (Nd), have been traditionally used as powerful tracers of source provenance, chemical weathering intensity, and sedimentary processes over geologic timescales. More recently, the effects of physical fractionation (hydraulic sorting) of sediments during transport have called into question the utility of Nd isotopes as a provenance tool. Is source terrane Nd provenance resolvable if sediment transport strongly induces noise? Can grain-size sorting effects be quantified? This study works to address such questions by utilizing grain size analysis, trace element geochemistry, and Nd isotope geochemistry of bulk and grain-size fractions (Pakistan. Here we evaluate how grain size effects drive Nd isotope variability and further resolve the total uncertainties associated with Nd isotope compositions of bulk sediments. Results from the Indus delta indicate bulk sediment ɛNd compositions are most similar to the <63 µm fraction as a result of strong mineralogical control on bulk compositions by silt- to clay-sized monazite and/or allanite. Replicate analyses determine that the best reproducibility (± 0.15 ɛNd points) is observed in the 125-250 µm fraction. The bulk and finest fractions display the worst reproducibility (±0.3 ɛNd points). Standard deviations (2σ) indicate that bulk sediment uncertainties are no more than ±1.0 ɛNd points. This argues that excursions of ≥1.0 ɛNd points in any bulk Indus delta sediments must in part reflect an external shift in provenance irrespective of sample composition, grain size, and grain size distribution. Sample standard deviations (2s) estimate that any terrigenous bulk sediment composition should vary no greater than ±1.1 ɛNd points if provenance remains constant. Findings from this study indicate that although there are grain-size dependent Nd isotope effects, they are minimal in the Indus delta such that resolvable provenance-driven trends can be

  1. The variability in the effect of additional education on different mathematics skills in primary school - A regression discontinuity analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartelet, D.; Haelermans, C.; Groot, W.; Maassen van den Brink, H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the variability in the effect of an additional year of education on different basic mathematical skills, which are taught to children and explicitly repeated at different points in time during elementary school. In addition, the role of child specific characteristics and the role

  2. Bimodal stimulus timing-dependent plasticity in primary auditory cortex is altered after noise exposure with and without tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basura, Gregory J; Koehler, Seth D; Shore, Susan E

    2015-12-01

    Central auditory circuits are influenced by the somatosensory system, a relationship that may underlie tinnitus generation. In the guinea pig dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), pairing spinal trigeminal nucleus (Sp5) stimulation with tones at specific intervals and orders facilitated or suppressed subsequent tone-evoked neural responses, reflecting spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP). Furthermore, after noise-induced tinnitus, bimodal responses in DCN were shifted from Hebbian to anti-Hebbian timing rules with less discrete temporal windows, suggesting a role for bimodal plasticity in tinnitus. Here, we aimed to determine if multisensory STDP principles like those in DCN also exist in primary auditory cortex (A1), and whether they change following noise-induced tinnitus. Tone-evoked and spontaneous neural responses were recorded before and 15 min after bimodal stimulation in which the intervals and orders of auditory-somatosensory stimuli were randomized. Tone-evoked and spontaneous firing rates were influenced by the interval and order of the bimodal stimuli, and in sham-controls Hebbian-like timing rules predominated as was seen in DCN. In noise-exposed animals with and without tinnitus, timing rules shifted away from those found in sham-controls to more anti-Hebbian rules. Only those animals with evidence of tinnitus showed increased spontaneous firing rates, a purported neurophysiological correlate of tinnitus in A1. Together, these findings suggest that bimodal plasticity is also evident in A1 following noise damage and may have implications for tinnitus generation and therapeutic intervention across the central auditory circuit. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Convergence Analysis of Semi-Implicit Euler Methods for Solving Stochastic Age-Dependent Capital System with Variable Delays and Random Jump Magnitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghui Du

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider semi-implicit Euler methods for stochastic age-dependent capital system with variable delays and random jump magnitudes, and investigate the convergence of the numerical approximation. It is proved that the numerical approximate solutions converge to the analytical solutions in the mean-square sense under given conditions.

  4. Predictive Models of Primary Tropical Forest Structure from Geomorphometric Variables Based on SRTM in the Tapajós Region, Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bispo, Polyanna da Conceição; Dos Santos, João Roberto; Valeriano, Márcio de Morisson; Graça, Paulo Maurício Lima de Alencastro; Balzter, Heiko; França, Helena; Bispo, Pitágoras da Conceição

    2016-01-01

    Surveying primary tropical forest over large regions is challenging. Indirect methods of relating terrain information or other external spatial datasets to forest biophysical parameters can provide forest structural maps at large scales but the inherent uncertainties need to be evaluated fully. The goal of the present study was to evaluate relief characteristics, measured through geomorphometric variables, as predictors of forest structural characteristics such as average tree basal area (BA) and height (H) and average percentage canopy openness (CO). Our hypothesis is that geomorphometric variables are good predictors of the structure of primary tropical forest, even in areas, with low altitude variation. The study was performed at the Tapajós National Forest, located in the Western State of Pará, Brazil. Forty-three plots were sampled. Predictive models for BA, H and CO were parameterized based on geomorphometric variables using multiple linear regression. Validation of the models with nine independent sample plots revealed a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 3.73 m2/ha (20%) for BA, 1.70 m (12%) for H, and 1.78% (21%) for CO. The coefficient of determination between observed and predicted values were r2 = 0.32 for CO, r2 = 0.26 for H and r2 = 0.52 for BA. The models obtained were able to adequately estimate BA and CO. In summary, it can be concluded that relief variables are good predictors of vegetation structure and enable the creation of forest structure maps in primary tropical rainforest with an acceptable uncertainty.

  5. Annual and short-term variability in primary productivity by phytoplankton and correlated abiotic factors in the Jurumirim Reservoir (São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Henry

    Full Text Available The annual variability of the photosynthetic production (PP by phytoplankton in the lacustrine zone of the Jurumirim Reservoir (São Paulo, Brazil was evaluated in a three-year study to identify recurrent patterns and their causes. Variability in PP was measured daily during two periods of the year (the dry and rainy seasons. An analysis of the PP data failed to identify a recurrent pattern, since the PP values showed no correlation with hydrological factors (rainfall, water level and discharge, and washout nor, apparently, with the water’s nutritional conditions. A principal component analysis revealed that the PP and assimilation ratio were higher when the PO4(3- and N-NH4+ contents were low and the Z EU/Z MIX ratios were at their highest. Areal primary productivity can be predicted based on the ratio between the maximum volumetric productivity and the coefficient of vertical extinction of light. However, the biomass integrated for Z EU was a poor predictor of areal primary productivity. No correlation was found between water temperature and areal and maximum volumetric productivity. Thus, the three-year PP study indicated that the variability pattern is typically chaotic. As for the short-term measurements, the PP was found to be higher in the dry season than in the rainy, although both seasons showed an areal PP variability of 35 to 40%. This pattern was attributed to the daily variation in the nutritional conditions and the magnitude of light penetrating through the water, combined with the mixing of phytoplanktonic cells. A comment about the relationship between primary production by phytoplankton and fish yield is also briefly discussed here.

  6. Cross sectional study of performance indicators for English Primary Care Trusts: testing construct validity and identifying explanatory variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilford Richard

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The performance of Primary Care Trusts in England is assessed and published using a number of different performance indicators. Our study has two broad purposes. Firstly, to find out whether pairs of indicators that purport to measure similar aspects of quality are correlated (as would be expected if they are both valid measures of the same construct. Secondly, we wanted to find out whether broad (global indicators correlated with any particular features of Primary Care Trusts, such as expenditure per capita. Methods Cross sectional quantitative analysis using data from six 2004/05 PCT performance indicators for 303 English Primary Care Trusts from four sources in the public domain: Star Rating, aggregated Quality and Outcomes Framework scores, Dr Foster mortality index, Dr Foster equity index (heart by-pass and hip replacements, NHS Litigation Authority Risk Management standards and Patient Satisfaction scores from the Star Ratings. Forward stepwise multiple regression analysis to determine the effect of Primary Care Trust characteristics on performance. Results Star Rating and Quality and Outcomes Framework total, both summary measures of global quality, were not correlated with each other (F = 0.66, p = 0.57. There were however positive correlations between Quality and Outcomes Framework total and patient satisfaction (r = 0.61, p Conclusion Performance assessment in healthcare remains on the Government's agenda, with new core and developmental standards set to replace the Star Ratings in 2006. Yet the results of this analysis provide little evidence that the current indicators have sufficient construct validity to measure the underlying concept of quality, except when the specific area of screening is considered.

  7. Spatial and seasonal variability of fractionated phytoplankton biomass and primary production in the frontal region of the Northern Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. VADRUCCI

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and seasonal patterns of variation of fractionated phytoplankton biomass and primary production and their relationships with nutrient concentrations were analyzed along an inshore - offshore gradient and in relation to the presence of a frontal system in the Northern Adriatic Sea. Sampling was carried out in winter and summer during four oceanographic cruises (June 1996 and 1997, February 1997 and 1998 as part of the PRISMA II project. Water samples for determining nutrient concentrations, phytoplankton biomass (as Chla and primary production (as 14 C assimilation were collected at five optical depths. Sampling stations were located along 2 or 4 parallel transects arranged perpendicularly to the shoreline and the frontal system. The transects were located at such a distance from the coast that the frontal system crossed them at their halfway point. Total dissolved nitrogen (TDN and total dissolved phosphorus concentrations (TDP were 12.41 ± 3 .95 mM and 0.146 ± 0 .070 mM, respectively. The values in the two seasonal periods were similar, decreasing along the inshore-offshore gradient. Values for phytoplankton biomass and primary productionwere higher in the winter than the summer cruises, and decreased, in both seasonal periods, along the inshore / offshore gradient. Moreover, in both seasonal periods, picophytoplankton dominated both biomass and productivity, (56% and 44%, respectively at stations beyond the frontal system, while microphytoplankton was more important at stations inside it (44% and 44%, respectively. Total phytoplankton biomass and primary production were directly related to nutrient concentrations. Regarding size classes, significant patterns of variation with nutrients were observed particularly for biomass. The results indicate that the size structure and function of phytoplankton guilds seem to be mediated by nutrient inflow, as well as by competitive interaction among size fractions.

  8. Time dependent analysis of assay comparability: a novel approach to understand intra- and inter-site variability over time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winiwarter, Susanne; Middleton, Brian; Jones, Barry; Courtney, Paul; Lindmark, Bo; Page, Ken M.; Clark, Alan; Landqvist, Claire

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate here a novel use of statistical tools to study intra- and inter-site assay variability of five early drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics in vitro assays over time. Firstly, a tool for process control is presented. It shows the overall assay variability but allows also the following of changes due to assay adjustments and can additionally highlight other, potentially unexpected variations. Secondly, we define the minimum discriminatory difference/ratio to support projects to understand how experimental values measured at different sites at a given time can be compared. Such discriminatory values are calculated for 3 month periods and followed over time for each assay. Again assay modifications, especially assay harmonization efforts, can be noted. Both the process control tool and the variability estimates are based on the results of control compounds tested every time an assay is run. Variability estimates for a limited set of project compounds were computed as well and found to be comparable. This analysis reinforces the need to consider assay variability in decision making, compound ranking and in silico modeling.

  9. A review of research on religious and spiritual variables in two primary gerontological nursing journals: 1991 to 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, A J; Flannelly, L T; Flannelly, K J

    2001-09-01

    All articles published between 1991 and 1997 in the Journal of Gerontological Nursing and Geriatric Nursing were classified as qualitative research, quantitative research, or non-research. Of the 784 articles reviewed, 5.1% mentioned religion or spirituality. Research articles (7.7%) were more likely than non-research articles (2.8%) to address religion and spirituality. No statistical difference was found between the percentage of qualitative (10.7%) and quantitative (6.8%) studies addressing religious and spiritual factors. The percentage of quantitative studies including religious and spiritual variables was found to be higher than that found by systematic reviews of the research literature in various health professions.

  10. Time dependence of the UV resonance lines in the cataclysmic variables SU UMa, RX And and 0623+71

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, J.A.; Drew, J.E.; Verbunt, Frank

    1990-01-01

    We present IUE observations of the dwarf novae SU UMa and RX And, and of the nova-like variable 0623 + 71. At the time of observation, SU UMa and RX And were in outburst. All three systems show variability in the wind-formed UV resonance lines of N v λ 1240, Si IV λ 1397 and C IV λ 1549 on timescale of hours. The amplitude of variation is smallest in RX And and largest in 0623 + 71. There is evidence that the variations observed in SU UMa's UV spectrum repeat on the orbital period. Our observations of SU UMa also reveal variability in the continuum flux during the decline from outburst maximum that is much more marked in the UV than at optical wavelengths. (author)

  11. Spatial variability of primary organic sources regulates ichthyofauna distribution despite seasonal influence in Terminos lagoon and continental shelf of Campeche, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo Rios, J. A.; Aguíñiga-García, S.; Sanchez, A.; Zetina-Rejón, M.; Arreguín-Sánchez, F.; Tripp-Valdéz, A.; Galeana-Cortazár, A.

    2013-05-01

    Human activities have strong impacts on coastal ecosystems functioning through their effect on primary organic sources distributions and resulting biodiversity. Hence, it appears to be of utmost importance to quantify contribution of primary producers to sediment organic matter (SOM) spatial variability and its associated ichthyofauna. The Terminos lagoon (Gulf of Mexico) is a tropical estuary severely impacted by human activities even though of primary concern for its biodiversity, its habitats, and its resource supply. Stable isotope data (d13C, d15N) from mangrove, seaweed, seagrass, phytoplankton, ichthyofauna and SOM were sampled in four zones of the lagoon and the continental shelf through windy (November to February), dry (March to June) and rainy (July to October) seasons. Stable Isotope Analysis in R (SIAR) mixing model were used to determine relative contributions of the autotrophic sources to the ichthyofauna and SOM. Analysis of variance of ichthyofauna isotopic values showed significant differences (P < 0.001) in the four zones of lagoon despite the variability introduced by the windy, dry and rainy seasons. In lagoons rivers discharge zone, the mangrove contribution to ichthyofauna was 40% and 84% to SOM. Alternative use of habitat by ichthyofauna was evidenced since in the deep area of the lagoon (4 m), the contribution of mangrove to fish is 50%, and meanwhile contribution to SOM is only 77%. Although phytoplankton (43%) and seaweed (41%) contributions to the adjacent continental shelf ichthyofauna were the main organic sources, there was 37% mangrove contribution to SOM, demonstrating conspicuous terrigenous influence from lagoon ecosystem. Our results point toward organic sources spatial variations that regulate fish distribution. In Terminos lagoon, significant correlation (p-value = 0.2141 and r=0.79) of Ariopsis felis and Sphoeroides testudineus abundances and seaweed and seagrasses contributions (30-35%) during both dry and rainy seasons

  12. Test--retest variability of Randot stereoacuity measures gathered in an unselected sample of UK primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Paul; Scally, Andrew J; Barrett, Brendan T

    2012-05-01

    To determine the test-retest reliability of the Randot stereoacuity test when used as part of vision screening in schools. Randot stereoacuity (graded-circles) and logMAR visual acuity measures were gathered in an unselected sample of 139 children (aged 4-12, mean 8.1±2.1 years) in two schools. Randot testing was repeated on two occasions (average interval between successive tests 8 days, range: 1-21 days). Three Randot scores were obtained in 97.8% of children. Randot stereoacuity improved by an average of one plate (ie, one test level) on repeat testing but was little changed when tested on the third occasion. Within-subject variability was up to three test levels on repeat testing. When stereoacuity was categorised as 'fine', 'intermediate' or 'coarse', the greatest variability was found among younger children who exhibited 'intermediate' or 'coarse'/nil stereopsis on initial testing. Whereas 90.8% of children with 'fine' stereopsis (≤50 arc-seconds) on the first test exhibited 'fine' stereopsis on both subsequent tests, only ∼16% of children with 'intermediate' (>50 but ≤140 arc-seconds) or 'coarse'/nil (≥200 arc-seconds) stereoacuity on initial testing exhibited stable test results on repeat testing. Children exhibiting abnormal stereoacuity on initial testing are very likely to exhibit a normal result when retested. The value of a single, abnormal Randot graded-circles stereoacuity measure from school screening is therefore questionable.

  13. Illicit drug use and abuse/dependence: modeling of two-stage variables using the CCC approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, A; Neale, M C; Jacobson, K C; Prescott, C A; Kendler, K S

    2005-06-01

    Drug use and abuse/dependence are stages of a complex drug habit. Most genetically informative models that are fit to twin data examine drug use and abuse/dependence independent of each other. This poses an interesting question: for a multistage process, how can we partition the factors influencing each stage specifically from the factors that are common to both stages? We used a causal-common-contingent (CCC) model to partition the common and specific influences on drug use and abuse/dependence. Data on use and abuse/dependence of cannabis, cocaine, sedatives, stimulants and any illicit drug was obtained from male and female twin pairs. CCC models were tested individually for each sex and in a sex-equal model. Our results suggest that there is evidence for additive genetic, shared environmental and unique environmental influences that are common to illicit drug use and abuse/dependence. Furthermore, we found substantial evidence for factors that were specific to abuse/dependence. Finally, sexes could be equated for all illicit drugs. The findings of this study emphasize the need for models that can partition the sources of individual differences into common and stage-specific influences.

  14. An Analysis of the Effectiveness of Supplemental Instruction: The Problem of Selection Bias and Limited Dependent Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Tyler J.; Jones, Jason

    2004-01-01

    Single equation regression models have been used rather extensively to test the effectiveness of Supplemental Instruction (SI). This approach, however, fails to account for the possibility that SI attendance and the outcome of SI attendance are jointly determined endogenous variables. Moreover, the standard approach fails to account for the fact…

  15. High-Rate Pacing Reduces Variability of Repolarization and Prevents Repolarization-Dependent Arrhythmias in Dogs With Chronic AV Block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oosterhoff, Peter; Thomsen, Morten Bækgaard; Maas, Joep N

    2010-01-01

    -term variability of repolarization (STV) as a feedback parameter of arrhythmic risk. Methods and Results: The minimal signal sampling frequency required for measuring STV was determined through computer simulation. Arrhythmogenic response to dofetilide (25 µg/kg/5minutes) was tested at two different paced heart...

  16. The Impacts of ALMA Primary Variables on Profitability An Empirical Study of Indonesian Banking (13-32

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapto Jumono

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the impact of liquidity on BEP and ROE in Indonesian banking industry. The supporting theory in this study is ALMA theory. Based on annual data for the period 2001-2014 and following purposive sampling technique, the acquired amount of sample study is 97 banks. The data is analyzed using panel data regression of GMM Arrelano Bond, as a novelty in data processing, therefore the speed of adjustment can be known. The ALMA variables such as LAR, capital, leverage, operating expenses, interest income, and CAR sensitivity have a significant effect on BEP and ROE. Meanwhile LDR, NPL, the FBI have no impact on profitability. The implication of this study is the fact that banking performance in Indonesia can be leveled up through the reduction in mortgage interest rates and increment of credit volume and FBI. Keywords: Bank,ALMA,BEP,ROE,LAR,LDR,NPL,Capital

  17. On the dependance of the ''normalized multiplicity'' of particles produced in proton-nucleus interactions on the primary energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babecki, J.

    1975-01-01

    The mean ''normalized multiplicities'' of particles produced in p-nucleus interactions: with the leading particles (R 1 ) and without them (R 2 ) were calculated from the emulsion data. The independence of R 2 of the primary energy E 0 were stated in very wide interval of E 0 from 6.2 to thousands of GeV. R 2 is approximately equal to the mean number of collisions of the primary particle in the nucleus. (author)

  18. Upper and lower solutions for BVPs on the half-line with variable coefficient and derivative depending nonlinearity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Djebali

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with a second-order nonlinear boundary value problem with a derivative depending nonlinearity and posed on the positive half-line. The derivative operator is time dependent. Upon a priori estimates and under a Nagumo growth condition, the Schauder's fixed point theorem combined with the method of upper and lower solutions on unbounded domains are used to prove existence of solutions. A uniqueness theorem is also obtained and some examples of application illustrate the obtained results.

  19. A similarity solution of time dependent MHD liquid film flow over stretching sheet with variable physical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Idrees

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An analysis is performed for the fluid dynamics incorporating the variation of viscosity and thermal conductivity on an unsteady two-dimensional free surface flow of a viscous incompressible conducting fluid taking into account the effect of a magnetic field. Surface tension quadratically vary with temperature while fluid viscosity and thermal conductivity are assumed to vary as a linear function of temperature. The boundary layer partial differential equations in cartesian coordinates are transformed into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs by similarity transformation. The developed nonlinear equations are solved analytically by Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM while numerically by using the shooting method. The Effects of natural parameters such as the variable viscosity parameter A, variable thermal conductivity parameter N, Hartmann number Ma, film Thickness, unsteadiness parameter S, Thermocapillary number M and Prandtl number Pr on the velocity and temperature profiles are investigated. The results for the surface skin friction coefficient f″(0, Nusselt number (heat flux -θ′(0 and free surface temperature θ(1 are presented graphically and in tabular form. Keywords: Variable viscosity and thermal conductivity, Thermocapillary number, Magnetic field, Thin film, Unsteady stretching surface

  20. The IL--6 dependent effect of oral warfarin in heart valve replacement patients by measuring interacting clinical and demographic variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiq, H.; Rashid, A.; Majeed, A.; Razah, S.; Asghar, I.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine an inflammatory effect of warfarin and comparing with IL-6 levels along with different demographic and clinical variables. Study Design: Quasi experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Center of Research in Experimental and Applied Medicine (CREAM), Army Medical College/National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad from Oct 2013 to Oct 2015. Material and Methods: The study design was Quasi Experimental study. Samples were collected by Non probability convenience sampling. Total 76 patients were included according to warfarin dose response in warfarin therapy patients, i.e. 32(42 percent) were taking 10mg/day of warfarin dose. Patient's demographic and clinical variables were noted i.e. age, gender, BMI, duration of therapy, INR history, hepatic, gastrointestinal and diabetic complications. Human IL-6 ELISA assay was performed. Results: The statistically significant difference was found between age groups (in years) and different levels of warfarin dose (p=0.046) along with IL-6 production. There is a negative correlation between warfarin dose and age group i.e. as age increases, the dose of warfarin decreases. Among the inter and intra-patient variability age and serum IL-6 levels were found to be statistically significant with warfarin dose response. BMI and warfarin dose were found to be weak positively correlated. Conclusion: A marked immunomodulatory response of warfarin was noted by measuring IL-6 levels. IL-6 levels retained a significant association with warfarin dose. (author)

  1. An investigation into the variables associated with length of hospital stay related to primary cleft lip and palate surgery and alveolar bone grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, N; Haers, P E

    2012-10-01

    This retrospective study evaluated variables associated with length of stay (LOS) in hospital for 406 admissions of primary cleft lip and palate and alveolus surgery between January 2007 and April 2009. Three patients were treated as day cases, 343 (84%) stayed one night, 48 (12%) stayed 2 nights and 12 (3%) stayed > 2 nights. Poisson regression analysis showed that there was no association between postoperative LOS and age, distance travelled, diagnosis and type of operation, with a p value > 0.2 for all variables. 60/406 patients stayed 2 nights or more postoperatively mostly due to poor pain control and inadequate oral intake. Patients with palate repair were more likely to have postoperative LOS > 1 night, compared to patients with lip repair, p value = 0.011. Four patients (1%), all of whom had undergone cleft palate surgery, were readmitted within 4 weeks of the operation due to respiratory obstruction or haemorrhage. Using logistic regression, evidence showed that these readmissions were related to a longer original postoperative LOS. This study shows that length of stay for primary cleft lip, palate and alveolus surgery can in most cases be limited to one night postoperatively, provided that adequate support can be provided at home. Copyright © 2012 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Association of Selected Conative Variables to Field-Dependence with Inferences for Reasoning Characteristics in Marketing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Robert L.

    A study examined the association between field-dependence and its related information processing characteristics, and educational cognitive style as a model of conative influence. Data were collected from 145 secondary marketing education students in nothern Georgia during spring 1991. Descriptive statistics, Pearson product moment correlations,…

  3. Assessment of primary school students’ level of understanding the concepts of 2nd grade life sciences course based on different variables

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    Altıntaş Gülşen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The course of Life Sciences is one of the pivot courses taught in the first three years of primary school. Ensuring children get to know their environment and gain correct information related to their problems by making them investigate their natural and socio-cultural environment as well as providing them with necessary information, skills and behaviors for environmental adaptation are among the main purposes of Life Sciences course. The concepts to be instilled in students in line with these purposes are important. Since concepts are mostly intellectual and non-physical, they can only exist tangibly through examples. This study aims to assess Primary School Students’ Level of Understanding the Concepts of 2nd Grade Life Sciences Course Based on Different Variables. 17 concepts included in the 2nd Grade Life Sciences course within the subject of School Excitement were addressed within the study, and students were requested to define and exemplify these concepts. A total of 102 students from five different primary schools of upper-middle and lower socioeconomic classes located in Manisa and Istanbul were included in the study in line with the intentional maximum diversity sample selection. The answers given by students for each concept were categorized and analyzed in terms of liking or disliking home, school, technology and the course of Life Sciences.

  4. The prescription of addiction medications after implementation of chronic care management for substance dependence in primary care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Tae Woo; Samet, Jeffrey H.; Cheng, Debbie M.; Winter, Michael R.; Kim, Theresa W.; Fitzgerald, Anna; Saitz, Richard

    2014-01-01

    People with addictive disorders commonly do not receive efficacious medications. Chronic care management (CCM) is designed to facilitate delivery of effective therapies. Using data from the CCM group in a trial testing its effectiveness for addiction (n=282), we examined factors associated with the prescription of addiction medications. Among participants with alcohol dependence, 17% (95%CI 12.0–22.1%) were prescribed alcohol dependence medications. Among those with drug dependence, 9% (95%CI 5.5–12.6%) were prescribed drug dependence medications. Among those with opioids as a substance of choice, 15% (95%CI 9.3–20.9%) were prescribed opioid agonist therapy. In contrast, psychiatric medications were prescribed to 64% (95%CI 58.2–69.4%). Absence of co-morbid drug dependence was associated with prescription of alcohol dependence medications. Lower alcohol addiction severity and recent opioid use were associated with prescription of drug dependence medications. Better understanding of infrequent prescription of addiction medications, despite a supportive clinical setting, might inform optimal approaches to delivering addiction medications. PMID:25524751

  5. Variability of photovoltaic panels efficiency depending on the value of the angle of their inclination relative to the horizon

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    Majdak Marek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to determine the relationship between the efficiency of photovoltaic panels and the value of the angle of their inclination relative to the horizon. For the purpose of experimental research have been done tests on the photovoltaic modules made of monocrystalline, polycrystalline and amorphous silicon. The experiment consisted of measurement of the voltage and current generated by photovoltaic panels at a known value of solar radiation and a specified resistance value determined by using resistor with variable value of resistance and known value of the angle of their inclination relative to the horizon.

  6. SU-F-T-113: Inherent Functional Dependence of Spinal Cord Doses of Variable Irradiated Volumes in Spine SBRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, L; Braunstein, S; Chiu, J [University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Sahgal, A [Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Spinal cord tolerance for SBRT has been recommended for the maximum point dose level or at irradiated volumes such as 0.35 mL or 10% of contoured volumes. In this study, we investigated an inherent functional relationship that associates these dose surrogates for irradiated spinal cord volumes of up to 3.0 mL. Methods: A hidden variable termed as Effective Dose Radius (EDR) was formulated based on a dose fall-off model to correlate dose at irradiated spinal cord volumes ranging from 0 mL (point maximum) to 3.0 mL. A cohort of 15 spine SBRT cases was randomly selected to derive an EDR-parameterized formula. The mean prescription dose for the studied cases was 21.0±8.0 Gy (range, 10–40Gy) delivered in 3±1 fractions with target volumes of 39.1 ± 70.6 mL. Linear regression and variance analysis were performed for the fitting parameters of variable EDR values. Results: No direct correlation was found between the dose at maximum point and doses at variable spinal cord volumes. For example, Pearson R{sup 2} = 0.643 and R{sup 2}= 0.491 were obtained when correlating the point maximum dose with the spinal cord dose at 1 mL and 3 mL, respectively. However, near perfect correlation (R{sup 2} ≥0.99) was obtained when corresponding parameterized EDRs. Specifically, Pearson R{sup 2}= 0.996 and R{sup 2} = 0.990 were obtained when correlating EDR (maximum point dose) with EDR (dose at 1 mL) and EDR(dose at 3 mL), respectively. As a result, high confidence level look-up tables were established to correlate spinal cord doses at the maximum point to any finite irradiated volumes. Conclusion: An inherent functional relationship was demonstrated for spine SBRT. Such a relationship unifies dose surrogates at variable cord volumes and proves that a single dose surrogate (e.g. point maximum dose) is mathematically sufficient in constraining the overall spinal cord dose tolerance for SBRT.

  7. Variation in pestivirus growth in testicle primary cell culture is more dependent on the individual cell donor than cattle breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Matheus N; Bauermann, Fernando V; Gómez-Romero, Ninnet; Herring, Andy D; Canal, Cláudio W; Neill, John D; Ridpath, Julia F

    2017-03-01

    The causes of bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) are multifactorial and include infection with both viral and bacterial pathogens. Host factors are also involved as different breeds of cattle appear to have different susceptibilities to BRDC. Infection with bovine pestiviruses, including bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV1), BVDV2 and 'HoBi'-like viruses, is linked to the development of BRDC. The aim of the present study was to compare the growth of different bovine pestiviruses in primary testicle cell cultures obtained from taurine, indicine and mixed taurine and indicine cattle breeds. Primary cells strains, derived from testicular tissue, were generated from three animals from each breed. Bovine pestivirus strains used were from BVDV-1a, BVDV-1b, BVDV-2a and 'HoBi'-like virus. Growth was compared by determining virus titers after one passage in primary cells. All tests were run in triplicate. Virus titers were determined by endpoint dilution and RT-qPCR. Statistical analysis was performed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by the Tukey's Multiple Comparison Test (P˂0.05). Significant differences in virus growth did not correlate with cattle breed. However, significant differences were observed between cells derived from different individuals regardless of breed. Variation in the replication of virus in primary cell strains may reflect a genetic predisposition that favors virus replication.

  8. A similarity solution of time dependent MHD liquid film flow over stretching sheet with variable physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrees, M.; Rehman, Sajid; Shah, Rehan Ali; Ullah, M.; Abbas, Tariq

    2018-03-01

    An analysis is performed for the fluid dynamics incorporating the variation of viscosity and thermal conductivity on an unsteady two-dimensional free surface flow of a viscous incompressible conducting fluid taking into account the effect of a magnetic field. Surface tension quadratically vary with temperature while fluid viscosity and thermal conductivity are assumed to vary as a linear function of temperature. The boundary layer partial differential equations in cartesian coordinates are transformed into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) by similarity transformation. The developed nonlinear equations are solved analytically by Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM) while numerically by using the shooting method. The Effects of natural parameters such as the variable viscosity parameter A, variable thermal conductivity parameter N, Hartmann number Ma, film Thickness, unsteadiness parameter S, Thermocapillary number M and Prandtl number Pr on the velocity and temperature profiles are investigated. The results for the surface skin friction coefficient f″ (0) , Nusselt number (heat flux) -θ‧ (0) and free surface temperature θ (1) are presented graphically and in tabular form.

  9. Gli2a protein localization reveals a role for Iguana/DZIP1 in primary ciliogenesis and a dependence of Hedgehog signal transduction on primary cilia in the zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Eeden Freek

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In mammalian cells, the integrity of the primary cilium is critical for proper regulation of the Hedgehog (Hh signal transduction pathway. Whether or not this dependence on the primary cilium is a universal feature of vertebrate Hedgehog signalling has remained contentious due, in part, to the apparent divergence of the intracellular transduction pathway between mammals and teleost fish. Results Here, using a functional Gli2-GFP fusion protein, we show that, as in mammals, the Gli2 transcription factor localizes to the primary cilia of cells in the zebrafish embryo and that this localization is modulated by the activity of the Hh pathway. Moreover, we show that the Igu/DZIP1protein, previously implicated in the modulation of Gli activity in zebrafish, also localizes to the primary cilium and is required for its proper formation. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate a conserved role of the primary cilium in mediating Hedgehog signalling activity across the vertebrate phylum and validate the use of the zebrafish as a representative model for the in vivo analysis of vertebrate Hedgehog signalling.

  10. Durability of immunity by hepatitis B vaccine in Japanese health care workers depends on primary response titers and durations.

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    Nori Yoshioka

    Full Text Available Health care workers (HCWs are frequently exposed to hepatitis B virus (HBV infection. The efficacy and safety of immunization with the hepatitis B (HB vaccine are well recognized, but the durability of immunity and need for booster doses in those with secondary vaccine response failure remains controversial.This was a retrospective cohort study performed at Osaka University Hospital, Japan. We examined antibodies against HB surface antigen (anti-HBs titers annually after immunization for previously non-immunized HCWs. Primary responders were categorized by their sero-positive durations as short responders (those whose anti-HBs titers declined to negative range within 3 years, and long responders (those who retained positive anti-HBs levels for 3 years and more. We re-immunized short responders with either single or 3-dose boosters, the long responders with a single booster when their titers dropped below protective levels, and examined their sero-protection rates over time thereafter.From 2001 to 2012, data of 264 HCWs with a median age of 25.3 were collected. The rate of anti-HBs positivity after primary vaccination were 93.0% after three doses (n = 229, 54.5% after two doses (n = 11, and 4.2% after a single dose (n = 24. Of 213 primary responders, the anti-HBs levels of 95 participants (44.6% fell below the protective levels, including 46 short responders and 49 long responders. HCWs with higher initial anti-HBs titers after primary vaccination had significantly longer durations of sero-positivity. For short responders, 3-dose booster vaccination induced a longer duration of anti-HBs positivity compared to a single-dose booster, whereas for long responders, a single-dose booster alone could induce prolonged anti-HBs positivity.Our preliminary data suggested that it may be useful to differentiate HB vaccine responders based on their primary response durations to maintain protective levels of anti-HBs efficiently. A randomized, prospective

  11. Increased Variability and Asymmetric Expansion of the Hippocampal Spatial Representation in a Distal Cue-Dependent Memory Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong-Beom; Lee, Inah

    2016-08-01

    Place cells in the hippocampus fire at specific positions in space, and distal cues in the environment play critical roles in determining the spatial firing patterns of place cells. Many studies have shown that place fields are influenced by distal cues in foraging animals. However, it is largely unknown whether distal-cue-dependent changes in place fields appear in different ways in a memory task if distal cues bear direct significance to achieving goals. We investigated this possibility in this study. Rats were trained to choose different spatial positions in a radial arm in association with distal cue configurations formed by visual cue sets attached to movable curtains around the apparatus. The animals were initially trained to associate readily discernible distal cue configurations (0° vs. 80° angular separation between distal cue sets) with different food-well positions and then later experienced ambiguous cue configurations (14° and 66°) intermixed with the original cue configurations. Rats showed no difficulty in transferring the associated memory formed for the original cue configurations when similar cue configurations were presented. Place field positions remained at the same locations across different cue configurations, whereas stability and coherence of spatial firing patterns were significantly disrupted when ambiguous cue configurations were introduced. Furthermore, the spatial representation was extended backward and skewed more negatively at the population level when processing ambiguous cue configurations, compared with when processing the original cue configurations only. This effect was more salient for large cue-separation conditions than for small cue-separation conditions. No significant rate remapping was observed across distal cue configurations. These findings suggest that place cells in the hippocampus dynamically change their detailed firing characteristics in response to a modified cue environment and that some of the firing

  12. Manipulation of BDNF signaling modifies the experience-dependent plasticity induced by pure tone exposure during the critical period in the primary auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anomal, Renata; de Villers-Sidani, Etienne; Merzenich, Michael M; Panizzutti, Rogerio

    2013-01-01

    Sensory experience powerfully shapes cortical sensory representations during an early developmental "critical period" of plasticity. In the rat primary auditory cortex (A1), the experience-dependent plasticity is exemplified by significant, long-lasting distortions in frequency representation after mere exposure to repetitive frequencies during the second week of life. In the visual system, the normal unfolding of critical period plasticity is strongly dependent on the elaboration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which promotes the establishment of inhibition. Here, we tested the hypothesis that BDNF signaling plays a role in the experience-dependent plasticity induced by pure tone exposure during the critical period in the primary auditory cortex. Elvax resin implants filled with either a blocking antibody against BDNF or the BDNF protein were placed on the A1 of rat pups throughout the critical period window. These pups were then exposed to 7 kHz pure tone for 7 consecutive days and their frequency representations were mapped. BDNF blockade completely prevented the shaping of cortical tuning by experience and resulted in poor overall frequency tuning in A1. By contrast, BDNF infusion on the developing A1 amplified the effect of 7 kHz tone exposure compared to control. These results indicate that BDNF signaling participates in the experience-dependent plasticity induced by pure tone exposure during the critical period in A1.

  13. Manipulation of BDNF signaling modifies the experience-dependent plasticity induced by pure tone exposure during the critical period in the primary auditory cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Anomal

    Full Text Available Sensory experience powerfully shapes cortical sensory representations during an early developmental "critical period" of plasticity. In the rat primary auditory cortex (A1, the experience-dependent plasticity is exemplified by significant, long-lasting distortions in frequency representation after mere exposure to repetitive frequencies during the second week of life. In the visual system, the normal unfolding of critical period plasticity is strongly dependent on the elaboration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, which promotes the establishment of inhibition. Here, we tested the hypothesis that BDNF signaling plays a role in the experience-dependent plasticity induced by pure tone exposure during the critical period in the primary auditory cortex. Elvax resin implants filled with either a blocking antibody against BDNF or the BDNF protein were placed on the A1 of rat pups throughout the critical period window. These pups were then exposed to 7 kHz pure tone for 7 consecutive days and their frequency representations were mapped. BDNF blockade completely prevented the shaping of cortical tuning by experience and resulted in poor overall frequency tuning in A1. By contrast, BDNF infusion on the developing A1 amplified the effect of 7 kHz tone exposure compared to control. These results indicate that BDNF signaling participates in the experience-dependent plasticity induced by pure tone exposure during the critical period in A1.

  14. Seasonal variability of primary production in a fjord ecosystem of the Chilean Patagonia: Implications for the transfer of carbon within pelagic food webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Paulina; Daneri, Giovanni; González, Humberto E.; Iriarte, Jose Luis; Tapia, Fabián J.; Lizárraga, Lorena; Sanchez, Nicolas; Pizarro, Oscar

    2011-03-01

    We characterized the seasonal cycle of productivity in Reloncaví Fjord (41°30'S), Chilean Patagonia. Seasonal surveys that included measurements of gross primary production, community respiration, bacterioplankton secondary production, and sedimentation rates along the fjord were combined with continuous records of water-column temperature variability and wind forcing, as well as satellite-derived data on regional patterns of wind stress, sea surface temperatures, and surface chlorophyll concentrations. The hydrography and perhaps fjord productivity respond to the timing and intensity of wind forcing over a larger region. Seasonal changes in the direction and intensity of winds, along with a late-winter improvement in light conditions, may determine the timing of phytoplankton blooms and potentially modulate productivity cycles in the region. Depth-integrated gross primary production estimates were higher (0.4-3.8 g C m -2 d -1) in the productive season (October, February, and May), and lower (0.1-0.2 g C m -2 d -1) in the non-productive season (August). These seasonal changes were also reflected in community respiration and bacterioplankton production rates, which ranged, respectively, from 0.3 to 4.8 g C m -2 d -1 and 0.05 to 0.4 g C m -2 d -1 during the productive and non-productive seasons and from 0.05 to 0.6 g C m -2 d -1 and 0.05 to 0.2 g C m -2 d -1 during the same two periods. We found a strong, significant correlation between gross primary production and community respiration (Spearman, r=0.95; p100%, suggesting the use of allochthonous carbon sources by bacterioplankton when the levels of gross primary production are low. Low primary production rates were associated with a greater contribution of small cells to autotrophic biomass, highlighting the importance of small-sized plankton and bacteria for carbon cycling and fluxes during the less productive winter months. Fecal pellet sedimentation was minimal during this period, also suggesting that most of

  15. Dialysis Dependence Predicts Complications, Intensive Care Unit Care, Length of Stay, and Skilled Nursing Needs in Elective Primary Total Knee and Hip Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Joseph T; Tillinghast, Kyle; Ward, Derek

    2018-07-01

    Limited data describe risks and perioperative resource needs of total joint arthroplasty (TJA) in dialysis-dependent patients. Retrospective multiple cohort analysis of dialysis-dependent American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program patients undergoing primary elective total hip and knee arthroplasty compared to non-dialysis-dependent controls from 2005 to 2015. Relative risks (RRs) of 30-day adverse events were determined by multivariate regression adjusting for baseline differences. Six hundred forty-five (0.2%) dialysis-dependent patients of 342,730 TJA patients were dialysis-dependent and more likely to be dependent, under weight, anemic, hypoalbuminemic, and have cardiopulmonary disease. In total hip arthroplasty patients, dialysis was associated with greater risk of any adverse event (RR = 1.1, P care unit (ICU) care (RR = 9.8, P total knee arthroplasty patients, dialysis conferred greater risk of any adverse event (RR = 1.1, P care (RR = 6.0, P care, longer admission, and rehabilitation needs in TJA patients. Thirty days is not sufficient to detect infectious complications among these patients. These findings inform shared decision-making, perioperative resource planning, and risk adjustment under alternative reimbursement models. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Optimization of the Method of Active Ingredients Adding to the Base of Medicinal Films Depending on Certain Variables

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    L. L. Davtian

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of variables of pharmaceutical factors on the technological processes of drugs manufacturing is incredibly important. Thus, in the development of a new drug in the form of medicinal films, the relevance and necessity of determining the effect of the methods of active substances adding on the effectiveness of the drug was determined. The aim is rationalization of the method of the active pharmaceutical ingredients adding into the composition of the developed drug. Materials and methods. As experimental samples we used medicinal films, which were made using various methods of active ingredients adding. The quality of the samples was evaluated by the antimicrobial activity against Clostridium sporogenes and Staphylococcus aureus, which was determined by the diffusion method in agar. Results. The study of the antimicrobial activity of medicinal films with various methods of active ingredients adding showed that the adding of metronidazole as an aqueous solution increases the antimicrobial activity of the films by 21.23%, 16.89%, 28.59%, respectively, compared with films of similar composition, in which metronidazole was added as a suspension, and the remaining ingredients were added by the same way. The introduction of chlorhexidine bigluconate and glucosamine hydrochloride in the film-forming solution lastly together with the solution of metronidazole increases the antimicrobial activity by 24.67%, which is probably due to the absence of contact between thermolabile ingredients and solutions of film-forming substances having a high dissolution temperature. Conclusions. The most rational is adding of metronidazole to the medicinal films in the form of a 0.01% aqueous solution in a mixture with the chlorhexidine bigluconate and glucosamine hydrochloride solution to the final film-forming solution.

  17. Intraspecies Variability Affects Heterotypic Biofilms of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia: Evidences of Strain-Dependence Biofilm Modulation by Physical Contact and by Released Soluble Factors.

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    Graziela Murta Barbosa

    Full Text Available It is well known that strain and virulence diversity exist within the population structure of Porphyromonas gingivalis. In the present study we investigate intra- and inter-species variability in biofilm formation of Porphyromonas gingivalis and partners Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens. All strains tested showed similar hydrophobicity, except for P. gingivalis W83 which has roughly half of the hydrophobicity of P. gingivalis ATCC33277. An intraspecies variability in coaggregation of P. gingivalis with P. intermedia was also found. The association P. gingivalis W83/P. intermedia 17 produced the thickest biofilm and strain 17 was prevalent. In a two-compartment system P. gingivalis W83 stimulates an increase in biomass of strain 17 and the latter did not stimulate the growth of P. gingivalis W83. In addition, P. gingivalis W83 also stimulates the growth of P. intermedia ATCC25611 although strain W83 was prevalent in the association with P. intermedia ATCC25611. P. gingivalis ATCC33277 was prevalent in both associations with P. intermedia and both strains of P. intermedia stimulate the growth of P. gingivalis ATCC33277. FISH images also showed variability in biofilm structure. Thus, the outcome of the association P. gingivalis/P. intermedia seems to be strain-dependent, and both soluble factors and physical contact are relevant. The association P. gingivalis-P. nigrescens ATCC33563 produced larger biomass than each monotypic biofilm, and P. gingivalis was favored in consortia, while no differences were found in the two-compartment system. Therefore, in consortia P. gingivalis-P. nigrescens physical contact seems to favor P. gingivalis growth. The intraspecies variability found in our study suggests strain-dependence in ability of microorganisms to recognize molecules in other bacteria which may further elucidate the dysbiosis event during periodontitis development giving additional explanation for periodontal bacteria, such as P

  18. Intraspecies Variability Affects Heterotypic Biofilms of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia: Evidences of Strain-Dependence Biofilm Modulation by Physical Contact and by Released Soluble Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Graziela Murta; Colombo, Andrea Vieira; Rodrigues, Paulo Henrique; Simionato, Maria Regina Lorenzetti

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that strain and virulence diversity exist within the population structure of Porphyromonas gingivalis. In the present study we investigate intra- and inter-species variability in biofilm formation of Porphyromonas gingivalis and partners Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens. All strains tested showed similar hydrophobicity, except for P. gingivalis W83 which has roughly half of the hydrophobicity of P. gingivalis ATCC33277. An intraspecies variability in coaggregation of P. gingivalis with P. intermedia was also found. The association P. gingivalis W83/P. intermedia 17 produced the thickest biofilm and strain 17 was prevalent. In a two-compartment system P. gingivalis W83 stimulates an increase in biomass of strain 17 and the latter did not stimulate the growth of P. gingivalis W83. In addition, P. gingivalis W83 also stimulates the growth of P. intermedia ATCC25611 although strain W83 was prevalent in the association with P. intermedia ATCC25611. P. gingivalis ATCC33277 was prevalent in both associations with P. intermedia and both strains of P. intermedia stimulate the growth of P. gingivalis ATCC33277. FISH images also showed variability in biofilm structure. Thus, the outcome of the association P. gingivalis/P. intermedia seems to be strain-dependent, and both soluble factors and physical contact are relevant. The association P. gingivalis-P. nigrescens ATCC33563 produced larger biomass than each monotypic biofilm, and P. gingivalis was favored in consortia, while no differences were found in the two-compartment system. Therefore, in consortia P. gingivalis-P. nigrescens physical contact seems to favor P. gingivalis growth. The intraspecies variability found in our study suggests strain-dependence in ability of microorganisms to recognize molecules in other bacteria which may further elucidate the dysbiosis event during periodontitis development giving additional explanation for periodontal bacteria, such as P. gingivalis and P

  19. Variability in prescription drug expenditures explained by adjusted clinical groups (ACG case-mix: A cross-sectional study of patient electronic records in primary care

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    Serrat Josep

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In view of rapidly increasing prescription costs, case-mix adjustment should be considered for effective control of costs. We have estimated the variability in pharmacy costs explained by ACG in centers using patient electronic records, profiled centers and physicians and analyzed the correlation between cost and quality of prescription. Methods We analyzed 65,630 patient records attending five primary care centers in Spain during 2005. Variables explored were age, gender, registered diagnosed episodes of care during 2005, total cost of prescriptions, physician and center. One ACG was assigned to each patient with ACG case-mix software version 7.1. In a two-part model, logistic regression was used to explain the incurrence of drug expenditure at the first stage and a linear mixed model that considered the multilevel structure of data modeled the cost, conditional upon incurring any expense. Risk and efficiency indexes in pharmacy cost adjusted for ACG were obtained for centers and physicians. Spearman rank correlation between physician expenditure, adjusted for ACG, and a prescription quality index was also obtained. Pediatric and adult data were analyzed separately. Results No prescription was recorded for 13% of adults and 39.6% of children. The proportion of variance of the incurrence of expenditure explained by ACGs was 0.29 in adults and 0.21 in children. For adults with prescriptions, the variance of cost explained by ACGs was 35.4%, by physician-center was 1.8% and age 10.5% (residual 52.3%. For children, ACGs explained 22.4% of cost and physician-center 10.9% (residual 66.7%. Center efficiency index for adults ranged 0.58 to 1.22 and for children 0.32 to 2.36. Spearman correlation between expenditure and prescription quality index was -0.36 in family physicians (p = 0.019, N = 41 and -0.52 in pediatricians (p = 0.08, N = 12. Conclusion In our setting, ACG is the variable studied that explains more variability in

  20. Alcohol in Primary Care. Differential characteristics between alcohol-dependent patients who are receiving or not receiving treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrio, Pablo; Miquel, Laia; Moreno-España, Jose; Martínez, Alicia; Ortega, Lluisa; Teixidor, Lidia; Manthey, Jakob; Rehm, Jürgen; Gual, Antoni

    2016-03-02

    primary health care services for other reasons. The aim of the present study is to describe the differential characteristics of AD patients in primary care, distinguishing between those who receive treatment and those who do not, and their reasons for not seeking it. In a cross-sectional study patients were evaluated by their general practitioner (GP) and interviewed by a member of the research team. Sociodemographic, diagnostic and clinical data were collected. From 1,372 patients interviewed in Catalonia, 118 (8.6%) were diagnosed as AD. These patients showed a lower socioeconomic status (48.3% vs 33.3%, odds ratio 2.02), higher unemployment rates (32.2% vs 19.2 %, odds ratio 2.11), and greater psychological distress and disability. Patients with AD receiving treatment (16.9%), were older (44 vs 36 years of age), reported higher unemployment rates (66% vs 25.5%, odds ratio 6.32) and higher daily alcohol consumption (61.5 vs 23.7 grams), suggesting a more advanced disease. Patients with AD in general showed a higher degree of comorbidity compared to other patients, with patients in treatment showing the most elevated level. The main reasons given for not seeking treatment were shame, fear of giving up drinking and barriers to treatment. Taken together, the data suggest the need to implement earlier strategies for the detection and treatment of AD.

  1. Systematic spatial bias in DNA microarray hybridization is caused by probe spot position-dependent variability in lateral diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steger, Doris; Berry, David; Haider, Susanne; Horn, Matthias; Wagner, Michael; Stocker, Roman; Loy, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The hybridization of nucleic acid targets with surface-immobilized probes is a widely used assay for the parallel detection of multiple targets in medical and biological research. Despite its widespread application, DNA microarray technology still suffers from several biases and lack of reproducibility, stemming in part from an incomplete understanding of the processes governing surface hybridization. In particular, non-random spatial variations within individual microarray hybridizations are often observed, but the mechanisms underpinning this positional bias remain incompletely explained. This study identifies and rationalizes a systematic spatial bias in the intensity of surface hybridization, characterized by markedly increased signal intensity of spots located at the boundaries of the spotted areas of the microarray slide. Combining observations from a simplified single-probe block array format with predictions from a mathematical model, the mechanism responsible for this bias is found to be a position-dependent variation in lateral diffusion of target molecules. Numerical simulations reveal a strong influence of microarray well geometry on the spatial bias. Reciprocal adjustment of the size of the microarray hybridization chamber to the area of surface-bound probes is a simple and effective measure to minimize or eliminate the diffusion-based bias, resulting in increased uniformity and accuracy of quantitative DNA microarray hybridization.

  2. Intraseasonal variability of upper-ocean currents and photosynthetic primary production along the U.S. west coast associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, B.; Davies, A. R.; Steppe, C. N.; Hackbarth, C.

    2017-12-01

    In the first part of this study, time-lagged composites of upper-ocean currents from February to May of 1993-2016 were binned by active phase of the leading atmospheric mode of intraseasonal variability, the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). Seven days after the convectively active phase of the MJO enters the tropical Indian Ocean, anomalously strong south-southeastward upper-ocean currents are observed along the majority of U.S. west coast. Seven days after the convectively active phase enters the tropical western Pacific Ocean, upper-ocean current anomalies reverse along the U.S. west coast, with weaker southward flow. A physical pathway to the ocean was found for both of these: (a) tropical MJO convection modulates upper-tropospheric heights and circulation over the Pacific Ocean; (b) those anomalous atmospheric heights adjust the strength and position of the Aleutian Low and Hawaiian High; (c) surface winds change in response to the adjusted atmospheric pressure patterns; and (d) those surface winds project onto upper-ocean currents. In the second part of this study, we investigated if the MJO modulated intraseasonal variability of surface wind forcing and upper-ocean currents projected onto phytoplankton abundance along the U.S. west coast. Following a similar methodology, time-lagged, level 3 chlorophyll-a satellite products (a proxy for photosynthetic primary production) were binned by active MJO phase and analyzed for statistical significance using the Student's t test. Results suggest that intraseasonal variability of biological production along the U.S. west coast may be linked to the MJO, particularly since the time scale of the life cycle of phytoplankton is similar to the time scale of the MJO.

  3. Anomalous Distributions of Primary Cosmic Rays as Evidence for Time-dependent Particle Acceleration in Supernova Remnants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yiran; Liu, Siming; Yuan, Qiang, E-mail: liusm@pmo.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2017-07-20

    Recent precise measurements of cosmic-ray (CR) spectra show that the energy distribution of protons is softer than those of heavier nuclei, and there are spectral hardenings for all nuclear compositions above ∼200 GV. Models proposed for these anomalies generally assume steady-state solutions of the particle acceleration process. We show that if the diffusion coefficient has a weak dependence on the particle rigidity near shock fronts of supernova remnants (SNRs), time-dependent solutions of the linear diffusive shock acceleration at two stages of SNR evolution can naturally account for these anomalies. The high-energy component of CRs is dominated by acceleration in the free expansion and adiabatic phases with enriched heavy elements and a high shock speed. The low-energy component may be attributed to acceleration by slow shocks propagating in dense molecular clouds with low metallicity in the radiative phase. Instead of a single power-law distribution, the spectra of time-dependent solutions soften gradually with the increase of energy, which may be responsible for the “knee” of CRs.

  4. Variability of the 2014-present inflation source at Mauna Loa volcano revealed using time-dependent modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, I. A.; Miklius, A.; Okubo, P.; Montgomery-Brown, E. K.

    2017-12-01

    Mauna Loa volcano is the largest active volcano on earth and in the 20thcentury produced roughly one eruption every seven years. The 33-year quiescence since its last eruption 1984 has been punctuated by three inflation episodes where magma likely entered the shallow plumbing system, but was not erupted. The most recent began in 2014 and is ongoing. Unlike prior inflation episodes, the current one is accompanied by a significant increase in shallow seismicity, a pattern that is similar to earlier pre-eruptive periods. We apply the Kalman filter based Network Inversion Filter (NIF) to the 2014-present inflation episode using data from a 27 station continuous GPS network on Mauna Loa. The model geometry consists of a point volume source and tabular, dike-like body, which have previously been shown to provide a good fit to deformation data from a 2004-2009 inflation episode. The tabular body is discretized into 1km x 1km segments. For each day, the NIF solves for the rates of opening on the tabular body segments (subject to smoothing and positivity constraints), volume change rate in the point source, and slip rate on a deep décollement fault surface, which is constrained to a constant (no transient slip allowed). The Kalman filter in the NIF provides for smoothing both forwards and backwards in time. The model shows that the 2014-present inflation episode occurred as several sub-events, rather than steady inflation. It shows some spatial variability in the location of the inflation sub-events. In the model, opening in the tabular body is initially concentrated below the volcano's summit, in an area roughly outlined by shallow seismicity. In October, 2015 opening in the tabular body shifts to be centered beneath the southwest portion of the summit and seismicity becomes concentrated in this area. By late 2016, the opening rate on the tabular body decreases and is once again under the central part of summit. This modeling approach has allowed us to track these

  5. Emergency Department-Initiated Buprenorphine for Opioid Dependence with Continuation in Primary Care: Outcomes During and After Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Onofrio, Gail; Chawarski, Marek C; O'Connor, Patrick G; Pantalon, Michael V; Busch, Susan H; Owens, Patricia H; Hawk, Kathryn; Bernstein, Steven L; Fiellin, David A

    2017-06-01

    Emergency department (ED)-initiated buprenorphine/naloxone with continuation in primary care was found to increase engagement in addiction treatment and reduce illicit opioid use at 30 days compared to referral only or a brief intervention with referral. To evaluate the long-term outcomes at 2, 6 and 12 months following ED interventions. Evaluation of treatment engagement, drug use, and HIV risk among a cohort of patients from a randomized trial who completed at least one long-term follow-up assessment. A total of 290/329 patients (88% of the randomized sample) were included. The followed cohort did not differ significantly from the randomized sample. ED-initiated buprenorphine with 10-week continuation in primary care, referral, or brief intervention were provided in the ED at study entry. Self-reported engagement in formal addiction treatment, days of illicit opioid use, and HIV risk (2, 6, 12 months); urine toxicology (2, 6 months). A greater number of patients in the buprenorphine group were engaged in addiction treatment at 2 months [68/92 (74%), 95% CI 65-83] compared with referral [42/79 (53%), 95% CI 42-64] and brief intervention [39/83 (47%), 95% CI 37-58; p < 0.001]. The differences were not significant at 6 months [51/92 (55%), 95% CI 45-65; 46/70 (66%) 95% CI 54-76; 43/76 (57%) 95% CI 45-67; p = 0.37] or 12 months [42/86 (49%) 95% CI 39-59; 37/73 (51%) 95% CI 39-62; 49/78 (63%) 95% CI 52-73; p = 0.16]. At 2 months, the buprenorphine group reported fewer days of illicit opioid use [1.1 (95% CI 0.6-1.6)] versus referral [1.8 (95% CI 1.2-2.3)] and brief intervention [2.0 (95% CI 1.5-2.6), p = 0.04]. No significant differences in illicit opioid use were observed at 6 or 12 months. There were no significant differences in HIV risk or rates of opioid-negative urine results at any time. ED-initiated buprenorphine was associated with increased engagement in addiction treatment and reduced illicit opioid use during the 2-month interval

  6. Effect of oral booster vaccination of rainbow trout against Yersinia ruckeri depends on type of primary immunization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaafar, Rzgar M.; Al-Jubury, Azmi; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2017-01-01

    provided as dip (most effective), bath (less effective) or orally (least effective). Oral immunization may be used as booster after dip but applied as a single oral application it induced merely a slight and statistically non-significant response. It is noteworthy that primary oral immunization followed...... already primed by one of these vaccination methods. Oral vaccination of trout (administering vaccine in feed) is an even more convenient way of presenting antigen to the fish but the effect of an oral booster has not previously been described in detail. The present work describes to what extent protection...... by an oral booster vaccination showed a trend for an even weaker response. It should be investigated if continued exposure to a low antigen concentration - as performed by two oral immunizations - may induce tolerance to the pathogen and thereby leave the fish more vulnerable....

  7. Timing-dependent modulation of the posterior parietal cortex-primary motor cortex pathway by sensorimotor training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karabanov, Anke Ninija; Jin, Seung-Hyun; Joutsen, Atte

    2012-01-01

    at baseline and at four time points (0, 30, 60, and 180 min) after training. For EEG, task-related power and coherence were calculated for early and late training phases. The conditioned MEP was facilitated at a 2-ms conditioning-test interval before training. However, facilitation was abolished immediately...... following training, but returned to baseline at subsequent time points. Regional EEG activity and interregional connectivity between PPC and M1 showed an initial increase during early training followed by a significant decrease in the late phases. The findings indicate that parietal-motor interactions......Interplay between posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and ipsilateral primary motor cortex (M1) is crucial during execution of movements. The purpose of the study was to determine whether functional PPC-M1 connectivity in humans can be modulated by sensorimotor training. Seventeen participants...

  8. A variable-order time-dependent neutron transport method for nuclear reactor kinetics using analytically-integrated space-time characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, A. J.; Lee, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    A new time-dependent neutron transport method based on the method of characteristics (MOC) has been developed. Whereas most spatial kinetics methods treat time dependence through temporal discretization, this new method treats time dependence by defining the characteristics to span space and time. In this implementation regions are defined in space-time where the thickness of the region in time fulfills an analogous role to the time step in discretized methods. The time dependence of the local source is approximated using a truncated Taylor series expansion with high order derivatives approximated using backward differences, permitting the solution of the resulting space-time characteristic equation. To avoid a drastic increase in computational expense and memory requirements due to solving many discrete characteristics in the space-time planes, the temporal variation of the boundary source is similarly approximated. This allows the characteristics in the space-time plane to be represented analytically rather than discretely, resulting in an algorithm comparable in implementation and expense to one that arises from conventional time integration techniques. Furthermore, by defining the boundary flux time derivative in terms of the preceding local source time derivative and boundary flux time derivative, the need to store angularly-dependent data is avoided without approximating the angular dependence of the angular flux time derivative. The accuracy of this method is assessed through implementation in the neutron transport code DeCART. The method is employed with variable-order local source representation to model a TWIGL transient. The results demonstrate that this method is accurate and more efficient than the discretized method. (authors)

  9. The random co-polymer glatiramer acetate rapidly kills primary human leukocytes through sialic-acid-dependent cell membrane damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Stig Hill; Zhang, Xianwei; Juul-Madsen, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    in innate immunity. It shares the positive charge and amphipathic character of GA, and, as shown here, also the ability to kill human leukocyte. The cytotoxicity of both compounds depends on sialic acid in the cell membrane. The killing was associated with the generation of CD45 + debris, derived from cell...... membrane deformation. Nanoparticle tracking analysis confirmed the formation of such debris, even at low GA concentrations. Electric cell-substrate impedance sensing measurements also recorded stable alterations in T lymphocytes following such treatment. LL-37 forms oligomers through weak hydrophobic...

  10. Analysis of arterial pressure variability in patients with acute cerebral stroke depending on the time of occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volosovets A.O.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Arterial hypertension can cause a pronounced negative influence on the state of the cerebral vascular system and lead to significant microtraumatization of the walls of the vessels and disruption of vascular autoregulation. This predictor has the greatest influence on the onset of ischemic stroke of atherothrombotic and lacunar subtypes, however, hypertension occurs almost in all patients with acute cerebral ischemia. Interesting and not at all presented in modern scientific literature is the question of the relationship of oscillation of blood pressure with the period of the onset of the focus of ischemia, which predetermined the purpose of our work. The purpose of our study was to determine the relationship between deformation of the profile of fluctuations in blood pressure of patients in the acute period of ischemic stroke, depending on the time of the occurrence of cerebrovascular accident. We examined 300 patients who suffered acute ischemic stroke (men - 196, women - 104 aged 42 to 84 years (average age - 65.2 ± 8.7 years. All patients were divided into 3 groups according to the period of the day when an ischemic stroke occurred: 1 group (n=146, patients suffering from cerebral ischemia during the day (8.00-14.59; In group 2 (n=107, patients stroke was observed in the evening (15.00-21.59; Group 3 (n=47, patients had an ischemic stroke at night (22.00-7.59. For the 1st group of patients who have had ischemic stroke during the day and as a rule with an increase in blood pressure, a marked increase in blood pressure was at 12.00 and 15.00 and a tendency towards compensatory parasympathetic effect in the form of blood pressure decrease at night (over-dipper was typical. At the same time, in the 2nd group of patients with stroke in the evening, elevated blood pressure at 18.00 and 21.00 and parasympathetic activity disorders with prevalence of insufficient reduction of blood pressure in the evening and during sleep (non-dipper was observed

  11. Meteorological variables affect fertility rate after intrauterine artificial insemination in sheep in a seasonal-dependent manner: a 7-year study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, C.; Abecia, J. A.

    2015-05-01

    A total number of 48,088 artificial inseminations (AIs) have been controlled during seven consecutive years in 79 dairy sheep Spanish farms (41° N). Mean, maximum and minimum ambient temperatures ( Ts), temperature amplitude (TA), mean relative humidity (RH), mean solar radiation (SR) and total rainfall of each insemination day and 15 days later were recorded. Temperature-humidity index (THI) and effective temperature (ET) have been calculated. A binary logistic regression model to estimate the risk of not getting pregnant compared to getting pregnant, through the odds ratio (OR), was performed. Successful winter inseminations were carried out under higher SR ( P 1 (maximum T, ET and rainfall on AI day, and ET and rainfall on day 15), and two variables presented OR AI day and maximum T on day 15). However, the effect of meteorological factors affected fertility in opposite ways, so T becomes a protective or risk factor on fertility depending on season. In conclusion, the percentage of pregnancy after AI in sheep is significantly affected by meteorological variables in a seasonal-dependent manner, so the parameters such as temperature reverse their effects in the hot or cold seasons. A forecast of the meteorological conditions could be a useful tool when AI dates are being scheduled.

  12. Observing how others lift light or heavy objects: time-dependent encoding of grip force in the primary motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaerts, Kaat; de Beukelaar, Toon T; Swinnen, Stephan P; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2012-07-01

    During movement observation, corticomotor excitability of the observer's primary motor cortex (M1) is modulated according to the force requirements of the observed action. Here, we explored the time course of observation-induced force encoding. Force-related changes in M1-excitability were assessed by delivering transcranial magnetic stimulations at distinct temporal phases of an observed reach-grasp-lift action. Temporal changes in force-related electromyographic activity were also assessed during active movement execution. In observation conditions in which a heavy object was lifted, M1-excitability was higher compared to conditions in which a light object was lifted. Both during observation and execution, differential force encoding tended to gradually increase from the grasping phase until the late lift phase. Surprisingly, however, during observation, force encoding was already present at the early reach phase: a time point at which no visual cues on the object's weight were available to the observer. As the observer was aware that the same weight condition was presented repeatedly, this finding may indicate that prior predictions concerning the upcoming weight condition are reflected by M1 excitability. Overall, findings may provide indications that the observer's motor system represents motor predictions as well as muscular requirements to infer the observed movement goal.

  13. Fueling primary productivity: nutrient return pathways from the deep ocean and their dependence on the Meridional Overturning Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palter, J. B.; Sarmiento, J. L.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Simeon, J.; Slater, D.

    2010-06-01

    In the Southern Ocean, mixing and upwelling in the presence of heat and freshwater surface fluxes transform subpycnocline water to lighter densities as part of the upward branch of the Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC). One hypothesized impact of this transformation is the restoration of nutrients to the global pycnocline, without which biological productivity at low latitudes would be catastrophically reduced. Here we use a novel set of modeling experiments to explore the causes and consequences of the Southern Ocean nutrient return pathway. Specifically, we quantify the contribution to global productivity of nutrients that rise from the ocean interior in the Southern Ocean, the northern high latitudes, and by mixing across the low latitude pycnocline. In addition, we evaluate how the strength of the Southern Ocean winds and the parameterizations of subgridscale processes change the dominant nutrient return pathways in the ocean. Our results suggest that nutrients upwelled from the deep ocean in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and subducted in Subantartic Mode Water support between 33 and 75% of global primary productivity between 30° S and 30° N. The high end of this range results from an ocean model in which the MOC is driven primarily by wind-induced Southern Ocean upwelling, a configuration favored due to its fidelity to tracer data, while the low end results from an MOC driven by high diapycnal diffusivity in the pycnocline. In all models, the high preformed nutrients subducted in the SAMW layer are converted rapidly (in less than 40 years) to remineralized nutrients, explaining previous modeling results that showed little influence of the drawdown of SAMW surface nutrients on atmospheric carbon concentrations.

  14. Primary Tr1 cells from metastatic melanoma eliminate tumor-promoting macrophages through granzyme B- and perforin-dependent mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hongxia; Zhang, Ping; Kong, Xue; Hou, Xianglian; Zhao, Li; Li, Tianhang; Yuan, Xiaozhou; Fu, Hongjun

    2017-04-01

    In malignant melanoma, tumor-associated macrophages play multiple roles in promoting tumor growth, such as inducing the transformation of melanocytes under ultraviolet irradiation, increasing angiogenesis in melanomas, and suppressing antitumor immunity. Because granzyme B- and perforin-expressing Tr1 cells could specifically eliminate antigen-presenting cells of myeloid origin, we examined whether Tr1 cells in melanoma could eliminate tumor-promoting macrophages and how the interaction between Tr1 cells and macrophages could affect the growth of melanoma cells. Tr1 cells were characterized by high interleukin 10 secretion and low Foxp3 expression and were enriched in the CD4 + CD49b + LAG-3 + T-cell fraction. Macrophages derived from peripheral blood monocytes in the presence of modified melanoma-conditioned media demonstrated tumor-promoting capacity, exemplified by improving the proliferation of cocultured A375 malignant melanoma cells. But when primary Tr1 cells were present in the macrophage-A375 coculture, the growth of A375 cells was abrogated. The conventional CD25 + Treg cells, however, were unable to inhibit macrophage-mediated increase in tumor cell growth. Further analyses showed that Tr1 cells did not directly eliminate A375 cells, but mediated the killing of tumor-promoting macrophages through the secretion of granzyme B and perforin. The tumor-infiltrating interleukin 10 + Foxp3 - CD4 + T cells expressed very low levels of granzyme B and perforin, possibly suggested the downregulation of Tr1 cytotoxic capacity in melanoma tumors. Together, these data demonstrated an antitumor function of Tr1 cells through the elimination of tumor-promoting macrophages, which was not shared by conventional Tregs.

  15. HIV-1 protein induced modulation of primary human osteoblast differentiation and function via a Wnt/β-catenin-dependent mechanism.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Butler, Joseph S

    2013-02-01

    HIV infection is associated with metabolic bone disease resulting in bone demineralization and reduced bone mass. The molecular mechanisms driving this disease process have yet to be elucidated. Wnt\\/β-catenin signaling plays a key role in bone development and remodeling. We attempted to determine the effects of the HIV-1 protein, gp120, on Wnt\\/β-catenin signaling at an intracellular and transcriptional level in primary human osteoblasts (HOBs). This work, inclusive of experimental controls, was part of a greater project assessing the effects of a variety of different agents on Wnt\\/β-catenin signaling (BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2010;11:210).We examined the phenotypic effects of silencing and overexpressing the Wnt antagonist, Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1) in HOBs treated with gp120. HOBs exposed to gp120 displayed a significant reduction in alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) activity and cell proliferation and increased cellular apoptosis over a 48 h time course. Immunocytochemistry demonstrated a significant reduction in intracytosolic and intranuclear β-catenin in response to HIV-1 protein exposure. These changes were associated with a reduction of TCF\\/LEF-mediated transcription, the transcriptional outcome of canonical Wnt β-catenin signaling. Silencing Dkk1 expression in HOBs exposed to gp120 resulted in increased ALP activity and cell proliferation, and decreased cellular apoptosis relative to scrambled control. Dkk1 overexpression exacerbated the inhibitory effect of gp120 on HOB function, with decreases in ALP activity and cell proliferation and increased cellular apoptosis relative to vector control. Wnt\\/β-catenin signaling plays a key regulatory role in HIV-associated bone loss, with Dkk1, aputative central mediator in this degenerative process. © 2012 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 31: 218-226, 2013.

  16. CLINICAL AND LABORATORY FEATURES OF ESSENTIAL THROMBOCYTOSIS AND PRIMARY MYELOFIBROSIS DEPENDING ON JAK2 AND CALR1 MUTATION STATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. lisina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. JAK2V617F mutation is detected in approximately 50 % of patients with essential thrombocytosis (ET and primary myelofibrosis (PMF. In 2013 most of the JAK2 negative patients showed mutations in the CALR gene. Diagnostic value of JAK2 and CALR mutations is high, but their prognostic significance is not sufficiently clear. Data on impact of JAK2 and CALR mutational status on thrombotic complications in ET and myelofibrosis patients are contradictory.The aim of the study was to identify clinical and laboratory features in patients with ET and PMF in accordance with the mutational status of JAK2V617F and CALR gene.Materials and methods. Patients treated in Almazov National Medical Research Center (St. Petersburg, Chuvash Republican Clinical Hospital (Cheboksary, Irkutsk Regional Clinical Hospital (Irkutsk,  Kirov Research Institute of Hematology and Blood Transfusion (Kirov was included in the retrospective study. CALR mutation (1 and 2 types, MPL W515L/K and JAK2V617F mutation were detected in peripheral blood cells.Results. We identified that 21 % (n = 16 of ET patients had thrombotic complications, and they occurred more often among JAK2V617F positive patients (p <0.05. The median of hemoglobin level in PMF was the lowest in the group of triple negative patients. The level of leukocytes in PMF was higher in the group of triple negative patients than in the group with mutated CALR (p = 0.014.Conclusion. JAK2V617F mutation in ET patients was associated with a high risk of thrombosis. Patients with CALR mutations may have a favorable prognosis regarding to thrombotic complications. Some laboratory features of CALR mutations in ET and PMF patients have been revealed.

  17. Cadmium induces Ca2+ mediated, calpain-1/caspase-3-dependent apoptosis in primary cultured rat proximal tubular cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Zhai, Nianhui; Chen, Ying; Xu, Haibin; Huang, Kehe

    2017-07-01

    Calcium, as a ubiquitous second messenger, governs a large array of cellular processes and is necessary for cell survival. More recently, it was observed that the cytosolic Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ] c ) elevation could induce apoptosis in primary cultured rat proximal tubular (rPT) cells exposed to cadmium (Cd), but the concrete mechanism is still unclear. This study was designed to investigate the signal pathway involved in [Ca 2+ ] c elevation-mediated apoptosis. The results confirmed the elevation of [Ca 2+ ] c by confocal microscopy and enhancement of the apoptosis by Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometer when rPT cells were exposed to Cd for 12h. Then we demonstrated that Cd enhanced the protein levels of active calpain-1 and caspase-3 in rPT cells. Pretreatment with a cytosolic Ca 2+ chelator, 1,2-Bis (2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA-AM), markedly blocked the up-regulation of active calpain-1 and caspase-3 and inhibited the apoptosis induced by Cd. Further, rPT cells were pretreated with a cell-permeable selective calpain-1 inhibitor, 3-(4-iodophenyl)-2-mercapto-(Z)-2-propenoic acid (PD150606) and caspase-3 inhibitor, N-Acetyl-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-CHO (Ac-DEVD-CHO), respectively. PD150606 significantly attenuated the up-regulation of active caspase-3 and the apoptosis induced by Cd. As expected, inhibition of active caspase-3 by Ac-DEVD-CHO decreased the apoptosis induced by Cd. Taken together, it could be concluded that [Ca 2+ ] c elevation did act as a pro-apoptotic signal in Cd-induced cytotoxicity of rPT cells, triggered calpain-1 and caspase-3 activation in turn, and induced apoptosis of rPT cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Ant mosaics in Bornean primary rain forest high canopy depend on spatial scale, time of day, and sampling method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalsum M. Yusah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Competitive interactions in biological communities can be thought of as giving rise to “assembly rules” that dictate the species that are able to co-exist. Ant communities in tropical canopies often display a particular pattern, an “ant mosaic”, in which competition between dominant ant species results in a patchwork of mutually exclusive territories. Although ant mosaics have been well-documented in plantation landscapes, their presence in pristine tropical forests remained contentious until recently. Here we assess presence of ant mosaics in a hitherto under-investigated forest stratum, the emergent trees of the high canopy in primary tropical rain forest, and explore how the strength of any ant mosaics is affected by spatial scale, time of day, and sampling method. Methods To test whether these factors might impact the detection of ant mosaics in pristine habitats, we sampled ant communities from emergent trees, which rise above the highest canopy layers in lowland dipterocarp rain forests in North Borneo (38.8–60.2 m, using both baiting and insecticide fogging. Critically, we restricted sampling to only the canopy of each focal tree. For baiting, we carried out sampling during both the day and the night. We used null models of species co-occurrence to assess patterns of segregation at within-tree and between-tree scales. Results The numerically dominant ant species on the emergent trees sampled formed a diverse community, with differences in the identity of dominant species between times of day and sampling methods. Between trees, we found patterns of ant species segregation consistent with the existence of ant mosaics using both methods. Within trees, fogged ants were segregated, while baited ants were segregated only at night. Discussion We conclude that ant mosaics are present within the emergent trees of the high canopy of tropical rain forest in Malaysian Borneo, and that sampling technique, spatial scale, and time

  19. Amyloid β oligomers induce interleukin-1β production in primary microglia in a cathepsin B- and reactive oxygen species-dependent manner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taneo, Jun; Adachi, Takumi [Department of Animal Development and Physiology, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Konoe, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Yoshida, Aiko; Takayasu, Kunio [Responses to Environmental Signals and Stresses, Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Konoe, Sakyo, Kyoto, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Takahara, Kazuhiko, E-mail: ktakahar@zoo.zool.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Animal Development and Physiology, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Konoe, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Tokyo 102-0081 (Japan); Inaba, Kayo [Department of Animal Development and Physiology, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Konoe, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Tokyo 102-0081 (Japan)

    2015-03-13

    Amyloid β (Aβ) peptide, a causative agent of Alzheimer's disease, forms two types of aggregates: oligomers and fibrils. These aggregates induce inflammatory responses, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production by microglia, which are macrophage-like cells located in the brain. In this study, we examined the effect of the two forms of Aβ aggregates on IL-1β production in mouse primary microglia. We prepared Aβ oligomer and fibril from Aβ (1–42) peptide in vitro. We analyzed the characteristics of these oligomers and fibrils by electrophoresis and atomic force microscopy. Interestingly, Aβ oligomers but not Aβ monomers or fibrils induced robust IL-1β production in the presence of lipopolysaccharide. Moreover, Aβ oligomers induced endo/phagolysosome rupture, which released cathepsin B into the cytoplasm. Aβ oligomer-induced IL-1β production was inhibited not only by the cathepsin B inhibitor CA-074-Me but also by the reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitor N-acetylcysteine. Random chemical crosslinking abolished the ability of the oligomers to induce IL-1β. Thus, multimerization and fibrillization causes Aβ oligomers to lose the ability to induce IL-1β. These results indicate that Aβ oligomers, but not fibrils, induce IL-1β production in primary microglia in a cathepsin B- and ROS-dependent manner. - Highlights: • We prepared amyloid β (Aβ) fibrils with minimum contamination of Aβ oligomers. • Primary microglia (MG) produced IL-1β in response to Aβ oligomers, but not fibrils. • Only Aβ oligomers induced leakage of cathepsin B from endo/phagolysosomes. • IL-1β production in response to Aβ oligomers depended on both cathepsin B and ROS. • Crosslinking reduced the ability of the Aβ oligomers to induce IL-1β from MG.

  20. Phase variable expression of a single phage receptor in Campylobacter jejuni NCTC12662 influences sensitivity toward several diverse CPS-dependent phages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gencay, Yilmaz Emre; Sørensen, Martine C.H.; Wenzel, Cory Q.

    2018-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni NCTC12662 is sensitive to infection by many Campylobacter bacteriophages. Here we used this strain to investigate the molecular mechanism behind phage resistance development when exposed to a single phage and demonstrate how phase variable expression of one surface component...... influences phage sensitivity against many diverse C. jejuni phages. When C. jejuni NCTC12662 was exposed to phage F207 overnight, 25% of the bacterial cells were able to grow on a lawn of phage F207, suggesting that resistance develops at a high frequency. One resistant variant, 12662R, was further...... characterized and shown to be an adsorption mutant. Plaque assays using our large phage collection showed that seven out of 36 diverse capsular polysaccharide (CPS)-dependent phages could not infect 12662R, whereas the remaining phages formed plaques on 12662R with reduced efficiencies. Analysis of the CPS...

  1. An alternative approach to exact wave functions for time-dependent coupled oscillator model of charged particle in variable magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menouar, Salah; Maamache, Mustapha; Choi, Jeong Ryeol

    2010-01-01

    The quantum states of time-dependent coupled oscillator model for charged particles subjected to variable magnetic field are investigated using the invariant operator methods. To do this, we have taken advantage of an alternative method, so-called unitary transformation approach, available in the framework of quantum mechanics, as well as a generalized canonical transformation method in the classical regime. The transformed quantum Hamiltonian is obtained using suitable unitary operators and is represented in terms of two independent harmonic oscillators which have the same frequencies as that of the classically transformed one. Starting from the wave functions in the transformed system, we have derived the full wave functions in the original system with the help of the unitary operators. One can easily take a complete description of how the charged particle behaves under the given Hamiltonian by taking advantage of these analytical wave functions.

  2. Chemokines and antimicrobial peptides have a cag-dependent early response to Helicobacter pylori infection in primary human gastric epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Pascale; Paris, Isabelle; Garcia, Magali; Tran, Cong Tri; Cremniter, Julie; Garnier, Martine; Faure, Jean-Pierre; Barthes, Thierry; Boneca, Ivo G; Morel, Franck; Lecron, Jean-Claude; Burucoa, Christophe; Bodet, Charles

    2014-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection systematically causes chronic gastric inflammation that can persist asymptomatically or evolve toward more severe gastroduodenal pathologies, such as ulcer, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, and gastric cancer. The cag pathogenicity island (cag PAI) of H. pylori allows translocation of the virulence protein CagA and fragments of peptidoglycan into host cells, thereby inducing production of chemokines, cytokines, and antimicrobial peptides. In order to characterize the inflammatory response to H. pylori, a new experimental protocol for isolating and culturing primary human gastric epithelial cells was established using pieces of stomach from patients who had undergone sleeve gastrectomy. Isolated cells expressed markers indicating that they were mucin-secreting epithelial cells. Challenge of primary epithelial cells with H. pylori B128 underscored early dose-dependent induction of expression of mRNAs of the inflammatory mediators CXCL1 to -3, CXCL5, CXCL8, CCL20, BD2, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). In AGS cells, significant expression of only CXCL5 and CXCL8 was observed following infection, suggesting that these cells were less reactive than primary epithelial cells. Infection of both cellular models with H. pylori B128ΔcagM, a cag PAI mutant, resulted in weak inflammatory-mediator mRNA induction. At 24 h after infection of primary epithelial cells with H. pylori, inflammatory-mediator production was largely due to cag PAI substrate-independent virulence factors. Thus, H. pylori cag PAI substrate appears to be involved in eliciting an epithelial response during the early phases of infection. Afterwards, other virulence factors of the bacterium take over in development of the inflammatory response. Using a relevant cellular model, this study provides new information on the modulation of inflammation during H. pylori infection. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Origins of intersubject variability of blood oxygenation level dependent and arterial spin labeling fMRI: implications for quantification of brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaxiola-Valdez, Ismael; Goodyear, Bradley G

    2012-12-01

    Accurate localization of brain activity using blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been challenged because of the large BOLD signal within distal veins. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) techniques offer greater sensitivity to the microvasculature but possess low temporal resolution and limited brain coverage. In this study, we show that the physiological origins of BOLD and ASL depend on whether percent change or statistical significance is being considered. For BOLD and ASL fMRI data collected during a simple unilateral hand movement task, we found that in the area of the contralateral motor cortex the centre of gravity (CoG) of the intersubject coefficient of variation (CV) of BOLD fMRI was near the brain surface for percent change in signal, whereas the CoG of the intersubject CV for Z-score was in close proximity of sites of brain activity for both BOLD and ASL. These findings suggest that intersubject variability of BOLD percent change is vascular in origin, whereas the origin of inter-subject variability of Z-score is neuronal for both BOLD and ASL. For longer duration tasks (12 s or greater), however, there was a significant correlation between BOLD and ASL percent change, which was not evident for short duration tasks (6 s). These findings suggest that analyses directly comparing percent change in BOLD signal between pre-defined regions of interest using short duration stimuli, as for example in event-related designs, may be heavily weighted by large-vessel responses rather than neuronal responses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sensitivity of Photosynthetic Gas Exchange and Growth of Lodgepole Pine to Climate Variability Depends on the Age of Pleistocene Glacial Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, B.; Chapple, W.; Ewers, B. E.; Williams, D. G.

    2014-12-01

    The interaction between soil conditions and climate variability plays a central role in the ecohydrological functions of montane conifer forests. Although soil moisture availability to trees is largely dependent on climate, the depth and texture of soil exerts a key secondary influence. Multiple Pleistocene glacial events have shaped the landscape of the central Rocky Mountains creating a patchwork of soils differing in age and textural classification. This mosaic of soil conditions impacts hydrological properties, and montane conifer forests potentially respond to climate variability quite differently depending on the age of glacial till and soil development. We hypothesized that the age of glacial till and associated soil textural changes exert strong control on growth and photosynthetic gas exchange of lodgepole pine. We examined physiological and growth responses of lodgepole pine to interannual variation in maximum annual snow water equivalence (SWEmax) of montane snowpack and growing season air temperature (Tair) and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) across a chronosequence of Pleistocene glacial tills ranging in age from 700k to 12k years. Soil textural differences across the glacial tills illustrate the varying degrees of weathering with the most well developed soils with highest clay content on the oldest till surfaces. We show that sensitivity of growth and carbon isotope discrimination, an integrated measure of canopy gas exchange properties, to interannual variation SWEmax , Tair and VPD is greatest on young till surfaces, whereas trees on old glacial tills with well-developed soils are mostly insensitive to these interannual climate fluctuations. Tree-ring widths were most sensitive to changes in SWEmax on young glacial tills (p < 0.01), and less sensitive on the oldest till (p < 0.05). Tair correlates strongly with δ13C values on the oldest and youngest tills sites, but shows no significant relationship on the middle aged glacial till. It is clear that

  5. Intra- and inter-individual variability of Aspergillus fumigatus reactive T-cell frequencies in healthy volunteers in dependency of mould exposure in residential and working environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurster, Sebastian; Weis, Philipp; Page, Lukas; Helm, Johanna; Lazariotou, Maria; Einsele, Hermann; Ullmann, Andrew J

    2017-10-01

    Invasive aspergillosis remains a deadly disease in immunocompromised patients, whereas the combination of an exaggerated immune response and continuous exposure lead to various hyperinflammatory diseases. This pilot study aimed to gain an overview of the intra- and inter-individual variability in Aspergillus fumigatus reactive T-helper cells in healthy adults and the correlation with environmental mould exposure. In this flow cytometric study, the frequencies of CD154 + A. fumigatus reactive T cells were evaluated in 70 healthy volunteers. All subjects completed a standardised questionnaire addressing their mould exposure. Subjects with intensive mould exposure in their professional or residential surrounding demonstrated considerably higher mean frequencies of A. fumigatus reactive T-helper and T-memory cells. Comparative evaluation of multiple measurements over time demonstrated relatively conserved reactive T-cell frequencies in the absence of major changes to the exposure profile, whereas those frequently exposed in professional environment or with changes to their risk score demonstrated a marked dependency of antigen reactive T-cell frequencies on recent mould exposure. This pilot study was the first to provide data on the intra-individual variability in A. fumigatus reactive T-cell frequencies and its linkage to mould encounter. Fungus reactive T cells are to be considered a valued tool for the assessment of environmental mould exposure. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Self-produced Time Intervals Are Perceived as More Variable and/or Shorter Depending on Temporal Context in Subsecond and Suprasecond Ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keita eMitani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The processing of time intervals is fundamental for sensorimotor and cognitive functions. Perceptual and motor timing are often performed concurrently (e.g., playing a musical instrument. Although previous studies have shown the influence of body movements on time perception, how we perceive self-produced time intervals has remained unclear. Furthermore, it has been suggested that the timing mechanisms are distinct for the sub- and suprasecond ranges. Here, we compared perceptual performances for self-produced and passively presented time intervals in random contexts (i.e., multiple target intervals presented in a session across the sub- and suprasecond ranges (Experiment 1 and within the sub- (Experiment 2 and suprasecond (Experiment 3 ranges, and in a constant context (i.e., a single target interval presented in a session in the sub- and suprasecond ranges (Experiment 4. We show that self-produced time intervals were perceived as shorter and more variable across the sub- and suprasecond ranges and within the suprasecond range but not within the subsecond range in a random context. In a constant context, the self-produced time intervals were perceived as more variable in the suprasecond range but not in the subsecond range. The impairing effects indicate that motor timing interferes with perceptual timing. The dependence of impairment on temporal contexts suggests multiple timing mechanisms for the subsecond and suprasecond ranges. In addition, violation of the scalar property (i.e., a constant variability to target interval ratio was observed between the sub- and suprasecond ranges. The violation was clearer for motor timing than for perceptual timing. This suggests that the multiple timing mechanisms for the sub- and suprasecond ranges overlap more for perception than for motor. Moreover, the central tendency effect (i.e., where shorter base intervals are overestimated and longer base intervals are underestimated disappeared with subsecond

  7. A new method to detect transitory signatures and local time/space variability structures in the climate system: the scale-dependent correlation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodó, Xavier; Rodríguez-Arias, Miquel-Àngel

    2006-10-01

    The study of transitory signals and local variability structures in both/either time and space and their role as sources of climatic memory, is an important but often neglected topic in climate research despite its obvious importance and extensive coverage in the literature. Transitory signals arise either from non-linearities, in the climate system, transitory atmosphere-ocean couplings, and other processes in the climate system evolving after a critical threshold is crossed. These temporary interactions that, though intense, may not last long, can be responsible for a large amount of unexplained variability but are normally considered of limited relevance and often, discarded. With most of the current techniques at hand these typology of signatures are difficult to isolate because the low signal-to-noise ratio in midlatitudes, the limited recurrence of the transitory signals during a customary interval of data considered. Also, there is often a serious problem arising from the smoothing of local or transitory processes if statistical techniques are applied, that consider all the length of data available, rather than taking into account the size of the specific variability structure under investigation. Scale-dependent correlation (SDC) analysis is a new statistical method capable of highlighting the presence of transitory processes, these former being understood as temporary significant lag-dependent autocovariance in a single series, or covariance structures between two series. This approach, therefore, complements other approaches such as those resulting from the families of wavelet analysis, singular-spectrum analysis and recurrence plots. A main feature of SDC is its high-performance for short time series, its ability to characterize phase-relationships and thresholds in the bivariate domain. Ultimately, SDC helps tracking short-lagged relationships among processes that locally or temporarily couple and uncouple. The use of SDC is illustrated in the present

  8. Molecular analysis of immunoglobulin variable genes supports a germinal center experienced normal counterpart in primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg-type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham-Ledard, Anne; Prochazkova-Carlotti, Martina; Deveza, Mélanie; Laforet, Marie-Pierre; Beylot-Barry, Marie; Vergier, Béatrice; Parrens, Marie; Feuillard, Jean; Merlio, Jean-Philippe; Gachard, Nathalie

    2017-11-01

    Immunophenotype of primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg-type (PCLBCL-LT) suggests a germinal center-experienced B lymphocyte (BCL2+ MUM1+ BCL6+/-). As maturation history of B-cell is "imprinted" during B-cell development on the immunoglobulin gene sequence, we studied the structure and sequence of the variable part of the genes (IGHV, IGLV, IGKV), immunoglobulin surface expression and features of class switching in order to determine the PCLBCL-LT cell of origin. Clonality analysis with BIOMED2 protocol and VH leader primers was done on DNA extracted from frozen skin biopsies on retrospective samples from 14 patients. The clonal DNA IGHV sequence of the tumor was aligned and compared with the closest germline sequence and homology percentage was calculated. Superantigen binding sites were studied. Features of selection pressure were evaluated with the multinomial Lossos model. A functional monoclonal sequence was observed in 14 cases as determined for IGHV (10), IGLV (2) or IGKV (3). IGV mutation rates were high (>5%) in all cases but one (median:15.5%), with superantigen binding sites conservation. Features of selection pressure were identified in 11/12 interpretable cases, more frequently negative (75%) than positive (25%). Intraclonal variation was detected in 3 of 8 tumor specimens with a low rate of mutations. Surface immunoglobulin was an IgM in 12/12 cases. FISH analysis of IGHM locus, deleted during class switching, showed heterozygous IGHM gene deletion in half of cases. The genomic PCR analysis confirmed the deletions within the switch μ region. IGV sequences were highly mutated but functional, with negative features of selection pressure suggesting one or more germinal center passage(s) with somatic hypermutation, but superantigen (SpA) binding sites conservation. Genetic features of class switch were observed, but on the non functional allele and co-existing with primary isotype IgM expression. These data suggest that cell-of origin is

  9. Effect of short-term heart rate variability biofeedback on long-term abstinence in alcohol dependent patients - a one-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penzlin, Ana Isabel; Barlinn, Kristian; Illigens, Ben Min-Woo; Weidner, Kerstin; Siepmann, Martin; Siepmann, Timo

    2017-09-06

    A randomized controlled study (RCT) recently showed that short-term heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback in addition to standard rehabilitation care for alcohol dependence can reduce craving, anxiety and improve cardiovascular autonomic function. In this one-year follow-up study we aimed to explore whether completion of 2-week HRV-Biofeedback training is associated with long-term abstinence. Furthermore, we sought to identify potential predictors of post-treatment abstinence. We conducted a survey on abstinence in patients with alcohol dependence 1 year after completion of an RCT comparing HRV-biofeedback in addition to inpatient rehabilitation treatment alone (controls). Abstinence rates were compared and analysed for association with demographic data as well as psychometric and autonomic cardiac assessment before and after completion of the biofeedback training using bivariate and multivariate regression analyses. Out of 48 patients who participated in the RCT, 27 patients (9 females, ages 42.9 ± 8.6, mean ± SD) completed our one-year follow-up. When including in the analysis only patients who completed follow-up, the rate of abstinence tended to be higher in patients who underwent HRV-biofeedback 1 year earlier compared to those who received rehabilitative treatment alone (66.7% vs 50%, p = ns). This non-significant trend was also observed in the intention-to-treat analysis where patients who did not participate in the follow-up were assumed to have relapsed (46,7% biofeedback vs. 33.3% controls, p = ns). Neither cardiac autonomic function nor psychometric variables were associated with abstinence 1 year after HRV-biofeedback. Our follow-up study provide a first indication of possible increase in long-term abstinence after HRV-biofeedback for alcohol dependence in addition to rehabilitation. The original randomized controlled trial was registered in the German Clinical Trials Register ( DRKS00004618 ). This one-year follow-up survey has not been

  10. Reminiscence therapy using odor in alcohol-dependent patients--psychophysiological evaluation and psychological evaluation; power spectral analysis of heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizono, H; Morita, N; Iizuka, S; Satoh, S; Nakatani, Y

    2000-12-01

    This research was based on the hypothesis that when alcohol-dependent patients describe themselves, awakening of emotion by affirmative odor stimulation may facilitate memory reframing focusing on more affirmative emotion and memories. To prove the hypothesis, physiological changes accompanied by emotional awakening were evaluated by measuring the autonomic activity. In addition, subjective evaluation by a self-report manner was examined to investigate the effectiveness of Reminiscence Therapy (RT) using odor in alcohol-dependent patients. Thirty-four patients who met the DSM-IV criteria of alcohol-related disorders and were hospitalized in a ward specialized to alcohol dependence therapy. Each patient underwent a one-to-one interview twice. For counterbalance, one interview was performed with odor stimulation using an odor with a relaxing effect that recall pleasant emotion, and the other was without odor stimulation. As the evaluation indices of physiological changes accompanied by emotional awakening, index of autonomic function (HRV; Heart rate variability) for objective evaluation and psychological indices (STAI; State-Trait Anxiety Inventory VAS; Visual Analog Scale) for subjective evaluation were measured. 1) Objective evaluation: Regarding the evaluation index of the autonomic function, the sympathetic nervous system activity (LF/HF; low frequency component/high frequency component ratio) was significantly inhibited by odor stimulation (p Subjective evaluation: Compared to the state prior to interview, state anxiety judged by STAI was significantly decreased after interview (p subjective evaluation, but the objective evaluation suggested that the odor inhibited the sympathetic nervous system. Thus, it was suggested that odor can be used in RT, that is, emotional changes due to stimulation of odor may be applicable in RT.

  11. Threshold-dependent variability of coronary artery calcification measurements - implications for contrast-enhanced multi-detector row-computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moselewski, Fabian; Ferencik, Maros; Achenbach, Stephan; Abbara, Suhny; Cury, Ricardo C.; Booth, Sarah L.; Jang, Ik-Kyung; Brady, Thomas J.; Hoffmann, Udo

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The present study investigated the threshold-dependent variability of coronary artery calcification (CAC) measurements and the potential to quantify CAC in contrast-enhanced multi-detector row-computed tomography (MDCT). Methods: We compared the mean CT attenuation of CAC to luminal contrast enhancement of the coronary arteries in 30 patients (n = 30) undergoing standard coronary contrast-enhanced spiral MDCT. The modified Agatston score [AS], calcified plaque volume [CV], and mineral mass [MM]) at four different thresholds (130, 200, 300, and 400 HU) were measured in 50 patients who underwent non-contrast-enhanced MDCT. Results: Mean CT attenuation of CAC was similar to the attenuation of the contrast-enhanced coronary lumen (CAC 297.1 ± 68.7 HU versus 295 ± 65 HU (p < 0.0001), respectively). Above a threshold of 300 HU CAC measurements significantly varied to standard measurements obtained at a threshold of 130 HU (p < 0.0001). The threshold-dependent variation of MM measurements was significantly smaller than for AS and CV (130 HU versus 400 HU: 63, 75, and 81, respectively; p < 0.001). These differences resulted in a change of age and gender based percentile category for AS in 78% of subjects. Discussion: We demonstrated that CAC measurements are threshold dependent with MM measurements having significantly less variation than AS or CV. Due to the similarity of mean CT attenuation of CAC and the contrast-enhanced coronary lumen accurate quantification of CAC may be difficult in standard coronary contrast-enhanced spiral MDCT

  12. Threshold-dependent variability of coronary artery calcification measurements - implications for contrast-enhanced multi-detector row-computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moselewski, Fabian [Division of Cardiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Ferencik, Maros [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Achenbach, Stephan [Division of Cardiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Internal Medicine II (Cardiology), University of Erlangen (Germany); Abbara, Suhny [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Cury, Ricardo C. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Booth, Sarah L. [Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, 711 Washington St., Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Jang, Ik-Kyung [Division of Cardiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Brady, Thomas J. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Hoffmann, Udo [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)]. E-mail: uhoffman@partners.org

    2006-03-15

    Introduction: The present study investigated the threshold-dependent variability of coronary artery calcification (CAC) measurements and the potential to quantify CAC in contrast-enhanced multi-detector row-computed tomography (MDCT). Methods: We compared the mean CT attenuation of CAC to luminal contrast enhancement of the coronary arteries in 30 patients (n = 30) undergoing standard coronary contrast-enhanced spiral MDCT. The modified Agatston score [AS], calcified plaque volume [CV], and mineral mass [MM] at four different thresholds (130, 200, 300, and 400 HU) were measured in 50 patients who underwent non-contrast-enhanced MDCT. Results: Mean CT attenuation of CAC was similar to the attenuation of the contrast-enhanced coronary lumen (CAC 297.1 {+-} 68.7 HU versus 295 {+-} 65 HU (p < 0.0001), respectively). Above a threshold of 300 HU CAC measurements significantly varied to standard measurements obtained at a threshold of 130 HU (p < 0.0001). The threshold-dependent variation of MM measurements was significantly smaller than for AS and CV (130 HU versus 400 HU: 63, 75, and 81, respectively; p < 0.001). These differences resulted in a change of age and gender based percentile category for AS in 78% of subjects. Discussion: We demonstrated that CAC measurements are threshold dependent with MM measurements having significantly less variation than AS or CV. Due to the similarity of mean CT attenuation of CAC and the contrast-enhanced coronary lumen accurate quantification of CAC may be difficult in standard coronary contrast-enhanced spiral MDCT.

  13. Density dependence and climate effects in Rocky Mountain elk: an application of regression with instrumental variables for population time series with sampling error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Scott; Creel, Michael

    2009-11-01

    1. Sampling error in annual estimates of population size creates two widely recognized problems for the analysis of population growth. First, if sampling error is mistakenly treated as process error, one obtains inflated estimates of the variation in true population trajectories (Staples, Taper & Dennis 2004). Second, treating sampling error as process error is thought to overestimate the importance of density dependence in population growth (Viljugrein et al. 2005; Dennis et al. 2006). 2. In ecology, state-space models are used to account for sampling error when estimating the effects of density and other variables on population growth (Staples et al. 2004; Dennis et al. 2006). In econometrics, regression with instrumental variables is a well-established method that addresses the problem of correlation between regressors and the error term, but requires fewer assumptions than state-space models (Davidson & MacKinnon 1993; Cameron & Trivedi 2005). 3. We used instrumental variables to account for sampling error and fit a generalized linear model to 472 annual observations of population size for 35 Elk Management Units in Montana, from 1928 to 2004. We compared this model with state-space models fit with the likelihood function of Dennis et al. (2006). We discuss the general advantages and disadvantages of each method. Briefly, regression with instrumental variables is valid with fewer distributional assumptions, but state-space models are more efficient when their distributional assumptions are met. 4. Both methods found that population growth was negatively related to population density and winter snow accumulation. Summer rainfall and wolf (Canis lupus) presence had much weaker effects on elk (Cervus elaphus) dynamics [though limitation by wolves is strong in some elk populations with well-established wolf populations (Creel et al. 2007; Creel & Christianson 2008)]. 5. Coupled with predictions for Montana from global and regional climate models, our results

  14. Multi-centennial Record of Labrador Sea Primary Productivity and Sea-Ice Variability Archived in Coralline Algal Ba/Ca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Phoebe; Halfar, Jochen; Adey, Walter; Hetzinger, Steffen; Zack, Thomas; Moore, Kent; Wortmann, Ulrich; Williams, Branwen; Hou, Alicia

    2017-04-01

    Arctic sea-ice thickness and concentration have dropped by approximately 9% per decade since 1978. Concurrent with this sea-ice decline is an increase in rates of phytoplankton productivity, driven by shoaling of the mixed layer and enhanced transmittance of solar radiation into the surface ocean. This has recently been confirmed by phytoplankton studies in Arctic and Subarctic basins that have revealed earlier timing, prolonged duration, and increased primary productivity of the spring phytoplankton bloom. However, difficulties of navigating in remote ice-laden waters and harsh polar climates have often resulted in short and incomplete records of in-situ plankton abundance in the northwestern Labrador Sea. Alternatively, information of past ocean productivity may be gained through the study of trace nutrient distributions in the surface water column. Investigations of dissolved barium (Ba) concentrations in the Arctic reveal significant depletions of Ba in surface seawaters due to biological scavenging during the spring phytoplankton bloom. Here we apply a barium-to-calcium (Ba/Ca) and carbon isotope (δ13C) multiproxy approach to long-lived crustose coralline algae in order to reconstruct an annually-resolved multi-centennial record of Labrador Sea productivity related to sea-ice variability in Labrador, Canada that extends well into the Little Ice Age (LIA; 1646 AD). The crustose coralline alga Clathromorphum compactum is a shallow marine calcareous plant that is abundant along the eastern Canadian coastline, and produces annual growth increments which allow for the precise calendar dating and geochemical sampling of hard tissue. Algal Ba/Ca ratios can serve as a promising new proxy for surface water productivity, demonstrating a close correspondence to δ13C that does not suffer from the anthropogenically-induced carbon isotope decline (ex. Suess Effect) beginning in the 1960s. Coralline algal Ba/Ca demonstrates statistically significant correlations to both

  15. Primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma is associated with somatically hypermutated immunoglobulin variable genes and frequent use of VH1-69 and VH4-59 segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, M; Pacchiarotti, A; Frontani, M; Pescarmona, E; Caprini, E; Lombardo, G A; Russo, G; Faraggiana, T

    2010-03-01

    Accurate assessment of the somatic mutational status of clonal immunoglobulin variable region (IgV) genes is relevant in elucidating tumour cell origin in B-cell lymphoma; virgin B cells bear unmutated IgV genes, while germinal centre and postfollicular B cells carry mutated IgV genes. Furthermore, biases in the IgV repertoire and distribution pattern of somatic mutations indicate a possible antigen role in the pathogenesis of B-cell malignancies. This work investigates the cellular origin and antigenic selection in primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma (PCBCL). We analysed the nucleotide sequence of clonal IgV heavy-chain gene (IgVH) rearrangements in 51 cases of PCBCL (25 follicle centre, 19 marginal zone and seven diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg-type) and compared IgVH sequences with their closest germline segment in the GenBank database. Molecular data were then correlated with histopathological features. We showed that all but one of the 51 IgVH sequences analysed exhibited extensive somatic hypermutations. The detected mutation rate ranged from 1.6% to 21%, with a median rate of 9.8% and was independent of PCBCL histotype. Calculation of antigen-selection pressure showed that 39% of the mutated IgVH genes displayed a number of replacement mutations and silent mutations in a pattern consistent with antigenic selection. Furthermore, two segments, VH1-69 (12%) and VH4-59 (14%), were preferentially used in our case series. Data indicate that neoplastic B cells of PBCBL have experienced germinal centre reaction and also suggest that the involvement of IgVH genes is not entirely random in PCBCL and that common antigen epitopes could be pathologically relevant in cutaneous lymphomagenesis.

  16. Frequency-dependent changes in local intrinsic oscillations in chronic primary insomnia: A study of the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations in the resting state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fuqing; Huang, Suhua; Zhuang, Ying; Gao, Lei; Gong, Honghan

    2017-01-01

    New neuroimaging techniques have led to significant advancements in our understanding of cerebral mechanisms of primary insomnia. However, the neuronal low-frequency oscillation remains largely uncharacterized in chronic primary insomnia (CPI). In this study, the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), a data-driven method based on resting-state functional MRI, was used to examine local intrinsic activity in 27 patients with CPI and 27 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls. We examined neural activity in two frequency bands, slow-4 (between 0.027 and 0.073 Hz) and slow-5 (0.010-0.027 Hz), because blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) fluctuations in different low-frequency bands may present different neurophysiological manifestations that pertain to a spatiotemporal organization. The ALFF associated with the primary disease effect was widely distributed in the cerebellum posterior lobe (CPL), dorsal and ventral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, precuneus, somatosensory cortex, and several default-mode sub-regions. Several brain regions (i.e., the right cerebellum, anterior lobe, and left putamen) exhibited an interaction between the frequency band and patient group. In the slow-5 band, increased ALFF of the right postcentral gyrus/inferior parietal lobule (PoCG/IPL) was enhanced in association with the sleep quality (ρ = 0.414, P  = 0.044) and anxiety index (ρ = 0.406, P  = 0.049) of the CPI patients. These findings suggest that during chronic insomnia, the intrinsic functional plasticity primarily responds to the hyperarousal state, which is the loss of inhibition in sensory-informational processing. Our findings regarding an abnormal sensory input and intrinsic processing mechanism might provide novel insight into the pathophysiology of CPI. Furthermore, the frequency factor should be taken into consideration when exploring ALFF-related clinical manifestations.

  17. Degree of multicollinearity and variables involved in linear dependence in additive-dominant models Grau de multicolinearidade e variáveis envolvidas na dependência linear em modelos aditivo-dominantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Petrini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the degree of multicollinearity and to identify the variables involved in linear dependence relations in additive-dominant models. Data of birth weight (n=141,567, yearling weight (n=58,124, and scrotal circumference (n=20,371 of Montana Tropical composite cattle were used. Diagnosis of multicollinearity was based on the variance inflation factor (VIF and on the evaluation of the condition indexes and eigenvalues from the correlation matrix among explanatory variables. The first model studied (RM included the fixed effect of dam age class at calving and the covariates associated to the direct and maternal additive and non-additive effects. The second model (R included all the effects of the RM model except the maternal additive effects. Multicollinearity was detected in both models for all traits considered, with VIF values of 1.03 - 70.20 for RM and 1.03 - 60.70 for R. Collinearity increased with the increase of variables in the model and the decrease in the number of observations, and it was classified as weak, with condition index values between 10.00 and 26.77. In general, the variables associated with additive and non-additive effects were involved in multicollinearity, partially due to the natural connection between these covariables as fractions of the biological types in breed composition.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o grau de multicolinearidade e identificar as variáveis envolvidas na dependência linear em modelos aditivo-dominantes. Foram utilizados dados de peso ao nascimento (n=141.567, peso ao ano (n=58.124 e perímetro escrotal (n=20.371 de bovinos de corte compostos Montana Tropical. O diagnóstico de multicolinearidade foi baseado no fator de inflação de variância (VIF e no exame dos índices de condição e dos autovalores da matriz de correlações entre as variáveis explanatórias. O primeiro modelo estudado (RM incluiu o efeito fixo de classe de idade da mãe ao parto e

  18. Effectiveness of an intervention in groups of family caregivers of dependent patients for their application in primary health centers. Study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Arechaederra Diana

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although Primary Health Care (PHC Teams are used to deal with prevention and treatment of sanitary problems in adults with chronic diseases, they usually have a lack of experience in development of psychotherapeutic interventions. However, these interventions are the ones that achieve better results to reduce symptomatology and improve emotional state of caregivers. The study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention of psychotherapy in improving the mental health and Quality of life of caregivers. This intervention is based on theoretical approaches to care adjusted to cognitive theory, in order to be applied in primary health care centres. Methods/Design This is multicentre clinical trials study, randomized in two parallel groups, carry out in two PHC, Study population: 150 caregivers will be included by consecutive sampling and they will be randomized the half to experimental group and the other half to control group. They provide mostly all the assistance to care-dependent familiars receiving attention in PHC Centers. Measurements: Each caregiver will be evaluated on a personal interview. The caregivers' assessment protocol: 1 Assessment of different socio-demographic related to care, and caregiver's personal situation. 2Care-dependent individuals will also be assessed by Barthel Index and Pfeiffer Questionnaire (SPMSQ. 3Change in caregivers will be the principal measure: family function (Family APGAR Questionnaire, burden short questionnaire (Short Zarit Burden Interview, quality of life (Ruiz & Baca: 1993 Questionnaire, the Duke-UNK Functional Social Support Questionnaire, the General Health Questionnaire-12, and changes in Dysfunctional Thoughts about caring. 4 Intervention implementation measures will also be assessed. Intervention: A psychotherapeutic intervention will be 8 sessions of 90 minutes in groups. This intervention has been initially developed for family caregivers of patients with dementia

  19. FasL and FADD delivery by a glioma-specific and cell cycle-dependent HSV-1 amplicon virus enhanced apoptosis in primary human brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Paula Y

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glioblastoma multiforme is the most malignant cancer of the brain and is notoriously difficult to treat due to the highly proliferative and infiltrative nature of the cells. Herein, we explored the combination treatment of pre-established human glioma xenograft using multiple therapeutic genes whereby the gene expression is regulated by both cell-type and cell cycle-dependent transcriptional regulatory mechanism conferred by recombinant HSV-1 amplicon vectors. Results We demonstrated for the first time that Ki67-positive proliferating primary human glioma cells cultured from biopsy samples were effectively induced into cell death by the dual-specific function of the pG8-FasL amplicon vectors. These vectors were relatively stable and exhibited minimal cytotoxicity in vivo. Intracranial implantation of pre-transduced glioma cells resulted in better survival outcome when compared with viral vectors inoculated one week post-implantation of tumor cells, indicating that therapeutic efficacy is dependent on the viral spread and mode of viral vectors administration. We further showed that pG8-FasL amplicon vectors are functional in the presence of commonly used treatment regimens for human brain cancer. In fact, the combined therapies of pG8-FasL and pG8-FADD in the presence of temozolomide significantly improved the survival of mice bearing intracranial high-grade gliomas. Conclusion Taken together, our results showed that the glioma-specific and cell cycle-dependent HSV-1 amplicon vector is potentially useful as an adjuvant therapy to complement the current gene therapy strategy for gliomas.

  20. Spatial variability of greenhouse gases emissions (CO2, CH4, N2O) in a tropical hydroelectric reservoir flooding primary forest (Petit Saut Reservoir, French Guiana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cailleaud, Emilie; Guérin, Frédéric; Bouillon, Steven; Sarrazin, Max; Serça, Dominique

    2014-05-01

    source of nitrogen in the water column of the PSR is the NH4+ produced during the mineralisation of the OM at the bottom of the reservoir. In OW, the production of NO3- and N2O is enhanced compared to the FF. As a result, N2O concentrations are three times higher at the bottom of OW but surface concentrations are similar in the FF and OW. CO2 diffusive fluxes are 40% higher and CH4 diffusive fluxes are three times higher in FF (CO2: 42±20 mmol m-2 d-1 ; CH4: 0.7±1.4 mmol m-2 d-1) than in OW (CO2: 27±17 mmol m-2 d-1 ; CH4: 0.2±0.3 mmol m-2 d-1). In shallow FF, average CH4 ebullition is 3±10 mmol m-2 d-1 whereas ebullition was never observed in OW. N2O emissions did not exhibit any spatial variability (9±4 μmol m-2 d-1). At the PSR, FF which represents one third of the surface area, is responsible of half of the GHG emissions from the reservoir. This implies that the emissions from most of the tropical reservoirs flooding primary forest need to be reassessed since FF environments are usually overlooked.

  1. The Use of Cluster Analysis for Non-Continuous Variables in the Assessment of Dietary Behaviours and Physical Activities in Primary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zalewska Magdalena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity, along with proper nutrition, is a very important element in child development. Lack of everyday, regular physical activity among young people is a public health problem. The aim of the study was to use cluster analysis to assess the relationship between nutrition and physical activity levels of primary school children. The study included 682 students from randomly selected elementary schools and was performed using a proprietary questionnaire during the 2013/2014 school year. The questionnaire contained questions about eating habits and physical activity, as well as the socio-economic conditions of families. Clusters of students of similar dietary habits were identified using cluster analysis and subsequently compared in terms of physical activity level. We identified four clusters, characterized by relative internal homogeneity and at the same time variability between one another in terms of number of meals throughout the day and time of their consumption. The most important characteristic of Cluster 1 was eating four meals a day including breakfast, which is the most important meal of the day. The diets of children in Cluster 2 abounded with raw vegetables and fruits. Students in Cluster 3 were characterized by a regular and varied diet. The least appropriate behaviour in the field of nutrition was observed among students belonging to Cluster 4. Cluster analysis in the studied population allowed relationships between dietary habits and physical activity to be described. By using the UIAF indicator (Moderate to Intense Physical Activity, a statistically significant association between the eating habits of the children and their physical activity levels was observed. A sufficient level of physical activity was observed in most students belonging to Cluster 3, and high levels of physical activity were observed in a small percentage of children belonging Cluster 4. An average level of physical activity was observed in a high

  2. A Pareto-Based Adaptive Variable Neighborhood Search for Biobjective Hybrid Flow Shop Scheduling Problem with Sequence-Dependent Setup Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixin Tian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Different from most researches focused on the single objective hybrid flowshop scheduling (HFS problem, this paper investigates a biobjective HFS problem with sequence dependent setup time. The two objectives are the minimization of total weighted tardiness and the total setup time. To efficiently solve this problem, a Pareto-based adaptive biobjective variable neighborhood search (PABOVNS is developed. In the proposed PABOVNS, a solution is denoted as a sequence of all jobs and a decoding procedure is presented to obtain the corresponding complete schedule. In addition, the proposed PABOVNS has three major features that can guarantee a good balance of exploration and exploitation. First, an adaptive selection strategy of neighborhoods is proposed to automatically select the most promising neighborhood instead of the sequential selection strategy of canonical VNS. Second, a two phase multiobjective local search based on neighborhood search and path relinking is designed for each selected neighborhood. Third, an external archive with diversity maintenance is adopted to store the nondominated solutions and at the same time provide initial solutions for the local search. Computational results based on randomly generated instances show that the PABOVNS is efficient and even superior to some other powerful multiobjective algorithms in the literature.

  3. Variable temperature ion trap studies of CH4+ + H2, HD and D2: negative temperature dependence and significant isotope effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asvany, O.; Savic, I.; Schlemmer, S.; Gerlich, D.

    2004-01-01

    Reactions of methane cations, CH 4 + , with H 2 , HD and D 2 have been studied in a variable temperature 22-pole ion trap from room temperature down to 15 K. The formation of CH 5 + in collisions with H 2 is slow at 300 K, but it becomes faster by at least one order of magnitude when the temperature is lowered to 15 K. This behavior is tentatively explained with a longer complex lifetime at low temperatures. However, since tunneling is most probably not responsible for product formation, other dynamical or statistical restrictions must be responsible for the negative temperature dependence. In collisions of CH 4 + with HD, the CH 5 + product ion (68% at 15 K) prevails over CH 4 D + (32%). Reaction of CH 4 + with D 2 is found to be much slower than with H 2 or HD. The rate coefficient for converting CH 4 + into CH 3 D + by H-D exchange has been determined to be smaller than 10 -12 cm 3 /s, indicating that scrambling in the CH 6 + complex is very unlikely

  4. Variable temperature ion trap studies of CH{sub 4}{sup +} + H{sub 2}, HD and D{sub 2}: negative temperature dependence and significant isotope effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asvany, O.; Savic, I.; Schlemmer, S.; Gerlich, D

    2004-03-08

    Reactions of methane cations, CH{sub 4}{sup +}, with H{sub 2}, HD and D{sub 2} have been studied in a variable temperature 22-pole ion trap from room temperature down to 15 K. The formation of CH{sub 5}{sup +} in collisions with H{sub 2} is slow at 300 K, but it becomes faster by at least one order of magnitude when the temperature is lowered to 15 K. This behavior is tentatively explained with a longer complex lifetime at low temperatures. However, since tunneling is most probably not responsible for product formation, other dynamical or statistical restrictions must be responsible for the negative temperature dependence. In collisions of CH{sub 4}{sup +} with HD, the CH{sub 5}{sup +} product ion (68% at 15 K) prevails over CH{sub 4}D{sup +} (32%). Reaction of CH{sub 4}{sup +} with D{sub 2} is found to be much slower than with H{sub 2} or HD. The rate coefficient for converting CH{sub 4}{sup +} into CH{sub 3}D{sup +} by H-D exchange has been determined to be smaller than 10{sup -12} cm{sup 3}/s, indicating that scrambling in the CH{sub 6}{sup +} complex is very unlikely.

  5. Vaccine induced antibodies to the first variable loop of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120, mediate antibody-dependent virus inhibition in macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialuk, Izabela; Whitney, Stephen; Andresen, Vibeke; Florese, Ruth H; Nacsa, Janos; Cecchinato, Valentina; Valeri, Valerio W; Heraud, Jean-Michel; Gordon, Shari; Parks, Robyn Washington; Montefiori, David C; Venzon, David; Demberg, Thorsten; Guroff, Marjorie Robert-; Landucci, Gary; Forthal, Donald N; Franchini, Genoveffa

    2011-12-09

    The role of antibodies directed against the hyper variable envelope region V1 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), has not been thoroughly studied. We show that a vaccine able to elicit strain-specific non-neutralizing antibodies to this region of gp120 is associated with control of highly pathogenic chimeric SHIV(89.6P) replication in rhesus macaques. The vaccinated animal that had the highest titers of antibodies to the amino terminus portion of V1, prior to challenge, had secondary antibody responses that mediated cell killing by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), as early as 2 weeks after infection and inhibited viral replication by antibody-dependent cell-mediated virus inhibition (ADCVI), by 4 weeks after infection. There was a significant inverse correlation between virus level and binding antibody titers to the envelope protein, (R=-0.83, p=0.015), and ADCVI (R=-0.84 p=0.044). Genotyping of plasma virus demonstrated in vivo selection of three SHIV(89.6P) variants with changes in potential N-linked glycosylation sites in V1. We found a significant inverse correlation between virus levels and titers of antibodies that mediated ADCVI against all the identified V1 virus variants. A significant inverse correlation was also found between neutralizing antibody titers to SHIV(89.6) and virus levels (R=-0.72 p=0.0050). However, passive inoculation of purified immunoglobulin from animal M316, the macaque that best controlled virus, to a naïve macaque, resulted in a low serum neutralizing antibodies and low ADCVI activity that failed to protect from SHIV(89.6P) challenge. Collectively, while our data suggest that anti-envelope antibodies with neutralizing and non-neutralizing Fc(R-dependent activities may be important in the control of SHIV replication, they also demonstrate that low levels of these antibodies alone are not sufficient to protect from infection. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Can a soda-lime glass be used to demonstrate how patterns of strength dependence are influenced by pre-cementation and resin-cementation variables?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hooi, Paul

    2013-01-01

    To determine how the variability in biaxial flexure strength of a soda-lime glass analogue for a PLV and DBC material was influenced by precementation operative variables and following resin-cement coating.

  7. Concurrent E-Cigarette Use During Tobacco Dependence Treatment in Primary Care Settings: Association With Smoking Cessation at Three and Six Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawertailo, Laurie; Pavlov, Dmytro; Ivanova, Anna; Ng, Ginnie; Baliunas, Dolly; Selby, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are being used as cessation aids by many smokers despite a lack of empirical evidence regarding their safety and efficacy. We analyzed the association of e-cigarette use and smoking abstinence in a population of smokers accessing standard smoking cessation treatment (nicotine replacement therapy [NRT] plus behavioral counseling) through primary care clinics in Ontario, Canada. Participants were recruited through 187 primary care clinics across Ontario, Canada and were eligible for up to 26 weeks of brief behavioral counseling and individualized dosing of NRT at no cost. Adjusted logistic regression models were used to examine the association between concurrent e-cigarette use and smoking abstinence at 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Of the 6526 participants who completed a 3-month follow-up, 18.1% reported using an e-cigarette while in treatment. The majority of e-cigarette users (78.2%) reported using an e-cigarette for smoking cessation. At 3-month follow-up, e-cigarette use was negatively associated with abstinence after controlling for confounders (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.706, p E-cigarette use was also negatively associated with abstinence at 6-month follow-up (AOR = 0.502, p E-cigarette use was negatively associated with successful quitting in this large community sample of smokers accessing standard evidence-based smoking cessation treatment through primary care clinics, even after adjusting for covariates such as severity of tobacco dependence, gender, and age. The findings suggest that concurrent use of e-cigarettes with NRT may harm cessation attempts. This study confirms previous findings from observational studies regarding the negative association between e-cigarette use and smoking cessation, but in a large cohort of smokers enrolled in an evidence-based treatment program. The implications of these findings are that concurrent use of e-cigarettes during a quit attempt utilizing cost-free evidence-based treatment

  8. Avoiding and Correcting Bias in Score-Based Latent Variable Regression with Discrete Manifest Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Irene R. R.; Thomas, D. Roland

    2008-01-01

    This article considers models involving a single structural equation with latent explanatory and/or latent dependent variables where discrete items are used to measure the latent variables. Our primary focus is the use of scores as proxies for the latent variables and carrying out ordinary least squares (OLS) regression on such scores to estimate…

  9. Barriers and facilitators to primary care or human immunodeficiency virus clinics providing methadone or buprenorphine for the management of opioid dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Barbara J; Laine, Christine; Lin, Yi-Ting; Lynch, Kevin

    Federal initiatives aim to increase office-based treatment of opioid dependence, but, to our knowledge, factors associated with willingness to deliver this care have not been defined. The objective of this study was to describe clinics' willingness to provide methadone hydrochloride or buprenorphine hydrochloride for opioid dependence. The design of the study was a survey conducted in New York State. Two hundred sixty-one directors of primary care and/or human immunodeficiency virus specialty clinics (response rate, 61.1%) that serve Medicaid enrollees were questioned. Outcomes were willingness to provide methadone and buprenorphine. Predictors included clinic characteristics, attitudes about drug users and their treatment, and reported barriers and facilitators to treatment. Clinics were more willing to provide buprenorphine than methadone treatment (59.8% vs 32.6%; P methadone. Willingness was positively associated with continuing medical education credits for training, but negatively associated with greater concern about medication abuse. Immediate telephone access to an addiction expert was associated with willingness to provide buprenorphine (AOR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.15-3.76). Greater willingness to provide methadone was associated with a belief that methadone-treated patients should be seen along with other patients (AOR, 6.20; 95% CI, 1.78-21.64), methadone program affiliation (AOR, 4.76; 95% CI, 1.64-13.82), and having more patients with chronic pain in the clinic (AOR, 2.80; 95% CI, 1.44-5.44). These clinics serving Medicaid enrollees were more receptive to buprenorphine than methadone treatment. Willingness to provide this care was greater in clinics offering human immunodeficiency virus services, treating more chronic pain, or affiliated with methadone programs. Accessible addiction experts and continuing medical education for training may facilitate adoption of this care.

  10. The dynamic relationship between current and previous severe hypoglycemic events: a lagged dependent variable analysis among patients with type 2 diabetes who have initiated basal insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Michael L; Li, Qian; Wintfeld, Neil S; Lee, Yuan-Chi; Sorli, Christopher; Huang, Joanna C

    2015-01-01

    Past studies have found episodes of severe hypoglycemia (SH) to be serially dependent. Those studies, however, only considered the impact of a single (index) event on future risk; few have analyzed SH risk as it evolves over time in the presence (or absence) of continuing events. The objective of this study was to determine the dynamic risks of SH events conditional on preceding SH events among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) who have initiated basal insulin. We used an electronic health records database from the United States that included encounter and laboratory data and clinical notes on T2D patients who initiated basal insulin therapy between 2008 and 2011 and to identify SH events. We used a repeated-measures lagged dependent variable logistic regression model to estimate the impact of SH in one quarter on the risk of SH in the next quarter. We identified 7235 patients with T2D who initiated basal insulin. Patients who experienced ≥1 SH event during any quarter were more likely to have ≥1 SH event during the subsequent quarter than those who did not (predicted probabilities of 7.4% and 1.0%, respectively; p history of SH before starting basal insulin (predicted probabilities of 1.0% and 3.2%, respectively; p history of SH during the titration period (predicted probabilities of 1.1% and 2.8%, respectively; p history of SH events and therefore the value of preventing one SH event may be substantial. These results can inform patient care by providing clinicians with dynamic data on a patient's risk of SH, which in turn can facilitate appropriate adjustment of the risk-benefit ratio for individualized patient care. These results should, however, be interpreted in light of the key limitations of our study: not all SH events may have been captured or coded in the database, data on filled prescriptions were not available, we were unable to adjust for basal insulin dose, and the post-titration follow-up period could have divided into time units other

  11. VARIABILITY IN NET PRIMARY PRODUCTION AND CARBON STORAGE IN BIOMASS ACROSS OREGON FORESTS - AN ASSESSMENT INTEGRATING DATA FROM FOREST INVENTORIES, INTENSIVE SITES, AND REMOTE SENSING. (R828309)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We used a combination of data from USDA Forest Service inventories, intensivechronosequences, extensive sites, and satellite remote sensing, to estimate biomassand net primary production (NPP) for the forested region of western Oregon. Thestudy area was divided int...

  12. Seasonal Oxygen Dynamics in a Warm Temperate Estuary: Effects of Hydrologic Variability on Measurements of Primary Production, Respiration, and Net Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasonal responses in estuarine metabolism (primary production, respiration, and net metabolism) were examined using two complementary approaches. Total ecosystem metabolism rates were calculated from dissolved oxygen time series using Odum’s open water method. Water column rates...

  13. Direction-dependent Corrections in Polarimetric Radio Imaging. I. Characterizing the Effects of the Primary Beam on Full-Stokes Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagannathan, P.; Bhatnagar, S.; Rau, U. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro (United States); Taylor, A. R., E-mail: pjaganna@nrao.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Cape Town (South Africa)

    2017-08-01

    Next generation radio telescope arrays are being designed and commissioned to accurately measure polarized intensity and rotation measures (RMs) across the entire sky through deep, wide-field radio interferometric surveys. Radio interferometer dish antenna arrays are affected by direction-dependent (DD) gains due to both instrumental and atmospheric effects. In this paper, we demonstrate the effect of DD errors of the parabolic dish antenna array on the measured polarized intensities of radio sources in interferometric images. We characterize the extent of polarimetric image degradation due to the DD gains through wide-band VLA simulations of representative point-source simulations of the radio sky at L band (1–2 GHz). We show that at the 0.5 gain level of the primary beam there is significant flux leakage from Stokes I to Q , U amounting to 10% of the total intensity. We further demonstrate that while the instrumental response averages down for observations over large parallactic angle intervals, full-polarization DD correction is required to remove the effects of DD leakage. We also explore the effect of the DD beam on the RM signals and show that while the instrumental effect is primarily centered around 0 rad-m{sup −2}, the effect is significant over a broad range of RM requiring full polarization DD correction to accurately reconstruct the RM synthesis signal.

  14. Dependence of diameters and oxygen saturation of retinal vessels on visual field damage and age in primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramm, Lisa; Jentsch, Susanne; Peters, Sven; Sauer, Lydia; Augsten, Regine; Hammer, Martin

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the interrelationship between the oxygen supply of the retina and its regulation with the severity of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Central retinal artery (CRAE) and vein (CRVE) diameters and oxygen saturation of peripapillary retinal vessels in 41 patients suffering from POAG (64.1 ± 12.9 years) and 40 healthy volunteers (63.6 ± 14.1 years) were measured using the retinal vessel analyzer. All measures were taken before and during flicker light stimulation. The mean retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) was determined by OCT and the visual field mean defect (MD) was identified using perimetry. In glaucoma patients, CRAE (r = -0.48 p = 0.002) and CRVE (r = -0.394 p = 0.014) at baseline were inversely related to MD, while arterial and venous oxygen saturation showed no significant dependence on the severity of the damage. However, the flicker light-induced change in arterio-venous difference in oxygen saturation was correlated with the MD (r = 0.358 p = 0.027). The diameters of arteries and veins at baseline decreased with reduction of the mean RNFLT (arteries: r = 0.718 p field loss, may be explained by a reduction of the retinal metabolic demand with progressive loss of neuronal tissue in glaucoma. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Glucose-induced lipid deposition in goose primary hepatocytes is dependent on the PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Chunchun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously we showed that fatty liver formation in overfed geese was accompanied by PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway activation and changes in plasma glucose concentrations. Here, we show that glucose acts in goose hepatocellular lipid metabolism through the PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling pathway. We observed that glucose increased lipogenesis, decreased fatty acid oxidation and increased very low density lipoprotein triglyceride (VLDL-TG assembly and secretion. Co-treatment with glucose and inhibitors of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway (LY294002, rapamycin, NVP-BEZ235 decreased the levels of factors involved in lipogenesis and increased the levels of factors involved in fatty acid oxidation and VLDL-TG assembly and secretion. These findings show that inhibition of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway decreased glucose-induced lipogenesis, inhibited the downregulation of fatty acid oxidation by glucose and increased the upregulation of VLDL-TG assembly and secretion by glucose. The results presented herein provide further support for the role of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway in lipid metabolism as we showed that in goose primary hepatocytes, glucose acts through the PI3K-Akt-mTOR-dependent pathway to stimulate lipid deposition by increasing lipogenesis and decreasing fatty acid oxidation and VLDL-TG assembly and secretion.

  16. Secondary emission coefficient dependence on the angle of incidence of primary electrons on CsI and LiF layers. [0. 9 to 3 keV, mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabel' nikova, A E; Yasnopol' skii, N L

    1976-08-01

    The angular dependence was studied of the secondary emission coefficient sigma for CsI and LiF dielectrics which have large sigma in conditions of normal incidence of primary electrons. Measurements were taken down to the angle of 85 deg for energies of primary electrons between 0.9 and 3 keV. In the whole range of angles a nonmonotonic angular dependence sigma is observed. The dependence shows itself particularly clearly for CsI at large energies of primary electrons. Such a behaviour is due to the decrease in the depth of yield of inelastically reflected electrons and to the increase in the inelastic reflection coefficient of the substance.

  17. Spatial and temporal variability of chlorophyll and primary productivity in surface waters of southern Chile (41.5 43° S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriarte, J. L.; González, H. E.; Liu, K. K.; Rivas, C.; Valenzuela, C.

    2007-09-01

    The southern fjord region of Chile is a unique ecosystem characterized by complex marine-terrestrial-atmospheric interactions that result in high biological production. Since organic nitrogen from terrestrial and atmospheric compartments is highly significant in this region (>40%), as is the low NO 3:PO 4 ratio in surface waters, it is suggested that fertilization from inorganic and organic nitrogen sources has a strong influence on both phytoplankton biomass/primary production and harmful algae bloom dynamics. The data presented in this paper provide an opportunity to improve our knowledge of phytoplankton dynamics on temporal and spatial mesoscales. Ocean color data from NASA (SeaWiFS) for chlorophyll and primary production estimates and in situ surface measurement of inorganic nutrients, phytoplankton biomass, and primary productivity revealed that the coastal waters of southern Chile have a classical spring and autumn chlorophyll bloom cycle in which primary production is co-limited by strong seasonal changes in light and nitrate. During spring blooms, autotrophic biomass (such as chlorophyll a, Chl- a) and primary production estimates reached 25 mg Chl- a m -3 and 23 mg C m -3 h -1, respectively, and micro-phytoplankton accounted for a significant portion of the biomass (60%) in spring. The contribution of phytoplankton size classes to total chlorophyll a revealed the dominance of nanoplankton (>50%) in winter and post-bloom periods (<1.0 mg Chl- a m -3).

  18. Genetic Variability of the Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Peptide Gene Is Involved in the Premature Coronary Artery Disease in a Chinese Population with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Ma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP is closely related to diabetes and obesity, both of which are confirmed to increase the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD. Our study aimed to investigate whether the polymorphisms in GIP genes could affect the risk of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetic patients in the Chinese Han population. Methods. We selected and genotyped two haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tag-SNPs (rs2291725 C>T, rs8078510 G>A of GIP gene based on CHB data in HapMap Phase II database (r2<0.8. The case-control study of Chinese Han population involved 390 diabetic patients with CAD as positive group and 276 diabetic patients without CAD as control group. Allele and genotype frequencies were compared between the two groups. Results. In dominant inheritance model, the carriers of T/T or T/C had a lower risk of CAD (OR = 0.635, 95% CI = 0.463–0.872, p=0.005, even after adjustment other CAD risk factors (gender, age, BMI, smoking status, dyslipidemia, hypertension history, and diabetic duration (OR′ = 0.769, 95% CI′ = 0.626–0.945, p′=0.013. The allele A at rs8078510 was associated with decreased risk of CAD (OR = 0.732, p=0.039. p=0.018 in subgroup analysis, individuals with higher BMI (≥24 kg/m2 had increased risk for CAD when carrying C/C at rs2291725 (OR′ = 1.291, 95% CI′ = 1.017–1.639, p′=0.036. In age < 55 men and age < 65 women, the carriers of allele C at rs2291725 had a higher risk of CAD than noncarriers (OR = 1.627, p=0.015. Carriers of allele G in rs8078510 had higher susceptibility to CAD (OR = 2.049, 95% = CI 1.213–3.463, p=0.007. p=0.004; in addition, allele G in rs8078510 would bring higher CAD risk to the carriers who ever smoked (OR = 1.695, 95% CI = 1.080–2.660, p=0.021. Conclusion. The genetic variability of GIP gene is associated with CAD and it may play a role in the premature CAD in the

  19. Variability of the Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 Flexibility Without Significant Change in the Initial Conformation of the Protein or Its Environment; a Computational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, Mohammad; Goliaei, Bahram; Madadkar-Sobhani, Armin

    2016-06-01

    Protein flexibility, which has been referred as a dynamic behavior has various roles in proteins' functions. Furthermore, for some developed tools in bioinformatics, such as protein-protein docking software, considering the protein flexibility, causes a higher degree of accuracy. Through undertaking the present work, we have accomplished the quantification plus analysis of the variations in the human Cyclin Dependent Kinase 2 (hCDK2) protein flexibility without affecting a significant change in its initial environment or the protein per se. The main goal of the present research was to calculate variations in the flexibility for each residue of the hCDK2, analysis of their flexibility variations through clustering, and to investigate the functional aspects of the residues with high flexibility variations. Using Gromacs package (version 4.5.4), three independent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the hCDK2 protein (PDB ID: 1HCL) was accomplished with no significant changes in their initial environments, structures, or conformations, followed by Root Mean Square Fluctuations (RMSF) calculation of these MD trajectories. The amount of variations in these three curves of RMSF was calculated using two formulas. More than 50% of the variation in the flexibility (the distance between the maximum and the minimum amount of the RMSF) was found at the region of Val-154. As well, there are other major flexibility fluctuations in other residues. These residues were mostly positioned in the vicinity of the functional residues. The subsequent works were done, as followed by clustering all hCDK2 residues into four groups considering the amount of their variability with respect to flexibility and their position in the RMSF curves. This work has introduced a new class of flexibility aspect of the proteins' residues. It could also help designing and engineering proteins, with introducing a new dynamic aspect of hCDK2, and accordingly, for the other similar globular proteins. In

  20. Cyclic AMP-dependent signaling system is a primary metabolic target for non-thermal effect of microwaves on heart muscle hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narinyan, Lilia; Ayrapetyan, Sinerik

    2017-01-01

    Previously, we have suggested that cell hydration is a universal and extra-sensitive sensor for the structural changes of cell aqua medium caused by the impact of weak chemical and physical factors. The aim of present work is to elucidate the nature of the metabolic messenger through which physiological solution (PS) treated by non-thermal (NT) microwaves (MW) could modulate heart muscle hydration of rats. For this purpose, the effects of NT MW-treated PS on heart muscle hydration, [ 3 H]-ouabain binding with cell membrane, 45 Ca 2+ uptake and intracellular cyclic nucleotides contents in vivo and in vitro experiments were studied. It is shown that intraperitoneal injections of both Sham-treated PS and NT MW-treated PS elevate heart muscle hydration. However, the effect of NT MW-treated PS on muscle hydration is more pronounced than the effect of Sham-treated PS. In vitro experiments NT MW-treated PS has dehydration effect on muscle, which is not changed by decreasing Na + gradients on membrane. Intraperitoneal injection of Sham- and NT MW-treated PS containing 45 Ca 2+ have similar dehydration effect on muscle, while NT MW-treated PS has activation effect on Na + /Ca 2+ exchange in reverse mode. The intraperitoneal injection of NT MW-treated PS depresses [ 3 H]-ouabain binding with its high-affinity membrane receptors, elevates intracellular cAMP and decreases cGMP contents. Based on the obtained data, it is suggested that cAMP-dependent signaling system serves as a primary metabolic target for NT MW effect on heart muscle hydration.

  1. The Influence of Mathematics Professional Development, School-Level, and Teacher-Level Variables on Primary Students' Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polly, Drew; Wang, Chuang; Martin, Christie; Lambert, Richard; Pugalee, David; Middleton, Catherina

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the influence of a professional development project about an internet-based mathematics formative assessment tool and related pedagogies on primary teachers' instruction and student achievement. Teachers participated in 72 h of professional development during the year. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analyses of…

  2. An Investigation of Pre-Service Primary School Teachers' Attitudes towards Digital Technology and Digital Citizenship Levels in Terms of Some Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çiftci, Serdar; Aladag, Soner

    2018-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the relationship between pre-service primary school teachers' attitudes towards digital technology and digital citizenship scale levels. The research was designed in descriptive survey model. The data collection tools were "Attitude Scale for Digital Technology" (ASDT) developed by Cabi (2016) and…

  3. The morphological signs of plants of white cabbage (Brassica oleraceae L. convar. capitata (L. Alef. var. alba DC and their variability depending on type of sort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Я. Жук

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Indicators of the morphological signs of type of sort on white cabbage plants Dutch flat, Belarus, Amager, Langendijker winter and their variability are the presented. It is established low and average factor of a variation at the majority of the morphological signs. Strong high-quality and ecological variability of signs “height external rake” and “its size leafy parts” at type of sort Dutch flat is defined.

  4. Geostatistical and GIS analysis of the spatial variability of alluvial gold content in Ngoura-Colomines area, Eastern Cameroon: Implications for the exploration of primary gold deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takodjou Wambo, Jonas Didero; Ganno, Sylvestre; Djonthu Lahe, Yannick Sthopira; Kouankap Nono, Gus Djibril; Fossi, Donald Hermann; Tchouatcha, Milan Stafford; Nzenti, Jean Paul

    2018-06-01

    Linear and nonlinear geostatistic is commonly used in ore grade estimation and seldom used in Geographical Information System (GIS) technology. In this study, we suggest an approach based on geostatistic linear ordinary kriging (OK) and Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques to investigate the spatial distribution of alluvial gold content, mineralized and gangue layers thicknesses from 73 pits at the Ngoura-Colomines area with the aim to determine controlling factors for the spatial distribution of mineralization and delineate the most prospective area for primary gold mineralization. Gold content varies between 0.1 and 4.6 g/m3 and has been broadly grouped into three statistical classes. These classes have been spatially subdivided into nine zones using ordinary kriging model based on physical and topographical characteristics. Both mineralized and barren layer thicknesses show randomly spatial distribution, and there is no correlation between these parameters and the gold content. This approach has shown that the Ngoura-Colomines area is located in a large shear zone compatible with the Riedel fault system composed of P and P‧ fractures oriented NE-SW and NNE-SSW respectively; E-W trending R fractures and R‧ fractures with NW-SE trends that could have contributed significantly to the establishment of this gold mineralization. The combined OK model and GIS analysis have led to the delineation of Colomines, Tissongo, Madubal and Boutou villages as the most prospective areas for the exploration of primary gold deposit in the study area.

  5. Influence of ozone pollution and climate variability on net primary productivity and carbon storage in China's grassland ecosystems from 1961 to 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Wei; Tian Hanqin; Chen Guangsheng; Liu Mingliang; Zhang Chi; Chappelka, Arthur H.; Pan Shufen

    2007-01-01

    Our simulations with the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM) indicate that the combined effect of ozone, climate, carbon dioxide and land use have caused China's grasslands to act as a weak carbon sink during 1961-2000. This combined effect on national grassland net primary productivity (NPP) and carbon storage was small, but changes in annual NPP and total carbon storage across China's grasslands showed substantial spatial variation, with the maximum total carbon uptake reduction of more than 400 g m -2 in some places of northeastern China. The grasslands in the central northeastern China were more sensitive and vulnerable to elevated ozone pollution than other regions. The combined effect excluding ozone could potentially lead to an increase of 14 Tg C in annual NPP and 0.11 Pg C in total carbon storage for the same time period. This implies that improvement in air quality could significantly increase productivity and carbon storage in China's grassland ecosystems. - Net primary productivity and carbon storage across China's grassland in the late half of the 20th century have been assessed by using the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model

  6. Positional variability of a tandem applicator system in HDR brachytherapy for primary treatment of cervix cancer. Analysis of the anatomic pelvic position and comparison of the applicator positions during five insertions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulf, J.; Popp, K.; Oppitz, U.; Baier, K.; Flentje, M.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: evaluation of the inter- and intraindividual applicator variability of multiple high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy applications for primary treatment of cancer of the uterine cervix. Material and methods: retrospective analysis of 460 pairs of orthogonal X-ray films for conventional treatment in 92 patients with five intrauterine applications using an HDR tandem applicator. Measurement of the position of the applicator origin relative to a bony reference system in three dimensions. Evaluation of the differences of the applicator position in all 460 applications (interindividual variability), of the five applications in a single patient (intraindividual variability) and of the intraindividual variability relative to the applicator position at the first application. Results: the position of the applicator origin in the pelvis ranged from 23 mm cranial and 55 mm caudal to the top of femoral heads, 23 mm right and 27 mm left to the pelvic midline, and 6-53 mm dorsal to the mid of the femoral heads. Standard deviation (SD) of interindividual applicator variability was 12.9 mm (minimum/maximum -55/+23 mm, mean -13.6 mm) in longitudinal, 5.1 mm (-27/+23 mm, mean 1.6 mm) in lateral, and 7.6 mm (6/53 mm, mean 26 mm) in anterior-posterior [AP] direction. SD of intraindividual variability was 5.5 mm (-21/+23 mm, mean 0 mm) in longitudinal, 2.5 mm (-17/+19 mm, mean 0 mm) in lateral, and 4.2 mm (-15/+18 mm, mean 0 mm) in AP direction compared to intraindividual variability relative to the first insertion with an SD of 8.9 mm (-23/+36 mm, mean 2.8 mm) in longitudinal, 4.0 mm (-11/+23 mm, mean 0 mm) in lateral, and 6.8 mm (-27/+17 mm, mean -0.8 mm) in AP direction. Conclusion: intraindividual applicator variability is significantly smaller than interindividual variability. Applicator-related procedures such as midline shielding or dose matching of tele- and brachytherapy should be performed with information on at least one individual applicator position. (orig.)

  7. Positional variability of a tandem applicator system in HDR brachytherapy for primary treatment of cervix cancer. Analysis of the anatomic pelvic position and comparison of the applicator positions during five insertions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wulf, J.; Popp, K.; Oppitz, U.; Baier, K.; Flentje, M. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Univ. of Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2004-04-01

    Purpose: evaluation of the inter- and intraindividual applicator variability of multiple high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy applications for primary treatment of cancer of the uterine cervix. Material and methods: retrospective analysis of 460 pairs of orthogonal X-ray films for conventional treatment in 92 patients with five intrauterine applications using an HDR tandem applicator. Measurement of the position of the applicator origin relative to a bony reference system in three dimensions. Evaluation of the differences of the applicator position in all 460 applications (interindividual variability), of the five applications in a single patient (intraindividual variability) and of the intraindividual variability relative to the applicator position at the first application. Results: the position of the applicator origin in the pelvis ranged from 23 mm cranial and 55 mm caudal to the top of femoral heads, 23 mm right and 27 mm left to the pelvic midline, and 6-53 mm dorsal to the mid of the femoral heads. Standard deviation (SD) of interindividual applicator variability was 12.9 mm (minimum/maximum -55/+23 mm, mean -13.6 mm) in longitudinal, 5.1 mm (-27/+23 mm, mean 1.6 mm) in lateral, and 7.6 mm (6/53 mm, mean 26 mm) in anterior-posterior [AP] direction. SD of intraindividual variability was 5.5 mm (-21/+23 mm, mean 0 mm) in longitudinal, 2.5 mm (-17/+19 mm, mean 0 mm) in lateral, and 4.2 mm (-15/+18 mm, mean 0 mm) in AP direction compared to intraindividual variability relative to the first insertion with an SD of 8.9 mm (-23/+36 mm, mean 2.8 mm) in longitudinal, 4.0 mm (-11/+23 mm, mean 0 mm) in lateral, and 6.8 mm (-27/+17 mm, mean -0.8 mm) in AP direction. Conclusion: intraindividual applicator variability is significantly smaller than interindividual variability. Applicator-related procedures such as midline shielding or dose matching of tele- and brachytherapy should be performed with information on at least one individual applicator position. (orig.)

  8. Correlation between perception of quality of life and social/demographic/medical variables as well as anti-health behaviours among alcohol-dependent individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Makara-Studzińska

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The level of life quality of people with alcohol dependence is significantly influenced by socio-demographic factors such as: gender, marital status and having a family. Additionally promoting anti-health behaviors such as smoking or using psychoactive substances among those with alcohol dependence also reduces the quality of life in this population. Aim of the research: The purpose of this project was to determine the impact of selected psycho-social and medical factors on the quality of life in alcohol-dependent patients in relation to the duration of abstinence. Study data served to determine whether there is a correlation between the presence of selected psycho-social and medical factors and a patient’s subjective perception of his/her quality of life. Material and methods: The study involved alcohol-dependent patients undergoing treatment in the Residential Alcohol Addiction Therapy Department of the Neuropsychiatric Hospital in Lublin. In the first stage of the study, the severity of the alcohol problem was assessed with the MAST and CAGE tests and quality of life was assessed with the SF-36 questionnaire. An Original Socio-Demographic Questionnaire was also used. In the second stage of the study, the SF-36 scale was used to evaluate the quality of life. The Original Socio-Demographic Questionnaire was also used. Results : The socio-economic factors that had a statistically significant impact on the quality of life of the alcohol-dependent individuals comprised sex, marital status and having a family. Marital status was shown to be one of the most important family-related factors significantly influencing the quality of life. Having a family was not a factor associated with subjective improvement of the quality of life during abstinence for alcohol-dependent individuals. Awareness of socio-economic and medical factors influencing quality of life in individuals addicted to alcohol and gambling is an important

  9. Temperature dependence of CO2-enhanced primary production in the European Arctic Ocean, supplement to: Holding, Johnna; Duarte, Carlos M; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Mesa, E; Arrieta, J M; Chierici, Melissa; Hendriks, Iris; García-Corral, L S; Regaudie-de-Gioux, A; Delgado, A; Reigstad, M; Wassmann, P; Agustí, Susana (2015): Temperature dependence of CO2-enhanced primary production in the European Arctic Ocean. Nature Climate Change, 5(12), 1079-1082

    KAUST Repository

    Holding, Johnna

    2016-01-01

    The Arctic Ocean is warming at two to three times the global rate and is perceived to be a bellwether for ocean acidification. Increased CO2 concentrations are expected to have a fertilization effect on marine autotrophs, and higher temperatures should lead to increased rates of planktonic primary production. Yet, simultaneous assessment of warming and increased CO2 on primary production in the Arctic has not been conducted. Here we test the expectation that CO2-enhanced gross primary production (GPP) may be temperature dependent, using data from several oceanographic cruises and experiments from both spring and summer in the European sector of the Arctic Ocean. Results confirm that CO2 enhances GPP (by a factor of up to ten) over a range of 145-2,099?µatm; however, the greatest effects are observed only at lower temperatures and are constrained by nutrient and light availability to the spring period. The temperature dependence of CO2-enhanced primary production has significant implications for metabolic balance in a warmer, CO2-enriched Arctic Ocean in the future. In particular, it indicates that a twofold increase in primary production during the spring is likely in the Arctic.

  10. Applying the Transactional Stress and Coping Model to Sickle Cell Disorder and Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus: Identifying Psychosocial Variables Related to Adjustment and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Matthew C.; Lochman, John E.

    2005-01-01

    This review paper examines the literature on psychosocial factors associated with adjustment to sickle cell disease and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in children through the framework of the transactional stress and coping (TSC) model. The transactional stress and coping model views adaptation to a childhood chronic illness as mediated by…

  11. Growth-dependent modulation of casein kinase II and its substrate nucleolin in primary human cell cultures and HeLa cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, H R; Issinger, O G

    1989-01-01

    We have previously provided evidence that casein kinase II (CKII) and its substrate nucleolin increase concomitantly during certain development stages during embryogenesis (Schneider et al., Eur. J. Biochem. 161, 733-738). We now show that during normal growth of primary cell cultures and He...

  12. Transverse momentum dependence of inclusive primary charged-particle production in p–Pb collisions at √sNN = 5.02 TeV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abelev, B.; Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Agnello, M.; Agostinelli, A.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, N.; Ahmed, I.; Ahn, S. U.; Ahn, S. A.; Aimo, I.; Aiola, S.; Ajaz, M.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Alves Garcia Prado, C.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Aronsson, T.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmi, M. D.; Bach, M.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Baral, R. C.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartke, J.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batista Camejo, A.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Baumann, C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Belmont, R.; Belyaev, V.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Berger, M. E.; Bertens, R. A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371577810; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I. R.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371578248; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Bjelogrlic, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/355079615; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Bogolyubsky, M.; Böhmer, F. V.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Bossú, F.; Botje, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070139032; Botta, E.; Böttger, S.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Calero Diaz, L.; Caliva, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411885812; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Casula, E. A R; Catanescu, V.; Cavicchioli, C.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chelnokov, V.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Chochula, P.; Chojnacki, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411888056; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa Del Valle, Z.; Connors, M. E.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortese, P.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Crochet, P.; Cruz Albino, R.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dainese, A.; Dang, R.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, K.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; De, S.; Delagrange, H.; Deloff, A.; Dénes, E.; D'erasmo, G.; De Caro, A.; De Cataldo, G.; De Cuveland, J.; De Falco, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; De Pasquale, S.; De Rooij, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/315888644; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Dietel, T.; Dillenseger, P.; Divià, R.; Di Bari, D.; Di Liberto, S.; Di Mauro, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Djuvsland, O.; Dobrin, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/372618715; Dobrowolski, T.; Domenicis Gimenez, D.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Dørheim, S.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/355502488; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Dutta Majumdar, A. K.; Hilden, T. E.; Ehlers, R. J.; Elia, D.; Engel, H.; Erazmus, B.; Erdal, H. A.; Eschweiler, D.; Espagnon, B.; Esposito, M.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Falchieri, D.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Fehlker, D.; Feldkamp, L.; Felea, D.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Ferencei, J.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A S; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Floratos, E.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A. M.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Gargiulo, C.; Garishvili, I.; Gerhard, J.; Germain, M.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Ghidini, B.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Gomez Ramirez, A.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Görlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Grelli, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/326052577; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Gronefeld, J. M.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grossiord, J. Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Guilbaud, M.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gulkanyan, H.; Gumbo, M.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Khan, K. H.; Haake, R.; Haaland, I.M.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Hanratty, L. D.; Hansen, A.; Harris, J. W.; Hartmann, H.; Harton, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Heckel, S. T.; Heide, M.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrera Corral, G.; Hess, B. A.; Hetland, K. F.; Hippolyte, B.; Hladky, J.; Hristov, P.; Huang, M.; Humanic, T. J.; Hussain, N.; Hutter, D.; Hwang, D. S.; Ilkaev, R.; Ilkiv, I.; Inaba, M.; Innocenti, G. M.; Ionita, C.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, V.; Jachołkowski, A.; Jacobs, P. M.; Jahnke, C.; Jang, H. J.; Janik, M. A.; Jayarathna, P. H S Y; Jena, C.; Jena, S.; Jimenez Bustamante, R. T.; Jones, P. G.; Jung, H.; Jusko, A.; Kadyshevskiy, V.; Kalcher, S.; Kalinak, P.; Kalweit, A.; Kamin, J.; Kang, J. H.; Kaplin, V.; Kar, S.; Karasu Uysal, A.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karpechev, E.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Keijdener, D. L D|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370530780; Khan, M. M.; Khan, P.; Khan, S. A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Kileng, B.; Kim, B.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, M.; Kim, M.; Kim, S.; Kim, T.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Kiss, G.; Klay, J. L.; Klein, J.; Klein-Bösing, C.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M. L.; Knospe, A. G.; Kobdaj, C.; Kofarago, M.; Köhler, M. K.; Kollegger, T.; Kolojvari, A.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Konevskikh, A.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalski, M.; Kox, S.; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G.; Kral, J.; Králik, I.; Kramer, F.; Kravčáková, A.; Krelina, M.; Kretz, M.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/362845670; Kučera, V.; Kucheriaev, Y.; Kugathasan, T.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P. G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074064975; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, J.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kuryakin, A.; Kushpil, S.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; de Ladron Guevara, P.; Lagana Fernandes, C.; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; Lattuca, A.; La Pointe, S. L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/355080192; La Rocca, P.; Lea, R.; Leardini, L.; Lee, G. R.; Legrand, I.; Lehnert, J.; Lemmon, R. C.; Lenti, V.; Leogrande, E.; Leoncino, M.; León Monzón, I.; Lévai, P.; Li, S.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Ljunggren, H. M.; Lodato, D. F.; Loenne, P. I.; Loggins, V. R.; Loginov, V.; Lohner, D.; Loizides, C.; Lopez, X.; López Torres, E.; Lu, X. G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330612220; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luparello, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/355080400; Ma, R.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Mahmood, S. M.; Maire, A.; Majka, R. D.; Malaev, M.; Maldonado Cervantes, I.; Malinina, L.; Mal'kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manceau, L.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Marchisone, M.; Mareš, J.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Margotti, A.; Marín, A.; Markert, C.; Marquard, M.; Martashvili, I.; Martin, N. A.; Martinengo, P.; Martínez, M. I.; Martínez García, G.; Martin Blanco, J.; Martynov, Y.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Massacrier, L.; Mastroserio, A.; Matyja, A.; Mayer, C.; Mazer, J.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Meddi, F.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Mercado Pérez, J.; Meres, M.; Miake, Y.; Mikhaylov, K.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Mischke, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325781435; Mishra, A. N.; Miśkowiec, D.; Mitra, J.; Mitu, C. 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S.; Pareek, P.; Park, W. J.; Parmar, S.; Passfeld, A.; Patalakha, D. I.; Paticchio, V.; Paul, B.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833959; Pereira Da Costa, H.; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, E.; Peresunko, D.; Pérez Lara, C. E.; Pesci, A.; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Petráček, V.; Petran, M.; Petris, M.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Płoskoń, M.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L M; Poghosyan, M. G.; Pohjoisaho, E. H O; Polichtchouk, B.; Poljak, N.; Pop, A.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Porter, J.; Potukuchi, B.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puddu, G.; Pujahari, P.; Punin, V.; Putschke, J.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Raha, S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Räsänen, S. S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Rauf, A. W.; Razazi, V.; Read, K. F.; Real, J. S.; Redlich, K.; Reed, R. 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R.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schulc, M.; Schuster, T.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, R.; Segato, G.; Seger, J. E.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Seo, J.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shabratova, G.; Shahoyan, R.; Shangaraev, A.; Sharma, N.; Sharma, S.; Shigaki, K.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siddhanta, S.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singha, S.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, B. C.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Skjerdal, K.; Slupecki, M.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R. J M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/165585781; Søgaard, C.; Soltz, R.; Song, J.; Song, M.; Soramel, F.; Sorensen, S.; Spacek, M.; Spiriti, E.; Sputowska, I.; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M.; Srivastava, B. K.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stefanek, G.; Steinpreis, M.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stiller, J. H.; Stocco, D.; Stolpovskiy, M.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A P; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Suleymanov, M.; Sultanov, R.; šumbera, M.; Susa, T.; Symons, T. J M; Szabo, A.; de Szanto Toledo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szczepankiewicz, A.; Szymanski, M.; Takahashi, J.; Tangaro, M. A.; Tapia Takaki, J. D.; Tarantola Peloni, A.; Tarazona Martinez, A.; Tarzila, M. G.; Tauro, A.; Tejeda Muñoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Terrevoli, C.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, D.; Tieulent, R.; Timmins, A. R.; Toia, A.; Trubnikov, V.; Trzaska, W. H.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T. S.; Ullaland, K.; Uras, A.; Usai, G. L.; Vajzer, M.; Vala, M.; Valencia Palomo, L.; Vallero, S.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Van Der Maarel, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412860996; Van Hoorne, J. W.; Van Leeuwen, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304836737; Vargas, A.; Vargyas, M.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vechernin, V.; Veldhoen, M.; Velure, A.; Venaruzzo, M.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara Limón, S.; Vernet, R.; Verweij, M.; Vickovic, L.; Viesti, G.; Viinikainen, J.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, L.; Vinogradov, Y.; Virgili, T.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vodopyanov, A.; Völkl, M. A.; Voloshin, K.; Voloshin, S. A.; Volpe, G.; Von Haller, B.; Vorobyev, I.; Vranic, D.; Vrláková, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Vyushin, A.; Wagner, B.; Wagner, J.; Wagner, V.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y.; Watanabe, D.; Weber, M.; Wessels, J. P.; Westerhoff, U.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilde, M.; Wilk, G.; Wilkinson, J.; Williams, M. C S; Windelband, B.; Winn, M.; Yaldo, C. G.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yang, H.; Yang, P.; Yang, S.; Yano, S.; Yasnopolskiy, S.; Yi, J.; Yin, Z.; Yoo, I. K.; Yushmanov, I.; Zaccolo, V.; Zach, C.; Zaman, A.; Zampolli, C.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zarochentsev, A.; Závada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zgura, I. S.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhigareva, N.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304845035; Zhou, Y.; Zhuo, Zhou; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, X.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zimmermann, M. B.; Zinovjev, G.; Zoccarato, Y.; Zyzak, M.

    2014-01-01

    The transverse momentum (Formula presented.) distribution of primary charged particles is measured at midrapidity in minimum-bias p–Pb collisions at (Formula presented.)NN = 5.02(Formula presented.) TeV with the ALICE detector at the LHC in the range. The spectra are compared to the expectation

  13. Transverse momentum dependence of inclusive primary charged-particle production in p–Pb collisions at √sNN=5.02 TeV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abelev, B.; Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Agnello, M.; Agostinelli, A.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, N.; Ahmed, I.; Ahn, S. U.; Ahn, S. A.; Aimo, I.; Aiola, S.; Ajaz, M.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Alves Garcia Prado, C.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Aronsson, T.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmi, M. D.; Bach, M.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Baral, R. C.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartke, J.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batista Camejo, A.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Baumann, C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Belmont, R.; Belyaev, V.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Berger, M. E.; Bertens, R. A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371577810; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I. R.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371578248; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Bjelogrlic, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/355079615; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Bogolyubsky, M.; Böhmer, F. V.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Bossú, F.; Botje, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070139032; Botta, E.; Böttger, S.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. 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R.; Costa, F.; Crochet, P.; Cruz Albino, R.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dainese, A.; Dang, R.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, K.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; De, S.; Delagrange, H.; Deloff, A.; Dénes, E.; D'erasmo, G.; De Caro, A.; De Cataldo, G.; De Cuveland, J.; De Falco, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; De Pasquale, S.; De Rooij, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/315888644; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Dietel, T.; Dillenseger, P.; Divià, R.; Di Bari, D.; Di Liberto, S.; Di Mauro, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Djuvsland, O.; Dobrin, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/372618715; Dobrowolski, T.; Domenicis Gimenez, D.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Dørheim, S.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/355502488; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Dutta Majumdar, A. K.; Hilden, T. E.; Ehlers, R. J.; Elia, D.; Engel, H.; Erazmus, B.; Erdal, H. 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K.; Grelli, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/326052577; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Gronefeld, J. M.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grossiord, J. Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Guilbaud, M.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gulkanyan, H.; Gumbo, M.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Khan, K. H.; Haake, R.; Haaland, I.M.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Hanratty, L. D.; Hansen, A.; Harris, J. W.; Hartmann, H.; Harton, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Heckel, S. T.; Heide, M.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrera Corral, G.; Hess, B. A.; Hetland, K. F.; Hippolyte, B.; Hladky, J.; Hristov, P.; Huang, M.; Humanic, T. J.; Hussain, N.; Hutter, D.; Hwang, D. S.; Ilkaev, R.; Ilkiv, I.; Inaba, M.; Innocenti, G. M.; Ionita, C.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, V.; Jachołkowski, A.; Jacobs, P. M.; Jahnke, C.; Jang, H. J.; Janik, M. A.; Jayarathna, P. H S Y; Jena, C.; Jena, S.; Jimenez Bustamante, R. T.; Jones, P. G.; Jung, H.; Jusko, A.; Kadyshevskiy, V.; Kalcher, S.; Kalinak, P.; Kalweit, A.; Kamin, J.; Kang, J. H.; Kaplin, V.; Kar, S.; Karasu Uysal, A.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karpechev, E.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Keijdener, D. L D|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370530780; Khan, M. M.; Khan, P.; Khan, S. A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Kileng, B.; Kim, B.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, M.; Kim, M.; Kim, S.; Kim, T.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Kiss, G.; Klay, J. L.; Klein, J.; Klein-Bösing, C.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M. L.; Knospe, A. G.; Kobdaj, C.; Kofarago, M.; Köhler, M. K.; Kollegger, T.; Kolojvari, A.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Konevskikh, A.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalski, M.; Kox, S.; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G.; Kral, J.; Králik, I.; Kramer, F.; Kravčáková, A.; Krelina, M.; Kretz, M.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/362845670; Kučera, V.; Kucheriaev, Y.; Kugathasan, T.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P. G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074064975; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, J.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kuryakin, A.; Kushpil, S.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; de Ladron Guevara, P.; Lagana Fernandes, C.; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; Lattuca, A.; La Pointe, S. L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/355080192; La Rocca, P.; Lea, R.; Leardini, L.; Lee, G. R.; Legrand, I.; Lehnert, J.; Lemmon, R. C.; Lenti, V.; Leogrande, E.; Leoncino, M.; León Monzón, I.; Lévai, P.; Li, S.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Ljunggren, H. M.; Lodato, D. F.; Loenne, P. I.; Loggins, V. R.; Loginov, V.; Lohner, D.; Loizides, C.; Lopez, X.; López Torres, E.; Lu, X. G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330612220; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luparello, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/355080400; Ma, R.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Mahmood, S. M.; Maire, A.; Majka, R. D.; Malaev, M.; Maldonado Cervantes, I.; Malinina, L.; Mal'kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manceau, L.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Marchisone, M.; Mareš, J.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Margotti, A.; Marín, A.; Markert, C.; Marquard, M.; Martashvili, I.; Martin, N. A.; Martinengo, P.; Martínez, M. I.; Martínez García, G.; Martin Blanco, J.; Martynov, Y.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Massacrier, L.; Mastroserio, A.; Matyja, A.; Mayer, C.; Mazer, J.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Meddi, F.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Mercado Pérez, J.; Meres, M.; Miake, Y.; Mikhaylov, K.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Mischke, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325781435; Mishra, A. N.; Miśkowiec, D.; Mitra, J.; Mitu, C. M.; Mlynarz, J.; Mohammadi, N.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/369405870; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Montaño Zetina, L.; Montes, E.; Morando, M.; Moreira De Godoy, D. A.; Moretto, S.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Mühlheim, D.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Müller, H.; Munhoz, M. G.; Murray, S.; Musa, L.; Musinsky, J.; Nandi, B. K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, K.; Nayak, T. K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nedosekin, A.; Nicassio, M.; Niculescu, M.; Nielsen, B. S.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Nilsen, B. S.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/07051349X; Norman, J.; Nyanin, A.; Nystrand, J.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S.; Oh, S. K.; Okatan, A.; Olah, L.; Oleniacz, J.; Oliveira Da Silva, A. C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/323375618; Onderwaater, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Oskarsson, A.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Sahoo, P.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pachr, M.; Pagano, P.; Paić, G.; Painke, F.; Pajares, C.; Pal, S. K.; Palmeri, A.; Pant, D.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Pareek, P.; Park, W. J.; Parmar, S.; Passfeld, A.; Patalakha, D. I.; Paticchio, V.; Paul, B.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833959; Pereira Da Costa, H.; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, E.; Peresunko, D.; Pérez Lara, C. E.; Pesci, A.; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Petráček, V.; Petran, M.; Petris, M.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Płoskoń, M.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L M; Poghosyan, M. G.; Pohjoisaho, E. H O; Polichtchouk, B.; Poljak, N.; Pop, A.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Porter, J.; Potukuchi, B.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puddu, G.; Pujahari, P.; Punin, V.; Putschke, J.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Raha, S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Räsänen, S. S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Rauf, A. W.; Razazi, V.; Read, K. F.; Real, J. S.; Redlich, K.; Reed, R. J.; Rehman, A.; Reichelt, P.; Reicher, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/32823219X; Reidt, F.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Rettig, F.; Revol, J. P.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Ricci, R. A.; Richert, T.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Rivetti, A.; Rocco, E.; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M.; Rodriguez Manso, A.; Røed, K.; Rogochaya, E.; Rohni, S.; Rohr, D.; Röhrich, D.; Romita, R.; Ronchetti, F.; Ronflette, L.; Rosnet, P.; Rossi, A.; Roukoutakis, F.; Roy, A.; Roy, C.; Roy, P.; Rubio Montero, A. J.; Rui, R.; Russo, R.; Ryabinkin, E.; Ryabov, Y.; Rybicki, A.; Sadovsky, S.; šafařík, K.; Sahlmuller, B.; Sahoo, R.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Sakai, S.; Salgado, C. A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Sanchez Castro, X.; Sánchez Rodríguez, F. J.; šándor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Santagati, G.; Sarkar, D.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schulc, M.; Schuster, T.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, R.; Segato, G.; Seger, J. E.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Seo, J.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shabratova, G.; Shahoyan, R.; Shangaraev, A.; Sharma, N.; Sharma, S.; Shigaki, K.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siddhanta, S.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singha, S.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, B. C.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Skjerdal, K.; Slupecki, M.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R. J M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/165585781; Søgaard, C.; Soltz, R.; Song, J.; Song, M.; Soramel, F.; Sorensen, S.; Spacek, M.; Spiriti, E.; Sputowska, I.; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M.; Srivastava, B. K.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stefanek, G.; Steinpreis, M.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stiller, J. H.; Stocco, D.; Stolpovskiy, M.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A P; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Suleymanov, M.; Sultanov, R.; šumbera, M.; Susa, T.; Symons, T. J M; Szabo, A.; de Szanto Toledo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szczepankiewicz, A.; Szymanski, M.; Takahashi, J.; Tangaro, M. A.; Tapia Takaki, J. D.; Tarantola Peloni, A.; Tarazona Martinez, A.; Tarzila, M. G.; Tauro, A.; Tejeda Muñoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Terrevoli, C.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, D.; Tieulent, R.; Timmins, A. R.; Toia, A.; Trubnikov, V.; Trzaska, W. H.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T. S.; Ullaland, K.; Uras, A.; Usai, G. L.; Vajzer, M.; Vala, M.; Valencia Palomo, L.; Vallero, S.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Van Der Maarel, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412860996; Van Hoorne, J. W.; Van Leeuwen, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304836737; Vargas, A.; Vargyas, M.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vechernin, V.; Veldhoen, M.; Velure, A.; Venaruzzo, M.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara Limón, S.; Vernet, R.; Verweij, M.; Vickovic, L.; Viesti, G.; Viinikainen, J.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, L.; Vinogradov, Y.; Virgili, T.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vodopyanov, A.; Völkl, M. A.; Voloshin, K.; Voloshin, S. A.; Volpe, G.; Von Haller, B.; Vorobyev, I.; Vranic, D.; Vrláková, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Vyushin, A.; Wagner, B.; Wagner, J.; Wagner, V.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y.; Watanabe, D.; Weber, M.; Wessels, J. P.; Westerhoff, U.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilde, M.; Wilk, G.; Wilkinson, J.; Williams, M. C S; Windelband, B.; Winn, M.; Yaldo, C. G.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yang, H.; Yang, P.; Yang, S.; Yano, S.; Yasnopolskiy, S.; Yi, J.; Yin, Z.; Yoo, I. K.; Yushmanov, I.; Zaccolo, V.; Zach, C.; Zaman, A.; Zampolli, C.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zarochentsev, A.; Závada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zgura, I. S.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhigareva, N.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304845035; Zhou, Y.; Zhuo, Zhou; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, X.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zimmermann, M. B.; Zinovjev, G.; Zoccarato, Y.; Zyzak, M.

    2014-01-01

    The transverse momentum (Formula presented.) distribution of primary charged particles is measured at midrapidity in minimum-bias p–Pb collisions at (Formula presented.)NN = 5.02(Formula presented.) TeV with the ALICE detector at the LHC in the range. The spectra are compared to the expectation

  14. Cell type and transfection reagent-dependent effects on viability, cell content, cell cycle and inflammation of RNAi in human primary mesenchymal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Hsiao Yin; Vonk, Lucienne A.; Licht, Ruud

    2014-01-01

    % amidation), for siRNA delivery into primary mesenchymal cells including nucleus pulposus cells, articular chondrocytes and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was used as an endogenous model gene to evaluate the extent of silencing by 20 nM or 200 nM siRNA at day...

  15. Residual shear strength variability as a primary control on movement of landslides reactivated by earthquake-induced ground motion: Implications for coastal Oregon, U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, William H.; Wang, Gonghui

    2014-01-01

    Most large seismogenic landslides are reactivations of preexisting landslides with basal shear zones in the residual strength condition. Residual shear strength often varies during rapid displacement, but the response of residual shear zones to seismic loading is largely unknown. We used a ring shear apparatus to perform simulated seismic loading tests, constant displacement rate tests, and tests during which shear stress was gradually varied on specimens from two landslides to improve understanding of coseismic landslide reactivation and to identify shear strength models valid for slow gravitational failure through rapid coseismic failure. The landslides we studied represent many along the Oregon, U.S., coast. Seismic loading tests resulted in (1) catastrophic failure involving unbounded displacement when stresses represented those for the existing landslides and (2) limited to unbounded displacement when stresses represented those for hypothetical dormant landslides, suggesting that coseismic landslide reactivation may be significant during future great earthquakes occurring near the Oregon Coast. Constant displacement rate tests indicated that shear strength decreased exponentially during the first few decimeters of displacement but increased logarithmically with increasing displacement rate when sheared at 0.001 cm s−1 or greater. Dynamic shear resistance estimated from shear strength models correlated well with stresses observed during seismic loading tests, indicating that displacement rate and amount primarily controlled failure characteristics. We developed a stress-based approach to estimate coseismic landslide displacement that utilizes the variable shear strength model. The approach produced results that compared favorably to observations made during seismic loading tests, indicating its utility for application to landslides.

  16. Detecting robust signals of interannual variability of gross primary productivity in Asia from multiple terrestrial carbon cycle models and long-term satellite-based vegetation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichii, K.; Kondo, M.; Ueyama, M.; Kato, T.; Ito, A.; Sasai, T.; Sato, H.; Kobayashi, H.; Saigusa, N.

    2014-12-01

    Long term record of satellite-based terrestrial vegetation are important to evaluate terrestrial carbon cycle models. In this study, we demonstrate how multiple satellite observation can be used for evaluating past changes in gross primary productivity (GPP) and detecting robust anomalies in terrestrial carbon cycle in Asia through our model-data synthesis analysis, Asia-MIP. We focused on the two different temporal coverages: long-term (30 years; 1982-2011) and decadal (10 years; 2001-2011; data intensive period) scales. We used a NOAA/AVHRR NDVI record for long-term analysis and multiple satellite data and products (e.g. Terra-MODIS, SPOT-VEGETATION) as historical satellite data, and multiple terrestrial carbon cycle models (e.g. BEAMS, Biome-BGC, ORCHIDEE, SEIB-DGVM, and VISIT). As a results of long-term (30 years) trend analysis, satellite-based time-series data showed that approximately 40% of the area has experienced a significant increase in the NDVI, while only a few areas have experienced a significant decreasing trend over the last 30 years. The increases in the NDVI were dominant in the sub-continental regions of Siberia, East Asia, and India. Simulations using the terrestrial biosphere models also showed significant increases in GPP, similar to the results for the NDVI, in boreal and temperate regions. A modeled sensitivity analysis showed that the increases in GPP are explained by increased temperature and precipitation in Siberia. Precipitation, solar radiation, CO2fertilization and land cover changes are important factors in the tropical regions. However, the relative contributions of each factor to GPP changes are different among the models. Year-to-year variations of terrestrial GPP were overall consistently captured by the satellite data and terrestrial carbon cycle models if the anomalies are large (e.g. 2003 summer GPP anomalies in East Asia and 2002 spring GPP anomalies in mid to high latitudes). The behind mechanisms can be consistently

  17. Predator persistence through variability of resource productivity in Tritrophic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soudijn, Floor Helena; de Roos, Andre M.

    2017-01-01

    The trophic structure of species communities depends on the energy transfer between trophic levels. Primary productivity varies strongly through time, challenging the persistence of species at higher trophic levels. Yet resource variability has mostly been studied in systems with only one or two ...

  18. Dependence of secondary electron emission on the incident angle and the energy of primary electrons bombarding bowl-structured beryllium surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawata, Jun; Ohya, Kaoru.

    1994-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation of the secondary electron emission from beryllium is combined with a model of bowl structure for surface roughness, for analyzing the difference between the electron emissions for normal and oblique incidences. At normal incidence, with increasing the roughness parameter H/W, the primary energy E pm at which the maximum electron yield occurs becomes higher, and at more than the E pm , the decrease in the yield is slower; where H and W are the depth and width of the bowl structure, respectively. The dispersion of incident angle to the microscopic surface causes a small increase in the yield at oblique incidence, whereas the blocking of primary electrons from bombarding the bottom of the structure causes an opposite trend. The strong anisotropy in the polar angular distribution with respect to the azimuthal angle is calculated at oblique incidence. (author)

  19. GC-MS metabolic profiling of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot cultivars during grapevine berry development and network analysis reveals a stage- and cultivar-dependent connectivity of primary metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadros-Inostroza, Alvaro; Ruíz-Lara, Simón; González, Enrique; Eckardt, Aenne; Willmitzer, Lothar; Peña-Cortés, Hugo

    Information about the total chemical composition of primary metabolites during grape berry development is scarce, as are comparative studies trying to understand to what extent metabolite modifications differ between cultivars during ripening. Thus, correlating the metabolic profiles with the changes occurring in berry development and ripening processes is essential to progress in their comprehension as well in the development of new approaches to improve fruit attributes. Here, the developmental metabolic profiling analysis across six stages from flowering to fully mature berries of two cultivars, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot, is reported at metabolite level. Based on a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry untargeted approach, 115 metabolites were identified and relative quantified in both cultivars. Sugars and amino acids levels show an opposite behaviour in both cultivars undergoing a highly coordinated shift of metabolite associated to primary metabolism during the stages involved in growth, development and ripening of berries. The changes are characteristic for each stage, the most pronounced ones occuring at fruit setting and pre-Veraison. They are associated to a reduction of the levels of metabolites present in the earlier corresponding stage, revealing a required catabolic activity of primary metabolites for grape berry developmental process. Network analysis revealed that the network connectivity of primary metabolites is stage- and cultivar-dependent, suggesting differences in metabolism regulation between both cultivars as the maturity process progresses. Furthermore, network analysis may represent an appropriate method to display the association between primary metabolites during berry developmental processes among different grapevine cultivars and for identifying potential biologically relevant metabolites.

  20. Menstrual Cycle Dependent Variability for Serum Tumor Markers CEA, AFP, CA 19-9, CA 125 and CA 15-3 in Healthy Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Binnur Erbağci

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Information on menstrual cycle dependent variation of tumor markers in healthy women is a subject of diagnostic efficiency and has an impact in elucidating the normal function of these markers. In this study midfollicular and midluteal concentrations of serum CEA, AFP, CA 19-9, CA 125, CA 15-3 and their relations with LH, FSH, prolactin, estradiol and progesterone were evaluated during ovulatory cycles in a group of 23 healthy female individuals. Samples were collected on the 7th and 21st day of the same menstrual cycle. Tumor marker and hormone concentrations were determined with chemiluminescence or electrochemiluminescence EIA methods. A significant phase-dependent difference was observed for CA 15-3, midluteal concentrations (mean ± SEM; 26.33 ± 1.56 U/ml higher than the midfollicular (mean ± SEM; 19.27 ± 1.49 U/ml concentrations (p < 0.001. But an obvious difference for other tumor markers investigated did not exist. Significant correlations of follicular and luteal CA 125 levels with body mass index of the subjects were observed (r:0.52, p < 0.05 and r:0.57, p < 0.005, respectively.

  1. [Caffeine dependence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Naoshi; Ueki, Hirofumi

    2010-08-01

    Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive substance in the world and is a legal stimulant that is readily available to children. The potential for dependence on caffeine has been debated. Presently, due to a paucity of clinical evidence on caffeine dependence, no such diagnosis is included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR). Although in recent studies, a subset of the general population was found to demonstrate caffeine dependence. It is valuable for psychiatrists and primary care physicians to recognize caffeine dependence as a clinical syndrome, since some people are distressed by their caffeine use and feel they can not control or stop their problematic use.

  2. Thermo-Mechanical Calculations of Hybrid Rotary Friction Welding at Equal Diameter Copper Bars and Effects of Essential Parameters on Dependent Special Variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsa, M. H.; Davari, H.; Hadian, A. M.; Ahmadabadi, M. Nili

    2007-01-01

    Hybrid Rotary Friction Welding is a modified type of common rotary friction welding processes. In this welding method parameters such as pressure, angular velocity and time of welding control temperature, stress, strain and their variations. These dependent factors play an important rule in defining optimum process parameters combinations in order to improve the design and manufacturing of welding machines and quality of welded parts. Thermo-mechanical simulation of friction welding has been carried out and it has been shown that, simulation is an important tool for prediction of generated heat and strain at the weld interface and can be used for prediction of microstructure and evaluation of quality of welds. For simulation of Hybrid Rotary Friction Welding, a commercial finite element program has been used and the effects of pressure and rotary velocity of rotary part on temperature and strain variations have been investigated

  3. Thermo-Mechanical Calculations of Hybrid Rotary Friction Welding at Equal Diameter Copper Bars and Effects of Essential Parameters on Dependent Special Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, M. H.; Davari, H.; Hadian, A. M.; Ahmadabadi, M. Nili

    2007-05-01

    Hybrid Rotary Friction Welding is a modified type of common rotary friction welding processes. In this welding method parameters such as pressure, angular velocity and time of welding control temperature, stress, strain and their variations. These dependent factors play an important rule in defining optimum process parameters combinations in order to improve the design and manufacturing of welding machines and quality of welded parts. Thermo-mechanical simulation of friction welding has been carried out and it has been shown that, simulation is an important tool for prediction of generated heat and strain at the weld interface and can be used for prediction of microstructure and evaluation of quality of welds. For simulation of Hybrid Rotary Friction Welding, a commercial finite element program has been used and the effects of pressure and rotary velocity of rotary part on temperature and strain variations have been investigated.

  4. Reduction in camera-specific variability in [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT outcome measures by image reconstruction optimized for multisite settings: impact on age-dependence of the specific binding ratio in the ENC-DAT database of healthy controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchert, Ralph; Lange, Catharina [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Berlin (Germany); Kluge, Andreas; Bronzel, Marcus [ABX-CRO advanced pharmaceutical services Forschungsgesellschaft m.b.H., Dresden (Germany); Tossici-Bolt, Livia [University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Medical Physics, Southampton (United Kingdom); Dickson, John [University College London Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Asenbaum, Susanne [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Vienna (Austria); Booij, Jan [University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kapucu, L. Oezlem Atay [Gazi University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Svarer, Claus [Rigshospitalet and University of Copenhagen, Neurobiology Research Unit, Copenhagen (Denmark); Koulibaly, Pierre-Malick [University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Nuclear Medicine Department, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Nobili, Flavio [University of Genoa, Department of Neuroscience (DINOGMI), Clinical Neurology Unit, Genoa (Italy); Pagani, Marco [CNR, Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, Rome (Italy); Karolinska Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Sabri, Osama [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Sera, Terez [University of Szeged, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Euromedic Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Tatsch, Klaus [Municipal Hospital of Karlsruhe Inc, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Karlsruhe (Germany); Borght, Thierry vander [CHU Namur, IREC, Nuclear Medicine Division, Universite catholique de Louvain, Yvoir (Belgium); Laere, Koen van [University Hospital and K.U. Leuven, Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); Varrone, Andrea [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Iida, Hidehiro [National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center - Research Institute, Osaka (Japan)

    2016-07-15

    Quantitative estimates of dopamine transporter availability, determined with [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT, depend on the SPECT equipment, including both hardware and (reconstruction) software, which limits their use in multicentre research and clinical routine. This study tested a dedicated reconstruction algorithm for its ability to reduce camera-specific intersubject variability in [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT. The secondary aim was to evaluate binding in whole brain (excluding striatum) as a reference for quantitative analysis. Of 73 healthy subjects from the European Normal Control Database of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT recruited at six centres, 70 aged between 20 and 82 years were included. SPECT images were reconstructed using the QSPECT software package which provides fully automated detection of the outer contour of the head, camera-specific correction for scatter and septal penetration by transmission-dependent convolution subtraction, iterative OSEM reconstruction including attenuation correction, and camera-specific ''to kBq/ml'' calibration. LINK and HERMES reconstruction were used for head-to-head comparison. The specific striatal [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT binding ratio (SBR) was computed using the Southampton method with binding in the whole brain, occipital cortex or cerebellum as the reference. The correlation between SBR and age was used as the primary quality measure. The fraction of SBR variability explained by age was highest (1) with QSPECT, independently of the reference region, and (2) with whole brain as the reference, independently of the reconstruction algorithm. QSPECT reconstruction appears to be useful for reduction of camera-specific intersubject variability of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT in multisite and single-site multicamera settings. Whole brain excluding striatal binding as the reference provides more stable quantitative estimates than occipital or cerebellar binding. (orig.)

  5. PET-CT-Based Auto-Contouring in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Correlates With Pathology and Reduces Interobserver Variability in the Delineation of the Primary Tumor and Involved Nodal Volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baardwijk, Angela van; Bosmans, Geert; Boersma, Liesbeth; Buijsen, Jeroen; Wanders, Stofferinus; Hochstenbag, Monique; Suylen, Robert-Jan van; Dekker, Andre; Dehing-Oberije, Cary; Houben, Ruud; Bentzen, Soren M.; Kroonenburgh, Marinus van; Lambin, Philippe; Ruysscher, Dirk de

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To compare source-to-background ratio (SBR)-based PET-CT auto-delineation with pathology in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to investigate whether auto-delineation reduces the interobserver variability compared with manual PET-CT-based gross tumor volume (GTV) delineation. Methods and Materials: Source-to-background ratio-based auto-delineation was compared with macroscopic tumor dimensions to assess its validity in 23 tumors. Thereafter, GTVs were delineated manually on 33 PET-CT scans by five observers for the primary tumor (GTV-1) and the involved lymph nodes (GTV-2). The delineation was repeated after 6 months with the auto-contour provided. This contour was edited by the observers. For comparison, the concordance index (CI) was calculated, defined as the ratio of intersection and the union of two volumes (A intersection B)/(A union B). Results: The maximal tumor diameter of the SBR-based auto-contour correlated strongly with the macroscopic diameter of primary tumors (correlation coefficient = 0.90) and was shown to be accurate for involved lymph nodes (sensitivity 67%, specificity 95%). The median auto-contour-based target volumes were smaller than those defined by manual delineation for GTV-1 (31.8 and 34.6 cm 3 , respectively; p = 0.001) and GTV-2 (16.3 and 21.8 cm 3 , respectively; p 0.02). The auto-contour-based method showed higher CIs than the manual method for GTV-1 (0.74 and 0.70 cm 3 , respectively; p 3 , respectively; p = 0.11). Conclusion: Source-to-background ratio-based auto-delineation showed a good correlation with pathology, decreased the delineated volumes of the GTVs, and reduced the interobserver variability. Auto-contouring may further improve the quality of target delineation in NSCLC patients

  6. The role of family bio-social variables in depression in a resource-constrained environment: A cross-sectional study of ambulatory adult patients in a primary care clinic in Eastern Nigerian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Uche Pascal Iloh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Depression is a family and public health condition that has negative consequences for the victim, family, friends, and society with significant socio-family dysfunction, especially when it is undiagnosed. Aim: The present study was aimed at determining the role of family bio-social variables in depression among ambulatory adult patients in a primary care clinic in the Eastern Nigerian. Materials and Methods: A clinic-based cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out on 400 adult patients in a primary care clinic in Nigeria. Data were collected using Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Family Assessment Device, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and Brief Family Relationship Scale. Results: The age of the study participants ranged from 18 to 78 years. There were 40.5% of male and 59.5% of female. The prevalence of depression was 48.5% with the most common pattern being mild depression (32.3%. Depression was significantly associated with unhealthy family functioning (P = 0.002, low-acuity family support (P = 0.039, family with least cohesion (P = 0.044, least expressiveness (P = 0.013, and most conflict (P = 0.013. The most significant predictor of depression was unhealthy family functioning (Odds ratio = 3.14 [1.82–3.77]; P = 0.001. Depressed patients who had unhealthy family functioning were three times more likely to experience depressive illness compared to their counterparts who were from healthy functional family. Conclusion: Depression occurred among the study participants and was significantly associated with unhealthy family functioning, low family support, least family cohesion and expressiveness and most family conflict. Assessment of family biosocial factors should be part of the reason for encounter during consultation to unravel family variables that positively or negatively influence depression.

  7. Pre-Service Primary Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varcoe, Linda; Boyle, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that an important factor in the success of inclusive education is dependent upon teachers' attitudes. Based on this evidence, the present study investigated the impact of a range of teacher variables in association with training on primary pre-service teachers' attitudes by examining total inclusion scores, positive…

  8. Measuring ICT Use and Contributing Conditions in Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlinde, Ruben; Aesaert, Koen; van Braak, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) use became of major importance for primary schools across the world as ICT has the potential to foster teaching and learning processes. ICT use is therefore a central measurement concept (dependent variable) in many ICT integration studies. This data paper presents two datasets (2008 and 2011) that…

  9. Steric effects on the primary isotope dependence of secondary kinetic isotope effects in hydride transfer reactions in solution: caused by the isotopically different tunneling ready state conformations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharjan, Binita; Raghibi Boroujeni, Mahdi; Lefton, Jonathan; White, Ormacinda R; Razzaghi, Mortezaali; Hammann, Blake A; Derakhshani-Molayousefi, Mortaza; Eilers, James E; Lu, Yun

    2015-05-27

    The observed 1° isotope effect on 2° KIEs in H-transfer reactions has recently been explained on the basis of a H-tunneling mechanism that uses the concept that the tunneling of a heavier isotope requires a shorter donor-acceptor distance (DAD) than that of a lighter isotope. The shorter DAD in D-tunneling, as compared to H-tunneling, could bring about significant spatial crowding effect that stiffens the 2° H/D vibrations, thus decreasing the 2° KIE. This leads to a new physical organic research direction that examines how structure affects the 1° isotope dependence of 2° KIEs and how this dependence provides information about the structure of the tunneling ready states (TRSs). The hypothesis is that H- and D-tunneling have TRS structures which have different DADs, and pronounced 1° isotope effect on 2° KIEs should be observed in tunneling systems that are sterically hindered. This paper investigates the hypothesis by determining the 1° isotope effect on α- and β-2° KIEs for hydride transfer reactions from various hydride donors to different carbocationic hydride acceptors in solution. The systems were designed to include the interactions of the steric groups and the targeted 2° H/D's in the TRSs. The results substantiate our hypothesis, and they are not consistent with the traditional model of H-tunneling and 1°/2° H coupled motions that has been widely used to explain the 1° isotope dependence of 2° KIEs in the enzyme-catalyzed H-transfer reactions. The behaviors of the 1° isotope dependence of 2° KIEs in solution are compared to those with alcohol dehydrogenases, and sources of the observed "puzzling" 2° KIE behaviors in these enzymes are discussed using the concept of the isotopically different TRS conformations.

  10. Thermal- and pH-Dependent Size Variable Radical Nanoparticles and Its Water Proton Relaxivity for Metal-Free MRI Functional Contrast Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Kosuke; Murayama, Shuhei; Araki, Takeru; Aoki, Ichio; Karasawa, Satoru

    2016-09-16

    For development of the metal-free MRI contrast agents, we prepared the supra-molecular organic radical, TEMPO-UBD, carrying TEMPO radical, as well as the urea, alkyl group, and phenyl ring, which demonstrate self-assembly behaviors using noncovalent bonds in an aqueous solution. In addition, TEMPO-UBD has the tertiary amine and the oligoethylene glycol chains (OEGs) for the function of pH and thermal responsiveness. By dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy imaging, the resulting self-assembly was seen to form the spherical nanoparticles 10-150 nm in size. On heating, interestingly, the nanoparticles showed a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) behavior having two-step variation. This double-LCST behavior is the first such example among the supra-molecules. To evaluate of the ability as MRI contrast agents, the values of proton ((1)H) longitudinal relaxivity (r1) were determined using MRI apparatus. In conditions below and above CAC at pH 7.0, the distinguishable r1 values were estimated to be 0.17 and 0.21 mM(-1) s(1), indicating the suppression of fast tumbling motion of TEMPO moiety in a nanoparticle. Furthermore, r1 values became larger in the order of pH 7.0 > 9.0 > 5.0. Those thermal and pH dependencies indicated the possibility of metal-fee MRI functional contrast agents in the future.

  11. [Primary study on characteristics of insulin secretion rate, metabolic clearance rate and sensitivity in non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects from multiplex diabetic pedigrees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, J; Cheng, H; Li, F

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the characteristics of insulin secretion rate (ISR), metabolic clearance rate (MCR-I) and sensitivity and to explore their relationship with obesity in non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects from multiplex diabetic pedigrees (MDP). Fifteen subjects with normal glucose tolerance and 11 non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients from MDP were included in the study. Frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIVGTT) was performed. Glucose, insulin (INS) and connecting-peptide (C-P) concentrations were measured. A computer procedure devised by our laboratory was used to calculate the value of ISR at each time point, then MCR-I was acquired. Insulin sensitivity index (SI) was calculated according to minimal model technique about glucose in FSIVGTT. The ISR curve in control group was biphasic, while in non-insulin. In non-insulin-dependent diabetic group, areas under the curves of C-P (AUCC) and ISR level (AUCS) measured during 0 approximately 16 min were 7.9 nmol.min(-1).L(-1) +/- 2.8 nmol.min(-1).L(-1), and 6.1 nmol +/- 2.2 nmol, respectively, which were significantly lower than those in control group 17.7 nmol.min(-1).L(-1) +/- 4.92 nmol.min(-1).L(-1) and 12.3 nmol +/- 3.9 nmol (P < 0.01). The two parameters were slightly higher than those in control group 155 nmol.min(-1).L(-1) +/- 44 nmol.min(-1).L(-1) vs 101 nmol.min(-1).L(-1) +/- 30 nmol.min(-1).L(-1) and 76 nmol +/- 26 nmol vs 54 nmol +/- 20.0 nmol (P < 0.05)measured during 16 approximately 180 min. There was no significant difference, between the two groups about the amount of insulin secretion during 3 hours (82 nmol +/- 28nmol vs 68 nmol +/- 21 nmol, P = 0.2). In control group, there were significant positive correlation, between AUCS, waist-hip ratio (WHR), and body surface area, (BSA) and significant negative correlation between MCR-I, SI and WHR, BSA (P < 0.01), and also between MCR-I and SI. In non-insulin-dependent diabetic group, AUCS were significantly correlated with body mass

  12. Transverse momentum dependence of inclusive primary charged-particle production in p-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Abelev, Betty Bezverkhny; Adamova, Dagmar; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agostinelli, Andrea; Agrawal, Neelima; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahmad, Nazeer; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ahn, Sang Un; Ahn, Sul-Ah; Aimo, Ilaria; Aiola, Salvatore; Ajaz, Muhammad; Akindinov, Alexander; Alam, Sk Noor; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alexandre, Didier; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Alves Garcia Prado, Caio; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anielski, Jonas; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arcelli, Silvia; Armesto Perez, Nestor; Arnaldi, Roberta; Aronsson, Tomas; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Awes, Terry; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Bach, Matthias Jakob; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, Stefano; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Ramillien Barret, Valerie; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batista Camejo, Arianna; Batyunya, Boris; Batzing, Paul Christoph; Baumann, Christoph Heinrich; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Bedda, Cristina; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bellwied, Rene; Belmont Moreno, Ernesto; Belmont Iii, Ronald John; Belyaev, Vladimir; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, Ionela; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Berger, Martin Emanuel; Bertens, Redmer Alexander; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhat, Inayat Rasool; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Buddhadeb; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bianchin, Chiara; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Bjelogrlic, Sandro; Blanco, Fernando; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Bock, Friederike; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boggild, Hans; Bogolyubskiy, Mikhail; Boehmer, Felix Valentin; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Book, Julian Heinz; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Bossu, Francesco; Botje, Michiel; Botta, Elena; Boettger, Stefan; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Breitner, Timo Gunther; Broker, Theo Alexander; Browning, Tyler Allen; Broz, Michal; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Buncic, Predrag; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Caffarri, Davide; Cai, Xu; Caines, Helen Louise; Calero Diaz, Liliet; Caliva, Alberto; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Catanescu, Vasile Ioan; Cavicchioli, Costanza; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cepila, Jan; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Charvet, Jean-Luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chelnokov, Volodymyr; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan Valeriev; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Dobrigkeit Chinellato, David; Chochula, Peter; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-Urk; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Colamaria, Fabio Filippo; Colella, Domenico; Collu, Alberto; Colocci, Manuel; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa Del Valle, Zaida; Connors, Megan Elizabeth; Contreras Nuno, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortese, Pietro; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Crochet, Philippe; Cruz Albino, Rigoberto; Cuautle Flores, Eleazar; Cunqueiro Mendez, Leticia; Dainese, Andrea; Dang, Ruina; Danu, Andrea; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Das, Kushal; Das, Supriya; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; De, Sudipan; Delagrange, Hugues; Deloff, Andrzej; Denes, Ervin Sandor; D'Erasmo, Ginevra; De Caro, Annalisa; De Cataldo, Giacinto; De Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; De Marco, Nora; De Pasquale, Salvatore; De Rooij, Raoul Stefan; Diaz Corchero, Miguel Angel; Dietel, Thomas; Dillenseger, Pascal; Divia, Roberto; Di Bari, Domenico; Di Liberto, Sergio; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Dobrowolski, Tadeusz Antoni; Domenicis Gimenez, Diogenes; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Dorheim, Sverre; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Dubla, Andrea; Ducroux, Laurent; Dupieux, Pascal; Dutt Mazumder, Abhee Kanti; Hilden, Timo Eero; Ehlers Iii, Raymond James; Elia, Domenico; Engel, Heiko; Erazmus, Barbara Ewa; Erdal, Hege Austrheim; Eschweiler, Dominic; Espagnon, Bruno; Esposito, Marco; Estienne, Magali Danielle; Esumi, Shinichi; Evans, David; Evdokimov, Sergey; Fabris, Daniela; Faivre, Julien; Falchieri, Davide; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Fehlker, Dominik; Feldkamp, Linus; Felea, Daniel; Feliciello, Alessandro; Feofilov, Grigory; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Gonzalez Ferreiro, Elena; Ferretti, Alessandro; Festanti, Andrea; Figiel, Jan; Araujo Silva Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Fiore, Enrichetta Maria; Floratos, Emmanouil; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Francescon, Andrea; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoeje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago Medina, Alberto Martin; Gallio, Mauro; Gangadharan, Dhevan Raja; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Garabatos Cuadrado, Jose; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gargiulo, Corrado; Garishvili, Irakli; Gerhard, Jochen; Germain, Marie; Gheata, Andrei George; Gheata, Mihaela; Ghidini, Bruno; Ghosh, Premomoy; Ghosh, Sanjay Kumar; Gianotti, Paola; Giubellino, Paolo; Gladysz-Dziadus, Ewa; Glassel, Peter; Gomez Ramirez, Andres; Gonzalez Zamora, Pedro; Gorbunov, Sergey; Gorlich, Lidia Maria; Gotovac, Sven; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Alina Gabriela; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoryev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Gronefeld, Julius Maximilian; Grynyov, Borys; Grion, Nevio; Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grossiord, Jean-Yves; Grosso, Raffaele; Guber, Fedor; Guernane, Rachid; Guerzoni, Barbara; Guilbaud, Maxime Rene Joseph; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gulkanyan, Hrant; Gumbo, Mervyn; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Anik; Gupta, Ramni; Khan, Kamal; Haake, Rudiger; Haaland, Oystein Senneset; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Haiduc, Maria; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Hanratty, Luke David; Hansen, Alexander; Harris, John William; Hartmann, Helvi; Harton, Austin Vincent; Hatzifotiadou, Despina; Hayashi, Shinichi; Heckel, Stefan Thomas; Heide, Markus Ansgar; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Hess, Benjamin Andreas; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hippolyte, Boris; Hladky, Jan; Hristov, Peter Zahariev; Huang, Meidana; Humanic, Thomas; Hussain, Nur; Hutter, Dirk; Hwang, Dae Sung; Ilkaev, Radiy; Ilkiv, Iryna; Inaba, Motoi; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Ionita, Costin; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Irfan, Muhammad; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanov, Vladimir; Jacholkowski, Adam Wlodzimierz; Jacobs, Peter Martin; Jahnke, Cristiane; Jang, Haeng Jin; Janik, Malgorzata Anna; Pahula Hewage, Sandun; Jena, Chitrasen; Jena, Satyajit; Jimenez Bustamante, Raul Tonatiuh; Jones, Peter Graham; Jung, Hyungtaik; Jusko, Anton; Kadyshevskiy, Vladimir; Kalcher, Sebastian; Kalinak, Peter; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Kamin, Jason Adrian; Kang, Ju Hwan; Kaplin, Vladimir; Kar, Somnath; Karasu Uysal, Ayben; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Keijdener, Darius Laurens; Khan, Mohammed Mohisin; Khan, Palash; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Beomkyu; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Jinsook; Kim, Mimae; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Taesoo; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Kiss, Gabor; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Jochen; Klein-Boesing, Christian; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Kobdaj, Chinorat; Kofarago, Monika; Kohler, Markus Konrad; Kollegger, Thorsten; Kolozhvari, Anatoly; Kondratev, Valerii; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Konevskikh, Artem; Kovalenko, Vladimir; Kowalski, Marek; Kox, Serge; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kral, Jiri; Kralik, Ivan; Kravcakova, Adela; Krelina, Michal; Kretz, Matthias; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kucera, Vit; Kucheryaev, Yury; Kugathasan, Thanushan; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paulus Gerardus; Kulakov, Igor; Kumar, Jitendra; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, Alexander; Kurepin, Alexey; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kushpil, Svetlana; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; Ladron De Guevara, Pedro; Lagana Fernandes, Caio; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; Lara Martinez, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; Lattuca, Alessandra; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; La Rocca, Paola; Lea, Ramona; Leardini, Lucia; Lee, Graham Richard; Legrand, Iosif; Lehnert, Joerg Walter; Lemmon, Roy Crawford; Lenti, Vito; Leogrande, Emilia; Leoncino, Marco; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Levai, Peter; Li, Shuang; Lien, Jorgen Andre; Lietava, Roman; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Ljunggren, Hans Martin; Lodato, Davide Francesco; Lonne, Per-Ivar; Loggins, Vera Renee; Loginov, Vitaly; Lohner, Daniel; Loizides, Constantinos; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lu, Xianguo; Luettig, Philipp Johannes; Lunardon, Marcello; Luparello, Grazia; Ma, Rongrong; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Mahapatra, Durga Prasad; Mahmood, Sohail Musa; Maire, Antonin; Majka, Richard Daniel; Malaev, Mikhail; Maldonado Cervantes, Ivonne Alicia; Malinina, Liudmila; Mal'Kevich, Dmitry; Malzacher, Peter; Mamonov, Alexander; Manceau, Loic Henri Antoine; Manko, Vladislav; Manso, Franck; Manzari, Vito; Marchisone, Massimiliano; Mares, Jiri; Margagliotti, Giacomo Vito; Margotti, Anselmo; Marin, Ana Maria; Markert, Christina; Marquard, Marco; Martashvili, Irakli; Martin, Nicole Alice; Martinengo, Paolo; Martinez Hernandez, Mario Ivan; Martinez-Garcia, Gines; Martin Blanco, Javier; Martynov, Yevgen; Mas, Alexis Jean-Michel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mayer, Christoph; Mazer, Joel Anthony; Mazzoni, Alessandra Maria; Meddi, Franco; Menchaca-Rocha, Arturo Alejandro; Mercado-Perez, Jorge; Meres, Michal; Miake, Yasuo; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Milano, Leonardo; Milosevic, Jovan; Mischke, Andre; Mishra, Aditya Nath; Miskowiec, Dariusz Czeslaw; Mitra, Jubin; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mlynarz, Jocelyn; Mohammadi, Naghmeh; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Molnar, Levente; Montano Zetina, Luis Manuel; Montes Prado, Esther; Morando, Maurizio; Moreira De Godoy, Denise Aparecida; Moretto, Sandra; Morreale, Astrid; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhlheim, Daniel Michael; Muhuri, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Muller, Hans; Gameiro Munhoz, Marcelo; Murray, Sean; Musa, Luciano; Musinsky, Jan; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Nattrass, Christine; Nayak, Kishora; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Nedosekin, Alexander; Nicassio, Maria; Niculescu, Mihai; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Nilsen, Bjorn Steven; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Norman, Jaime; Nyanin, Alexander; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Saehanseul; Oh, Sun Kun; Okatan, Ali; Olah, Laszlo; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oliveira Da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Onderwaater, Jacobus; Oppedisano, Chiara; Ortiz Velasquez, Antonio; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Ozdemir, Mahmut; Sahoo, Pragati; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pachr, Milos; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Painke, Florian; Pajares Vales, Carlos; Pal, Susanta Kumar; Palmeri, Armando; Pant, Divyash; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Pareek, Pooja; Park, Woojin; Parmar, Sonia; Passfeld, Annika; Patalakha, Dmitry; Paticchio, Vincenzo; Paul, Biswarup; Pawlak, Tomasz Jan; Peitzmann, Thomas; Pereira Da Costa, Hugo Denis Antonio; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, Elienos; Peresunko, Dmitry Yurevich; Perez Lara, Carlos Eugenio; Pesci, Alessandro; Peskov, Vladimir; Pestov, Yury; Petracek, Vojtech; Petran, Michal; Petris, Mariana; Petrovici, Mihai; Petta, Catia; Piano, Stefano; Pikna, Miroslav; Pillot, Philippe; Pinazza, Ombretta; Pinsky, Lawrence; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe; Ploskon, Mateusz Andrzej; Planinic, Mirko; Pluta, Jan Marian; Pochybova, Sona; Podesta Lerma, Pedro Luis Manuel; Poghosyan, Martin; Pohjoisaho, Esko Heikki Oskari; Polishchuk, Boris; Poljak, Nikola; Pop, Amalia; Porteboeuf, Sarah Julie; Porter, R Jefferson; Potukuchi, Baba; Prasad, Sidharth Kumar; Preghenella, Roberto; Prino, Francesco; Pruneau, Claude Andre; Pshenichnov, Igor; Puddu, Giovanna; Pujahari, Prabhat Ranjan; Punin, Valery; Putschke, Jorn Henning; Qvigstad, Henrik; Rachevski, Alexandre; Raha, Sibaji; Rak, Jan; Rakotozafindrabe, Andry Malala; Ramello, Luciano; Raniwala, Rashmi; Raniwala, Sudhir; Rasanen, Sami Sakari; Rascanu, Bogdan Theodor; Rathee, Deepika; Rauf, Aamer Wali; Razazi, Vahedeh; Read, Kenneth Francis; Real, Jean-Sebastien; Redlich, Krzysztof; Reed, Rosi Jan; Rehman, Attiq Ur; Reichelt, Patrick Simon; Reicher, Martijn; Reidt, Felix; Renfordt, Rainer Arno Ernst; Reolon, Anna Rita; Reshetin, Andrey; Rettig, Felix Vincenz; Revol, Jean-Pierre; Reygers, Klaus Johannes; Riabov, Viktor; Ricci, Renato Angelo; Richert, Tuva Ora Herenui; Richter, Matthias Rudolph; Riedler, Petra; Riegler, Werner; Riggi, Francesco; Rivetti, Angelo; Rocco, Elena; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario; Rodriguez Manso, Alis; Roeed, Ketil; Rogochaya, Elena; Sharma, Rohni; Rohr, David Michael; Roehrich, Dieter; Romita, Rosa; Ronchetti, Federico; Ronflette, Lucile; Rosnet, Philippe; Rossi, Andrea; Roukoutakis, Filimon; Roy, Ankhi; Roy, Christelle Sophie; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Rubio Montero, Antonio Juan; Rui, Rinaldo; Russo, Riccardo; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Ryabov, Yury; Rybicki, Andrzej; Sadovskiy, Sergey; Safarik, Karel; Sahlmuller, Baldo; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Saini, Jogender; Sakai, Shingo; Salgado Lopez, Carlos Alberto; Salzwedel, Jai Samuel Nielsen; Sambyal, Sanjeev Singh; Samsonov, Vladimir; Sanchez Castro, Xitzel; Sanchez Rodriguez, Fernando Javier; Sandor, Ladislav; Sandoval, Andres; Sano, Masato; Santagati, Gianluca; Sarkar, Debojit; Scapparone, Eugenio; Scarlassara, Fernando; Scharenberg, Rolf Paul; Schiaua, Claudiu Cornel; Schicker, Rainer Martin; Schmidt, Christian Joachim; Schmidt, Hans Rudolf; Schuchmann, Simone; Schukraft, Jurgen; Schulc, Martin; Schuster, Tim Robin; Schutz, Yves Roland; Schwarz, Kilian Eberhard; Schweda, Kai Oliver; Scioli, Gilda; Scomparin, Enrico; Scott, Rebecca Michelle; Segato, Gianfranco; Seger, Janet Elizabeth; Sekiguchi, Yuko; Selyuzhenkov, Ilya; Seo, Jeewon; Serradilla Rodriguez, Eulogio; Sevcenco, Adrian; Shabetai, Alexandre; Shabratova, Galina; Shahoyan, Ruben; Shangaraev, Artem; Sharma, Natasha; Sharma, Satish; Shigaki, Kenta; Shtejer Diaz, Katherin; Sibiryak, Yury; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Siemiarczuk, Teodor; Silvermyr, David Olle Rickard; Silvestre, Catherine Micaela; Simatovic, Goran; Singaraju, Rama Narayana; Singh, Ranbir; Singha, Subhash; Singhal, Vikas; Sinha, Bikash; Sarkar - Sinha, Tinku; Sitar, Branislav; Sitta, Mario; Skaali, Bernhard; Skjerdal, Kyrre; Slupecki, Maciej; Smirnov, Nikolai; Snellings, Raimond; Soegaard, Carsten; Soltz, Ron Ariel; Song, Jihye; Song, Myunggeun; Soramel, Francesca; Sorensen, Soren Pontoppidan; Spacek, Michal; Spiriti, Eleuterio; Sputowska, Iwona Anna; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, Martha; Srivastava, Brijesh Kumar; Stachel, Johanna; Stan, Ionel; Stefanek, Grzegorz; Steinpreis, Matthew Donald; Stenlund, Evert Anders; Steyn, Gideon Francois; Stiller, Johannes Hendrik; Stocco, Diego; Stolpovskiy, Mikhail; Strmen, Peter; Alarcon Do Passo Suaide, Alexandre; Sugitate, Toru; Suire, Christophe Pierre; Suleymanov, Mais Kazim Oglu; Sultanov, Rishat; Sumbera, Michal; Susa, Tatjana; Symons, Timothy; Szabo, Alexander; Szanto De Toledo, Alejandro; Szarka, Imrich; Szczepankiewicz, Adam; Szymanski, Maciej Pawel; Takahashi, Jun; Tangaro, Marco-Antonio; Tapia Takaki, Daniel Jesus; Tarantola Peloni, Attilio; Tarazona Martinez, Alfonso; Tarzila, Madalina-Gabriela; Tauro, Arturo; Tejeda Munoz, Guillermo; Telesca, Adriana; Terrevoli, Cristina; Thaeder, Jochen Mathias; Thomas, Deepa; Tieulent, Raphael Noel; Timmins, Anthony Robert; Toia, Alberica; Trubnikov, Victor; Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk; Tsuji, Tomoya; Tumkin, Alexandr; Turrisi, Rosario; Tveter, Trine Spedstad; Ullaland, Kjetil; Uras, Antonio; Usai, Gianluca; Vajzer, Michal; Vala, Martin; Valencia Palomo, Lizardo; Vallero, Sara; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; Van Der Maarel, Jasper; Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem; Van Leeuwen, Marco; Diozcora Vargas Trevino, Aurora; Vargyas, Marton; Varma, Raghava; Vasileiou, Maria; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vechernin, Vladimir; Veldhoen, Misha; Velure, Arild; Venaruzzo, Massimo; Vercellin, Ermanno; Vergara Limon, Sergio; Vernet, Renaud; Verweij, Marta; Vickovic, Linda; Viesti, Giuseppe; Viinikainen, Jussi Samuli; Vilakazi, Zabulon; Villalobos Baillie, Orlando; Vinogradov, Alexander; Vinogradov, Leonid; Vinogradov, Yury; Virgili, Tiziano; Viyogi, Yogendra; Vodopyanov, Alexander; Volkl, Martin Andreas; Voloshin, Kirill; Voloshin, Sergey; Volpe, Giacomo; Von Haller, Barthelemy; Vorobyev, Ivan; Vranic, Danilo; Vrlakova, Janka; Vulpescu, Bogdan; Vyushin, Alexey; Wagner, Boris; Wagner, Jan; Wagner, Vladimir; Wang, Mengliang; Wang, Yifei; Watanabe, Daisuke; Weber, Michael; Wessels, Johannes Peter; Westerhoff, Uwe; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilde, Martin Rudolf; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Wilkinson, Jeremy John; Williams, Crispin; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Winn, Michael Andreas; Yaldo, Chris G; Yamaguchi, Yorito; Yang, Hongyan; Yang, Ping; Yang, Shiming; Yano, Satoshi; Yasnopolskiy, Stanislav; Yi, Jungyu; Yin, Zhongbao; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yushmanov, Igor; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zach, Cenek; Zaman, Ali; Zampolli, Chiara; Zaporozhets, Sergey; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zavyalov, Nikolay; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yonghong; Zhao, Chengxin; Zhigareva, Natalia; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, Fengchu; Zhou, You; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianhui; Zhu, Xiangrong; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Alice; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zoccarato, Yannick Denis; Zyzak, Maksym

    2014-09-16

    The transverse momentum ($p_T$) distribution of primary charged particles is measured at midrapidity in minimum-bias p-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV with the ALICE detector at the LHC in the range 0.15 < $p_T$ < 50 GeV/c. The spectra are compared to the expectation based on binary collision scaling of particle production in pp collisions, leading to a nuclear modification factor consistent with unity for $p_T$ larger than 2 GeV/c. The measurement is compared to theoretical calculations and to data in Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV

  13. Inflammation and insulin resistance induced by trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid depend on intracellular calcium levels in primary cultures of human adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennedy, Arion; Martinez, Kristina; Chung, Soonkyu

    2010-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that trans-10, cis-12 (10,12) conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) induced inflammation and insulin resistance in primary human adipocytes by activating nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) and extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) signaling. In this study, we demonstrated...... that the initial increase in intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) mediated by 10,12 CLA was attenuated by TMB-8, an inhibitor of calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), by BAPTA, an intracellular calcium chelator, and by D609, a phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor. Moreover, BAPTA, TMB-8, and D609 attenuated......, and suppression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma protein levels and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. These data suggest that 10,12 CLA increases inflammation and insulin resistance in human adipocytes, in part by increasing [Ca2+]i levels, particularly calcium from the ER....

  14. Loss of MutL Disrupts CHK2-Dependent Cell-Cycle Control through CDK4/6 to Promote Intrinsic Endocrine Therapy Resistance in Primary Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haricharan, Svasti; Punturi, Nindo; Singh, Purba; Holloway, Kimberly R; Anurag, Meenakshi; Schmelz, Jacob; Schmidt, Cheryl; Lei, Jonathan T; Suman, Vera; Hunt, Kelly; Olson, John A; Hoog, Jeremy; Li, Shunqiang; Huang, Shixia; Edwards, Dean P; Kavuri, Shyam M; Bainbridge, Matthew N; Ma, Cynthia X; Ellis, Matthew J

    2017-10-01

    Significant endocrine therapy-resistant tumor proliferation is present in ≥20% of estrogen receptor-positive (ER + ) primary breast cancers and is associated with disease recurrence and death. Here, we uncover a link between intrinsic endocrine therapy resistance and dysregulation of the MutL mismatch repair (MMR) complex ( MLH1/3 , PMS1/2 ), and demonstrate a direct role for MutL complex loss in resistance to all classes of endocrine therapy. We find that MutL deficiency in ER + breast cancer abrogates CHK2-mediated inhibition of CDK4, a prerequisite for endocrine therapy responsiveness. Consequently, CDK4/6 inhibitors (CDK4/6i) remain effective in MutL-defective ER + breast cancer cells. These observations are supported by data from a clinical trial where a CDK4/6i was found to strongly inhibit aromatase inhibitor-resistant proliferation of MutL-defective tumors. These data suggest that diagnostic markers of MutL deficiency could be used to direct adjuvant CDK4/6i to a population of patients with breast cancer who exhibit marked resistance to the current standard of care. Significance: MutL deficiency in a subset of ER + primary tumors explains why CDK4/6 inhibition is effective against some de novo endocrine therapy-resistant tumors. Therefore, markers of MutL dysregulation could guide CDK4/6 inhibitor use in the adjuvant setting, where the risk benefit ratio for untargeted therapeutic intervention is narrow. Cancer Discov; 7(10); 1168-83. ©2017 AACR. This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 1047 . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. StralSV: assessment of sequence variability within similar 3D structures and application to polio RNA-dependent RNA polymerase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemla, A; Lang, D; Kostova, T; Andino, R; Zhou, C

    2010-11-29

    Most of the currently used methods for protein function prediction rely on sequence-based comparisons between a query protein and those for which a functional annotation is provided. A serious limitation of sequence similarity-based approaches for identifying residue conservation among proteins is the low confidence in assigning residue-residue correspondences among proteins when the level of sequence identity between the compared proteins is poor. Multiple sequence alignment methods are more satisfactory - still, they cannot provide reliable results at low levels of sequence identity. Our goal in the current work was to develop an algorithm that could overcome these difficulties and facilitate the identification of structurally (and possibly functionally) relevant residue-residue correspondences between compared protein structures. Here we present StralSV, a new algorithm for detecting closely related structure fragments and quantifying residue frequency from tight local structure alignments. We apply StralSV in a study of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of poliovirus and demonstrate that the algorithm can be used to determine regions of the protein that are relatively unique or that shared structural similarity with structures that are distantly related. By quantifying residue frequencies among many residue-residue pairs extracted from local alignments, one can infer potential structural or functional importance of specific residues that are determined to be highly conserved or that deviate from a consensus. We further demonstrate that considerable detailed structural and phylogenetic information can be derived from StralSV analyses. StralSV is a new structure-based algorithm for identifying and aligning structure fragments that have similarity to a reference protein. StralSV analysis can be used to quantify residue-residue correspondences and identify residues that may be of particular structural or functional importance, as well as unusual or unexpected

  16. Identifying common impairments in frail and dependent older people: validation of the COPE assessment for non-specialised health workers in low resource primary health care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A T, Jotheeswaran; Dias, Amit; Philp, Ian; Beard, John; Patel, Vikram; Prince, Martin

    2015-10-14

    Frail and dependent older people in resource-poor settings are poorly served by health systems that lack outreach capacity. The COPE (Caring for Older PEople) multidimensional assessment tool is designed to help community health workers (CHWs) identify clinically significant impairments and deliver evidence-based interventions Older people (n = 150) identified by CHWs as frail or dependent, were assessed at home by the CHW using the structured COPE assessment tool, generating information on impairments in nutrition, mobility, vision, hearing, continence, cognition, mood and behaviour. The older people were reassessed by local physicians who reached a clinical judgment regarding the presence or absence of the same impairments based upon clinical examination guided by the EASY-Care assessment tool. The COPE tool was considered easy to administer, and gave CHWs a sense of empowerment to understand and act upon the needs of older people. Agreement between COPE assessment by CHW and clinician assessors was modest (ranged from 45.8 to 91.3 %) for most impairments. However, the prevalence of impairments was generally higher according to clinicians, particularly for visual impairment (98.7 vs 45.8 %), cognitive impairment (78.4 vs. 38.2 %) and depression (82.0 vs. 59.9 %). Most cases identified by WHO-COPE were clinician confirmed (positive predictive values - 72.2 to 98.5 %), and levels of disability and needs for care among those identified by COPE were higher than those additionally identified by the clinician alone. The COPE is a feasible tool for the identification of specific impairments in frail dependent older people in the community. Those identified are likely to be confirmed as having clinically relevant problems by clinicians working in the same service, and the COPE may be particularly effective at targeting attention upon those with the most substantial unmet needs.

  17. VARIABILITY IN LEVELS OF LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS CHOLESTEROL IN PATIENTS WITH FAMILIAL HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA DEPENDING ON AGE AND SEX AND ITS IMPORTANCE IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF THIS DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. А. Korneva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the ranges of low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol depending on the age and gender of patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FHC by an example of a sample of patients living in the Republic of Karelia.Material and methods. Parameters of lipid spectrum of 219 patients (aged 52.5±1.7 years; males 38.3% with heterozygous FHC were studied before the start of statin therapy. Definite FHC was diagnosed in 102 patients. Lipid profile was estimated by enzymatic calorimetric method. The diagnosis of FHC was established according to the criteria of The Dutch Lipid Clinic Network.  Genetic analysis was performed in 102 patients (46.6%; pathogenic mutation in the LDL receptor was identified in 21 patients. The control group consisted of 539 people with the excluded diagnosis of FHC (aged 46.8±0.8 years; males 53.8%.Results. We determined the level of LDL cholesterol (LDLC associated with increased frequency of mutations of the LDL receptor in patients with definite FHC; mutation frequency was 3 times higher when LDLC level was more than 6.5 mmol/L. We revealed the following characteristic intervals of the LDLC levels in patients with a definite FHC: up to 20 years old – 4.8-6.2 mmol/l; in patients of 20-29 years old – 5.9-8.2 mmol/l; in the age range of 30-39 years the upper value of the LDLC levels reached 9.6 mmol/l; in individuals of 40-49 years old a stabilization, "plateau", was observed – LDLC level did not differ significantly compared to the previous decade, and was 5.4-9.0 mmol/l. In the age range  of 50-59 years the upper LDLC level was up to 11.4 mmol/l. Similar indicators were identified in patients aged 60-69 years. Patients older than 70 years with a definite FHC an upper level of LDLC was higher and reached 12.5 mmol/l. Tendency to increase in the characteristic values of LDLC with age was observed both in men and in women. Specific age-related trends  for men (an increase from a plateau by the age of 50

  18. High-resolution delineation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds in a dipping, fractured mudstone: depth- and strata-dependent spatial variability from rock-core sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Daniel J.; Imbrigiotta, Thomas E.; Lacombe, Pierre J.

    2014-01-01

    Synthesis of rock-core sampling and chlorinated volatile organic compound (CVOC) analysis at five coreholes, with hydraulic and water-quality monitoring and a detailed hydrogeologic framework, was used to characterize the fine-scale distribution of CVOCs in dipping, fractured mudstones of the Lockatong Formation of Triassic age, of the Newark Basin in West Trenton, New Jersey. From these results, a refined conceptual model for more than 55 years of migration of CVOCs and depth- and strata-dependent rock-matrix contamination was developed. Industrial use of trichloroethene (TCE) at the former Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) from 1953 to 1995 resulted in dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) TCE and dissolved TCE and related breakdown products, including other CVOCs, in underlying mudstones. Shallow highly weathered and fractured strata overlie unweathered, gently dipping, fractured strata that become progressively less fractured with depth. The unweathered lithology includes black highly fractured (fissile) carbon-rich strata, gray mildly fractured thinly layered (laminated) strata, and light-gray weakly fractured massive strata. CVOC concentrations in water samples pumped from the shallow weathered and highly fractured strata remain elevated near residual DNAPL TCE, but dilution by uncontaminated recharge, and other natural and engineered attenuation processes, have substantially reduced concentrations along flow paths removed from sources and residual DNAPL. CVOCs also were detected in most rock-core samples in source areas in shallow wells. In many locations, lower aqueous concentrations, compared to rock core concentrations, suggest that CVOCs are presently back-diffusing from the rock matrix. Below the weathered and highly fractured strata, and to depths of at least 50 meters (m), groundwater flow and contaminant transport is primarily in bedding-plane-oriented fractures in thin fissile high-carbon strata, and in fractured, laminated strata of the gently

  19. Renal Dysfunction Induced by Kidney-Specific Gene Deletion of Hsd11b2 as a Primary Cause of Salt-Dependent Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Kohei; Nishimoto, Mitsuhiro; Hirohama, Daigoro; Ayuzawa, Nobuhiro; Kawarazaki, Wakako; Watanabe, Atsushi; Shimosawa, Tatsuo; Loffing, Johannes; Zhang, Ming-Zhi; Marumo, Takeshi; Fujita, Toshiro

    2017-07-01

    Genome-wide analysis of renal sodium-transporting system has identified specific variations of Mendelian hypertensive disorders, including HSD11B2 gene variants in apparent mineralocorticoid excess. However, these genetic variations in extrarenal tissue can be involved in developing hypertension, as demonstrated in former studies using global and brain-specific Hsd11b2 knockout rodents. To re-examine the importance of renal dysfunction on developing hypertension, we generated kidney-specific Hsd11b2 knockout mice. The knockout mice exhibited systemic hypertension, which was abolished by reducing salt intake, suggesting its salt-dependency. In addition, we detected an increase in renal membrane expressions of cleaved epithelial sodium channel-α and T53-phosphorylated Na + -Cl - cotransporter in the knockout mice. Acute intraperitoneal administration of amiloride-induced natriuresis and increased urinary sodium/potassium ratio more in the knockout mice compared with those in the wild-type control mice. Chronic administration of amiloride and high-KCl diet significantly decreased mean blood pressure in the knockout mice, which was accompanied with the correction of hypokalemia and the resultant decrease in Na + -Cl - cotransporter phosphorylation. Accordingly, a Na + -Cl - cotransporter blocker hydrochlorothiazide significantly decreased mean blood pressure in the knockout mice. Chronic administration of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist spironolactone significantly decreased mean blood pressure of the knockout mice along with downregulation of cleaved epithelial sodium channel-α and phosphorylated Na + -Cl - cotransporter expression in the knockout kidney. Our data suggest that kidney-specific deficiency of 11β-HSD2 leads to salt-dependent hypertension, which is attributed to mineralocorticoid receptor-epithelial sodium channel-Na + -Cl - cotransporter activation in the kidney, and provides evidence that renal dysfunction is essential for developing the

  20. Defining an EPOR- regulated transcriptome for primary progenitors, including Tnfr-sf13c as a novel mediator of EPO- dependent erythroblast formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Singh

    Full Text Available Certain concepts concerning EPO/EPOR action modes have been challenged by in vivo studies: Bcl-x levels are elevated in maturing erythroblasts, but not in their progenitors; truncated EPOR alleles that lack a major p85/PI3K recruitment site nonetheless promote polycythemia; and Erk1 disruption unexpectedly bolsters erythropoiesis. To discover novel EPO/EPOR action routes, global transcriptome analyses presently are applied to interrogate EPO/EPOR effects on primary bone marrow-derived CFUe-like progenitors. Overall, 160 EPO/EPOR target transcripts were significantly modulated 2-to 21.8-fold. A unique set of EPO-regulated survival factors included Lyl1, Gas5, Pim3, Pim1, Bim, Trib3 and Serpina 3g. EPO/EPOR-modulated cell cycle mediators included Cdc25a, Btg3, Cyclin-d2, p27-kip1, Cyclin-g2 and CyclinB1-IP-1. EPO regulation of signal transduction factors was also interestingly complex. For example, not only Socs3 plus Socs2 but also Spred2, Spred1 and Eaf1 were EPO-induced as negative-feedback components. Socs2, plus five additional targets, further proved to comprise new EPOR/Jak2/Stat5 response genes (which are important for erythropoiesis during anemia. Among receptors, an atypical TNF-receptor Tnfr-sf13c was up-modulated >5-fold by EPO. Functionally, Tnfr-sf13c ligation proved to both promote proerythroblast survival, and substantially enhance erythroblast formation. The EPOR therefore engages a sophisticated set of transcriptome response circuits, with Tnfr-sf13c deployed as one novel positive regulator of proerythroblast formation.

  1. Computational Replication of the Primary Isotope Dependence of Secondary Kinetic Isotope Effects in Solution Hydride-Transfer Reactions: Supporting the Isotopically Different Tunneling Ready State Conformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhshani-Molayousefi, Mortaza; Kashefolgheta, Sadra; Eilers, James E; Lu, Yun

    2016-06-30

    We recently reported a study of the steric effect on the 1° isotope dependence of 2° KIEs for several hydride-transfer reactions in solution (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2015, 137, 6653). The unusual 2° KIEs decrease as the 1° isotope changes from H to D, and more in the sterically hindered systems. These were explained in terms of a more crowded tunneling ready state (TRS) conformation in D-tunneling, which has a shorter donor-acceptor distance (DAD) than in H-tunneling. To examine the isotopic DAD difference explanation, in this paper, following an activated motion-assisted H-tunneling model that requires a shorter DAD in a heavier isotope transfer process, we computed the 2° KIEs at various H/D positions at different DADs (2.9 Å to 3.5 Å) for the hydride-transfer reactions from 2-propanol to the xanthylium and thioxanthylium ions (Xn(+) and TXn(+)) and their 9-phenyl substituted derivatives (Ph(T)Xn(+)). The calculated 2° KIEs match the experiments and the calculated DAD effect on the 2° KIEs fits the observed 1° isotope effect on the 2° KIEs. These support the motion-assisted H-tunneling model and the isotopically different TRS conformations. Furthermore, it was found that the TRS of the sterically hindered Ph(T)Xn(+) system does not possess a longer DAD than that of the (T)Xn(+) system. This predicts a no larger 1° KIE in the former system than in the latter. The observed 1° KIE order is, however, contrary to the prediction. This implicates the stronger DAD-compression vibrations coupled to the bulky Ph(T)Xn(+) reaction coordinate.

  2. Density dependence of the radiolysis yields of primary species from fast neutron-irradiated supercritical water at 400 {sup o}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butarbutar, S.L. [Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC (Canada); National Nuclear Energy Agency, BATAN, Tangerang Selatan, Banten (Indonesia); Meesungnoen, J. [Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC (Canada); Guzonas, D.A.; Stuart, C.R. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada); Jay-Gerin, J-P [Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    A reliable understanding of radiolysis processes in supercritical water (SCW)-cooled reactors is crucial to developing chemistry control strategies that minimize corrosion and the transport of both corrosion products and radionuclides. Chemistry control is one of the most important factors to keep the integrity of materials from degradation processes and also to reduce out-of-core radiation fields and worker dose. However, directly measuring the chemistry in reactor cores is difficult due to the extreme conditions of high temperature and pressure and mixed neutron and γ-radiation fields that are not compatible with normal chemical instrumentation. Thus, chemical models and computer simulations are an important route of investigation for predicting the detailed radiation chemistry of the coolant in a SCW reactor and the consequences for materials. Surprisingly, there is only limited information on the fast neutron radiolysis of water at high temperatures, and no experimental data are yet available on the radiolysis yields for fast neutron irradiation of SCW. In this work, Monte Carlo simulations were used to predict the G-values for the primary species e{sup -}{sub aq}, H{sup •}, H{sub 2}, {sup •}OH, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} formed from the radiolysis of pure, deaerated SCW (H{sub 2}O) by 2-MeV mono-energetic neutrons at 400 {sup o}C as a function of water density in the range of ~0.15-0.6 g/cm{sup 3}. The 2-MeV neutron was taken as representative of a fast neutron flux in a reactor. For light water, the moderation of these neutrons after knock-on collisions with water molecules generated mostly recoil protons of 1.264, 0.465, 0.171, and 0.063 MeV having linear energy transfer (LET) values of ~3.3, 6.5, 10.4, and 11.4 keV/μm at 0.15 g/cm{sup 3}, and ~13.3, 26, 42, and 46 keV/μm at 0.6 g/cm{sup 3}, respectively. Neglecting oxygen ion recoils and assuming that the most significant contribution to the radiolysis came from these first four recoil protons, the fast

  3. Primary and secondary structure dependence of peptide flexibility assessed by fluorescence-based measurement of end-to-end collision rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fang; Hudgins, Robert R; Nau, Werner M

    2004-12-22

    The intrachain fluorescence quenching of the fluorophore 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene (DBO) is measured in short peptide fragments, namely the two strands and the turn of the N-terminal beta-hairpin of ubiquitin. The investigated peptides adopt a random-coil conformation in aqueous solution according to CD and NMR experiments. The combination of quenchers with different quenching efficiencies, namely tryptophan and tyrosine, allows the extrapolation of the rate constants for end-to-end collision rates as well as the dissociation of the end-to-end encounter complex. The measured activation energies for fluorescence quenching demonstrate that the end-to-end collision process in peptides is partially controlled by internal friction within the backbone, while measurements in solvents of different viscosities (H2O, D2O, and 7.0 M guanidinium chloride) suggest that solvent friction is an additional important factor in determining the collision rate. The extrapolated end-to-end collision rates, which are only slightly larger than the experimental rates for the DBO/Trp probe/quencher system, provide a measure of the conformational flexibility of the peptide backbone. The chain flexibility is found to be strongly dependent on the type of secondary structure that the peptides represent. The collision rates for peptides derived from the beta-strand motifs (ca. 1 x 10(7) s(-1)) are ca. 4 times slower than that derived from the beta-turn. The results provide further support for the hypothesis that chain flexibility is an important factor in the preorganization of protein fragments during protein folding. Mutations to the beta-turn peptide show that subtle sequence changes strongly affect the flexibility of peptides as well. The protonation and charge status of the peptides, however, are shown to have no significant effect on the flexibility of the investigated peptides. The meaning and definition of end-to-end collision rates in the context of protein folding are critically

  4. Variability Bugs:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melo, Jean

    . Although many researchers suggest that preprocessor-based variability amplifies maintenance problems, there is little to no hard evidence on how actually variability affects programs and programmers. Specifically, how does variability affect programmers during maintenance tasks (bug finding in particular......)? How much harder is it to debug a program as variability increases? How do developers debug programs with variability? In what ways does variability affect bugs? In this Ph.D. thesis, I set off to address such issues through different perspectives using empirical research (based on controlled...... experiments) in order to understand quantitatively and qualitatively the impact of variability on programmers at bug finding and on buggy programs. From the program (and bug) perspective, the results show that variability is ubiquitous. There appears to be no specific nature of variability bugs that could...

  5. Predator persistence through variability of resource productivity in Tritrophic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soudijn, Floor Helena; de Roos, Andre M.

    2017-01-01

    The trophic structure of species communities depends on the energy transfer between trophic levels. Primary productivity varies strongly through time, challenging the persistence of species at higher trophic levels. Yet resource variability has mostly been studied in systems with only one or two...... trophic levels. We test the effect of variability in resource productivity in a tritrophic model system including a resource, a size-structured consumer, and a size-specific predator. The model complies with fundamental principles of mass conservation and the body-size dependence of individual......-level energetics and predator-prey interactions. Surprisingly, we find that resource variability may promote predator persistence. The positive effect of variability on the predator arises through periods with starvation mortality of juvenile prey, which reduces the intraspecific competition in the prey population...

  6. Amenorrhea - primary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of periods - primary Images Primary amenorrhea Normal uterine anatomy (cut section) Absence of menstruation (amenorrhea) References Bulun SE. The physiology and pathology of the female reproductive axis. In: ...

  7. Pulsating variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The study of stellar pulsations is a major route to the understanding of stellar structure and evolution. At the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) the following stellar pulsation studies were undertaken: rapidly oscillating Ap stars; solar-like oscillations in stars; 8-Scuti type variability in a classical Am star; Beta Cephei variables; a pulsating white dwarf and its companion; RR Lyrae variables and galactic Cepheids. 4 figs

  8. Prevention of the β-amyloid peptide-induced inflammatory process by inhibition of double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase in primary murine mixed co-cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terro F

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation may be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. There has been little success with anti-inflammatory drugs in AD, while the promise of anti-inflammatory treatment is more evident in experimental models. A new anti-inflammatory strategy requires a better understanding of molecular mechanisms. Among the plethora of signaling pathways activated by β-amyloid (Aβ peptides, the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB pathway could be an interesting target. In virus-infected cells, double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR controls the NF-κB signaling pathway. It is well-known that PKR is activated in AD. This led us to study the effect of a specific inhibitor of PKR on the Aβ42-induced inflammatory response in primary mixed murine co-cultures, allowing interactions between neurons, astrocytes and microglia. Methods Primary mixed murine co-cultures were prepared in three steps: a primary culture of astrocytes and microglia for 14 days, then a primary culture of neurons and astrocytes which were cultured with microglia purified from the first culture. Before exposure to Aβ neurotoxicity (72 h, co-cultures were treated with compound C16, a specific inhibitor of PKR. Levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα, interleukin (IL-1β, and IL-6 were assessed by ELISA. Levels of PT451-PKR and activation of IκB, NF-κB and caspase-3 were assessed by western blotting. Apoptosis was also followed using annexin V-FITC immunostaining kit. Subcellular distribution of PT451-PKR was assessed by confocal immunofluorescence and morphological structure of cells by scanning electron microscopy. Data were analysed using one-way ANOVA followed by a Newman-Keuls' post hoc test Results In these co-cultures, PKR inhibition prevented Aβ42-induced activation of IκB and NF-κB, strongly decreased production and release of tumor necrosis factor (TNFα and interleukin (IL-1β, and limited apoptosis. Conclusion In spite of the

  9. Mutating the Conserved Q-loop Glutamine 1291 Selectively Disrupts Adenylate Kinase-dependent Channel Gating of the ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Adenylate Kinase Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) and Reduces Channel Function in Primary Human Airway Epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qian; Ernst, Sarah E; Ostedgaard, Lynda S; Shah, Viral S; Ver Heul, Amanda R; Welsh, Michael J; Randak, Christoph O

    2015-05-29

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and two other non-membrane-bound ABC proteins, Rad50 and a structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) protein, exhibit adenylate kinase activity in the presence of physiologic concentrations of ATP and AMP or ADP (ATP + AMP ⇆ 2 ADP). The crystal structure of the nucleotide-binding domain of an SMC protein in complex with the adenylate kinase bisubstrate inhibitor P(1),P(5)-di(adenosine-5') pentaphosphate (Ap5A) suggests that AMP binds to the conserved Q-loop glutamine during the adenylate kinase reaction. Therefore, we hypothesized that mutating the corresponding residue in CFTR, Gln-1291, selectively disrupts adenylate kinase-dependent channel gating at physiologic nucleotide concentrations. We found that substituting Gln-1291 with bulky side-chain amino acids abolished the effects of Ap5A, AMP, and adenosine 5'-monophosphoramidate on CFTR channel function. 8-Azidoadenosine 5'-monophosphate photolabeling of the AMP-binding site and adenylate kinase activity were disrupted in Q1291F CFTR. The Gln-1291 mutations did not alter the potency of ATP at stimulating current or ATP-dependent gating when ATP was the only nucleotide present. However, when physiologic concentrations of ADP and AMP were added, adenylate kinase-deficient Q1291F channels opened significantly less than wild type. Consistent with this result, we found that Q1291F CFTR displayed significantly reduced Cl(-) channel function in well differentiated primary human airway epithelia. These results indicate that a highly conserved residue of an ABC transporter plays an important role in adenylate kinase-dependent CFTR gating. Furthermore, the results suggest that adenylate kinase activity is important for normal CFTR channel function in airway epithelia. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Temperature dependence of CO2-enhanced primary production in the European Arctic Ocean, supplement to: Holding, Johnna; Duarte, Carlos M; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Mesa, E; Arrieta, J M; Chierici, Melissa; Hendriks, Iris; García-Corral, L S; Regaudie-de-Gioux, A; Delgado, A; Reigstad, M; Wassmann, P; Agustí, Susana (2015): Temperature dependence of CO2-enhanced primary production in the European Arctic Ocean. Nature Climate Change, 5(12), 1079-1082

    KAUST Repository

    Holding, Johnna; Duarte, Carlos M.; Sanz-Martí n, Marina; Mesa, E; Arrieta, J M; Chierici, Melissa; Hendriks, Iris; Garcí a-Corral, L S; Regaudie-de-Gioux, A; Delgado, A; Reigstad, M; Wassmann, P; Agusti, Susana

    2016-01-01

    should lead to increased rates of planktonic primary production. Yet, simultaneous assessment of warming and increased CO2 on primary production in the Arctic has not been conducted. Here we test the expectation that CO2-enhanced gross primary production

  11. Cognitive Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    Children's thinking is highly variable at every level of analysis, from neural and associative levels to the level of strategies, theories, and other aspects of high-level cognition. This variability exists within people as well as between them; individual children often rely on different strategies or representations on closely related problems…

  12. Carbon dioxide exchange in three tundra sites show a dissimilar response to environmental variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbufong, Herbert Njuabe; Lund, Magnus; Christensen, Torben Røjle

    2015-01-01

    variability. An improved understanding of the control of ancillary variables on net ecosystem exchange (NEE), gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Re) will improve the accuracy with which CO2 exchange seasonality in Arctic tundra ecosystems is modelled. Fluxes were measured with the eddy...... Lake. Growing season NEE correlated mainly to cumulative radiation and temperature-related variables at Zackenberg, while at Daring Lake the same variables showed significant correlations with the partitioned fluxes (GPP and Re). Stordalen was temperature dependent during the growing season. This study...

  13. Primary encopresis: evaluation and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, S; Ross, L V; Christophersen, E R

    1986-01-01

    Cathartic and behavioral treatment procedures for eliminating diurnal and nocturnal primary encopresis were investigated using a multiple-baseline design across four children. The dependent and independent variables measured were appropriate bowel movements, soiling accidents, independent toiletings, and cathartic use. Over 177 reliability observations (home visits) were conducted. For two of the children, treatment with cathartics and child-time remedied their soiling accidents and increased their independent toiletings in 8 to 11 weeks. While the cathartics and child-time increased the rate of appropriate bowel movements, they did not eliminate the soiling accidents with the other two children. Independent toiletings for these two children were achieved after 32 to 39 weeks of treatment when punishment procedures (positive practice, time-out, and hourly toilet sits) were incorporated and the suppositories were faded systematically. PMID:3733585

  14. Rapidly variable relatvistic absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A.; Lohfink, A.; Buisson, D.; Alston, W.; Jiang, J.

    2017-10-01

    I will present results from the 1.5Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the most X-ray variable AGN, IRAS 13224-3809. We find a series of nine absorption lines with a velocity of 0.24c from an ultra-fast outflow. For the first time, we are able to see extremely rapid variability of the UFO features, and can link this to the X-ray variability from the inner accretion disk. We find a clear flux dependence of the outflow features, suggesting that the wind is ionized by increasing X-ray emission.

  15. HOW NORMAL IS VARIABLE, OR HOW VARIABLE IS NORMAL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TOUWEN, BCL

    Variability is an important property of the central nervous system, and it shows characteristic changes during infancy and childhood. The large amount of variations in the performance of sensomotor functions in infancy is called indiscriminate or primary variability. During toddling age the child

  16. Internal variables in thermoelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Berezovski, Arkadi

    2017-01-01

    This book describes an effective method for modeling advanced materials like polymers, composite materials and biomaterials, which are, as a rule, inhomogeneous. The thermoelastic theory with internal variables presented here provides a general framework for predicting a material’s reaction to external loading. The basic physical principles provide the primary theoretical information, including the evolution equations of the internal variables. The cornerstones of this framework are the material representation of continuum mechanics, a weak nonlocality, a non-zero extra entropy flux, and a consecutive employment of the dissipation inequality. Examples of thermoelastic phenomena are provided, accompanied by detailed procedures demonstrating how to simulate them.

  17. Vascular adhesion protein-1 is elevated in primary sclerosing cholangitis, is predictive of clinical outcome and facilitates recruitment of gut-tropic lymphocytes to liver in a substrate-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Palak J; Tickle, Joseph; Vesterhus, Mette Nåmdal; Eddowes, Peter J; Bruns, Tony; Vainio, Jani; Parker, Richard; Smith, David; Liaskou, Evaggelia; Thorbjørnsen, Liv Wenche; Hirschfield, Gideon M; Auvinen, Kaisa; Hubscher, Stefan G; Salmi, Marko; Adams, David H; Weston, Chris J

    2018-06-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is the classical hepatobiliary manifestation of IBD. This clinical association is linked pathologically to the recruitment of mucosal T cells to the liver, via vascular adhesion protein (VAP)-1-dependent enzyme activity. Our aim was to examine the expression, function and enzymatic activation of the ectoenzyme VAP-1 in patients with PSC. We examined VAP-1 expression in patients with PSC, correlated levels with clinical characteristics and determined the functional consequences of enzyme activation by specific enzyme substrates on hepatic endothelium. The intrahepatic enzyme activity of VAP-1 was elevated in PSC versus immune-mediated disease controls and non-diseased liver (pgut-tropic α4β7 + lymphocytes to hepatic endothelial cells in vitro under flow was attenuated by 50% following administration of the VAP-1 inhibitor semicarbazide (pgut bacteria-was the most efficient (yielded the highest enzymatic rate) and efficacious in its ability to induce expression of functional mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 on hepatic endothelium. In a prospectively evaluated patient cohort with PSC, elevated serum soluble (s)VAP-1 levels predicted poorer transplant-free survival for patients, independently (HR: 3.85, p=0.003) and additively (HR: 2.02, p=0.012) of the presence of liver cirrhosis. VAP-1 expression is increased in PSC, facilitates adhesion of gut-tropic lymphocytes to liver endothelium in a substrate-dependent manner, and elevated levels of its circulating form predict clinical outcome in patients. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Current state of information technology use in a US primary care practice-based research network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Andrews

    2004-02-01

    Conclusion While interest in enabling information technologies was high in KAN, adoption was variable, with use of several key technologies reported as low.The results suggest that research in this network that would be dependent on or enhanced by IT might be impeded and, generally, greater attention should be given to enhancing the IT infrastructure in primary care.

  19. Primary explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matyas, Robert; Pachman, Jiri [Pardubice Univ. (Czech Republic). Faculty of Chemical Technology

    2013-06-01

    The first chapter provides background such as the basics of initiation and differences between requirements on primary explosives used in detonators and igniters. The authors then clarify the influence of physical characteristics on explosive properties, focusing on those properties required for primary explosives. Furthermore, the issue of sensitivity is discussed. All the chapters on particular groups of primary explosives are structured in the same way, including introduction, physical and chemical properties, explosive properties, preparation and documented use.

  20. Primary fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, S; Jensen, L T; Foldager, M

    1990-01-01

    Serum concentrations of procollagen type III aminoterminal peptide have previously been reported to be low in some patients with primary fibromyalgia and the aim of this study was to determine if such patients differ clinically from primary fibromyalgia patients with normal levels of procollagen...... type III aminoterminal peptide. Subjective symptoms, tender points and dynamic muscle strength in 45 women with primary fibromyalgia were related to serum concentrations of procollagen type III aminoterminal peptide. Patients with low serum concentrations of procollagen type III aminoterminal peptide...... concentrations of procollagen type III aminoterminal peptide of primary fibromyalgia patients are connected to the disease impact....

  1. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Stephen D

    1999-01-01

    The most important topics in the theory and application of complex variables receive a thorough, coherent treatment in this introductory text. Intended for undergraduates or graduate students in science, mathematics, and engineering, this volume features hundreds of solved examples, exercises, and applications designed to foster a complete understanding of complex variables as well as an appreciation of their mathematical beauty and elegance. Prerequisites are minimal; a three-semester course in calculus will suffice to prepare students for discussions of these topics: the complex plane, basic

  2. Variable stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feast, M.W.; Wenzel, W.; Fernie, J.D.; Percy, J.R.; Smak, J.; Gascoigne, S.C.B.; Grindley, J.E.; Lovell, B.; Sawyer Hogg, H.B.; Baker, N.; Fitch, W.S.; Rosino, L.; Gursky, H.

    1976-01-01

    A critical review of variable stars is presented. A fairly complete summary of major developments and discoveries during the period 1973-1975 is given. The broad developments and new trends are outlined. Essential problems for future research are identified. (B.R.H. )

  3. Primary cosmic ray flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor

    2001-05-01

    We discuss the primary cosmic ray flux from the point of view of particle interactions and production of atmospheric neutrinos. The overall normalization of the cosmic ray flux and its time variations and site dependence are major ingredients of the atmospheric neutrino predictions and the basis for the derivation of the neutrino oscillation parameters.

  4. Deformation patterning driven by rate dependent non-convex strain gradient plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yalcinkaya, T.; Brekelmans, W.A.M.; Geers, M.G.D.

    2011-01-01

    A rate dependent strain gradient plasticity framework for the description of plastic slip patterning in a system with non-convex energetic hardening is presented. Both the displacement and the plastic slip fields are considered as primary variables. These fields are determined on a global level by

  5. Primary productivity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Photosynthetic production in the oceans in relation to light, nutrients and mixing processes is discussed. Primary productivity in the estuarine region is reported to be high in comparison to coastal and oceanic waters. Upwelling phenomenon...

  6. Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Neoplasia Type 1 Thyroid Disease & Pregnancy Primary Hyperparathyroidism Prolactinoma National Hormone and Pituitary Program (NHPP): Information for ... qualified health care provider nearby. Eating, Diet, and Nutrition Eating, diet, and nutrition have not been shown ...

  7. Primary Myelofibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... attack is higher. Patients also have an increased risk of acute myeloid leukemia or primary myelofibrosis . Symptoms of polycythemia vera include headaches and a feeling of fullness below the ribs on the left ...

  8. Soil variability in mountain areas

    OpenAIRE

    Zanini, E.; Freppaz, M.; Stanchi, S.; Bonifacio, E.; Egli, M.

    2015-01-01

    The high spatial variability of soils is a relevant issue at local and global scales, and determines the complexity of soil ecosystem functions and services. This variability derives from strong dependencies of soil ecosystems on parent materials, climate, relief and biosphere, including human impact. Although present in all environments, the interactions of soils with these forming factors are particularly striking in mountain areas.

  9. TEC variability over Havana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazo, B.; Alazo, K.; Rodriguez, M.; Calzadilla, A.

    2003-01-01

    The variability of total electron content (TEC) measured over Havana using ATS-6, SMS-1 and GOES-3 geosynchronous satellite signals has been investigated for low, middle and high solar activity periods from 1974 to 1982. The obtained results show that standard deviation is smooth during nighttime hours and maximum at noon or postnoon hours. Strong solar activity dependence of standard deviation with a maximum values during HSA has been found. (author)

  10. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Flanigan, Francis J

    2010-01-01

    A caution to mathematics professors: Complex Variables does not follow conventional outlines of course material. One reviewer noting its originality wrote: ""A standard text is often preferred [to a superior text like this] because the professor knows the order of topics and the problems, and doesn't really have to pay attention to the text. He can go to class without preparation."" Not so here-Dr. Flanigan treats this most important field of contemporary mathematics in a most unusual way. While all the material for an advanced undergraduate or first-year graduate course is covered, discussion

  11. Surfing wave climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo, Antonio; Losada, Iñigo J.; Méndez, Fernando J.

    2014-10-01

    International surfing destinations are highly dependent on specific combinations of wind-wave formation, thermal conditions and local bathymetry. Surf quality depends on a vast number of geophysical variables, and analyses of surf quality require the consideration of the seasonal, interannual and long-term variability of surf conditions on a global scale. A multivariable standardized index based on expert judgment is proposed for this purpose. This index makes it possible to analyze surf conditions objectively over a global domain. A summary of global surf resources based on a new index integrating existing wave, wind, tides and sea surface temperature databases is presented. According to general atmospheric circulation and swell propagation patterns, results show that west-facing low to middle-latitude coasts are more suitable for surfing, especially those in the Southern Hemisphere. Month-to-month analysis reveals strong seasonal variations in the occurrence of surfable events, enhancing the frequency of such events in the North Atlantic and the North Pacific. Interannual variability was investigated by comparing occurrence values with global and regional modes of low-frequency climate variability such as El Niño and the North Atlantic Oscillation, revealing their strong influence at both the global and the regional scale. Results of the long-term trends demonstrate an increase in the probability of surfable events on west-facing coasts around the world in recent years. The resulting maps provide useful information for surfers, the surf tourism industry and surf-related coastal planners and stakeholders.

  12. Path Dependency

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Setterfield

    2015-01-01

    Path dependency is defined, and three different specific concepts of path dependency – cumulative causation, lock in, and hysteresis – are analyzed. The relationships between path dependency and equilibrium, and path dependency and fundamental uncertainty are also discussed. Finally, a typology of dynamical systems is developed to clarify these relationships.

  13. [Dependent patient and interpersonal dependency: psychotherapeutic strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versaevel, C

    2012-04-01

    This article is a review of psychotherapies for patients suffering from dependent personality and interpersonal dependency. We synthesized articles making reference to this question, notably those written by Bornstein, author who refers to the dependent personality. We highlighted the psychotherapies that have been the object of an evaluation. The research on the subject is sparse: only eight studies permitting assessment of psychotherapies in this indication in 2005. Besides these psychotherapies, we detailed other approaches which are used by practitioners in these indications. The therapy does not aim at autonomy "at all costs", but that the patient finds a dependence "adapted" to his/her environment. Before starting a therapy, an evaluation is useful to specify the type of dependence. First of all, is there a "pathological" dependence? Is the suffering of the patient secondary to his personality or not supportive enough? Does insight exist? What is the reaction of the patient if we suggest the hypothesis of a dependence on his/her part? Does he/she consider this idea or reject it? Finally, is the dependence primary or secondary? For that purpose, it is necessary to study the biography of the patient and the appearance of the comorbidity over time. The primary dependence is seen in childhood and precedes the other psychological disorders. The secondary dependence follows after the comorbidity and events of life that alter self-esteem (depression, for example). Various therapeutic strategies arise from various currents. The therapies of analytical inspiration recommend replaying the relationship of object and explicitly evoking the transfer. The behavioural and cognitive psychotherapies aim at making the patient identify the cognitions which underlie the dependence, then leading the patient to modify his/her cognition and to behave in a more autonomous way, using the theory of learning. The humanist therapies aim at a therapeutic relationship of acceptance and

  14. Influência das características sociodemográficas e clínicas e do nível de dependência na qualidade de vida de pacientes com DPOC em oxigenoterapia domiciliar prolongada Influence that sociodemographic variables, clinical characteristics, and level of dependence have on quality of life in COPD patients on long-term home oxygen therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Cedano

    2012-06-01

    of dependence. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional analytical study involving COPD patients on LTOT followed at the Oxygen Therapy Outpatient Clinic of the Federal University of São Paulo Hospital São Paulo, in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Sociodemographic, clinical, and biochemical data were collected. We assessed QoL and level of dependence using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36 and the Katz index, respectively. Multiple linear regression models were constructed in order to determine the influence of these variables on QoL. RESULTS: We included 80 patients in the study. The mean age was 69.6 ± 9.1 years, and 51.3% were female. The lowest SF-36 scores were for the physical functioning and role-physical domains. All sociodemographic characteristics (except gender were found to correlate significantly with the SF-36 domains mental health, vitality, role-physical, and social functioning. We also found that body mass index, PaO2, post-bronchodilator FEV1, hemoglobin, and Katz index correlated significantly with the physical functioning, mental health, role-physical, and bodily pain domains. In addition, oxygen flows were found to correlate negatively with the physical functioning, mental health, vitality, and role-emotional domains. CONCLUSIONS: Low scores for SF-36 domains, as well as the variables that negatively influence them, should be considered and analyzed during the development and implementation of strategies for improving the QoL of COPD patients on LTOT.

  15. Dynamic Modelling with "MLE-Energy Dynamic" for Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giliberti, Enrico; Corni, Federico

    During the recent years simulation and modelling are growing instances in science education. In primary school, however, the main use of software is the simulation, due to the lack of modelling software tools specially designed to fit/accomplish the needs of primary education. In particular primary school teachers need to use simulation in a framework that is both consistent and simple enough to be understandable by children [2]. One of the possible area to approach modelling is about the construction of the concept of energy, in particular for what concerns the relations among substance, potential, power [3]. Following the previous initial research results with this approach [2], and with the static version of the software MLE Energy [1], we suggest the design and the experimentation of a dynamic modelling software—MLE dynamic-capable to represent dynamically the relations occurring when two substance-like quantities exchange energy, modifying their potential. By means of this software the user can graphically choose the dependent and independent variables and leave the other parameters fixed. The software has been initially evaluated, during a course of science education with a group of primary school teachers-to-be, to test the ability of the software to improve teachers' way of thinking in terms of substance-like quantities and their effects (graphical representation of the extensive, intensive variables and their mutual relations); moreover, the software has been tested with a group of primary school teachers, asking their opinion about the software didactical relevance in the class work.

  16. How to get rid of W: a latent variables approach to modelling spatially lagged variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, H.; Oud, J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we propose a structural equation model (SEM) with latent variables to model spatial dependence. Rather than using the spatial weights matrix W, we propose to use latent variables to represent spatial dependence and spillover effects, of which the observed spatially lagged variables are

  17. How to get rid of W : a latent variables approach to modelling spatially lagged variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, Henk; Oud, Johan

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we propose a structural equation model (SEM) with latent variables to model spatial dependence. Rather than using the spatial weights matrix W, we propose to use latent variables to represent spatial dependence and spillover effects, of which the observed spatially lagged variables are

  18. [Hypertension: once primary, always primary?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, R.L.; Pieters, G.F.F.M.; Thien, Th.

    2002-01-01

    Three patients diagnosed with primary hypertension suddenly developed hard-to-treat blood pressure after several years of stable blood pressure. One patient, a man aged 48 years, had developed a renal artery stenosis, which had not been present five years earlier. The other two patients, a man aged

  19. Complex Variables throughout the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, John P.

    2017-01-01

    We offer many specific detailed examples, several of which are new, that instructors can use (in lecture or as student projects) to revitalize the role of complex variables throughout the curriculum. We conclude with three primary recommendations: revise the syllabus of Calculus II to allow early introductions of complex numbers and linear…

  20. Hyperthyroidism (primary)

    OpenAIRE

    Nygaard, Birte

    2010-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism is characterised by high levels of serum thyroxine and triiodothyronine, and low levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Thyrotoxicosis is the clinical effect of high levels of thyroid hormones, whether or not the thyroid gland is the primary source.The main causes of hyperthyroidism are Graves' disease, toxic multinodular goitre, and toxic adenoma.About 20 times more women than men have hyperthyroidism.

  1. Variable collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richey, J.B.; McBride, T.R.; Covic, J.

    1979-01-01

    This invention describes an automatic variable collimator which controls the width and thickness of X-ray beams in X-ray diagnostic medical equipment, and which is particularly adapted for use with computerized axial tomographic scanners. A two-part collimator is provided which shapes an X-ray beam both prior to its entering an object subject to radiographic analysis and after the attenuated beam has passed through the object. Interposed between a source of radiation and the object subject to radiographic analysis is a first or source collimator. The source collimator causes the X-ray beam emitted by the source of radiation to be split into a plurality of generally rectangular shaped beams. Disposed within the source collimator is a movable aperture plate which may be used to selectively vary the thickness of the plurality of generally rectangular shaped beams transmitted through the source collimator. A second or receiver collimator is interposed between the object subject to radiographic analysis and a series of radiation detectors. The receiver collimator is disposed to receive the attenuated X-ray beams passing through the object subject to radiographic analysis. Located within the receiver collimator are a plurality of movable aperture plates adapted to be displaced relative to a plurality of fixed aperture plates for the purpose of varying the width and thickness of the attenuated X-ray beams transmitted through the object subject to radiographic analysis. The movable aperture plates of the source and receiver collimators are automatically controlled by circuitry which is provided to allow remote operation of the movable aperture plates

  2. Age-dependent values of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide are superior to a single cut-point for ruling out suspected systolic dysfunction in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Per; Collinson, Paul O; Doughty, Robert N

    2010-01-01

    The study evaluated the use of age-related decision limits for N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), for ruling out suspected systolic dysfunction in symptomatic patients in primary care, compared with the present standards.......The study evaluated the use of age-related decision limits for N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), for ruling out suspected systolic dysfunction in symptomatic patients in primary care, compared with the present standards....

  3. Dependent Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasiunas, Vaidas; Mezini, Mira; Ostermann, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    of dependent classes and a machine-checked type soundness proof in Isabelle/HOL [29], the first of this kind for a language with virtual classes and path-dependent types. [29] T.Nipkow, L.C. Poulson, and M. Wenzel. Isabelle/HOL -- A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order Logic, volume 2283 of LNCS, Springer, 2002......Virtual classes allow nested classes to be refined in subclasses. In this way nested classes can be seen as dependent abstractions of the objects of the enclosing classes. Expressing dependency via nesting, however, has two limitations: Abstractions that depend on more than one object cannot...... be modeled and a class must know all classes that depend on its objects. This paper presents dependent classes, a generalization of virtual classes that expresses similar semantics by parameterization rather than by nesting. This increases expressivity of class variations as well as the flexibility...

  4. Exercise Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Vardar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Exercise dependence define a condition in which a person performs excessive exercise resulting in deterioration of his or her physical and mental health wellness. Despite many clinical research studies on exercise dependence, exact diagnostic criteria has not been developed yet. Clinical evidences concerning etiology, epidemiology, underlying mechanisms and treatment of exercise dependence are still not sufficient. Moreover, evaluation of this clinical disorder within dependency perspective is a fairly new concept. Recent studies have shown that exercise dependence has similar features like chemical substance dependence with regards to withdrawal and tolerance symptoms. The aim of this review was to briefly evaluate diagnostic and clinical features of exercise dependence. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(3.000: 163-173

  5. British Lung Foundation/United Kingdom Primary Immunodeficiency Network Consensus Statement on the Definition, Diagnosis, and Management of Granulomatous-Lymphocytic Interstitial Lung Disease in Common Variable Immunodeficiency Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, John R; Verma, Nisha; Lowe, David; Baxendale, Helen E; Jolles, Stephen; Kelleher, Peter; Longhurst, Hilary J; Patel, Smita Y; Renzoni, Elisabetta A; Sander, Clare R; Avery, Gerard R; Babar, Judith L; Buckland, Matthew S; Burns, Siobhan; Egner, William; Gompels, Mark M; Gordins, Pavels; Haddock, Jamanda A; Hart, Simon P; Hayman, Grant R; Herriot, Richard; Hoyles, Rachel K; Huissoon, Aarnoud P; Jacob, Joseph; Nicholson, Andrew G; Rassl, Doris M; Sargur, Ravishankar B; Savic, Sinisa; Seneviratne, Suranjith L; Sheaff, Michael; Vaitla, Prashantha M; Walters, Gareth I; Whitehouse, Joanna L; Wright, Penny A; Condliffe, Alison M

    A proportion of people living with common variable immunodeficiency disorders develop granulomatous-lymphocytic interstitial lung disease (GLILD). We aimed to develop a consensus statement on the definition, diagnosis, and management of GLILD. All UK specialist centers were contacted and relevant physicians were invited to take part in a 3-round online Delphi process. Responses were graded as Strongly Agree, Tend to Agree, Neither Agree nor Disagree, Tend to Disagree, and Strongly Disagree, scored +1, +0.5, 0, -0.5, and -1, respectively. Agreement was defined as greater than or equal to 80% consensus. Scores are reported as mean ± SD. There was 100% agreement (score, 0.92 ± 0.19) for the following definition: "GLILD is a distinct clinico-radio-pathological ILD occurring in patients with [common variable immunodeficiency disorders], associated with a lymphocytic infiltrate and/or granuloma in the lung, and in whom other conditions have been considered and where possible excluded." There was consensus that the workup of suspected GLILD requires chest computed tomography (CT) (0.98 ± 0.01), lung function tests (eg, gas transfer, 0.94 ± 0.17), bronchoscopy to exclude infection (0.63 ± 0.50), and lung biopsy (0.58 ± 0.40). There was no consensus on whether expectant management following optimization of immunoglobulin therapy was acceptable: 67% agreed, 25% disagreed, score 0.38 ± 0.59; 90% agreed that when treatment was required, first-line treatment should be with corticosteroids alone (score, 0.55 ± 0.51). Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Technological Capability's Predictor Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Maciel Reichert

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the factors that influence in configuration of the technological capability of companies in sectors with medium-low technological intensity. To achieve the goal proposed in this article a survey was carried out. Based on the framework developed by Lall (1992 which classifies firms in basic, intermediate and advanced level of technological capability; it was found that the predominant technological capability is intermediate, with 83.7% of respondent companies (plastics companies in Brazil. It is believed that the main contribution of this study is the finding that the dependent variable named “Technological Capability” can be explained at a rate of 65% by six variables: development of new processes; selection of the best equipment supplier; sales of internally developed new technology to third parties; design and manufacture of equipment; study of the work methods and perform inventory control; and improvement of product quality.

  7. PDGFR alpha signaling in the primary cilium regulates NHE1-dependent fibroblast migration via coordinated differential activity of MEK1/2-ERK1/2-p90(RSK) and AKT signaling pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clement, Ditte L.; Mally, Sabine; Stock, Christian

    2013-01-01

    In fibroblasts, platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFR alpha) is upregulated during growth arrest and compartmentalized to the primary cilium. PDGF-AA mediated activation of the dimerized ciliary receptor produces a phosphorylation cascade through the PI3K-AKT and MEK1/2-ERK1/2 path...

  8. Dependency Parsing

    CERN Document Server

    Kubler, Sandra; Nivre, Joakim

    2009-01-01

    Dependency-based methods for syntactic parsing have become increasingly popular in natural language processing in recent years. This book gives a thorough introduction to the methods that are most widely used today. After an introduction to dependency grammar and dependency parsing, followed by a formal characterization of the dependency parsing problem, the book surveys the three major classes of parsing models that are in current use: transition-based, graph-based, and grammar-based models. It continues with a chapter on evaluation and one on the comparison of different methods, and it close

  9. [Affective dependency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy.

  10. [Primary care in Ireland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sagrado, T

    Spanish doctors are still leaving the country to look for quality work. Ireland is not a country with many Spanish professionals but it is interesting to know its particular Health care system. Ireland is one of the countries with a national health care system, although it has a mixture of private health care insurance schemes. People have a right to health care if they have been living in Ireland at least for a year. Access to the primary care health system depends on age and income: free of charge for Category 1 and co-payments for the rest. This division generates great inequalities among the population. Primary Care doctors are self-employed, and they work independently. However, since 2001 they have tended to work in multidisciplinary teams in order to strengthen the Primary Care practice. Salary is gained from a combination of public and private incomes which are not differentiated. The role of the General Practitioner consists in the treatment of acute and chronic diseases, minor surgery, child care, etc. There is no coordination between Primary and Secondary care. Access to specialised medicine is regulated by the price of consultation. Primary Care doctors are not gatekeepers. To be able to work here, doctors must have three years of training after medical school. After that, Continuing Medical Education is compulsory, and the college of general practitioners monitors it annually. The Irish health care system does not fit into the European model. Lack of a clear separation between public and private health care generates great inequalities. The non-existence of coordination between primary and specialised care leads to inefficiencies, which Ireland cannot allow itself after a decade of economic crisis. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Directional Dependence in Developmental Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Eye, Alexander; DeShon, Richard P.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we discuss and propose methods that may be of use to determine direction of dependence in non-normally distributed variables. First, it is shown that standard regression analysis is unable to distinguish between explanatory and response variables. Then, skewness and kurtosis are discussed as tools to assess deviation from…

  12. Dual-phase 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy with delayed neck and thorax SPECT/CT and bone scintigraphy in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Correlation with clinical or pathological variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Zhongling; Shen, Chentian; Zhu, Ruisen; Luo, Quanyong; Wu, Bo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between 99m Tc-MIBI and 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy and clinical or pathological variables, including preoperative serum PTH levels and tumor diameter, in patients with newly diagnosed PHPT. Dual phase 99m Tc-MIBI planar scintigraphy was performed in 244 patients with PHPT. Of these patients, 155 underwent 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy to detect bone changes before parathyroidectomy. Factors influencing 99m Tc-MIBI scintigraphy and 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy detection rate were assessed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis; optimal cutoff values for predicting positive 99m Tc-MIBI and 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy were evaluated using ROC analysis. Among 244 patients, 174 (71.31%) patients with 181 foci had a positive 99m Tc-MIBI planar scintigraphy; delayed neck and thorax SPECT/CT could identify and locate the 99m Tc-MIBI lesions but could not find more lesions than planar scintigraphy. 70 (28.69%) patients had a negative 99m Tc-MIBI planar scintigraphy. Tumor diameter, serum PTH level and symptoms were statistically significant predictive factors in predicting positive 9m Tc-MIBI scintigraphy both univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. The optimal thresholds for tumor diameter and serum PTH by ROC analysis were 1.03 cm and 127.60 ng/L, respectively. Among 155 patients with bone scintigraphy, 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy showed positive finding in 80 (51.61%) patients and negative finding in 75 patients. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that patient age, sex, tumor diameter and PTH level (≥150 ng/L) were statistically significant in predicting positive 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed both tumor diameter and PTH ≥150 ng/L were statistically significant in predicting positive 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy. The optimal thresholds for tumor diameter and serum PTH by ROC analysis were 1.96 cm and 163

  13. Inhibition of primary roots and stimulation of lateral root development in Arabidopsis thaliana by the rhizobacterium Serratia marcescens 90-166 is through both auxin-dependent and -independent signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chun-Lin; Park, Hyo-Bee; Lee, Jong Suk; Ryu, Sangryeol; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2010-03-01

    The rhizobacterium Serratia marcescens strain 90-166 was previously reported to promote plant growth and induce resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, the influence of strain 90-166 on root development was studied in vitro. We observed inhibition of primary root elongation, enhanced lateral root emergence, and early emergence of second order lateral roots after inoculation with strain 90-166 at a certain distance from the root. Using the DR5::GUS transgenic A. thaliana plant and an auxin transport inhibitor, N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid, the altered root development was still elicited by strain 90-166, indicating that this was not a result of changes in plant auxin levels. Intriguingly, indole-3-acetic acid, a major auxin chemical, was only identified just above the detection limit in liquid culture of strain 90-166 using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Focusing on bacterial determinants of the root alterations, we found that primary root elongation was inhibited in seedlings treated with cell supernatant (secreted compounds), while lateral root formation was induced in seedlings treated with lysate supernatant (intracellular compounds). Further study revealed that the alteration of root development elicited by strain 90-166 involved the jasmonate, ethylene, and salicylic acid signaling pathways. Collectively, our results suggest that strain 90-166 can contribute to plant root development via multiple signaling pathways.

  14. Possible impact of fixed point sources of SO2 in NSW to the secondary sulphate measurements at Richmond and the dependence of the background secondary sulphate on meteorological variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, C.; Cohen, D.D.; Stelcer, E.

    2010-01-01

    The contribution to secondary sulfate measurements at Richmond, Australia, from known point sources of SOz is investigated using air mass back trajectories. The conditional probability function (CPF) shows that contribution for days of high sulfur is from areas north east of the site. This is an area where known point sources of SOz, such as coal fired power stations, are located. The meteorological conditions associated with high sulfur days are examined and an artificial neural network is employed to determine the relationship between meteorological variables and sulfur measurements after the influence of known point sources was removed. It is shown that temperature and humidity have a nonlinear positive correlation with sulphate measurements, while wind speed, mixing layer depth and rainfall have a negative nonlinear correlation. In addition, the time of day at which air masses reach Richmond from the eastern and western power stations varies, and so thus the altitude at which the power stations are crossed. The time of day, as well as the altitude at which an SOz point source was passed, show an impact to the measured sulfate at Richmond, although the extent of this remains to be fully investigated

  15. Emissions of metals and polychlorinated dibenzo(p)dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) from Portland cement manufacturing plants: inter-kiln variability and dependence on fuel-types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemba, Stephen; Ames, Michael; Green, Laura; Botelho, Maria João; Gossman, David; Linkov, Igor; Palma-Oliveira, José

    2011-09-15

    Emissions from Portland cement manufacturing facilities may increase health risks in nearby populations and are thus subject to stringent regulations. Direct testing of pollutant concentrations in exhaust gases provides the best basis for assessing the extent of these risks. However, these tests (i) are often conducted under stressed, rather than typical, operating conditions, (ii) may be limited in number and duration, and (iii) may be influenced by specific fuel-types and attributes of individual kilns. We report here on the results of more than 150 emissions-tests conducted of two kilns at a Portland cement manufacturing plant in Portugal. The tests measured various regulated metals and polychlorinated dibenzo(p)dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs). Stack-gas concentrations of pollutants were found to be highly variable, with standard deviations on the order of mean values. Emission rates of many pollutants were higher when coal was used as the main kiln fuel (instead of petroleum coke). Use of various supplemental fuels, however, had little effect on stack emissions, and few statistically significant differences were observed when hazardous waste was included in the fuel mix. Significant differences in emissions for some pollutants were observed between the two kilns despite their similar designs and uses of similar fuels. All measured values were found to be within applicable regulatory limits. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. An Investigation into the Perceptions of Mathematics and Information Literacy Self-Efficacy Levels of Pre-Service Primary Mathematics Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinçer, Bahar; Yilmaz, Süha

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between perceptions of the self-efficacy levels for both mathematics literacy and information literacy in pre-service primary mathematics teachers and the factors on which the relationship depends (variables include gender, class level, hours spent reading books and computer-access…

  17. Modeling dependencies in product families with COVAMOF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinnema, Marco; Deelstra, Sybren; Nijhuis, Jos; Bosch, Jan; Riebisch, M; Tabeling, P; Zorn, W

    2006-01-01

    Many variability modeling approaches consider only formalized dependencies, i.e. in- or exclude relations between variants. However, in real industrial product families, dependencies are often much more complicated. In this paper, we discuss the product derivation problems associated with

  18. Glycoengineered Monoclonal Antibodies with Homogeneous Glycan (M3, G0, G2, and A2 Using a Chemoenzymatic Approach Have Different Affinities for FcγRIIIa and Variable Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Kurogochi

    Full Text Available Many therapeutic antibodies have been developed, and IgG antibodies have been extensively generated in various cell expression systems. IgG antibodies contain N-glycans at the constant region of the heavy chain (Fc domain, and their N-glycosylation patterns differ during various processes or among cell expression systems. The Fc N-glycan can modulate the effector functions of IgG antibodies, such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC and complement dependent cytotoxicity (CDC. To control Fc N-glycans, we performed a rearrangement of Fc N-glycans from a heterogeneous N-glycosylation pattern to homogeneous N-glycans using chemoenzymatic approaches with two types of endo-β-N-acetyl glucosaminidases (ENG'ases, one that works as a hydrolase to cleave all heterogeneous N-glycans, another that is used as a glycosynthase to generate homogeneous N-glycans. As starting materials, we used an anti-Her2 antibody produced in transgenic silkworm cocoon, which consists of non-fucosylated pauci-mannose type (Man2-3GlcNAc2, high-mannose type (Man4-9GlcNAc2, and complex type (Man3GlcNAc3-4 N-glycans. As a result of the cleavage of several ENG'ases (endoS, endoM, endoD, endoH, and endoLL, the heterogeneous glycans on antibodies were fully transformed into homogeneous-GlcNAc by a combination of endoS, endoD, and endoLL. Next, the desired N-glycans (M3; Man3GlcNAc1, G0; GlcNAc2Man3GlcNAc1, G2; Gal2GlcNAc2Man3GlcNAc1, A2; NeuAc2Gal2GlcNAc2Man3GlcNAc1 were transferred from the corresponding oxazolines to the GlcNAc residue on the intact anti-Her2 antibody with an ENG'ase mutant (endoS-D233Q, and the glycoengineered anti-Her2 antibody was obtained. The binding assay of anti-Her2 antibody with homogenous N-glycans with FcγRIIIa-V158 showed that the glycoform influenced the affinity for FcγRIIIa-V158. In addition, the ADCC assay for the glycoengineered anti-Her2 antibody (mAb-M3, mAb-G0, mAb-G2, and mAb-A2 was performed using SKBR-3 and BT-474 as target

  19. Glycoengineered Monoclonal Antibodies with Homogeneous Glycan (M3, G0, G2, and A2) Using a Chemoenzymatic Approach Have Different Affinities for FcγRIIIa and Variable Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurogochi, Masaki; Mori, Masako; Osumi, Kenji; Tojino, Mami; Sugawara, Shu-Ichi; Takashima, Shou; Hirose, Yuriko; Tsukimura, Wataru; Mizuno, Mamoru; Amano, Junko; Matsuda, Akio; Tomita, Masahiro; Takayanagi, Atsushi; Shoda, Shin-Ichiro; Shirai, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Many therapeutic antibodies have been developed, and IgG antibodies have been extensively generated in various cell expression systems. IgG antibodies contain N-glycans at the constant region of the heavy chain (Fc domain), and their N-glycosylation patterns differ during various processes or among cell expression systems. The Fc N-glycan can modulate the effector functions of IgG antibodies, such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and complement dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). To control Fc N-glycans, we performed a rearrangement of Fc N-glycans from a heterogeneous N-glycosylation pattern to homogeneous N-glycans using chemoenzymatic approaches with two types of endo-β-N-acetyl glucosaminidases (ENG'ases), one that works as a hydrolase to cleave all heterogeneous N-glycans, another that is used as a glycosynthase to generate homogeneous N-glycans. As starting materials, we used an anti-Her2 antibody produced in transgenic silkworm cocoon, which consists of non-fucosylated pauci-mannose type (Man2-3GlcNAc2), high-mannose type (Man4-9GlcNAc2), and complex type (Man3GlcNAc3-4) N-glycans. As a result of the cleavage of several ENG'ases (endoS, endoM, endoD, endoH, and endoLL), the heterogeneous glycans on antibodies were fully transformed into homogeneous-GlcNAc by a combination of endoS, endoD, and endoLL. Next, the desired N-glycans (M3; Man3GlcNAc1, G0; GlcNAc2Man3GlcNAc1, G2; Gal2GlcNAc2Man3GlcNAc1, A2; NeuAc2Gal2GlcNAc2Man3GlcNAc1) were transferred from the corresponding oxazolines to the GlcNAc residue on the intact anti-Her2 antibody with an ENG'ase mutant (endoS-D233Q), and the glycoengineered anti-Her2 antibody was obtained. The binding assay of anti-Her2 antibody with homogenous N-glycans with FcγRIIIa-V158 showed that the glycoform influenced the affinity for FcγRIIIa-V158. In addition, the ADCC assay for the glycoengineered anti-Her2 antibody (mAb-M3, mAb-G0, mAb-G2, and mAb-A2) was performed using SKBR-3 and BT-474 as target cells, and

  20. A model of regional primary production for use with coarse resolution satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, S. D.

    1991-01-01

    A model of crop primary production, which was originally developed to relate the amount of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR) to net production in field studies, is discussed in the context of coarse resolution regional remote sensing of primary production. The model depends on an approximately linear relationship between APAR and the normalized difference vegetation index. A more comprehensive form of the conventional model is shown to be necessary when different physiological types of plants or heterogeneous vegetation types occur within the study area. The predicted variable in the new model is total assimilation (net production plus respiration) rather than net production alone or harvest yield.

  1. Low-Frequency Temporal Variability in Mira and Semiregular Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Matthew R.; Karovska, M.; Waagen, E. O.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate low-frequency variability in a large sample of Mira and semiregular variables with long-term visual light curves from the AAVSO International Database. Our aim is to determine whether we can detect and measure long-timescale variable phenomena in these stars, for example photometric variations that might be associated with supergranular convection. We analyzed the long-term light curves of 522 variable stars of the Mira and SRa, b, c, and d classes. We calculated their low-frequency time-series spectra to characterize rednoise with the power density spectrum index, and then correlate this index with other observable characteristics such as spectral type and primary pulsation period. In our initial analysis of the sample, we see that the semiregular variables have a much broader range of spectral index than the Mira types, with the SRb subtype having the broadest range. Among Mira variables we see that the M- and S-type Miras have similarly wide ranges of index, while the C-types have the narrowest with generally shallower slopes. There is also a trend of steeper slope with larger amplitude, but at a given amplitude, a wide range of slopes are seen. The ultimate goal of the project is to identify stars with strong intrinsic red noise components as possible targets for resolved surface imaging with interferometry.

  2. Demonstration of osmotically dependent promotion of aerenchyma formation at different levels in the primary roots of rice using a ‘sandwich’ method and X-ray computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahara, Ichirou; Umemura, Konomi; Soga, Yuumi; Akai, Yuki; Bando, Tadafumi; Ito, Yuko; Tamaoki, Daisuke; Uesugi, Kentaro; Abe, Jun; Yamauchi, Daisuke; Mineyuki, Yoshinobu

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The effect of environmental factors on the regulation of aerenchyma formation in rice roots has been discussed for a long time, because aerenchyma is constitutively formed under aerated conditions. To elucidate this problem, a unique method has been developed that enables sensitive detection of differences in the development of aerenchyma under two different environmental conditions. The method is tested to determine whether aerenchyma development in rice roots is affected by osmotic stress. Methods To examine aerenchyma formation both with and without mannitol treatment in the same root, germinating rice (Oryza sativa) caryopses were sandwiched between two agar slabs, one of which contained 270 mm of mannitol. The roots were grown touching both slabs and were thereby exposed unilaterally to osmotic stress. As a non-invasive approach, refraction contrast X-ray computed tomography (CT) using a third-generation synchrotron facility, SPring-8 (Super photon ring 8 GeV, Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute), was used to visualize the three-dimensional (3-D) intact structure of aerenchyma and its formation in situ in rice roots. The effects of unilateral mannitol treatment on the development of aerenchyma were quantitatively examined using conventional light microscopy. Key Results Structural continuity of aerenchyma was clearly visualized in 3-D in the primary root of rice and in situ using X-ray CT. Light microscopy and X-ray CT showed that the development of aerenchyma was promoted on the mannitol-treated side of the root. Detailed light microscopic analysis of cross-sections cut along the root axis from the tip to the basal region demonstrated that aerenchyma developed significantly closer to the root tip on the mannitol-treated side of the root. Conclusions Continuity of the aerenchyma along the rice root axis was morphologically demonstrated using X-ray CT. By using this ‘sandwich’ method it was shown that mannitol promoted

  3. Spectroscopic and computational studies of cobalamin species with variable lower axial ligation: implications for the mechanism of Co-C bond activation by class I cobalamin-dependent isomerases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Karen S; Jordan, Christopher D; Brown, Kenneth L; Brunold, Thomas C

    2015-04-20

    5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin (coenzyme B12, AdoCbl) serves as the cofactor for several enzymes that play important roles in fermentation and catabolism. All of these enzymes initiate catalysis by promoting homolytic cleavage of the cofactor's Co-C bond in response to substrate binding to their active sites. Despite considerable research efforts, the role of the lower axial ligand in facilitating Co-C bond homolysis remains incompletely understood. In the present study, we characterized several derivatives of AdoCbl and its one-electron reduced form, Co(II)Cbl, by using electronic absorption and magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopies. To complement our experimental data, we performed computations on these species, as well as additional Co(II)Cbl analogues. The geometries of all species investigated were optimized using a quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics method, and the optimized geometries were used to compute absorption spectra with time-dependent density functional theory. Collectively, our results indicate that a reduction in the basicity of the lower axial ligand causes changes to the cofactor's electronic structure in the Co(II) state that replicate the effects seen upon binding of Co(II)Cbl to Class I isomerases, which replace the lower axial dimethylbenzimidazole ligand of AdoCbl with a protein-derived histidine (His) residue. Such a reduction of the basicity of the His ligand in the enzyme active site may be achieved through proton uptake by the catalytic triad of conserved residues, DXHXGXK, during Co-C bond homolysis.

  4. Delayed Ego Strength Development in Opioid Dependent Adolescents and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramoff, Benjamin A.; Lange, Hannah L. H.; Matson, Steven C.; Cottrill, Casey B.; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Abdel-Rasoul, Mahmoud; Bonny, Andrea E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate ego strengths, in the context of Erikson's framework, among adolescents and young adults diagnosed with opioid dependence as compared to non-drug using youth. Methods. Opioid dependent (n = 51) and non-drug using control (n = 31) youth completed the self-administered Psychosocial Inventory of Ego Strengths (PIES). The PIES assesses development in the framework of Erikson's ego strength stages. Multivariate linear regression modeling assessed the independent association of the primary covariate (opioid dependent versus control) as well as potential confounding variables (e.g., psychiatric comorbidities, intelligence) with total PIES score. Results. Mean total PIES score was significantly lower in opioid dependent youth (231.65 ± 30.39 opioid dependent versus 270.67 ± 30.06 control; p development. A treatment approach acknowledging this delay may be needed in the counseling and treatment of adolescents with opioid dependence. PMID:26664819

  5. Physical health correlates of pathological and healthy dependency in urban women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcerelli, John H; Bornstein, Robert F; Markova, Tsveti; Huprich, Steven K

    2009-10-01

    This study assessed the relationship between dependency and indicators of health/illness, healthcare costs, and utilization. Dependency ratings were obtained using the Relationship Profile Test (Bornstein and Languirand, 2003), a questionnaire that assesses healthy and pathological dependency: destructive overdependence (DO), dysfunctional detachment (DD), and healthy dependency (HD). The sample consisted of primarily low-income, African-American, and female primary care patients (N = 110). DO and DD were significantly associated with indices of increased illness, with DO evidencing slightly larger effect sizes than DD. HD was significantly (negatively) associated with 1 health/illness variable. DD and DO were associated with higher total outpatient costs with DD also being associated with average costs per visit. DO and HD were associated with utilization (increased hospital days and fewer emergency room visits, respectively). Further research is recommended to inform researchers and clinicians about the dependency-illness relationship and to develop interventions that maximize HD and minimize pathological dependency.

  6. Path Dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mogens Ove

    Begrebet Path Dependence blev oprindelig udviklet inden for New Institutionel Economics af bl.a. David, Arthur og North. Begrebet har spredt sig vidt i samfundsvidenskaberne og undergået en udvikling. Dette paper propagerer for at der er sket så en så omfattende udvikling af begrebet, at man nu kan...... tale om 1. og 2. generation af Path Dependence begrebet. Den nyeste udvikling af begrebet har relevans for metodologi-diskusionerne i relation til Keynes...

  7. [Analysis of prevalence of self-reported hearing loss and associated factors: primary versus proxy informant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo, André Luis Alves de; Leotti, Vanessa Bielefeldt; Goulart, Bárbara Niegia Garcia de

    2017-07-03

    The objective was to evaluate differences between prevalence rates for self-reported hearing loss and associated factors, obtained from responses by primary and proxy informants in a Population-Based Study on Human Communication Disorders (DCH-POP in Portuguese). This was a study on epidemiological methods using data from a cross-sectional household survey with a sample of 1,253 individuals from Southern Brazil. To verify differences between prevalence rates comparing primary informants and proxy informants, we used the chi-square or Fisher's exact test for categorical variables and Mann-Whitney for continuous variables. The log-binomial model was adjusted for hearing loss as the dependent variable, considering three datasets: the entire sample, only primary informants, and only proxy informants, estimating association by prevalence ratios. In the final models, only the independent variables age and dizziness were associated with hearing loss, independently of the dataset that was used. Proxy informants generally underestimated the prevalence rates for the target outcomes, when compared to primary informants.

  8. BROAD ABSORPTION LINE VARIABILITY ON MULTI-YEAR TIMESCALES IN A LARGE QUASAR SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filiz Ak, N.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, D. P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Hall, P. B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, 4700 Keele St., Toronto, Ontario, M3J 1P3 (Canada); Anderson, S. F. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Hamann, F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-2055 (United States); Lundgren, B. F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Myers, Adam D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Pâris, I. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Petitjean, P. [Universite Paris 6, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, 75014, Paris (France); Ross, Nicholas P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 92420 (United States); Shen, Yue [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., MS-51, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); York, Don, E-mail: nfilizak@astro.psu.edu [The University of Chicago, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2013-11-10

    We present a detailed investigation of the variability of 428 C IV and 235 Si IV broad absorption line (BAL) troughs identified in multi-epoch observations of 291 quasars by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-I/II/III. These observations primarily sample rest-frame timescales of 1-3.7 yr over which significant rearrangement of the BAL wind is expected. We derive a number of observational results on, e.g., the frequency of BAL variability, the velocity range over which BAL variability occurs, the primary observed form of BAL-trough variability, the dependence of BAL variability upon timescale, the frequency of BAL strengthening versus weakening, correlations between BAL variability and BAL-trough profiles, relations between C IV and Si IV BAL variability, coordinated multi-trough variability, and BAL variations as a function of quasar properties. We assess implications of these observational results for quasar winds. Our results support models where most BAL absorption is formed within an order-of-magnitude of the wind-launching radius, although a significant minority of BAL troughs may arise on larger scales. We estimate an average lifetime for a BAL trough along our line-of-sight of a few thousand years. BAL disappearance and emergence events appear to be extremes of general BAL variability, rather than being qualitatively distinct phenomena. We derive the parameters of a random-walk model for BAL EW variability, finding that this model can acceptably describe some key aspects of EW variability. The coordinated trough variability of BAL quasars with multiple troughs suggests that changes in 'shielding gas' may play a significant role in driving general BAL variability.

  9. Amitriptyline induces brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA expression through ERK-dependent modulation of multiple BDNF mRNA variants in primary cultured rat cortical astrocytes and microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisaoka-Nakashima, Kazue; Kajitani, Naoto; Kaneko, Masahiro; Shigetou, Takahiro; Kasai, Miho; Matsumoto, Chie; Yokoe, Toshiki; Azuma, Honami; Takebayashi, Minoru; Morioka, Norimitsu; Nakata, Yoshihiro

    2016-03-01

    A significant role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been previously implicated in the therapeutic effect of antidepressants. To ascertain the contribution of specific cell types in the brain that produce BDNF following antidepressant treatment, the effects of the tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline on rat primary neuronal, astrocytic and microglial cortical cultures were examined. Amitriptyline increased the expression of BDNF mRNA in astrocytic and microglial cultures but not neuronal cultures. Antidepressants with distinct mechanisms of action, such as clomipramine, duloxetine and fluvoxamine, also increased BDNF mRNA expression in astrocytic and microglial cultures. There are multiple BDNF mRNA variants (exon I, IIA, IV and VI) expressed in astrocytes and microglia and the variant induced by antidepressants has yet to be elaborated. Treatment with antidepressants increased the expression of exon I, IV and VI in astrocyte and microglia. Clomipramine alone significantly upregulated expression of exon IIA. The amitriptyline-induced expression of both total and individual BDNF mRNA variants (exon I, IV and VI) were blocked by MEK inhibitor U0126, indicating MEK/ERK signaling is required in the expression of BDNF. These findings indicate that non-neural cells are a significant target of antidepressants and further support the contention that glial production of BDNF is crucial role in the therapeutic effect of antidepressants. The current data suggest that targeting of glial function could lead to the development of antidepressants with a truly novel mechanism of action. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Malignancy risk prediction for primary jejunum-ileal tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARQUES Ruy Garcia

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is aimed at identifying factors associated with primary jejunum-ileal tumors malignancy, defining a prediction model with sensitivity, specificity and accuracy to distinguish malign from benign neoplasms. These tumors are rare, have highly unspecific presentation and, frequently, are diagnosed late. We reviewed the charts of 42 patients with primary jejunum-ileal tumors treated in the Department of General Surgery of Rio de Janeiro State University Hospital, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil, from 1969 to 1998. We performed bivariate analyses, based on chi² test, searching associations between tumors malignancy and demographic and clinical variables. Then logistic regression was employed to consider the independent effect of variables previously identified on malignancy risk. The malign tumors included 11 adenocarcinomas, 7 leiomyosarcomas, 5 carcinoids and 4 lymphomas; the benign tumors included 10 leiomyomas, 2 hamartomas, and single cases of adenoma, multiple neurilemoma and choristoma. The bivariate analyses indicated the association between malignancy and palpable abdominal mass (P = 0.003, period from signs and symptoms onset to diagnosis (P = 0.016, anemia (P = 0.020, anorexia (P = 0.003, abdominal pain (P = 0.031, weight loss (P = 0.001, nausea and vomit (P = 0.094, and intestinal obstruction (P = 0.066; no association with patients demographic characteristics were found. In the final logistic regression model, weight loss, anemia and intestinal obstruction were statistically associated with the dependent variable of interest. Based only on three variables -- weight loss, anemia and intestinal obstruction -- the model defined was able to predict primary jejunum-ileal tumors malignancy with sensitivity of 85.2%, specificity of 80.0%, and accuracy of 83.3%.

  11. The role of primary radiotherapy in acromegaly (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.; Knob, G.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of primary radiotherapy in acromegaly. Fifteen cases were randomly included in this study from 1989 to 1998. The patients were given external radiotherapy using Co/sup 60/ source and 200 cGy/F, 5F/week up to 5000 cGy, Tumor dose (TD). The target volume was irradiated by opposite parallel lateral field. The field size ranged from 4.5 to 6.5 cm. depending upon the tumor size and its extensions. These patients were continuously followed up for variable period depending upon the history of the patient and compliance by serial Growth Hormone (GH) assay and Clinical and Radiological evaluation. Out of these fifteen patients one died of cardiac sequelae. In the remaining treated patients majority has normal or continuously decreasing GH levels. The treatment of Acromegaly includes surgery, radiotherapy, medical treatment or the combination of these with variable success and non is perfect. We used radiotherapy as the primary modality, due to medical contraindication or refusal of patient for surgery and found that this is an effective modality in the treatment of acromegaly even in patients with extra sellar extension of the tumor. (author)

  12. Variation in Primary Radioclimatic Variables, And Its Effects on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result shows that refractive index decrease with an increase in height and thus, refractivity gradient also decrease from normal – 40 dN / Kilo meter to – 127 dN / Kilo meter for eleven months, thereby resulting to super- refraction propagation condition, while in one month the refractivity gradient increases from normal ...

  13. [Primary care in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sagrado, T

    Italy is not a country where Spanish doctors emigrate, as there is an over-supply of health care professionals. The Italian Servizio Sanitario Nazionale has some differences compared to the Spanish National Health System. The Servizio Sanitario Nazionale is financed by national and regional taxes and co-payments. There are taxes earmarked for health, and Primary Care receives 50% of the total funds. Italian citizens and residents in Italy have the right to free health cover. However, there are co-payments for laboratory and imaging tests, pharmaceuticals, specialist ambulatory services, and emergencies. Co-payments vary in the different regions. The provision of services is regional, and thus fragmentation and major inequities are the norm. Doctors in Primary Care are self-employed and from 2000 onwards, there are incentives to work in multidisciplinary teams. Salary is regulated by a national contract and it is the sum of per-capita payments and extra resources for specific activities. Responsibilities are similar to those of Spanish professionals. However, medical care is more personal. Relationships between Primary Care and specialised care depend on the doctors' relationships. Primary Care doctors are gatekeepers for specialised care, except for gynaecology, obstetrics and paediatrics. Specialised training is compulsory in order to work as general practitioner. The Italian Health Care System is a national health system like the Spanish one. However, health care professionals are self-employed, and there are co-payments. In spite of co-payments, Italians have one of the highest average life expectancy, and they support a universal and publicly funded health-care system. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. X-ray appearance of the heart in primary pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveeva, L.S.; Kitaeva, I.T.; Efimova, L.G.

    1980-01-01

    Roentgenological picture of heart in 36 patients with primary pulmonary hypertension is studied. The diagnosis has been reaffirmed using catheterization of cavities of the heart and pulmonary artery and in a number of cases in autopsy. Variability of the form and the size of the heart depending on different degrees of hypertrophy and dilatation of the right ventricle with possible relative insufficiency of the tricuspid valve and on different degree of ecstasia of the pulmonary arterial trunk and functional state of myocardium. All this to a certain degree is dependent on the patient age, duration and the character of the disease

  15. Controls on the variability of net infiltration to desert sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, Victor M.; McKinney, Tim S.; Zhdanov, Michael S.; Watt, Dennis E.

    2007-01-01

    As populations grow in arid climates and desert bedrock aquifers are increasingly targeted for future development, understanding and quantifying the spatial variability of net infiltration becomes critically important for accurately inventorying water resources and mapping contamination vulnerability. This paper presents a conceptual model of net infiltration to desert sandstone and then develops an empirical equation for its spatial quantification at the watershed scale using linear least squares inversion methods for evaluating controlling parameters (independent variables) based on estimated net infiltration rates (dependent variables). Net infiltration rates used for this regression analysis were calculated from environmental tracers in boreholes and more than 3000 linear meters of vadose zone excavations in an upland basin in southwestern Utah underlain by Navajo sandstone. Soil coarseness, distance to upgradient outcrop, and topographic slope were shown to be the primary physical parameters controlling the spatial variability of net infiltration. Although the method should be transferable to other desert sandstone settings for determining the relative spatial distribution of net infiltration, further study is needed to evaluate the effects of other potential parameters such as slope aspect, outcrop parameters, and climate on absolute net infiltration rates.

  16. Primary care physician perceptions of the nurse practitioner in the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, M L; Damiano, P C; Willard, J C; Momany, E T; Levy, B T

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate factors associated with primary care physician attitudes toward nurse practitioners (NPs) providing primary care. A mailed survey of primary care physicians in Iowa. Half (N = 616) of the non-institutional-based, full-time, primary care physicians in Iowa in spring 1994. Although 360 (58.4%) responded, only physicians with complete data on all items in the model were used in these analyses (n = 259 [42.0%]). There were 2 principal dependent measures: physician attitudes toward NPs providing primary care (an 11-item instrument) and physician experience with NPs in this role. Bivariate relationships between physician demographic and practice characteristics were evaluated by chi 2 tests, as were both dependent variables. Ordinary least-squares regression was used to determine factors related to physician attitudes toward NPs. In bivariate analyses, physicians were significantly more likely to have had experience with an NP providing primary care if they were in pediatrics or obstetrics-gynecology (78.3% and 70.0%, respectively; P < .001), had been in practice for fewer than 20 years (P = .045), or were in practices with 5 or more physicians. The ordinary least-squares regression indicated that physicians with previous experience working with NPs providing primary care (P = .01), physicians practicing in urban areas with populations greater than 20,000 but far from a metropolitan area (P = .03), and general practice physicians (P = .04) had significantly more favorable attitudes toward NPs than did other primary care physicians. The association between previous experience with a primary care NP and a more positive attitude toward NPs has important implications for the training of primary care physicians, particularly in community-based, multidisciplinary settings.

  17. Hydration level is an internal variable for computing motivation to obtain water rewards in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamimoto, Takafumi; Yamada, Hiroshi; Hori, Yukiko; Suhara, Tetsuya

    2012-05-01

    In the process of motivation to engage in a behavior, valuation of the expected outcome is comprised of not only external variables (i.e., incentives) but also internal variables (i.e., drive). However, the exact neural mechanism that integrates these variables for the computation of motivational value remains unclear. Besides, the signal of physiological needs, which serves as the primary internal variable for this computation, remains to be identified. Concerning fluid rewards, the osmolality level, one of the physiological indices for the level of thirst, may be an internal variable for valuation, since an increase in the osmolality level induces drinking behavior. Here, to examine the relationship between osmolality and the motivational value of a water reward, we repeatedly measured the blood osmolality level, while 2 monkeys continuously performed an instrumental task until they spontaneously stopped. We found that, as the total amount of water earned increased, the osmolality level progressively decreased (i.e., the hydration level increased) in an individual-dependent manner. There was a significant negative correlation between the error rate of the task (the proportion of trials with low motivation) and the osmolality level. We also found that the increase in the error rate with reward accumulation can be well explained by a formula describing the changes in the osmolality level. These results provide a biologically supported computational formula for the motivational value of a water reward that depends on the hydration level, enabling us to identify the neural mechanism that integrates internal and external variables.

  18. [Normocalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivacow, Francisco R; Sapag Durán, Ana; Zanchetta, María B

    2014-01-01

    This report shows our conclusions on the clinical, biochemical and densitometry characteristics of 35 normocalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) patients. This condition is defined by a high level of intact parathyroid hormone (iPTHI) with persistently normal serum and ionized calcium in the absence of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Our selection consisted of 30 women (90%) and 5 men (10%). The control group of 55 hypercalcemic patients with primary hyperparathyroidism included 51 women (93%) and 4 men (7%). The average age at diagnosis of normocalcemic PHPT was 61.4 ± 11.7 years and 56.4 ± 11.3 years in hypercalcemic PHPT. Besides the expected differences in serum calcium, ionized calcium, phosphorus and 24 h urinary calcium, we found no significant changes in other biochemical variables, and no differences in densitometry evaluations such as the presence of osteopenia or osteoporosis and the number of fractures in the two types of PHPT. But there was a significant difference in the presence of renal lithiasis between normocalcemic PHPT (11.4%) and clasic PHPT (49.1%) p < 0.0005, to some extent associated to the presence of hypercalciuria in classic PHPT. Two of the 35 patients with normocalcemic PHPT became classic hypercalcemic PHPT over a 4 year follow-up period. Our findings support the hypothesis that the normocalcemic PHPT could be an early stage of the classic PHPT, both having similar clinical effects to metabolic renal and bone levels.

  19. Variable importance in latent variable regression models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kvalheim, O.M.; Arneberg, R.; Bleie, O.; Rajalahti, T.; Smilde, A.K.; Westerhuis, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    The quality and practical usefulness of a regression model are a function of both interpretability and prediction performance. This work presents some new graphical tools for improved interpretation of latent variable regression models that can also assist in improved algorithms for variable

  20. All varieties of encoding variability are not created equal: Separating variable processing from variable tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Mark J.; Bodner, Glen E.

    2014-01-01

    Whether encoding variability facilitates memory is shown to depend on whether item-specific and relational processing are both performed across study blocks, and whether study items are weakly versus strongly related. Variable-processing groups studied a word list once using an item-specific task and once using a relational task. Variable-task groups’ two different study tasks recruited the same type of processing each block. Repeated-task groups performed the same study task each block. Recall and recognition were greatest in the variable-processing group, but only with weakly related lists. A variable-processing benefit was also found when task-based processing and list-type processing were complementary (e.g., item-specific processing of a related list) rather than redundant (e.g., relational processing of a related list). That performing both item-specific and relational processing across trials, or within a trial, yields encoding-variability benefits may help reconcile decades of contradictory findings in this area. PMID:25018583

  1. Scale-Dependent Solute Dispersion in Variably Saturated Porous Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockhold, Mark L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhang, Z. F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bott, Yi-Ju [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-29

    This work was performed to support performance assessment (PA) calculations for the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) at the Hanford Site. PA calculations require defensible estimates of physical, hydraulic, and transport parameters to simulate subsurface water flow and contaminant transport in both the near- and far-field environments. Dispersivity is one of the required transport parameters.

  2. Stable limits for sums of dependent infinite variance random variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartkiewicz, Katarzyna; Jakubowski, Adam; Mikosch, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide conditions which ensure that the affinely transformed partial sums of a strictly stationary process converge in distribution to an infinite variance stable distribution. Conditions for this convergence to hold are known in the literature. However, most of these...

  3. Handling Time-dependent Variables : Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munoz-Price, L. Silvia; Frencken, Jos F.; Tarima, Sergey; Bonten, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Elucidating quantitative associations between antibiotic exposure and antibiotic resistance development is important. In the absence of randomized trials, observational studies are the next best alternative to derive such estimates. Yet, as antibiotics are prescribed for varying time periods,

  4. Electric power prices: variable tendency depending on the country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    The deregulation of the electric power sector is very much in the news in most countries and at different stages. A study carried out by the national utility service (NUS) in 17 countries worldwide takes stock of the influence of deregulation on electric power prices. According to this study, the most important price increases are found in 4 non-European countries (Norway, South Africa, USA, New Zealand) while the most important decreases are found within Europe (Sweden 20%, Denmark 15.6%, Italy 12% and Germany 8%). In France the decrease of tariffs reaches only 3%. This short paper analyzes the evolution of prices in the different countries selected in the study, but no real tendency is outlined as the stage of competition is different in each country. (J.S.)

  5. Assessing carbon source-dependent phenotypic variability in Pseudomonas putida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikel, Pablo Ivan; de Lorenzo, Victor

    2018-01-01

    capacity of single bacteria by means of fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, in combination with the analysis of the temporal takeoff of growth in single-cell cultures, is a simple and easy-to-implement approach. It can help to understand the link between macroscopic phenotypes (e.g., microbial......The soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida is rapidly becoming a platform of choice for applications that require a microbial host highly resistant to different types of stresses and elevated rates of reducing power regeneration. P. putida is capable of growing in a wide variety of carbon sources...

  6. Identifying Midshipmen for Academic Assistance Using Entry Variables

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Watson, Arthur

    2001-01-01

    .... Categorical values from the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI), SAT scores and high school rank were incorporated as independent variables in a linear regression model with dependent variable Cumulative Quality Point Rating (CQPR...

  7. Imaging in primary osteosarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumour with the exception of myeloma. The majority of osteosarcoma cases arise within bone and are called conventional osteosarcoma. Intraosseous variants include telangiectatic, small-cell, low-grade intraosseous and cortical osteosarcoma. Less than 10% of osteosarcomas arise on the surface of bone and are subdivided into periosteal, high-grade surface and parosteal varieties. The imaging features of these subtypes of osteosarcoma are described and the impact on diagnosis highlighted. Using material from over 750 osteosarcomas treated at the author's centre, this article reviews the role of imaging in the management of this condition. Detection still relies principally on the conventional radiograph with bone scintigraphy and MR imaging useful in occult tumours. Establishing the radiological diagnosis depends on careful analysis of the radiographs, with particular attention paid to the nature and extent of bone destruction, periosteal new bone formation and matrix mineralization. The prudent radiologist will be wary of those bone conditions, such as stress fractures and osteomyelitis, which are frequently mistaken for osteosarcoma. Appropriate surgical staging requires MR imaging of the primary tumour to show the bony and soft tissue extent of the lesion and to confirm/exclude skip metastases and local lymph-node involvement. Staging should also include bone scintigraphy to confirm/exclude multiple lesions and chest CT to confirm/exclude pulmonary metastases. Following definitive surgery, imaging is used in the follow-up to monitor potential local recurrence and the development of pulmonary or osseous metastases. (orig.) [de

  8. Functional rearrangement of the primary and secondary motor cortex in patients with primary tumors of the central nervous system located in the region of the central sulcus depending on the histopathological type and the size of tumor: Examination by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryszewski, Bartosz; Pfajfer, Lucjan; Antosik-Biernacka, Aneta; Tybor, Krzysztof; Śmigielski, Janusz; Zawirski, Marek; Majos, Agata

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the reorganization of the centers of the motor cortex in patients with primary neuroepithelial tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) located in the region of the central sulcus in relation to the histopathological type and the size of tumor, as determined by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The fMRI was performed prior to the surgical treatment of patients with tumors located in the region of the central sulcus (WHO stage I and II, n=15; WHO stage III and IV, n=25). The analysis included a record of the activity in the areas of the primary motor cortex (M1) and the secondary motor cortex: the premotor cortex (PMA) and the accessory motor area (SMA). The results were correlated with the histopathological type of the tumor and its size expressed in cm 3 . The frequency of activation of the motor center was higher in the group of patients who had less aggressive tumors, such as low-grade glioma (LGG), as well as in tumors of lower volume, and this was true both for the hemisphere where the tumor was located and in the contralateral one. Mean values of t-statistics of activation intensity, mean numbers of activated clusters, and their ranges were lower in all analyzed motor areas of LGG tumors. The values of t-statistics and activation areas were higher in the case of small tumors located in ipsilateral centers, and in large tumors located in contralateral centers, aside from the SMA area where the values of t-statistics were equal for both groups. The contralateral SMA area was characterized by the highest stability of all examined centers of secondary motor cortex. No significant association (p>0.05) was observed between the absolute value of the mean registered activity (t-statistics) and the size of examined areas (number of clusters) when the groups were stratified with regards to the analyzed parameters. The presence of a neoplastic lesion, its histopathological type and finally its size modulate the

  9. A Core Language for Separate Variability Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iosif-Lazăr, Alexandru Florin; Wasowski, Andrzej; Schaefer, Ina

    2014-01-01

    Separate variability modeling adds variability to a modeling language without requiring modifications of the language or the supporting tools. We define a core language for separate variability modeling using a single kind of variation point to define transformations of software artifacts in object...... hierarchical dependencies between variation points via copying and flattening. Thus, we reduce a model with intricate dependencies to a flat executable model transformation consisting of simple unconditional local variation points. The core semantics is extremely concise: it boils down to two operational rules...

  10. LSD Increases Primary Process Thinking via Serotonin 2A Receptor Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraehenmann, Rainer; Pokorny, Dan; Aicher, Helena; Preller, Katrin H.; Pokorny, Thomas; Bosch, Oliver G.; Seifritz, Erich; Vollenweider, Franz X.

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: Stimulation of serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptors by lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and related compounds such as psilocybin has previously been shown to increase primary process thinking – an ontologically and evolutionary early, implicit, associative, and automatic mode of thinking which is typically occurring during altered states of consciousness such as dreaming. However, it is still largely unknown whether LSD induces primary process thinking under placebo-controlled, standardized experimental conditions and whether these effects are related to subjective experience and 5-HT2A receptor activation. Therefore, this study aimed to test the hypotheses that LSD increases primary process thinking and that primary process thinking depends on 5-HT2A receptor activation and is related to subjective drug effects. Methods: Twenty-five healthy subjects performed an audio-recorded mental imagery task 7 h after drug administration during three drug conditions: placebo, LSD (100 mcg orally) and LSD together with the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist ketanserin (40 mg orally). The main outcome variable in this study was primary index (PI), a formal measure of primary process thinking in the imagery reports. State of consciousness was evaluated using the Altered State of Consciousness (5D-ASC) rating scale. Results: LSD, compared with placebo, significantly increased primary index (p LSD-induced increase in primary index was positively correlated with LSD-induced disembodiment (p LSD-induced increases in primary index and changes in state of consciousness were fully blocked by ketanserin. Conclusion: LSD induces primary process thinking via activation of 5-HT2A receptors and in relation to disembodiment and blissful state. Primary process thinking appears to crucially organize inner experiences during both dreams and psychedelic states of consciousness. PMID:29167644

  11. LSD Increases Primary Process Thinking via Serotonin 2A Receptor Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Kraehenmann

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Stimulation of serotonin 2A (5-HT2A receptors by lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD and related compounds such as psilocybin has previously been shown to increase primary process thinking – an ontologically and evolutionary early, implicit, associative, and automatic mode of thinking which is typically occurring during altered states of consciousness such as dreaming. However, it is still largely unknown whether LSD induces primary process thinking under placebo-controlled, standardized experimental conditions and whether these effects are related to subjective experience and 5-HT2A receptor activation. Therefore, this study aimed to test the hypotheses that LSD increases primary process thinking and that primary process thinking depends on 5-HT2A receptor activation and is related to subjective drug effects.Methods: Twenty-five healthy subjects performed an audio-recorded mental imagery task 7 h after drug administration during three drug conditions: placebo, LSD (100 mcg orally and LSD together with the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist ketanserin (40 mg orally. The main outcome variable in this study was primary index (PI, a formal measure of primary process thinking in the imagery reports. State of consciousness was evaluated using the Altered State of Consciousness (5D-ASC rating scale.Results: LSD, compared with placebo, significantly increased primary index (p < 0.001, Bonferroni-corrected. The LSD-induced increase in primary index was positively correlated with LSD-induced disembodiment (p < 0.05, Bonferroni-corrected, and blissful state (p < 0.05, Bonferroni-corrected on the 5D-ASC. Both LSD-induced increases in primary index and changes in state of consciousness were fully blocked by ketanserin.Conclusion: LSD induces primary process thinking via activation of 5-HT2A receptors and in relation to disembodiment and blissful state. Primary process thinking appears to crucially organize inner experiences during both dreams and

  12. A non-marine source of variability in Adélie Penguin demography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, William R.; Patterson-Fraser, Donna L.; Ribic, Christine; Schofield, Oscar; Ducklow, Hugh

    2013-01-01

    A primary research objective of the Palmer Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) program has been to identify and understand the factors that regulate the demography of Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae). In this context, our work has been focused on variability in the marine environment on which this species depends for virtually all aspects of its life history (Ainley, 2002). As we show here, however, there are patterns evident in the population dynamics of Adélie penguins that are better explained by variability in breeding habitat quality rather than by variability in the marine system. Interactions between the geomorphology of the terrestrial environment that, in turn, affect patterns of snow deposition, drive breeding habitat quality.

  13. Analysis models for variables associated with breastfeeding duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Theodoro dos S. Neto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the factors associated with breastfeeding duration by two statistical models. METHODS A population-based cohort study was conducted with 86 mothers and newborns from two areas primary covered by the National Health System, with high rates of infant mortality in Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil. During 30 months, 67 (78% children and mothers were visited seven times at home by trained interviewers, who filled out survey forms. Data on food and sucking habits, socioeconomic and maternal characteristics were collected. Variables were analyzed by Cox regression models, considering duration of breastfeeding as the dependent variable, and logistic regression (dependent variables, was the presence of a breastfeeding child in different post-natal ages. RESULTS In the logistic regression model, the pacifier sucking (adjusted Odds Ratio: 3.4; 95%CI 1.2-9.55 and bottle feeding (adjusted Odds Ratio: 4.4; 95%CI 1.6-12.1 increased the chance of weaning a child before one year of age. Variables associated to breastfeeding duration in the Cox regression model were: pacifier sucking (adjusted Hazard Ratio 2.0; 95%CI 1.2-3.3 and bottle feeding (adjusted Hazard Ratio 2.0; 95%CI 1.2-3.5. However, protective factors (maternal age and family income differed between both models. CONCLUSIONS Risk and protective factors associated with cessation of breastfeeding may be analyzed by different models of statistical regression. Cox Regression Models are adequate to analyze such factors in longitudinal studies.

  14. Dynamic Dependence and Diversification in Corporate Credit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Jin, Xisong

    2018-01-01

    We characterize dependence in corporate credit and equity returns for 215 firms using a new class of large-scale dynamic copula models. Copula dependence and especially tail dependence are highly variable and persistent, increase significantly in the financial crisis, and have remained high since...

  15. Multilevel Cross-Dependent Binary Longitudinal Data

    KAUST Repository

    Serban, Nicoleta

    2013-10-16

    We provide insights into new methodology for the analysis of multilevel binary data observed longitudinally, when the repeated longitudinal measurements are correlated. The proposed model is logistic functional regression conditioned on three latent processes describing the within- and between-variability, and describing the cross-dependence of the repeated longitudinal measurements. We estimate the model components without employing mixed-effects modeling but assuming an approximation to the logistic link function. The primary objectives of this article are to highlight the challenges in the estimation of the model components, to compare two approximations to the logistic regression function, linear and exponential, and to discuss their advantages and limitations. The linear approximation is computationally efficient whereas the exponential approximation applies for rare events functional data. Our methods are inspired by and applied to a scientific experiment on spectral backscatter from long range infrared light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data. The models are general and relevant to many new binary functional data sets, with or without dependence between repeated functional measurements.

  16. The performance of diphoton primary vertex reconstruction methods in H → γγ+Met channel of ATLAS experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiwa, K. G.

    2017-09-01

    The search for new physics in the H → γγ+met relies on how well the missing transverse energy is reconstructed. The Met algorithm used by the ATLAS experiment in turns uses input variables like photon and jets which depend on the reconstruction of the primary vertex. This document presents the performance of di-photon vertex reconstruction algorithms (hardest vertex method and Neural Network method). Comparing the performance of these algorithms for the nominal Standard Model sample and the Beyond Standard Model sample, we see the overall performance of the Neural Network method of primary vertex selection performed better than the Hardest vertex method.

  17. Temporal variability in epifaunal assemblages associated with temperate gorgonian gardens

    KAUST Repository

    Dias, I.M.; Curdia, Joao; Cunha, M.R.; Santos, M.N.; Carvalho, Susana

    2015-01-01

    The present study is one of the few that investigate the temporal variability of epifaunal assemblages associated with coral species, particularly the octocorals Eunicella gazella and Leptogorgia lusitanica in south Portugal. The results suggest time rather than colony size as a primary driver of the ecological patterns of these assemblages, which were dominated by amphipods, molluscs and polychaetes. Temporal variability was linked to changes in environmental parameters, namely temperature, chlorophyll a and particulate organic carbon. Hence, temporal variability must be taken into account for the design of future biodiversity assessment studies, as different patterns may be observed depending on the sampling time. Associated epifaunal assemblages were consistently dominated by resident species (i.e. species present in all sampling periods) and a peak of rare species was observed in the transition from spring to summer following the increase of seawater temperature. Turnover was particularly high in the transition between the spring and summer periods. In both hosts, turnover was higher in the small sized colonies, which generally harboured less diverse and less abundant assemblages which also differed from those inhabiting larger size colonies. The high levels of diversity associated with gorgonian colonies highlights the need for the conservation of this priority habitat.

  18. Temporal variability in epifaunal assemblages associated with temperate gorgonian gardens

    KAUST Repository

    Dias, I.M.

    2015-10-19

    The present study is one of the few that investigate the temporal variability of epifaunal assemblages associated with coral species, particularly the octocorals Eunicella gazella and Leptogorgia lusitanica in south Portugal. The results suggest time rather than colony size as a primary driver of the ecological patterns of these assemblages, which were dominated by amphipods, molluscs and polychaetes. Temporal variability was linked to changes in environmental parameters, namely temperature, chlorophyll a and particulate organic carbon. Hence, temporal variability must be taken into account for the design of future biodiversity assessment studies, as different patterns may be observed depending on the sampling time. Associated epifaunal assemblages were consistently dominated by resident species (i.e. species present in all sampling periods) and a peak of rare species was observed in the transition from spring to summer following the increase of seawater temperature. Turnover was particularly high in the transition between the spring and summer periods. In both hosts, turnover was higher in the small sized colonies, which generally harboured less diverse and less abundant assemblages which also differed from those inhabiting larger size colonies. The high levels of diversity associated with gorgonian colonies highlights the need for the conservation of this priority habitat.

  19. Amplification factor variable amplifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akitsugu, Oshita; Nauta, Bram

    2007-01-01

    PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an amplification factor variable amplifier capable of achieving temperature compensation of an amplification factor over a wide variable amplification factor range. ; SOLUTION: A Gilbert type amplification factor variable amplifier 11 amplifies an input signal and

  20. Amplification factor variable amplifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akitsugu, Oshita; Nauta, Bram

    2010-01-01

    PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an amplification factor variable amplifier capable of achieving temperature compensation of an amplification factor over a wide variable amplification factor range. ;SOLUTION: A Gilbert type amplification factor variable amplifier 11 amplifies an input signal and can

  1. Establishment of regression dependences. Linear and nonlinear dependences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishchenko, A.M.

    1994-01-01

    The main problems of determination of linear and 19 types of nonlinear regression dependences are completely discussed. It is taken into consideration that total dispersions are the sum of measurement dispersions and parameter variation dispersions themselves. Approaches to all dispersions determination are described. It is shown that the least square fit gives inconsistent estimation for industrial objects and processes. The correction methods by taking into account comparable measurement errors for both variable give an opportunity to obtain consistent estimation for the regression equation parameters. The condition of the correction technique application expediency is given. The technique for determination of nonlinear regression dependences taking into account the dependence form and comparable errors of both variables is described. 6 refs., 1 tab

  2. Environmental Variables and Pupils' Academic Performance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This causal-comparative study was carried out to investigate the influence of environmental variables on pupils' academic performance in primary science in Cross River State, Nigeria. Three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Two instruments were used to collect data for the study namely: environmental ...

  3. Variable mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontela, Paula Caitano; Prestes, Renata Bernardy; Forgiarini, Luiz Alberto; Friedman, Gilberto

    2017-01-01

    To review the literature on the use of variable mechanical ventilation and the main outcomes of this technique. Search, selection, and analysis of all original articles on variable ventilation, without restriction on the period of publication and language, available in the electronic databases LILACS, MEDLINE®, and PubMed, by searching the terms "variable ventilation" OR "noisy ventilation" OR "biologically variable ventilation". A total of 36 studies were selected. Of these, 24 were original studies, including 21 experimental studies and three clinical studies. Several experimental studies reported the beneficial effects of distinct variable ventilation strategies on lung function using different models of lung injury and healthy lungs. Variable ventilation seems to be a viable strategy for improving gas exchange and respiratory mechanics and preventing lung injury associated with mechanical ventilation. However, further clinical studies are necessary to assess the potential of variable ventilation strategies for the clinical improvement of patients undergoing mechanical ventilation.

  4. Cardiovascular Risk in Primary Hyperaldosteronism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prejbisz, A; Warchoł-Celińska, E; Lenders, J W M; Januszewicz, A

    2015-12-01

    After the first cases of primary aldosteronism were described and characterized by Conn, a substantial body of experimental and clinical evidence about the long-term effects of excess aldosterone on the cardiovascular system was gathered over the last 5 decades. The prevalence of primary aldosteronism varies considerably between different studies among hypertensive patients, depending on patient selection, the used diagnostic methods, and the severity of hypertension. Prevalence rates vary from 4.6 to 16.6% in those studies in which confirmatory tests to diagnose primary aldosteronism were used. There is also growing evidence indicating that prolonged exposure to elevated aldosterone concentrations is associated with target organ damage in the heart, kidney, and arterial wall, and high cardiovascular risk in patients with primary aldosteronism. Therefore, the aim of treatment should not be confined to BP normalization and hypokalemia correction, but rather should focus on restoring the deleterious effects of excess aldosterone on the cardiovascular system. Current evidence convincingly demonstrates that both surgical and medical treatment strategies beneficially affect cardiovascular outcomes and mortality in the long term. Further studies can be expected to provide better insight into the relationship between cardiovascular risk and complications and the genetic background of primary aldosteronism. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Photometric variability in earthshine observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Sally V; Wyithe, J Stuart B; Turner, Edwin L

    2009-04-01

    The identification of an extrasolar planet as Earth-like will depend on the detection of atmospheric signatures or surface non-uniformities. In this paper we present spatially unresolved flux light curves of Earth for the purpose of studying a prototype extrasolar terrestrial planet. Our monitoring of the photometric variability of earthshine revealed changes of up to 23% per hour in the brightness of Earth's scattered light at around 600 nm, due to the removal of specular reflection from the view of the Moon. This variability is accompanied by reddening of the spectrum and results from a change in surface properties across the continental boundary between the Indian Ocean and Africa's east coast. Our results based on earthshine monitoring indicate that specular reflection should provide a useful tool in determining the presence of liquid water on extrasolar planets via photometric observations.

  6. Disentangling the effects of climate, density dependence, and harvest on an iconic large herbivore's population dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koons, David; Colchero, Fernando; Hersey, Kent

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the relative effects of climate, harvest, and density dependence on population dynamics is critical for guiding sound population management, especially for ungulates in arid and semi-arid environments experiencing climate change. To address these issues for bison in southern Utah, we...... than precipitation and other temperature-related variables (model weight > 3 times more than that for other climate variables). Although we hypothesized that harvest is the primary driving force of bison population dynamics in southern Utah, our elasticity analysis indicated that changes in early...... spring temperature could have a greater ‘relative effect’ on equilibrium abundance than either harvest or the strength of density dependence. Our findings highlight the utility of incorporating elasticity analyses into state-space population models, and the need to include climatic processes in wildlife...

  7. Multilevel Cross-Dependent Binary Longitudinal Data

    KAUST Repository

    Serban, Nicoleta; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Carroll, Raymond J.

    2013-01-01

    processes describing the within- and between-variability, and describing the cross-dependence of the repeated longitudinal measurements. We estimate the model components without employing mixed-effects modeling but assuming an approximation to the logistic

  8. Cataclysmic Variable Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellier, Coel

    2001-01-01

    Cataclysmic variable stars are the most variable stars in the night sky, fluctuating in brightness continually on timescales from seconds to hours to weeks to years. The changes can be recorded using amateur telescopes, yet are also the subject of intensive study by professional astronomers. That study has led to an understanding of cataclysmic variables as binary stars, orbiting so closely that material transfers from one star to the other. The resulting process of accretion is one of the most important in astrophysics. This book presents the first account of cataclysmic variables at an introductory level. Assuming no previous knowledge of the field, it explains the basic principles underlying the variability, while providing an extensive compilation of cataclysmic variable light curves. Aimed at amateur astronomers, undergraduates, and researchers, the main text is accessible to those with no mathematical background, while supplementary boxes present technical details and equations.

  9. Understanding Brown Dwarf Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Surveys of brown dwarf variability continue to find that roughly half of all brown dwarfs are variable. While variability is observed amongst all types of brown dwarfs, amplitudes are typically greatest for L-T transition objects. In my talk I will discuss the possible physical mechanisms that are responsible for the observed variability. I will particularly focus on comparing and contrasting the effects of changes in atmospheric thermal profile and cloud opacity. The two different mechanisms will produce different variability signatures and I will discuss the extent to which the current datasets constrain both mechanisms. By combining constraints from studies of variability with existing spectral and photometric datasets we can begin to construct and test self-consistent models of brown dwarf atmospheres. These models not only aid in the interpretation of existing objects but also inform studies of directly imaged giant planets.

  10. The pathological status of exercise dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamber, D.; Cockerill, I.; Carroll, D.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives—This study was concerned with the concept of exercise dependence. Levels of psychological morbidity, personality profiles, and exercise beliefs were compared among subjects screened for exercise dependence and eating disorders. Method—Adult female exercisers were allocated on the basis of questionnaire screening to one of the following groups: primary exercise dependence (n = 43); secondary exercise dependence, where there was the coincidence of exercise dependence and an eating disorder (n = 27); eating disorder (n =14); control, where there was no evidence of either exercise dependence or eating disorder (n = 110). Questionnaire assessment was undertaken of psychological morbidity, self esteem, weight and body shape dissatisfaction, personality, and exercise beliefs. Results—Aside from a higher incidence of reported menstrual abnormalities, the primary exercise dependence group was largely indistinguishable from the controls. In stark contrast, the secondary exercise dependence group reported higher levels of psychological morbidity