WorldWideScience

Sample records for primarily white middle-class

  1. 3 CFR - White House Task Force on Middle-Class Working Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false White House Task Force on Middle-Class Working Families Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of January 30, 2009 White House... times. To these ends, I hereby direct the following: Section 1. White House Task Force on Middle-Class...

  2. Protect and Survive: "Whiteness" and the Middle-Class Family in Civil Defence Pedagogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, John

    2008-01-01

    "Civil defence pedagogies" normalise continuous emergency through educational channels such as school, community and adult education. Using critical whiteness studies, and critiques of white supremacy from critical race theory, as a conceptual base, the protection of whiteness, and particularly the white middle-class family, is considered to be…

  3. Age-Graded Themes in White American Middle-Class Slang: A Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Thomas S.

    It is proposed that middle- and upper-middle-class slang used among white young people in modern America shows age-related themes. For youngsters between the ages of eight and early adolescence, the major theme in slang use is to establish in-group and out-group membership, with standards of judgment based on clothes, manners, and physical appeal.…

  4. "He Was a Bit of a Delicate Thing": White Middle-Class Boys, Gender, School Choice and Parental Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Katya; Jamieson, Fiona; Hollingworth, Sumi

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of gender on white middle-class parents' anxiety about choosing inner-city comprehensives and their children's subsequent experiences within school, particularly in relation to social mixing. Drawing on interview data from an ESRC funded study of white middle-class parents whose children attend inner-city…

  5. Jeff Foxworthy’s Redneck Humor and the Boundaries of Middle-Class American Whiteness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. David Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies examine the use of rhetorical boundaries to produce intra-racial othering within whiteness. I expand this project by exploring the textual and social codes in Jeff Foxworthy humor that demarcate the boundaries between the redneck and the non-redneck. Such boundaries are complex, porous fault-lines that use symbolic pollution embedded in humor to stigmatize White outsiders. Social codes referencing symbolic pollution establish boundaries to define and insulate a normative, mainstream White identity from the intra-racial threat of redneck identity. This project provides a novel addition to whiteness studies by taking redneck humor analytically seriously and concludes by drawing comparisons between codes found in Foxworthy humor and those levied against rural Whites during the eugenics era.

  6. What Is Middle Class about the Middle Classes around the World?

    OpenAIRE

    Abhijit V. Banerjee; Esther Duflo

    2008-01-01

    We expect a lot from the middle classes. At least three distinct arguments about the special economic role of the middle class are traditionally made. In one, new entrepreneurs armed with a capacity and a tolerance for delayed gratification emerge from the middle class and create employment and productivity growth for the rest of society. In a second, perhaps more conventional view, the middle class is primarily a source of vital inputs for the entrepreneurial class: it is their "middle class...

  7. MIDDLE CLASS MOVEMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. K. Sravana Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The middle class is placed between labour and capital. It neither directly awns the means of production that pumps out the surplus generated by wage labour power, nor does it, by its own labour, produce the surplus which has use and exchange value. Broadly speaking, this class consists of the petty bourgeoisie and the white-collar workers. The former are either self-employed or involved in the distribution of commodities and the latter are non-manual office workers, supervisors and profession...

  8. Dealing with diversity: middle-class family households and the issue of 'black' and 'white' schools in Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boterman, W.R.

    2013-01-01

    The urban middle classes often celebrate the diversity of their neighbourhood. As soon as they have children, however, the desire to display symbolic capital may conflict with the need to reproduce cultural capital through the educational system. In the ethnically diverse Amsterdam schooling

  9. Are Ghanaian Diaspora Middle Class? Linking Middle Class to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-06-24

    Jun 24, 2015 ... Enfin, nous analyserons l'influence de cette élite dans le .... In other words, many people who are considered middle class, sometimes in a month ..... the same area, will in future help my children to have a network of friends .... Ghanaian politics since 1992, where the ruling party does not win an election to.

  10. Middle Class Youth: Myth or Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U V Goliusova

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Many researches both in Russia and abroad are concerned with the question of whether middle class exists in Russia and, if so, what its distinctive features are. The problem of particular interest is the sources of recruiting to that social group. One of its source clusters is youth. The article considers main traits of middle class youth, their self-identification and their perception of Russian middle class.

  11. The State of the Australian Middle Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive Hamilton

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a widespread view that the middle class in Australia is doing it tough, that they arefinding it increasingly difficult to maintain a decent standard of living and are suffering frommortgage stress. Indeed, some media reports have announced the end of the middle classdream.This paper tests a number of these popular views against the statistical data. It asks whetherthe typical Australian family can be said to be struggling? Are mortgages creating severeproblems for middle-class families? Is the middle class shrinking? Are families copingfinancially only because wives are going out to work?

  12. Middle Class and Democracy in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Fierro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The consolidation of the middle class has been interpreted by modernization and postmodernization theories as a key factor for the functioning and stability of the democratic system. However, in Latin America the middle class has tended to be associated with two contradictory positions. On the one hand, it is emphasized that it plays a stabilizing and democratic role while, on the other hand, it is linked to supporting military coups. With the purpose of elucidate such a dilemma, the relationship that can be established between the socioeconomic status and the degree of support for democracy will be examined. In order to do this, an empirical analysis from Latinbarometer surveys databases will be conducted, covering seventeen countries in the region for the period from 1996 to 2011. It will be concluded that the middle class in Latin America does not have particularly more favorable attitudes toward democracy than other social segments.

  13. Middle-class projects in modern Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    2017-01-01

    picture surrounding this class and its relationship to Malaysian national repertoires such as Islamic revivalism, politics, consumer culture, social mobility and the state-market nexus. I understand middle-class projects to be the making of local class culture in Malaysia and explore these in four...... research projects that each in their own way examine how Malay Muslim informants understand and practice “middle-classness” in different spatial and temporal contexts. In short, my findings show how Malay Muslim middle-class projects such as Islamic consumption shape local class culture in Malaysia....

  14. Racial Microaggressions: The Schooling Experiences of Black Middle-Class Males in Arizona’s Secondary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quaylan Allen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The literature on Black education has often neglected significant analysis of life in schools and the experience of racism among Black middle-class students in general and Black middle-class males specifically. Moreover, the achievement gap between this population and their White counterparts in many cases is greater than the gap that exists among working-class Blacks and Whites. This study begins to document the aforementioned by illuminating the racial microaggressions experienced by Black middle-class males while in school and how their families’ usage of social and cultural capital deflect the potential negative outcomes of school racism.

  15. Statistical Inference on the Canadian Middle Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Davidson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventional wisdom says that the middle classes in many developed countries have recently suffered losses, in terms of both the share of the total population belonging to the middle class, and also their share in total income. Here, distribution-free methods are developed for inference on these shares, by means of deriving expressions for their asymptotic variances of sample estimates, and the covariance of the estimates. Asymptotic inference can be undertaken based on asymptotic normality. Bootstrap inference can be expected to be more reliable, and appropriate bootstrap procedures are proposed. As an illustration, samples of individual earnings drawn from Canadian census data are used to test various hypotheses about the middle-class shares, and confidence intervals for them are computed. It is found that, for the earlier censuses, sample sizes are large enough for asymptotic and bootstrap inference to be almost identical, but that, in the twenty-first century, the bootstrap fails on account of a strange phenomenon whereby many presumably different incomes in the data are rounded to one and the same value. Another difference between the centuries is the appearance of heavy right-hand tails in the income distributions of both men and women.

  16. Multiple meanings of the middle class in Soweto, South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study revealed that a diverse number of people call themselves middle class and defined class in terms of ability to afford basic goods. The label middle class seems also to denote self-sufficiency, responsibility and social mobility The paper concludes that studies of the middle class does not seen to focus on how social ...

  17. Living in the city: school friendships, diversity and the middle classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Carol; Neal, Sarah; Iqbal, Humera

    2018-06-01

    Much of the literature on the urban middle classes describes processes of both affiliation (often to the localities) and disaffiliation (often from some of the non-middle-class residents). In this paper, we consider this situation from a different position, drawing on research exploring whether and how children and adults living in diverse localities develop friendships with those different to themselves in terms of social class and ethnicity. This paper focuses on the interviews with the ethnically diverse, but predominantly white British, middle-class parent participants, considering their attitudes towards social and cultural difference. We emphasize the importance of highlighting inequalities that arise from social class and its intersection with ethnicity in analyses of complex urban populations. The paper's contribution is, first, to examine processes of clustering amongst the white British middle-class parents, particularly in relation to social class. Second, we contrast this process, and its moments of reflection and unease, with the more deliberate and purposeful efforts of one middle-class, Bangladeshi-origin mother who engages in active labour to facilitate relationships across social and ethnic difference. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  18. Negotiations of Acknowledgement among Middle Class Residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Blom

    2013-01-01

    The article presents an analysis of communication processes between residents, between residents and people in the broader societal context as well as of media coverage of a fireworks disaster in a Danish suburb. It demonstrates how residents (all members of the Danish middle class) were able......, ethnicity, class or other social categories normally recognized as influential in case of disastrous events. Since the population in the area was very homogenous, the axis of differentiation was instead linked to the social category of affectedness, and a hierarchy of affectedness was identified within...

  19. Middle Class Fortunes in Western Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Kochhar, Rakesh

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the state of the middle classes in the U.S. and 11 countries in Western Europe and how it has changed since 1991. Among Western Europe's six largest economies, the shares of adults living in middle-income households increased in France, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom from 1991 to 2010, but shrank in Germany, Italy and Spain. France, the Netherlands and the UK also experienced notable growth in disposable household income, but incomes were either stagnant or falling...

  20. Vulnerability Factors in the Middle Class: Evidence for Argentina and Mexico after the Crisis of the 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    Galassi, Gabriela Liliana; González, Leandro Mariano

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the profile of the Argentinean and Mexican middle classes during the most recent crisis in both countries. It combines the perspectives of social vulnerability and class analysis theoretically underlying a "matrix of vulnerability and social classes." The analysis used household surveys in Argentina for 1998 and 2003 and those in Mexico for 1994 and 1996. The results show that whereas the Mexican middle class was primarily affected during the "Tequila crisis" through its p...

  1. Teachers in the 'Hood: Hollywood's Middle-Class Fantasy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulman, Robert C.

    2002-01-01

    Asserts that the urban-high-school film genre (in which a classroom of socially troubled, low-achieving students is transformed by the singular efforts of an outside middle class teacher or principal) reinforces the "culture of poverty" thesis, representing the fantasies that suburban middle class America has about life in urban high…

  2. Impact of telecommunication technologies on the middle class formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusnullova, A.; Absalyamova, S.; Sakhapov, R.; Mukhametgalieva, Ch

    2017-12-01

    The article is devoted to the study of the impact of the information economy on the formation of the middle class. The paper identifies factors contributing to the increase in the share of the middle class in the transition to the information economy. The positive synergetic influence of telecommunication technologies on the formation of the middle class is considered through a possibility of using virtual spaces for labor and educational activities, a possibility of obtaining high returns in the form of dividends on intellectual capital, a qualitative change in the structure of needs, an access to new types of information services, etc. Authors develop a complex model of research of the middle class in the information economy, differing from those available using an expanded list of criteria. In addition to such widely used criteria as income level, level of education and self-identification, the criterion "degree of involvement in the information society" was introduced. The study substantiates that the transition to the information economy made an access to information and communication technologies one of the most significant criteria for social differentiation of society. On the basis of the model, an econometric estimate of the middle class has been carried out, which makes it possible to reveal the share of the middle class in modern society, dynamics of its development, as well as multicollinearity between spending on education, the Gini coefficient, access to information and telecommunication technologies and the size of the middle class.

  3. Punk and Middle-Class Values: A Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Philip; Levin, Jack

    1985-01-01

    Compares periodical articles representing the "Punk" movement with articles from the "Reader's Digest" and the 1960s hippie movement. Concludes that the punk movement is more expressive and less instrumental than its middle-class counterpart. (KH)

  4. Ethno beauty: practices of beautification among urban muslim middle-class women in Surabaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listyani, RH; Sadewo, FX S.; Legowo, M.

    2018-01-01

    This research examines practices of beautification by urban middle-class Muslim women using an ethnomethodology approach. Several theories are employed in this research including the theory of consumption (leisure class), sociology of body, middle-class theory and the concept of modern Islam. Results indicate that the beautiful concept according to Muslim middle-class urban women is white skin without stains, face without wrinkles, nose sharp, eyelashes and thick eyebrows and red lips. To be said to be beautiful, they took various efforts through beauty treatment, diet, fashion and dress up. In this study also revealed that their goal to self-care is pride and recognition in front of other fellow female friends and to happy partner (husband). This shows that the consumption through the body (fashions, diets, make up) and consumption around the body (beauty treatments) represent symbolic and material ways of positioning themselves within contemporary society - thus becoming ‘visible’. The implications of this research are this study is expected to contribute information and enrich the repertoire of social science especially sociology also for the development of research on body and beauty.

  5. Simbolic boundaries and middle classes. Social mobility in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayarí Castillo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available After more than three decades of the implementation of the policies of structural adjustment in Chile, the middle classes increased their weight in the social structure and changed their economic sector, occupation and trajectories of social mobility. This article analyzes the perceptionof symbolic boundaries, which emerging of these macro-processes and shapes the subjectivity of middle class subjects into upward mobility processes and modifies their perceptions of inequality. Whit this objective the paper presents a qualitative analysis of cases in which discursive components like meritocracy, the effort and the idea of “barriers/obstacles” became a key discursive axis. This article is inscribed within the recent studies on middle classes for the Chilean case, which focus specially on the cultural aspects after reproduction of stratification and inequality in Chile.

  6. Modernity, cosmopolitanism, and the emergence of middle classes in Tonga

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besnier, N.

    2009-01-01

    The formation of social classes in Pacific Islands societies and in their diasporas continues to raise theoretical questions about the nature of social classes and their relationship to prior forms of social organization. In Tonga, middle classes both reproduce aspects of the older rank-based system

  7. Residential practices of middle classes in the field of parenthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boterman, W.R.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is about the changes in the lives of members of the middle classes in Amsterdam when they become parents for the first time. It is about how becoming a parent affects their working life, their consumption patterns, and their social life. It is about how identities as new parents

  8. Multiple meanings of the middle class in soweto, south Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    symbolic container labeled middle class. (By social position here we mean class but also, for example, labour-market stratificiations within classes (see Ceruti 2010) and age.) We re-establish a link between 'where we stand in the world and how we see ourselves' (Bottero, 2005; 10). Olin-Wright (1989) concedes to Brenner ...

  9. Mutation Accumulation, Soft Selection and the Middle-Class Neighborhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorad, Jacob A.; Hall, David W.

    2009-01-01

    The “middle-class neighborhood” is a breeding design intended to allow new mutations to accumulate by lessening the effects of purifying selection through the elimination of among-line fitness variation. We show that this design effectively applies soft selection to the experimental population, potentially causing biased estimates of mutational effects if social effects contribute to fitness. PMID:19448272

  10. Living Sexualities: Negotiating Heteronormativity in Middle Class Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Karim (Shuchi)

    2012-01-01

    textabstract‘Living Sexualities’ is a study of erotic desires, practices and identities, lived within the heteronormative and marriage-normative socio-sexual structures of the urban middle class in contemporary Bangladesh. The study is based on two years fieldwork during which data was

  11. Financial Literacy: Thai Middle Class Women Do Not Lag Behind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Grohmann (Antonia); O. Hübler (Olaf); R.R.P. Kouwenberg (Roy); L. Menkhoff (Lukas)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis research studies the stylized fact of a “gender gap” in that women tend to have lower financial literacy than men. Our data which samples middle-class people from Bangkok does not show a gender gap. This result is not explained by men’s low financial literacy, nor by women’s high

  12. MIDDLE-CLASS FORMATION STRATEGY IN THE REGION: PRACTICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya Pereguda

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to generalize knowledge about the formation of the middle class in the region, practical aspects of this problem. The author shows details of formation strategy, its social aspects in the view of human geography. Also in this paper, the author discloses items in regional development studying, the role of society in it and its structure, tides between processes in society and features of regional placement of productive forces. The main goal of this article is to make an analysis of the middle class in the view of human geography; show aspects of the territorial organization of the middle class, their influence on the economic development. Another purpose of this article is to disclose the essence of the mechanism of interaction between middle class and regional development, the interrelation of these two various processes. The methodology of this article is based on the human geography conceptions. The author considers aspects of regional social and economic development of regions: theoretical justification of this process and the analysis of its examples of modern Ukrainian economic activity. The thesis of this analysis is that regional development in the country has to be based on a number of the basic principles (they are picked up for the concrete territory and proved. Results. The author pays attention to the social and economic methodology of research of the middle class and regional development. She considers features of spatial manifestation of the middle class, and also categories, which anyway characterize it. Also, the author makes an analysis of indicators of the middle class, which allow identifying it in its relation to other structural elements of society. Value. In the article, there are different points of view to strategy as a category, its role in economic policy and state development. Both strategies (development strategy for the territory and strategy as the instrument of regional policy in the

  13. Making the middle classes on shifting ground? Residential status, performativity and middle-class subjectivities in contemporary London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Michaela; Jackson, Emma

    2017-06-01

    This paper argues that shifts in access to housing - both in relation to rental and ownership - disrupt middle-class reproduction in ways that fundamentally influence class formation. While property ownership has had a long association with middle-class identities, status and distinction, an increasingly competitive rental market alongside inflated property prices has impacted on expectations and anxieties over housing futures. In this paper, we consider two key questions: (1) What happens to middle-class identities under the conditions of this wider structural change? (2) How do the middle classes variously manoeuvre within this? Drawing on empirical research conducted in London, we demonstrate that becoming an owner-occupier may be fractured along lines of class but also along the axes of age, wealth and timing, particularly as this relates to the housing market. It builds on understandings of residential status and place as central to the formation of class, orienting this around the recognition of both people and place as mutable, emphasizing that changing economic and social processes generate new class positionalities and strategies for class reproduction. We argue that these processes are writ large in practices of belonging and claims to place, with wider repercussions within the urban landscape. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  14. Self-Education, Class and Gender in Edwardian Britain: Women in Lower Middle Class Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    Once societies embarked on programmes of mass education home schooling became essentially a middle-class project and remains so. This paper looks at the educational experiences of some lower middle class women at the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries for whom the resources of the middle-class home were simply not available. It…

  15. A Tale of Two Classes: The Black Poor and the Black Middle Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Arthur

    1991-01-01

    To understand the African-American family, the African-American poor and middle class must be investigated. Extra costs mean that it is much harder for African Americans to reach the middle class. Ways to improve the economic status of African-American families and to increase the middle class are discussed. (SLD)

  16. Food Standards are Good– for Middle-class Farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Trifkovic, Neda

    results indicate that large returns can be accrued from food standards, but only for the upper middle-class farmers, i.e., those between the 50% and 85% quantiles of the expenditure distribution. Overall, our result points to an exclusionary impact of standards for the poorest farmers while the richest do......We estimate the causal effect of food standards on Vietnamese pangasius farmers’ wellbeing measured by per capita consumption expenditure. We estimate both the average effects and the local average treatment effects on poorer and richer farmers by instrumental variable quantile regression. Our...

  17. Food Standards are Good – for Middle-Class Farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Trifkovic, Neda

    2014-01-01

    We estimate the causal effect of food standards on Vietnamese pangasius farmers’ wellbeing measured by per capita consumption expenditure. We estimate both the average effects and the local average treatment effects on poorer and richer farmers by instrumental variable quantile regression. Our...... results indicate that large returns can be accrued from food standards, but only for the upper middle-class farmers, i.e., those between the 50% and 85% quantiles of the expenditure distribution. Overall, our result points to an exclusionary impact of standards for the poorest farmers while the richest do...

  18. ISLAM IN PROVINCIAL INDONESIA: Middle Class, Lifestyle, and Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorhaidi Hasan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Islamic symbols have flourished in the public spaces of Indonesian provincial towns after Suharto. This phenomenon has occurred in parallel with the  significant shifts in the social, economic and political fields, which is tied to the mounting impact of Islamization, social mobility, economic growth, and democratization occurring among town people. It is as if we see a parallel move between Islamization, modernization, globalization and democratization. Key concepts associated with these trends are appropriated with those rooted in tradition and local culture to inform the whole dynamics of Indonesian provincial towns today. The key player in this process is the new middle class, who look to Islam for inspiration both to claim distinction and social status and to legitimize their consumptive lifestyle. They are newly pious who act as active negotiators between the global and the local as well as the cosmopolitan centre and the hinterland. They also play a pivotal role as an agency that liberalizes religion from its traditionally subservient, passive and docile posture by turning it into a source of moral legitimacy and distinction to represent a modern form of life. Given its intimate relationship with locality, tradition, modernity as well as globalization, Islam has increasingly assumed a greater importance for local politics. Political elites have used Islamic symbols for the instrumental purpose of extending their political legitimacy and mobilizing constituency support, in a political environment of open competition and increased public participation in decision making. In this process religious symbols have irrefutably been distanced from their religious moorings and narrow, Islamist understandings, in favor of pragmatic political purposes. Keywords: Islamic symbols, middle class, globalization, lifestyle, local politics

  19. Shrinking Middle Class and Changing Income Distribution of Korea: 1995-2005

    OpenAIRE

    Joon-Woo Nahm

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the shrinking middle class hypothesis and reveals more details about recent trends in income distribution of Korea from 1995 to 2005. We find that the consensus view of a declining middle class is correct and the decline in the middle class splited equally into the lower class and the upper class in Korea. Furthermore, while the size and income share of the middle class declined, the share of the upper class increased rapidly and the share of the lower class remained s...

  20. THE REPRESENTATION OF URBAN UPPER MIDDLE CLASS AMERICAN WOMEN'S COMMUNITY IN SEX AND THE CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yola Damayanti Gani

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The portrayal of urban upper middle class American women's community in Sex and the City-SATC-is built upon constructed symbols related to the position of urban upper middle class American Women's community and how cosmopolitan the women are. The symbol's construction is characterized by singleness, upper middle class social status, well-established career, alienation, consumptiveness, independence, gender consciousness, and open mindedness in their sexual knowledge. Television has helped to fracture traditional conventions about how women should place themselves in the midst of their society and constructed urban upper middle class American women's image and identity.

  1. Expectations of Developmental Milestones by Middle Class Parents and College Freshmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiber, Frank A.; And Others

    It has generally been assumed that lower socioeconomic status teenage parents are atypical in their expectations about child development compared to other parental groups. However there is little information available concerning the expectations of middle class parents. Middle class nonparent teenagers (N=50) and two parental groups (participants…

  2. Measuring Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Knowledge and Perceptions of Risk in Middle-Class African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Erica C.; Guidry, Jeffrey J.; Harvey, Idethia S.

    2018-01-01

    There is a paucity in the literature examining the African American middle-class. Most studies of African Americans and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) have concentrated on lower-SES individuals, or make no distinction between African Americans of varying socio-economic positions. Middle-class African Americans are vulnerable in ways often…

  3. Patterns of intergenerational mobility of the old and new middle classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Güveli, Ayse; Luijkx, Ruud; Ganzeboom, Harry B.G.

    2013-01-01

    It has often been proposed that new cleavages have emerged within the middle class. In this paper, we examine the distinction between social and cultural specialists and technocrats, and investigate whether these new and old middle class fractions are differentiated by their patterns of

  4. Enriching Intimacy: The Role of the Emotional in the "Resourcing" of Middle-Class Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansen, Kari; Aarseth, Helene

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses qualitative interviews conducted with Norwegian middle-class parents. It explores how a particular type of intimacy--an "enriching intimacy"--is produced as part of everyday parent-child interactions and considers the notion of the social self that spurs middle-class parents to seek this very type of intimacy with…

  5. A Reinterpretation of the Writings of Frazier on the Black Middle Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Bart

    1978-01-01

    A careful review of all of E. Franklin Frazier's writings dealing with the Black middle class will put into perspective the distorted view many people have regarding his criticism in "Black Bourgeoisie" of the attitudes and behavior of the Black middle class. (EB)

  6. The Achievement Ideology and Whiteness: "Achieving Whiteness" or "Achieving Middle Class?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Ricky Lee

    Over the past few decades, social reproduction theorists have criticized achievement ideology as a dominant and dominating myth that hides the true nature of class immobility. Social reproductionists' primary criticism of achievement ideology is that it blinds the working class, regardless of race or gender, to the possibilities of collective…

  7. "They Think Minority Means Lesser than": Black Middle-Class Sons and Fathers Resisting Microaggressions in the School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Quaylan

    2013-01-01

    The current literature on Black middle-class men is sparse, leaving little to be known about the raced, classed, and gendered experiences for many Black middle-class male students and their families. Employing qualitative methodology, this study uses critical race theory (CRT) to examine the educational experiences of Black middle-class high…

  8. Chinese Middle Classes: Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macao and China. Edited by Hsin-Huang Michael Hsiao

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    2018-01-01

    Book review of: Chinese Middle Classes:Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macao and China. Edited by Hsin-Huang Michael Hsiao. Abingdon: Routledge, 2014. Pp. 268. ISBN 10: 1138120847; ISBN 13: 978-1138120846......Book review of: Chinese Middle Classes:Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macao and China. Edited by Hsin-Huang Michael Hsiao. Abingdon: Routledge, 2014. Pp. 268. ISBN 10: 1138120847; ISBN 13: 978-1138120846...

  9. Negotiating Middle-class Respectable Femininity: Bangladeshi Women and their Families

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein, Nazia

    2017-01-01

    Using qualitative data, this article explains how affluent urban and new middle-class women in Bangladesh reconstruct the notion of respectable femininity within the family. The normative conception of middle-class women’s respectability is measured against women prioritizing family above work by performing their domestic, care, and socializing roles and by maintaining moral propriety. Using Bourdieu’s theory of capitals and Lamont’s formulation of boundary work, I demonstrate that by reinsta...

  10. Cultural influences, decision making process and consumer behaviour of the Middle Class Chinese Outbound Tourist.

    OpenAIRE

    Bollen, Luc

    2010-01-01

    The research investigates the consumer behaviour of the emerging “Middle Class Mainland Chinese Outbound Tourist”. With the Chinese outbound tourism market being one of the fastest growing worldwide and poised for exponential growth in years to come, tourism industry professionals would benefit from a deeper understanding. The focus of the thesis considers which cultural influences are important in the decision making process of the Chinese middle class consumer, what are the pre-cons...

  11. The Rise of the Middle Class in the People's Republic of China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Yuan; Guanghua Wan; Khor, Niny

    2011-01-01

    Using {dollar}2–{dollar}20 purchasing power parity per capita daily income as the definition of middle class, Zhang Yuan, Guanghua Wan, and Niny Khor find that majority of households in the People's Republic of China have become middle class by 2007. This is especially impressive given that around 40% of households were still considered poor in 1991. This paper discusses these trends, their main determinants, and geographical distributions.

  12. Stress-relevant social behaviors of middle-class male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ding; Zhou, Yuan

    2015-11-18

    Stress from dominance ranks in human societies, or that of other social animals, especially nonhuman primates, can have negative influences on health. Individuals holding different social status may be burdened with various stress levels. The middle class experiences a special stress situation within the dominance hierarchy due to its position between the higher and lower classes. Behaviorally, questions about where middle-class stress comes from and how individuals adapt to middle-class stress remain poorly understood in nonhuman primates. In the present study, social interactions, including aggression, avoidance, grooming and mounting behaviors, between beta males, as well as among group members holding higher or lower social status, were analyzed in captive male-only cynomolgus monkey groups. We found that aggressive tension from the higher hierarchy members was the main origin of stress for middle-class individuals. However, behaviors such as attacking lower hierarchy members immediately after being the recipient of aggression, as well as increased avoidance, grooming and mounting toward both higher and lower hierarchy members helped alleviate middle-class stress and were particular adaptations to middle-class social status.

  13. Alcohol Use and Mental Health Conditions Among Black College Males: Do Those Attending Postsecondary Minority Institutions Fare Better Than Those at Primarily White Institutions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Adam E; Jackson, Zachary; Watkins, Daphne C; Goodwill, Janelle R; Hunte, Haslyn E R

    2017-07-01

    While there is a sizeable body of research examining the association between alcohol use and mental health conditions among college students, there are sparse investigations specifically focusing on these associations among Black college students. This is concerning given Black college students face different stressors compared with their non-Black peers. Black males appear especially at risk, exhibiting increased susceptibility to mental health issues and drinking in greater quantities and more frequently than Black females. This investigation examined the association between alcohol consumption and mental health conditions among Black men attending institutions of higher education in the United States and sought to determine differences between Black men attending predominantly White institutions (PWIs) compared with those attending postsecondary minority institutions. Final sample included 416 Black men, 323 of which attended a PWI. Data were from the National College Health Assessment. Black men attending a PWI reported significantly greater levels of alcohol consumption and significantly more mental health conditions. Attendance at a minority-serving institution was associated with fewer mental health conditions among Black men. Future studies should seek to replicate these findings and conduct culturally sensitive and gender-specific research examining why Black men at PWIs report greater alcohol consumption and more mental health conditions than their peers attending postsecondary minority institutions.

  14. The White Adolescent's Drug Odyssey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Douglas S.; Marel, Rozanne

    1980-01-01

    Presents a "typical" case history of a White middle-class teenager who becomes involved with marihuana and subsequently begins to abuse other drugs. Sociological findings from other research are interspersed in the anecdotal account. (GC)

  15. THE ANALYSIS OF THE STATE AND DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS OF THE MIDDLE CLASS IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Salo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to study and represent the current state of the middle class in Ukraine, the problems of its formation and development prospects in the future with the definition of the complementary set of internal and external factors of its formation. Methodology. The survey is based on statistical data from open official sources, which makes it possible to confirm the thesis of the critical proportion of the middle class in Ukraine. Besides, the data are obtained from electronic sources, the State Statistics Service of Ukraine. During the study, the paper uses analytical articles on the economic development of the middle class in Ukraine. The results of the survey shows that the middle class is critically low for stable functioning of Ukraine’s modern economy. One of the main problems of the middle class development is the absence of state support of small and medium-sized businesses. The government with the repressive model of the economy in relation to business-oriented monopolization was formed in Ukraine. The distribution of the «shadow» model of social and economic relations leads to the limitation of legal opportunities of employment and income. Besides, it complicates the development of small and mediumsized businesses. As a consequence, the number of entrepreneurs and small business owners are constantly increasing, but due to the absence of a favorable business climate a significant number of small businesses were forced to move into the shadow. The peculiarity of the formation of the middle class in Ukraine is that its social basis in contrast to Western Europe is not the owners, but employees. We have a unique situation, when most of the highly skilled workers (the representatives of the spheres of education, health, public administration, which should be the core of the middle class, in terms of income are on the verge or below the poverty line. The level of wages of such specialists does not even correspond to

  16. Religious experiments in colonial Calcutta: modern Hinduism and bhakti among the Indian middle class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinando Sardella

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Any discussion of India from the point of view of the West must deal with the problem posed by the colonial past and the ways in which India was colonized, interpreted and constructed to fit into an imperialist agenda. The terms ‘Hinduism’ and ‘religion’, for example, are themselves quite problematic, since they are born of Western and Judeo-Christian thought, and may not reflect the complexity and diversity of Indic traditions well enough. A translation and transmission of terms and concepts from one cultural domain to another is required, but it is bound to be merely tentative and approximate, since a comprehension of the full meaning of words and concepts related to Indic religions presupposes an extensive grounding in the rich religious thought of India. Bhaktisiddhānta lived on the border between the nineteenth and the twentieth century, between the black and the white towns of Calcutta, between India and the West, and between two world wars. His effort to search for and apply bhakti to the social, political and cultural crises of his time is important for grasping the vitality and dynamism of Indic religions in our time. It is also important for appreciating the struggle carried out by a growing Indian and Hindu middle class to bridge the gaps between East and West, and on the basis of indigenous culture produce new ideas for reciprocal co-operation, which in the case of Bhaktisiddhānta were related to the idea and practice of bhakti.

  17. Middle classes: theoretical principles, contemporary working out, regarding the hired workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Nikolaevich Bobkov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problems of defining middle classes. Theoretical principles of social and class structures, including middle classes, are examined. The criteria of reckoning some hired workers as middle classes worked out on the basis of normative methodology (normative criteria are submitted, the most important of them being educational qualifications, occupation, personal income and provision of housing. Methods of statistical and sociologic analysing data are applied. The results of analysing the conformity of the hired workers to the normative criteria of representing middle classes are produced. It is determined that today heads of organizations and their subdivisions as well as certified top and middle management specialists representing middle classes comprise only 2-3 per cent of the total number of the hired workers. It should be noted that there are practically no-one among them who has got a family with two and more children. The low level of wages is the main reason for that. In addition there are some other reasons, too. The results of the research could find application in the state social and economic policy

  18. Translating Bourdieu: cultural capital and the English middle class in historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Simon

    2005-03-01

    This article examines the ways in which Pierre Bourdieu's work on culture and cultural capital can be applied to the study of the English middle class in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Drawing on a wide historical literature, the article argues for the significance of culture as a constitutive element of middle-class identities in England since 1800. It goes on to examine Bourdieu's ideas of 'objectivated', 'instutionalized' and 'incorporated' cultural capital, in the context of family, inheritance, education and the body. The article identifies changes in the historical forms which cultural capital has taken and emphasizes the importance of analysing family processes of intergenerational transmission.

  19. Boycott or Buycott? Malay Middle-Class Consumption Post-9/11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    2007-01-01

    Much current anti-consumerist and anti-globalisation discourse identifies boycotting as an immensely powerful force. Religious and secular activists alike promote consumer boycotts as a type of practised resistance that promises to break US economic, military and cultural hegemony. Obviously...... in Malaysia in the wake of 9/11. I shall show how this issue evokes a wide range of contestations and paradoxes in the everyday lives of suburban Malay Muslim middle-class families. Most of all, the boycott confronts divergent Malay middle-class groups with the problem of how to translate intentionality...

  20. The Capability Threshold: Re-examining the Definition of the Middle Class in an Unequal Developing Country

    OpenAIRE

    Burger, Ronelle; McAravey, Camren; van der Berg, Servaas

    2015-01-01

    In a polarised and highly unequal country such as South Africa, it is unlikely that a definition of the middle class that is based on an income threshold will adequately capture the political and social meanings of being middle class. We therefore propose a multi-dimensional definition, rooted in the ideas of empowerment and capability, and find that the 'empowered middle class' has expanded significantly since 1993 also across vulnerable subgroups such as blacks, female-headed households and...

  1. The Paradox of Middle-Class Attitudes in China: Democracy, Social Stability, and Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Miao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the seemingly paradoxical attitudes of the Chinese middle class towards democracy, social stability, and reform. Using fieldwork data from Ningbo, this article shows that a group of objective, middle-class individuals can concurrently display high levels of support for democratic principles and low levels of participation in real-life socio-political events. Being generally confident in China’s social stability, these individuals have little to no desire for significant democratic reform, or indeed any reform that occurs outside the purview of the state, as it is considered destabilising. By highlighting the distinction between how these members of the middle class respond to generic democratic concepts, real-life socio-political affairs, and the idea of democratic reform, this article argues that the Chinese middle class are aware of what “should be,” what “could be,” and what “is,” which lends their socio-political attitudes a paradoxical appearance.

  2. ‘Cuteifying’ spaces and staging marine animals for Chinese middle-class consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ong, Chin Ee

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, Chimelong Ocean Kingdom in Zhuhai is considered an aestheticised space for the growing Chinese middle class. Located within the booming and fast-urbanising Pearl River Delta, the theme park is a sizeable project consisting of rides, marine mammal enclosures and a well-equipped

  3. The housing careers of black middle-class residents in a South African metropolitan area

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Marais, L

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Africans was restored in the mid-1980s and the Group Areas Act was repealed in 1991. Democracy opened up economic opportunities previously unavailable to black people. This paper investigates the effect on black middle-class South African households...

  4. Rebels Without a Cause? Socialization and Subcultural Style among the Children of the New Middle Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggleton, Peter J.; Whitty, Geoff

    1985-01-01

    A study of upper-middle-class college students in England who responded with "resistance" to their schooling showed that the students' challenges do not constitute effective resistances to prevailing patterns of class or gender relations, i.e., their challenges are not transformative. (RM)

  5. Cognitive Performance and Competence Characteristics of Lower- and Middle-Class Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, David; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Reports two experiments to assess the usefulness of an alternative position to the "deficit hypothesis" and the "differences hypothesis," namely, that environmental/situational factors attenuate the performance of lower-class children, but that their competence, while genotypically equivalent to that of middle-class children,…

  6. Parental Goals and Parenting Practices of Upper-Middle-Class Korean Mothers with Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ju-Hee; Kwon, Young In

    2009-01-01

    In order to understand how mothers develop their parenting styles under rapidly changing cultural contexts, this study examines and compares Korean upper-middle-class mothers' parental goals and real parenting practices as they reported. For this purpose, face-to-face in-depth interviews with 20 Korean mothers were conducted. By analyzing the…

  7. Curriculum, Credentials, and the Middle Class: A Case Study of a Nineteenth-Century High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labaree, David F.

    1986-01-01

    Described is the development of the modern hegemonic curriculum--i.e., one in which knowledge is stratified, academic, and appropriated through individual competition--in a nineteenth century high school. This developmental process hinged on the relationship between the school's curriculum and its middle-class constituency, a relationship…

  8. The correlation of urban heat island in tropical middle-class housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wazir, Zuber Angkasa

    2017-11-01

    A very limited number of green and sustainable construction studies have explored factors related to Urban Heat Island (UHI) in tropical middle-class housing. This paper aimed to investigate the correlation of Urban Heat Island in tropical middle-class housing in three urban housing for middle-class residents of Palembang, which were Taman Sari Kenten, TOP Jakabaring, and Talang Kelapa. Samples consisted of 125 Taman Sari Kenten housing, 27 Talang Kelapa housing, and 12 TOP Jakabaring housing. Independent variables were the resident density, socioeconomic status, house location, roof type, green area ratio, weather, time, air conditioner, pro-environment institution, and NEP scale. The Analytic method included correlation and regression. We identified that all housing had different UHI profiles where Taman Sari Kenten had the highest UHI (4.17 K), followed by Talang Kelapa (2.66 K) and TOP Jakabaring (0.66 K) against temperature in measuring station nearby, owned by BMKG (National Meteorological Station). UHI correlated with the resident density, roof type, green area ratio, weather, time, and air conditioner. The results should add to the design of ideal housing in the tropical climate for middle-class residents, focusing on its ability to mitigate Urban Heat Island.

  9. Social Class (In)Visibility and the Professional Experiences of Middle-Class Novice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David; Jones, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses upon the classed and early professional experiences of middle-class novice teachers in England experiencing and contemplating working in schools serving socio-economically disadvantaged communities. Through an examination of the visibility and invisibility of social class in education set within an increasingly unequal and…

  10. Politics, Religion and Morals: The Symbolism of Public Schooling for the Urban Middle-Class Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Emma E.

    2016-01-01

    Research points to sections of the middle-class repopulating the "ordinary" urban public school and whilst there are key differences in how they are navigating public school choices, from "seeking a critical mass" to resisting traditional methods of choice and going "against-the-grain", or collectively campaigning for…

  11. Involved Fatherhood? Exploring the Educational Work of Middle-Class Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottzen, Lucas

    2011-01-01

    The present paper explores middle-class fathers' educational work by studying how they and their partners are involved in their children's education at home, in school, and how they investigate school options and make decisions about educational issues. Drawing on data from an ethnographic study of 30 dual-earner couples in the Greater Los Angeles…

  12. Navigating Polycentric Governance from a Citizen’s Perspective: The Rising New Middle Classes Respond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F. Fowler (Alan); K. Biekart (Kees)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractA global growth in the middle class is anticipated to influence development choices and the evolution of domestic polities associated with a ‘rising‘ South. Responding to the local effects of a multipolar world order will add to a citizen’s existing need to navigate national

  13. Middle Class and Democracy: An Assessment on the 2014 Indonesian’s Presidential Election

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxensius Tri Sambodo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to assess the role of middle class in Indonesia’s democracy, with the particular focus of the last Indonesian Presidential election. This study uses econometric analyses to assess preferences of middle class in presidential election by exploring data at district/city and provincial. The main finding in this study strongly suggests that religious and personality are still important elements under the race of Indonesia president. This study also found that different group of middle class has different attitudes in selecting the presidential candidate and the upper group of middle class is more likely to select Joko Widodo. Finally, a fragile middle class and a relatively high number of abstainers could be a barrier toward more substantive democracy. Abstrak Makalah ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis peran kelompok kelas menengah dalam proses demokrasi di Indonesia, secara khusus peran mereka difokuskan pada hasil pemilihan presiden yang terakhir. Studi ini menggunakan pendekatan ekonometrik untuk mengalisis preferensi kelompok kelas menengah dalam memilih calon presiden, dengan melakukan eksplorasi data pada tingkat kabupaten/kota dan provinsi. Hasil studi menunjukkan, agama dan personalitas calon presiden menjadi faktor penting dalam pertarungan pemilihan presiden. Studi ini juga menunjukkan, berbagai kelompok dalam kelas menengah memiliki preferensi yang berbeda dalam memilih kandidat presiden dan kelompok kelas menengah atas cenderung memilih Joko Widodo. Akhirnya, kelas menengah yang rentan dan tingginya kelompok yang abstain, akan menjadi hambatan untuk menuju demokrasi yang lebih substantif. Kata kunci: Kelas Menengah; Demokrasi; Pemilihan Presiden; Indonesia JEL classifications: A12; C33

  14. Housing as a way of life: towards an understanding of middle-class families' preferences for an urban residential location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karsten, L.; Paddison, R.; Ostendorf, W.

    2010-01-01

    Housing studies show an overwhelming preference by middle-class families for suburban living locations. In this paper an atypical category, middle-class families living in the city, is addressed. The aim is to understand why these households disconnect the seemingly natural relationship between

  15. Africa's middle class women bring entrepreneurial opportunities in breast care medical tourism to South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahwireng-Obeng, Frederick; van Loggerenberg, Charl

    2011-01-01

    Africa's distribution of specialized private health services is severely disproportionate. Mismatch between South Africa's excess supply and a huge demand potential in an under-serviced continent represents an entrepreneurial opportunity to attract patients to South Africa for treatment and recuperative holidays. However, effective demand for intra-African medical tourism could be constrained by sub-Saharan poverty. Results from interviewing 320 patients and five staff at the Johannesburg Breast care Centre of Excellence, however, reject this proposition, Africa's middle class women being the target market estimated to grow annually by one million while breast cancer incidence increases with middle-class lifestyles. Uncovering this potential involves an extensive marketing strategy. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Plot and irony in childbirth narratives of middle-class Brazilian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dougherty, Maureen

    2013-03-01

    Brazil's rate of cesarean deliveries is among the highest in the world and constitutes the majority of childbirths in private hospitals. This study examines ways middle-class Brazilian women are exercising agency in this context. It draws from sociolinguistics to examine narrative structure and dramatic properties of 120 childbirth narratives of 68 low- to high-income women. Surgical delivery constituted 62% of the total. I focus on 20 young middle-class women, of whom 17 had C-sections. Doctors determined mode of childbirth pre-emptively or appeared to accommodate women's wishes, while framing the scenario as necessitating surgical delivery. The women strove to imbue C-section deliveries with value and meaning through staging, filming, familial presence, attempting induced labor, or humanized childbirth. Their stories indicate that class privilege does not lead to choice over childbirth mode. The women nonetheless struggle over the significance of their agency in childbirth. © 2013 by the American Anthropological Association.

  17. Queering the spinsters: single middle-class women in Norway, 1880-1920.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellesund, Tone

    2008-01-01

    Constituting what may be called "a community of spinsters," Norwegian middle-class unmarried woman played an important role in undermining and destabilizing the heterosexual cultural matrix during the period 1880-1920. In their anti-sexuality, self-sufficiency and hatred of men the spinsters challenged the heteronormativity of the period, and their queerness still presents a challenge to the harmony-oriented, heteromormative Norwegian women's history.

  18. Was Africa Rising? Narratives of Development Success and Failure among the Mozambican Middle Class

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Andrew Richard

    2017-01-01

    In the 2000s and 2010s a narrative of ‘Africa Rising’ was popularised by businesses, donors, media and political leaders. High economic growth rates, increased investment from the BRICS and the export of natural resources supported claims of development success. One group held up as beneficiaries were the emerging African middle class. Despite the optimism, poverty ratios remained stable and impoverishment was widespread. Change was occurring, but the gains were uneven. Mozambique had a liber...

  19. Navigating Polycentric Governance from a Citizen’s Perspective: The Rising New Middle Classes Respond

    OpenAIRE

    Fowler, Alan; Biekart, Kees

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractA global growth in the middle class is anticipated to influence development choices and the evolution of domestic polities associated with a ‘rising‘ South. Responding to the local effects of a multipolar world order will add to a citizen’s existing need to navigate national polycentrism. Exploration of this citizen-centric phenomenon introduces a new, comprehensive analytic framework that combines public with private governance, the latter categorised as modern, traditional a...

  20. Cardiovascular risk factors in a Mexican middle-class urban population. The Lindavista Study. Baseline data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaney, Alejandra; Ceballos-Reyes, Guillermo; Gutiérrez-Salmean, Gabriela; Samaniego-Méndez, Virginia; Vela-Huerta, Agustín; Alcocer, Luis; Zárate-Chavarría, Elisa; Mendoza-Castelán, Emma; Olivares-Corichi, Ivonne; García-Sánchez, Rubén; Martínez-Marroquín, Yolanda; Ramírez-Sánchez, Israel; Meaney, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this communication is to describe the cardiovascular risk factors affecting a Mexican urban middle-class population. A convenience sample of 2602 middle class urban subjects composed the cohort of the Lindavista Study, a prospective study aimed to determine if conventional cardiovascular risks factors have the same prognosis impact as in other populations. For the baseline data, several measurements were done: obesity indexes, smoking, blood pressure, fasting serum glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-c, LDL-c and triglycerides. This paper presents the basal values of this population, which represents a sample of the Mexican growing urban middle-class. The mean age in the sample was 50 years; 59% were females. Around 50% of the entire group were overweighed, while around 24% were obese. 32% smoked; 32% were hypertensive with a 20% rate of controlled pressure. 6% had diabetes, and 14% had impaired fasting glucose; 66% had total cholesterol ≥ 200 mg/dL; 62% showed HDL-c levels150 mg/dL, and 34% levels of LDL-c ≥ 160 mg/dL. Half of the population studied had the metabolic syndrome. These data show a population with a high-risk profile, secondary to the agglomeration of several cardiovascular risk factors. Copyright © 2012 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  1. Sex differences in obesity, dietary habits, and physical activity among urban middle-class Bangladeshis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saquib, Juliann; Saquib, Nazmus; Stefanick, Marcia L; Khanam, Masuma Akter; Anand, Shuchi; Rahman, Mahbubur; Chertow, Glenn M; Barry, Michele; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Cullen, Mark R

    2016-07-01

    The sustained economic growth in Bangladesh during the previous decade has created a substantial middle-class population, who have adequate income to spend on food, clothing, and lifestyle management. Along with the improvements in living standards, has also come negative impact on health for the middle class. The study objective was to assess sex differences in obesity prevalence, diet, and physical activity among urban middle-class Bangladeshi. In this cross-sectional study, conducted in 2012, we randomly selected 402 adults from Mohammedpur, Dhaka. The sampling technique was multi-stage random sampling. We used standardized questionnaires for data collection and measured height, weight, and waist circumference. Mean age (standard deviation) was 49.4 (12.7) years. The prevalence of both generalized (79% vs. 53%) and central obesity (85% vs. 42%) were significantly higher in women than men. Women reported spending more time watching TV and spending less time walking than men (pmiddle-class Bangladeshis than previous urban estimates, and the burden of obesity disproportionately affects women. Future research and public health efforts are needed to address this severe obesity problem and to promote active lifestyles.

  2. THE MIDDLE CLASS IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA: DETERMINANT FACTORS OF FORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila MALCOCI

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The research of the middle class formation process in the Republic of Moldova is of majorimportance, as it allows to identify its main elements and the possibilities of formation under the currentconditions. The article presents the results of the sociological study on the premises of the middle classformation in the Republic of Moldova, carried out during June-September 2016. The results from thisstudy show that the society is distributed in 6 social strata that vary by socio-professional status, level ofeducation and level of wellbeing. The status inconsistency and low level of status crystallisation arecharacteristics for all strata within the conditions of dysfunctionality of logical chain: education-socialoccupational status-welfare. As per the research, the process of classes’ formation is just at the initialstage in the Republic of Moldova. The analysis of the social strata in terms of middle class criteria: highsocio professional status, high education level, high level of welfare, shows some prospects of formationof the middle class in the upper strata within the following conditions: development of wage policies;reforming tax policies by promoting the progressive taxation of income; ensuring equitable distribution ofwages according to work; elimination of corruption in power structures; improving legislation; ensuringaccess of the population to decision – making process; creating favourable conditions for development ofsmall and medium business; development of a transparent environment for the market economy; guarantyof fair conditions to population to ensure access to education and health services.

  3. Food, eating and taste: parents' perspectives on the making of the middle class teenager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backett-Milburn, Kathryn C; Wills, Wendy J; Roberts, Mei-Li; Lawton, Julia

    2010-10-01

    This paper reports findings from a qualitative study of views and understandings of dietary practices in middle class families. Thirty five parents/main food providers of boys and girls aged 13/14 years, living in Eastern Scotland, were interviewed about their and their teenagers' everyday lives, food, health and family practices. One of our aims was to understand more about the social and cultural conditions which might be promoting more positive dietary health and physical well-being amongst middle class families. Most parents' accounts appeared rooted in a taken-for-grantedness that family members enjoyed good health, lived in relatively secure and unthreatening environments regarding health and resources, and were able to lead active lives, which they valued. Although controlling teenagers' eating practices was presented as an ongoing challenge, active supervision and surveillance of their diets was described, as was guiding tastes in 'the right direction'. Parents described attempts to achieve family eating practices such as commensality, cooking from scratch, and encouraging a varied and nutritional 'adult' diet and cosmopolitan tastes, though work and activities could compromise these. These middle class families might be characterized as having future oriented 'hierarchies of luxury and choice', in which controlling and moulding teenagers' food practices and tastes was assigned a high priority.

  4. ANTECEDENTS AND CONSEQUENCES OF HOUSEHOLD FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT IN BRAZILIAN LOWER-MIDDLE-CLASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Miotto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Through two complementary and exploratory studies – one qualitative and one quantitative – this research aims to understand the ways in which lower-middle-class families in Brazil manage their household finances. The study proposes an integrated framework that brings together various previously disconnected theoretical fragments. Based on a survey with a sample of 165 lower-middle-class female consumers of a retail company in São Paulo, we explored and tested, via a quantitative study, how antecedents such as personal characteristics affect the financial management process, as well as its consequences, either negatively as defaults or positively as savings. The model calibration and analysis were derived from a series of regression analyses. The results revealed the mediator role that financial management plays in the relationship between personal characteristics and defaults and savings. Compared to previous studies with consumers of more affluent countries, we identified peculiar findings among Brazilian lower-middle-class consumers: inadequate attention to control, weak or no focus on short- or long-range planning, widespread absence of budget surplus, and influence of critical events on episodes of default.

  5. Social class and body weight among Chinese urban adults: the role of the middle classes in the nutrition transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnefond, Céline; Clément, Matthieu

    2014-07-01

    While a plethoric empirical literature addresses the relationship between socio-economic status and body weight, little is known about the influence of social class on nutritional outcomes, particularly in developing countries. The purpose of this article is to contribute to the analysis of the social determinants of adult body weight in urban China by taking into account the influence of social class. More specifically, we propose to analyse the position of the Chinese urban middle class in terms of being overweight or obese. The empirical investigations conducted as part of this research are based on a sample of 1320 households and 2841 adults from the China Health and Nutrition Survey for 2009. For the first step, we combine an economic approach and a sociological approach to identify social classes at household level. First, households with an annual per capita income between 10,000 Yuan and the 95th income percentile are considered as members of the middle class. Second, we strengthen the characterization of the middle class using information on education and employment. By applying clustering methods, we identify four groups: the elderly and inactive middle class, the old middle class, the lower middle class and the new middle class. For the second step, we implement an econometric analysis to assess the influence of social class on adult body mass index and on the probability of being overweight or obese. We use multinomial treatment regressions to deal with the endogeneity of the social class variable. Our results show that among the four subgroups of the urban middle class, the new middle class is the only one to be relatively well-protected against obesity. We suggest that this group plays a special role in adopting healthier food consumption habits and seems to be at a more advanced stage of the nutrition transition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Public foetal images and the regulation of middle-class pregnancy in the online media: a view from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, Catriona; Howell, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonography images and their derivatives have been taken up in a range of 'public' spaces, including medical textbooks, the media, anti-abortion material, advertising, the Internet and public health facilities. Feminists have critiqued the personification of the foetus, the bifurcation of the woman's body and the reduction of the pregnant woman to a disembodied womb. What has received less attention is how these images frequently intersect with race, class, gender and heteronormativity in the creation of idealised and normative understandings of pregnancy. This paper focuses on the discursive positioning of pregnant women as 'mothers' and foetuses as 'babies' in online media targeted at a South African audience, where race and class continue to intersect in complex ways. We show how the ontologically specific understandings of 'mummies' and 'babies' emerge through the use of foetal images to construct specific understandings of the 'ideal' pregnancy. In the process, pregnant women are made responsible for ensuring that their pregnancy conforms to these ideals, which includes the purchasing of the various goods advertised by the websites. Not only does this point to a commodification of pregnancy, but also serves to reinforce a cultural understanding of White, middle-class pregnancy as constituting the normative 'correct' form of pregnancy.

  7. Caught in the Middle: Some in Canada’s Middle Class are Doing Well; Others Have Good Reason to Worry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Cross

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available It is sometimes difficult to tell which group is more distressed about the purportedly deteriorating well-being of Canada’s middle class: Politicians courting middle-class voters, or the Canadians who actually identify as middle class. Even more difficult to discern is whether either group truly understands precisely who it is they are worrying about. There is no firm consensus on where the upper and lower boundaries of the middle class lie, with economists and statisticians disagreeing on the income levels and brackets that should be included in the definition of middle class, and some even arguing that income itself may be an inappropriate measure (preferring instead, for instance, consumption and lifestyle. And yet, despite all the conflicting approaches to measuring the middle class, what emerges from a review of the array of definitions and data sources is that the politicians and voters can at least partly justify their angst. While the middle class has seen its income grow, it has not kept pace with the income growth rate of higherearning groups. But not all members of the so-called middle class face the same plight. The workers who have lost the most ground relative to higher-income groups, are those with below-average human capital (that is, lower skill and education, and are at the lower end of the middle-income bracket. The largest source of downward pressure on middle-class incomes has been the decline of Canada’s manufacturing industry. Beginning in the postwar years, factory jobs developed a misplaced reputation for being well-paying middleclass work. In fact, the work provided generous pay and benefits only relative to the low human capital that was necessary to find employment in manufacturing. As manufacturing has declined across all industrialized countries, lower-skilled workers have been forced to accept lower rates of income growth. Meanwhile, more gains have been made by those with high levels of human capital. Public

  8. Identify the consumption patterns of the second generation Chinese middle class. Does culture influence their consumption habits?

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Kim Man

    2012-01-01

    Background: The 1978 political social reform in China has led to the emergence of the rapid and fast growing urban ‘middle class’ population. With the rise of the large population of middle class consumers, global market developers and opportunists are targeting this group of people to maximize their profits in developing countries. This research aimed to identify the consumption patterns of the second generation Chinese middle class and to investigate if their unique Chinese culture influenc...

  9. George Augustus Sala and the English Middle-Class View of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Blake

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1850 the journalist George Augustus Sala appealed to the perceived moral superiority of the English middle classes by satirising American slavery and Southern slave-owners. When Sala first visited America in 1863, as Special Correspondent for the 'Daily Telegraph' during the Civil War, his articles were some of the most pro-slavery, pro-Southern and anti-Union pieces the English public had read. Sala attacked all aspects of Northern life, disputed the North’s reasons for war, criticised their treatment of free blacks and maintained that claims of barbarity towards slaves in the South had been grossly exaggerated. Despite his previous pronouncements, Sala returned to America for the 'Telegraph' in 1879 and was greeted favourably wherever he went. He declared that he had been a ‘fool’ for supporting the wrong side during the Civil War but still maintained that African-Americans had been better off under the slave-system and that they were incapable of practising self-government. He observed that America was now ‘a wonderful country and a wonderful people.’ Although hitherto neglected in scholarly debates on Anglo-American relations in the nineteenth century, this paper will highlight Sala’s importance in this context, not least because of the large readership he commanded. As a journalist for the newspaper with the largest daily circulation in the world, Sala’s fluctuating and controversial opinions on America were read by some 250,000 middle class English men and women every day. This essay will also question to what extent Sala’s changing perceptions of America were influenced by the contemporary racial discourse of other middle-class commentators like Thomas Carlyle, Charles Dickens and Richard Burton, and by events like the Governor Eyre Affair. Using recent scholarship in the field of racial theory by critics including Catherine Hall, Robert Young and Tim Barringer, this paper will reassess English middle-class views on

  10. Paradoxes of Social Rise. The Expansion of Middle Classes and the Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Deutschmann

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The article views the current financial crisis from the background of long term socio-economic changes in advanced industrial societies. Central points are the rise of middle classes, the accumulation of financial wealth in the upper strata of middle classes in combination with an increasing concentration of financial assets at the level of the top rich, and the advance of pension and investment funds as collective actors at financial markets. The paper analyses the interconnections between these developments in the framework of a multilevel model, culminating in the thesis of a collective “Buddenbrooks”-effect: a structural upward mobility of society will lead to an increasing imbalance at capital markets because a strongly rising volume of financial assets searching profitable investment opportunities will go parallel with a decline of the social reservoir of solvent entrepreneurial debtors. Therefore, advanced industrial economies are faced with chronic excess liquidity and export surpluses at capital markets, leading to the build-up of speculative bubbles and subsequent crashes. The author argues that the present crisis cannot be understood properly without taking account of these backgrounds.

  11. When Mothers and Fathers Are Seen as Disproportionately Valuing Achievements: Implications for Adjustment Among Upper Middle Class Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciciolla, Lucia; Curlee, Alexandria S.; Karageorge, Jason; Luthar, Suniya S.

    2016-01-01

    High achievement expectations and academic pressure from parents have been implicated in rising levels of stress and reduced well-being among adolescents. In this study of affluent, middle-school youth, we examined how perceptions of parents' emphasis on achievement (relative to prosocial behavior) influenced youth's psychological adjustment and school performance, and examined perceived parental criticism as a possible moderator of this association. The data were collected from 506 (50% female) middle school students from a predominately white, upper-middle-class community. Students reported their perceptions of parents' values by rank ordering a list of achievement- and prosocial-oriented goals based on what they believed was most valued by their mothers and fathers for them (the child) to achieve. The data also included students' reports of perceived parental criticism, internalizing symptoms, externalizing symptoms, and self-esteem, as well as school-based data on grade point average and teacher-reported classroom behavior. Person-based analyses revealed six distinct latent classes based on perceptions of both mother and father emphases on achievement. Class comparisons showed a consistent pattern of healthier child functioning, including higher school performance, higher self-esteem, and lower psychological symptoms, in association with low to neutral parental achievement emphasis, whereas poorer child functioning was associated with high parental achievement emphasis. In variable-based analyses, interaction effects showed elevated maladjustment when high maternal achievement emphasis coexisted with high (but not low) perceived parental criticism. Results of the study suggest that to foster early adolescents' well-being in affluent school settings, parents focus on prioritizing intrinsic, prosocial values that promote affiliation and community, at least as much as, or more than, they prioritize academic performance and external achievement; and strive to limit

  12. Hegemonic developments: the new Indian middle class, gendered subalterns, and diasporic returnees in the event of neoliberalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Amy; Murty, Madhavi; Ramamurthy, Priti

    2010-01-01

    The "new middle class" as a political construct is valuable for feminist theorizations of international political economy, particularly those concerned with development. The rise of the new middle class is usually juxtaposed with neoliberalism, so we offer a new theorization of neoliberalism-as-event and analyze an array of new-middle-class signs and subjects in India. Questioning the repetition of the figure of the new Indian woman in resolving the sociotemporal and spatiotemporal paradoxes of the nation, we argue, first, that the figure of the subaltern woman is a necessary counter to the new Indian woman. The arrival of the gendered subaltern on the national stage is celebrated through discourses that articulate and disarticulate the subaltern woman and bear the traces of subaltern struggles. Her gendered body constitutes the line between who can be new middle class and at the vanguard of neoliberal development and who cannot. Second, we argue that new-middle-class formation is taking place in the households of diasporic returnees through class practices that involve speaking to and for domestic servants. Returnees hold in tension urges to encourage class mobility and to discipline their servants through neoliberal governmentalities that draw on global discourses of corporate responsibility, professionalism, and empowerment. These development scripts are interspersed with reflections on the poor material conditions of domestic service work. The implications of this article for feminist theorizations of international political economy are methodological, analytical, and political.

  13. Middle Classes in China: Force for Political Change or Guarantee of Stability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Tomba

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at the factors that contributed to the production of a Chinese middle class during the reform period and to the role that a growing group of big spenders and consumers play for China’s economic growth and political stability. It argues that a dramatic status enhancement for wage-earning Chinese professionals was among the major determinants of social change in the late 1990s and that this process happened despite the market more than because of it. The ongoing development of a high-consuming urban society in China has been as much the outcome of the social engineering project of the contemporary reformist state and its agencies as it has been a consequence of the opening up of the economy and society.

  14. Gendered power in cultural contexts: Part II. Middle class African American heterosexual couples with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowdery, Randi S; Scarborough, Norma; Knudson-Martin, Carmen; Seshadri, Gita; Lewis, Monique E; Mahoney, Anne Rankin

    2009-03-01

    When race and gender intersect, understanding gendered power may be complicated. The authors first describe the historical context that serves as important background for understanding gender and power in heterosexual African American relationships. Then they show how family solidarity in the face of social injustices often overrides gender equality as a goal for middle class African American couples with young children. The findings illustrate pragmatic equality within couple relationships and the willful suspension of gender roles for the well-being of the family as a whole. However, gendered power impacts couples in a variety of ways. Sometimes a woman's fear that the man might leave, for example, diminished her power in the relationship. Often a woman accommodated a man's greater power in the family because of her perception that he was often denied power in the larger society. Societal discrimination of women was less visible to couples. Implications for practice are provided.

  15. Social class differences in self, attribution, and attention: socially expansive individualism of middle-class Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Nicholas A; Kitayama, Shinobu; Nisbett, Richard E

    2009-07-01

    Although U.S. culture strongly sanctions the ideal of independence, the specific ways in which independence is realized may be variable depending, among other factors, on social class. Characterized by relative scarcity of social and material resources, working-class (WC) Americans were expected to strongly value self-reliance. In contrast, with choices among abundant resources, middle-class (MC) Americans were expected to value personal control and social expansiveness. In support of this analysis, relative to their WC counterparts, MC Americans reported more support from friends and greater likelihood of giving and receiving advice but less self-reliance (Study 1). Furthermore, we found evidence that this social difference has cognitive consequences: College students with MC backgrounds were more likely than their WC counterparts were to endorse situational attributions for others' behavior (Studies 2a and 2b) as well as to show holistic visual attention (Study 3).

  16. Middle-class household food providers' views and experiences of food marketing in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Quynh Th; Worsley, Anthony

    2016-12-01

    Food marketing has been identified as a target for intervention in the prevention of childhood overweight and obesity within countries and globally, and promotion of healthy diets has been classified as a key strategy to reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases and health inequalities. The present study aims to investigate how Vietnamese middle-class household food providers are impacted by food advertising communications, their views of food marketing and the ways they think the government can control food marketing to assist people to consume healthier diets. 810 household food providers participated in the online survey. Frequency counts were calculated using IBM SPSS version 21. Many respondents had been exposed to food marketing; 82.8% had seen food advertising in magazines at least once a month, 65.1% had received free food samples in public places, 68.0% had received food advertising information via email. Many household food providers appeared to support food marketing; 73.3% approved of nutrition education in schools or on television being provided by soft drink or fast food companies, 63.7% supported the marketing of infant formula milk. There were mixed views about what actions the government could implement to control food marketing; 88.2% supported clearer food content on food labels, 84.1% believed that children should learn how to purchase and cook foods at school. A substantial majority of Vietnamese middle-class household food providers appeared unaware of the adverse effects of food marketing. Education and policy leadership in food and nutrition are urgently required.

  17. DOWNSIZING TO CORPORATE ANOREXIA WHILE DISMANTLING THE MIDDLE CLASS: ARE WE IN DANGER OF RECREATING THE 1920S?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Winpenny

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporate downsizing has run rampant on the American scene during the 1990s. Indeed, Business Week claimed it had become a fad. Ironically, the new “lean and mean” look did not apply to CEO compensation packages. More critically, corporate downsizing hurt middle class purchasing power. The Big Lie that emerged from this was that America could dismantle the middle class and have a booming economy. Much of this reasoning sounds, sadly enough, like the thinking so prevalent in the 1920s.

  18. Public Education: A Route into Lebanon’s Middle Class in the 1960s and Early 1970s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Zbib

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In Lebanon during the 1960s, public education became more accessible to members of the lower classes and different sectarian denominations, after a time when education had been, to a large extent, a privilege of upper- and middle-class Christians. This paper examines the socioeconomic conditions of public school teachers as a result of this process. Using Bourdieusian analysis, I argue that these teachers used cultural capital acquired through free education to become part of a rising professional middle class. To a large extent, these teachers’ definition of their own social positions and roles was a result of their individual histories and internalized values.

  19. Taking tea in the parlour: middle-class formation and gender construction in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, 1760-1850

    OpenAIRE

    Poole, Ann Judith

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of tea etiquette was a significant marker of middle-class gentility and contributed to middle-class formation and gender construction in colonial Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Early middle-class settlers brought tea ware and employed the tea ritual to set standards of gentility that determined social inclusion or exclusion. Tea drinking shifted from a predominantly masculine activity in the late eighteenth century, as commercial and political men met in their parlours over tea, to ...

  20. Making the Invisible More Visible: Home Literacy Practices of Middle-Class and Working-Class Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthey, Sarah J.

    1997-01-01

    Interviews with eight families showed that literacy materials and goals for using literacy differed between middle and working class families, with middle class families drawing on more resources to learn about the child's classroom. However, all families expressed value for literacy activities, challenging the myth that working-class families do…

  1. Middle-class mythology and the Houdini disappearing act: health care and jobs joined at the hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrle, Lynn Howard; Cleveland, Robert W

    2010-01-01

    Myths have long legs. Once they become integrated into the cultural ethos they are almost impossible to dislodge. The Middle Class Myth is a case in point. Spoken of in reverential terms, the conventional wisdom holds that the U.S. economy is driven by a vast middle class, anchoring its consumer-driven system of goods and services. But contrary to frequent statements by pundits, politicians, and many economists, the middle class has actually disappeared. Another commonly held myth--that the United States has the best health care system in the world--is perpetuated by medical leaders and the mainstream media. Despite huge worker layoffs causing 50 million to be without health insurance, and millions more who are underinsured, the myth persists. A third myth, one currently in vogue among media pundits and politicians, is that health care and jobs are two separate issues and policymakers can deal with them as unrelated to each other, when in reality they are inextricably interwoven--the connective tissue of a physically and mentally robust workforce. The authors use Census Bureau after-tax income and Federal Reserve data to demonstrate that the middle class has disappeared, leaving millions of Americans with little disposable income, meager savings, and no health care safety net.

  2. Race/Ethnicity and Social Capital among Middle- and Upper-Middle-Class Elementary School Families: A Structural Equation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Stephen J.; Cornigans, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This study used structural equation modeling to conduct a first and second order confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of a scale developed by McDonald and Moberg (2002) to measure three dimensions of social capital among a diverse group of middle- and upper-middle-class elementary school parents in suburban New York. A structural path model was…

  3. Early Talk About the Past Revisited: Affect in Working-Class and Middle-Class Children's Co-Narrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Lisa K.; Miller, Peggy J.

    1999-01-01

    Investigated personal storytelling among young working-class and middle-class children, observing them at home at age 2; age 6 and 3; and under-one year. Analysis of generic properties, narrative content, and emotion talk revealed a complex configuration of similarities and differences. Differentiation between working-class and middle-class…

  4. Perceptions of Middle-Class Mothers of Their Children with Special Needs Participating in Motor and Sport Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Dana; Rimmerman, Arie

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory research studied middle-class mother's primary reason for registering their young children, mean age 6.9 years, in adapted motor and sports programs and their perceptions of their children upon entering the program and upon completion. Analyses also examined the possible relationship between mothers' age, education or children's…

  5. Socialization Environments of Chinese and Euro-American Middle-Class Babies: Parenting Behaviors, Verbal Discourses and Ethnotheories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Heidi; Abels, Monika; Borke, Jorn; Lamm, Bettina; Su, Yanjie; Wang, Yifang; Lo, Wingshan

    2007-01-01

    Children's socialization environments reflect cultural models of parenting. In particular, Euro-American and Chinese families have been described as following different socialization scripts. The present study assesses parenting behaviors as well as parenting ethnotheories with respect to three-month-old babies in middle-class families in Los…

  6. Step-change: how micro-entrepreneurs enter the upcoming middle-class market in developing and emerging countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babah Daouda, Falylath

    2017-01-01

    In developing and emerging (D&E) countries, the large number of poor people, most of whom are female, earn a living based on small-scale self-employed units established in subsistence marketplaces in the large informal sector. With the recent rise of middle-classes in developing and emerging

  7. Feeding Practices and Expectations among Middle-Class Anglo and Puerto Rican Mothers of 12-Month-Old Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Pamela A.; Harwood, Robin L.; Schoelmerich, Axel

    2001-01-01

    Investigated differences in beliefs and practices about infant feeding among middle class Anglo and Puerto Rican mothers. Interviews and observations indicated that Anglo mothers reported earlier attainment of self-feeding and more emphasis on child rearing goals related to self-maximization. Puerto Rican mothers reported later attainment of…

  8. Disparities in Prevalence of Cardiometablic Risk Factors in Rural, Urban-Poor, and Urban-Middle Class Women in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu Mohan

    Full Text Available Urbanization is an important determinant of cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. To determine location-based differences in CVD risk factors in India we performed studies among women in rural, urban-poor and urban middle-class locations.Population-based cross-sectional studies in rural, urban-poor, and urban-middle class women (35-70 y were performed at multiple sites. We evaluated 6853 women (rural 2616, 5 sites; urban-poor 2008, 4 sites; urban middle-class 2229, 11 sites for socioeconomic, lifestyle, anthropometric and biochemical risk factors. Descriptive statistics are reported.Mean levels of body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio (WHR, systolic BP, fasting glucose and cholesterol in rural, urban-poor and urban-middle class women showed significantly increasing trends (ANOVAtrend, p 80 cm (28.3, 63.4, 61.9%, waist >90 cm (8.4, 31.4, 38.2%, waist hip ratio (WHR >0.8 (60.4, 90.7, 88.5, WHR>0.9 (13.0, 44.3, 56.1%, hypertension (31.6, 48.2, 59.0% and hypercholesterolemia (13.5, 27.7, 37.4% (Mantel Haenszel X2 ptrend <0.01. Inverse trend was observed for tobacco use (41.6, 19.6, 9.4%. There was significant association of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes with overweight and obesity (adjusted R2 0.89-0.99.There are significant location based differences in cardiometabolic risk factors in India. The urban-middle class women have the highest risk compared to urban-poor and rural.

  9. Love and desire amongst middle-class Gujarati Indians in the UK and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twamley, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes findings from an ethnographic study exploring understandings of love and intimacy amongst young heterosexual middle-class Indians of Gujarati origin in the UK and India. A two-site comparative study was used to enable an understanding of how social and economic contexts shape cultural constructions of intimate relationships and sexuality. Focusing on attitudes to 'love at first sight', this paper shows that, for Indian participants, love based on physical attraction denotes a lesser kind of love. A relationship based on 'physical love' is not expected to last, since it has been formed without regard to family and status concerns. Even couples who meet outside of the arranged marriage system demonstrate the quality of their love by not having sex with one another before marriage. In the UK, however, participants view love as properly spontaneous. Love at first sight is considered desirable and demonstrates how the relationship must be based on love only, without any concern for (for example) material gain. This spontaneous love entails both physical attraction and emotional connection - an early transition to sex, usually before marriage, was seen as both desirable and inevitable.

  10. Reaching out to the American middle class: Peggy Noonan’s conservatism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc BENOIT A LA GUILLAUME

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Parmi les idéologues qui popularisent les idées conservatrices auprès du grand public, Peggy Noonan occupe une place intéressante. Moins extrémiste que Rush Limbaugh ou Ann Coulter, elle exprime les angoisses et les espoirs des Reagan Democrats, ces Américains moyens devenus conservateurs depuis les années 80. Cet article analyse les ambivalences d’un discours qui entre en résonance avec celles d’une partie de la classe moyenne américaine.Since the 1990s, Peggy Noonan’s writings have translated conservative ideas into articles and bestselling books for the wider American public. In a less abrasive way than Rush Limbaugh or Ann Coulter, she expresses the hopes and fears of the Reagan Democrats. This article analyzes Noonan’s ambivalent rhetoric, which mirrors the ambivalent attitudes of parts of America’s embattled middle class.

  11. Vocational education and the technical middle class in Spain (1924-1931

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    María Luisa Rico Gómez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, I examine the extent to which technical-professional education during Primo de Rivera´s dictatorship in Spain influenced the creation of a new middle class of technicians by means of the decrees of the Industrial Education Statute of 1924 and the Professional Staff Training Statute of 1928. These initiatives were aimed at the working class and the petty bourgeoisie that were to later become the supporters of the State´s social and corporative system as well as the promoters of the country´s modernization. However, the disconnection between the economic and social reality, on the one hand, and the State´s objectives, on the other hand, led to the failure of these projects that were decisively interrupted by the establishment of the Spanish Second Republic in 1931. In researching this study, I focus on the legislation enacted on this matter and other printed sources including specialized journals of this period, theoretical writings of contemporary authors and abundant archival material on the dynamics of the industrial schools that were created thanks to this new project.

  12. Factors for Formation and Regulation of the Ukrainian Population’s Incomes in the Context of the Middle Class Formation

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    Т. S.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A key criterion for identification of the middle class is income level enabling for the households’ consumption by the socialy acceptable standards. The share of middle class can grow only in parallel with the increasing polulation incomes. The article’s objective is to study incomes of the Ukrainian population in the context of the middle class formation and analyze regulatory mechanisms pertaining to the populations’ incomes and wages in Ukraine. The study is based on the official statistical data for 2012–2016 (population’s incomes and employment, nominal sages in hryvnya and dollar equivelant. The Kaitz index is calculated for Ukraine by data for 2015–2017. An extendive review of the data obtained from the sample survey of householdes on self-assessment of their incomes, conducted in January 2017, is given. The analysis of factors behind the formation of population’s incomes in Ukraine gives evidence of the low life standards in Ukraine, the wide income gap and the threatening scales of poverty. The main source of the population incomes in Ukraine is salary, with the insignificant share of income from property. While the nominal wage was growing year-to-year in 2012–2016, its dollar equivalent reduced twofold. According to the data of the abovemenationed sample survey, only 0.7% of city households and 0.3% of rural ones classified themselves in the middle class. Ukrainian still lacks appropriate mechanisms for regulation of incomes and wages through differentiated taxation of various population strata; the domestic stock market needs to be built in as way to ensure the increasing incomes from property; the rate of minimal wage should be better justified.

  13. The "paradox" of being young in New Delhi : urban middle class youth negotiations with popular Indian film

    OpenAIRE

    Williams-Ørberg, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    This thesis attempts to understand the ways in which popular film is integrated into the everyday lives of urban middle class youth in India. Approaching the study of film through an audience reception approach, I engaged in participant observation and interviews during a fieldwork period in New Delhi in order to better understand how a young audience might negotiate the fantasy of filmic images into the reality of their own lives. The two movies, Salaam Namaste and Kabhi Alvida Naa Kehna (KA...

  14. The Rise of New Urban Middle Classes in Southeast Asia: What is its national and regional significance?

    OpenAIRE

    Takashi Shiraishi

    2004-01-01

    Middle classes in East Asia are a product of regional economic development which has taken place in waves under an American informal empire, over half a century, first in Japan, then in NIEs, then in Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines and now in China. They are a product of developmental states and their politics of economic growth. Their life styles have been shaped in complex ways by their appropriation of things American, Japanese, Chinese, Islamic, and others. Though create...

  15. Public Education: A Route into Lebanon’s Middle Class in the 1960s and Early 1970s

    OpenAIRE

    Youssef Zbib

    2014-01-01

    In Lebanon during the 1960s, public education became more accessible to members of the lower classes and different sectarian denominations, after a time when education had been, to a large extent, a privilege of upper- and middle-class Christians. This paper examines the socioeconomic conditions of public school teachers as a result of this process. Using Bourdieusian analysis, I argue that these teachers used cultural capital acquired through free education to become part of a rising profess...

  16. Nutritional deficiencies in German middle-class male alcohol consumers: relation to dietary intake and severity of liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergheim, I.; Parlesak, Alexandr; Dierks, C.

    2003-01-01

    . SETTING: Southern Germany. SUBJECTS: Seventy-six hospitalized German middle-class alcohol consumers with different stages of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and 22 healthy control subjects. METHODS: Subjects and controls were nutritionally assessed and mineral and vitamin content was measured in blood...... increase in carbohydrates (Pvitamin E, micronutrient intake of alcoholics was equal to that of controls; however, blood vitamin (vitamin C, retinol, lycopene, alpha- and gamma-carotene) and trace element (selenium, zinc) concentrations of alcohol-drinking patients were lower...

  17. A New Middle Class on Old Academic Grounds: Law Students of the Cluj University in the 1930s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pálffy Zoltán

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the main tasks of universities of Central and Eastern Europe is that of forming loyal and reliable citizens ready to fill in the ranks of public service. Educational credentials make for social elevation into the ranks of this peculiarly state-dependent middle class. Law students make the relative majority of those engaged in higher learning in the region all through the first half of the 20th century. Where and when there is an acute need for a new middle class under a new state sovereignty, it is law studies that are notoriously perceived as meant to producing the bulk of it. The University of Cluj in the inter-war period is a case in point. The paper shall put forward a selection of data (from an ample statistical survey of elite formation via upper-level education in Central Europe on this segment of the student population in the 1930s, setting it against a dramatically changed background (the general one and the local one, as traced in secondary sources: how do Romanians cope with the task of producing this new middle class on old grounds, and what are the unwanted side-effects of such state-related social emancipation mechanisms? And how non-Romanians behave in the new situation?

  18. “Battlers” and Their Homes: About Self-Production of Residences Made by the Brazilian New Middle Class

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    Priscilla Nogueira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents preliminary results and qualitative analysis obtained from the doctoral research provisory entitled “How do Brazilian ‘battlers’ reside?”, which is in progress at the Institute for European Urban Studies, Bauhaus University Weimar. It critically discusses the contradictions of the production of residences in Brazil made by an emerging social group, lately called the Brazilian new middle class. For the last ten years, a number of government policies have provoked a general improvement of the purchasing power of the poor. Between those who completely depend on the government to survive and the upper middle class, there is a wide (about 100 million people and economically stable lower middle group, which has found its own ways of dealing with its demand for housing. The conventional models of planning, building and buying are not suitable for their technical, financial and personal needs. Therefore, they are concurrently planners, constructors and residents, building and renovating their own properties themselves, but still with very limited education and technical knowledge and restricted access to good building materials and constructive elements, formal technicians, architects or engineers. On the one hand, the result is an informal and more or less autonomous self-production, with all sorts of technical problems and very interesting and creative spatial solutions to everyday domestic situations. On the other hand, the repercussions for urban space are questionable: although basic infrastructure conditions have improved, building densities are high and green areas are few. Lower middle class neighbourhoods present a restricted collective everyday life. They look like storage spaces for manpower; people who live to work in order to be able to consume—and build—what they could not before. One question is, to what extent the latest economic rise of Brazil has really resulted in social development for lower middle

  19. Work–life balance/imbalance: the dominance of the middle class and the neglect of the working class

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, Tracey

    2015-01-01

    The paper was stimulated by the question of class in work-life debates. The common conclusion from work-life studies is that work-life imbalance is largely a middle class problem. It is argued here that this assertion is a direct outcome of a particular and narrow interpretation of work-life imbalance in which time is seen to be the major cause of difficulty. Labour market time, and too much of it, dominates the conceptualisation of work-life and its measurement too. This heavy focus on a cer...

  20. Is Perceptual Priming Affected by Culture? A Study With German Middle-Class and Cameroonian Nso Farmer Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vöhringer, Isabel Aline; Poloczek, Sonja; Graf, Frauke; Lamm, Bettina; Teiser, Johanna; Fassbender, Ina; Freitag, Claudia; Suhrke, Janina; Teubert, Manuel; Keller, Heidi; Lohaus, Arnold; Schwarzer, Gudrun; Knopf, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The authors explored priming in children from different cultural environments with the aim to provide further evidence for the robustness of the priming effect. Perceptual priming was assessed by a picture fragment completion task in 3-year-old German middle-class and Cameroonian Nso farmer children. As expected, 3-year-olds from both highly diverging cultural contexts under study showed a priming effect, and, moreover, the effect was of comparable size in both cultural contexts. Hence, the children profited similarly from priming, which was supported by the nonsignificant interaction between cultural background and identification performance as well as the analysis of absolute difference scores. However, a culture-specific difference regarding the level of picture identification was found in that German middle-class children identified target as well as control pictures with less perceptual information than children in the Nso sample. Explanations for the cross-cultural demonstration of the priming effect as well as for the culturally diverging levels on which priming occurs are discussed.

  1. Soliciting Performance, Hiding Bias: Whiteness and Librarianship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Galvan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Image by Flickr user tweng (CC BY-SA 2.0 In Brief: Despite the growing body of research on our professional demographics and multi-year diversity initiatives, librarianship in the United States remains overwhelmingly white. I suggest the interview process is a series of repetitive gestures designed to mimic and reinforce white middle class values, which ultimately influence […

  2. Sterilization and birth control in the shadow of eugenics: married, middle-class women in Alberta, 1930-1960s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, Erika

    2014-01-01

    The history of eugenic sterilization connotes draconian images of coerced and involuntary procedures robbing men and women of their reproductive health. While eugenics programs often fit this characterization, there is another, smaller, and less obvious legacy of eugenics that arguably contributed to a more empowering image of reproductive health. Sexual sterilization surgeries as a form of contraception began to gather momentum alongside eugenics programs in the middle of the 20th century and experiences among prairie women serve as an illustrative example. Alberta maintained its eugenics program from 1929 to 1972 and engaged in thousands of eugenic sterilizations, but by the 1940s middle-class married women pressured their Albertan physicians to provide them with sterilization surgeries to control fertility, as a matter of choice. The multiple meanings and motivations behind this surgery introduced a moral quandary for physicians, which encourages medical historians to revisit the history of eugenics and its relationship to the contemporaneous birth control movement.

  3. Child feeding practices in families of working and nonworking mothers of Indonesian middle class urban families: what are the problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshita, Airin; Schubert, Elizabeth; Whittaker, Maxine

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to explore the feeding practices in families of working and nonworking mothers with children (aged 12-36 months) of different nutritional status and types of domestic caregiver in Indonesian urban middle class families. It was designed as a qualitative multiple case study. Mothers and caregivers from 26 families were interviewed in depth, and caregivers were categorized as family and domestic-paid caregivers. The result suggested that offering formula milk to young children was a common practice, and there was a high recognition and familiarity toward a range of formula milk brands. Mothers reported challenges in encouraging their children to eat, and in some cases they appeared to lack knowledge on overcoming their child's feeding problem. The findings suggested the need to address the child feeding problems experienced by mothers in order to overcome the double burden of child nutrition in Indonesia.

  4. Cultural Capital and the Consumption of Cultural Goods: Strategies Used for Status Consumption Among New Middle Class Brazilian Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucivânia Filomeno Ponte

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Holt (1998 investigated the application of  the concept of consumption of cultural products as a means of acquiring status by conducting research in the United States and Turkey (Üstüner & Holt, 2010. This present research was based on this latest study and aimed to study the relationship between the consumption of cultural products and the consumption of status among Brazilian women in the new middle class. It was concluded that the cultural capital acts as a determining factor in the consumption of status, being converted in tastes and consumption practices. The consumption of cultural products is critical to the building of the status strategies, however, the cultural products used may vary according to the greater or lesser cultural capital of the interviewees.

  5. Rural N(SO) and German middle-class mothers' interaction with their 3- and 6-month-old infants: A longitudinal cross-cultural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Bettina; Gudi, Helene; Fassbender, Ina; Freitag, Claudia; Graf, Frauke; Goertz, Claudia; Spangler, Sibylle; Teubert, Manuel; Knopf, Monika; Lohaus, Arnold; Schwarzer, Gudrun; Keller, Heidi

    2015-08-01

    This study aims to analyze culture-specific development of maternal interactional behavior longitudinally. Rural Cameroonian Nso mothers (n = 72) and German middle-class mothers (n = 106) were observed in free-play interactions with their 3- and 6-month-old infants. Results reveal the expected shift from a social to a nonsocial focus only in the German middle-class mothers' play interactions but not the rural Nso mothers' play. Nso mothers continue their proximal interactional style with a focus on body contact and body stimulation, whereas German middle-class mothers prefer a distal style of interaction with increasing object-centeredness. These cultural differences are in line with broader cultural models and become more accentuated as the infants grow older. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. The importance of a child’s education in middle class families [Znaczenie edukacji dziecka w rodzinie z klasy średniej

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    Mirosława NYCZAJ-DRĄG

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The following study proves the thesis that in present-day Polish conditions children’s education does not depend on their intellectual capacity, but it rather depends on the financial background, the social and cultural capital and parent’s social class. In addition, family status and family members contribute to a child’s position in a specific social space. At the beginning I would like to indicate Pierre Bourdieu’s theory as the main basis upon which this study is based, afterwards I present selected conceptions and definitions of the middle class. In the next part I describe the research concerning middle class children’s standard of education. This is the background on which I present the program of self-study and its results. The materials presented show the value which is assigned by parents to their children, their upbringing, and education. In addition, it enables one to analyse the mentality of this specific group of parents and the educational patterns which they use to support their children. The research results and the opinions described in the text lead us to assume that parents from the middle class provide their children with practically unlimited support, which will help them in the future to reconstruct their social status. In general, the main goal of parents from the middle class is to create life chances for their children, so they can succeed in life. The analysis proves that middle class children can count on financial, material, psychological, and public support from their parents. In my paper I elaborate on how much importance middle class parents attach to their children’s education as well as what their expectations and plans related to education are

  7. Social-Class Differences in Consumer Choices: Working-Class Individuals Are More Sensitive to Choices of Others Than Middle-Class Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Jinkyung; McDonough, Ian M; Chan, Micaela Y; Park, Denise C

    2016-04-01

    The present research shows that, when making choices, working-class Americans are more affected by others' opinions than middle-class Americans due to differences in independent versus interdependent self-construal. Experiment 1 revealed that when working-class Americans made decisions to buy products, they were more influenced by the choices of others than middle-class Americans. In contrast, middle-class Americans were more likely to misremember others' choices to be consistent with their own choices. In other words, working-class Americans adjusted their choices to the preference of others, whereas middle-class Americans distorted others' preferences to fit their choices. Supporting our prediction that this social-class effect is closely linked to the independent versus interdependent self-construal, we showed that the differences in self-construal across cultures qualified the social-class effects on choices (Experiment 2). Moreover, when we experimentally manipulated self-construal in Experiment 3, we found that it mediated the corresponding changes in choices regardless of social class. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  8. A classe média no mundo do neoliberalismo Middle classes in the world of neoliberalism

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    Roberto Grün

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available O texto procura dar conta das recentes transformações na maneira como as classes médias brasileiras apreendem e dão sentido à sua vida na esfera econômica. Para isso, utiliza dados e análises de pesquisas sobre transformações em ambientes de trabalho burocráticos, construção de espaços argumentativos dos gerentes, formas tradicionais e mais recentes do pequeno comércio e sobre o também recente fenômeno do desemprego gerencial. Procura entender o problema mediante um estudo de transformações das convenções cognitivas implícitas nas formas de se entender o mundo social e seus reflexos nas vivências da esfera econômica. Da análise emerge um interessante caso de cegueira institucional, onde todas as evidências que põem em xeque a nova ordem são descartadas e onde a antiga divisão das classes médias em estratos assalariados e autônomos tem de ser repensado.The text tries to analyse recent transformations in the manner how the Brazilian middle classes perceive and signify their lives in the economic sphere. For this I make use of dates and analyses produced in researches about the transformations of the bureaucratic-work milieu, about the construction of managers' argumentative spaces, about traditional and more recent forms of the small trade and about the also recent phenomenon of management unemployment. I try to understand the problem based on a study on the transformations of the cognitive conventions inherent to the way people comprehend the social world and experience the consequences of its changes in the economic sphere. The analysis shows that there exists an interesting case of institutional blindness in which all the evidences that threaten the new order are rejected and in which the old division of the middle classes between employed and autonomous strata has to be rethought.

  9. The Camouflaged At-Risk Student: White and Wealthy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Elinor D.

    1993-01-01

    Argues that white, upper-middle-class adolescents are particularly vulnerable to depression, suicide, alcohol/substance abuse, date rape, anxiety, low self-esteem, and eating disorders. Discusses lack of parental involvement and the difficulties wealthy youth have in developing inner resources. Recommends involving students in service projects and…

  10. Planning and implementation of a cardiovascular prevention strategy in a lower middle class community in Pakistan - a preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, K.; Faruqui, A.M.A.; Manolio, T.; Davis, C.E.; Denis, B.H.; Burke, G.L.

    2000-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors (RF) and coronary heart diseases (CHD) are increasing in Pakistan. The National Inst. of Cardiovascular Diseases (NICVD), Karachi, in collaboration with National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) in Bethesda, Maryland, USA, designed a 5-year diet intervention study (MHS) for modification of RF. This was done by education, designed to increase knowledge and attitudes regarding CHD and by modifying the diet in 400 households in Metrovitte, which is a lower middle class community in Karachi. The Department of preventive cardiology of NICVD trained doctors, social workers including volunteers from the community for data collection and recording. The education was imparted in health fairs and home conferences and diet modification was achieved by 14 home visits of social workers over a 28-month period with a final goal of reducing salt by 28% and replacement of ghee with vegetable oils and reducing fat by 33%. Community center was used for data collection and involved demographic, blood pressure, serum cholesterol, hemoglobin and blood glucose data at base line and at screening 11(280) households. All phases of the study have been successfully implemented and results are being analyzed. Various aspects of the methods of implementation are discussed. (author)

  11. 'I don't get this climate stuff!' Making sense of climate change among the corporate middle class in Lagos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiyanbi, Adeniyi P

    2015-11-01

    Public engagement continues to be central to wider efforts to address climate change. This study contributes to public engagement debates by investigating engagement with climate change among an often overlooked group, the corporate middle class in Africa's second largest megacity, Lagos. Combining survey and interviews, I focus analysis on three aspects: awareness, knowledge and concern; role of scientific and social frames in shaping general attitude; and spatial attribution of causes and consequences. The study reveals a universal awareness and high concern about climate change among the respondents, although understanding and perceptions of climate change are significantly socially framed. Social situatedness, more than scientific facts, is the most important definer of overall engagement with climate change. This study thus underscores a nuanced constructionist stance, showing how corporate professionals' 'ways of knowing' climate change is underpinned by a certain co-production between scientific and socio-experiential frames. I highlight implications for research and public engagement with climate change. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. The Expanding Middle Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何伟文

    2004-01-01

    Has the perennial dream finally come true?According to official figures,the answer is yes indeed.At last,the Chinese market is what British colonists and the like were imagining two hundred years ago:enormous.It can,so went the dream,easily be tapped and consequently will bring a boon.Until now though,the dream has not transcended into reality.

  13. Factors affecting nutrition behavior among middle-class adolescents in urban area of Northern region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doyle Eva I.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Brazil has been called a nation in nutrition transitional because of recent increases in the prevalence of obesity and related chronic diseases. With overweight conditions already prevalent among middle-income populations, there exists a need to identify factors that influence nutrition behavior within this group. OBJECTIVE: To address this subject, a research study was implemented among middle-class adolescents attending a large private secondary school in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. The study determined the availability and accessibility of snack foods as well as subjects' attitudes and preferences towards, and the influence of family and friends on healthy (high-nutrient density snack choices. METHODS: The 4-stage process included: (a a nutrition expert focus group discussion that reported local nutrition problems in general and factors related to adolescent nutrition, (b an adolescent pilot survey (n=63 that solicited information about snacking preferences and habits as well as resources for nutrition information and snack money; (c a survey of various area food market sources to determine the availability and accessibility of high nutrient density snacks; and (d a follow-up adolescent survey (n=55 that measured snack food preferences and perceptions about their cost and availability. RESULTS: Results included the finding that, although affordable high nutrient density snacks were available, preferences for low nutrient density snacks prevailed. The adolescents were reportedly more likely to be influenced by and obtain nutrition information from family members than friends. CONCLUSION: From study results it is apparent that a focus on food availability will not automatically result in proper nutritional practices among adolescents. This fact and the parental influence detected are evidence of a need to involve adolescents and their parents in nutrition education campaigns to improve adolescent snack food choices.

  14. Factors affecting nutrition behavior among middle-class adolescents in urban area of Northern region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva I. Doyle

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Brazil has been called a nation in nutrition transitional because of recent increases in the prevalence of obesity and related chronic diseases. With overweight conditions already prevalent among middle-income populations, there exists a need to identify factors that influence nutrition behavior within this group. OBJECTIVE: To address this subject, a research study was implemented among middle-class adolescents attending a large private secondary school in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. The study determined the availability and accessibility of snack foods as well as subjects’ attitudes and preferences towards, and the influence of family and friends on healthy (high-nutrient density snack choices. METHODS: The 4-stage process included: (a a nutrition expert focus group discussion that reported local nutrition problems in general and factors related to adolescent nutrition, (b an adolescent pilot survey (n=63 that solicited information about snacking preferences and habits as well as resources for nutrition information and snack money; (c a survey of various area food market sources to determine the availability and accessibility of high nutrient density snacks; and (d a follow-up adolescent survey (n=55 that measured snack food preferences and perceptions about their cost and availability. RESULTS: Results included the finding that, although affordable high nutrient density snacks were available, preferences for low nutrient density snacks prevailed. The adolescents were reportedly more likely to be influenced by and obtain nutrition information from family members than friends. CONCLUSION: From study results it is apparent that a focus on food availability will not automatically result in proper nutritional practices among adolescents. This fact and the parental influence detected are evidence of a need to involve adolescents and their parents in nutrition education campaigns to improve adolescent snack food choices.

  15. Work-life balance/imbalance: the dominance of the middle class and the neglect of the working class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Tracey

    2015-12-01

    The paper was stimulated by the relative absence of the working class from work-life debates. The common conclusion from work-life studies is that work-life imbalance is largely a middle-class problem. It is argued here that this classed assertion is a direct outcome of a particular and narrow interpretation of work-life imbalance in which time is seen to be the major cause of difficulty. Labour market time, and too much of it, dominates the conceptualization of work-life and its measurement too. This heavy focus on too much labour market time has rendered largely invisible from dominant work-life discourses the types of imbalance that are more likely to impact the working class. The paper's analysis of large UK data-sets demonstrates a reduction in hours worked by working-class men, more part-time employment in working-class occupations, and a substantial growth in levels of reported financial insecurity amongst the working classes after the 2008-9 recession. It shows too that economic-based work-life imbalance is associated with lower levels of life satisfaction than is temporal imbalance. The paper concludes that the dominant conceptualization of work-life disregards the major work-life challenge experienced by the working class: economic precarity. The work-life balance debate needs to more fully incorporate economic-based work-life imbalance if it is to better represent class inequalities. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2015.

  16. Associations of adolescent cannabis use with academic performance and mental health: A longitudinal study of upper middle class youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Madeline H; Hill, Melanie L; Small, Phillip J; Luthar, Suniya S

    2015-11-01

    There is a hypothesis that low socioeconomic status (SES) may explain the link between cannabis use and poorer academic performance and mental health. A key question, therefore, is whether adolescent cannabis use is associated with poorer academic performance and mental health in high SES communities where there is reduced potential for confounding. Youth (n=254) from an upper middle class community were followed prospectively through the four years of high school (from age 14/15 to age 17/18). Past-year frequency of cannabis use was assessed annually. Official school records of academic performance and self-reported mental health symptoms (externalizing and internalizing symptoms) were assessed in grades 9 and 12. Persistent cannabis use across the four years of high school was associated with lower grade-point average (β=-0.18, p=.006), lower Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) score (β=-0.13, p=.038), and greater externalizing symptoms (β=0.29, pgrade, but not with greater internalizing symptoms (β=0.04, p=.53). Moreover, persistent cannabis use was associated with lower grade-point average (β=-0.13, p=.014) and greater externalizing symptoms (β=0.24, p=.002) in 12th grade, even after controlling for 9th grade levels of these outcomes. Similar associations were observed for persistent alcohol and tobacco use. Effects for persistent cannabis use became non-significant after controlling for persistent alcohol and tobacco use, reflecting the difficulties of disentangling effects of cannabis from effects of alcohol and tobacco. Low SES cannot fully explain associations between cannabis use and poorer academic performance and mental health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigation of factors influencing the formation of the middle class on the territory of regions of Capital socio-geographical area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Pereguda

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article stated that to determine the specifics of a middle class it is necessary to apply economic and mathematical methods allowing one to display a certain proportion and sometimes qualitative patterns of distribution of different forms and types of settlement and problems that are investigated. The key components of each factor can be determined based on the analysis of factor analysis and the indicators playing a major role in shaping sets of factors can be shown based on a factor variance. The spatial organization of society in this research study has been noted to have a multi-level character, because it is going to cover the territory within the regions and the accommodation of diverse population on it will include spatial distribution of various types of economic activity and economic indicators. In this study, the special attention has been paid to economic poverty to determine the boundaries of the middle class, and conduction of more accurate inequality of economic indicators in the regions. The regional specifics of the Capital socio-geographical area has been conducted through socio-geographical approach aimed at disclosing the middle class. Based on statistical data systematization, the analysis has been conducted due to the matrix factorization of selected indicators intercorrelation. It has been noted that the study of the middle class from the standpoint of social geography as spatially conditioned phenomenon requires the formulation of methodological regulations, it defines procedures for research highlighting the main stages, and it studies the techniques and methods of forming the system of scientific research to further disclosure issues.

  18. Deferred imitation in 18-month-olds from two cultural contexts: the case of Cameroonian Nso farmer and German-middle class infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchert, Sonja; Lamm, Bettina; Graf, Frauke; Knopf, Monika

    2013-12-01

    Imitative learning has been described in naturalistic studies for different cultures, but lab-based research studying imitative learning across different cultural contexts is almost missing. Therefore, imitative learning was assessed with 18-month-old German middle-class and Cameroonian Nso farmer infants - representing two highly different eco-cultural contexts associated with different cultural models, the psychological autonomy and the hierarchical relatedness - by using the deferred imitation paradigm. Study 1 revealed that the infants from both cultural contexts performed a higher number of target actions in the deferred imitation than in the baseline phase. Moreover, it was found that German middle-class infants showed a higher mean imitation rate as they performed more target actions in the deferred imitation phase compared with Cameroonian Nso farmer infants. It was speculated that the opportunity to manipulate the test objects directly after the demonstration of the target actions could enhance the mean deferred imitation rate of the Cameroonian Nso farmer infants which was confirmed in Study 2. Possible explanations for the differences in the amount of imitated target actions of German middle-class and Cameroonian Nso farmer infants are discussed considering the object-related, dyadic setting of the imitation paradigm with respect to the different learning contexts underlying the different cultural models of learning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Unattainable goals, middle class fantasies: an ethnography of women's work in feminized retail banking in Istanbul, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Topçu, Berra; Topcu, Berra

    2012-01-01

    Drawing from a workplace ethnography among women professionals in the increasingly feminized lower echelons of commercial bank branches (so-called retail banking) in Istanbul, Turkey, this thesis is an examination of women’s affective labor and the construction of white-collar subjectivities. Given the performance criteria of professionalism, productivity, efficiency, and individualism as part of neoliberal discourses for attaining the ideal of the white-collar woman in the retail bank, how a...

  20. Un « Nouvel hygiénisme » ? Le bruit, l’odeur et l’émergence d’une new middle class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Matthey

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available La tentation est grande aujourd’hui d’envisager un « Nouvel hygiénisme » qui façonnerait les espaces urbains et les corps. Cet article défend cependant l’hypothèse que ce qu’il est convenu d’appeler « Nouvel hygiénisme » est en fait un ensemble de pratiques sociales qui reposent sur la consommation ostentatoire et la distinction sociologique d’une classe sociale en ascension (la new middle class.

  1. "It's Almost like a White School Now": Racialised Complexities, Indigenous Representation and School Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddie, Amanda; Niesche, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on a broader study that focused on examining principal leadership for equity and diversity, this paper presents the leadership experiences of "Jane", a White, middle-class principal of a rural Indigenous school. The paper highlights how Jane's leadership is inextricably shaped by her assumptions about race and the political dynamics and…

  2. A Developmental Shift in Black-White Differences in Depressive Affect across Adolescence and Early Adulthood: The Influence of Early Adult Social Roles and Socio-Economic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Justin

    2011-01-01

    This study examined Black-White differences in growth of depressive affect using a longitudinal sample of middle-class, suburban U.S. subjects (n = 956) that spanned from adolescence to early adulthood. Specifically, this study examined whether Black-White differences in growth of depressive affect shift over time, and the extent to which that…

  3. [Food and health risks: views on healthy food and food consumption practices among middle-class women and men in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidin, Betina

    2016-01-01

    In this article we analyze notions about healthy food and the perceptions of risks related to industrialized foodstuffs within a group of young and middle-aged females and males who belong to the middle class and live in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires. Data come from eight focus groups that were carried out in 2013. The study shows that the participants of the focus group have incorporated scientific-nutritional knowledge into their conceptions of healthy food. However, few discuss the risks of industrialized food beyond the growing public attention regarding trans fats and salt content. Although organic foods are positively valued, participants object to their high cost and the location of their commercialization. We show how in their food practices, the participants of the focus groups weigh their concern about health against other priorities such as costs, convenience, aesthetics, pleasure and sociability.

  4. Stigma in an era of medicalisation and anxious parenting: how proximity and culpability shape middle-class parents' experiences of disgrace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Ara

    2012-07-01

    This study examines the stigma experiences of middle-class parents whose children have physical, psychological and behavioural problems. Qualitative interviews with 34 mothers and 21 fathers demonstrate that parents experience two types of stigma: courtesy stigma and the stigma of being a bad parent. While the former stems from close social proximity to stigmatised children, the latter stems from ostensible culpability for children's problems. Both characteristics are social constructs embedded in the larger contexts of an anxious, intensive parenting culture and the problematisation and medicalisation of childhood. As a consequence, mothers, parents whose children have invisible disabilities, and the parents of young children are particularly susceptible to negative labelling. These findings highlight the constructed and political nature of parents' stigmatisation. © 2012 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2012 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Understanding the New Public Outlook on the Economy and Middle-Class Decline: How FDI Attitudes are caught in a Tentative Closing of the Canadian Mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Graves

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available While a single survey is a snapshot of a given moment in time, a series of surveys on the same topics over the years is akin to time-lapse photography, tracing the unfurling trends of public opinion. In examining the results of surveys conducted in recent decades by EKOS Research Associates on Canadians’ views of the economy, the prospects of the middle class, immigration and foreign trade, the time-lapse images show a dispiriting pessimism, especially among younger Canadians. For example, in 2002, nearly 70 per cent of Canadians surveyed described themselves as middle class. That figure dropped precipitously to just 47 per cent in 2015. Nearly half (46 per cent of those aged 25-44 said they were earning less in inflation-adjusted dollars last year than their fathers earned at the same age. Fewer than one in five Canadians believed their personal economic lot improved last year. Thirty-seven per cent of respondents said they had fallen behind economically in the last year and the last five years. When a society sees shared progress as an imperative, it is truly dismal that fewer than one in five Canadians thought things had improved for them last year. Just over a month and a half before the October 2015 federal election, a survey showed that restoring middle-class prosperity was the top issue for all demographic groups, standing at 35 per cent of respondents between the ages of 35 and 49 and 55 per cent among those aged 49 to 64. Accompanying this incipient uneasiness about the future of the middle class in Canada is a concomitant drawing inwards, a tendency towards parochialism about aspects of foreign trade and immigration, which may be perceived as threatening an economic future already considered to be tenuous. For example, support dropped dramatically (from 47 per cent the year before the 2008 recession to 25 per cent last year for the notion that Canadians, Americans and Mexicans should be free to work anywhere in North America. While

  6. A Cultural Reading of a Chinese White-Collar Workplace Bestseller and its Filmic Adaptation: Li Ke’s A Story of Lala’s Promotion and Go Lala Go!

    OpenAIRE

    Shenshen Cai

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, Li Ke’s novel A Story of Lala’s Promotion (Du Lala Shengzhi Ji) became a bestseller among Chinese white-collar workers in foreign-owned (Western) companies and struck a chord with the Chinese middle class. The novel revolves around office politics, Western company culture and the white-collar lifestyle, the ‘shelved ladies’ phenomenon and middle-class aesthetics. To decipher the embedded cultural codes of this book, this study undertakes a textual analysis of the plots of A Story of ...

  7. "Hows" and "Whys" of Parental Involvement in a National "Neoliberal Laboratory": Aspirations, Values and Beliefs in Relation to Children's Education among Chilean Urban Lower-Middle-Class Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Arellano, Marcela

    2017-01-01

    This paper sought to shed light on the beliefs, aspirations and values in relation to education that shape parental ways of involvement among Chilean urban lower-middle-class parents. Using the capability approach as the main theoretical framework and a critical epistemology, the discussion focuses on the way in which the pre-eminence of…

  8. Cultural and School-Grade Differences in Korean and White American Children's Narrative Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Meesook

    2003-03-01

    A great deal of ethnographic research describes different communicative styles in Asian and Western countries. Asian cultures emphasise the listener's role in assuring successful communication, whereas Western cultures place the responsibility primarily on the speaker. This pattern suggests that Asian children may develop higher-level receptive skills and Western children may develop higher-level expressive skills. However, the language of children in formal education may develop in certain ways regardless of cultural influences. The present study quantifies the cultural and school-grade differences in language abilities reflected in middle-class Korean and white American children's story-telling and story-listening activities. Thirty-two Korean first- and fourth-grade children and their American counterparts were individually asked to perform two tasks: one producing a story from a series of pictures, and one involving listening to and then retelling a story. The individual interview was transcribed in their native languages and analysed in terms of ambiguity of reference, the number of causal connectors, the amount of information, and the number of central and peripheral idea units that were included in the story retelling. The data provided some empirical evidence for the effects of culture and school education in children's language acquisition.

  9. Culture versus the law in the decision not to vaccinate children: meanings assigned by middle-class couples in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Carolina Luisa Alves; Couto, Márcia Thereza; Aith, Fernando Mussa Abujamra

    2017-03-09

    This study aimed to learn how middle-class parents in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, interpreted the country's prevailing vaccination requirements, based on their experiences with vaccinating, selectively vaccinating, or not vaccinating their children. A qualitative approach was used with in-depth interviews. The analytical process was guided by content analysis and the theoretical framework of the anthropology of the law and morality. For parents that vaccinated, Brazil's culture of immunization outweighed the feeling of compliance with the law; for selective parents, selection of vaccines was not perceived as deviating from the law. In both, the act of vaccinating their children was a matter of moral status. Meanwhile, the non-vaccinators, counter to the legal perspective, attributed their choice to care for the child on grounds that mandatory vaccination was contrary to their way of life; they experienced a feeling of social coercion and fear of legal impositions. Vaccination is an important practice in public health, but it can reveal tensions and conflicts from normative systems, whether moral, cultural, or legal.

  10. Child-care and feeding practices of urban middle class working and non-working Indonesian mothers: a qualitative study of the socio-economic and cultural environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshita, Airin; Schubert, Elizabeth; Whittaker, Maxine

    2012-07-01

    The double-burden problem of malnutrition in many developing countries is occurring against a backdrop of complex changes in the socio-economic and cultural environment. One such change is the increasing rate of female employment, a change that has attracted researchers to explore the possible relationships between maternal employment and child nutritional status. The present study employs a qualitative approach to explore the socio-economic and cultural environments that may influence child-care practices in families of working and non-working mothers with children of different nutritional status and types of domestic caregiver. It was conducted in Depok, a satellite city of Jakarta, Indonesia, and was designed as a case study involving 26 middle class families. The children were categorized as underweight, normal weight and obese, and caregivers were grouped as family and domestic paid caregivers. Twenty-six mothers and 18 caregivers were interviewed. Data were analysed by the constant comparative approach. The study identified five emerging themes, consisting of reason for working and not working, support for mother and caregivers, decision maker on child food, maternal self-confidence and access to resources. It confirmed that mothers and caregivers need support and adequate resources to perform child-care practices regardless of the child nutritional and maternal working status. Further research is required into how Indonesian mothers across a range of socio-economic strata can have increased options for quality child-care arrangements and support with child feeding. Additionally, this paper discussed the importance of enhanced dissemination of health information addressing both child underweight and obesity problems. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Europe is for being recognized for more than an ethnic background” : middle class British, Dutch and German minority citizens’ perspectives on EU citizenship and belonging to Europe’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike M Vieten

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper pinpoints some crucial themes of European belonging arising in the narratives of minority key activists with various hyphened legal national citi-zenship status, e.g. South Asian Brits, Moroccan-Dutch and Turkish/ Kurd-ish-Germans. The interviews capture how visible minorities’ perspectives on European belonging are influenced by structural racism, but also by national-ly specific discourses of symbolic inclusion or exclusion of ethnic minorities respectively. In this original research project in total 43 key minority activists, men and women and all of middle class social status were interviewed between au-tumn 2009 and summer 2012, e.g. pre-Brexit, in Britain, the Netherlands and Germany. The findings of the study underline ambivalent post-cosmopolitan identities and more contradictory notions of ‘race’ and ‘ethnicity in Britain and the Netherlands, due to specific colonial / post-colonial contexts, and a different use of these categories in Britain and the rest of Europe. The minor-ity citizens interviewed in Germany expressed a more troubled position here as their relationship to the European Union is influenced by their feelings of belonging to Turkey, the latter outside the EU and at the border of Europe. As the ‘new’ citizens interviewed in this sample live in major cities, such as London, Berlin and Amsterdam, individual feelings of belonging to Europe, perceptions of being European and cosmopolitan were very much shaped by the concrete city spaces and a positive identification with metropolitan urban identity.

  12. KELAS MENENGAH, UMNO DAN INTELIGENSIA: TENTANGAN DOMINASI POLITIK BUMIPUTERA ISLAM DI SARAWAK (MIDDLE CLASS, UMNO AND INTELLIGENTSIA: CONTESTING THE MUSLIM BUMIPUTERA'S POLITICAL DOMINATION IN SARAWAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal S. Hazis

    2011-01-01

    contributed to over four decades of domination. Despite this domination, new sources of contestation have emerged, namely the middle class, United Malays National Organisation (UMNO and the intelligentsia. This article analyses the contestation instigated by these forces and its impact on Sarawak politics particularly the leadership of Muslim bumiputera.

  13. Experiences of LGBTQ Students at a Primarily White Institution in the South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Leia Kristin

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, often Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, and/or Questioning (LGBTQ) students are targets of verbal harassment and violence due to their sexual orientation or gender identity and gender expression. Further, 31 states do not offer protection against sexuality- or gender identity-based discrimination (ACLU, 2015).…

  14. How Culture Influences Teacher Self-Reflective Problem Solving Behavior and Self-Efficacy: Experiences of White Female Teachers Working through Relationship with Black Students in a Mid-Western American City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolson, Bonnie Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Teachers make a difference. White female middle-class teachers represent 84 percent of Americas' teachers. How does culture influence the self-reflective problem-solving behaviors of urban teachers? Urban schools fail youth by opening the doors for a mass exodus. The problem solving behavior of urban teachers may contribute to the student exodus…

  15. O significado da experiência escolar para segmentos das camadas médias The meaning of school experience for middle class segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Lelis

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Este texto tem como objetivo revelar o sentido da experiência escolar para jovens de camadas médias, alunos de uma instituição privada confessional, da zona sul da cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Algumas questões serviram de ponto de partida para a pesquisa realizada de 2001 a 2003: como alunos com esse perfil socioeconômico e educacional constroem o seu ofício de estudante? Como articulam as relações com professores e colegas? Que relações estabelecem com as práticas de avaliação e os processos de ensinar e aprender? Relações instrumentais? Relações as quais permitem que os significados de seus grupos de referência aflorem? Que modelos de socialização são veiculados por essas escolas? O foco de análise apoiou-se em algumas das condições de produção e expressão do ofício do aluno como a caracterização socioeconômica das famílias, a trajetória escolar dos estudantes ao longo do ensino fundamental, o papel do estudo em suas vidas e práticas culturais e o lazer dos jovens.The objective of this text is to disclose the meaning of school education for middle class youngsters who are students of a private confessional institution in the South zone of Rio de Janeiro city. Some questions have served as the starting point for the research carried out from 2001 to 2003: How do students with this social, economic, and educational profile frame their role as students? How do they articulate their relationships with teachers and colleagues? What relationships do they establish with evaluation practices and teaching and learning processes? Instrumental relationships? Relationships that allow the meanings of their reference groups to emerge? What socialization models are transmitted by these schools? The focus of the analysis was based on some of the conditions of production and expression of the role of the student as a social and economic characterization of his/her family, the learning path of students along primary school, the

  16. Fora do jogo: a experiência dos negros na classe média brasileira Out of the game: brazilian black middle class experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Figueiredo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abordo neste texto o significado da mobilidade social para empresários negros que fazem parte da classe média, a partir do relato das trajetórias de mobilidade e do significado da cor nesse processo. Ao contrário da maioria dos estudos clássicos sobre o tema, que viam na mobilidade social dos negros um exemplo contundente da não existência do preconceito de cor no Brasil, destaco na análise a forma como o preconceito e a discriminação são percebidos pelos entrevistados. Mas ainda que a maioria deles tenha relatado terem sido vítimas do preconceito racial, as respostas variam muito e nenhum deles relatou ter recorrido à justiça. Por este motivo, tenho insistido no fato de que o reconhecimento ou a percepção que o próprio indivíduo tem acerca de ser alvo do preconceito racial não se traduz, necessariamente, na tomada de uma atitude que consideremos eficaz ou politicamente relevante no combate ao racismo.The article deals with the meaning of social mobility for black entrepreneurs and businessmen that can be considered as part of a middle class. The metodology consists of the study of life careers and the place of colour therein. In spite of most canonical studies pointing out to the simple fact of social mobility for Black Brazilians as the best piece of evidence of the absence of a colour bar in Brazil, I single out the way in which such bar is perceived by the informants. However, even though most of them have experienced racial discrimination, their response to it varies a lot and none ever lodged a legal complaint. My argument is that individual recognition or perception of racial discrimination do not conflate straightforwardly with an actual and effective political stance in the struggle against racism.

  17. Primarily Experimental Results for a W Wire Array Z Pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuai Bin; Aici, Qiu; Wang Liangping; Zeng Zhengzhong; Wang Wensheng; Cong Peitian; Gai Tongyang; Wei Fuli; Guo Ning; Zhang Zhong

    2006-01-01

    Primarily experimental results are given for a W wire array Z pinch imploded with up to 2 MA in 100 ns on a Qiangguang-I pulsed power generator. The configuration and parameters of the generator, the W wire array load assembly and the diagnostic system for the experiment are described. The total X-ray energy has been obtained with a averaged power of X-ray radiation of 1.28 TW

  18. Sustaining white homonormativity: the kids are all right as public pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Tammie M

    2014-01-01

    At a time when lesbian families are experiencing more acceptance, gaining membership into mainstream society often depends on diluting any kind of queer sensibility that might challenge the centrality of white, neoliberal, middle-class values. Although many queer scholars have traced the link between "normativity" and gay and lesbian representations, few have noted how whiteness operates in these depictions. Building on the analyses forwarded by scholarship on white normativity and homonormativity, this article explores how the representation of a lesbian family in the movie The Kids Are All Right promotes white homonormativity to appeal to a mainstream audience. Interrogating Kids… at the intersection of same-sex families and white homonormativity reveals how the film's appeal to universality invokes hegemonic racial hierarchies that mask the ways "normal" conceals power and liberatory progress.

  19. Racializing white drag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhyne, Ragan

    2004-01-01

    While drag is primarily understood as a performance of gender, other performative categories such as race, class, and sexuality create drag meaning as well. Though other categories of identification are increasingly understood as essential elements of drag by performers of color, whiteness remains an unmarked category in the scholarship on drag performances by white queens. In this paper, I argue that drag by white queens must be understood as a performance of race as well as gender and that codes of gender excess are specifically constructed through the framework of these other axes of identity. This essay asks whether white performance by white queens necessarily reinscribes white supremacy through the performance of an unmarked white femininity, or might drag performance complicate (though not necessarily subvert) categories of race as well as gender? In this essay, I will suggest that camp drag performances, through the deployment of class as a crucial category of performative femininity, might indeed be a key site through which whiteness is denaturalized and its power challenged. Specifically, I will read on camp as a politicized mode of race, class and gender performance, focusing on the intersections of these categories of identity in the drag performance of Divine.

  20. White Ring; White ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, H.; Yuzawa, H. [Nikken Sekkei Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1998-01-05

    White Ring is a citizen`s gymnasium used for figure skating and short track speed skating games of 18th Winter Olympic Games in 1998. White Ring is composed of a main-arena and a sub-arena. For the main-arena with an area 41mtimes66m, an ice link can be made by disengaging the potable floor and by flowing brine in the bridged polystyrene pipes embedded in the concrete floor. Due to the fortunate groundwater in this site, well water is used for the outside air treatment energy in 63% during heating and in 35% during cooling. Ammonia is used as a cooling medium for refrigerating facility. For the heating of audience area in the large space, heat load from the outside is reduced by enhancing the heat insulation performance of the roof of arena. The audience seats are locally heated using heaters. For the White Ring, high quality environment is realized for games through various functions of the large-scale roof of the large space. Success of the big event was expected. 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Human punishment is not primarily motivated by inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczyk, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    Previous theorizing about punishment has suggested that humans desire to punish inequality per se. However, the research supporting such an interpretation contains important methodological confounds. The main objective of the current experiment was to remove those confounds in order to test whether generating inequality per se is punished. Participants were recruited from an online market to take part in a wealth-alteration game with an ostensible second player. The participants were given an option to deduct from the other player's payment as punishment for their behavior during the game. The results suggest that human punishment does not appear to be motivated by inequality per se, as inequality that was generated without inflicting costs on others was not reliably punished. Instead, punishment seems to respond primarily to the infliction of costs, with inequality only becoming relevant as a secondary input for punishment decisions. The theoretical significance of this finding is discussed in the context of its possible adaptive value.

  2. Human punishment is not primarily motivated by inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczyk, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    Previous theorizing about punishment has suggested that humans desire to punish inequality per se. However, the research supporting such an interpretation contains important methodological confounds. The main objective of the current experiment was to remove those confounds in order to test whether generating inequality per se is punished. Participants were recruited from an online market to take part in a wealth-alteration game with an ostensible second player. The participants were given an option to deduct from the other player’s payment as punishment for their behavior during the game. The results suggest that human punishment does not appear to be motivated by inequality per se, as inequality that was generated without inflicting costs on others was not reliably punished. Instead, punishment seems to respond primarily to the infliction of costs, with inequality only becoming relevant as a secondary input for punishment decisions. The theoretical significance of this finding is discussed in the context of its possible adaptive value. PMID:28187166

  3. Human punishment is not primarily motivated by inequality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Marczyk

    Full Text Available Previous theorizing about punishment has suggested that humans desire to punish inequality per se. However, the research supporting such an interpretation contains important methodological confounds. The main objective of the current experiment was to remove those confounds in order to test whether generating inequality per se is punished. Participants were recruited from an online market to take part in a wealth-alteration game with an ostensible second player. The participants were given an option to deduct from the other player's payment as punishment for their behavior during the game. The results suggest that human punishment does not appear to be motivated by inequality per se, as inequality that was generated without inflicting costs on others was not reliably punished. Instead, punishment seems to respond primarily to the infliction of costs, with inequality only becoming relevant as a secondary input for punishment decisions. The theoretical significance of this finding is discussed in the context of its possible adaptive value.

  4. Brasil: nova classe média ou novas formas de superexploração da classe trabalhadora? Brazil: new middle class or new ways of overexploiting the working class?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Seibel Luce

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Com base na categoria da superexploração da força de trabalho, formulada no âmbito da teoria marxista da dependência, apresentamos uma crítica à tese de que o Brasil estaria se tornando 'país de classe média' e sustentamos que um contingente substancial dentre o que vem sendo nomeado de 'nova classe média' consiste, na verdade, de trabalhadores - e suas famílias - vivendo em condições de superexploração. O texto encontra-se dividido em três seções. Na primeira, questionamos os pressupostos básicos da tese Brasil, país de classe média. Na segunda, expomos os fundamentos da categoria da superexploração e demonstramos seu incremento nas relações de produção do capitalismo brasileiro na década de 2000. Na terceira, demonstramos como o acesso da população trabalhadora ao consumo de bens duráveis no período recente, antes que a ascensão de uma suposta 'nova classe média', configura uma forma renovada de superexploração. Por fim, salientamos os nexos entre as condições de trabalho, saúde e direitos da classe trabalhadora no Brasil e as tendências do capitalismo mundial, questionando o falso dilema neoliberalismo e neodesenvolvimentismo no debate atual e colocando a real disjuntiva do ponto de vista da emancipação da classe trabalhadora em relação ao poder despótico do capital.Based on the workforce overexploitation category, formulated in the context of the Marxist Theory of Dependence, we critique the thesis that Brazil is becoming 'a middle class nation' and state that a substantial contingent of what has been named the 'new middle class' is, in fact, one of workers - and their families - living in overexploitation conditions. The article is divided into three sections. In the first, we questioned the basic assumptions of the 'Brazil, a middle class nation' thesis. In the second, we explain the fundamentals of the overexploitation category and show how it increased in Brazilian capitalism production

  5. The Whiteness of Climate Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    2011-01-01

    This article examines two major debates in contemporary Australian discourses on the nation: climate change and whiteness studies. It is primarily concerned with establishing a framework for connecting the two discourses, and in that process it raises pivotal questions about how narratives about...

  6. Perceptions of Mindfulness in a Low-income, Primarily African American Treatment-Seeking Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Claire Adams; Houchins, Sean C; Bamatter, Wendy P; Barrueco, Sandra; Hoover, Diana Stewart; Perskaudas, Rokas

    2017-12-01

    Individuals with low socioeconomic status (SES) and members of racial/ethnic minority groups often experience profound disparities in mental health and physical well-being. Mindfulness-based interventions show promise for improving mood and health behaviors in higher-SES and non-Latino White populations. However, research is needed to explore what types of adaptations, if any, are needed to best support underserved populations. This study used qualitative methods to gain information about a) perceptions of mindfulness, b) experiences with meditation, c) barriers to practicing mindfulness, and d) recommendations for tailoring mindfulness-based interventions in a low-income, primarily African American treatment-seeking sample. Eight focus groups were conducted with 32 adults (16 men and 16 women) currently receiving services at a community mental health center. Most participants (91%) were African American. Focus group data were transcribed and analyzed using NVivo 10. A team of coders reviewed the transcripts to identify salient themes. Relevant themes included beliefs that mindfulness practice might improve mental health (e.g., managing stress and anger more effectively) and physical health (e.g., improving sleep and chronic pain, promoting healthier behaviors). Participants also discussed ways in which mindfulness might be consistent with, and even enhance, their religious and spiritual practices. Results could be helpful in tailoring mindfulness-based treatments to optimize feasibility and effectiveness for low-SES adults receiving mental health services.

  7. Audiences, museums and the English middle class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Longhurst

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The increasingly accepted way to analyse any media product is to consider production, text and audience processes. In a deceptively simple way, a television programme, for example, can be examined in the institutional, social and political context in which it is produced and with respect to the organizational framework that provides its immediate production environment. Second, its textual structures and strategies can be analysed using different approaches, such as structuralism or (in certain respects content analysis. Third, the way in which the audience understands (or decodes the text can be considered, as can the makeup of the audience, in terms of standard factors such as class, gender, age, ethnicity and so on. There are many variations on this sort of approach. This paper starts from such a premise. It suggests that in addition to the well formulated approaches to the study of the museum that focus generally on the institutional and wider social context for museums, or on specific museums and the processes that occur within them, or on the much studied strategies for display and narration of texts, the audiences for museums are also important.

  8. Luke's accommodation for middle-class Christians

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cf Lk 11:45-52) and the sense of conflict between Jesus and the Jewish leaders, spe cifically the Pharisees and .... In Luke they connive to 'deliver him up to the authority and jurisdiction of the governor' (Lk 20:20b). ... accord between the two men (Lk 23:12) and the double verdict of not guilty (Lk 23: ISSN0259<)422 -. 91 ...

  9. Sexualidade e gravidez na adolescência entre jovens de camadas médias do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Middle-class teenage sexuality and pregnancy in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Reis Brandão

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Aborda-se a gravidez na adolescência entre jovens de camadas médias, prisma pouco estudado no Brasil. Realizou-se um estudo qualitativo sócio-antropológico com 14 famílias do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, cujos filhos permaneciam solteiros e residindo com os pais, após o nascimento da criança. Foram realizadas 25 entrevistas em profundidade com 6 rapazes e 7 moças entre 18 e 24 anos e seus pais (11 mães e 1 pai, para avaliação retrospectiva da gravidez e de seus impactos na trajetória juvenil e familiar. Três aspectos são analisados: as dificuldades de internalização da norma contraceptiva; a descoberta tardia da gravidez e a tomada de decisão ­ aborto ou reprodução ­ pelos jovens e seus pais. O estudo permitiu configurar a gravidez na adolescência como um evento contingente ao processo de construção da autonomia pessoal em curso nessa fase da vida, no qual a sexualidade tem grande relevância. Conclui-se que o fenômeno precisa ser compreendido em um contexto histórico e cultural específico, distinto de sua ocorrência décadas atrás, pois está marcado pelas regras que organizam o processo de individualização juvenil na contemporaneidade.The subject of this paper is teenage pregnancy among middle-class youth, a topic not sufficiently studied in Brazil. The paper is based on a qualitative, socio-anthropological study of 14 middle-class families in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, whose children have remained single, living with their parents after the child's birth. A total of 25 in-depth interviews were conducted with 6 young men and 7 young women, ages 18 to 24, and their parents (11 mothers, one father, to examine the event in retrospect and its impact on these young people and their families. Three aspects are analyzed: difficulties young people face in internalizing contraception as a norm; late discovery of pregnancy; and how the decision to either have an abortion or give birth is made by young people and their parents

  10. White House

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... content Jump to navigation the WHITE HOUSE President Donald J. Trump Get in Touch Home Briefing Room From the ... For All Americans The Administration The Administration President Donald J. Trump Vice President Mike Pence First Lady Melania Trump ...

  11. White Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 19 April 2002) The Science 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. As later analysis of additional data sets would show, White Rock is neither white nor dense rock. Its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the material surrounding it is so dark. Images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed dark sand dunes surrounding White Rock and on the floor of the troughs within it. Some of these dunes are just apparent in the THEMIS image. Although there was speculation that the material composing White Rock could be salts from an ancient dry lakebed, spectral data from the MGS TES instrument did not support this claim. Instead, the White Rock deposit may be the erosional remnant of a previously more continuous occurrence of air fall sediments, either volcanic ash or windblown dust. The THEMIS image offers new evidence for the idea that the original deposit covered a larger area. Approximately 10 kilometers to the southeast of the main deposit are some tiny knobs of similarly bright material preserved on the floor of a small crater. Given that the eolian erosion of the main White Rock deposit has produced isolated knobs at its edges, it is reasonable to suspect that the more distant outliers are the remnants of a once continuous deposit that stretched at least to this location. The fact that so little remains of the larger deposit suggests that the material is very easily eroded and simply blows away. The Story Fingers of hard, white rock seem to jut out like icy daggers across a moody Martian surface, but appearances can be deceiving. These bright, jagged features are neither white, nor icy, nor even hard and rocky! So what are they, and why are they so different from the surrounding terrain? Scientists know that you can't always trust what your eyes see alone. You have to use other kinds of science instruments to measure things that our eyes can

  12. Socialização econômica em famílias chilenas de classe média: educando cidadãos ou consumidores? Economic socialization in chilean families of middle class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianela Denegri Coria

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O propósito desta investigação foi descrever as estratégias e práticas de socialização econômica numa mostra de 132 famílias de classe média da cidade de Temuco,Chile. Os resultados assinalam que existe consenso entre as famílias a respeito da necessidade de educar aos meninos no uso do dinheiro e que esta é uma responsabilidade dos pais. Aprecia-se uma ampla dispersão entre as práticas que os pais dizem utilizar para alfabetizar os seus filhos no uso do dinheiro. As que são mais bem intuitivas, pouco sistemáticas e isoladas, não constituindo Estratégias de Socialização. Mostra-se inconsistência entre os valores expressados pelos pais e as práticas que empregam. A experiência de socialização temporã dos pais em suas famílias de origem repercute na educação de seus filhos, o que leva a concluir a presença de uma influência entre gerações no processo de socialização econômica.The purpose of this investigation was to describe the strategies and practices of economic socialization in a sample of 132 middle class families of Temuco, a city in Chile. The results show that there is an agreement among the families about the necessity to educate the children about the use of money, and that this is a responsibility that concerns the parents. A wide dispersion is observed among the practices that the parents claim to use to educate their children about the use of money. The practices which are rather intuitive, not very systematic and isolated, do not constitute strategies of socialization, and show inconsistency among the values expressed by the parents and the practices used by them. The parents' experience of an early socialization in their origin families rebounds in the education of their children, consequently leading to the presence of an intergenerational influence in the process of economic socialization.

  13. White Paranoia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørholt, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Inspired by Alain Robbe-Grillet’s novel La Jalousie (1957), the essay contends that Michael Haneke’s Caché (2005) takes its viewers inside a postcolonial white paranoia which is, arguably, the root cause of the exclusion, segregation and racist discrimination that many immigrants from the former ...

  14. European Whiteness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...

  15. A Cultural Reading of a Chinese White-Collar Workplace Bestseller and its Filmic Adaptation: Li Ke’s A Story of Lala’s Promotion and Go Lala Go!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenshen Cai

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, Li Ke’s novel A Story of Lala’s Promotion (Du Lala Shengzhi Ji became a bestseller among Chinese white-collar workers in foreign-owned (Western companies and struck a chord with the Chinese middle class. The novel revolves around office politics, Western company culture and the white-collar lifestyle, the ‘shelved ladies’ phenomenon and middle-class aesthetics. To decipher the embedded cultural codes of this book, this study undertakes a textual analysis of the plots of A Story of Lala’s Promotion and its filmic adaptation, Go Lala Go! (Du Lala Shengzhi Ji dir. Xu Jinglei, 2010. This paper conducts a trans-media adaption study (from fiction to film to examine three interrelated themes in the novel and the film. First, focusing on the influence of Western corporate culture on Chinese white-collar workers under economic globalisation, the widely circulating rules of Western workplaces are interpreted, clarifying the acculturating process of Western culture over its Chinese counterpart. The paper further explains that on the platform provided by foreign companies, and with the influence and training of Western corporate culture, intelligent and diligent young Chinese aspirational women struggle and realise their dreams in the workplace. Second, employing a feminist perspective, an attempt is made to address the situation of contemporary Chinese white-collar women represented by the contemporary social phenomenon of the ‘shelved ladies’, which also serves as an emblem of female independence and individualism. Third, through an analysis of the filmic adaptation, which focuses on the white-collar female’s lifestyle and consumption habits, the paper also highlights the contemporary Chinese population’s pursuit of a middle-class identity and aesthetic that mirrors the overwhelming consumerism of post-socialist China.

  16. Factors affecting nutrition behavior among middle-class adolescents in urban area of Northern region of Brazil Preferências nutricionais entre adolescentes da classe média de Manaus, AM (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva I. Doyle

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Brazil has been called a nation in nutrition transitional because of recent increases in the prevalence of obesity and related chronic diseases. With overweight conditions already prevalent among middle-income populations, there exists a need to identify factors that influence nutrition behavior within this group. OBJECTIVE: To address this subject, a research study was implemented among middle-class adolescents attending a large private secondary school in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. The study determined the availability and accessibility of snack foods as well as subjects’ attitudes and preferences towards, and the influence of family and friends on healthy (high-nutrient density snack choices. METHODS: The 4-stage process included: (a a nutrition expert focus group discussion that reported local nutrition problems in general and factors related to adolescent nutrition, (b an adolescent pilot survey (n=63 that solicited information about snacking preferences and habits as well as resources for nutrition information and snack money; (c a survey of various area food market sources to determine the availability and accessibility of high nutrient density snacks; and (d a follow-up adolescent survey (n=55 that measured snack food preferences and perceptions about their cost and availability. RESULTS: Results included the finding that, although affordable high nutrient density snacks were available, preferences for low nutrient density snacks prevailed. The adolescents were reportedly more likely to be influenced by and obtain nutrition information from family members than friends. CONCLUSION: From study results it is apparent that a focus on food availability will not automatically result in proper nutritional practices among adolescents. This fact and the parental influence detected are evidence of a need to involve adolescents and their parents in nutrition education campaigns to improve adolescent snack food choices.INTRODUÇÃO: O

  17. The Middle Class in China and the West under Society-building Perspective%社会建设视野下的城市中产阶层1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹飞廉

    2014-01-01

    本文从社会建设的视角出发,对中国和西方国家城市中产阶层的起源和形成进行了梳理和考察。笔者的主要观点是:在西方国家工业革命早期,竞争伦理、谋利动机、经商欲望和新教信仰造就了一个以商人、工场主和专业人士(主要包括医生、律师和神职人员)为主体的中产群体。他们所享有的共同的经济和社会经历,促进了西方中产阶级的阶级意识和身份认同的形成。这种阶级意识和身份认同成为推动西方各国资产阶级民主革命以及之后的多次社会建设和改良运动的重要经济与思想力量。在中国改革开放的三十年的时间里,也产生了一个商人、民营企业主、专业人士以及职业经理人为主体的中产群体。其中的部分有识之士也已成为转型中国社会建设重要的支持者和领导者。然而在城乡二元体制格局和贫富差距不断扩大的背景下,较小的规模,较高的异质性,以及价值理念上的分歧,阻碍了中国中产阶层阶级身份认同的形成。%From the society-building perspective, this article explores the origin and formation of Chinese and Western middle class. In the early period of industrial revolution, competing ethics, profit motives, business desire and the Protestant ethics created businessman, factory owners and professionals(like doctors, lawyers and clergy) formed the main body of middling-groups. They enjoyed the common economic and social experience, which promoted the Western bourgeois class consciousness and identity formation. During three decades of China’s reform and opening, there is also a middle groups including businessman, private business owners, professionals and managers. Some of them have become the main supporters and leaders of China’s society-building. However, in the context of urban-rural dual structure pattern and the widening gap between the rich and the poor, a smaller scale

  18. Biking practices and preferences in a lower income, primarily minority neighborhood: Learning what residents want

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne C. Lusk

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines if, in a lower-income minority neighborhood, bicycling practices and bicycle-environment preferences of Blacks and Hispanics were different from Whites. During the summer of 2014, surveys were mailed to 1537 households near a proposed cycle track on Malcolm X Boulevard in Roxbury, MA. On the Boulevard, intercept surveys were distributed to cyclists and observations noted about passing cyclist's characteristics. Data were analyzed from 252 returned-mailed surveys, 120 intercept surveys, and 709 bicyclists. White (100%, Hispanic (79%, and Black (76% bicyclists shown pictures of 6 bicycle facility types in intercept surveys perceived the cycle track as safest. More White mailed-survey respondents thought bikes would not be stolen which may explain why more Hispanics (52% and Blacks (47% preferred to park their bikes inside their home compared with Whites (28%, with H/W B/W differences statistically significant (p < 0.05. More Hispanic (81% and Black (54% mailed-survey respondents thought they would bicycle more if they could bicycle with family and friends compared with Whites (40%. Bicyclists observed commuting morning and evening included Blacks (55%, Whites (36% and Hispanics (9%. More Whites (68% wore helmets compared with Hispanics (21% and Blacks (17% (p < 0.001. More Blacks (94% and Hispanics (94% rode a mountain bike compared with Whites (75%. Minority populations are biking on roads but prefer cycle tracks. They also prefer to park bikes inside their homes and bicycle with family and friends. Wide cycle tracks (bicycling with family/friends and home bike parking should be targeted as capital investments in lower-income minority neighborhoods.

  19. Class advantages and disadvantages are not so Black and White: intersectionality impacts rank and selves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannon, Tiffany N; Higginbotham, Gerald D; Henderson, Kyshia

    2017-12-01

    At the intersection of race and class the consequences of being working-class or middle-class are not so Black and White. Rather, established and emerging research suggests that race/ethnicity and social class intersect to differentially afford benefits and burdens. For instance, racial/ethnic minorities often do not reap the social, psychological or economic benefits of higher social class; yet, in some key life domains (e.g. health and mortality) racial/ethnic minorities in the U.S. seem to be buffered from some burdens of lower social class. We integrate empirical evidence to suggest that such differential advantages and disadvantages along racial lines reflect that social class exists alongside, rather than separate from, race/ethnicity as two distinct yet intersecting sources of rank and in turn selves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Biking practices and preferences in a lower income, primarily minority neighborhood: Learning what residents want.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, Anne C; Anastasio, Albert; Shaffer, Nicholas; Wu, Juan; Li, Yanping

    2017-09-01

    This paper examines if, in a lower-income minority neighborhood, bicycling practices and bicycle-environment preferences of Blacks and Hispanics were different from Whites. During the summer of 2014, surveys were mailed to 1537 households near a proposed cycle track on Malcolm X Boulevard in Roxbury, MA. On the Boulevard, intercept surveys were distributed to cyclists and observations noted about passing cyclist's characteristics. Data were analyzed from 252 returned-mailed surveys, 120 intercept surveys, and 709 bicyclists. White (100%), Hispanic (79%), and Black (76%) bicyclists shown pictures of 6 bicycle facility types in intercept surveys perceived the cycle track as safest. More White mailed-survey respondents thought bikes would not be stolen which may explain why more Hispanics (52%) and Blacks (47%) preferred to park their bikes inside their home compared with Whites (28%), with H/W B/W differences statistically significant ( p  bike compared with Whites (75%). Minority populations are biking on roads but prefer cycle tracks. They also prefer to park bikes inside their homes and bicycle with family and friends. Wide cycle tracks (bicycling with family/friends) and home bike parking should be targeted as capital investments in lower-income minority neighborhoods.

  1. Status of white pine blister rust and seed collections in california's high-elevation white pine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Dunlap

    2011-01-01

    White pine blister rust (caused by the non-native pathogen Cronartium ribicola) reached northern California about 80 years ago. Over the years its spread southward had been primarily recorded on sugar pine. However, observations on its occurrence had also been reported in several of the higher elevation five-needled white pine species in California. Since the late...

  2. Narrative Constructions of Whiteness among White Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foste, Zak

    2017-01-01

    This critical narrative inquiry was guided by two overarching research questions. First, this study examined how white undergraduates interpreted and gave meaning to their white racial identities. This line of inquiry sought to understand how participants made sense of their white racial selves, the self in relation to people of color, and the…

  3. One rainbow, one nation, one tongue singing: whiteness in post-apartheid pulp fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. West

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A certain brand of fiction has become popular in post-apartheid South Africa that accounts for the relative success of Susan Mann‟s “One tongue singing” (2005. This article seeks to examine the implications of narratives such as this in revealing the normative assumptions that might inform text and reception a decade into a new democracy. It begins with an overview of whiteness studies as a post-colonial frame of reference useful in gauging the continued hegemonic normativity of whiteness as a cultural affiliation. This is followed by an analysis of Mann‟s novel. I argue that it is precisely in fiction such as this – massproduced for a white middle-class, mostly female readership both here and abroad – that there is ample evidence of the kinds of normative assumptions that whiteness studies attempts to make visible. I demonstrate that despite the writer‟s liberal and politically correct attempts to negotiate the politics of race, gender and class, her narrative inadvertently reinforces stereotypes that it ostensibly challenges. Thus it exhibits the discursive limits and powers of the most readily available reading matter this country has to offer.

  4. Adolescent Pornography Use and Dating Violence among a Sample of Primarily Black and Hispanic, Urban-Residing, Underage Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily F. Rothman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study was designed to characterize the pornography viewing preferences of a sample of U.S.-based, urban-residing, economically disadvantaged, primarily Black and Hispanic youth (n = 72, and to assess whether pornography use was associated with experiences of adolescent dating abuse (ADA victimization. The sample was recruited from a large, urban, safety net hospital, and participants were 53% female, 59% Black, 19% Hispanic, 14% Other race, 6% White, and 1% Native American. All were 16–17 years old. More than half (51% had been asked to watch pornography together by a dating or sexual partner, and 44% had been asked to do something sexual that a partner saw in pornography. Adolescent dating abuse (ADA victimization was associated with more frequent pornography use, viewing pornography in the company of others, being asked to perform a sexual act that a partner first saw in pornography, and watching pornography during or after marijuana use. Approximately 50% of ADA victims and 32% of non-victims reported that they had been asked to do a sexual act that their partner saw in pornography (p = 0.15, and 58% did not feel happy to have been asked. Results suggest that weekly pornography use among underage, urban-residing youth is common, and may be associated with ADA victimization.

  5. Adolescent Pornography Use and Dating Violence among a Sample of Primarily Black and Hispanic, Urban-Residing, Underage Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Emily F.; Adhia, Avanti

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was designed to characterize the pornography viewing preferences of a sample of U.S.-based, urban-residing, economically disadvantaged, primarily Black and Hispanic youth (n = 72), and to assess whether pornography use was associated with experiences of adolescent dating abuse (ADA) victimization. The sample was recruited from a large, urban, safety net hospital, and participants were 53% female, 59% Black, 19% Hispanic, 14% Other race, 6% White, and 1% Native American. All were 16–17 years old. More than half (51%) had been asked to watch pornography together by a dating or sexual partner, and 44% had been asked to do something sexual that a partner saw in pornography. Adolescent dating abuse (ADA) victimization was associated with more frequent pornography use, viewing pornography in the company of others, being asked to perform a sexual act that a partner first saw in pornography, and watching pornography during or after marijuana use. Approximately 50% of ADA victims and 32% of non-victims reported that they had been asked to do a sexual act that their partner saw in pornography (p = 0.15), and 58% did not feel happy to have been asked. Results suggest that weekly pornography use among underage, urban-residing youth may be common, and may be associated with ADA victimization. PMID:26703744

  6. 29 CFR 780.607 - “Primarily employed” in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âPrimarily employedâ in agriculture. 780.607 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements...

  7. Erick A. White | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, 2011 B.S., Chemical Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder Research Assistant, Colorado School of Mines, Department of Chemical Engineering, 2006-2011 Field Team Erick A. White Photo of Erick A. White Erick White Chemical Reaction Engineer Erick.White@nrel.gov

  8. Hydrogen peroxide production is not primarily increased in human myotubes established from type 2 diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minet, A D; Gaster, M

    2011-09-01

    Increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction have been implicated in the development of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. To date, it is unknown whether increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in skeletal muscle from patients with type 2 diabetes is primarily increased or a secondary adaptation to environmental, lifestyle, and hormonal factors. This study investigates whether ROS production is primarily increased in isolated diabetic myotubes. Mitochondrial membrane potential, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), superoxide, and mitochondrial mass were determined in human myotubes precultured under normophysiological conditions. Furthermore, the corresponding ATP synthesis was measured in isolated mitochondria. Muscle biopsies were taken from 10 lean subjects, 10 obese subjects, and 10 subjects with type 2 diabetes; satellite cells were isolated, cultured, and differentiated to myotubes. Mitochondrial mass, membrane potential/mitochondrial mass, and superoxide-production/mitochondrial mass were not different between groups. In contrast, H(2)O(2) production/mitochondrial mass and ATP production were significantly reduced in diabetic myotubes compared to lean controls (P production is not primarily increased in diabetic myotubes but rather is reduced. Moreover, the comparable ATP/H(2)O(2) ratios indicate that the reduced ROS production in diabetic myotubes parallels the reduced ATP production because ROS production in diabetic myotubes must be considered to be in a proportion comparable to lean. Thus, the increased ROS production seen in skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetic patients is an adaptation to the in vivo conditions.

  9. Triacylglycerol Accumulation is not primarily affected in Myotubes established from Type 2 Diabetic Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, Michael; Beck-Nielsen, Henning

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation, glucose and fatty acid (FA) uptake, and glycogen synthesis (GS) in human myotubes from healthy, lean, and obese subjects with and without type 2 diabetes (T2D), exposed to increasing palmitate (PA) and oleate (OA...... uptake (P0.05). These results indicate that (1) TAG accumulation is not primarily affected in skeletal muscle tissue of obese and T2D; (2) induced inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation is followed by TAG accumulation...... in skeletal muscle of obese and T2D subjects is adaptive....

  10. Disgust sensitivity is primarily associated with purity-based moral judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagemans, Fieke M A; Brandt, Mark J; Zeelenberg, Marcel

    2018-03-01

    Individual differences in disgust sensitivity are associated with a range of judgments and attitudes related to the moral domain. Some perspectives suggest that the association between disgust sensitivity and moral judgments will be equally strong across all moral domains (i.e., purity, authority, loyalty, care, fairness, and liberty). Other perspectives predict that disgust sensitivity is primarily associated with judgments of specific moral domains (e.g., primarily purity). However, no study has systematically tested if disgust sensitivity is associated with moral judgments of the purity domain specifically, more generally to moral judgments of the binding moral domains, or to moral judgments of all of the moral domains equally. Across 5 studies (total N = 1,104), we find consistent evidence for the notion that disgust sensitivity relates more strongly to moral condemnation of purity-based transgressions (meta-analytic r = .40) than to moral condemnation of transgressions of any of the other domains (range meta-analytic rs: .07-.27). Our findings are in line with predictions from Moral Foundations Theory, which predicts that personality characteristics like disgust sensitivity make people more sensitive to a certain set of moral issues. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Lamin A/C mutation affecting primarily the right side of the heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ollila

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available LMNA mutations are amongst the most important causes of familial dilated cardiomyopathy. The most important cause of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC is desmosomal pathology. The aim of the study was to elucidate the role of LMNA mutations among Finnish cardiomyopathy patients. We screened 135 unrelated cardiomyopathy patients for LMNA mutations. Because of unusual phenotype, two patients were screened for the known Finnish ARVC-related mutations of desmosomal genes, and their Plakophilin-2b gene was sequenced. Myocardial samples from two patients were examined by immunohistochemical plakoglobin staining and in one case by electron microscopy. We found a new LMNA mutation Phe237Ser in a family of five affected members with a cardiomyopathy affecting primarily the right side of the heart. The phenotype resembles ARVC but does not fulfill the Task Force Criteria. The main clinical manifestations of the mutation were severe tricuspid insufficiency, right ventricular enlargement and failure. Three of the affected patients died of the heart disease, and the two living patients received heart transplants at ages 44 and 47. Electron microscopy showed nuclear blebbing compatible with laminopathy. Immunohisto - chemical analysis did not suggest desmosomal pathology. No desmosomal mutations were found. The Phe237Ser LMNA mutation causes a phenotype different from traditional cardiolaminopathy. Our findings suggest that cardiomyopathy affecting primarily the right side of the heart is not always caused by desmosomal pathology. Our observations highlight the challenges in classifying cardiomyopathies, as there often is significant overlap between the traditional categories.

  12. Direct healthcare costs of selected diseases primarily or partially transmitted by water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, S A; Stockman, L J; Hicks, L A; Garrison, L E; Zhou, F J; Beach, M J

    2012-11-01

    Despite US sanitation advancements, millions of waterborne disease cases occur annually, although the precise burden of disease is not well quantified. Estimating the direct healthcare cost of specific infections would be useful in prioritizing waterborne disease prevention activities. Hospitalization and outpatient visit costs per case and total US hospitalization costs for ten waterborne diseases were calculated using large healthcare claims and hospital discharge databases. The five primarily waterborne diseases in this analysis (giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, Legionnaires' disease, otitis externa, and non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection) were responsible for over 40 000 hospitalizations at a cost of $970 million per year, including at least $430 million in hospitalization costs for Medicaid and Medicare patients. An additional 50 000 hospitalizations for campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, shigellosis, haemolytic uraemic syndrome, and toxoplasmosis cost $860 million annually ($390 million in payments for Medicaid and Medicare patients), a portion of which can be assumed to be due to waterborne transmission.

  13. Temporal integration of loudness in listeners with hearing losses of primarily cochlear origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Søren; Florentine, Mary; Poulsen, Torben

    1999-01-01

    To investigate how hearing loss of primarily cochlear origin affects the loudness of brief tones, loudness matches between 5- and 200-ms tones were obtained as a function of level for 15 listeners with cochlear impairments and for seven age-matched controls. Three frequencies, usually 0.5, 1, and 4...... of temporal integration—defined as the level difference between equally loud short and long tones—varied nonmonotonically with level and was largest at moderate levels. No consistent effect of frequency was apparent. The impaired listeners varied widely, but most showed a clear effect of level on the amount...... of temporal integration. Overall, their results appear consistent with expectations based on knowledge of the general properties of their loudness-growth functions and the equal-loudness-ratio hypothesis, which states that the loudness ratio between equal-SPL long and brief tones is the same at all SPLs...

  14. White Flame Energy switches to backhoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiscor, S.

    2005-06-01

    The mountaintop coal operator, White Flame Energy has switched to different truck-shovel arrangement. Along with many surface mining operations throughout central Appalachia, the company is using hoe-configured hydraulic excavators as opposed to the traditional front-shovel arrangements. Located in Varney, WV, White Flame Energy uses two Terex O & K mining shovels, an RH170 and an RH 200, which have the capacity to move 2 million cu yards per month from five seams, primarily the Coalburg, Stockton, and No 5 Block and associated rider seams. The article records conversations on the operations with Mike Vines, the general manager, and Don Nicewonder, the owner of White Flame Energy. 2 photos.

  15. The Serotonin Transporter Undergoes Constitutive Internalization and Is Primarily Sorted to Late Endosomes and Lysosomal Degradation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbek-Clemmensen, Troels; Bay, Tina; Eriksen, Jacob; Gether, Ulrik; Jørgensen, Trine Nygaard

    2014-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) plays a critical role in regulating serotonin signaling by mediating reuptake of serotonin from the extracellular space. The molecular and cellular mechanisms controlling SERT levels in the membrane remain poorly understood. To study trafficking of the surface resident SERT, two functional epitope-tagged variants were generated. Fusion of a FLAG-tagged one-transmembrane segment protein Tac to the SERT N terminus generated a transporter with an extracellular epitope suited for trafficking studies (TacSERT). Likewise, a construct with an extracellular antibody epitope was generated by introducing an HA (hemagglutinin) tag in the extracellular loop 2 of SERT (HA-SERT). By using TacSERT and HA-SERT in antibody-based internalization assays, we show that SERT undergoes constitutive internalization in a dynamin-dependent manner. Confocal images of constitutively internalized SERT demonstrated that SERT primarily co-localized with the late endosomal/lysosomal marker Rab7, whereas little co-localization was observed with the Rab11, a marker of the “long loop” recycling pathway. This sorting pattern was distinct from that of a prototypical recycling membrane protein, the β2-adrenergic receptor. Furthermore, internalized SERT co-localized with the lysosomal marker LysoTracker and not with transferrin. The sorting pattern was further confirmed by visualizing internalization of SERT using the fluorescent cocaine analog JHC1-64 and by reversible and pulse-chase biotinylation assays showing evidence for lysosomal degradation of the internalized transporter. Finally, we found that SERT internalized in response to stimulation with 12-myristate 13-acetate co-localized primarily with Rab7- and LysoTracker-positive compartments. We conclude that SERT is constitutively internalized and that the internalized transporter is sorted mainly to degradation. PMID:24973209

  16. White Dwarf Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Kepler, S. O.; Romero, Alejandra Daniela; Pelisoli, Ingrid; Ourique, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    White dwarf stars are the final stage of most stars, born single or in multiple systems. We discuss the identification, magnetic fields, and mass distribution for white dwarfs detected from spectra obtained by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey up to Data Release 13 in 2016, which lead to the increase in the number of spectroscopically identified white dwarf stars from 5000 to 39000. This number includes only white dwarf stars with log g >= 6.5 stars, i.e., excluding the Extremely Low Mass white dw...

  17. Low White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Low white blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A low white blood cell count (leukopenia) is a decrease ... of white blood cell (neutrophil). The definition of low white blood cell count varies from one medical ...

  18. WHITE WHEAT MARKET AND STRATEGY ANALYSIS FOR NORTH DAKOTA

    OpenAIRE

    Janzen, Edward L.; Wilson, William W.

    2001-01-01

    There is a growing interest and a perceived demand for hard white (HW) wheat to satisfy the needs of the growing Asian noodle market which is currently dominated by Australia. The wheat industry is reviewed with attention to U.S. and Australian production and international markets for white wheat. Quality issues and target markets/market development are discussed. Economic issues associated with production of HW wheat in hard red spring (HRS) wheat producing areas, primarily North Dakota, are...

  19. Nitric oxide circulates in mammalian plasma primarily as an S-nitroso adduct of serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamler, J S; Jaraki, O; Osborne, J; Simon, D I; Keaney, J; Vita, J; Singel, D; Valeri, C R; Loscalzo, J

    1992-01-01

    We have recently shown that nitric oxide or authentic endothelium-derived relaxing factor generated in a biologic system reacts in the presence of specific protein thiols to form S-nitrosoprotein derivatives that have endothelium-derived relaxing factor-like properties. The single free cysteine of serum albumin, Cys-34, is particularly reactive toward nitrogen oxides (most likely nitrosonium ion) under physiologic conditions, primarily because of its anomalously low pK; given its abundance in plasma, where it accounts for approximately 0.5 mM thiol, we hypothesized that this plasma protein serves as a reservoir for nitric oxide produced by the endothelial cell. To test this hypothesis, we developed a methodology, which involves UV photolytic cleavage of the S--NO bond before reaction with ozone for chemiluminescence detection, with which to measure free nitric oxide, S-nitrosothiols, and S-nitrosoproteins in biologic systems. We found that human plasma contains approximately 7 microM S-nitrosothiols, of which 96% are S-nitrosoproteins, 82% of which is accounted for by S-nitroso-serum albumin. By contrast, plasma levels of free nitric oxide are only in the 3-nM range. In rabbits, plasma S-nitrosothiols are present at approximately 1 microM; 60 min after administration of NG-monomethyl-L-arginine at 50 mg/ml, a selective and potent inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetases, S-nitrosothiols decreased by approximately 40% (greater than 95% of which were accounted for by S-nitrosoproteins, and approximately 80% of which was S-nitroso-serum albumin); this decrease was accompanied by a concomitant increase in mean arterial blood pressure of 22%. These data suggest that naturally produced nitric oxide circulates in plasma primarily complexed in S-nitrosothiol species, principal among which is S-nitroso-serum albumin. This abundant, relatively long-lived adduct likely serves as a reservoir with which plasma levels of highly reactive, short-lived free nitric oxide can be

  20. The development and characterization of a primarily mineral calcium phosphate - poly(epsilon-caprolactone) biocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkley, Ian Robert

    Orthopaedic reconstruction often involves the surgical introduction of structural implants that provide for rigid fixation, skeletal stabilization, and bone integration. The high stresses incurred by these implanted devices have historically limited material choices to metallic and select polymeric formulations. While mechanical requirements are achieved, these non-degradable materials do not participate actively in the remodeling of the skeleton and present the possibility of long-term failure or rejection. This is particularly relevant in cervical fusion, an orthopaedic procedure to treat damaged, degenerative or diseased intervertebral discs. A significant improvement on the available synthetic bone replacement/regeneration options for implants to treat these conditions in the cervical spine may be achieved with the development of primarily mineral biocomposites comprised of a bioactive ceramic matrix reinforced with a biodegradable polymer. Such a biocomposite may be engineered to possess the clinically required mechanical properties of a particular application, while maintaining the ability to be remodeled completely by the body. A biocomposite of Si-doped calcium phosphate (Si-CaP) and poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) was developed for application as such a synthetic bone material for potential use as a fusion device in the cervical spine. In this thesis, a method by which high mineral content Si-CaP/PCL biocomposites with interpenetrating matrices of mineral and polymer phases may be prepared will be demonstrated, in addition to the effects of the various preparation parameters on the biocomposite density, porosity and mechanical properties. This new technique by which dense, primarily ceramic Si-CaP/PCL biocomposites were prepared, allowed for the incorporation of mineral contents ranging between 45-97vol%. Polymer infiltration, accomplished solely by passive capillary uptake over several days, was found to be capable of fully infiltrating the microporosity

  1. Efficient transfection of DNA into primarily cultured rat sertoli cells by electroporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fuping; Yamaguchi, Kohei; Okada, Keisuke; Matsushita, Kei; Enatsu, Noritoshi; Chiba, Koji; Yue, Huanxun; Fujisawa, Masato

    2013-03-01

    The expression of exogenous DNA in Sertoli cells is essential for studying its functional genomics, pathway analysis, and medical applications. Electroporation is a valuable tool for nucleic acid delivery, even in primarily cultured cells, which are considered difficult to transfect. In this study, we developed an optimized protocol for electroporation-based transfection of Sertoli cells and compared its efficiency with conventional lipofection. Sertoli cells were transfected with pCMV-GFP plasmid by square-wave electroporation under different conditions. After transfection of plasmid into Sertoli cells, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expression could be easily detected by fluorescent microscopy, and cell survival was evaluated by dye exclusion assay using Trypan blue. In terms of both cell survival and the percentage expressing EGFP, 250 V was determined to produce the greatest number of transiently transfected cells. Keeping the voltage constant (250 V), relatively high cell survival (76.5% ± 3.4%) and transfection efficiency (30.6% ± 5.6%) were observed with a pulse length of 20 μm. The number of pulses significantly affected cell survival and EGFP expression (P transfection methods, the transfection efficiency of electroporation (21.5% ± 5.7%) was significantly higher than those of Lipofectamine 2000 (2.9% ± 1.0%) and Effectene (1.9% ± 0.8%) in this experiment (P transfection of Sertoli cells.

  2. Identification of a novel CoA synthase isoform, which is primarily expressed in Brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemazanyy, Ivan; Panasyuk, Ganna; Breus, Oksana; Zhyvoloup, Alexander; Filonenko, Valeriy; Gout, Ivan T.

    2006-01-01

    CoA and its derivatives Acetyl-CoA and Acyl-CoA are important players in cellular metabolism and signal transduction. CoA synthase is a bifunctional enzyme which mediates the final stages of CoA biosynthesis. In previous studies, we have reported molecular cloning, biochemical characterization, and subcellular localization of CoA synthase (CoASy). Here, we describe the existence of a novel CoA synthase isoform, which is the product of alternative splicing and possesses a 29aa extension at the N-terminus. We termed it CoASy β and originally identified CoA synthase, CoASy α. The transcript specific for CoASy β was identified by electronic screening and by RT-PCR analysis of various rat tissues. The existence of this novel isoform was further confirmed by immunoblot analysis with antibodies directed to the N-terminal peptide of CoASy β. In contrast to CoASy α, which shows ubiquitous expression, CoASy β is primarily expressed in Brain. Using confocal microscopy, we demonstrated that both isoforms are localized on mitochondria. The N-terminal extension does not affect the activity of CoA synthase, but possesses a proline-rich sequence which can bring the enzyme into complexes with signalling proteins containing SH3 or WW domains. The role of this novel isoform in CoA biosynthesis, especially in Brain, requires further elucidation

  3. GOLD HULL AND INTERNODE2 encodes a primarily multifunctional cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kewei; Qian, Qian; Huang, Zejun; Wang, Yiqin; Li, Ming; Hong, Lilan; Zeng, Dali; Gu, Minghong; Chu, Chengcai; Cheng, Zhukuan

    2006-03-01

    Lignin content and composition are two important agronomic traits for the utilization of agricultural residues. Rice (Oryza sativa) gold hull and internode phenotype is a classical morphological marker trait that has long been applied to breeding and genetics study. In this study, we have cloned the GOLD HULL AND INTERNODE2 (GH2) gene in rice using a map-based cloning approach. The result shows that the gh2 mutant is a lignin-deficient mutant, and GH2 encodes a cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). Consistent with this finding, extracts from roots, internodes, hulls, and panicles of the gh2 plants exhibited drastically reduced CAD activity and undetectable sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity. When expressed in Escherichia coli, purified recombinant GH2 was found to exhibit strong catalytic ability toward coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde, while the mutant protein gh2 completely lost the corresponding CAD and sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activities. Further phenotypic analysis of the gh2 mutant plants revealed that the p-hydroxyphenyl, guaiacyl, and sinapyl monomers were reduced in almost the same ratio compared to the wild type. Our results suggest GH2 acts as a primarily multifunctional CAD to synthesize coniferyl and sinapyl alcohol precursors in rice lignin biosynthesis.

  4. GOLD HULL AND INTERNODE2 Encodes a Primarily Multifunctional Cinnamyl-Alcohol Dehydrogenase in Rice1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kewei; Qian, Qian; Huang, Zejun; Wang, Yiqin; Li, Ming; Hong, Lilan; Zeng, Dali; Gu, Minghong; Chu, Chengcai; Cheng, Zhukuan

    2006-01-01

    Lignin content and composition are two important agronomic traits for the utilization of agricultural residues. Rice (Oryza sativa) gold hull and internode phenotype is a classical morphological marker trait that has long been applied to breeding and genetics study. In this study, we have cloned the GOLD HULL AND INTERNODE2 (GH2) gene in rice using a map-based cloning approach. The result shows that the gh2 mutant is a lignin-deficient mutant, and GH2 encodes a cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). Consistent with this finding, extracts from roots, internodes, hulls, and panicles of the gh2 plants exhibited drastically reduced CAD activity and undetectable sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity. When expressed in Escherichia coli, purified recombinant GH2 was found to exhibit strong catalytic ability toward coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde, while the mutant protein gh2 completely lost the corresponding CAD and sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activities. Further phenotypic analysis of the gh2 mutant plants revealed that the p-hydroxyphenyl, guaiacyl, and sinapyl monomers were reduced in almost the same ratio compared to the wild type. Our results suggest GH2 acts as a primarily multifunctional CAD to synthesize coniferyl and sinapyl alcohol precursors in rice lignin biosynthesis. PMID:16443696

  5. RELACIONES ENTRE LA IDENTIDAD NACIONAL Y LA VALORACIÓN DE LA CULTURA CULINARIA PERUANA EN UNA MUESTRA DE JÓVENES DE CLASE MEDIA DE LIMA/ RELATIONS BETWEEN NATIONAL IDENTITY AND PERUVIAN GASTRONOMIC CULTURE IN A SAMPLE OF YOUNG MIDDLE-CLASS PEOPLE FROM LIMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Calderón-Prada

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:El presente estudio analiza, desde la perspectiva de la Teoría de la Identidad Social (Tajfel, 1984, las relaciones existentes entre la identidad nacional, el autoconcepto colectivo y la autoestima colectiva peruana, con la valoración de la cultura gastronómica de este país, en una muestra de jóvenes de clase media de la ciudad de Lima (n=116. Los resultados sugieren que una mejor valoración de la cultura culinaria se asocia positivamente a una mayoridentificación con el Perú, a un autoconcepto colectivo más positivo y a una mayor autoestima nacionalAbstractThis study analyzes, from the Social Identity Theory perspective (Tajfel, 1984, relations among Peruvian national identity, collective self concept and Peruvian self-esteem with valuation of Peruvian gastronomic culture, in a sample of middle-class young people from Lima (n=116. Results suggest that a better valuation of Peruvian cuisine is associated positively with a major identification to Perú. Besides, it is also related with a more positive self-concept and with higher levels of national self-esteem.

  6. Diseases of white matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, B.A.

    1987-01-01

    The diagnosis of white matter abnormalities was revolutionized by the advent of computed tomography (CT), which provided a noninvasive method of detection and assessment of progression of a variety of white matter processes. However, the inadequacies of CT were recognized early, including its relative insensitivity to small foci of abnormal myelin in the brain when correlated with autopsy findings and its inability to image directly white matter diseases of the spinal cord. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), on the other hand, sensitive to the slight difference in tissue composition of normal gray and white matter and to subtle increase in water content associated with myelin disorders, is uniquely suited for the examination of white matter pathology. Its clinical applications include the evaluation of the normal process of myelination in childhood and the various white matter diseases, including disorders of demyelination and dysmyelination

  7. White dwarf stars with carbon atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, P; Liebert, J; Fontaine, G; Behara, N

    2007-11-22

    White dwarfs represent the endpoint of stellar evolution for stars with initial masses between approximately 0.07 and 8-10, where is the mass of the Sun (more massive stars end their life as either black holes or neutron stars). The theory of stellar evolution predicts that the majority of white dwarfs have a core made of carbon and oxygen, which itself is surrounded by a helium layer and, for approximately 80 per cent of known white dwarfs, by an additional hydrogen layer. All white dwarfs therefore have been traditionally found to belong to one of two categories: those with a hydrogen-rich atmosphere (the DA spectral type) and those with a helium-rich atmosphere (the non-DAs). Here we report the discovery of several white dwarfs with atmospheres primarily composed of carbon, with little or no trace of hydrogen or helium. Our analysis shows that the atmospheric parameters found for these stars do not fit satisfactorily in any of the currently known theories of post-asymptotic giant branch evolution, although these objects might be the cooler counterpart of the unique and extensively studied PG 1159 star H1504+65 (refs 4-7). These stars, together with H1504+65, might accordingly form a new evolutionary sequence that follows the asymptotic giant branch.

  8. Using "To Kill a Mockingbird" as a Conduit for Teaching about the School-to-Prison Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Steffany Comfort

    2013-01-01

    The author primarily teaches traditional high school English texts in a largely white, middle-class school, but the method she uses allows her to address important issues relevant to students. One unit she teaches is an investigation of the criminal justice system and a variety of issues related to the school-to-prison pipeline. A crucial text…

  9. Parenting Styles and Conceptions of Parental Authority during Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.

    1995-01-01

    Reports of parenting styles were assessed in 100 mostly white, middle-class, 6th, 8th, and 10th graders and their parents. Adolescents viewed their parents as more permissive and more authoritarian than parents viewed themselves, whereas parents viewed themselves as more authoritative than did adolescents. Differences were primarily over the…

  10. Adolescent Civic and Political Engagement: Associations between Domain-Specific Judgments and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Aaron; Smetana, Judith G.

    2009-01-01

    Judgments and justifications for different forms of civic involvement and their associations with organized and civic behavior were examined in 312 middle-class primarily White adolescents (M = 17.01 years). Adolescents applied moral, conventional, and personal criteria to distinguish involvement in community service, standard political, social…

  11. Homogenous stretching or detachment faulting? Which process is primarily extending the Aegean crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumerics, C.; Ring, U.

    2003-04-01

    In extending orogens like the Aegean Sea of Greece and the Basin-and-Range province of the western United States, knowledge of rates of tectonic processes are important for understanding which process is primarily extending the crust. Platt et al. (1998) proposed that homogeneous stretching of the lithosphere (i.e. vertical ductile thinning associated with a subhorizontal foliation) at rates of 4-5 km Myr-1 is the dominant process that formed the Alboran Sea in the western Mediterranean. The Aegean Sea in the eastern Mediterranean is well-known for its low-angle normal faults (detachments) (Lister et al., 1984; Lister &Forster, 1996) suggesting that detachment faulting may have been the primary agent achieving ~>250 km (McKenzie, 1978) of extension since the Miocene. Ring et al. (2003) provided evidence for a very fast-slipping detachment on the islands of Syros and Tinos in the western Cyclades, which suggests that normal faulting was the dominant tectonic process that formed the Aegean Sea. However, most extensional detachments in the Aegean do not allow to quantify the amount of vertical ductile thinning associated with extension and therefore a full evaluation of the significance of vertical ductile thinning is not possible. On the Island of Ikaria in the eastern Aegean Sea, a subhorizontal extensional ductile shear zone is well exposed. We studied this shear zone in detail to quantify the amount of vertical ductile thinning associated with extension. Numerous studies have shown that natural shear zones usually deviate significantly from progressive simple shear and are characterized by pronounced shortening perpendicular to the shear zone. Numerous deformed pegmatitic veins in this shear zone on Ikaria allow the reconstruction of deformation and flow parameters (Passchier, 1990), which are necessary for quantifying the amount of vertical ductile thinning in the shear zone. Furthermore, a flow-path and finite-strain study in a syn-tectonic granite, which

  12. Patterns of Middle-Class Parenting and Adolescent Underachievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Kaaren; Gaier, Eugene L.

    1987-01-01

    Examined 11th and 12th graders from upward striving, overprotective, indifferent, and conflicted homes concerning their attitudes toward their parents and academic achievement. Found upward-striving patterns of parenting significantly associated with underachievement. Pressuring these adolescents aroused reactions of anger, resentment, and…

  13. Residential hyperspace: building "convincing ambiences" for the middle classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meier, S.; Reijndorp, A.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two decades, Dutch housing policy has become more market-oriented and neoliberal. This sea change is reflected in the architecture of owner-occupied houses, whose production has been increasingly accompanied by theming. Theming has often been criticized as an action to maximize profit

  14. Class Counts: Education, Inequality, and the Shrinking Middle Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornstein, Allan

    2007-01-01

    Class differences and class warfare have existed since the beginning of western civilization, but the gap in income and wealth between the rich (top 10 percent) and the rest has increased steadily in the last twenty-five years. The U.S. is heading for a financial oligarchy much worse than the aristocratic old world that our Founding Fathers feared…

  15. Domestic artefacts: sustainability in the context of indian middle class

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vyas, Dhaval; Vatrapu, R.; Evers, Vanessa; Akhilesh, K.B.

    2012-01-01

    Sustainability has become one of the important research topics in the field of Human Computer Interaction (HCI). However, the majority of work has focused on the Western culture. In this paper, we explore sustainable household practices in the developing world. Our research draws on the results from

  16. Redistributive Politics and the Tyranny of the Middle Class

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.T. Zoutman (Floris); B. Jacobs (Bas); E.L.W. Jongen (Egbert)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe Netherlands has a unique tradition in which all major Dutch political parties provide CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis with highly detailed proposals for the tax-benefit system in every national election. This information allows us to quantitatively measure the

  17. Divergent Fortunes: Top Incomes and the Middle Class in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Mark; Sommeiller, Estelle; Wazeter, Ellis; Basurto, Luis

    2014-01-01

    The pace of income growth since the 1970s has been slower for Pennsylvanians than in the 30 years following 1945. In addition to being slower, income growth since the 1970s has also been lopsided, with a small fraction of the highest-income households capturing most income growth in Pennsylvania. This report examines the extent to which these…

  18. Highlight: From factory floor to the middle class: Does labour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Anindya Chatterjee, IDRC's Regional Director for Asia, offered opening remarks ... Ahmad, founder of Bangladesh's Women Chamber of Commerce; Rafaelita Aldaba, ... and engaging them in the workforce would improve economic outcomes.

  19. The romantic revolution of the Western Middle-Class family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Borruso

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The essay analyzes how the parent-children relationship changed within the bourgeois family between the Eighteen and the Nineteen centuries, also with a look to gender differences. The birth of the love marriage, the transformation of the parent-child relationship towards a more intimate and equal affective relationship, the transformation of the education style, the nineteenth-century cult of motherhood are some of the topics analyzed, that are deemed essential for understanding the complex transformations of family relationships in the western society. Jean-Jacques Rousseau is one of the first representatives of these changes of mentality. The radical critique of the family initiated by Rousseau, in fact, opens the way to a slow shift towards a democratic conception of the relationship between parents and children. The new model of family proposed by Rousseau – notwithstanding the male superiority in terms of «natural law» – is grounded on the agreement and mutual support between the spouses. Finally, the analysis of certain family stories – Manzoni and Rosselli – offers a micro-historical glance to family relationships during the Nineteenth and Twentieth centuries. The sources relate not only to the educational literature but also to novels on education, i.e. those non-official narratives (diaries, epistolaries, literary sources that can explain the educational experiences and the network of social and educational conditionings individual lives Cómo referenciar este artículo / How to reference this article Borruso, F. (2015. La rivoluzione romantica della famiglia borghese in Occidente. Espacio, Tiempo y Educación, 2(1, pp. 309-322. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14516/ete.2015.002.001.015

  20. Faithful obligations: Merold Westphal’s middle class liberation theology

    OpenAIRE

    Justin Sands

    2016-01-01

    Often, liberation theology’s preferential option for the poor is pushed aside within theological discourses as being too specific, too focused on social problems, to function as a viable theology for the Church as a whole. Through this line of reasoning, many often see liberation theology as something that can remind Christians of their need to help others, but it cannot become the foundation for a sustainable belief system. In response to this, I claim that a liberation theology can be viabl...

  1. THE WHITE BLOOD ANCESTOR?

    OpenAIRE

    M.Arulmani; V.R.Hema Latha

    2014-01-01

    This scientific research article focus that “Red colour blood” of human shall be considered as the 3rd generation Blood and the Human on origin shall be considered having white colour Blood. The white colour blood of human Ancestor shall be considered composed of only ions of Photon, Electron, Proton and free from Hydrogen, Carbon, Nitrogen, Ozone.

  2. Creating White Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLisky, Claire Louise; Carey, Jane

    Vedtagelsen af White Australien som regeringens politik i 1901 viser, at hvidheden var afgørende for den måde, hvorpå den nye nation i Australien blev konstitueret. Og alligevel har historikere i vid udstrækning overset hvidhed i deres studier af Australiens race fortid. 'Creating White Australia...

  3. Observations of White-backed Vultures eating plant material in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    campbell

    small quantities of the green leaves and eagerly feed on dried leaves after the first winter frost without obvious negative effects (H. Stehn, pers. obs.). On being informed of the incident, NT was intrigued, as he had never heard of vultures eating plant material and as White-backed. Vultures eat primarily soft body parts and do ...

  4. Knowing We Are White: Narrative as Critical Praxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullucci, Kerri

    2012-01-01

    A critical concern in preparing teachers for urban schools is helping them make sense of race, identity and racism in schools. Teacher education programs struggle with how to address these issues in classes of primarily White students. Through a document analysis, the present study highlights how teacher educators can use narrative--particularly…

  5. Eningiomas: outcome, and analysis of prognostic factors of primarily resected tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stafford, S.L.; Perry, A.; Suman, V.; Meyer, B.; Scheithauer, B.W.; Shaw, E.G.; Earle, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: 582 consecutive cases of primary intracranial meningioma undergoing resection at the Mayo Clinic, (Rochester, MN) were reviewed to determine overall survival (OS), progression free survival(PFS), prognostic factors predicting recurrence, and to determine the importance of radiation therapy in the management of this tumor. Materials and Methods: Between 1978-1988, 582 cases of primarily resected meningiomas were identified based on the tumor and operative registries where diagnosis was between 1978-1988 inclusive. PFS was identified by radiographic progression. Follow-up was accomplished by chart review, and a detailed questionnaire sent to patients and referring physicians. Estimation of OS and PFS distributions were done by the Kaplan-Meier method. The log rank test was used to assess which factors were associated with PFS. Proportional hazard modeling was performed to obtain a subset of independent predictors of PFS. Results: the median age was 57(5-93). 67% were female. CT identified the tumor in 91% of cases. There was associated edema in 21% and 2% were radiographically en plaque. There were 17 patients with multiple tumors, four of whom had a known diagnosis of neurofibromatosis. Gross total resection (GTR) was accomplished in 80%, radical subtotal or subtotal resection(STR) in 20%, and biopsy in 53) cellularity, and four or more mitoses per 10 HPF. Multivariate analysis indicated young age, male sex, en plaque at surgery, were significant for decreased PFS when only patient characteristics were considered. When treatment and pathologic factors were also considered, then young age, male sex, less than GTR, and tumor sheeting were predictors for decreased PFS. 10 patients had RT after initial resection, two of whom recurred. There were 107 first recurrences. 50 were observed(no intervention within 3 months), 35 treated by surgery alone, 11 had S+RT, and 11 were treated with RT alone. Considering those patients treated at recurrence (n=57), PFS was at

  6. Analysis of survival for patients with chronic kidney disease primarily related to renal cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jitao; Suk-Ouichai, Chalairat; Dong, Wen; Antonio, Elvis Caraballo; Derweesh, Ithaar H; Lane, Brian R; Demirjian, Sevag; Li, Jianbo; Campbell, Steven C

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate predictors of long-term survival for patients with chronic kidney disease primarily due to surgery (CKD-S). Patients with CKD-S have generally good survival that approximates patients who do not have CKD even after renal cancer surgery (RCS), yet there may be heterogeneity within this cohort. From 1997 to 2008, 4 246 patients underwent RCS at our centre. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) follow-up was 9.4 (7.3-11.0) years. New baseline glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was defined as highest GFR between nadir and 6 weeks after RCS. We retrospectively evaluated three cohorts: no-CKD (new baseline GFR of ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ); CKD-S (new baseline GFR of cancer-related survival (NRCRS) for the CKD-S cohort. Kaplan-Meier analysis assessed the longitudinal impact of new baseline GFR (45-60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 vs <45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ) and Cox regression evaluated relative impact of preoperative GFR, new baseline GFR, and relevant demographics/comorbidities. Of the 4 246 patients who underwent RCS, 931 had CKD-S and 1 113 had CKD-M/S, whilst 2 202 had no-CKD even after RCS. Partial/radical nephrectomy (PN/RN) was performed in 54%/46% of the patients, respectively. For CKD-S, 641 patients had a new baseline GFR of 45-60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 and 290 had a new baseline GFR of <45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . Kaplan-Meier analysis showed significantly reduced NRCRS for patients with CKD-S with a GFR of <45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 compared to those with no-CKD or CKD-S with a GFR of 45-60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 (both P ≤ 0.004), and competing risk analysis confirmed this (P < 0.001). Age, gender, heart disease, and new baseline GFR were all associated independently with NRCRS for patients with CKD-S (all P ≤ 0.02). Our data suggest that CKD-S is heterogeneous, and patients with a reduced new baseline GFR have compromised survival, particularly if <45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . Our findings may have implications regarding choice of PN/RN in patients at risk of developing

  7. Sleep in Healthy Black and White Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, Karen A.; Hall, Martica; Dahl, Ronald E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Inadequate sleep among adolescents has negative consequences for self-regulation, emotional well-being, and risk behaviors. Using multiple assessment methods, we evaluated the adequacy of sleep among healthy adolescents from a lower socioeconomic community and expected differences by race. METHODS: A total of 250 healthy high school students enrolled in public school (mean age: 15.7 years; 57% black, 54% female) from families of low to middle class according to the ...

  8. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations; White Sturgeon Spawning and Recruitment Evaluation, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rust, Pete; Wakkinen, Virginia (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2005-06-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the environmental requirements for successful spawning and recruitment of the Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus population. Annual tasks include monitoring and evaluating the various life stages of Kootenai River white sturgeon. Sampling for adult Kootenai River white sturgeon in 2003 began in March and continued through April. Eighty-one adult white sturgeon were captured with 3,576 hours of angling and set-lining effort in the Kootenai River. Discharge from Libby Dam and river stage at Bonners Ferry in 2003 peaked in May and early June. Flows remained above 500 m{sup 3}/s throughout June, decreased rapidly through mid July, and increased back to near 500 m{sup 3}/s after mid July and through mid August. By late August, flows had decreased to below 400 m{sup 3}/s. We monitored the movements of 24 adult sturgeon in Kootenay Lake, British Columbia (BC) and the Kootenai River from March 15, 2003 to August 31, 2003. Some of the fish were radio or sonic tagged in previous years. Twelve adult white sturgeon were moved upstream to the Hemlock Bar reach (rkm 260.0) and released as part of the Set and Jet Program. Transmitters were attached to seven of these fish, and their movements were monitored from the time of release until they moved downstream of Bonners Ferry. Eight additional radio-tagged white sturgeon adults were located in the traditional spawning reach (rkm 228-240) during May and June. Sampling with artificial substrate mats began May 21, 2003 and ended June 30, 2003. We sampled 717 mat d (a mat d is one 24 h set) during white sturgeon spawning. Three white sturgeon eggs were collected near Shortys Island on June 3, 2003, and five eggs were collected from the Hemlock Bar reach on June 5, 2003. Prejuvenile sampling began June 17, 2003 and continued until July 31, 2003. Sampling occurred primarily at Ambush Rock (rkm 244.0) in an attempt to document any recruitment that might have occurred from

  9. The Embeddedness of White Fragility within White Pre-Service Principals' Reflections on White Privilege

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Mack T., III

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes the prevalence of white fragility within the six white, pre-service principals' online responses to readings about white privilege. Six white, pre-service principals were asked to provide commentary to class readings on the relevance of white privilege to their preparation for future positions as principals. The findings showed…

  10. Hypermedicalization in White Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Josef

    2015-09-01

    The Nazis hijacked Germany's medical establishment and appropriated medical language to hegemonize their ideology. In White Noise, shifting medical information stifles the public into docility. In Nazi Germany the primacy of language and medical authority magnified the importance of academic doctors. The muddling of identities caused complex insecurities and the need for psychological doubles. In White Noise, Professor Gladney is driven by professional insecurities to enact a double in Murray. Through the manipulation of language and medical overreach the U.S., exemplified in the novel White Noise, has become a hypermedicalized society where the spirit of the Hippocratic Oath has eroded.

  11. ESCO White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA developed this white paper to explore energy performance contracting with Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) and its potential to be a best practice for installing solar thermal water heating systems in the commercial and industrial sector.

  12. Northeast Atlantic blue whiting

    OpenAIRE

    Heino, Mikko

    2010-01-01

    Heino, M. 2010. Northeast Atlantic blue whiting. In Life cycle spatial patterns of small pelagic fish in the Northeast Atlantic, pp. 59-64. Ed by P. Petitgas. ICES Cooperative Research Report 306. ICES, Copenhagen.

  13. White House Communications Agency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gimble, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    ...; and the Deputy Secretary of Defense requested the audit. The Deputy Secretary of Defense emphasized that this review should be as thorough as possible of all White House Communications Agency (WHCA...

  14. Progenitors of white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drilling, J.S.; Schoenberner, D.

    1985-01-01

    Direct observational evidence is presented which indicates that the immediate progenitors of white dwarfs are the central stars of planetary nebulae (approximately 70%), other post-AGB objects (approximately 30%), and post-HB objects not massive enough to climb the AGB (approximately 0.3%). The combined birth rate for these objects is in satisfactory agreement with the death rate of main-sequence stars and the birth rate of white dwarfs

  15. Black and white holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeldovich, Ya.; Novikov, I.; Starobinskij, A.

    1978-01-01

    The theory is explained of the origination of white holes as a dual phenomenon with regard to the formation of black holes. Theoretically it is possible to derive the white hole by changing the sign of time in solving the general theory of relativity equation implying the black hole. The white hole represents the amount of particles formed in the vicinity of a singularity. For a distant observer, matter composed of these particles expands and the outer boundaries of this matter approach from the inside the gravitational radius Rsub(r). At t>>Rsub(r)/c all radiation or expulsion of matter terminates. For the outside observer the white hole exists for an unlimited length of time. In fact, however, it acquires the properties of a black hole and all processes in it cease. The qualitative difference between a white hole and a black hole is in that a white hole is formed as the result of an inner quantum explosion from the singularity to the gravitational radius and not as the result of a gravitational collapse, i.e., the shrinkage of diluted matter towards the gravitational radius. (J.B.)

  16. Black and white holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeldovich, Ya; Novikov, I; Starobinskii, A

    1978-07-01

    The theory is explained of the origination of white holes as a dual phenomenon with regard to the formation of black holes. Theoretically it is possible to derive the white hole by changing the sign of time in solving the general theory of relativity equation implying the black hole. The white hole represents the amount of particles formed in the vicinity of a singularity. For a distant observer, matter composed of these particles expands and the outer boundaries of this matter approach from the inside the gravitational radius R/sub r/. At t>>R/sub r//c all radiation or expulsion of matter terminates. For the outside observer the white hole exists for an unlimited length of time. In fact, however, it acquires the properties of a black hole and all processes in it cease. The qualitative difference between a white hole and a black hole is in that a white hole is formed as the result of an inner quantum explosion from the singularity to the gravitational radius and not as the result of a gravitational collapse, i.e., the shrinkage of diluted matter towards the gravitational radius.

  17. White matter involvement in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caverzasi, Eduardo; Mandelli, Maria Luisa; DeArmond, Stephen J; Hess, Christopher P; Vitali, Paolo; Papinutto, Nico; Oehler, Abby; Miller, Bruce L; Lobach, Irina V; Bastianello, Stefano; Geschwind, Michael D; Henry, Roland G

    2014-12-01

    Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is considered primarily a disease of grey matter, although the extent of white matter involvement has not been well described. We used diffusion tensor imaging to study the white matter in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease compared to healthy control subjects and to correlated magnetic resonance imaging findings with histopathology. Twenty-six patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and nine age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects underwent volumetric T1-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging. Six patients had post-mortem brain analysis available for assessment of neuropathological findings associated with prion disease. Parcellation of the subcortical white matter was performed on 3D T1-weighted volumes using Freesurfer. Diffusion tensor imaging maps were calculated and transformed to the 3D-T1 space; the average value for each diffusion metric was calculated in the total white matter and in regional volumes of interest. Tract-based spatial statistics analysis was also performed to investigate the deeper white matter tracts. There was a significant reduction of mean (P=0.002), axial (P=0.0003) and radial (P=0.0134) diffusivities in the total white matter in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Mean diffusivity was significantly lower in most white matter volumes of interest (PCreutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Mean diffusivity reduction reflected concomitant decrease of both axial and radial diffusivity, without appreciable changes in white matter anisotropy. Tract-based spatial statistics analysis showed significant reductions of mean diffusivity within the white matter of patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, mainly in the left hemisphere, with a strong trend (P=0.06) towards reduced mean diffusivity in most of the white matter bilaterally. In contrast, by visual assessment there was no white matter abnormality either on T2-weighted or diffusion-weighted images. Widespread reduction in white matter mean

  18. Sleep duration and insulin resistance in healthy black and white adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Karen A; Dahl, Ronald E; Owens, Jane F; Lee, Laisze; Hall, Martica

    2012-10-01

    Poor sleep may play a role in insulin resistance and diabetes risk. Yet few studies of sleep and insulin resistance have focused on the important developmental period of adolescence. To address this gap, we examined the association of sleep and insulin resistance in healthy adolescents. Cross-sectional. Community setting in one high school. 245 (137 African Americans, 116 males) high school students. Participants provided a fasting blood draw and kept a sleep log and wore a wrist actigraph for one week during the school year. Participants' families were from low to middle class based on family Hollingshead scores. Total sleep time across the week averaged 7.4 h by diary and 6.4 h by actigraph; homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance ([HOMA-IR] unadjusted) averaged 4.13. Linear regression analyses adjusted for age, race, gender, body mass index, and waist circumference showed that the shorter the sleep, the higher the HOMA-IR, primarily due to sleep duration during the week. No evidence was found for long sleep being associated with elevated HOMA-IR. Fragmented sleep was not associated with HOMA-IR but was associated with glucose levels. Reduced sleep duration is associated with HOMA-IR in adolescence. Long sleep duration is not associated. Interventions to extend sleep duration may reduce diabetes risk in youth.

  19. O desencontro entre desejo e realidade: a "indústria" da cesariana entre mulheres de camadas médias no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Disagreement between desire and reality: cesarean "industry" among middle class women in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junia Espinha Cardoso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta resultados de uma pesquisa qualitativa que buscou apreender e compreender, através da percepção e experiência de mulheres de camadas médias, o desencontro entre o desejo pelo parto vaginal e o desfecho em cesariana. Quinze usuárias de planos privados de saúde foram entrevistadas sobre suas experiências e percepções relativas ao pré-natal e parto. Os resultados evidenciaram uma (sutil ou explícita interferência do obstetra sobre a escolha das mulheres, influenciando o desfecho em cesariana e sugerindo que, para muitas mulheres, não está sendo possível escapar das "armadilhas" de um modelo biomédico mercantilizado, interventor e iatrogênico, institucionalizado e legitimado pela sociedade. A pesquisa pretende contribuir para ações que estimulem o exercício da cidadania feminina nos processos decisórios que envolvem as questões da saúde reprodutiva, preservando e garantindo a experiência do parto como um direito inalienável das mulheres, seus companheiros e familiares.This paper presents results of a qualitative research that aimed to apprehend and understand, among middle class women´s perception and experience, the disagreement / distance / gap between primary vaginal labor option and a cesarean outcome. Fifteen women who had a private health insurance plan were interviewed about their experiences and perceptions related to their prenatal care and parturition process. Results showed a pervasive or explicit intervention of the obstetrician on women's choice, influencing on the cesarean outcome and suggesting that, for many women, it is still difficult to escape from the "trap" of the mercantilist, intervening and "iatrogenic" biomedical model, which is still firmly institutionalized and legitimated in our society. These results intend to collaborate with actions aimed to promote women's citizenship related to the right to make decisions on their reproductive choices, preserving and undertaking the

  20. A radio-pulsing white dwarf binary star.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, T R; Gänsicke, B T; Hümmerich, S; Hambsch, F-J; Bernhard, K; Lloyd, C; Breedt, E; Stanway, E R; Steeghs, D T; Parsons, S G; Toloza, O; Schreiber, M R; Jonker, P G; van Roestel, J; Kupfer, T; Pala, A F; Dhillon, V S; Hardy, L K; Littlefair, S P; Aungwerojwit, A; Arjyotha, S; Koester, D; Bochinski, J J; Haswell, C A; Frank, P; Wheatley, P J

    2016-09-15

    White dwarfs are compact stars, similar in size to Earth but approximately 200,000 times more massive. Isolated white dwarfs emit most of their power from ultraviolet to near-infrared wavelengths, but when in close orbits with less dense stars, white dwarfs can strip material from their companions and the resulting mass transfer can generate atomic line and X-ray emission, as well as near- and mid-infrared radiation if the white dwarf is magnetic. However, even in binaries, white dwarfs are rarely detected at far-infrared or radio frequencies. Here we report the discovery of a white dwarf/cool star binary that emits from X-ray to radio wavelengths. The star, AR Scorpii (henceforth AR Sco), was classified in the early 1970s as a δ-Scuti star, a common variety of periodic variable star. Our observations reveal instead a 3.56-hour period close binary, pulsing in brightness on a period of 1.97 minutes. The pulses are so intense that AR Sco's optical flux can increase by a factor of four within 30 seconds, and they are also detectable at radio frequencies. They reflect the spin of a magnetic white dwarf, which we find to be slowing down on a 10 7 -year timescale. The spin-down power is an order of magnitude larger than that seen in electromagnetic radiation, which, together with an absence of obvious signs of accretion, suggests that AR Sco is primarily spin-powered. Although the pulsations are driven by the white dwarf's spin, they mainly originate from the cool star. AR Sco's broadband spectrum is characteristic of synchrotron radiation, requiring relativistic electrons. These must either originate from near the white dwarf or be generated in situ at the M star through direct interaction with the white dwarf's magnetosphere.

  1. Examining Change in K-3 Teachers' Mathematical Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs: The Case of Primarily Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutaka, T. S.; Ren, L.; Smith, W. M.; Beattie, H. L.; Edwards, C. P.; Green, J. L.; Chernyavskiy, P.; Stroup, W.; Heaton, R. M.; Lewis, W. J.

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the impact of the Primarily Math Elementary Mathematics Specialist program on K-3 teachers' mathematical content knowledge for teaching, attitudes toward learning mathematics, and beliefs about mathematics teaching and learning. Three cohorts of teachers participating in the program were compared to a similar group of…

  2. WHITE COLLAR CRIME - Investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Nyagudi, Nyagudi Musandu

    2014-01-01

    WHITE COLLAR CRIME - Investigations Presentation By  Dr. Nyagudi MusanduForensic Criminologist 2nd International Securityand Safety Conference and Exhibition, 16th April, 2010 a forum hosted by Events Management Solutions at the Sarit Centre, Nairobi, Kenya  

  3. The White Sea, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Editor's Note: The caption below, published on May 10, 2001, is incorrect. According to Masha Vorontsova, director of the International Fund for Animal Welfare in Moscow, the situation with the seal pups in the White Sea is normal. There is no disaster and there never was. For more details, refer to the article entitled 'No Danger' on the New Scientist home page. The Earth Observatory regrets the earlier errant report. Original Caption According to the Russian Polar Research Institute for Fisheries and Oceanography, between 250,000 and 300,000 Greenland seal pups face death by starvation over the next two months due to a cruel trick by mother nature. The seals, most of them less than two months old, are trapped on ice sheets that remain locked in the White Sea, located near Archangel in Northern Russia. Typically, during the spring thaw the ice sheets break up and flow with the currents northward into the Barents Sea, the seals' spring feeding grounds. The seal pups hitch a ride on the ice floes, living on their own individual stores of fat until they arrive in the Barents Sea. Their mothers departed for the Barents Sea weeks ago. In a normal year, the seal pups' trip from the White Sea out to the Barents takes about six weeks and the seals have adapted to rely upon this mechanism of mother nature. During their yearly migration, the mother seals usually stay with their pups and feed them until their pelts turn from white to grey--a sign that the pups are mature enough to swim and feed themselves. Unfortunately, this year unusually strong northerly winds created a bottleneck of ice near the mouth of the white sea, thus blocking the flow of ice and trapping the pups. These true-color images of the White Sea were acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. This image, taken May 2, 2000 that there is usually much less ice in the White Sea this time of year as most of it is typically en route to the

  4. Acculturation, White Marginalization, and Family Support as Predictors of Perceived Distress in Mexican American Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Linda G.; Conoley, Collie W.; Brossart, Daniel F.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the influence of psychosociocultural variables of acculturation, White attitudinal marginalization, family support, and income on perceived distress in 247 Mexican American female college students. Participants were bicultural and attended primarily White universities in the West and Southwest. Results showed that comfort with…

  5. X-ray and CT signs of connective tissue dysplasia in patients with primarily diagnosed infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhanova, L.A.; Sharmazanova, O.P.

    2009-01-01

    The x-ray signs of connective tissue systemic dysplasia (CTSD) in patients with primarily diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis was investigated. Fifty-four patients (28 med and 26 women aged 18-70) with primarily diagnosed infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis underwent x-ray study. In patients with infiltration pulmonary tuberculosis CTSD in the lungs manifests by their diminishing, deformity of the lung pattern, high position of the diaphragm cupola, mediastinum shift to the side of the pathology, which is better seen on CT. The degree of CTSD x-ray signs in the lungs depends on the number of phenotypical signs that is the degree of the disease manifestation. CT allows more accurate determining of the signs of connective tissue dysplasia in which tuberculosis develops

  6. Assessment of Vegetation Variation on Primarily Creation Zones of the Dust Storms Around the Euphrates Using Remote Sensing Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Amanollahi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, period frequency and effect domain of the dust storms that enter Iran from Iraq have increased. In this study, in addition to detecting the creation zones of the dust storms, the effect of vegetation cover variation on their creation was investigated using remote sensing. Moderate resolution image Spectroradiometer (MODIS and Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM5 have been utilized to identify the primarily creation zones of the dust storms and to assess the vegetation cover variation, respectively. Vegetation cover variation was studied using Normalized Differences Vegetation Index (NDVI obtained from band 3 and band 4 of the Landsate satellite. The results showed that the surrounding area of the Euphrates in Syria, the desert in the vicinity of this river in Iraq, including the deserts of Alanbar Province, and the north deserts of Saudi Arabia are the primarily creation zones of the dust storms entering west and south west of Iran. The results of NDVI showed that excluding the deserts in the border of Syria and Iraq, the area with very weak vegetation cover have increased between 2.44% and 20.65% from 1991 to 2009. In the meanwhile, the retention pound surface areas in the south deserts of Syria as well as the deserts in its border with Iraq have decreased 6320 and 4397 hectares, respectively. As it can be concluded from the findings, one of the main environmental parameters initiating these dust storms is the decrease in the vegetation cover in their primarily creation zones.

  7. Plato: White and Non-white Love

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amo Sulaiman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Plato’s dialogues, the Symposium, and Phaedrus, provide a reasonableexplanation of love. G. Vlastos and M. Nussbaum do not share such anopinion. The former contends that Plato’s view of love is about lovingonly a person’s beauty, but not the entire person; thus, it falls short of anappropriate explanation of love. The latter holds that a theory of love should be complete, and that Plato’s one is incomplete on the grounds that it does not account for personal love. These criticisms will be re-evaluated in light of the duality of love (the white and non-white horses—in Phaedrus as well as participants’ views in the Symposium; a re-assessment will weaken the mentioned objections. This paper contends that from the Symposium and Phaedrus, one can have a fruitful understanding of being in love, being out of love, falling inlove, loving for its own sake and being erotically in love. In order to account for these related issues of love it is important to consider Plato’s works in terms of his “official” and “unofficial” views. The former is construed as the doctrine of the lover or loving for its own sake: this is associates with Diotima’s views which are repeated by Socrates. With reference to the latter, it is possible to explain what personal love or being in love, being out of love, falling in love, and being erotically in love involve. Erotic love will be interpreted as an extension of our philosophical conception of love, related to views of love that are mentioned in the Symposium other than Socrates’ report of Diotima’s conceptions. This paper is divided into two parts: the first one will show views of love in the Symposium. That is, being in love, being out of love, falling in love and loving for its own sake will be discussed. In addition, the forementioned criticisms will be re-evaluated. In the second section, we will show that Aristophanes’ speech expresses erotic love, and then Kant’s objections will be

  8. Asteroseismology of White Dwarf Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Carl J.

    1997-01-01

    The primary purpose of this investigation has been to study various aspects of multimode pulsations in variable white dwarfs. In particular, nonlinear interactions among pulsation modes in white dwarfs (and, to some extent, in other variable stars), analysis of recent observations where such interactions are important, and preliminary work on the effects of crystallization in cool white dwarfs are reported.

  9. Cerebral white matter hypoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, R.B.; Shields, W.D.; Sankar, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the MR imaging findings in children with cerebral white matter hypoplasia (CWMH). The MR studies of four children, aged 3-7 y (mean age, 2.3 y) with a diagnosis of CWMH were reviewed. In all cases multiplanar T1-weighted and T2-weighted spin-echo images were obtained. All children had similar histories of severe developmental delay and nonprogressive neurologic deficits despite normal gestational and birth histories. In two cases there was a history of maternal cocaine abuse. Autopsy correlation was available in one child. The MR images of all four children demonstrated diffuse lack of white matter and enlarged ventricles but normal-appearing gray matter. The corpus callosum, although completely formed, was severely thinned. There was no evidence of gliosis or porencephaly, and the distribution of myelin deposition was normal for age in all cases. Autopsy finding in one child correlated exactly with the MR finding

  10. White noise on bialgebras

    CERN Document Server

    Schürmann, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Stochastic processes with independent increments on a group are generalized to the concept of "white noise" on a Hopf algebra or bialgebra. The main purpose of the book is the characterization of these processes as solutions of quantum stochastic differential equations in the sense of R.L. Hudsonand K.R. Parthasarathy. The notes are a contribution to quantum probability but they are also related to classical probability, quantum groups, and operator algebras. The Az ma martingales appear as examples of white noise on a Hopf algebra which is a deformation of the Heisenberg group. The book will be of interest to probabilists and quantum probabilists. Specialists in algebraic structures who are curious about the role of their concepts in probablility theory as well as quantum theory may find the book interesting. The reader should havesome knowledge of functional analysis, operator algebras, and probability theory.

  11. Defence White Paper 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    nurtured, particularly in Australia’s highly competitive labour market. The Government recognises that Defence’s approach to its people must be... satisfaction , increase attraction and retention, improve cost-effectiveness and support the contemporary Total Force employment model. Defence White...improve job satisfaction and thereby increase attraction and retention in areas of critical skill. Recruiting 10.13 To ensure that we have the high

  12. White in architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Hašič, Sabina

    2014-01-01

    Throughout life, human beings are continuously in contact with colours and shapes. Some people are well aware of and understand their influence, while others are not aware or do not pay attention. Our feelings are often associated with certain colours. We tend to paint our living environment in mood-enhancing shades and cover ourselves with our favourite colours and materials. The colour that attracts my emotions is white, therefore I set out to dedicate my research to its nature and to find ...

  13. Decoding white coat hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Dennis A; Park, Alex

    2017-01-01

    There is arguably no less understood or more intriguing problem in hypertension that the “white coat” condition, the standard concept of which is significantly blood pressure reading obtained by medical personnel of authoritative standing than that obtained by more junior and less authoritative personnel and by the patients themselves. Using hospital-initiated ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, the while effect manifests as initial and ending pressure elevations, and, in treated patients, a low daytime profile. The effect is essentially systolic. Pure diastolic white coat hypertension appears to be exceedingly rare. On the basis of the studies, we believe that the white coat phenomenon is a common, periodic, neuro-endocrine reflex conditioned by anticipation of having the blood pressure taken and the fear of what this measurement may indicate concerning future illness. It does not change with time, or with prolonged association with the physician, particularly with advancing years, it may be superimposed upon essential hypertension, and in patients receiving hypertensive medication, blunting of the nighttime dip, which occurs in about half the patients, may be a compensatory mechanisms, rather than an indication of cardiovascular risk. Rather than the blunted dip, the morning surge or the widened pulse pressure, cardiovascular risk appears to be related to elevation of the average night time pressure. PMID:28352632

  14. White dwarf planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonsor Amy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The recognition that planets may survive the late stages of stellar evolution, and the prospects for finding them around White Dwarfs, are growing. We discuss two aspects governing planetary survival through stellar evolution to the White Dwarf stage. First we discuss the case of a single planet, and its survival under the effects of stellar mass loss, radius expansion, and tidal orbital decay as the star evolves along the Asymptotic Giant Branch. We show that, for stars initially of 1 − 5 M⊙, any planets within about 1 − 5 AU will be engulfed, this distance depending on the stellar and planet masses and the planet's eccentricity. Planets engulfed by the star's envelope are unlikely to survive. Hence, planets surviving the Asymptotic Giant Branch phase will probably be found beyond ∼ 2 AU for a 1  M⊙ progenitor and ∼ 10 AU for a 5 M⊙ progenitor. We then discuss the evolution of two-planet systems around evolving stars. As stars lose mass, planet–planet interactions become stronger, and many systems stable on the Main Sequence become destabilised following evolution of the primary. The outcome of such instabilities is typically the ejection of one planet, with the survivor being left on an eccentric orbit. These eccentric planets could in turn be responsible for feeding planetesimals into the neighbourhood of White Dwarfs, causing observed pollution and circumstellar discs.

  15. Stark Broadening and White Dwarfs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Milan S.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available White dwarf and pre-white dwarfs are the best types of stars for the application of Stark broadening research results in astrophysics, since in the atmospheres of these stars physical conditions are very favorable for this line broadening mechanism - in hot hydrogen-deficient white dwarfs and pre-white dwarfs Teff = 75 000–180 000 K and log g = 5.5–8 [cgs]. Even for much cooler DA and DB white dwarfs with the typical effective temperatures 10 000-20 000 K, Stark broadening is usually the dominant broadening mechanism. In this review, Stark broadening in white dwarf spectra is considered, and the attention is drawn to the STARK-B database (http://stark-b.obspm.fr/, containing the parameters needed for analysis and synthesis of white dwarf spectra, as well as for the collective efforts to develop the Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Center.

  16. FADD Expression as a Prognosticator in Early-Stage Glottic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx Treated Primarily With Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrijvers, Michiel L.; Pattje, Wouter J.; Slagter-Menkema, Lorian; Mastik, Mirjam F.; Gibcus, Johan H.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Wal, Jacqueline E. van der; Laan, Bernard F.A.M. vn der; Schuuring, E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We recently reported on the identification of the Fas-associated death domain (FADD) as a possible driver of the chromosome 11q13 amplicon and the association between increased FADD expression and disease-specific survival in advanced-stage laryngeal carcinoma. The aim of this study was to examine whether expression of FADD and its Ser194-phosphorylated isoform (pFADD) predicts local control in patients with early-stage glottic carcinoma primarily treated with radiotherapy only. Methods and Materials: Immunohistochemical staining for FADD and pFADD was performed on pretreatment biopsy specimens of 92 patients with T1–T2 glottic squamous cell carcinoma primarily treated with radiotherapy between 1996 and 2005. Cox regression analysis was used to correlate expression levels with local control. Results: High levels of pFADD were associated with significantly better local control (hazard ratio, 2.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.04–5.55; p = 0.040). FADD overexpression showed a trend toward better local control (hazard ratio, 3.656; 95% confidence interval, 0.853–15.663; p = 0.081). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that high pFADD expression was the best predictor of local control after radiotherapy. Conclusions: This study showed that expression of phosphorylated FADD is a new prognostic biomarker for better local control after radiotherapy in patients with early-stage glottic carcinomas.

  17. The Great White Guppy: Top Predator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, G. M.

    2011-12-01

    Nitrogen isotopes are often used to trace the trophic level of members of an ecosystem. As part of a stable isotope biogeochemistry and forensics course at Purdue University, students are introduced to this concept by analyzing nitrogen isotopes in sea food purchased from local grocery stores. There is a systematic increase in 15N/14N ratios going from kelp to clams/shrimp, to sardines, to tuna and finally to shark. These enrichments demonstrate how nitrogen is enriched in biomass as predators consume prey. Some of the highest nitrogen isotope enrichments observed, however, are in the common guppy. We investigated a number of aquarium fish foods and find they typically have high nitrogen isotope ratios because they are made form fish meal that is produced primarily from the remains of predator fish such as tuna. From, a isotope perspective, the guppy is the top of the food chain, more ferocious than even the Great White shark.

  18. The White Rabbit project

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, J; Gousiou, E; van der Bij, E; Wlostowski, T; Daniluk, G; Lipinski, M

    2013-01-01

    White Rabbit (WR) is a multi-laboratory, multi- company collaboration for the development of a new Ethernet-based technology which ensures sub-nanosecond synchronisation and deterministic data transfer. The project uses an open source paradigm for the development of its hardware, gateware and software components. This article provides an introduction to the technical choices and an explanation of the basic principles underlying WR. It then describes some possible applications and the current status of the project. Finally, it provides insight on current developments and future plans.

  19. Black God and white devil in the urban ghettos of America: Religion and black nationalism of the Nation of Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Marcin Kowalewski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Nation of Islam, commonly known as the Black Muslim movement,appeared during the Great Depression in the black ghettos of the big urban andindustrial centers in the northern United States. It was founded by W. Fard Muhammad,one of the probably most mysterious figures in the history of Black America,in whom his followers saw the incarnation of Allah. Its doctrine was a combinationof an extremely heterodox or “heretical” Islam and a separatist variety of blacknationalism. A quarter of century later, the marginal sect led by Elijah Muhammadas Messenger of Allah became the most important new religious movement to emerge in the U.S. in the twentieth century. It has proved to be the largest and longest-lived nationalist movement among the American blacks. Its activities, including the preaching of “black internationalism”, were seen by the federal authorities as a threat to national security. The outstanding revolutionary leader Malcolm X emerged from its bosom. Rooted in the lowest layers of the black working class, the Nation of Islam durably and successfully questions the liberal middle-class leadership of the northern black communities, which aspires toward integration into white society.

  20. Accumulation of a poly(hydroxyalkanoate) copolymer containing primarily 3-hydroxyvalerate from simple carbohydrate substrates by Rhodococcus sp. NCIMB 40126.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, G W; Anderson, A J; Williams, D R; Dawes, E A; Ewing, D F

    1991-04-01

    A number of taxonomically-related bacteria have been identified which accumulate poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) copolymers containing primarily 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) monomer units from a range of unrelated single carbon sources. One of these, Rhodococcus sp. NCIMB 40126, was further investigated and shown to produce a copolymer containing 75 mol% 3HV and 25 mol% 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) from glucose as sole carbon source. Polyesters containing both 3HV and 3HB monomer units, together with 4-hydroxybutyrate (4HB), 5-hydroxyvalerate (5HV) or 3-hydroxyhexanoate (3HHx), were also produced by this organism from certain accumulation substrates. With valeric acid as substrate, almost pure (99 mol% 3HV) poly(3-hydroxyvalerate) was produced. N.m.r. analysis confirmed the composition of these polyesters. The thermal properties and molecular weight of the copolymer produced from glucose were comparable to those of PHB produced by Alcaligenes eutrophus.

  1. Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Rape Myth Acceptance: Preliminary Findings From a Sample of Primarily LGBQ-Identified Survey Respondents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Corina; Koon-Magnin, Sarah

    2017-02-01

    This study is among the first to examine the relationship between sexual orientation and rape myth adherence using a nationwide survey of primarily lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) respondents (n = 184). The more established Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale and a modified Male Rape Survey serve as the primary instruments to test both rape myth adherence and instrument-appropriateness. Results suggest that respondents were most likely to support myths that discredit sexual assault allegations or excuse rape as a biological imperative and least likely to support myths related to physical resistance. Consistent with previous work, men exhibited higher levels of rape myth adherence than women. Regarding sexual orientation, respondents who identified as queer consistently exhibited lower levels of rape myth adherence than respondents who identified as gay.

  2. Multi-Province Listeriosis Outbreak Linked to Contaminated Deli Meat Consumed Primarily in Institutional Settings, Canada, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Andrea; Farber, Jeffrey M; Nadon, Céline; Sharma, Davendra; Whitfield, Yvonne; Gaulin, Colette; Galanis, Eleni; Bekal, Sadjia; Flint, James; Tschetter, Lorelee; Pagotto, Franco; Lee, Brenda; Jamieson, Fred; Badiani, Tina; MacDonald, Diane; Ellis, Andrea; May-Hadford, Jennifer; McCormick, Rachel; Savelli, Carmen; Middleton, Dean; Allen, Vanessa; Tremblay, Francois-William; MacDougall, Laura; Hoang, Linda; Shyng, Sion; Everett, Doug; Chui, Linda; Louie, Marie; Bangura, Helen; Levett, Paul N; Wilkinson, Krista; Wylie, John; Reid, Janet; Major, Brian; Engel, Dave; Douey, Donna; Huszczynski, George; Di Lecci, Joe; Strazds, Judy; Rousseau, Josée; Ma, Kenneth; Isaac, Leah; Sierpinska, Urszula

    2015-08-01

    A multi-province outbreak of listeriosis occurred in Canada from June to November 2008. Fifty-seven persons were infected with 1 of 3 similar outbreak strains defined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and 24 (42%) individuals died. Forty-one (72%) of 57 individuals were residents of long-term care facilities or hospital inpatients during their exposure period. Descriptive epidemiology, product traceback, and detection of the outbreak strains of Listeria monocytogenes in food samples and the plant environment confirmed delicatessen meat manufactured by one establishment and purchased primarily by institutions was the source of the outbreak. The food safety investigation identified a plant environment conducive to the introduction and proliferation of L. monocytogenes and persistently contaminated with Listeria spp. This outbreak demonstrated the need for improved listeriosis surveillance, strict control of L. monocytogenes in establishments producing ready-to-eat foods, and advice to vulnerable populations and institutions serving these populations regarding which high-risk foods to avoid.

  3. Development and Sensitivity Analysis of a Frost Risk model based primarily on freely distributed Earth Observation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louka, Panagiota; Petropoulos, George; Papanikolaou, Ioannis

    2015-04-01

    The ability to map the spatiotemporal distribution of extreme climatic conditions, such as frost, is a significant tool in successful agricultural management and decision making. Nowadays, with the development of Earth Observation (EO) technology, it is possible to obtain accurately, timely and in a cost-effective way information on the spatiotemporal distribution of frost conditions, particularly over large and otherwise inaccessible areas. The present study aimed at developing and evaluating a frost risk prediction model, exploiting primarily EO data from MODIS and ASTER sensors and ancillary ground observation data. For the evaluation of our model, a region in north-western Greece was selected as test site and a detailed sensitivity analysis was implemented. The agreement between the model predictions and the observed (remotely sensed) frost frequency obtained by MODIS sensor was evaluated thoroughly. Also, detailed comparisons of the model predictions were performed against reference frost ground observations acquired from the Greek Agricultural Insurance Organization (ELGA) over a period of 10-years (2000-2010). Overall, results evidenced the ability of the model to produce reasonably well the frost conditions, following largely explainable patterns in respect to the study site and local weather conditions characteristics. Implementation of our proposed frost risk model is based primarily on satellite imagery analysis provided nowadays globally at no cost. It is also straightforward and computationally inexpensive, requiring much less effort in comparison for example to field surveying. Finally, the method is adjustable to be potentially integrated with other high resolution data available from both commercial and non-commercial vendors. Keywords: Sensitivity analysis, frost risk mapping, GIS, remote sensing, MODIS, Greece

  4. Healthy younger and older adults control foot placement to avoid small obstacles during gait primarily by modulating step width

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulz Brian W

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Falls are a significant problem in the older population. Most falls occur during gait, which is primarily regulated by foot placement. Variability of foot placement has been associated with falls, but these associations are inconsistent and generally for smooth, level flooring. This study investigates the control of foot placement and the associated gait variability in younger and older men and women (N=7/group, total N=28 while walking at three different speeds (slow, preferred, and fast across a control surface with no obstacles and surfaces with multiple (64 small (10cm long ×13mm high visible and hidden obstacles. Results Minimum obstacle distance between the shoe and nearest obstacle during each footfall was greater on the visible obstacles surface for older subjects because some of them chose to actively avoid obstacles. This obstacle avoidance strategy was implemented primarily by modulating step width and to a lesser extent step length as indicated by linear regressions of step width and length variability on minimum obstacle distance. Mean gait speed, step length, step width, and step time did not significantly differ by subject group, flooring surface, or obstacle avoidance strategy. Conclusions Some healthy older subjects choose to actively avoid small obstacles that do not substantially perturb their gait by modulating step width and, to a lesser extent, step length. It is not clear if this obstacle avoidance strategy is appropriate and beneficial or overcautious and maladaptive, as it results in fewer obstacles encountered at a consequence of a less efficient gait pattern that has been shown to indicate increased fall risk. Further research is needed on the appropriateness of strategy selection when the environmental demands and/or task requirements have multiple possible completion strategies with conflicting objectives (i.e. perceived safety vs. efficiency.

  5. Top emitting white OLEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitag, Patricia; Luessem, Bjoern; Leo, Karl [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Angewandte Photophysik, George-Baehr-Strasse 1, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Top emitting organic light emitting diodes (TOLEDs) provide a number of interesting opportunities for new applications, such as the opportunity to fabricate ITO-free devices by using opaque substrates. This makes it possible to manufacture low cost OLEDs for signage and lighting applications. A general top emitting device consists of highly reflecting metal contacts as anode and semitransparent cathode, the latter one for better outcouling reasons. In between several organic materials are deposited as charge transporting, blocking, and emission layers. Here, we show a top emitting white organic light emitting diode with silver electrodes arranged in a p-i-n structure with p- and n-doped charge transport layers. The centrical emission layer consists of two phosphorescent (red and green) and one fluorescent (blue) emitter systems separated by an ambipolar interlayer to avoid mutual exciton quenching. By adding an additional dielectric capping layer on top of the device stack, we achieve a reduction of the strong microcavity effects which appear due to the high reflection of both metal electrodes. Therefore, the outcoupled light shows broad and nearly angle-independent emission spectra, which is essential for white light emitting diodes.

  6. The White House saga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daković Nevena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Frank Capra expressed his gratitude to the immigrant dream come true by creating a brilliant cinematic myth about the American political system, presenting it as an 'inherently good' when in the hands of honest and good people. His 'morality fairytales', 'fantasies of good will' imbued with belief in restoration of old-new principles, offer complex reflections on an idealised Americanism of the 1930s which have become the foundation of representations of the American political system. The Capraesque narrative - 'a blend of optimism, humor, patriotism, and, to those who really understand his work, (and darkness, despair, and the need to fight for things you care about...' (Bassinger 1982: 48 - as a combination of all-American values, ordinary people and historical figures, a democracy myth - has been extended by an endless network of intertextual echoes in film and TV production. Following the developmental lines - through political melodrama, melodramatic politics and political soap opera - one will be led from Capra to the series The West Wing (1996 - 2006, House of Cards (2013 - 2015 and Madame Secretary (2014 - ; from the comprehensive Washington Postcard (Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, 1939 to the focal points at the White House; from Capra's comedy to the saga of the fight against terrorism led by the president and both ordinary and trained American citizens (White House Down, 2013, Roland Emmerich.

  7. White dwarfs and revelations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltas, Ippocratis D.; Sawicki, Ignacy; Lopes, Ilidio

    2018-05-01

    We use the most recent, complete and independent measurements of masses and radii of white dwarfs in binaries to bound the class of non-trivial modified gravity theories, viable after GW170817/GRB170817, using its effect on the mass-radius relation of the stars. We show that the uncertainty in the latest data is sufficiently small that residual evolutionary effects, most notably the effect of core composition, finite temperature and envelope structure, must now accounted for if correct conclusions about the nature of gravity are to be made. We model corrections resulting from finite temperature and envelopes to a base Hamada-Salpeter cold equation of state and derive consistent bounds on the possible modifications of gravity in the stars' interiors, finding that the parameter quantifying the strength of the modification Y< 0.14 at 95% confidence, an improvement of a factor of three with respect to previous bounds. Finally, our analysis reveals some fundamental degeneracies between the theory of gravity and the precise chemical makeup of white dwarfs.

  8. White piedra in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiken, David A; Sekaran, Anand; Antaya, Richard J; Davis, Amy; Imaeda, Suguru; Silverberg, Nanette B

    2006-12-01

    White piedra is a fungal infection of the hair shaft caused by species of Trichosporon. Rarely has this infection been reported in the United States. Historically, infected individuals required shaving of their hair to achieve clearance of the infection. We sought to describe 8 cases of Trichosporon scalp infections seen in the northeastern United States. We conducted chart review and prospective evaluation of 7 girls and 1 boy seen in two dermatology practices in New Haven, Conn, and New York, NY. Seven girls, ages 4 to 16 years old, and one 4-year-old boy were determined to have Trichosporon scalp infection, all through culture. Of the 8 children who were available for follow-up, 7 had clearance of their infection with a combination of oral azole antifungal medication and azole antifungal shampoo, without shaving the scalp hair. This was a sample of patients from a localized region of the United States. White piedra is emerging as a commonly seen hair and scalp infection in the northeastern United States. Contrary to prior publications, scalp and hair infection may be successfully treated with a combination of oral azole antifungals and shampoos without shaving the scalp.

  9. New concepts in white adipose tissue physiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proença, A.R.G.; Sertié, R.A.L.; Oliveira, A.C.; Campaãa, A.B.; Caminhotto, R.O.; Chimin, P.; Lima, F.B.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies address the physiology of adipose tissue (AT). The interest surrounding the physiology of AT is primarily the result of the epidemic outburst of obesity in various contemporary societies. Briefly, the two primary metabolic activities of white AT include lipogenesis and lipolysis. Throughout the last two decades, a new model of AT physiology has emerged. Although AT was considered to be primarily an abundant energy source, it is currently considered to be a prolific producer of biologically active substances, and, consequently, is now recognized as an endocrine organ. In addition to leptin, other biologically active substances secreted by AT, generally classified as cytokines, include adiponectin, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, resistin, vaspin, visfatin, and many others now collectively referred to as adipokines. The secretion of such biologically active substances by AT indicates its importance as a metabolic regulator. Cell turnover of AT has also recently been investigated in terms of its biological role in adipogenesis. Consequently, the objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive critical review of the current literature concerning the metabolic (lipolysis, lipogenesis) and endocrine actions of AT

  10. New concepts in white adipose tissue physiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proença, A.R.G. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Laboratório de Biotecnologia, Faculdade de Ciências Aplicadas, Limeira, SP, Brasil, Laboratório de Biotecnologia, Faculdade de Ciências Aplicadas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Limeira, SP (Brazil); Sertié, R.A.L. [Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, A.C. [Universidade Estadual do Ceará, Instituto Superior de Ciências Biomédicas, Fortaleza, CE, Brasil, Instituto Superior de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Estadual do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Campaãa, A.B.; Caminhotto, R.O.; Chimin, P.; Lima, F.B. [Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-03-03

    Numerous studies address the physiology of adipose tissue (AT). The interest surrounding the physiology of AT is primarily the result of the epidemic outburst of obesity in various contemporary societies. Briefly, the two primary metabolic activities of white AT include lipogenesis and lipolysis. Throughout the last two decades, a new model of AT physiology has emerged. Although AT was considered to be primarily an abundant energy source, it is currently considered to be a prolific producer of biologically active substances, and, consequently, is now recognized as an endocrine organ. In addition to leptin, other biologically active substances secreted by AT, generally classified as cytokines, include adiponectin, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, resistin, vaspin, visfatin, and many others now collectively referred to as adipokines. The secretion of such biologically active substances by AT indicates its importance as a metabolic regulator. Cell turnover of AT has also recently been investigated in terms of its biological role in adipogenesis. Consequently, the objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive critical review of the current literature concerning the metabolic (lipolysis, lipogenesis) and endocrine actions of AT.

  11. Pulsations in white dwarf stars

    OpenAIRE

    Van Grootel, Valérie; Fontaine, Gilles; Brassard, Pierre; Dupret, Marc-Antoine

    2017-01-01

    I will present a description of the six distinct families of pulsating white dwarfs that are currently known. Pulsations are present at various stages of the evolution (from hot, pre-white dwarfs to cool white dwarfs), at various stellar masses, and for various atmospheric compositions. In all of them, a mechanism linked to opacity changes along the evolution drives the oscillations. The existence of these oscillations offers the opportunity to apply asteroseismology for constraining physics ...

  12. White Faculty Transforming Whiteness in the Classroom through Pedagogical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbeneau, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this qualitative study is to present a conceptual framework of pedagogical practices reported by white faculty that serve to challenge the hegemony of whiteness in the university classroom. These transformative teaching practices surfaced through a review of racialized pedagogies discussed in the literature and in…

  13. Silvicultural guide for northern white-cedar (eastern white cedar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuelle Boulfroy; Eric Forget; Philip V. Hofmeyer; Laura S. Kenefic; Catherine Larouche; Guy Lessard; Jean-Martin Lussier; Fred Pinto; Jean-Claude Ruel; Aaron. Weiskittel

    2012-01-01

    Northern white-cedar (eastern white cedar; Thuja occidentalis L.) is an important tree species in the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada, occurring both in pure stands and as a minor species in mixed stands of hardwoods or other softwoods. Yet practitioners have little and often contradictory information about cedar ecology and...

  14. White Dwarf Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Peering deep inside a cluster of several hundred thousand stars, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has uncovered the oldest burned-out stars in our Milky Way Galaxy, giving astronomers a fresh reading on the age of the universe. Located in the globular cluster M4, these small, burned-out stars -- called white dwarfs -- are about 12 to 13 billion years old. By adding the one billion years it took the cluster to form after the Big Bang, astronomers found that the age of the white dwarfs agrees with previous estimates that the universe is 13 to 14 billion years old. The images, including some taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, are available online at http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pr/2002/10/ or http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc . The camera was designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. In the top panel, a ground-based observatory snapped a panoramic view of the entire cluster, which contains several hundred thousand stars within a volume of 10 to 30 light-years across. The Kitt Peak National Observatory's .9-meter telescope took this picture in March 1995. The box at left indicates the region observed by the Hubble telescope. The Hubble telescope studied a small region of the cluster. A section of that region is seen in the picture at bottom left. A sampling of an even smaller region is shown at bottom right. This region is only about one light-year across. In this smaller region, Hubble pinpointed a number of faint white dwarfs. The blue circles indicate the dwarfs. It took nearly eight days of exposure time over a 67-day period to find these extremely faint stars. Globular clusters are among the oldest clusters of stars in the universe. The faintest and coolest white dwarfs within globular clusters can yield a globular cluster's age. Earlier Hubble observations showed that the first stars formed less than 1 billion years after the universe's birth in the big bang. So, finding the oldest stars puts astronomers within

  15. White matter lesion progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofer, Edith; Cavalieri, Margherita; Bis, Joshua C

    2015-01-01

    10 cohorts. To assess the relative contribution of genetic factors to progression of WML, we compared in 7 cohorts risk models including demographics, vascular risk factors plus single-nucleotide polymorphisms that have been shown to be associated cross-sectionally with WML in the current......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesion (WML) progression on magnetic resonance imaging is related to cognitive decline and stroke, but its determinants besides baseline WML burden are largely unknown. Here, we estimated heritability of WML progression, and sought common genetic variants...... associated with WML progression in elderly participants from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium. METHODS: Heritability of WML progression was calculated in the Framingham Heart Study. The genome-wide association study included 7773 elderly participants from...

  16. ILC Higgs White Paper

    CERN Document Server

    Asner, D.M.; Calancha, C.; Fujii, K.; Graf, N.; Haber, H.E.; Ishikawa, A.; Kanemura, S.; Kawada, S.; Kurata, M.; Miyamoto, A.; Neal, H.; Ono, H.; Potter, C.; Strube, J.; Suehara, T.; Tanabe, T.; Tian, J.; Tsumura, J.; Watanuki, S.; Weiglein, G.; Yagyu, K.; Yokoya, H.

    2013-01-01

    The ILC Higgs White Paper is a review of Higgs Boson theory and experiment at the International Linear Collider (ILC). Theory topics include the Standard Model Higgs, the two-Higgs doublet model, alternative approaches to electroweak symmetry breaking, and precision goals for Higgs boson experiments. Experimental topics include the measurement of the Higgs cross section times branching ratio for various Higgs decay modes at ILC center of mass energies of 250, 500, and 1000 GeV, and the extraction of Higgs couplings and the total Higgs width from these measurements. Luminosity scenarios based on the ILC TDR machine design are used throughout. The gamma-gamma collider option at the ILC is also discussed.

  17. Predictors of moderated drinking in a primarily alcohol dependent sample of men who have sex with men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuerbis, Alexis; Morgenstern, Jon; Hail, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Understanding for whom moderated drinking is a viable, achievable, and sustainable goal among those with a range of alcohol use disorders (AUD) remains an important public health question. Despite common acceptance as severe risk factors, there is little empirical evidence to conclude whether co-occurring mental health disorders or drug dependence contribute to an individual’s inability to successfully moderate his drinking. Utilizing secondary data analysis, the purpose of this study was to identify predictors of moderation among both treatment seeking and non-treatment seeking, primarily alcohol dependent, problem drinking men who have sex with men (MSM), with an emphasis on the high risk factors psychiatric comorbidity and drug dependence. Problem drinkers (N=187) were assessed, provided feedback about their drinking, given the option to receive brief AUD treatment or change their drinking on their own, and then followed for 15 months. Findings revealed that neither psychiatric comorbidity or drug dependence predicted ability to achieve moderation when controlling for alcohol dependence severity. Those who were younger, more highly educated, and had more mild alcohol dependence were more likely to achieve moderated drinking. Impact of treatment on predictors is explored. Limitations of this study and arenas for future research are discussed. PMID:22201219

  18. Diet Quality and Nutrient Intake of Urban Overweight and Obese Primarily African American Older Adults with Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevasti Vergis

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Diet quality may be a unique target for preventing and managing obesity-related osteoarthritis (OA. Using the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010, this study examined the nutrient intake and diet quality of 400 urban overweight and obese primarily African American older adults with self-reported lower extremity OA. Associations between sociodemographic and health-related factors and diet quality were explored. Participants (mean age 67.8 years, SD 5.9 were included. Habitual dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. Nutrient intake and diet quality were calculated from the FFQ. Results indicated that diet quality needs improvement (HEI-2010: 66.3 (SD 10.5. Age, body mass index, employment (multivariable model only, and OA severity (bivariate model only were significant predictors of HEI-2010 total score in linear models. Mean intakes for fiber, calcium, and vitamin D were below recommendations, while percentage of calories as total fat exceeded recommendations. These findings can inform future dietary intervention trials and public health messaging for a sub-population at a high risk for obesity-related OA.

  19. White coat hypertension in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurko, Alexander; Minarik, Milan; Jurko, Tomas; Tonhajzerova, Ingrid

    2016-01-15

    The article summarizes current information on blood pressure changes in children during clinic visit. White coat as a general dressing of physicians and health care personnel has been widely accepted at the end of the 19th century. Two problems can be associated with the use of white coat: white coat phenomenon and white coat hypertension. Children often attribute pain and other unpleasant experience to the white coat and refuse afterwards cooperation with examinations. Definition of white coat hypertension in the literature is not uniform. It has been defined as elevated blood pressure in the hospital or clinic with normal blood pressure at home measured during the day by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring system. White coat effect is defined as temporary increase in blood pressure before and during visit in the clinic, regardless what the average daily ambulatory blood pressure values are. Clinical importance of white coat hypertension is mainly because of higher risk for cardiovascular accidents that are dependent on end organ damage (heart, vessels, kidney). Current data do not allow any clear recommendations for the treatment. Pharmacological therapy is usually started in the presence of hypertrophic left ventricle, changes in intimal/medial wall thickness of carotic arteries, microalbuminuria and other cardiovascular risk factors. Nonpharmacological therapy is less controversial and certainly more appropriate. Patients have to change their life style, need to eliminate as much cardiovascular risk factors as possible and sustain a regular blood pressure monitoring.

  20. Axion cooling of white dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Isern, J.; Catalan, S.; Garcia--Berro, E.; Salaris, M.; Torres, S.

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of white dwarfs is a simple gravothermal process. This process can be tested in two ways, through the luminosity function of these stars and through the secular variation of the period of pulsation of those stars that are variable. Here we show how the mass of the axion can be constrained using the white dwarf luminosity function.

  1. Optical appearance of white holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lake, K.; Roeder, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    The detailed optical properties of white holes are examined within the framework of geometrical optics. It is shown that the appearance of the objects most likely to be observed at late times is in fact determined by their early histories. These ccalculations indicate that one cannot invoke the simple concept of a stable white hole as a ''natural'' explanation of highly energetic astrophysical phenomena

  2. Smartness as Property: A Critical Exploration of Intersections between Whiteness and Disability Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardo, Zeus; Broderick, Alicia A.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Context: Two scholars who each primarily identify as a scholar of critical race/whiteness studies and a scholar of disability studies, respectively, engage in this article in a purposeful dialogue that responds to the invitation put forth by Baglieri, Bejoian, Broderick, Connor, and Valle to engage with the construct of inclusive…

  3. Stem cell therapy for white matter disorders: don't forget the microenvironment!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dooves, Stephanie; van der Knaap, Marjo S.; Heine, Vivi M.

    2016-01-01

    White matter disorders (WMDs) are a major source of handicap at all ages. They often lead to progressive neurological dysfunction and early death. Although causes are highly diverse, WMDs share the property that glia (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes) are among the cells primarily affected, and that

  4. Ah receptor mediated suppression of the antibody response in mice is primarily dependent on the Ah phenotype of lymphoid tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silkworth, J.B.; Antrim, L.A.; Sack, G.

    1986-01-01

    Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons act through the aromatic hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor in mice to produce a series of toxic effects of the immune system. The receptor protein is a product of the Ah gene locus. Ah responsive (Ahb/Ahb) mice express a high affinity receptor in both lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues whereas nonresponsive Ahd/Ahd mice express a poor affinity receptor. To determine the role of the Ah receptor of lymphoid tissue relative to that of nonlymphoid tissue in the induction of immune impairment, bone marrow was used to reconstitute lethally irradiated mice of the same or opposite Ah phenotype. All mice were given 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (35 and 350 mumol/kg) ip 2 days before immunization with sheep erythrocytes (SRBC). The immune response to this T dependent antigen and organ weights were determined 5 or 7 days later in normal or chimeric mice, respectively. Monoclonal Lyt 1.1 and Lyt 1.2 antibodies were used to establish the origin of the cells which repopulated the chimeric thymuses. The immune responses of both BALB/cBy (Ahb/Ahb) and the BALB/cBy X DBA/2 hybrid, CByD2F1 (Ahb/Ahd), were significantly suppressed but DBA/2 mice were unaffected. The immune responses of chimeric BALB/cBy----BALB/cBy and BALB/cBy----DBA/2 (donor----recipient) mice were also significantly suppressed and thymic atrophy was observed in both cases. The serum anti-SRBC antibody titers of DBA/2----BALB/cBy chimeras were also significantly decreased although not to the same extent as in BALB/cBy----DBA/2 mice. Chimeric DBA/2----DBA/2 mice were not affected. These results indicate that the sensitivity to Ah receptor mediated suppression of the antibody response is primarily determined by the Ah phenotype of the lymphoid tissue

  5. Inward Rectifier K+ Currents Are Regulated by CaMKII in Endothelial Cells of Primarily Cultured Bovine Pulmonary Arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Lihui; Yu, Lei; Wang, Yanli; Jin, Xin; Zhang, Qianlong; Lu, Ping; Yu, Xiufeng; Zhong, Weiwei; Zheng, Xiaodong; Cui, Ningren; Jiang, Chun; Zhu, Daling

    2015-01-01

    Endothelium lines the interior surface of vascular walls and regulates vascular tones. The endothelial cells sense and respond to chemical and mechanical stimuli in the circulation, and couple the stimulus signals to vascular smooth muscles, in which inward rectifier K+ currents (Kir) play an important role. Here we applied several complementary strategies to determine the Kir subunit in primarily cultured pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAECs) that was regulated by the Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). In whole-cell voltage clamp, the Kir currents were sensitive to micromolar concentrations of extracellular Ba2+. In excised inside-out patches, an inward rectifier K+ current was observed with single-channel conductance 32.43 ± 0.45 pS and Popen 0.27 ± 0.04, which were consistent with known unitary conductance of Kir 2.1. RT-PCR and western blot results showed that expression of Kir 2.1 was significantly stronger than that of other subtypes in PAECs. Pharmacological analysis of the Kir currents demonstrated that insensitivity to intracellular ATP, pinacidil, glibenclamide, pH, GDP-β-S and choleratoxin suggested that currents weren't determined by KATP, Kir2.3, Kir2.4 and Kir3.x. The currents were strongly suppressed by exposure to CaMKII inhibitor W-7 and KN-62. The expression of Kir2.1 was inhibited by knocking down CaMKII. Consistently, vasodilation was suppressed by Ba2+, W-7 and KN-62 in isolated and perfused pulmonary arterial rings. These results suggest that the PAECs express an inward rectifier K+ current that is carried dominantly by Kir2.1, and this K+ channel appears to be targeted by CaMKII-dependent intracellular signaling systems.

  6. Inward Rectifier K+ Currents Are Regulated by CaMKII in Endothelial Cells of Primarily Cultured Bovine Pulmonary Arteries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihui Qu

    Full Text Available Endothelium lines the interior surface of vascular walls and regulates vascular tones. The endothelial cells sense and respond to chemical and mechanical stimuli in the circulation, and couple the stimulus signals to vascular smooth muscles, in which inward rectifier K+ currents (Kir play an important role. Here we applied several complementary strategies to determine the Kir subunit in primarily cultured pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAECs that was regulated by the Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII. In whole-cell voltage clamp, the Kir currents were sensitive to micromolar concentrations of extracellular Ba2+. In excised inside-out patches, an inward rectifier K+ current was observed with single-channel conductance 32.43 ± 0.45 pS and Popen 0.27 ± 0.04, which were consistent with known unitary conductance of Kir 2.1. RT-PCR and western blot results showed that expression of Kir 2.1 was significantly stronger than that of other subtypes in PAECs. Pharmacological analysis of the Kir currents demonstrated that insensitivity to intracellular ATP, pinacidil, glibenclamide, pH, GDP-β-S and choleratoxin suggested that currents weren't determined by KATP, Kir2.3, Kir2.4 and Kir3.x. The currents were strongly suppressed by exposure to CaMKII inhibitor W-7 and KN-62. The expression of Kir2.1 was inhibited by knocking down CaMKII. Consistently, vasodilation was suppressed by Ba2+, W-7 and KN-62 in isolated and perfused pulmonary arterial rings. These results suggest that the PAECs express an inward rectifier K+ current that is carried dominantly by Kir2.1, and this K+ channel appears to be targeted by CaMKII-dependent intracellular signaling systems.

  7. Y-Chromosomal Diversity in Europe Is Clinal and Influenced Primarily by Geography, Rather than by Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Zoë H.; Zerjal, Tatiana; Hurles, Matthew E.; Adojaan, Maarja; Alavantic, Dragan; Amorim, António; Amos, William; Armenteros, Manuel; Arroyo, Eduardo; Barbujani, Guido; Beckman, Gunhild; Beckman, Lars; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Bosch, Elena; Bradley, Daniel G.; Brede, Gaute; Cooper, Gillian; Côrte-Real, Helena B. S. M.; de Knijff, Peter; Decorte, Ronny; Dubrova, Yuri E.; Evgrafov, Oleg; Gilissen, Anja; Glisic, Sanja; Gölge, Mukaddes; Hill, Emmeline W.; Jeziorowska, Anna; Kalaydjieva, Luba; Kayser, Manfred; Kivisild, Toomas; Kravchenko, Sergey A.; Krumina, Astrida; Kučinskas, Vaidutis; Lavinha, João; Livshits, Ludmila A.; Malaspina, Patrizia; Maria, Syrrou; McElreavey, Ken; Meitinger, Thomas A.; Mikelsaar, Aavo-Valdur; Mitchell, R. John; Nafa, Khedoudja; Nicholson, Jayne; Nørby, Søren; Pandya, Arpita; Parik, Jüri; Patsalis, Philippos C.; Pereira, Luísa; Peterlin, Borut; Pielberg, Gerli; Prata, Maria João; Previderé, Carlo; Roewer, Lutz; Rootsi, Siiri; Rubinsztein, D. C.; Saillard, Juliette; Santos, Fabrício R.; Stefanescu, Gheorghe; Sykes, Bryan C.; Tolun, Aslihan; Villems, Richard; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Jobling, Mark A.

    2000-01-01

    Clinal patterns of autosomal genetic diversity within Europe have been interpreted in previous studies in terms of a Neolithic demic diffusion model for the spread of agriculture; in contrast, studies using mtDNA have traced many founding lineages to the Paleolithic and have not shown strongly clinal variation. We have used 11 human Y-chromosomal biallelic polymorphisms, defining 10 haplogroups, to analyze a sample of 3,616 Y chromosomes belonging to 47 European and circum-European populations. Patterns of geographic differentiation are highly nonrandom, and, when they are assessed using spatial autocorrelation analysis, they show significant clines for five of six haplogroups analyzed. Clines for two haplogroups, representing 45% of the chromosomes, are continentwide and consistent with the demic diffusion hypothesis. Clines for three other haplogroups each have different foci and are more regionally restricted and are likely to reflect distinct population movements, including one from north of the Black Sea. Principal-components analysis suggests that populations are related primarily on the basis of geography, rather than on the basis of linguistic affinity. This is confirmed in Mantel tests, which show a strong and highly significant partial correlation between genetics and geography but a low, nonsignificant partial correlation between genetics and language. Genetic-barrier analysis also indicates the primacy of geography in the shaping of patterns of variation. These patterns retain a strong signal of expansion from the Near East but also suggest that the demographic history of Europe has been complex and influenced by other major population movements, as well as by linguistic and geographic heterogeneities and the effects of drift. PMID:11078479

  8. Social Media Use and its Association with Sexual Risk and Parental Monitoring among a Primarily Hispanic Adolescent Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo, Dina L; Garnett, Chelsea; Younger, Alayna P; Stockwell, Melissa S; Soren, Karen; Catallozzi, Marina; Neu, Natalie

    2017-08-01

    In this study we assessed the association between social media (SM) use with sexual risk, and with parental monitoring among Hispanic adolescents. Self-administered anonymous survey. Urban primary care clinics. Primarily Hispanic adolescents ages 13-21 years old. Chi-square and regression analyses controlling for age and gender were used to assess associations between SM use or sexting and sexual behaviors (kissing, touching genitals, vaginal oral, and anal sex), sexual risk (≥4 lifetime partners, >1 recent partner, inconsistent condom use, and history of sexually transmitted infection diagnosis) and contraceptive use. Similar analyses were used to assess relationships between adolescent-reported parental monitoring and SM use, and sexting. Participants with frequent SM use (social networking sites or apps) had greater odds of all sexual activity. Ever sexters had greater odds of penetrative sex only (oral, vaginal, and anal sex) as well as use of hormonal contraception (except long-acting reversible contraception). Approximately half of the participants reported parental access to profiles on SM. Female participants had higher odds of parental access to online profiles and having a parental discussion of privacy settings. Those having privacy discussions had greater odds of "private" profiles on SM and lower odds of ever sexting. Frequent SM use and sexting was associated with an increase in all types of sexual behaviors; sexting alone was associated with more lifetime and recent sexual partners. Parental discussion of privacy settings was found to be protective. Providers and parents should be aware of the effect of SM use on sexual behaviors. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The White Rabbit Project

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, J; Cattin, M; Garcia Cota, E; Lewis, J; Moreira, P; Wlostowski, T; Gaderer, G; Loschmidt, P; Dedic, J; Bär, R; Fleck, T; Kreider, M; Prados, C; Rauch, S

    2009-01-01

    Reliable, fast and deterministic transmission of control information in a network is a need formany distributed systems. One example is timing systems, where a reference frequency is used to accurately schedule time-critical messages. TheWhite Rabbit (WR) project is a multi-laboratory and multi-company effort to bring together the best of the data transfer and timing worlds in a completely open design. It takes advantage of the latest developments for improving timing over Ethernet, such as IEEE 1588 (Precision Time Protocol) and Synchronous Ethernet. The presented approach aims for a general purpose, fieldbus-like transmission system, which provides deterministic data and timing (sub-ns accuracy and ps jitter) to around 1000 stations. It automatically compensates for fiber lengths in the order of 10 km. This paper describes the WR design goals and the specification used for the project. It goes on to describe the central component of the WR system structure - the WR switch - with theoretical considerations a...

  10. Whiting in Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Satellites provide a view from space of changes on the Earth's surface. This series of images from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) aboard the Orbview-2 satellite shows the dramatic change in the color of Lake Michigan during the summer. The bright color that appears in late summer is probably caused by calcium carbonate-chalk-in the water. Lake Michigan always has a lot of calcium carbonate in it because the floor of the lake is limestone. During most of the year the calcium carbonate remains dissolved in the cold water, but at the end of summer the lake warms up, lowering the solubility of calcium carbonate. As a result, the calcium carbonate precipitates out of the water, forming clouds of very small solid particles that appear as bright swirls from above. The phenomenon is appropriately called a whiting event. A similar event occured in 1999, but appears to have started later and subsided earlier. It is also possible that a bloom of the algae Microcystis is responsible for the color change, but unlikely because of Lake Michigan's depth and size. Microcystis blooms have occured in other lakes in the region, however. On the shore of the lake it is possible to see the cities of Chicago, Illinois, and Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Both appear as clusters of gray-brown pixels. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  11. 49 CFR 37.195 - Purchase or lease of OTRBs by private entities not primarily in the business of transporting people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... primarily in the business of transporting people. 37.195 Section 37.195 Transportation Office of the... transporting people. This section applies to all purchases or leases of new vehicles by private entities which are not primarily engaged in the business of transporting people, with respect to buses delivered to...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: white sponge nevus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions White sponge nevus White sponge nevus Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description White sponge nevus is a condition characterized by the formation ...

  13. TRPA1 is functionally expressed primarily by IB4-binding, non-peptidergic mouse and rat sensory neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie E Barabas

    functionally expressed primarily in the IB4-positive, CGRP-negative subpopulation of small lumbar DRG neurons from rodents. Thus, IB4 binding is a better indicator than neuropeptides for TRPA1 expression.

  14. TRPA1 Is Functionally Expressed Primarily by IB4-Binding, Non-Peptidergic Mouse and Rat Sensory Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky, Cheryl L.

    2012-01-01

    primarily in the IB4-positive, CGRP-negative subpopulation of small lumbar DRG neurons from rodents. Thus, IB4 binding is a better indicator than neuropeptides for TRPA1 expression. PMID:23133534

  15. STS-93 M.S. Michel Tognini in white room

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    STS-93 Mission Specialist Michel Tognini of France is checked out by white room closeout crew members before entering the orbiter Columbia. Tognini is with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). The white room is an environmental chamber at the end of the orbiter access arm that provides entry to the orbiter crew compartment. STS-93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. After Space Shuttle Columbia's July 20 and 22 launch attempts were scrubbed, the launch was again rescheduled for Friday, July 23, at 12:24 a.m. EDT. The target landing date is July 27 at 11:20 p.m. EDT.

  16. Y WHITE CHITWOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Cervantes-Moreno

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la tolerancia de 26 colectas de tomates nativos de México a Meloidogyne incongnita (Kofoid y White Chit- wood, con el fin de identificar aquellas con potencial para su empleo en el mejoramiento genético o como portainjertos. Para ello, plantas de 30 días de edad fueron establecidas en hidroponia bajo invernadero. Diez días después del trasplante (ddt fue aplicada al sustrato una solución con 100,000 huevecillos-larva por planta. Se registraron caracteres de la parte aérea de plantas y a los 210 ddt se cuantificó el desarrollo de poblaciones de nematodos en raíces. M. incognita disminuyó el diámetro de frutos y el porte de planta (altura al primer racimo, peso seco de tallo y número de nudos, e incrementó el número de frutos y flores. Además, redujo la longitud de raíces y aumentó el volumen de éstas por la formación de nó- dulos. Mediante análisis multivariados (agrupamiento y discriminante se definieron cinco grupos de colectas en función de la cantidad de agallas pequeñas y grandes, así como el total de éstas (82 % de variación y por la cantidad de larvas en raíz y huevecillos en sustrato (13 % de variación. Se identificaron tres colectas tolerantes con bajos índices de agallas y menor presencia de huevecillos-larva en raíz y en sustrato. Ocho colectas fueron moderadamente tolerantes; nueve, moderadamente susceptibles, y seis, susceptibles. No se detectaron asociaciones entre orígenes de colectas o forma de fruto con respecto a la tolerancia al nematodo.

  17. Renewable Energy Opportunities at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chvala, William D.; Solana, Amy E.; States, Jennifer C.; Warwick, William M.; Weimar, Mark R.; Dixon, Douglas R.

    2008-09-01

    The document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 DoD Renewable Energy Assessment. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also ground source heat pumps (GSHPs) for heating and cooling buildings, as directed by IMCOM.

  18. The taxonomic status of the white-tailed kite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, W.S.; Banks, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    The White-tailed Kite (Elanus leucurus) of the Americas has been merged with the Black-shouldered (or Black-winged) Kite (E. caeruleus) of the Old World and the Australian Black-shouldered Kite (E. axillaris) by North American authorities (but not elsewhere), primarily because of similarity in plumage. However, American kites differ from Old World kites in greater size and weight, in proportions (relatively longer tail and smaller bill and feet), plumage pattern (particularly of juveniles), and in behavior. Here we argue that these characters are sufficiently distinctive to warrant recognition of E. leucurus at the species level.

  19. Management plan for White Oak Dam. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.B.

    1997-03-01

    The purpose is to provide operation and maintenance, periodic inspection, and emergency action plans for White Oak Dam in general accordance with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) guidelines for dam safety. It must be understood that operations at the site are primarily for purposes of environmental monitoring, environmental protection and waste management operations control. Effluent is generally allowed to flow from the lake at its natural rate by rising above the broad crested weir notch elevation of 744 feet m.s.l

  20. White mold of Jerusalem artichoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) is a Native American food plant closely related to the common sunflower (Helianthus annuus). Tubers of Jerusalem artichoke are increasingly available in retail grocery outlets. White mold (Sclerotinia stem rot), caused by the fungus, Sclerotinia sclerotioru...

  1. The odour of white bread

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, E.J.

    1973-01-01

    Volatile constituents of white bread were investigated. Different methods were used for isolating and concentrating components to avoid artefacts as far as possible. Especially good was enlarged vapour analysis. Ninety-four components were identified, including hydrocarbons, alcohols,

  2. Are hills like white elephants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Sharma

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available 'Are Hills Like White Elephants?' is, of course, inspired by Hemingway; the tribute reflects on the abiding relevance of serious art in a changed world and extends the boundaries of his message to other human situations.

  3. White dwarfs in cataclysmic variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sion, E.M.

    1987-01-01

    The physical properties and evolutionary state of the underlying white dwarfs in CVs are explored. Observations of 25 white dwarfs with effective temperature upper limits of 9000-75,000 K are discussed. Correlations between effective temperature, orbital period, accretion rate, and CV type with respect to the CV period gap are considered. Quasi-static and hydrodynamic evolutionary models are used to explain the surface temperature/luminosity distribution ratios. 42 references

  4. Evolution of White Dwarf Stars

    OpenAIRE

    L. G. Althaus

    2001-01-01

    This paper is aimed at presenting the main results we have obtained for the study of the evoution of white dwarf stars. The calculations are carried out by means of a detailed evolutionary code based on an updated physical description. In particular, we briefly discuss the results for the evolution of white dwarfs of different stellar masses and chemical composition, and the evolution of whit e dwarfs in the framework of a varying gravitational constant G scenario as well.

  5. Economists and White House Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart E. Eizenstat

    1992-01-01

    While I served in the White House, [as Assistant to the President for Domestic Affairs and Policy and Executive Director of the White House Domestic Policy Staff from 1977-81], Ph.D. economists occupied the positions of Secretary of Labor, Secretary of Commerce, Secretary of Treasury, Director of the Council on Wage and Price Stability, the President's anti-inflation adviser, Chairman and Council Members of the Council of Economic Advisers, and many other senior positions throughout the gover...

  6. The mouthfeel of white wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawel, Richard; Smith, Paul A; Cicerale, Sara; Keast, Russell

    2017-07-05

    White wine mouthfeel which encompasses the tactile, chemosensory and taste attributes of perceived viscosity, astringency, hotness and bitterness is increasingly being recognized as an important component of overall white wine quality. This review summarizes the physiological basis for the perception of white wine mouthfeel and the direct and interactive effects of white wine composition, specifically those of low molecular weight phenolic compounds, polysaccharides, pH, ethanol, glycerol, dissolved carbon dioxide, and peptides. Ethyl alcohol concentration and pH play a direct role in determining most aspects of mouthfeel perception, and provide an overall framework on which the other minor wine components can interact to influence white wine mouthfeel. Phenolic compounds broadly impact on the mouthfeel by contributing to its viscosity, astringency, hotness and bitterness. Their breadth of influence likely results from their structural diversity which would allow them to activate multiple sensory mechanisms involved in mouthfeel perception. Conversely, polysaccharides have a small modulating effect on astringency and hotness perception, and glycerol does not affect perceived viscosity within the narrow concentration range found in white wine. Many of the major sensory attributes that contribute to the overall impression of mouthfeel are elicited by more than one class compound suggesting that different physiological mechanisms may be involved in the construct of mouthfeel percepts.

  7. Let's Talk about Race, Baby: How a White Professor Teaches White Students about White Privilege and Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Peter

    2008-01-01

    There are a variety of methods by which the themes of White privilege and racism can be presented to White students. By using the concept of racial identity a continuum of racism can be considered. Furthermore, addressing White privilege and racism in the context of a multicultural psychology course allows White students to have a greater…

  8. Water Integration Project Science Strategies White Paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alan K. Yonk

    2003-01-01

    This white paper has been prepared to document the approach to develop strategies to address Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) science and technology needs/uncertainties to support completion of INEEL Idaho Completion Project (Environmental Management [EM]) projects against the 2012 plan. Important Idaho Completion Project remediation and clean-up projects include the 2008 OU 10-08 Record of Decision, completion of EM by 2012, Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Tanks, INEEL CERCLA Disposal Facility, and the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. The objective of this effort was to develop prioritized operational needs and uncertainties that would assist Operations in remediation and clean-up efforts at the INEEL and develop a proposed path forward for the development of science strategies to address these prioritized needs. Fifteen needs/uncertainties were selected to develop an initial approach to science strategies. For each of the 15 needs/uncertainties, a detailed definition was developed. This included extracting information from the past interviews with Operations personnel to provide a detailed description of the need/uncertainty. For each of the 15 prioritized research and development needs, a search was performed to identify the state of the associated knowledge. The knowledge search was performed primarily evaluating ongoing research. The ongoing research reviewed included Environmental Systems Research Analysis, Environmental Management Science Program, Laboratory Directed Research and Development, Inland Northwest Research Alliance, United States Geological Survey, and ongoing Operations supported projects. Results of the knowledge search are documented as part of this document

  9. Water Integration Project Science Strategies White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan K. Yonk

    2003-09-01

    This white paper has been prepared to document the approach to develop strategies to address Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) science and technology needs/uncertainties to support completion of INEEL Idaho Completion Project (Environmental Management [EM]) projects against the 2012 plan. Important Idaho Completion Project remediation and clean-up projects include the 2008 OU 10-08 Record of Decision, completion of EM by 2012, Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Tanks, INEEL CERCLA Disposal Facility, and the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. The objective of this effort was to develop prioritized operational needs and uncertainties that would assist Operations in remediation and clean-up efforts at the INEEL and develop a proposed path forward for the development of science strategies to address these prioritized needs. Fifteen needs/uncertainties were selected to develop an initial approach to science strategies. For each of the 15 needs/uncertainties, a detailed definition was developed. This included extracting information from the past interviews with Operations personnel to provide a detailed description of the need/uncertainty. For each of the 15 prioritized research and development needs, a search was performed to identify the state of the associated knowledge. The knowledge search was performed primarily evaluating ongoing research. The ongoing research reviewed included Environmental Systems Research Analysis, Environmental Management Science Program, Laboratory Directed Research and Development, Inland Northwest Research Alliance, United States Geological Survey, and ongoing Operations supported projects. Results of the knowledge search are documented as part of this document.

  10. Digging of 'Snow White' Begins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander began excavating a new trench, dubbed 'Snow White,' in a patch of Martian soil located near the center of a polygonal surface feature, nicknamed 'Cheshire Cat.' The trench is about 2 centimeters (.8 inches) deep and 30 centimeters (about 12 inches) long. The 'dump pile' is located at the top of the trench, the side farthest away from the lander, and has been dubbed 'Croquet Ground.' The digging site has been named 'Wonderland.' At this early stage of digging, the Phoenix team did not expect to find any of the white material seen in the first trench, now called 'Dodo-Goldilocks.' That trench showed white material at a depth of about 5 centimeters (2 inches). More digging of Snow White is planned for coming sols, or Martian days. The dark portion of this image is the shadow of the lander's solar panel; the bright areas within this region are not in shadow. Snow White was dug on Sol 22 (June 17, 2008) with Phoenix's Robotic Arm. This picture was acquired on the same day by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager. This image has been enhanced to brighten shaded areas. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  11. TRANSIT SURVEYS FOR EARTHS IN THE HABITABLE ZONES OF WHITE DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agol, Eric

    2011-01-01

    To date the search for habitable Earth-like planets has primarily focused on nuclear burning stars. I propose that this search should be expanded to cool white dwarf stars that have expended their nuclear fuel. I define the continuously habitable zone of white dwarfs and show that it extends from ∼0.005 to 0.02 AU for white dwarfs with masses from 0.4 to 0.9 M sun , temperatures less than ∼10 4 K, and habitable durations of at least 3 Gyr. As they are similar in size to Earth, white dwarfs may be deeply eclipsed by terrestrial planets that orbit edge-on, which can easily be detected with ground-based telescopes. If planets can migrate inward or reform near white dwarfs, I show that a global robotic telescope network could carry out a transit survey of nearby white dwarfs placing interesting constraints on the presence of habitable Earths. If planets were detected, I show that the survey would favor detection of planets similar to Earth: similar size, temperature, and rotation period, and host star temperatures similar to the Sun. The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope could place even tighter constraints on the frequency of habitable Earths around white dwarfs. The confirmation and characterization of these planets might be carried out with large ground and space telescopes.

  12. Food habits of stunted and non-stunted white perch (Morone americana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosch, N.J.C.; Stittie, J.R.; Pope, K.L.

    2010-01-01

    We studied food habits of white perch (Morone americana) from two populations with different stable states (stunted [Branched Oak Lake, Nebraska] and nonstunted [Pawnee Lake, Nebraska]) to determine if change in food habits of white perch is likely to occur in situations where a stunted white perch population is altered to a nonstunted state and vice versa. Three approaches were used to quantitatively describe seasonal (spring = March-May, summer = June-August, autumn = September-November) diets of white perch - 1) frequency of occurrence, 2) percentage of composition by volume, and 3) mean stomach fullness. White perch diets were dominated by cladocerans and dipterans in both reservoirs during all seasons. Fish egg predation was similar between reservoirs, and white perch rarely consumed fishes in either the stunted or the non-stunted population. Shifting a white perch population between stunted and non-stunted states will likely cause little or no change in food habits; fish in both states will primarily consume invertebrates.

  13. Social imaginaries, sperm and whiteness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Rikke

    2017-01-01

    media coverage of these new families, this article explores contemporary constructions of race, especially whiteness, and gender, and shows how imaginaries of Vikings, genes and white superiority circulate in British media and among British mothers. The article illustrates how a racial discourse, which......This article analyses narratives about so-called Viking babies and Viking sperm. Over the last few years an increasing number of British single women and lesbian couples have been creating families by becoming pregnant with Danish donor sperm, termed ‘Viking sperm’. Through analyses of British...

  14. Blanco White and Walter Scott Blanco white y Walter Scott

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando DURÁN LÓPEZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The first edition of Ivanhoe; a romance. By the author of Waverley was published in Edinburgh in 1820. From the beginning of year 1823, José María Blanco White translated several excerpts from Ivanhoe in the numbers 1-3 of the magazine Variedades, owned by the publisher Rudolph Ackermann. in these articles and other later writings, the translator praised Scott as a model for a new way of painting history in a narrative. This paper studies his ideas on Scott’s historical novel, as well as his translation technique, compared with that of José Joaquín de Mora. En 1820 se publicó en Edimburgo la primera edición de Ivanhoe; a romance. By the author of Waverley. Desde comienzos de 1823, en los tres primeros números de su revista Variedades, promovida por el editor Rudolph Ackermann, José María Blanco White tradujo varios fragmentos de Ivanhoe entre grandes elogios. Asimismo, Blanco White tomó a Scott como modelo de referencia de una nueva manera de pintar la historia por medio de la novela en otros varios escritos críticos de años posteriores. El artículo estudia las ideas de Blanco White acerca de la novela histórica de Scott y su técnica como traductor, comparada con la de José Joaquín Mora.

  15. Working through Whiteness: White, Male College Students Challenging Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Nolan L.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study relies on Freire's conception of liberatory praxis to examine White male college students' becoming aware of racism and translating awareness into action. The participants developed racial cognizance via cross-racial contact and course content. They also tended to be open to interrogating racism and racial privilege due to…

  16. Development of the Cell Population in the Brain White Matter of Young Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigaard, Rasmus Krarup; Kjær, Majken; Pakkenberg, Bente

    2014-01-01

    While brain gray matter is primarily associated with sensorimotor processing and cognition, white matter modulates the distribution of action potentials, coordinates communication between different brain regions, and acts as a relay for input/output signals. Previous studies have described......, and microglia) in the cerebral white matter of 9 infants aged 0-33 months, using design-based stereological methods to obtain quantitative data about brain development. There were linear increases with age in the numbers of oligodendrocytes (7-28 billion) and astrocytes (1.5-6.7 billion) during the first 3...

  17. The Middle Class Is Key to a Better-Educated Nation: A Stronger Middle Class Is Associated with Better Educational Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madland, David; Bunker, Nick

    2011-01-01

    Education is key to America's economic success as technological change and global competition increase exponentially. Unfortunately, where once the nation was atop the world academically, today American students rank in the middle of the pack. Not surprisingly, business leaders and the American public are concerned about the quality of American…

  18. Longitudinal changes in white matter microstructure after heavy cannabis use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary P. Becker

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI studies of cannabis users report alterations in brain white matter microstructure, primarily based on cross-sectional research, and etiology of the alterations remains unclear. We report findings from longitudinal voxelwise analyses of DTI data collected at baseline and at a 2-year follow-up on 23 young adult (18–20 years old at baseline regular cannabis users and 23 age-, sex-, and IQ-matched non-using controls with limited substance use histories. Onset of cannabis use was prior to age 17. Cannabis users displayed reduced longitudinal growth in fractional anisotropy in the central and parietal regions of the right and left superior longitudinal fasciculus, in white matter adjacent to the left superior frontal gyrus, in the left corticospinal tract, and in the right anterior thalamic radiation lateral to the genu of the corpus callosum, along with less longitudinal reduction of radial diffusion in the right central/posterior superior longitudinal fasciculus, corticospinal tract, and posterior cingulum. Greater amounts of cannabis use were correlated with reduced longitudinal growth in FA as was relatively impaired performance on a measure of verbal learning. These findings suggest that continued heavy cannabis use during adolescence and young adulthood alters ongoing development of white matter microstructure, contributing to functional impairment.

  19. Rotation of White Dwarf Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Kawaler, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    I discuss and consider the status of observational determinations of the rotation velocities of white dwarf stars via asteroseismology and spectroscopy. While these observations have important implications on our understanding of the angular momentum evolution of stars in their late stages of evolution, more direct methods are sorely needed to disentangle ambiguities.

  20. White LED motorcycle headlamp design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen-Shing

    2015-09-01

    The motorcycle headlamp is composed of a white LED module, an elliptical reflector, a parabolic reflector and a toric lens. We use non-sequential ray to improve the optical efficiency of the compound reflectors. Using the toric lens can meet ECE_113 regulation and obtain a good uniformity.

  1. The Next White (NEW) Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monrabal, F.; et al.

    2018-04-06

    Conceived to host 5 kg of xenon at a pressure of 15 bar in the fiducial volume, the NEXT- White (NEW) apparatus is currently the largest high pressure xenon gas TPC using electroluminescent amplification in the world. It is also a 1:2 scale model of the NEXT-100 detector scheduled to start searching for $\\beta\\beta 0\

  2. One-Dimensionality and Whiteness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Dolores

    2006-01-01

    This article is a theoretical discussion that links Marcuse's concept of one-dimensional society and the Great Refusal with critical race theory in order to achieve a more robust interrogation of whiteness. The author argues that in the context of the United States, the one-dimensionality that Marcuse condemns in "One-Dimensional Man" is best…

  3. White adipose tissue: Getting nervous

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fliers, E.; Kreier, F.; Voshol, P. J.; Havekes, L. M.; Sauerwein, H. P.; Kalsbeek, A.; Buijs, R. M.; Romijn, J. A.

    2003-01-01

    Neuroendocrine research has altered the traditional perspective of white adipose tissue (WAT) as a passive store of triglycerides. In addition to fatty acids, WAT produces many hormones and can therefore be designated as a traditional endocrine gland actively participating in the integrative

  4. Shale Gas Technology. White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    Shale gas is extracted using horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing or 'fracking'. None of which are particularly new technologies or shale gas specific. In this white paper attention is paid to Horizontal drilling; Hydraulic fracturing or 'frackin'; Other 'unconventionals'; and Costs.

  5. Shale Gas Technology. White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    Shale gas is extracted using horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing or 'fracking'. None of which are particularly new technologies or shale gas specific. In this white paper attention is paid to Horizontal drilling; Hydraulic fracturing or 'frackin'; Other 'unconventionals'; and Costs.

  6. White-Light Emission from Layered Halide Perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew D; Karunadasa, Hemamala I

    2018-03-20

    With nearly 20% of global electricity consumed by lighting, more efficient illumination sources can enable massive energy savings. However, effectively creating the high-quality white light required for indoor illumination remains a challenge. To accurately represent color, the illumination source must provide photons with all the energies visible to our eye. Such a broad emission is difficult to achieve from a single material. In commercial white-light sources, one or more light-emitting diodes, coated by one or more phosphors, yield a combined emission that appears white. However, combining emitters leads to changes in the emission color over time due to the unequal degradation rates of the emitters and efficiency losses due to overlapping absorption and emission energies of the different components. A single material that emits broadband white light (a continuous emission spanning 400-700 nm) would obviate these problems. In 2014, we described broadband white-light emission upon near-UV excitation from three new layered perovskites. To date, nine white-light-emitting perovskites have been reported by us and others, making this a burgeoning field of study. This Account outlines our work on understanding how a bulk material, with no obvious emissive sites, can emit every color of the visible spectrum. Although the initial discoveries were fortuitous, our understanding of the emission mechanism and identification of structural parameters that correlate with the broad emission have now positioned us to design white-light emitters. Layered hybrid halide perovskites feature anionic layers of corner-sharing metal-halide octahedra partitioned by organic cations. The narrow, room-temperature photoluminescence of lead-halide perovskites has been studied for several decades, and attributed to the radiative recombination of free excitons (excited electron-hole pairs). We proposed that the broad white emission we observed primarily stems from exciton self-trapping. Here, the

  7. ENERGY DISSIPATION THROUGH QUASI-STATIC TIDES IN WHITE DWARF BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willems, B.; Deloye, C. J.; Kalogera, V.

    2010-01-01

    We present a formalism to study tidal interactions in white dwarf binaries in the limiting case of quasi-static tides, in which the tidal forcing frequencies are small, compared to the inverse of the white dwarf's dynamical timescale. The formalism is valid for arbitrary orbital eccentricities and therefore applicable to white dwarf binaries in the Galactic disk as well as globular clusters. In the quasi-static limit, the total perturbation of the gravitational potential shows a phase shift with respect to the position of the companion, the magnitude of which is determined primarily by the efficiency of energy dissipation through convective damping. We determine rates of secular evolution of the orbital elements and white dwarf rotational angular velocity for a 0.3 M sun helium white dwarf in binaries with orbital frequencies in the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) gravitational wave frequency band and companion masses ranging from 0.3 M sun to 10 5 M sun . The resulting tidal evolution timescales for the orbital semimajor axis are longer than a Hubble time, so that convective damping of quasi-static tides need not be considered in the construction of gravitational wave templates of white dwarf binaries in the LISA band. Spin-up of the white dwarf, on the other hand, can occur on timescales of less than 10 Myr, provided that the white dwarf is initially rotating with a frequency much smaller than the orbital frequency. For semi-detached white dwarf binaries spin-up can occur on timescales of less than 1 Myr. Nevertheless, the timescales remain longer than the orbital inspiral timescales due to gravitational radiation, so that the degree of asynchronism in these binaries increases. As a consequence, tidal forcing eventually occurs at forcing frequencies beyond the quasi-static tide approximation. For the shortest period binaries, energy dissipation is therefore expected to take place through dynamic tides and resonantly excited g-modes.

  8. Nanoparticles affect PCR primarily via surface interactions with PCR components: using amino-modified silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles as a main model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanomaterials have been widely reported to affect the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, many studies in which these effects were observed were not comprehensive, and many of the proposed mechanisms have been primarily speculative. In this work, we used amino-modified silica-coated magnetic n...

  9. Mutations in MITF and PAX3 Cause “Splashed White” and Other White Spotting Phenotypes in Horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatter, Marlis; Brooks, Samantha A.; Burger, Dominik; Drögemüller, Cord; Gerber, Vincent; Henke, Diana; Janda, Jozef; Jude, Rony; Magdesian, K. Gary; Matthews, Jacqueline M.; Poncet, Pierre-André; Svansson, Vilhjálmur; Tozaki, Teruaki; Wilkinson-White, Lorna; Penedo, M. Cecilia T.; Rieder, Stefan; Leeb, Tosso

    2012-01-01

    During fetal development neural-crest-derived melanoblasts migrate across the entire body surface and differentiate into melanocytes, the pigment-producing cells. Alterations in this precisely regulated process can lead to white spotting patterns. White spotting patterns in horses are a complex trait with a large phenotypic variance ranging from minimal white markings up to completely white horses. The “splashed white” pattern is primarily characterized by an extremely large blaze, often accompanied by extended white markings at the distal limbs and blue eyes. Some, but not all, splashed white horses are deaf. We analyzed a Quarter Horse family segregating for the splashed white coat color. Genome-wide linkage analysis in 31 horses gave a positive LOD score of 1.6 in a region on chromosome 6 containing the PAX3 gene. However, the linkage data were not in agreement with a monogenic inheritance of a single fully penetrant mutation. We sequenced the PAX3 gene and identified a missense mutation in some, but not all, splashed white Quarter Horses. Genome-wide association analysis indicated a potential second signal near MITF. We therefore sequenced the MITF gene and found a 10 bp insertion in the melanocyte-specific promoter. The MITF promoter variant was present in some splashed white Quarter Horses from the studied family, but also in splashed white horses from other horse breeds. Finally, we identified two additional non-synonymous mutations in the MITF gene in unrelated horses with white spotting phenotypes. Thus, several independent mutations in MITF and PAX3 together with known variants in the EDNRB and KIT genes explain a large proportion of horses with the more extreme white spotting phenotypes. PMID:22511888

  10. White Sturgeon Bibliography, 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fickeisen, Duane H. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA)

    1986-03-01

    This bibliography presents citations to the majority of published materials on white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus). The purpose was to assist in planning and implementing research on white sturgeon in the Columbia River system. (ACR)

  11. White Mango Scale, Aulacaspis tubercularis , Distribution and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    White Mango Scale, Aulacaspis tubercularis , Distribution and Severity Status in East and West Wollega Zones, ... Among the insect pests attacking mango plant, white mango scale is the most devastating insect pest. ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  12. Low white blood cell count and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000675.htm Low white blood cell count and cancer To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. White blood cells (WBCs) fight infections from bacteria, viruses, fungi, and ...

  13. Avaliação do estado nutricional de indivíduos adultos sadios de classe média: ingestão energética e protéica, antropometria, exames bioquímicos do sangue e testes de imunocompetência Assessment of nutritional status of healthy middle class young and adult subjects living in Botucatu, State of S. Paulo, Brazil: energy and protein intakes, anthropometric and blood biochemical estimations and immunocompetence tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio de Carvalho Anselmo

    1992-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados parâmetros relacionados ao estado nutricional de 151 adultos sadios, pertencentes à classe média e residindo em Botucatu, SP, Brasil. Valores antropométricos foram maiores nos homens, com exceção da prega tricipital e da área adiposa do braço. O aumento da idade associou-se a aumento dos valores da massa muscular (homens e mulheres e do peso do corpo, da prega tricipital e da área adiposa do braço (mulheres. Os resultados antropométricos aproximaram-se dos valores referenciais internacionais, mas não foram inteiramente concordantes com eles, sendo inferiores para o peso corpóreo e circunferência e área musculares do braço. Nos indivíduos de menos de 50 anos, os valores da ingestão energética foram ligeiramente inferiores aos níveis recomendados. A ingestão protéica foi adequada. Os valores médios das proteínas e lípides do soro foram similares aos valores de referência. Testes de hipersensibilidade cutânea são apresentados como uma prova funcional para avaliação do estado nutricional.Nutritional status was assessed in 151 middle-class healthy adult individuals (69 medical students, 18-29 y, 34 males, 35 females; 48 university personnel, 30-49 y, 24 males, 24 females; and their older relatives, 34 subjects, 50-79 y, 19 males, 15 females living in Botucatu, S. Paulo. Methods included anthropometric measurements, energy and protein intakes, blood biochemical analyses and cutaneous delayed hypersensitivity tests. Anthropometric measurements showed higher values in men, with the exception of the triceps skifold thickness (higher in women and of the arm fat area (higher in the older age female groups; aging seemed to be associated with increases of weight, arm muscle variables and with arm fat accumulation in women and with increases of arm muscle variables in men. The values for anthropometric measurements were in general higher than those found in other Brazilian studies; on the other hand, they

  14. Explosive helium burning in white dwarf stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khokhlov, A.M. (AN SSSR, Moscow. Astronomicheskij Sovet)

    1984-04-01

    Helium burning kinetics in white dwarfs has been considered at constant temperatures T >= 10/sup 9/ K and densities rho >10/sup 5/ g/cm/sup 3/. It is found, that helium detonation in white dwarfs does not lead to formation of light (A < 56) elements. Thus, helium white dwarf model for supernova 1 is inconsistent with observations.

  15. 21 CFR 163.124 - White chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false White chocolate. 163.124 Section 163.124 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.124 White chocolate. (a) Description. (1) White chocolate is the solid or semiplastic food prepared by intimately mixing and grinding...

  16. Multiculturalism, Teaching Slavery, and White Supremacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bery, Sadhana

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that multiculturalism, especially when it is led and controlled by Whites, and in the absence of collective anti-racist struggles, can reproduce the ontologies, epistemologies, and practices of white supremacy. I use a case study of a reenactment of Atlantic black slavery, produced by white teachers to investigate whether…

  17. White noise excitation in a hot plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Masataka

    1977-01-01

    In a low frequency range, a property of white noise in a hot plasma is studied experimentally. A frequency component of white noise is observed to propagate with a phase velocity which is equal to the ion accoustic wave velocity. The white noise, which is launched in a plasma, is considered as the sum of ion acoustic waves. (auth.)

  18. Branes constrictions with White Dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Aspeitia, Miguel A. [Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Mexico (Mexico); Unidad Academica de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2015-11-15

    We consider here a robust study of stellar dynamics for white dwarf stars with polytropic matter in the weak-field approximation using the Lane-Emden equation from the brane-world scenario. We also derive an analytical solution to the nonlocal energy density and show the behavior and sensitivity of these stars to the presence of extra dimensions. Similarly, we analyze stability and compactness, in order to show whether it is possible to agree with the conventional wisdom of white dwarfs dynamics. Our results predict an average value of the brane tension of left angle λ right angle >or similar 84.818 MeV{sup 4}, with a standard deviation σ ≅ 82.021 MeV{sup 4}, which comes from a sample of dwarf stars, being weaker than other astrophysical observations but remaining higher than cosmological results provided by nucleosynthesis among others. (orig.)

  19. Branes constrictions with White Dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Aspeitia, Miguel A., E-mail: aspeitia@fisica.uaz.edu.mx [Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología, Av, Insurgentes Sur 1582, Colonia Crédito Constructor, Del. Benito Juárez, C.P. 03940, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Unidad Académica de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Calzada Solidaridad esquina con Paseo a la Bufa S/N, C.P. 98060, Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2015-11-06

    We consider here a robust study of stellar dynamics for white dwarf stars with polytropic matter in the weak-field approximation using the Lane–Emden equation from the brane-world scenario. We also derive an analytical solution to the nonlocal energy density and show the behavior and sensitivity of these stars to the presence of extra dimensions. Similarly, we analyze stability and compactness, in order to show whether it is possible to agree with the conventional wisdom of white dwarfs dynamics. Our results predict an average value of the brane tension of <λ>≳84.818 MeV{sup 4}, with a standard deviation σ≃82.021 MeV{sup 4}, which comes from a sample of dwarf stars, being weaker than other astrophysical observations but remaining higher than cosmological results provided by nucleosynthesis among others.

  20. Branes constrictions with White Dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Aspeitia, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    We consider here a robust study of stellar dynamics for white dwarf stars with polytropic matter in the weak-field approximation using the Lane–Emden equation from the brane-world scenario. We also derive an analytical solution to the nonlocal energy density and show the behavior and sensitivity of these stars to the presence of extra dimensions. Similarly, we analyze stability and compactness, in order to show whether it is possible to agree with the conventional wisdom of white dwarfs dynamics. Our results predict an average value of the brane tension of <λ>≳84.818 MeV 4 , with a standard deviation σ≃82.021 MeV 4 , which comes from a sample of dwarf stars, being weaker than other astrophysical observations but remaining higher than cosmological results provided by nucleosynthesis among others

  1. Raman spectroscopy of white wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Coralie; Bruneel, Jean-Luc; Guyon, François; Médina, Bernard; Jourdes, Michael; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; Guillaume, François

    2015-08-15

    The feasibility of exploiting Raman scattering to analyze white wines has been investigated using 3 different wavelengths of the incoming laser radiation in the near-UV (325 nm), visible (532 nm) and near infrared (785 nm). To help in the interpretation of the Raman spectra, the absorption properties in the UV-visible range of two wine samples as well as their laser induced fluorescence have also been investigated. Thanks to the strong intensity enhancement of the Raman scattered light due to electronic resonance with 325 nm laser excitation, hydroxycinnamic acids may be detected and analyzed selectively. Fructose and glucose may also be easily detected below ca. 1000 cm(-1). This feasibility study demonstrates the potential of the Raman spectroscopic technique for the analysis of white wines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. White Nights rebuts Pravda claims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that another Russo-foreign joint venture under attack in the Moscow press has denied charges of impropriety and mismanagement in its operations. The White Nights joint venture last month came under scathing attack from Moscow newspaper Pravda, which alleged the venture has reneged on its promises, is virtually bankrupt, and mistreats Russian employees. White Nights is a joint venture owned 50% by Varyeganneftegaz (VNG), a Russian oil and gas enterprise, and 50% by Salomon Inc. unit Phibro Energy Inc., Greenwich, Conn., and Anglo-Suisse (U.S.S.R.) Ltd., a subsidiary of Anglo-Suisse Inc., Houston. The venture started operations Apr. 1, 1991, with a program of workovers, redevelopment, and horizontal wells in West Varyegan and Tagrinsk oil fields in western Siberia

  3. Asteroseismology of white dwarf stars

    OpenAIRE

    Córsico, A. H.

    2014-01-01

    Most of low- and intermediate-mass stars that populate the Universe will end their lives as white dwarf stars. These ancient stellar remnants have encrypted inside a precious record of the evolutionary history of the progenitor stars, providing a wealth of information about the evolution of stars, star formation, and the age of a variety of stellar populations, such as our Galaxy and open and globular clusters. While some information like surface chemical composition, temperature and gravity ...

  4. The Blue Box White Paper

    OpenAIRE

    Tippett, Benjamin K; Tsang, David

    2013-01-01

    This white paper is an explanation of Ben and Dave's TARDIS time machine, written for laypeople who are interested in time travel, but have no technical knowledge of Einstein's Theory of General Relativity. The first part of this paper is an introduction to the pertinent ideas from Einstein's theory of curved spacetime, followed by a review of other popular time machine spacetimes. We begin with an introduction to curvature and lightcones. We then explain the Alcubierre Warp Drive, the Morris...

  5. Black and White Women's Leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Showunmi, Victoria; Atewologun, Doyin

    2013-01-01

    This paper contributes to literature on ethnic identity and experiences in the workplace leadership and identity by examining how race, gender and class may confer disadvantage or bestow privilege in accessing leadership positions and enacting the role of leader. We interviewed 130 white and BME women leaders in public and private sector organisations in the UK to gather their reflections on how they defined leadership, how their identities as leaders had developed and their experiences of en...

  6. WHITE CEMENT IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Y.C.P RAMANA BABU; B.SAI DOONDI; N. M .V .VAMSI KRISHNA; K.PRASANTHI

    2013-01-01

    India is one among the fast developing countries in the world in the areas of Infrastructure. Now a day, Carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are the temporary atmospheric pollutants in the environment chiefly emitted from the fuel burning vehicles and street lights which lead to global warming and pose a major threat tothe survival and sustainable development. This paper deals with the principal purpose of use of white cement in pavement design which will take care of the Green hous...

  7. Making Whites from the Dark Side: Teaching Whiteness Studies at San Francisco State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueyoshi, Amy

    2013-01-01

    While whiteness studies at most institutions aims to expose the persistence of white supremacy to a disbelieving audience, whiteness studies within the College of Ethnic Studies (COES) at San Francisco State University (SFSU) begins with the assumption that racism still exists. The course then traces how whiteness is constructed and fortified to…

  8. Complexity in White Noise Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hida, Takeyuki

    We restrict our attention to random complex systems and discuss degree their degree of complexity based on a white noise. The white noise is realized as the time derivative of a Brownian motion B(t), and denoted by Ḃ(t). The collection {Ḃ(t)}, is a system of idealized elementary variables and at the same time the system is a stochastic representation of the time t, in other words it is time-oriented. Having expressed the given evolutional random phenomena in question in terms of the Ḃ(t), we introduce the notion of spectral multiplicity, which describes how much the phenomena are complex. The multiplicity is the number of cyclic subspaces that are spanned by the given random phenomena. Each cyclic subspace has further structure. Typical property is multiple Markov property, although this property appears only particular cases. As a related property, in fact as a characteristic of a complex system, one can speak of the time reversibility and irreversibility of certain random phenomena in terms of the white noise. We expect an irreversible random complex system may be decomposed into reversible systems.

  9. White public regard: associations among eating disorder symptomatology, guilt, and White guilt in young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydecker, Janet A; Hubbard, Rebecca R; Tully, Carrie B; Utsey, Shawn O; Mazzeo, Suzanne E

    2014-01-01

    As a novel investigation of the role of White racial identity, the current study explored the link between White guilt and disordered eating. Young adult women (N=375), 200 of whom self-identified as White. Measures assessed disordered eating, trait guilt, White guilt, and affect. White guilt is interrelated with disordered eating, particularly bulimic symptomatology. Distress tolerance and tendency to experience negative affect moderated the relation between White guilt and several disordered eating variables. Exploration of White guilt in clinical and research settings can inform understanding and treatment of disordered eating. © 2013.

  10. The Utility of Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring for Diagnosing White Coat Hypertension in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Kristi; Bowling, C Barrett; Sim, John J; Sridharan, Lakshmi; Harrison, Teresa N; Shimbo, Daichi

    2015-11-01

    The beneficial effect of antihypertensive medication on reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events is supported by data from randomized controlled trials of older adults with hypertension. However, in clinical practice, overtreatment of hypertension in older adults may lead to side effects and an increased risk of falls. The diagnosis and treatment of hypertension is primarily based on blood pressure measurements obtained in the clinic setting. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) complements clinic blood pressure by measuring blood pressure in the out-of-clinic setting. ABPM can be used to identify white coat hypertension, defined as elevated clinic blood pressure and non-elevated ambulatory blood pressure. White coat hypertension is common in older adults but does not appear to be associated with an increased risk of CVD events among this population. Herein, we review the current literature on ABPM in the diagnoses of white coat hypertension in older adults, including its potential role in preventing overtreatment.

  11. The Utility of Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring for Diagnosing White Coat Hypertension in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Kristi; Bowling, C. Barrett; Sim, John J.; Sridharan, Lakshmi; Harrison, Teresa N.; Shimbo, Daichi

    2015-01-01

    The beneficial effect of antihypertensive medication on reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events is supported by data from randomized controlled trials of older adults with hypertension. However, in clinical practice, overtreatment of hypertension in older adults may lead to side effects and an increased risk of falls. The diagnosis and treatment of hypertension is primarily based on blood pressure measurements obtained in the clinic setting. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) complements clinic blood pressure by measuring blood pressure in the out-of-clinic setting. ABPM can be used to identify white coat hypertension, defined as elevated clinic blood pressure and non-elevated ambulatory blood pressure. White coat hypertension is common in older adults but does not appear to be associated with an increased risk of CVD events among this population. Herein, we review the current literature on ABPM in the diagnoses of white coat hypertension in older adults, including its potential role in preventing overtreatment. PMID:26400076

  12. [A case of MEWDS. "The multiple evanescent white-dot syndrome"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrançois, A; Hamard, H; Corbe, C; Schmitt, A; Badelon, I; Vidal, A

    1989-01-01

    A young white man developed acute bilateral visual loss with no previous general illness. Ophthalmoscopic examination showed multiple small yellow-white lesions scattered throughout the posterior poles and mild periphery fundus. There was also fine granularity of two foveal areas and one optic disc margin was blurred. Fluorescein angiography showed early hyperfluorescence of the lesions and late staining of the retinal pigment epithelium. Electrophysiologic abnormalities were transient, asymmetric, more marked in photopic than in scotopic. The origin could be in retinal bipolar cells. These lesions regressed, with return of normal visual function within several weeks. These clinical findings are different from others acute inflammatory diseases primarily involving retinal pigment epithelium and photoreceptors. This aspect is usually described as "multiple evanescent white dot syndrome". The etiology of this syndrome remains unknown with no evidence of systemic disease. A history of flulike illness is rare.

  13. Incidence of diseases primarily affecting the skin by age group: population-based epidemiologic study in Olmsted County, Minnesota, and comparison with age-specific incidence rates worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessman, Laurel L; Andersen, Louise K; Davis, Mark D P

    2018-01-29

    Understanding the effects of age on the epidemiology of diseases primarily affecting the skin is important to the practice of dermatology, both for proper allocation of resources and for optimal patient-centered care. To fully appreciate the effect that age may have on the population-based calculations of incidence of diseases primarily affecting the skin in Olmsted County, Minnesota, and worldwide, we performed a review of all relevant Rochester Epidemiology Project-published data and compared them to similar reports in the worldwide English literature. Using the Rochester Epidemiology Project, population-based epidemiologic studies have been performed to estimate the incidence of specific skin diseases over the past 50 years. In older persons (>65 years), nonmelanoma skin cancer, lentigo maligna, herpes zoster, delusional infestation, venous stasis syndrome, venous ulcer, and burning mouth syndrome were more commonly diagnosed. In those younger than 65 years, atypical nevi, psoriatic arthritis, pityriasis rosea, herpes progenitalis, genital warts, alopecia areata, hidradenitis suppurativa, infantile hemangioma, Behçet's disease, and sarcoidosis (isolated cutaneous, with sarcoidosis-specific cutaneous lesions and with erythema nodosum) had a higher incidence. Many of the incidence rates by age group of diseases primarily affecting the skin derived from the Rochester Epidemiology Project were similar to those reported elsewhere. © 2018 The International Society of Dermatology.

  14. White dwarfs - the once and future suns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trimble, V.

    1986-01-01

    The history and properties of white dwarfs (Bessel's conclusion that Sirius and Procyon have invisible companions, Clark's discovery of Sirius B, Adams and Russell's study of white dwarf spectra, Chandrasekhar's explanation of white dwarf structure by equations incorporating quantum mechanics and relativity) are treated. Formation of white dwarfs, degeneracy, binary white dwarfs (and novae and supernovae) are explained. A mystery nearly 50 years old regarding the spectrum of the star Greenwich +70 degrees-8247 has been solved: it involves a stationary line phenomenon and a magnetic field of 300-500 million gauss. Processes being studied in white dwarfs and white dwarf models include gravitational settling, accretion, dredge-up, radiation pressure, and diffusive hydrogen burning

  15. White constancy method for mobile displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yum, Ji Young; Park, Hyun Hee; Jang, Seul Ki; Lee, Jae Hyang; Kim, Jong Ho; Yi, Ji Young; Lee, Min Woo

    2014-03-01

    In these days, consumer's needs for image quality of mobile devices are increasing as smartphone is widely used. For example, colors may be perceived differently when displayed contents under different illuminants. Displayed white in incandescent lamp is perceived as bluish, while same content in LED light is perceived as yellowish. When changed in perceived white under illuminant environment, image quality would be degraded. Objective of the proposed white constancy method is restricted to maintain consistent output colors regardless of the illuminants utilized. Human visual experiments are performed to analyze viewers'perceptual constancy. Participants are asked to choose the displayed white in a variety of illuminants. Relationship between the illuminants and the selected colors with white are modeled by mapping function based on the results of human visual experiments. White constancy values for image control are determined on the predesigned functions. Experimental results indicate that propsed method yields better image quality by keeping the display white.

  16. Solidification structure and abrasion resistance of high chromium white irons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Ö. N.; Hawk, J. A.; Laird, G.

    1997-06-01

    Superior abrasive wear resistance, combined with relatively low production costs, makes high Cr white cast irons (WCIs) particularly attractive for applications in the grinding, milling, and pumping apparatus used to process hard materials. Hypoeutectic, eutectic, and hypereutectic cast iron compositions, containing either 15 or 26 wt pct chromium, were studied with respect to the macrostructural transitions of the castings, solidification paths, and resulting microstructures when poured with varying superheats. Completely equiaxed macrostructures were produced in thick section castings with slightly hypereutectic compositions. High-stress abrasive wear tests were then performed on the various alloys to examine the influence of both macrostructure and microstructure on wear resistance. Results indicated that the alloys with a primarily austenitic matrix had a higher abrasion resistance than similar alloys with a pearlitic/bainitic matrix. Improvement in abrasion resistance was partially attributed to the ability of the austenite to transform to martensite at the wear surface during the abrasion process.

  17. Fundus Autofluorescence in Multiple Evanescent White Dot Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Marcondes Penha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient complained of photopsia and vision loss in the left eye for two days, with visual acuity of 20/32. Right eye was normal. Funduscopy revealed foveal granularity and gray-white lesions in the posterior pole, mainly temporal to the fovea. The lesions (dots and spots, along with a few other areas surrounding them, showed hyperautofluorescence on autofluorescence imaging. Fluorescein angiogram (FA depicted some early hyperfluorescent dots with late staining. Indocyanine green angiogram (ICGA showed hypofluorescent lesions in a greater number compared with funduscopy, autofluorescence, and FA. Thirty days later, BCVA was 20/20 in both eyes and the complimentary exams were almost normal, despite an ICGA that showed few small hypofluorescent lesions. This case supports the hypothesis that the choroidal involvement occurs primarily in MEWDS, with secondary involvement of the RPE and the neurosensory retina.

  18. [Indocyanine green angiography in "multiple evanescent white dot syndrome" (MEWDS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desarnaulds, A B; Borruat, F X; Herbort, C P; de Courten, C

    1998-05-01

    Multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS) is a benign acquired chorioretinal disorder occurring mostly in young adults. Its pathophysiology is unknown. To describe the results of indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) in MEWDS. Four patients with MEWDS were investigated by ICGA. In all cases, ICGA revealed numerous choroidal hypofluorescent lesions that largely outnumbered the lesions visible with either fundoscopy or fluorescein angiography. Three cases showed a blind spot enlargement on perimetry associated with the presence of a large peripapillary hypofluorescent zone on ICGA. Three cases showed macular granularity on fundoscopy correlating with a significant subfoveal hypfluorescent lesion on ICGA. Evolution was always favorable with disappearance of the hypofluorescent choroidal lesions. Our results confirm that MEWDS is primarily a choroidal disorder. The blind spot enlargement and the macular granularity, frequently detected in MEWDS, result from larger peripapillary and subfoveal choroidal lesions.

  19. White Paper on Nuclear Astrophysics

    OpenAIRE

    Arcones, Almudena; Bardayan, Dan W.; Beers, Timothy C.; Berstein, Lee A.; Blackmon, Jeffrey C.; Messer, Bronson; Brown, B. Alex; Brown, Edward F.; Brune, Carl R.; Champagne, Art E.; Chieffi, Alessandro; Couture, Aaron J.; Danielewicz, Pawel; Diehl, Roland; El-Eid, Mounib

    2016-01-01

    This white paper informs the nuclear astrophysics community and funding agencies about the scientific directions and priorities of the field and provides input from this community for the 2015 Nuclear Science Long Range Plan. It summarizes the outcome of the nuclear astrophysics town meeting that was held on August 21-23, 2014 in College Station at the campus of Texas A&M University in preparation of the NSAC Nuclear Science Long Range Plan. It also reflects the outcome of an earlier town mee...

  20. Keeping Minorities Happy: Hierarchy Maintenance and Whites' Decreased Support for Highly Identified White Politicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Sora; Lowery, Brian S; Guillory, Lucia

    2017-12-01

    We test the hypothesis that, to avoid provoking minorities, Whites will withhold their support for White political candidates who are highly identified with their race. In Study 1, we found that White Republicans were less supportive of White candidates the higher the perceived White identity of the candidate due to beliefs that such candidates would provoke racial minorities. In Study 2, we replicated this effect with a manipulation of candidates' White identity. Study 3 found that Whites reported less support for high-identity candidates when they were led to believe that the hierarchy was unstable rather than stable. Consistent with our hypothesis that those who have the most to lose are most likely to avoid provoking minorities, in Study 4, we found that Whites with high subjective socioeconomic status (SES) varied their support for provocative White candidates as a function of hierarchy stability, whereas those with low subjective SES did not.

  1. Physics of white dwarf stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koester, D.; Chanmugam, G. (Louisiana State Univ., New Orleans, LA (USA))

    1990-07-01

    White dwarf stars, compact objects with extremely high interior densities, are the most common end product in the evolution of stars. In this paper we review the history of their discovery, and of the realisation that their structure is determined by the physics of the degenerate electron gas. Spectral types and surface chemical composition show a complicated pattern dominated by diffusion processes and their interaction with accretion, convection and mass loss. While this interaction is not completely understood in all its detail at present, the study may ultimately lead to important constraints on the theory of stellar evolution in general. Variability, caused by non-radial oscillations of the star, is a common phenomenon and is shown to be a powerful probe of the structure of deeper layers that are not directly accessible to observation. Very strong magnetic fields detected in a small fraction of white dwarfs offer a unique opportunity to study the behaviour of atoms under conditions that cannot be simulated in terrestrial laboratories. (author).

  2. Cost that is Directly Incurred as a Result of Operating the Train Service on the 1520 mm Rail with Primarily Freight Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Hudenko, J; Ribakova, N; Počs, R

    2016-01-01

    Under the Directive 2012/34/EU (21 November 2012) "the charges for … [rail] infrastructure … shall be set at the cost that is directly incurred as a result of operating the train service". This charging rule is new for Baltic States’ railways, where due to the favorable geographic position a full cost application without detalization was possible. Although, a big number of relevant studies on the issue was made in EU, all of them covered only 1435mm railways with primarily passenger transport...

  3. White Oak Creek Embayment site characterization and contaminant screening analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Ford, C.J.; Frank, M.L.; Hoffman, F.O.; Hook, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    Analyses of sediment samples collected near the mouth of White Oak Creek during the summer of 1990 revealed 137 Cs concentrations [> 10 6 Bq/kg dry wt (> 10 4 pCi/g dry wt)] near the sediment surface. Available evidence indicates that these relatively high concentrations of 137 Cs now at the sediment surface were released from White Oak Dam in the mid-1950s and had accumulated at depositionalsites in the embayment. These accumulated sediments are being eroded and transported downstream primarily during winter low-water levels by flood events and by a combination of normal downstream flow and the water turbulence created by the release of water from Melton Hill Dam during hydropower generation cycles. This report provides a more thorough characterization of the extent of contamination in WOCE than was previously available. Environmental samples collected from WOCE were analyzed for organic, inorganic, and radiological contaminants in fish, water, and sediment. These results were used to conduct a human health effects screening analysis. Walkover radiation surveys conducted inside the fenced area surrounding the WOCE at summer-pool (741 ft MSL) and at winter-pool (733 ft MSL) level, indicated a maximum exposure rate of 3 mR h 1 1 m above the soil surface

  4. Sleep in healthy black and white adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Karen A; Hall, Martica; Dahl, Ronald E

    2014-05-01

    Inadequate sleep among adolescents has negative consequences for self-regulation, emotional well-being, and risk behaviors. Using multiple assessment methods, we evaluated the adequacy of sleep among healthy adolescents from a lower socioeconomic community and expected differences by race. A total of 250 healthy high school students enrolled in public school (mean age: 15.7 years; 57% black, 54% female) from families of low to middle class according to the Hollingshead scale participated in weeklong assessments of sleep duration and fragmentation, assessed by using actigraphy; sleep duration and perceived quality, assessed by using daily diaries; and daytime sleepiness and sleep delay, assessed by using a questionnaire. Students slept during the school week a mean ± SD of 6.0 ± 0.9 hours per night according to actigraphy and 6.8 ± 1.1 hours according to daily diary, and during the weekend, a mean of 7.4 ± 1.2 and 8.7 ± 1.4 hours, respectively. Black participants and male participants slept less and had more fragmented sleep; female participants reported poorer quality of sleep in their daily diaries and more daytime sleepiness. The results remained significant after adjustments for age, physical activity, smoking status, and percentile BMI. Most students slept less than the 8 to 9 hours suggested by the guidelines of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Black male participants had the least amount of sleep, which may play a role in the substantial risks experienced by this demographic group. Our findings are consistent with recommendations that pediatricians should routinely screen their adolescent patients about their sleep, especially those from at-risk subgroups. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Infrared photometry of cool white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickramasinghe, D.T.; Allen, D.A.; Bessell, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    The results are presented of a search for the effects of pressure induced H 2 dipole opacity on the infrared JHK magnitudes of cool white dwarfs. LHS 1126 is found to be a very cool (Tsub(e) approximately 4250 K) DC white dwarf with a H rich atmospheric composition dominated by H 2 dipole opacity in the infrared. JHK photometry also favours a H rich atmospheric composition for the DK white dwarfs LP 658-2 and W 489. The surprisingly high proportion of hydrogen rich white dwarfs in the sample appears to suggest that the mechanism which inhibits the accretion of hydrogen in the hotter helium stars becomes less effective at low (Tsub(e) approximately 3 + ion in cool hydrogen rich white dwarf atmospheres is pointed out and it is suggested that the opacity due to this ion may be responsible for the blanketing observed in the U and B magnitudes of some cool white dwarfs. (author)

  6. Spatial Heterogeneity of SOM Concentrations Associated with White-rot Versus Brown-rot Wood Decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhen; Ma, Qiang; Dai, Yucheng; Yuan, Haisheng; Ye, Ji; Yu, Wantai

    2017-10-23

    White- and brown-rot fungal decay via distinct pathways imparts characteristic molecular imprints on decomposing wood. However, the effect that a specific wood-rotting type of fungus has on proximal soil organic matter (SOM) accumulation remains unexplored. We investigated the potential influence of white- and brown-rot fungi-decayed Abies nephrolepis logs on forest SOM stocks (i.e., soil total carbon (C) and nitrogen (N)) and the concentrations of amino sugars (microbial necromass) at different depths and horizontal distances from decaying woody debris. The brown-rot fungal wood decay resulted in higher concentrations of soil C and N and a greater increase in microbial necromass (i.e., 1.3- to 1.7-fold greater) than the white-rot fungal wood decay. The white-rot sets were accompanied by significant differences in the proportions of the bacterial residue index (muramic acid%) with soil depth; however, the brown-rot-associated soils showed complementary shifts, primarily in fungal necromass, across horizontal distances. Soil C and N concentrations were significantly correlated with fungal rather than bacterial necromass in the brown-rot systems. Our findings confirmed that the brown-rot fungi-dominated degradation of lignocellulosic residues resulted in a greater SOM buildup than the white-rot fungi-dominated degradation.

  7. Brexit, Trump, and 'methodological whiteness': on the misrecognition of race and class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhambra, Gurminder K

    2017-11-01

    The rhetoric of both the Brexit and Trump campaigns was grounded in conceptions of the past as the basis for political claims in the present. Both established the past as constituted by nations that were represented as 'white' into which racialized others had insinuated themselves and gained disproportionate advantage. Hence, the resonant claim that was broadcast primarily to white audiences in each place 'to take our country back'. The politics of both campaigns was also echoed in those social scientific analyses that sought to focus on the 'legitimate' claims of the 'left behind' or those who had come to see themselves as 'strangers in their own land'. The skewing of white majority political action as the action of a more narrowly defined white working class served to legitimize analyses that might otherwise have been regarded as racist. In effect, I argue that a pervasive 'methodological whiteness' has distorted social scientific accounts of both Brexit and Trump's election victory and that this needs to be taken account of in our discussion of both phenomena. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  8. Biomarkers in white-coat hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Catherine Ann

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in the 1960s provided new insights into the nature of high blood pressure disorders. Blood pressure is now categorised into four quadrants:normotension, masked hypertension, hypertension and white-coat hypertension. In white-coat hypertension blood pressure is elevated when taken at the doctor’s office but normal if taken outside the doctor’s office. Several controversies are associated with white-coat hypertension, which are discuss...

  9. BIOMODIFICATION OF KENAF USING WHITE ROT FUNGI

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmina Halis,; Hui Rus Tan,; Zaidon Ashaari,; Rozi Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    White rot fungi can be used as a pretreatment of biomass to degrade lignin. It also alters the structure of the lignocellulosic matter, thus increasing its accessibility to enzymes able to convert polysaccharides into simple sugars. This study compares the ability of two species of white rot fungi, Pycnoporous sanguineus and Oxyporus latemarginatus FRIM 31, to degrade lignin in kenaf chips. The white rot fungi were originally isolated from the tropical forest in Malaysia. Kenaf chips were fir...

  10. Merging White Dwarfs and Thermonuclear Supernovae

    OpenAIRE

    van Kerkwijk, Marten H.

    2012-01-01

    Thermonuclear supernovae result when interaction with a companion reignites nuclear fusion in a carbon-oxygen white dwarf, causing a thermonuclear runaway, a catastrophic gain in pressure, and the disintegration of the whole white dwarf. It is usually thought that fusion is reignited in near-pycnonuclear conditions when the white dwarf approaches the Chandrasekhar mass. I briefly describe two long-standing problems faced by this scenario, and our suggestion that these supernovae instead resul...

  11. A randomized trial of a DWI intervention program for first offenders: intervention outcomes and interactions with antisocial personality disorder among a primarily American-Indian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, W Gill; Delaney, Harold D; Kunitz, Stephen J; Westerberg, Verner S; Zhao, Hongwei

    2007-06-01

    Randomized trial evidence on the effectiveness of incarceration and treatment of first-time driving while intoxicated (DWI) offenders who are primarily American Indian has yet to be reported in the literature on DWI prevention. Further, research has confirmed the association of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) with problems with alcohol including DWI. A randomized clinical trial was conducted, in conjunction with 28 days of incarceration, of a treatment program incorporating motivational interviewing principles for first-time DWI offenders. The sample of 305 offenders including 52 diagnosed as ASPD by the Diagnostic Interview Schedule were assessed before assignment to conditions and at 6, 12, and 24 months after discharge. Self-reported frequency of drinking and driving as well as various measures of drinking over the preceding 90 days were available at all assessments for 244 participants. Further, DWI rearrest data for 274 participants were available for analysis. Participants randomized to receive the first offender incarceration and treatment program reported greater reductions in alcohol consumption from baseline levels when compared with participants who were only incarcerated. Antisocial personality disorder participants reported heavier and more frequent drinking but showed significantly greater declines in drinking from intake to posttreatment assessments. Further, the treatment resulted in larger effects relative to the control on ASPD than non-ASPD participants. Nonconfrontational treatment may significantly enhance outcomes for DWI offenders with ASPD when delivered in an incarcerated setting, and in the present study, such effects were found in a primarily American-Indian sample.

  12. Evaluating a County-Sponsored Social Marketing Campaign to Increase Mothers' Initiation of HPV Vaccine for their Pre-teen Daughters in a Primarily Rural Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Joan R; Shafer, Autumn; Diehl, Sandra J; Deal, Allison M

    2011-01-01

    Routine vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV), the main cause of cervical cancer, is recommended for 11-12 year old girls, yet vaccine uptake is low. This study evaluates a social marketing campaign initiated by 13 North Carolina counties to raise awareness among parents and reduce barriers to accessing the vaccine in a primarily rural area. The 3-month campaign targeted mothers of girls ages 11-12 and healthcare practices serving pre-teen girls in four counties. Principles of social marketing were: product (recommended vaccine against HPV), price (cost, perception of safety and efficacy, and access), promotion (posters, brochures, website, news releases, doctor's recommendation), and place (doctors' offices, retail outlets). We analyzed (1) website traffic, hotline calls, and media placement; (2) cross-sectional surveys of mothers and providers; and (3) HPV immunization rates in intervention versus non-intervention counties. Of respondent mothers (n=225), 82% heard or saw campaign messages or materials. Of respondent providers (n=35), 94% used campaign brochures regularly or occasionally in conversations with parents. HPV vaccination rates within six months of campaign launch were 2% higher for 9-13 year old girls in two of the four intervention counties compared to 96 non-intervention counties. This evaluation supports campaign use in other primarily rural and underserved areas.

  13. Fragment-Specific Fixation Versus Volar Locking Plates in Primarily Nonreducible or Secondarily Redisplaced Distal Radius Fractures: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgren, Marcus; Abramo, Antonio; Geijer, Mats; Kopylov, Philippe; Tägil, Magnus

    2017-03-01

    To compare the patient-reported, clinical, and radiographic outcome of 2 methods of internal fixation in distal radius fractures. Fifty patients, mean age 56 years (range, 21-69 years) with primarily nonreducible or secondarily redisplaced distal radius fractures were randomized to open reduction internal fixation using volar locking plates (n = 25) or fragment-specific fixation (n = 25). The patients were assessed on grip strength, range of motion, patient-reported outcome (Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand), pain (visual analog scale), health-related quality of life (Short Form-12 [SF-12]), and radiographic evaluation. Grip strength at 12 months was the primary outcome measure. At 12 months, no difference was found in grip strength, which was 90% of the uninjured side in the volar plate group and 87% in the fragment-specific fixation group. No differences were found in range of motion and the median Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score was 5 in both groups. The overall complication rate was significant, 21% in the volar locking plate group, compared with 52% in the fragment-specific group. In treatment of primarily nonreducible or secondarily redisplaced distal radius fractures, volar locking plates and fragment-specific fixation both achieve good and similar patient-reported outcomes, although more complications were recorded in the fragment-specific group. Therapeutic II. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluating a County-Sponsored Social Marketing Campaign to Increase Mothers’ Initiation of HPV Vaccine for their Pre-teen Daughters in a Primarily Rural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Joan R.; Shafer, Autumn; Diehl, Sandra J.; Deal, Allison M.

    2011-01-01

    Routine vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV), the main cause of cervical cancer, is recommended for 11–12 year old girls, yet vaccine uptake is low. This study evaluates a social marketing campaign initiated by 13 North Carolina counties to raise awareness among parents and reduce barriers to accessing the vaccine in a primarily rural area. The 3-month campaign targeted mothers of girls ages 11–12 and healthcare practices serving pre-teen girls in four counties. Principles of social marketing were: product (recommended vaccine against HPV), price (cost, perception of safety and efficacy, and access), promotion (posters, brochures, website, news releases, doctor’s recommendation), and place (doctors’ offices, retail outlets). We analyzed (1) website traffic, hotline calls, and media placement; (2) cross-sectional surveys of mothers and providers; and (3) HPV immunization rates in intervention versus non-intervention counties. Of respondent mothers (n=225), 82% heard or saw campaign messages or materials. Of respondent providers (n=35), 94% used campaign brochures regularly or occasionally in conversations with parents. HPV vaccination rates within six months of campaign launch were 2% higher for 9–13 year old girls in two of the four intervention counties compared to 96 non-intervention counties. This evaluation supports campaign use in other primarily rural and underserved areas. PMID:21804767

  15. Rare White dwarf stars with carbon atmospheres

    OpenAIRE

    Dufour, P.; Liebert, James; Fontaine, G.; Behara, N.

    2007-01-01

    White dwarfs represent the endpoint of stellar evolution for stars with initial masses between approximately 0.07 msun and 8-10 msun, where msun is the mass of the Sun (more massive stars end their life as either black holes or neutron stars). The theory of stellar evolution predicts that the majority of white dwarfs have a core made of carbon and oxygen, which itself is surrounded by a helium layer and, for ~80 per cent of known white dwarfs, by an additional hydrogen layer. All white dwarfs...

  16. The galactic population of white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napiwotzki, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    The contribution of white dwarfs of the different Galactic populations to the stellar content of our Galaxy is only poorly known. Some authors claim a vast population of halo white dwarfs, which would be in accordance with some investigations of the early phases of Galaxy formation claiming a top-heavy initial- mass- function. Here, I present a model of the population of white dwarfs in the Milky Way based on observations of the local white dwarf sample and a standard model of Galactic structure. This model will be used to estimate the space densities of thin disc, thick disc and halo white dwarfs and their contribution to the baryonic mass budget of the Milky Way. One result of this investigation is that white dwarfs of the halo population contribute a large fraction of the Galactic white dwarf number count, but they are not responsible for the lion's share of stellar mass in the Milky Way. Another important result is the substantial contribution of the - often neglected - population of thick disc white dwarfs. Misclassification of thick disc white dwarfs is responsible for overestimates of the halo population in previous investigations.

  17. White dwarfs in the WTS: Eclipsing binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burleigh M.R.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We have identified photometric white dwarf candidates in the WFCAM transit survey through a reduced proper motion versus colour approach. Box-fitting with parameters adjusted to detect the unique signature of a white dwarf + planet/brown dwarf transit/eclipse event was performed, as well as looking for variability due to the irradiation of the companions atmosphere by the white dwarf's high UV flux. We have also performed a simple sensitivity analysis in order to assess the ability of the survey to detect companions to white dwarfs via the transit method.

  18. Effects of magnetic fields in white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzon, Bruno; Schramm, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    We perform calculations of white dwarfs endowed with strong magnetic fields. White dwarfs are the progenitors of supernova Type Ia explosions and they are widely used as candles to show that the Universe is expanding and accelerating. However, observations of ultraluminous supernovae have suggested that the progenitor of such an explosion should be a white dwarf with mass above the well-known Chandrasekhar limit ∼ 1.4 M⊙. In corroboration with other works, but by using a fully general relativistic framework, we obtained also strongly magnetized white dwarfs with masses M ∼ 2.0 M⊙. (paper)

  19. Increased White Matter Inflammation in Aging- and Alzheimer’s Disease Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Raj

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic neuroinflammation, which is primarily mediated by microglia, plays an essential role in aging and neurodegeneration. It is still unclear whether this microglia-induced neuroinflammation occurs globally or is confined to distinct brain regions. In this study, we investigated microglia activity in various brain regions upon healthy aging and Alzheimer’s disease (AD-related pathology in both human and mouse samples. In purified microglia isolated from aging mouse brains, we found a profound gene expression pattern related to pro-inflammatory processes, phagocytosis, and lipid homeostasis. Particularly in white matter microglia of 24-month-old mice, abundant expression of phagocytic markers including Mac-2, Axl, CD16/32, Dectin1, CD11c, and CD36 was detected. Interestingly, in white matter of human brain tissue the first signs of inflammatory activity were already detected during middle age. Thus quantification of microglial proteins, such as CD68 (commonly associated with phagocytosis and HLA-DR (associated with antigen presentation, in postmortem human white matter brain tissue showed an age-dependent increase in immunoreactivity already in middle-aged people (53.2 ± 2.0 years. This early inflammation was also detectable by non-invasive positron emission tomography imaging using [11C]-(R-PK11195, a ligand that binds to activated microglia. Increased microglia activity was also prominently present in the white matter of human postmortem early-onset AD (EOAD brain tissue. Interestingly, microglia activity in the white matter of late-onset AD (LOAD CNS was similar to that of the aged clinically silent AD cases. These data indicate that microglia-induced neuroinflammation is predominant in the white matter of aging mice and humans as well as in EOAD brains. This white matter inflammation may contribute to the progression of neurodegeneration, and have prognostic value for detecting the onset and progression of aging and neurodegeneration.

  20. The Specter of Divorce: Views from Working- and Middle-Class Cohabitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Amanda J.; Sassler, Sharon; Kusi-Appouh, Dela

    2011-01-01

    Young Americans increasingly express apprehension about their ability to successfully manage intimate relationships. Partially in response, cohabitation has become normative over the past few decades. Little research, however, examines social class distinctions in how emerging adults perceive challenges to sustaining intimate unions. We examine…

  1. Economic exchanges in a stratified society: End of the middle class?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laguna, M.F.; Risau Gusman, S.; Iglesias, J.R.

    2005-05-01

    We study the effect of the social stratification on the wealth distribution on a system of interacting economic agents that are constrained to interact only within their own economic class. The economical mobility of the agents is related to its success in exchange transactions.Different wealth distributions are obtained as a function of the width of the economic class. We and a range of widths in which the society is divided into two classes separated by a deep gap that prevents further exchange between poor and rich agents. As a consequence, the middle wealth class is eliminated. The high values of the Gini indices obtained in these cases indicate a highly unequal society. On the other hand, lower and higher widths induce lower Gini indices and a fairer wealth distribution. (author)

  2. The middle classes and the remaking of the suburban family community: evidence from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karsten, L.; Lupi, T.; de Stigter-Speksnijder, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents data on everyday life in three recently built Dutch suburban areas constructed under the Vinex national urban planning policy. Its focus is on family households and today’s division of work and care, social life and neighbourhood activism. The results show that suburbs are no

  3. From Adam Swift to Adam Smith: How the "Invisible Hand" Overcomes Middle Class Hypocrisy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooley, James

    2007-01-01

    This paper challenges Richard Pring's suggestion that parents using private education may be undermining the desire for social justice and equality, using recent arguments of Adam Swift as a springboard. Swift's position on the banning of private schools, which uses a Rawlsian "veil of ignorance" argument, is explored, and it is suggested that, if…

  4. The Professional Middle Class in Afghanistan : From Pivot of Development to Political Marginality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalinovsky, A.M.; Giustozzi, A.

    2017-01-01

    From the 1950s, the Cold War competition between the United States and the Soviet Union shifted increasingly to what is broadly termed the "Third World." As part of this competition, both sides pursued what today might be termed a "development agenda"- large scale economic aid in the forms of loans,

  5. Credit Card Blues: The Middle Class and the Hidden Costs of Easy Credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, Randy; Dwyer, Rachel; Neilson, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    In an era of increased access to credit, it becomes increasingly important to understand the consequences of taking on unsecured consumer debt. We argue that credit can have both positive and negative consequences resulting from its ability to smooth life transitions and difficulties but that this occurs simultaneously with increased financial risks and stress resulting from carrying unsecured debt. We find that those in the middle of the income distribution suffer the greatest disruptions to mental health from carrying debt. Affluent borrowers are relatively unmoved by debt, suggesting the use of short-term debt as a convenience strategy for the financially well-heeled. The least advantaged borrowers are also suffer emotionally less from debt, possibly because securing spendable funds for necessities remains their most pressing concern. The onset of the Great Recession, however, produced increased emotional distress for all classes.

  6. Processes of Middle-Class Reproduction in a Graduate Employment Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Sarah; Hutchings, Merryn; Maylor, Uvanney; Mendick, Heather; Menter, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Teach First is an educational charity that places graduates to teach in "challenging" schools for two years. It is marketed as an opportunity to develop employability while "making a difference". In this paper, I examine the process of class reproduction occurring in this graduate employment scheme through examining the…

  7. Looking for big 'fry': The motives and methods of middle-class international property investors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, Hang Kei; Atkinson, Rowland

    2017-01-01

    Anxieties about the effects of international property investment in world cities like London have mainly focused on super-rich investors and corporate vehicles that have generated price inflation of assets and accelerated exclusion from an already expensive market. In fact, many international

  8. The Social Geography of Childcare: Making up a Middle-Class Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Carol; Ball, Stephen J.; Kemp, Sophie

    2004-01-01

    Childcare is a condensate of disparate social forces and social processes. It is gendered and classed. It is subject to an excess of policy and political discourse. It is increasingly a focus for commercial exploitation. This is a paper reporting on work in progress in an ESRC funded research project (R000239232) on the choice and provision of…

  9. Reading Categories Identified in the Reading Activities of a Caregiver and a Middle-Class Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabel, Borja-Alarcón; Astrid, Ramirez Valencia; Alfonso, López-Vega

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to report the findings of a research project, developed from the need to make contributions about the characteristics that emerge, when a three-year-old child and his caregiver carry reading activities out. By the use of recordings and students' artifacts, in order to collect data; and analyzing the information collected through…

  10. Economic stress and the great recession in Ireland: polarization, individualization or 'middle class squeeze'?

    OpenAIRE

    Maitre, Bertrand; Russell, Helen; Whelan, Christopher T.

    2014-01-01

    Following an unprecedented boom that attracted the label 'Celtic Tiger', since 2008 Ireland has experienced the most severe economic and labour market crisis since the foundation of the State. The rapid deterioration in the labour market, alongside stringent austerity measures, had a widespread impact. Considerable debate persists as to where the heaviest burden has fallen. Conventional measures of income poverty and inequality have a limited capacity to capture the impact of the recession. T...

  11. The Impact Of Middle Class Consumption On Democratization In Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    ways in which countries democratized during this time period. He first noted, “Oil price hikes in some countries and Marxist-Leninist constraints in...Class Without Democracy, 50. 57 Ibid., 51. 58 Ibid., 52. 17 lucrative form of state-employment.59 The benefit -laden “iron rice bowl” positions...achieve rapid economic growth. Akin to Japan and Taiwan during the Cold War, South Korea’s economy benefited enormously from the geopolitical stability of

  12. Keep it looking beautiful! Historicised residential architecture as a means of reproducing the middle class self

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meier, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores how residents of Helmond Brandevoort, a neotraditional neighbourhood in the Netherlands, socially construct a 'classed' place identity and what role the historicised architecture plays within that process. Given that place identity is constructed through social and cultural

  13. Not Just a Middle-Class Affliction: Crafting a Social Work Research Agenda on Postpartum Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Laura S.; Curran, Laura

    2007-01-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a major mental health disorder that affects at least 13 percent of new mothers and has detrimental consequences for populations that are of concern to social workers, such as low-income women, women of color, young women, and single mothers. Despite the relevance of PPD to multiple social work problems and…

  14. Unravelling public transport customer satisfaction and dissatisfaction dynamics in the high-end middle class market

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokonyama, Mathetha T

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent improvements to the public transport offerings available to South African commuters are managing to attract a small but loyal patronage from among the car-owning public. The improved services provide opportunities for studying...

  15. Middle-Class Consensus, Social Capital and the Mechanics of Economic Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Josten, Stefan D

    2005-01-01

    .... Due to the existence of asymmetric information, agents face a moral-hazard problem on the credit market which gives rise to transaction costs and can be alleviated by private, governmental or social...

  16. Risk factors for presbycusis in a socio-economic middle-class sample

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa,Cláudia Simônica de; Castro Júnior,Ney de; Larsson,Erkki Juhani; Ching,Ting Hui

    2009-01-01

    Presbycusis, or the aging ear, involves mainly the inner ear and the cochlear nerve, causing sensorineural hearing loss. Risk factors include systemic diseases and poor habits that cause inner ear damage and lead to presbycusis. Correct identification of these risk factors is relevant for prevention. AIM: To evaluate the prevalence and to identify the risk factors of presbycusis in a sample aged over 40 years. Study design: a retrospective case series. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: medical records of...

  17. Risk factors for presbycusis in a socio-economic middle-class sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Cláudia Simônica de; Castro Júnior, Ney de; Larsson, Erkki Juhani; Ching, Ting Hui

    2009-01-01

    Presbycusis, or the aging ear, involves mainly the inner ear and the cochlear nerve, causing sensorineural hearing loss. Risk factors include systemic diseases and poor habits that cause inner ear damage and lead to presbycusis. Correct identification of these risk factors is relevant for prevention. To evaluate the prevalence and to identify the risk factors of presbycusis in a sample aged over 40 years. A retrospective case series. medical records of 625 patients were evaluated. Presbycusis was identified using pure tone audiometry, speech audiometry and impedance testing of all patients. The prevalence of presbycusis was 36.1%; the mean age was 50.5 years ranging from 40 to 86 years; 85.5% were male and 14.5% werf female. Age, the male gender, diabetes mellitus, and hereditary hearing loss were identified as risk factors. Cardiovascular diseases, smoking and consumption of alcohol were not confirmed as risk factors, although these have often been mentioned as risk factors for presbycusis. Notwithstanding the idea that presbycusis has multiple risk factors, this study identified few risk factors for this disease.

  18. Malaysia Economic Monitor, December 2014 : Towards a Middle-Class Society

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    Malaysia has in many ways become a success story in shared prosperity. Shared prosperity means that all households experience income growth, but growth is higher for those households at the bottom of the distribution, a pattern that leads to lower inequality. In the past 40 years, Malaysia drew on its natural resources to nearly eradicate absolute poverty, from 49 percent in 1970 to 1 perc...

  19. Middle-Class Childhood: Building a Competitive Advantage or Early Burn-Out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlage, Gai Ingham

    Since the 1950s, parenting and childhood in America have changed dramatically. Childhood as a period in which to grow at one's own pace in a protected environment largely removed from adult supervision has given way to a new era in which the parent acts as supervisor and director of the child's development. Such involvement, especially by middle…

  20. Middle-class Gothenburg, Jewish Participation, and the Limits of Liberal Tolerance 1870-1900

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Leiska

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the extent and conditions of Jewish participation in Swedish society c. 1870-1900. Whereas earlier research on Jewish history in Sweden had pictured this period as a time of peaceful integration, recent studies have stressed the continuities of cultural representations of ‘the Jew’ as essentially different from ‘the Swede’. Taking the city of Gothenburg as an example, this article offers a new approach by discussing the role of conflicting national and urban elements within liberal self-identification. With regard to urban identities, attitudes of toleration and religious pluralism went side by side with the liberal representation of Gothenburg as being different – different from its rural hinterland, but also from the capital Stockholm. These images of Gothenburg as being exceptionally progressive and open-minded facilitated Jewish participation in the city’s communal politics and associational life. On a national level, however, the ambiguities of Swedish liberal thinking persisted: An increasingly politicised discussion about national identity from the 1880s onwards reveals that the protagonists of Gothenburg liberalism had far greater difficulties in including Jews into their vision of the Swedish nation than the imagined liberties of Gothenburg city culture would suggest.

  1. Autocratic accountability : transparency, the middle class, and political survival in non-democracies

    OpenAIRE

    CORDUNEANU-HUCI, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Are autocratic leaders accountable to any constituencies? Does fiscal transparency play a role in relation to accountability? Simply put, do authoritarian executives have to “show the bill” of taxes raised and expenditure allocated to their political coalition of support in order to stay in power? What are the dimensions of transparency that matter? The main hypothesis is that the impact of transparency on autocratic accountability depends on the costs and benefits of the fiscal contract perc...

  2. Am I That Name? Middle-class lesbian motherhood in post-apartheid South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Distiller

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Both homophobic groups and those concerned to argue for the validity of gay and lesbian families invest in conceptual frameworks which rely on sameness and difference to make sense. Lesbian mothers are seen as fundamentally different to other kinds of mothers (for good or ill, or their similarity is stressed in order to ensure that their families are socially and legally recognized. This article explores the experience of navigating the contradictions of sameness and difference that cohere to being a ‘lesbian mother’. It locates its analysis in the context of post-apartheid South Africa. It explores the possibilities of inclusion and exclusion into the definition of the human enabled by the South African Constitution and the language of rights on which that document depends.

  3. Topics in white dwarf astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hintzen, P.M.N.

    1975-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the apparent deficiency, compared to theoretical predictions, of cool degenerate stars. Two approaches to the problem were employed: a spectroscopic survey designed to identify red degenerates, and a model atmospheres study of the spectroscopic and photometric differences between red dwarfs and red degenerate stars. On computed atmospheric models for white dwarfs at the temperatures under investigation. Line profiles obtained from these models indicate that degenerate stars with T/sub e/ approximately 6000 0 K and depleted surface metals would be extremely difficult to identify spectroscopically. Their hydrogen and calcium line profiles would strongly resemble those of classical sub-dwarfs. Three apparently degenerate stars whose spectral features match our predictions have been identified. These results indicate that the existence of the previously postulated deficiency of red degenerate stars is uncertain

  4. Object technology: A white paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, S.R.; Arrowood, L.F.; Cain, W.D.; Stephens, W.M.; Vickers, B.D.

    1992-05-11

    Object-Oriented Technology (OOT), although not a new paradigm, has recently been prominently featured in the trade press and even general business publications. Indeed, the promises of object technology are alluring: the ability to handle complex design and engineering information through the full manufacturing production life cycle or to manipulate multimedia information, and the ability to improve programmer productivity in creating and maintaining high quality software. Groups at a number of the DOE facilities have been exploring the use of object technology for engineering, business, and other applications. In this white paper, the technology is explored thoroughly and compared with previous means of developing software and storing databases of information. Several specific projects within the DOE Complex are described, and the state of the commercial marketplace is indicated.

  5. White House nominates nuclear commissioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-06-01

    Just 3 days after U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission chairman Gregory Jaczko announced his intention to resign (Eos, 93(22), 211, doi:10.1029/2012EO220005, 2012), President Barack Obama nominated Allison Macfarlane to serve out the remainder of Jaczko's term, through June 2013. The White House announced that upon her appointment, Macfarlane would be designated as chair of the commission. Macfarlane is an associate professor of environmental science and policy at George Mason University. A member of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future from March 2010 to January 2012, she is also the author of the 2006 book Uncertainty Underground: Yucca Mountain and the Nation's High-Level Nuclear Waste and is an AGU member.

  6. Nano-scale characterization of white layer in broached Inconel 718

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhe, E-mail: zhe.chen@liu.se [Division of Engineering Materials, Linköping University, 58183 Linköping (Sweden); Colliander, Magnus Hörnqvist; Sundell, Gustav [Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Peng, Ru Lin [Division of Engineering Materials, Linköping University, 58183 Linköping (Sweden); Zhou, Jinming [Division of Production and Materials Engineering, Lund University, 22100 Lund (Sweden); Johansson, Sten; Moverare, Johan [Division of Engineering Materials, Linköping University, 58183 Linköping (Sweden)

    2017-01-27

    The formation mechanism of white layers during broaching and their mechanical properties are not well investigated and understood to date. In the present study, multiple advanced characterization techniques with nano-scale resolution, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), transmission Kikuchi diffraction (TKD), atom probe tomography (APT) as well as nano-indentation, have been used to systematically examine the microstructural evolution and corresponding mechanical properties of a surface white layer formed when broaching the nickel-based superalloy Inconel 718. TEM observations showed that the broached white layer consists of nano-sized grains, mostly in the range of 20–50 nm. The crystallographic texture detected by TKD further revealed that the refined microstructure is primarily caused by strong shear deformation. Co-located Al-rich and Nb-rich fine clusters have been identified by APT, which are most likely to be γ′ and γ′′ clusters in a form of co-precipitates, where the clusters showed elongated and aligned appearance associated with the severe shearing history. The microstructural characteristics and crystallography of the broached white layer suggest that it was essentially formed by adiabatic shear localization in which the dominant metallurgical process is rotational dynamic recrystallization based on mechanically-driven subgrain rotations. The grain refinement within the white layer led to an increase of the surface nano-hardness by 14% and a reduction in elastic modulus by nearly 10% compared to that of the bulk material. This is primarily due to the greatly increased volume fraction of grain boundaries, when the grain size was reduced down to the nanoscale.

  7. The effects of whiteness on the health of whites in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malat, Jennifer; Mayorga-Gallo, Sarah; Williams, David R

    2018-02-01

    Whites in the USA are the dominant racial group, with greater than average access to most material and social rewards. Yet, while whites have better outcomes than other racial groups on some health indicators, whites paradoxically compare poorly on other measures. Further, whites in the USA also rank poorly in international health comparisons. In this paper, we present a framework that combines the concept of whiteness-a system that socially, economically, and ideologically benefits European descendants and disadvantages people in other groups-with research from a variety of fields in order to comprehensively model the social factors that influence whites' health. The framework we present describes how whiteness and capitalism in the USA shape societal conditions, individual social characteristics and experiences, and psychosocial responses to circumstances to influence health outcomes. We detail specific examples of how social policies supported by whiteness, the narratives of whiteness, and the privileges of whiteness may positively and negatively affect whites' health. In doing so, we suggest several areas for future research that can expand our understanding of how social factors affect health and can contribute to the patterns and paradoxes of whites' health. By expanding research to include theoretically-grounded analyses of the dominant group's health, we can achieve a more complete picture of how systems of racial inequity affect health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Beyond Black and White: How White, Male, College Students See Their Asian American Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Nolan L.

    2014-01-01

    This research is a cross-site analysis of how white, male, college students see their Asian American peers. Semi-structured interviews with 43 white males were conducted at two universities that differed substantially in their representation of Asian American students. The interviews were theoretically framed by Critical Whiteness Studies and Bobo…

  9. Subliminal exposure to faces and racial attitudes : Exposure to whites makes whites like blacks less

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, P.K.; Dijksterhuis, A.; Chaiken, S.

    Despite recent social and political advances, most interracial contact is still superficial in nature, and White individuals interact mainly with other Whites. Based on recent mere exposure research, we propose that repeated exposure to Whites may actually increase prejudice. In a series of

  10. Interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha sensitize primarily resistant human endometrial stromal cells to Fas-mediated apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fluhr, Herbert; Krenzer, Stefanie; Stein, Gerburg M

    2007-01-01

    The subtle interaction between the implanting embryo and the maternal endometrium plays a pivotal role during the process of implantation. Human endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) express Fas and the implanting trophoblast cells secrete Fas ligand (FASLG, FasL), suggesting a possible role for Fas......-mediated signaling during early implantation. Here we show that ESCs are primarily resistant to Fas-mediated apoptosis independently of their state of hormonal differentiation. Pre-treatment of ESCs with interferon (IFN)-gamma and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha sensitizes them to become apoptotic upon stimulation...... of Fas by an agonistic anti-Fas antibody. Incubation of ESCs with the early embryonic signal human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, CGB) does not influence their reaction to Fas stimulation. The sensitizing effect of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha was accompanied by a significant upregulation of Fas and FLICE...

  11. Elevated plasma 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α levels in human smokers originate primarily from enzymatic instead of non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van 't Erve, Thomas J; Lih, Fred B; Kadiiska, Maria B; Deterding, Leesa J; Mason, Ronald P

    2018-02-01

    It is widely accepted that free radicals in tobacco smoke lead to oxidative stress and generate the popular lipid peroxidation biomarker 8-iso-prostaglandin F 2α (8-iso-PGF 2α ). However, 8-iso-PGF 2α can simultaneously be produced in vivo by the prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthases (PGHS) induced by inflammation. This inflammation-dependent mechanism has never been considered as a source of elevated 8-iso-PGF 2α in tobacco smokers. The goal of this study is to quantify the distribution of chemical- and PGHS-dependent 8-iso-PGF 2α formation in the plasma of tobacco smokers and non-smokers. The influences of gender and hormonal contraceptive use were accounted for. The distribution was determined by measuring the 8-iso-PGF 2α /prostaglandin F 2α (PGF 2α ) ratio. When comparing smokers (n = 28) against non-smokers (n = 30), there was a statistically significant increase in the 8-iso-PGF 2α concentration. The source of this increased 8-iso-PGF 2α was primarily from PGHS. When stratifying for gender, the increase in 8-iso-PGF 2α in male smokers (n = 9) was primarily from PGHS. Interestingly, female smokers on hormonal contraceptives had increased 8-iso-PGF 2α in both pathways, whereas those not on hormonal contraceptives did not have increased 8-iso-PGF 2α . In conclusion, increased plasma 8-iso-PGF 2α in tobacco smokers has complex origins, with PGHS-dependent formation as the primary source. Accounting for both pathways provides a definitive measurement of both oxidative stress and inflammation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. On the symbolism of the white coat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, David A

    2014-12-01

    The white coat ceremony has become an academic ritual in the health professions: a ceremony that signals a transformation of status from ordinary student to that of one studying to become a health professional. While donning the white coat is a sign of a changed role, the white coat is also a powerful symbol of transformation. White is a symbol of purity, and the white coat symbolizes the purity of purpose being affirmed in becoming a health professional. Dentistry is afforded the status of a learned profession as a result of the power dentists possess over patients seeking care; this power is based in sophisticated knowledge. Patients must trust that the dentist's knowledge and skills will be used in their best interest-always to benefit, never to exploit. The white coat symbolizes an affirmation on the part of aspiring dentists that their purpose will be pure and that they can be trusted to honor the tradition of the learned professions in placing the interest of patients above self. Absent an emphasis on the symbolic nature of the white coat ceremony, it can simply become an opportunity to publicly congratulate individuals for their success in gaining entrance to the study of dentistry. By understanding its significance, however, the white coat ceremony can serve as a powerful, meaningful ritual emphasizing the transformation occurring within an individual who is entering the profession of dentistry.

  13. A possible magnetic DA white dwarf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickramasinghe, D.T.; Bessell, M.S.

    1976-01-01

    The spectrum of a peculiar southern white dwarf suspect BPM 25114 is described. A possible magnetic interpretation suggests a DA white dwarf with a field of about 10 7 gauss. The star appears to be both a spectrum variable and perhaps light variable

  14. Understanding Colombian Amazonian white sand forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peñuela-Mora, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    Although progress has been made in studies on white sand forests in the Amazon, there is still a considerable gap in our knowledge of the unique species composition of white sand forests and their structure and dynamics, especially in Western Amazon. This thesis aims to fill this gap by addressing

  15. Black and white human skin differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Maibach, H I

    1979-01-01

    This review of black and white human skin differences emphasizes the alleged importance of factors other than the obvious, i.e., skin color. Physicochemical differences and differences in susceptibility to irritants and allergens suggest a more resistant black than white skin. Differences appear...

  16. PROXIMATE AND ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF WHITE GRUBS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    This study determined the proximate and mineral element composition of whole white grubs using standard methods of analysis. ... and 12.75 ± 3.65% respectively. Mineral contents of white grub in terms of relative concentration .... of intracellular Ca, bone mineralization, blood coagulation, and plasma membrane potential ...

  17. White holes and eternal black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Stephen D H

    2012-01-01

    We investigate isolated white holes surrounded by vacuum, which correspond to the time reversal of eternal black holes that do not evaporate. We show that isolated white holes produce quasi-thermal Hawking radiation. The time reversal of this radiation, incident on a black hole precursor, constitutes a special preparation that will cause the black hole to become eternal. (paper)

  18. Facilitation of Retention by White Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Alfred A.; Kistler, Doris

    1975-01-01

    This study attempted to determine if white noise (an arousing stimulus), when presented at the time of recall, facilitates performance of second and fifth grade students, and if this effect generalizes across different kinds of learning tasks. Findings indicate that white noise produces improvements in performance in both age groups. (GO)

  19. Opportunities in white-box cryptography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michiels, W.

    White-box cryptography is the discipline of implementing a cryptographic algorithm in software such that an adversary will have difficulty extracting the cryptographic key. This approach assumes that the adversary has full access to and full control over the implementation's execution. White-box

  20. White piedra in a mother and daughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan, Anupama S; Janaki, C; Parveen, B

    2009-07-01

    White Piedra is a superficial fungal infection of the hair caused by Trichosporon asahii. It is also known as trichomycosis nodosa or trichomycosis nodularis. We report two cases of White Piedra in a mother and her daughter for the rarity of such occurrence.

  1. Light Sterile Neutrinos: A White Paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abazajian, K. N.; Acero, M. A.; Agarwalla, S. K.

    2012-01-01

    This white paper addresses the hypothesis of light sterile neutrinos based on recent anomalies observed in neutrino experiments and the latest astrophysical data.......This white paper addresses the hypothesis of light sterile neutrinos based on recent anomalies observed in neutrino experiments and the latest astrophysical data....

  2. Convective mixing and accretion in white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koester, D.

    1976-01-01

    The evolution of convection zones in cooling white dwarfs with helium envelopes and outer hydrogen layers is calculated with a complete stellar evolution code. It is shown that white dwarfs of spectral type DB cannot be formed from DA stars by convective mixing. However, for cooler temperatures (Tsub(e) [de

  3. Margaret Bourke-White (1904-1971)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Alyce

    2004-01-01

    This brief article describes notable events in Margaret Bourke-White's life and links these events to one of her well-known prints, "The George Washington Bridge." Margaret Bourke-White is best known for her photojournalism and commercial photography. Her photograph of the George Washington Bridge published in Fortune magazine in 1933, explores…

  4. Perinatal outcomes among Asian-white interracial couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystrom, Michael J; Caughey, Aaron B; Lyell, Deirdre J; Druzin, Maurice L; El-Sayed, Yasser Y

    2008-10-01

    To investigate whether perinatal outcomes among interracial Asian-white couples are different than among Asian-Asian and white-white couples. This was a retrospective study of Asian, white, and Asian-white couples delivered at the Lucile Packard Children's Hospital from 2000-2005. Asian-white couples were subdivided into white-mother/Asian-father or Asian-mother/white-father. Perinatal outcomes included gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, preterm delivery, birth weight >4000 g and interracial Asian-white couples.

  5. WHITE BLISTER SPECIES (Albuginaceae ON WEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Vrandečić

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The obligate fungi inside the family Albuginaceae are widespread world wide and cause white rust or white blister disease. Mycopopulation of weeds has been researched within the project „The role of weeds in epidemiology of row-crop diseases“. The aim of this research was to identify white blister species occurring on weeds in Eastern Croatia. Weed plants with disease symptoms characteristic for white blister species have been collected since 2001 on location Slavonia and Baranja country. Determination of white blister species was based on morphological characters of pathogen and the host. Wilsoniana bliti was determined on Amaranthus retroflexus and Amaranthus hybridus leaves. Capsella bursa pastoris is a host for Albugo candida. Ambrosia artemisiifolia is a host for Pustula sp. and Cirsium arvense was found to be host for Pustula spinulosa. Wilsoniana portulaceae was determined on Portulaca oleracea.

  6. Eating pathology among Black and White smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Johnsen, Lisa A P; Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Spring, Bonnie J

    2005-02-01

    Among White smokers, many females use smoking as a weight control strategy. Little is known about the relationship between eating pathology and smoking among Black females, and whether smokers who enroll in treatment differ in eating pathology from smokers who decline treatment. We examined eating pathology among Black and White smokers who enrolled in a smoking cessation treatment and those who declined treatment. Participants were 100 Black and 100 White female smokers (ages 18-65) who completed three measures of eating pathology. After controlling for BMI, Whites reported greater levels of overall eating pathology than Blacks [F(1,195)=4.1; pWhite than Black smokers. However, once females seek smoking cessation treatment, these ethnic differences are not apparent.

  7. 21 CFR 137.265 - Degerminated white corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Degerminated white corn meal. 137.265 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.265 Degerminated white corn meal. (a) Degerminated white corn meal, degermed white corn meal, is the food prepared by grinding cleaned white corn and removing bran...

  8. White organic light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenow, Thomas Conrad

    2011-03-22

    Three approaches were taken in order to achieve reproducible and highly efficient white OLEDs with excellent colour quality. The first approach is based on the triplet harvesting concept. Otherwise unused triplet excitons are transferred from a fluorescent to a phosphorescent emitter with a smaller triplet energy. Because a blue emitter allowing for triplet transfer to a phosphorescent green emitter was not available, a model system for a three-colour white OLED was developed and investigated. This model device consists of the fluorescent blue emitter 4P-NPD and the phosphorescent emitters Ir(dhfpy){sub 2}acac and Ir(MDQ){sub 2}acac emitting in the yellow and red region, respectively. Here, it was shown that both phosphorescent emitters are excited by triplet diffusion and not by direct charge carrier recombination. The second approach is based on a hybrid white OLED with a single emission layer. This layer is a combination of a fluorescent blue and two phosphorescent emitters in a common matrix material. Because of the above mentioned lack of a blue emitter, which allows for triplet transfer to a green phosphorescent emitter, the concentrations of all emitters were chosen in a way that exciton transfer between the emitters was suppressed. The result is a non-radiative recombination of triplet excitons on the fluorescent blue emitter and an accordingly low quantum efficiency. However, a remarkable colour stability against varying brightness was achieved with this OLED. The most successful approach is based on a stacked OLED. Here, the concept of triplet harvesting is limited to triplet transfer between a fluorescent blue and a phosphorescent red emitter. The resulting spectral gap is filled by a full phosphorescent unit comprising the emission of a green and a yellow emitter, which is stacked on top of the triplet harvesting OLED. By individually optimising both units, it was possible to reach lighting relevant luminous efficacies up to {eta}{sub {nu}}=33 lm/W at

  9. PREFACE: 16th European White Dwarfs Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Berro, Enrique; Hernanz, Margarita; Isern, Jordi; Torres, Santiago

    2009-07-01

    The 16th European Workshop on White Dwarfs was held in Barcelona, Spain, from 30 June to 4 July 2008 at the premises of the UPC. Almost 120 participants from Europe (France, Germany, United Kingdom, Italy, and several others), America (USA, Canada, Argentina, Brazil, and Chile), and other continents (Australia, South Africa, . . . ) attended the workshop. Among these participants were the most relevant specialists in the field. The topics covered by the conference were: White dwarf structure and evolution Progenitors and Planetary Nebulae White dwarfs in binaries: cataclysmic variables, double degenerates and other binaries White dwarfs, dust disks and planetary systems Atmospheres, chemical composition, magnetic fields Variable white dwarfs White dwarfs in stellar clusters and the halo White Dwarfs as SNIa progenitors The programme included 54 talks, and 45 posters. The oral presentations were distributed into the following sessions: Luminosity function, mass function and populations White dwarf structure and evolution White dwarf ages White dwarf catalogs and surveys Central stars of planetary nebulae Supernovae progenitors White dwarfs in novae and CVs Physical processes in white dwarfs and magnetic white dwarfs Disks, dust and planets around white dwarfs Pulsating white dwarfs Additionally we had a special open session about Spitzer and white dwarfs. The Proceedings of the 16th European Workshop on White Dwarfs are representative of the current state-of-the-art of the research field and include new and exciting results. We acknowledge the very positive attitude of the attendants to the workshop, which stimulated very fruitful discussions that took place in all the sessions and after the official schedule. Also, the meeting allowed new collaborations tp start that will undoubtedly result in significant advances in the research field. We also acknowledge the willingness of the participants to deliver their contributions before the final deadline. We sincerely

  10. Aging of cerebral white matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Yang, Yuanyuan; Xia, Yuguo; Zhu, Wen; Leak, Rehana K; Wei, Zhishuo; Wang, Jianyi; Hu, Xiaoming

    2017-03-01

    White matter (WM) occupies a large volume of the human cerebrum and is mainly composed of myelinated axons and myelin-producing glial cells. The myelinated axons within WM are the structural foundation for efficient neurotransmission between cortical and subcortical areas. Similar to neuron-enriched gray matter areas, WM undergoes a series of changes during the process of aging. WM malfunction can induce serious neurobehavioral and cognitive impairments. Thus, age-related changes in WM may contribute to the functional decline observed in the elderly. In addition, aged WM becomes more susceptible to neurological disorders, such as stroke, traumatic brain injury (TBI), and neurodegeneration. In this review, we summarize the structural and functional alterations of WM in natural aging and speculate on the underlying mechanisms. We also discuss how age-related WM changes influence the progression of various brain disorders, including ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, TBI, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. Although the physiology of WM is still poorly understood relative to gray matter, WM is a rational therapeutic target for a number of neurological and psychiatric conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Was Snow White a transsexual?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, A; Mormont, C

    2002-01-01

    modalities in the transsexual dynamics. Nevertheless, one can ask oneself about the possibility of a request based on a desire rather than on a defense, or even on the existence of a defensive process diametrically opposed to the counter-phobic attitude and which, instead of actively provoking the dreaded reality, would privilege its avoidance and the search of passivity. This latter hypothesis has the advantage of being rather easy to explore with the Rorschach because, according to Exner, the predominance of passive compared to active human movement responses (which he terms the Snow White Syndrome) indicates the propensity to escape into passive fantasies and the tendency to avoid the initiative for behaviour or decision-making, if other people can do it in the subject's place (12). Our results largely confirmed the hypothesis of the existence of an opposite mechanism, as a third of subjects (n = 26) presented Snow White Syndrome. According to Exner, these transsexuals are typically characterized by hiding into a world of make believe, avoiding all responsibility, as well as any decision-making. This passivity in our Snow White Syndrome group was all the more remarkable in that, on the whole, it infiltrated into all the movement responses and seemed to define a rigid style of thinking and mental elaboration, in addition to a suggestive content of passivity. However, this condition cannot be associated with a general lack of dynamism or energy. In fact, the treatment of information, which provides data concerning the motivation to treat a stimulus field of the stimulus--whether this concerns the capture (L) of the stimulus or the elaboration (DQ+) of the response--displayed a sufficient amount of motivation. Furthermore, internal resources (EA) were considerable and were brought into play whenever it was necessary to adopt a behaviour or make a decision. Furthermore, based on these Rorschach findings, we note that in transsexuals with Snow White Syndrome, there is a

  12. Throwing Icebergs at White Dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephan, Alexander P.; Naoz, Smadar; Zuckerman, B., E-mail: alexpstephan@astro.ucla.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2017-08-01

    White dwarfs (WDs) have atmospheres that are expected to consist nearly entirely of hydrogen and helium, since heavier elements will sink out of sight on short timescales. However, observations have revealed atmospheric pollution by heavier elements in about a quarter to a half of all WDs. While most of the pollution can be accounted for with asteroidal or dwarf planetary material, recent observations indicate that larger planetary bodies, as well as icy and volatile material from Kuiper belt analog objects, are also viable sources of pollution. The commonly accepted pollution mechanisms, namely scattering interactions between planetary bodies orbiting the WDs, can hardly account for pollution by objects with large masses or long-period orbits. Here we report on a mechanism that naturally leads to the emergence of massive body and icy and volatile material pollution. This mechanism occurs in wide binary stellar systems, where the mass loss of the planets’ host stars during post main sequence stellar evolution can trigger the Eccentric Kozai–Lidov mechanism. This mechanism leads to large eccentricity excitations, which can bring massive and long-period objects close enough to the WDs to be accreted. We find that this mechanism readily explains and is consistent with observations.

  13. The fastest evolving white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'antona, F.; Mazzitelli, I.

    1989-01-01

    The evolution of white dwarfs (WDs) at their lowest luminosities is investigated by computing a reference track with solar metal and helium abundances down to the beginning of WD evolution. The main characteristics of the cooling tracks are described, including the onset of crystallization and its completion, and the differentiation in the relation T(c) - T(eff) is shown for the tracks. It is shown why the evolutionary times do not shorten abruptly at a given luminosity as a result of Debye cooling. The structure of the coolest models is shown to consist of dense atmospheres, with photospheres lying at the boundary of pressure ionization. A study of the resulting luminosity functions (LFs) shows that fast cooling never occurs, and that the LF in the crucial region log L/L(solar) between -4 and -6 is either flat or slowly decreasing. Comparisons with the observed LFs explains well the peak or flattening of the LF at log L/L(solar) = -3 or less but fails to reproduce the drop at log L/L(solar) = -4.5. 48 refs

  14. The age-metallicity relation in the solar neighbourhood from a pilot sample of white dwarf-main sequence binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Rebassa-Mansergas, A.; Anguiano, B.; García-Berro, E.; Freeman, K. C.; Cojocaru, R.; Manser, C. J.; Pala, A. F.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Liu, X. -W.

    2016-01-01

    The age–metallicity relation (AMR) is a fundamental observational constraint for understanding how the Galactic disc formed and evolved chemically in time. However, there is not yet an agreement on the observational properties of the AMR for the solar neighbourhood, primarily due to the difficulty in obtaining accurate stellar ages for individual field stars. We have started an observational campaign for providing the much needed observational input by using wide white-dwarf–main-sequence (WD...

  15. Chlamydia trachomatis recombinant MOMP encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles triggers primarily T helper 1 cellular and antibody immune responses in mice: a desirable candidate nanovaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairley SJ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Stacie J Fairley, Shree R Singh, Abebayehu N Yilma, Alain B Waffo, Praseetha Subbarayan, Saurabh Dixit, Murtada A Taha, Chino D Cambridge, Vida A Dennis Center for NanoBiotechnology Research, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL, USA Abstract: We recently demonstrated by in vitro experiments that PLGA (poly D, L-lactide-co-glycolide potentiates T helper 1 (Th1 immune responses induced by a peptide derived from the recombinant major outer membrane protein (rMOMP of Chlamydia trachomatis, and may be a promising vaccine delivery system. Herein we evaluated the immune-potentiating potential of PLGA by encapsulating the full-length rMOMP (PLGA-rMOMP, characterizing it in vitro, and investigating its immunogenicity in vivo. Our hypothesis was that PLGA-rMOMP triggers Th1 immune responses in mice, which are desirable prerequisites for a C. trachomatis candidate nanovaccine. Physical-structural characterizations of PLGA-rMOMP revealed its size (approximately 272 nm, zeta potential (−14.30 mV, apparent spherical smooth morphology, and continuous slow release pattern. PLGA potentiated the ability of encapsulated rMOMP to trigger production of cytokines and chemokines by mouse J774 macrophages. Flow cytometric analyses revealed that spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunized with PLGA-rMOMP had elevated numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets, and secreted more rMOMP-specific interferon-gamma (Th1 and interleukin (IL-12p40 (Th1/Th17 than IL-4 and IL-10 (Th2 cytokines. PLGA-rMOMP-immunized mice produced higher serum immunoglobulin (IgG and IgG2a (Th1 than IgG1 (Th2 rMOMP-specific antibodies. Notably, sera from PLGA-rMOMP-immunized mice had a 64-fold higher Th1 than Th2 antibody titer, whereas mice immunized with rMOMP in Freund's adjuvant had only a four-fold higher Th1 than Th2 antibody titer, suggesting primarily induction of a Th1 antibody response in PLGA-rMOMP-immunized mice. Our data underscore PLGA as an effective delivery system for a C

  16. An overview of white dwarf stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charpinet S.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a brief summary of what is currently known about white dwarf stars, with an emphasis on their evolutionary and internal properties. As is well known, white dwarfs represent the end products of stellar evolution for the vast majority of stars and, as such, bear the signatures of past events (such as mass loss, mixing phases, loss and redistribution of angular momentum, and thermonuclear burning that are of essential importance in the evolution of stars in general. In addition, white dwarf stars represent ideal testbeds for our understanding of matter under extreme conditions, and work on their constitutive physics (neutrino production rates, conductive and radiative opacities, interior liquid/solid equations of state, partially ionized and partially degenerate envelope equations of state, diffusion coefficients, line broadening mechanisms is still being actively pursued. Given a set of constitutive physics, cooling white dwarfs can be used advantageously as cosmochronometers. Moreover, the field has been blessed by the existence of four distinct families of pulsating white dwarfs, each mapping a different evolutionary phase, and this allows the application of the asteroseismological method to probe and test their internal structure and evolutionary state. We set the stage for the reviews that follow on cooling white dwarfs as cosmochronometers and physics laboratories, as well as on the properties of pulsating white dwarfs and the asteroseismological results that can be inferred.

  17. Concept of white light in stage lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Mauricio R.

    2002-06-01

    In perceiving objects, generally we see them in a white light situation. But, actually, there is not an absolute white, in such a manner that the different light sources have a determined kind of white, what it is known as color temperature. Even the white light may be of different kinds (different color temperature), the individual mind tends to perceive it as the same kind of white, that is to say, there is in our mind a psychological function by which we operate an integration in the perception in order to do the object perceptually invariable. On the other hand, it is a common practice in stage lighting to use color light sources. It is a well known phenomenon that a color of light produces a change in the object color perception. However, when we go to theater, we see the objects as having their real color, even if the lighting is not white. In this paper the concept of white light in stage lighting is presented, showing its possibilities of aesthetical expression.

  18. White matter abnormalities in tuberous sclerosis complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, P.D. [Sheffield Univ. (United Kingdom). Academic Dept. of Radiology; Bolton, P. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Section of Developmental Psychiatry; Verity, C. [Addenbrooke`s NHS Trust, Cambridge (United Kingdom). Dept. of Paediatric Radiology

    1998-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and describe the range of white matter abnormalities in children with tuberous sclerosis complex by means of MR imaging. Material and Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed on the basis of MR imaging findings in 20 cases of tuberous sclerosis complex in children aged 17 years or younger. Results: White matter abnormalities were present in 19/20 (95%) cases of tuberous sclerosis complex. These were most frequently (19/20 cases) found in relation to cortical tubers in the supratentorial compartment. White matter abnormalities related to tubers were found in the cerebellum in 3/20 (15%) cases. White matter abnormalities described as radial migration lines were found in relation to 5 tubers in 3 (15%) children. In 4/20 (20%) cases, white matter abnormalities were found that were not related to cortical tubers. These areas had the appearance of white matter cysts in 3 cases and infarction in the fourth. In the latter case there was a definable event in the clinical history, supporting the diagnosis of stroke. Conclusion: A range of white matter abnormalities were found by MR imaging in tuberous sclerosis complex, the commonest being gliosis and hypomyelination related to cortical tubers. Radial migration lines were seen infrequently in relation to cortical tubers and these are thought to represent heterotopic glia and neurons along the expected path of cortical migration. (orig.)

  19. SDSS DR7 WHITE DWARF CATALOG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinman, S. J.; Nitta, A. [Gemini Observatory, 670 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Kepler, S. O.; Pelisoli, Ingrid; Pecanha, Viviane; Costa, J. E. S. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Koester, D. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universitaet Kiel, D-24098 Kiel (Germany); Krzesinski, J. [Mt. Suhora Observatory, Pedagogical University of Cracow, ul. Podchorazych 2, 30-084 Cracow (Poland); Dufour, P.; Lachapelle, F.-R.; Bergeron, P. [Departement de Physique, Universite de Montreal, C. P. 6128, Succ. Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7 (Canada); Yip, Ching-Wa [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3701 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Harris, Hugh C. [United States Naval Observatory, Flagstaff Station, 10391 West Naval Observatory Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001-8521 (United States); Eisenstein, Daniel J. [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS 20, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Althaus, L.; Corsico, A., E-mail: hch@nofs.navy.mil [Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisicas, Paseo del Bosque S/N, (1900) La Plata (Argentina)

    2013-01-15

    We present a new catalog of spectroscopically confirmed white dwarf stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 spectroscopic catalog. We find 20,407 white dwarf spectra, representing 19,712 stars, and provide atmospheric model fits to 14,120 DA and 1011 DB white dwarf spectra from 12,843 and 923 stars, respectively. These numbers represent more than a factor of two increase in the total number of white dwarf stars from the previous SDSS white dwarf catalogs based on DR4 data. Our distribution of subtypes varies from previous catalogs due to our more conservative, manual classifications of each star in our catalog, supplementing our automatic fits. In particular, we find a large number of magnetic white dwarf stars whose small Zeeman splittings mimic increased Stark broadening that would otherwise result in an overestimated log g if fit as a non-magnetic white dwarf. We calculate mean DA and DB masses for our clean, non-magnetic sample and find the DB mean mass is statistically larger than that for the DAs.

  20. How bees distinguish black from white

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horridge A

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Adrian Horridge Biological Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, AustraliaAbstract: Bee eyes have photoreceptors for ultraviolet, green, and blue wavelengths that are excited by reflected white but not by black. With ultraviolet reflections excluded by the apparatus, bees can learn to distinguish between black, gray, and white, but theories of color vision are clearly of no help in explaining how they succeed. Human vision sidesteps the issue by constructing black and white in the brain. Bees have quite different and accessible mechanisms. As revealed by extensive tests of trained bees, bees learned two strong signals displayed on either target. The first input was the position and a measure of the green receptor modulation at the vertical edges of a black area, which included a measure of the angular width between the edges of black. They also learned the average position and total amount of blue reflected from white areas. These two inputs were sufficient to help decide which of two targets held the reward of sugar solution, but the bees cared nothing for the black or white as colors, or the direction of contrast at black/white edges. These findings provide a small step toward understanding, modeling, and implementing in silicon the anti-intuitive visual system of the honeybee, in feeding behavior. Keywords: vision, detectors, black/white, color, visual processing

  1. Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome and Accessory Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the American Heart Association Cardiology Patient Page Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome and Accessory Pathways James Kulig , Bruce ... rate, which can be dangerous. What is Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome? Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW) is ...

  2. A desigualdade invisível: o papel da classe social na criação dos filhos em famílias negras e brancas Invisible inequality: the role of social class in raising children from black and white families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Lareau

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Apesar de a vida familiar ter um impacto importante nas oportunidades de vida dos filhos, os mecanismos pelos quais os pais transmitem essas vantagens ainda não são totalmente compreendidos. Uma coleta de dados, realizada por meio de ferramentas etnográficas, com crianças brancas e negras de, aproximadamente, 10 anos de idade mostra os efeitos da classe social nas interações dentro de casa. Pais de classe média participam de um cultivo orquestrado (concerted cultivation, ao tentar cultivar os talentos dos filhos através de atividades de lazer organizadas e intensa racionalização. A classe trabalhadora e os pais pobres promovem um crescimento natural (natural growth, oferecendo condições para que os filhos possam crescer, mas deixando as atividades de lazer para as próprias crianças. Estes pais também usam diretivas em vez de racionalização. Os filhos da classe média, tanto brancos como negros, recebem um sentimento emergente de direito através de sua vida familiar. A raça teve muito menos impacto do que a classe econômica. Além disso, as diferenças na lógica cultural de criação ofereceram aos pais e aos filhos recursos distintos no momento de interação com profissionais de instituições dominantes e com outros adultos fora do ambiente familiar. Os filhos da classe média ganharam individualmente vantagens insignificantes, mas cumulativamente importantes. As classes trabalhadoras e pobres não apresentaram o mesmo sentimento de direito ou suas vantagens. No entanto, algumas áreas da vida familiar pareceram ser livres dos efeitos de classe social.Although family life has an important impact on children's chances in life, the mechanisms through which parents transmit advantages are imperfectly understood. An ethnographic data set of white and black children around 10 years old shows the effects of social class on interactions at home. Middle-class parents engage in concerted cultivation by attempting to foster children

  3. Evaluation of Whiteness in Linen and Semi-linen Fabrics

    OpenAIRE

    Liucina Kot; Eglė KUMPIKAITĖ; Audronė RAGAIŠIENĖ; Žaneta RUKUIŽIENĖ

    2015-01-01

    Whiteness of textiles is one of the main "white" product quality indicators described by the following parameters: lightness of a colour, colour tone (white shade), white uniformity and stability under the influence of physical factors. “White” textile products can be perceived by comparing them with a white standard (Pantone colour palette). On the other hand, the whiteness of the fabric can be estimated using the colorimeter and determining lightness of a fabric L. The purpose of a research...

  4. Prostaglandin (PG) E3 synthesis elicted by adrenergic stimuli in guinea-pig trachea (GPT) is mediated primarily by B2 adrenergic receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadel, G.L.; Malik, K.U.; Lew, D.B.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism and to characterize the type of adrenergic receptor (AR) involved in the production of the major metabolite of this fatty acid. [ 14 C]AA was incubated with GPT-rings and the radiolabelled products were extracted and separated by TLC method. The medium was also assayed for radiolabelled immunoreactive PG's (iPG's) and leukotrienes (LT) B4 and C4 by RIA or Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) after exposure to various AR agonists. [ 14 C]AA was incorporated into GPT-rings and metabolized mainly into iPGE2 and smaller amounts into PGF2α. Trace amounts of PGD2 and 6-keto-PGF1α but not LTB4 or LTC4 were detected by RIA and/or EIA. Incubation of GPT rings for 15 minutes with isoproterenol and salbutamol resulted in a significant increase of PGE2 synthesis (optimum conc: 10 -7 , 10 -7 M respectively). In contrast, dobutamine, norepinephrine, phenylnephrine and xylazine (up to 10 -6 M) did not significantly increase PGE2 production. Isoproterenol-induced iPGE2 production was inhibited by a selective β2 antagonist, butoxamine (70%: 10 -7 M, 91%: 10 -6 M) and somewhat reduced by β1 antagonists practolol and metoprolol (30-64%:10 -6 M). These data suggest that isoproterenol induced iPGE2 synthesis is primarily mediated via activation of β2 adrenergic receptor

  5. Hydroa vacciniforme-like lymphoma with primarily periorbital swelling: 7 cases of an atypical clinical manifestation of this rare cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Jose A; Sangueza, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Hydroa vacciniforme-like lymphoma (HVL) is a rare cutaneous T-cell lymphoma that is usually seen in children of Hispanic or Asian origin. Association between chronic latent Epstein-Barr virus infection in both hydroa vacciniforme (HV) and HVL has been demonstrated and has recently been categorized by the World Health Organization as one of the Epstein Barr virus-positive lymphoproliferative disorders of childhood. Patients with HVL present with a cutaneous rash characterized by edema, blisters, ulcers, and scars mainly seen on the face and extremities that mimic HV; however, unlike in HV, the lesions tend to be extensive and deeper and are associated with severe scarring, necrosis, and systemic manifestations. We are reporting 7 cases of an unusual clinical variant of HVL with primarily periorbital edema. All of our patients in this series presented with progressive periorbital edema that was accompanied with systemic symptoms including fever, malaise, and lymphadenopathy. Most cases were initially misinterpreted as inflammatory processes including cellulitis, arthropod bite reactions, and periorbital lupus erythematosus. The biopsy of these lesions revealed an atypical lymphocytic infiltrate predominantly distributed in the deep dermis and in subcutaneous fat. Immunohistochemistry studies revealed a cytotoxic T-cell (CD8) profile. All cases were associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection. Our study presents a rare clinical variant of HVL with predominant periorbital edema. This variant could potentially be overlooked and misdiagnosed as an inflammatory condition; thus, it needs to be included in the differential diagnosis of periorbital edema in young patients.

  6. High mobility group protein number17 cross-links primarily to histone H2A in the reconstituted HMG 17 - nucleosome core particle complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, G.R.; Yau, P.; Yasuda, H.; Traut, R.R.; Bradbury, E.M.

    1986-01-01

    The neighbor relationship of lamb thymus High Mobility Group (HMG) protein 17 to native HeLa nucleosome core particle histones in the reconstituted complex has been studied. 125 I-labeled HMG 17 was cross-linking to core histones using the protein-protein cross-linking reagent 2-iminothiolane. Specific cross-linked products were separated on a two-dimensional Triton-acid-urea/SDS gel system, located by autoradiography, excised and quantified. Disulfide bonds in the cross links were then cleaved and the protein constituents were identified by SDS gel electrophoresis. HMG 17 cross-linked primarily to histone H2A while lower levels of cross-linking occurred between HMG 17 and the other histones. In contrast, cross-linking between two HMG 17 molecules bound on the same nucleosome was relatively rare. It is concluded that the same nucleosome was relatively rare. It is concluded that H2A comprises part of the HMG 17 binding site but that HMG 17 is sufficiently elongated and mobile to permit cross-linking to the other histones and to a second HMG 17 molecule. These results are in agreement with the current model for the structure of the nucleosome and the proposed binding sites for HMG 17

  7. Bacterial diversity shift determined by different diets in the gut of the spotted wing fly Drosophila suzukii is primarily reflected on acetic acid bacteria

    KAUST Repository

    Vacchini, Violetta

    2016-11-25

    The pivotal role of diet in shaping gut microbiota has been evaluated in different animal models, including insects. Drosophila flies harbour an inconstant microbiota among which acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are important components. Here, we investigated the bacterial and AAB components of the invasive pest Drosophila suzukii microbiota, by studying the same insect population separately grown on fruit-based or non-fruit artificial diet. AAB were highly prevalent in the gut under both diets (90 and 92% infection rates with fruits and artificial diet, respectively). Fluorescent in situ hybridization and recolonization experiments with green fluorescent protein (Gfp)-labelled strains showed AAB capability to massively colonize insect gut. High-throughput sequencing on 16S rRNA gene indicated that the bacterial microbiota of guts fed with the two diets clustered separately. By excluding AAB-related OTUs from the analysis, insect bacterial communities did not cluster separately according to the diet, suggesting that diet-based diversification of the community is primarily reflected on the AAB component of the community. Diet influenced also AAB alpha-diversity, with separate OTU distributions based on diets. High prevalence, localization and massive recolonization, together with AAB clustering behaviour in relation to diet, suggest an AAB role in the D. suzukii gut response to diet modification. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Salinity-induced inhibition of growth in the aquatic pteridophyte Azolla microphylla primarily involves inhibition of photosynthetic components and signaling molecules as revealed by proteome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thagela, Preeti; Yadav, Ravindra Kumar; Mishra, Vagish; Dahuja, Anil; Ahmad, Altaf; Singh, Pawan Kumar; Tiwari, Budhi Sagar; Abraham, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    Salinity stress causes adverse physiological and biochemical changes in the growth and productivity of a plant. Azolla, a symbiotic pteridophyte and potent candidate for biofertilizer due to its nitrogen fixation ability, shows reduced growth and nitrogen fixation during saline stress. To better understand regulatory components involved in salinity-induced physiological changes, in the present study, Azolla microphylla plants were exposed to NaCl (6.74 and 8.61 ds/m) and growth, photochemical reactions of photosynthesis, ion accumulation, and changes in cellular proteome were studied. Maximum dry weight was accumulated in control and untreated plant while a substantial decrease in dry weight was observed in the plants exposed to salinity. Exposure of the organism to different concentrations of salt in hydroponic conditions resulted in differential level of Na + and K + ion accumulation. Comparative analysis of salinity-induced proteome changes in A. microphylla revealed 58 salt responsive proteins which were differentially expressed during the salt exposure. Moreover, 42 % spots among differentially expressed proteins were involved in different signaling events. The identified proteins are involved in photosynthesis, energy metabolism, amino acid biosynthesis, protein synthesis, and defense. Downregulation of these key metabolic proteins appears to inhibit the growth of A. microphylla in response to salinity. Altogether, the study revealed that in Azolla, increased salinity primarily affected signaling and photosynthesis that in turn leads to reduced biomass.

  9. Comparative Transcriptional Profiling Established the Awn as the Major Photosynthetic Organ of the Barley Spike While the Lemma and the Palea Primarily Protect the Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilahun Abebe

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The lemma, palea, and awn of a barley ( L. spike are photosynthetic organs that supply the developing seed with carbohydrates. The lemma and palea also enclose the seed and protect it from pathogens and insects. Despite the important roles they play, little information exists on gene expression in these organs that identifies their function. In this study, we compared gene expression among the lemma, palea, awn, and developing seed of barley during grain filling using the Barley1 Genome Array to identify highly expressed genes involved in the primary function of these organs. Hierarchical clustering and mixed model analysis revealed that the lemma and palea have closely related gene expression patterns. In addition, the lemma and palea overexpressed defense-related genes compared with the awn. The awn preferentially expressed genes for photosynthesis, the biosynthesis of chlorophyll and carotenoids, and reactive oxygen species scavenging. This suggests the lemma and palea are mainly protective organs whereas the awn is primarily a photosynthetic structure. The seed was enriched with genes for the biosynthesis of starch, storage proteins, enzyme inhibitors, and cell proliferation.

  10. Is Walking Capacity in Subjects with Multiple Sclerosis Primarily Related to Muscle Oxidative Capacity or Maximal Muscle Strength? A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Hansen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. Walking capacity is reduced in subjects with multiple sclerosis (MS. To develop effective exercise interventions to enhance walking capacity, it is important to determine the impact of factors, modifiable by exercise intervention (maximal muscle strength versus muscle oxidative capacity, on walking capacity. The purpose of this pilot study is to discriminate between the impact of maximal muscle strength versus muscle oxidative capacity on walking capacity in subjects with MS. Methods. From 24 patients with MS, muscle oxidative capacity was determined by calculation of exercise-onset oxygen uptake kinetics (mean response time during submaximal exercise bouts. Maximal muscle strength (isometric knee extension and flexion peak torque was assessed on dynamometer. All subjects completed a 6-minute walking test. Relationships between walking capacity (as a percentage of normal value and muscle strength (of knee flexors and extensors versus muscle oxidative capacity were assessed in multivariate regression analyses. Results. The expanded disability status score (EDSS showed a significant univariate correlation (r=-0.70, P<0.004 with walking capacity. In multivariate regression analyses, EDSS and mean response time, but not muscle strength, were independently related to walking capacity (P<0.05. Conclusions. Walking distance is, next to disability level and not taking neurologic symptoms/deficits into account, primarily related to muscle oxidative capacity in subjects with MS. Additional study is needed to further examine/verify these findings.

  11. Factors affecting the number and type of student research products for chemistry and physics students at primarily undergraduate institutions: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellis, Birgit; Soto, Patricia; Bruce, Chrystal D; Lacueva, Graciela; Wilson, Anne M; Jayasekare, Rasitha

    2018-01-01

    For undergraduate students, involvement in authentic research represents scholarship that is consistent with disciplinary quality standards and provides an integrative learning experience. In conjunction with performing research, the communication of the results via presentations or publications is a measure of the level of scientific engagement. The empirical study presented here uses generalized linear mixed models with hierarchical bootstrapping to examine the factors that impact the means of dissemination of undergraduate research results. Focusing on the research experiences in physics and chemistry of undergraduates at four Primarily Undergraduate Institutions (PUIs) from 2004-2013, statistical analysis indicates that the gender of the student does not impact the number and type of research products. However, in chemistry, the rank of the faculty advisor and the venue of the presentation do impact the number of research products by undergraduate student, whereas in physics, gender match between student and advisor has an effect on the number of undergraduate research products. This study provides a baseline for future studies of discipline-based bibliometrics and factors that affect the number of research products of undergraduate students.

  12. Factors affecting the number and type of student research products for chemistry and physics students at primarily undergraduate institutions: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Patricia; Bruce, Chrystal D.; Lacueva, Graciela; Wilson, Anne M.; Jayasekare, Rasitha

    2018-01-01

    For undergraduate students, involvement in authentic research represents scholarship that is consistent with disciplinary quality standards and provides an integrative learning experience. In conjunction with performing research, the communication of the results via presentations or publications is a measure of the level of scientific engagement. The empirical study presented here uses generalized linear mixed models with hierarchical bootstrapping to examine the factors that impact the means of dissemination of undergraduate research results. Focusing on the research experiences in physics and chemistry of undergraduates at four Primarily Undergraduate Institutions (PUIs) from 2004–2013, statistical analysis indicates that the gender of the student does not impact the number and type of research products. However, in chemistry, the rank of the faculty advisor and the venue of the presentation do impact the number of research products by undergraduate student, whereas in physics, gender match between student and advisor has an effect on the number of undergraduate research products. This study provides a baseline for future studies of discipline-based bibliometrics and factors that affect the number of research products of undergraduate students. PMID:29698502

  13. General Relativistic Calculations for White Dwarf Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, Arun; Nandy, Malay K.

    2014-01-01

    The mass-radius relations for white dwarf stars are investigated by solving the Newtonian as well as Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff (TOV) equations for hydrostatic equilibrium assuming the electron gas to be non-interacting. We find that the Newtonian limiting mass of $1.4562M_\\odot$ is modified to $1.4166M_\\odot$ in the general relativistic case for $^4_2$He (and $^{12}_{\\ 6}$C) white dwarf stars. Using the same general relativistic treatment, the critical mass for $^{56}_{26}$Fe white dwarf is ...

  14. Nucleosynthesis in cold white dwarf explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canal, R.; Hernanz, M.

    1986-01-01

    Type I supernovae (SNI) are generally thought to be the main contributors to the galactic nucleosynthesis of iron-peak elements and their yields of intermediate-mass elements may also be important. We concentrate here upon a different class of models, based on the explosion of cold, massive, partially solid white dwarfs. We show that such white dwarfs must be relatively frequent among SNI progenitors and how their hydrodynamics upon ignition is very different from that of hotter, fluid white dwarfs. The implications for nucleosynthesis are briefly discussed and some preliminary results are presented

  15. White certificate: how to launch the system?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    White certificates are a supple and suitable economical system for the quest of diffuse energy saving. It relies on the energy distribution networks and is complementary to other existing system (fiscality, regulation, etc). It is an open system, based on a market logics in order to make energy savings where they are the less costly. This document gathers the synthesis of the conference about white certificates, held in Paris in October 2005, the presentations (transparencies) given by J. Percebois (Creden) about the French system of energy savings and by P. Guyonnet (ATEE) about the way to launch the system of white certificates. The debate with the audience is also reported. (J.S.)

  16. Molecular genetics of coat colour variations in White Galloway and White Park cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenig, B; Beck, J; Floren, C; Bornemann-Kolatzki, K; Wiedemann, I; Hennecke, S; Swalve, H; Schütz, E

    2013-08-01

    White Galloway cattle exhibit three different white coat colour phenotypes, that is, well marked, strongly marked and mismarked. However, mating of individuals with the preferred well or strongly marked phenotype also results in offspring with the undesired mismarked and/or even fully black coat colour. To elucidate the genetic background of the coat colour variations in White Galloway cattle, we analysed four coat colour relevant genes: mast/stem cell growth factor receptor (KIT), KIT ligand (KITLG), melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) and tyrosinase (TYR). Here, we show that the coat colour variations in White Galloway cattle and White Park cattle are caused by a KIT gene (chromosome 6) duplication and aberrant insertion on chromosome 29 (Cs29 ) as recently described for colour-sided Belgian Blue. Homozygous (Cs29 /Cs29 ) White Galloway cattle and White Park cattle exhibit the mismarked phenotype, whereas heterozygous (Cs29 /wt29 ) individuals are either well or strongly marked. In contrast, fully black individuals are characterised by the wild-type chromosome 29. As known for other cattle breeds, mutations in the MC1R gene determine the red colouring. Our data suggest that the white coat colour variations in White Galloway cattle and White Park cattle are caused by a dose-dependent effect based on the ploidy of aberrant insertions and inheritance of the KIT gene on chromosome 29. © 2013 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2013 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  17. STS-93 M.S. Stephen Hawley in the White Room

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    STS-93 Mission Specialist Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.) is checked out by white room closeout crew members before entering the orbiter Columbia. In the background is Mission Specialist Michel Tognini of France, waiting to enter Columbia. The white room is an environmental chamber at the end of the orbiter access arm that provides entry to the orbiter crew compartment. STS-93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. After Space Shuttle Columbia's July 20 and 22 launch attempts were scrubbed, the launch was again rescheduled for Friday, July 23, at 12:24 a.m. EDT. The target landing date is July 27 at 11:20 p.m. EDT.

  18. Aerobic fitness is associated with greater white matter integrity in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eChaddock-Heyman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic fitness has been found to play a positive role in brain and cognitive health of children. Yet, many of the neural biomarkers related to aerobic fitness remain unknown. Here, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, we demonstrated that higher aerobic fitness was related to greater estimates of white matter microstructure in children. Higher fit 9- and 10-year-old children showed greater fractional anisotropy (FA in sections of the corpus callosum, corona radiata, and superior longitudinal fasciculus, compared to lower fit children. The FA effects were primarily characterized by aerobic fitness differences in radial diffusivity (RD, thereby raising the possibility that estimates of myelination may vary as a function of individual differences in fitness during childhood. White matter structure may be another potential neural mechanism of aerobic fitness that assists in efficient communication between gray matter regions as well as the integration of regions into networks.

  19. The White Nile sedimentary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzanti, Eduardo; Andò, Sergio; Padoan, Marta; Resentini, Alberto; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Villa, Igor

    2014-05-01

    The Nile River flows for ~6700 km from south of the Equator to finally reach the Mediterranean Sea at northern subtropical latitudes (Woodward et al. 2007). This is the longest sedimentological laboratory on Earth, a unique setting in which we are investigating changes in sediment composition associated with diverse chemical and physical processes, including weathering and hydraulic sorting. The present study focuses on the southern branch of the Nile across 20° of latitude, from hyperhumid Burundi and Rwanda highlands in central Africa to Khartoum, the capital city of Sudan at the southern edge of the Sahara. Our study of the Kagera basin emphasizes the importance of weathering in soils at the source rather than during stepwise transport, and shows that the transformation of parent rocks into quartzose sand may be completed in one sedimentary cycle (Garzanti et al. 2013a). Micas and heavy minerals, less effectively diluted by recycling than main framework components, offer the best key to identify the original source-rock imprint. The different behaviour of chemical indices such as the CIA (a truer indicator of weathering) and the WIP (markedly affected by quartz dilution) helps us to distinguish strongly weathered first-cycle versus polycyclic quartz sands (Garzanti et al. 2013b). Because sediment is efficiently trapped in East African Rift lakes, the composition of Nile sediments changes repeatedly northwards across Uganda. Downstream of both Lake Kyoga and Lake Albert, quartzose sands are progressively enriched in metamorphiclastic detritus supplied from tributaries draining amphibolite-facies basements. The evolution of White Nile sediments across South Sudan, a scarcely accessible region that suffered decades of civil war, was inferred from the available information (Shukri 1950), integrated by original petrographic, heavy-mineral and geochemical data (Padoan et al. 2011). Mineralogical and isotopic signatures of Bahr-el-Jebel and Sobat sediments, derived

  20. Lessons from White Lake - Connecting Students to their Community through Environmental Stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Susan

    2014-05-01

    White Lake and its surrounding community have been negatively affected by shoreline degradation and wildlife habitat loss caused primarily by historical logging practices, and reduced water quality from industrial pollution and storm water runoff. This led to the lake being identified as a Great Lakes Area of Concern by the United States Environmental Protection Agency three decades ago. Local community partners have worked diligently in recent years to reverse habitat loss, and repair damaged ecosystems. The "H2O White Lake" (Healthy Habitats On White Lake) project has involved over seven hundred middle school students in grades six through eight over the course of the last five years. Students begin by researching the environmental history of the watershed and then they monitor six tributaries of the lake for nutrient pollution and habitat degradation. Students use the field experience as a community inventory to identify stewardship needs, for which they then identify solutions that take into account land usage and community behaviors. Class projects have focused on stream bank restoration, storm water management, eradication of invasive species, shoreline clean-up, and community outreach and education. This year, the project culminated in the first ever White Lake Environmental Film Festival, for which students had the opportunity to create their own short documentary. This multiple year place based education project allows students to apply their classroom studies of surface water and groundwater dynamics to an authentic, real-world situation, conduct themselves as scientists, and feel valuable through connections with community partners.

  1. White gauze test: a novel technique in preventing post-hepatectomy bile leak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yugasaravanan, K; Affirul, C A; Zamri, Z; Azlanudin, A; Bong, J J

    Post-hepatectomy bile leak may lead to undesired morbidity. Multiple methods have been employed to identify this leak but can be inconclusive and taxing. This novel white gauze test is a simple and reliable method. This is a prospective study performed from January 2010 until March 2011. All open hepatic resection were included. Dry white gauze is compressed onto the transected surface and observed for bile staining. The leaking duct is repaired immediately upon detection. The process is repeated until negative. Drain was removed on postoperative day-5. Post-operative bile leak is defined as: 1. Bilirubin concentration of the drain fluid is 3 times or higher than serum; 2. Presence of intra-abdominal bile collection on imaging and upon drainage; 3. Bile leak demonstrated on postoperative cholangiography. 42 patients were recruited. Seven (16.7%) patients were cirrhotic with Child-Pugh A. White gauze test were positive for intra-operative bile leaks in 29 patients (70%), which were primarily repaired. As a result, there was no postoperative bile leak in this series. One mortality was detected in this series due to postoperative pancreatic fistula and multi organ failure. The White Gauze Test is a useful method for the prevention of bile leakage after hepatic resection. It is safe, quick and cheap.

  2. Neurotransmitter signaling in white matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Arthur M; Fern, Robert F; Matute, Carlos

    2014-11-01

    White matter (WM) tracts are bundles of myelinated axons that provide for rapid communication throughout the CNS and integration in grey matter (GM). The main cells in myelinated tracts are oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, with small populations of microglia and oligodendrocyte precursor cells. The prominence of neurotransmitter signaling in WM, which largely exclude neuronal cell bodies, indicates it must have physiological functions other than neuron-to-neuron communication. A surprising aspect is the diversity of neurotransmitter signaling in WM, with evidence for glutamatergic, purinergic (ATP and adenosine), GABAergic, glycinergic, adrenergic, cholinergic, dopaminergic and serotonergic signaling, acting via a wide range of ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. Both axons and glia are potential sources of neurotransmitters and may express the respective receptors. The physiological functions of neurotransmitter signaling in WM are subject to debate, but glutamate and ATP-mediated signaling have been shown to evoke Ca(2+) signals in glia and modulate axonal conduction. Experimental findings support a model of neurotransmitters being released from axons during action potential propagation acting on glial receptors to regulate the homeostatic functions of astrocytes and myelination by oligodendrocytes. Astrocytes also release neurotransmitters, which act on axonal receptors to strengthen action potential propagation, maintaining signaling along potentially long axon tracts. The co-existence of multiple neurotransmitters in WM tracts suggests they may have diverse functions that are important for information processing. Furthermore, the neurotransmitter signaling phenomena described in WM most likely apply to myelinated axons of the cerebral cortex and GM areas, where they are doubtless important for higher cognitive function. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. White House Tapes of the Nixon Administration, 1971 to 1973

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — This dataset provides information about the Nixon Administration's White House Tapes. The White House Tapes contain sound recordings of President Richard Nixon's...

  4. Barriers to calling 911 and learning and performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation for residents of primarily Latino, high-risk neighborhoods in Denver, Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, Comilla; Haukoos, Jason S; Ben-Youssef, Leila; Ramirez, Lorenzo; Bull, Sheana; Eigel, Brian; Magid, David J; Padilla, Ricardo

    2015-05-01

    Individuals in neighborhoods composed of minority and lower socioeconomic status populations are more likely to have an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest event, less likely to have bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performed, and less likely to survive. Latino cardiac arrest victims are 30% less likely than whites to have bystander CPR performed. The goal of this study is to identify barriers and facilitators to calling 911, and learning and performing CPR in 5 low-income, Latino neighborhoods in Denver, CO. Six focus groups and 9 key informant interviews were conducted in Denver during the summer of 2012. Purposeful and snowball sampling, conducted by community liaisons, was used to recruit participants. Two reviewers analyzed the data to identify recurrent and unifying themes. A qualitative content analysis was used with a 5-stage iterative process to analyze each transcript. Six key barriers to calling 911 were identified: fear of becoming involved because of distrust of law enforcement, financial, immigration status, lack of recognition of cardiac arrest event, language, and violence. Seven cultural barriers were identified that may preclude performance of bystander CPR: age, sex, immigration status, language, racism, strangers, and fear of touching someone. Participants suggested that increasing availability of tailored education in Spanish, increasing the number of bilingual 911 dispatchers, and policy-level changes, including CPR as a requirement for graduation and strengthening Good Samaritan laws, may serve as potential facilitators in increasing the provision of bystander CPR. Distrust of law enforcement, language concerns, lack of recognition of cardiac arrest, and financial issues must be addressed when community-based CPR educational programs for Latinos are implemented. Copyright © 2014 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Personal Learning Environments in Black and White

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalz, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Kalz, M. (2010, 22 January). Personal Learning Environments in Black and White. Presentation provided during the workshop "Informal Learning and the use of social software in veterinary medicine" of the Noviceproject (http://www.noviceproject.eu), Utrecht, The Netherlands.

  6. White Dwarfs, Neutron Stars and Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekeres, P.

    1977-01-01

    The three possible fates of burned-out stars: white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes, are described in elementary terms. Characteristics of these celestial bodies, as provided by Einstein's work, are described. (CP)

  7. White matter disease of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melville, G.E.; Fernandez, R.E.; Kishore, P.R.S.; Lee, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    The white matter disorders that are discussed in this chapter are subdivided into those disorders within which there is breakdown of normal myelin, termed myelinoclastic, and those diseases involving either formation or maintenance of abnormal myeline, termed dysmyelinating. CT is a well-established technique for studying white matter disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a new noninvasive technique which has shown greater sensitivity to white matter abnormalities. However, because of the rarity of may white matter diseases coupled with limited availability of MR facilities, the MRI experience in evaluating these patients is not extensive yet. Some patients may not be suitable for MRI because of the longer period of patient immobility that is required to avoid motion artifacts

  8. WHITE SPACE DALAM IKLAN DI MEDIA CETAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrian D. Hagijanto

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Readers are often unware of advertisments published in print media%2C therefore the elements of communication design composed in the promotion process fail to reach the objectives. One of the methods use to gain attention from the readers so they focus their vision to the advertisment is by presenting the lay out using white space. This article is to discuss about white space in media advertisments%2C especially newspaper and magazines. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Iklan pada media cetak terkadang dilewati begitu saja oleh pembaca%2C sehingga proses promosi yang dikemas dengan elemen desain komunikasi visual itu gagal mencapai tujuannya. Salah satu cara untuk menarik perhatian pembaca agar menghentikan sejenak kedua matanya dan mengamati iklan adalah dengan menciptakan layout iklan lewat peranan white space. Tulisan ini akan membahas mengenai white space di dalam iklan media cetak%2C khususnya koran dan majalah.

  9. Lenore White Harmon: One Woman's Career Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Nadya A.

    1997-01-01

    Presents biographical information on Lenore White Harmon, noted professor, counselor, and researcher. In a question-and-answer section, Harmon describes her early career decisions, work history, research efforts, professional contributions, important influences and reflections on her career development. (KW)

  10. Size of the great white shark (carcharodon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, J E

    1973-07-13

    The maximum length of 36.5 feet (11.1 meters) attributed to the white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) by Günther and others is a mistake. Examination of the jaws and teeth of the specimen referred to by Günther and comparison with the jaws of white sharks of known length revealed a length of about 17 feet ( approximately 5 meters). The largest white shark reliably measured was a 21-foot (6.4-meter) individual from Cuba. Bites on whale carcasses found off southern Australia suggest that white sharks as long as 25 or 26 feet (7 (1/2) or 8 meters) exist today. The size of extinct Carcharodon has also been grossly exaggerated. Based on a projection of a curve of tooth size of Recent Carcharodon carcharias, the largest fossil Carcharodon were about 43 feet ( approximately 13 meters) long.

  11. White adipose tissue coloring by intermittent fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivelä, Riikka; Alitalo, Kari

    2017-11-01

    Intermittent fasting (IF) has been shown to promote metabolic health in several organisms. Two recent papers show that IF induces white adipose tissue beiging and increases thermogenesis, which improves metabolic health in mice.

  12. White-Nose Syndrome of bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessie A. Glaeser; Martin J. Pfeiffer; Daniel L. Lindner

    2016-01-01

    Devastating. Catastrophic. Unprecedented. This is how white-nose syndrome of bats (WNS) is characterized. It is one of the deadliest wildlife diseases ever observed and could have significant impacts on outdoor recreation, agriculture and wildlife management.

  13. WHITE MEN IN AFRICA: CELATI, THEROUX, KAPUSCINSKI

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Africa of the typical white tourist is dismissed as “predictable, programmed”, while the .... The segmentation of space to which he is used, the separation between ... far removed from the marketing brochure and the consumer- friendly itinerary.

  14. Become a CERN WhiteHat

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    Discovering CERN's weaknesses is as important as ever. Become a CERN WhiteHat and help us poking around CERN computing services and web applications. All you need is to apply and get the appropriate training...

  15. White Blood Cell Counts and Malaria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McKenzie, F. E; Prudhomme, Wendy A; Magill, Alan J; Forney, J. R; Permpanich, Barnyen; Lucas, Carmen; Gasser, Jr., Robert A; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda

    2005-01-01

    White blood cells (WBCs) were counted in 4697 individuals who presented to outpatient malaria clinics in Maesod, Tak Province, Thailand, and Iquitos, Peru, between 28 May and 28 August 1998 and between 17 May and 9 July 1999...

  16. Black and White Differentials in Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rene, Antonio A.; Clifford, Patrick R.

    1986-01-01

    Overviews vital statistics data, emphasizing differences in health status between the Black and White populations with respect to specific diseases and mortality. Discusses major causes of death among US Blacks. (GC)

  17. White Light Photorefractive Phase Zone Plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan-Mei, Gao; Si-Min, Liu

    2008-01-01

    Incoherent white light from an incandescent source is employed to fabricate volume phase zone plates in LiNbO 3 : Fe, for the first time to our knowledge, which can guide and modulate the input white light or laser light. The diffractive efficiency of the white light volume phase zone plates fabricated can reach as high as 12%. In addition, we test the volume phase zone plates by a probe beam and find that the volume phase zone plate is present in the direction perpendicular to the c-axis and absent in the direction parallel to the c-axis. This directly proves the existence of photovoltaic photorefractive anisotropy of white light

  18. Merging white dwarfs and thermonuclear supernovae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kerkwijk, M H

    2013-06-13

    Thermonuclear supernovae result when interaction with a companion reignites nuclear fusion in a carbon-oxygen white dwarf, causing a thermonuclear runaway, a catastrophic gain in pressure and the disintegration of the whole white dwarf. It is usually thought that fusion is reignited in near-pycnonuclear conditions when the white dwarf approaches the Chandrasekhar mass. I briefly describe two long-standing problems faced by this scenario, and the suggestion that these supernovae instead result from mergers of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs, including those that produce sub-Chandrasekhar-mass remnants. I then turn to possible observational tests, in particular, those that test the absence or presence of electron captures during the burning.

  19. Cis-Natural Antisense Transcripts Are Mainly Co-expressed with Their Sense Transcripts and Primarily Related to Energy Metabolic Pathways during Muscle Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunxia; Hou, Ye; Zhao, Changzhi; Liu, Fei; Luan, Yu; Jing, Lu; Li, Xinyun; Zhu, Mengjin; Zhao, Shuhong

    2016-01-01

    Cis-natural antisense transcripts (cis-NATs) are a new class of RNAs identified in various species. However, the biological functions of cis-NATs are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the transcriptional characteristics and functions of cis-NATs in the muscle tissue of lean Landrace and indigenous fatty Lantang pigs. In total, 3,306 cis-NATs of 2,469 annotated genes were identified in the muscle tissue of pigs. More than 1,300 cis-NATs correlated with their sense genes at the transcriptional level, and approximately 80% of them were co-expressed in the two breeds. Furthermore, over 1,200 differentially expressed cis-NATs were identified during muscle development. Function annotation showed that the cis-NATs participated in muscle development mainly by co-expressing with genes involved in energy metabolic pathways, including citrate cycle (TCA cycle), glycolysis or gluconeogenesis, mitochondrial activation and so on. Moreover, these cis-NATs and their sense genes abruptly increased at the transition from the late fetal stages to the early postnatal stages and then decreased along with muscle development. In conclusion, the cis-NATs in the muscle tissue of pigs were identified and determined to be mainly co-expressed with their sense genes. The co-expressed cis-NATs and their sense gene were primarily related to energy metabolic pathways during muscle development in pigs. Our results offered novel evidence on the roles of cis-NATs during the muscle development of pigs.

  20. (-)Deprenyl and (-)1-phenyl-2-propylaminopentane, [(-)PPAP], act primarily as potent stimulants of action potential-transmitter release coupling in the catecholaminergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, J; Miklya, I; Knoll, B; Markó, R; Kelemen, K

    1996-01-01

    The activity of the catecholaminergic neurons in the rat brain is enhanced significantly 30 min after the subcutaneous injection of very small doses of (-)deprenyl (threshold doses: 0.01 mg/kg for noradrenergic neurons and 0.025 mg/kg for dopaminergic neurons). As a catecholaminergic activity enhancer (CAE) substance (-)deprenyl is about ten times more potent than its parent compound, (-)methamphetamine. While the (+)methamphetamine is 3-5 times more potent than (-)methamphetammine in releasing catecholamines, the (-)methamphetamine is the more potent CAE substance. The mechanism of the CAE effect of (-)deprenyl and (-)PPAP, a deprenyl-derived substance devoid of MAO inhibitory potency, was studied in rats by measuring: a) the release of catecholamines from striatum, substantia nigra, tuberculum olfactorium and locus coeruleus; b) the stimulation induced release of 3H-noradrenaline from the isolated brain stem; and c) the antagonistic effect against tetrabenazine-induced depression of learning in the shuttle box. The CAE effect was found to be unrelated: a) to the inhibition of MAO activity; b) to the inhibition of presynaptic catecholamine receptors; c) to the inhibition of the uptake of catecholamines; and d) to the release of catecholamines. It was concluded that (-)deprenyl and (-)PPAP act primarily as potent stimulants of action potential-transmitter release coupling in the catecholaminergic neurons of the brain. We show that both (-)deprenyl and (-)PPAP enhance the inward Ca2+ current in sino-auricular fibers of the frog heart. (-)PPAP was much more potent than either (+)PPAP or (-)deprenyl in this test.

  1. HIV/AIDS stigma among a sample of primarily African-American and Latino men who have sex with men social media users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garett, Renee; Smith, Justin; Chiu, Jason; Young, Sean D

    2016-01-01

    The recent increase in social media use allows these technologies to rapidly reach communities with higher HIV prevalence, such as African-American and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). However, no studies have looked at HIV/AIDS stigma among social media users from African-American and Latino MSM communities, or the association between stigma and social media use among these groups. This study sought to assess the level of HIV/AIDS stigma among a sample of social media-using African-American and Latino MSM from Los Angeles. A total of 112 (primarily African-American and Latino, n = 98, 88%) MSM Facebook users completed a survey on demographics, online social network use, and HIV/AIDS stigma. A composite stigma score was created by taking the cumulative score from a 15-item stigma questionnaire. Cumulative logistic models were used to assess the association between HIV/AIDS stigma and online social network use. In general, participants reported a low level of HIV/AIDS stigma (mean = 22.2/75, SD = 5.74). HIV/AIDS stigma composite score was significantly associated with increased time spent on online social networks each day (Adjusted odds ratios (AOR): 1.07, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.15). Among this diverse sample of MSM online social network users, findings suggest that HIV/AIDS stigma is associated with usage of social media. We discuss the implications of this work for future HIV prevention.

  2. Prostaglandin (PG) E3 synthesis elicted by adrenergic stimuli in guinea-pig trachea (GPT) is mediated primarily by B2 adrenergic receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadel, G.L.; Malik, K.U.; Lew, D.B. (Univ. of Tennessee, Memphis (United States))

    1990-02-26

    The purpose of this study was to examine arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism and to characterize the type of adrenergic receptor (AR) involved in the production of the major metabolite of this fatty acid. ({sup 14}C)AA was incubated with GPT-rings and the radiolabelled products were extracted and separated by TLC method. The medium was also assayed for radiolabelled immunoreactive PG's (iPG's) and leukotrienes (LT) B4 and C4 by RIA or Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) after exposure to various AR agonists. ({sup 14}C)AA was incorporated into GPT-rings and metabolized mainly into iPGE2 and smaller amounts into PGF2{alpha}. Trace amounts of PGD2 and 6-keto-PGF1{alpha} but not LTB4 or LTC4 were detected by RIA and/or EIA. Incubation of GPT rings for 15 minutes with isoproterenol and salbutamol resulted in a significant increase of PGE2 synthesis (optimum conc: 10{sup {minus}7}, 10{sup {minus}7}M respectively). In contrast, dobutamine, norepinephrine, phenylnephrine and xylazine (up to 10{sup {minus}6}M) did not significantly increase PGE2 production. Isoproterenol-induced iPGE2 production was inhibited by a selective {beta}2 antagonist, butoxamine (70%: 10{sup {minus}7}M, 91%: 10{sup {minus}6}M) and somewhat reduced by {beta}1 antagonists practolol and metoprolol (30-64%:10{sup {minus}6}M). These data suggest that isoproterenol induced iPGE2 synthesis is primarily mediated via activation of {beta}2 adrenergic receptor.

  3. Sitagliptin reduces cardiac apoptosis, hypertrophy and fibrosis primarily by insulin-dependent mechanisms in experimental type-II diabetes. Potential roles of GLP-1 isoforms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Picatoste

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Myocardial fibrosis is a key process in diabetic cardiomyopathy. However, their underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated, leading to a lack of therapy. The glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 enhancer, sitagliptin, reduces hyperglycemia but may also trigger direct effects on the heart. METHODS: Goto-Kakizaki (GK rats developed type-II diabetes and received sitagliptin, an anti-hyperglycemic drug (metformin or vehicle (n=10, each. After cardiac structure and function assessment, plasma and left ventricles were isolated for biochemical studies. Cultured cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts were used for in vitro assays. RESULTS: Untreated GK rats exhibited hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, plasma GLP-1 decrease, and cardiac cell-death, hypertrophy, fibrosis and prolonged deceleration time. Moreover, cardiac pro-apoptotic/necrotic, hypertrophic and fibrotic factors were up-regulated. Importantly, both sitagliptin and metformin lessened all these parameters. In cultured cardiomyocytes and cardiac fibroblasts, high-concentration of palmitate or glucose induced cell-death, hypertrophy and fibrosis. Interestingly, GLP-1 and its insulinotropic-inactive metabolite, GLP-1(9-36, alleviated these responses. In addition, despite a specific GLP-1 receptor was only detected in cardiomyocytes, GLP-1 isoforms attenuated the pro-fibrotic expression in cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts. In addition, GLP-1 receptor signalling may be linked to PPARδ activation, and metformin may also exhibit anti-apoptotic/necrotic and anti-fibrotic direct effects in cardiac cells. CONCLUSIONS: Sitagliptin, via GLP-1 stabilization, promoted cardioprotection in type-II diabetic hearts primarily by limiting hyperglycemia e hyperlipidemia. However, GLP-1 and GLP-1(9-36 promoted survival and anti-hypertrophic/fibrotic effects on cultured cardiac cells, suggesting cell-autonomous cardioprotective actions.

  4. White Dwarf Stars as Polytropic Gas Spheres

    OpenAIRE

    Nouh, M. I.; Saad, A. S.; Elkhateeb, M. M.; Korany, B.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the highly degeneracy of electrons in white dwarf stars, we expect that the relativistic effects play very important role in these stars. In the present article, we study the properties of the condensed matter in white dwarfs using Newtonian and relativistic polytropic fluid sphere. Two polytropic indices (namely n=3 and n=1.5) are proposed to investigate the physical characteristics of the models. We solve the Lane-Emden equations numerically.. The results show that the relativistic e...

  5. An overview of white dwarf stars

    OpenAIRE

    Fontaine, Gilles; Brassard, Pierre; Charpinet, Stéphane; Randall, Suzanna K.; Van Grootel, Valérie

    2013-01-01

    We present a brief summary of what is currently known about white dwarf stars, with an emphasis on their evolutionary and internal properties. As is well known, white dwarfs represent the end products of stellar evolution for the vast majority of stars and, as such, bear the signatures of past events (such as mass loss, mixing phases, loss and redistribution of angular momentum, and thermonuclear burning) that are of essential importance in the evolution of stars in general. In addition, whit...

  6. Laser induced white lighting of tungsten filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strek, W.; Tomala, R.; Lukaszewicz, M.

    2018-04-01

    The sustained bright white light emission of thin tungsten filament was induced under irradiation with focused beam of CW infrared laser diode. The broadband emission centered at 600 nm has demonstrated the threshold behavior on excitation power. Its intensity increased non-linearly with excitation power. The emission occurred only from the spot of focused beam of excitation laser diode. The white lighting was accompanied by efficient photocurrent flow and photoelectron emission which both increased non-linearly with laser irradiation power.

  7. White-centred retinal haemorrhages (Roth spots).

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, R.; James, B.

    1998-01-01

    Roth spots (white-centred retinal haemorrhages) were classically described as septic emboli lodged in the retina of patients with subacute bacterial endocarditis. Indeed many have considered Roth spots pathognomonic for this condition. More recent histological evidence suggests, however, that they are not foci of bacterial abscess. Instead, they are nonspecific and may be found in many other diseases. A review of the histology and the pathogenesis of these white-centred haemorrhages will be p...

  8. NEW COOLING SEQUENCES FOR OLD WHITE DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renedo, I.; Althaus, L. G.; GarcIa-Berro, E.; Miller Bertolami, M. M.; Romero, A. D.; Corsico, A. H.; Rohrmann, R. D.

    2010-01-01

    We present full evolutionary calculations appropriate for the study of hydrogen-rich DA white dwarfs. This is done by evolving white dwarf progenitors from the zero-age main sequence, through the core hydrogen-burning phase, the helium-burning phase, and the thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch phase to the white dwarf stage. Complete evolutionary sequences are computed for a wide range of stellar masses and for two different metallicities, Z = 0.01, which is representative of the solar neighborhood, and Z = 0.001, which is appropriate for the study of old stellar systems, like globular clusters. During the white dwarf cooling stage, we self-consistently compute the phase in which nuclear reactions are still important, the diffusive evolution of the elements in the outer layers and, finally, we also take into account all the relevant energy sources in the deep interior of the white dwarf, such as the release of latent heat and the release of gravitational energy due to carbon-oxygen phase separation upon crystallization. We also provide colors and magnitudes for these sequences, based on a new set of improved non-gray white dwarf model atmospheres, which include the most up-to-date physical inputs like the Lyα quasi-molecular opacity. The calculations are extended down to an effective temperature of 2500 K. Our calculations provide a homogeneous set of evolutionary cooling tracks appropriate for mass and age determinations of old DA white dwarfs and for white dwarf cosmochronology of the different Galactic populations.

  9. Histological study of white rhinoceros integument

    OpenAIRE

    Plochocki, Jeffrey H.; Ruiz, Saul; Rodriguez-Sosa, Jos? R.; Hall, Margaret I.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we report findings from a microscopic analysis of the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) integumentary ultrastructure. Skin samples from the cheek, shoulder, flank and rump were taken from a 46-year-old female southern white rhinoceros and examined using H&E and elastic histological stains. The epidermis was thickest in the flank (1.003 mm) followed by the rump, cheek and shoulder. The stratum corneum comprised more than half the epidermal thickness. Numerous melanin granul...

  10. NGNP High Temperature Materials White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lew Lommers; George Honma

    2012-08-01

    This white paper is one in a series of white papers that address key generic issues of the combined construction and operating license (COL) pre-application program key generic issues for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant reactor using the prismatic block fuel technology. The purpose of the pre-application program interactions with the NRC staff is to reduce the time required for COL application review by identifying and addressing key regulatory issues and, if possible, obtaining agreements for their resolution

  11. White-light-emitting supramolecular gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, Vakayil K; Ranjith, Choorikkat; Armaroli, Nicola

    2014-01-07

    Let there be light, let it be white: Recent developments in the use of chromophore-based gels as scaffolds for the assembly of white-light-emitting soft materials have been significant. The main advantage of this approach lies in the facile accommodation of selected luminescent components within the gel. Excitation-energy-transfer processes between these components ultimately generate the desired light output. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. What fraction of white dwarfs are members of binary systems?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holberg, J B

    2009-01-01

    White dwarfs were originally discovered as the subordinate faint companions of bright nearby stars (i.e. Sirius B and 40 Eri B). Several general categories of binary systems involving white dwarfs are recognized: Sirius-like systems, where the white dwarf may be difficult to detect, binary systems containing white dwarfs and low mass stars, where the white dwarf is often readily discerned; and double degenerate systems. Different modes of white dwarf discovery influence our perception of both the overall binary fraction and the nature of these systems; proper motion surveys emphasize resolved systems, while photometric surveys emphasize unresolved systems containing relatively hot white dwarfs. Recent studies of the local white dwarf population offer some hope of achieving realistic estimates of the relative number of binary systems containing white dwarfs. A sample of 132 white dwarfs within 20 pc indicates that an individual white dwarf has a probability of 32 ± 8% of occurring within a binary or multiple star system.

  13. On Describing Human White Matter Anatomy: The White Matter Query Language

    OpenAIRE

    Wassermann, Demian; Makris, Nikos; Rathi, Yogesh; Shenton, Martha; Kikinis, Ron; Kubicki, Marek; Westin, Carl-Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    The main contribution of this work is the careful syntactical definition of major white matter tracts in the human brain based on a neuroanatomist’s expert knowledge. We present a technique to formally describe white matter tracts and to automatically extract them from diffusion MRI data. The framework is based on a novel query language with a near-to-English textual syntax. This query language allows us to construct a dictionary of anatomical definitions describing white matter tracts. The d...

  14. Polarized radiation in magnetic white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosi, L.A.; Zimmerman, R.L.; Kemp, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    A model for magnetic white dwarfs is proposed which attributes the partially polarized light to synchrotron radiation. The source of the radiation is relativistic electrons trapped in the magnetosphere of a white dwarf. The white dwarf's magnetic field is assumed to be dipolar. The Stokes parameters for the synchrotron radiation are tabulated as a function of frequency, observer's orientation, and energy and spatial distribution of the relativistic electrons. The results of the synchrotron calculations are applied to the polarization observations of Grw+70degree8247 and DQ Herculis. This model can account for the major features of the polarized radiation coming from these two magnetic white dwarfs. The calculations predict for Grw+70degree8247 that the surface magnetic field is B/sub s/approximately-less-than4 x 10 6 gauss, that the incident viewing angle is 45degreeapproximately-less-thantheta 0 approximately-less-than75degree, and that the electrons are trapped with nearly an isotropic distribution about the white dwarf. For DQ Herculis the surface magnetic field is B/sub s/approximately-less-than7 x 10 6 gauss and the trapped electrons are confined to a dislike region about the white dwarf. For both cases the density of electrons in the magnetosphere falls in the range of 10 5 approximately-less-thannapproximately-less-than10 7 cm -3 with energies of about 4--35 MeV

  15. ON THE EVOLUTION OF MAGNETIC WHITE DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremblay, P.-E. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Fontaine, G.; Brassard, P. [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, C. P. 6128, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Freytag, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy at Uppsala University, Regementsvägen 1, Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Steiner, O. [Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik, Schöneckstr. 6, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Ludwig, H.-G. [Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Landessternwarte, Königstuhl 12, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Steffen, M. [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Wedemeyer, S., E-mail: tremblay@stsci.edu [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway)

    2015-10-10

    We present the first radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the atmosphere of white dwarf stars. We demonstrate that convective energy transfer is seriously impeded by magnetic fields when the plasma-β parameter, the thermal-to-magnetic-pressure ratio, becomes smaller than unity. The critical field strength that inhibits convection in the photosphere of white dwarfs is in the range B = 1–50 kG, which is much smaller than the typical 1–1000 MG field strengths observed in magnetic white dwarfs, implying that these objects have radiative atmospheres. We have employed evolutionary models to study the cooling process of high-field magnetic white dwarfs, where convection is entirely suppressed during the full evolution (B ≳ 10 MG). We find that the inhibition of convection has no effect on cooling rates until the effective temperature (T{sub eff}) reaches a value of around 5500 K. In this regime, the standard convective sequences start to deviate from the ones without convection due to the convective coupling between the outer layers and the degenerate reservoir of thermal energy. Since no magnetic white dwarfs are currently known at the low temperatures where this coupling significantly changes the evolution, the effects of magnetism on cooling rates are not expected to be observed. This result contrasts with a recent suggestion that magnetic white dwarfs with T{sub eff} ≲ 10,000 K cool significantly slower than non-magnetic degenerates.

  16. Effects of white phosphorus on mallard reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann, S.I.; Sparling, D.W.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Extensive waterfowl mortality involving thousands of ducks, geese, and swans has occurred annually at Eagle River Flats, Alaska since at least 1982. The primary agent for this mortality has been identified as white phosphorus. Although acute and subacute lethality have been described, sublethal effects are less well known. This study reports on the effects of white phosphorus on reproductive function in the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) in captivity. Fertility, hatching success, teratogenicity, and egg laying frequency were examined in 70 adult female mallards who received up to 7 daily doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/kg of white phosphorus. Measurements of fertility and hatchability were reduced by the white phosphorus. Teratogenic effects were observed in embryos from hens dosed at all treatment levels. Egg laying frequency was reduced even at the lowest treatment level; treated hens required a greater number of days to lay a clutch of 12 eggs than control hens. After two doses at 2.0 mg/kg, all females stopped laying completely for a minimum of 10 days and laying frequency was depressed for at least 45 days. Fertility of 10 adult male mallards dosed with 1.0 mg/kg of white phosphorus did not differ from 10 controls, but plasma testosterone levels were significantly (p free-ranging mallards may be impaired if they are exposed to white phosphorus at typical field levels.

  17. Seasonal distribution and historic trends in abundance of white sharks, Carcharodon carcharias, in the western North Atlantic Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobey H Curtis

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances in field research on white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias in several regions around the world, opportunistic capture and sighting records remain the primary source of information on this species in the northwest Atlantic Ocean (NWA. Previous studies using limited datasets have suggested a precipitous decline in the abundance of white sharks from this region, but considerable uncertainty in these studies warrants additional investigation. This study builds upon previously published data combined with recent unpublished records and presents a synthesis of 649 confirmed white shark records from the NWA compiled over a 210-year period (1800-2010, resulting in the largest white shark dataset yet compiled from this region. These comprehensive records were used to update our understanding of their seasonal distribution, relative abundance trends, habitat use, and fisheries interactions. All life stages were present in continental shelf waters year-round, but median latitude of white shark occurrence varied seasonally. White sharks primarily occurred between Massachusetts and New Jersey during summer and off Florida during winter, with broad distribution along the coast during spring and fall. The majority of fishing gear interactions occurred with rod and reel, longline, and gillnet gears. Historic abundance trends from multiple sources support a significant decline in white shark abundance in the 1970s and 1980s, but there have been apparent increases in abundance since the 1990s when a variety of conservation measures were implemented. Though the white shark's inherent vulnerability to exploitation warrants continued protections, our results suggest a more optimistic outlook for the recovery of this iconic predator in the Atlantic.

  18. Seasonal Distribution and Historic Trends in Abundance of White Sharks, Carcharodon carcharias, in the Western North Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Tobey H.; McCandless, Camilla T.; Carlson, John K.; Skomal, Gregory B.; Kohler, Nancy E.; Natanson, Lisa J.; Burgess, George H.; Hoey, John J.; Pratt, Harold L.

    2014-01-01

    Despite recent advances in field research on white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) in several regions around the world, opportunistic capture and sighting records remain the primary source of information on this species in the northwest Atlantic Ocean (NWA). Previous studies using limited datasets have suggested a precipitous decline in the abundance of white sharks from this region, but considerable uncertainty in these studies warrants additional investigation. This study builds upon previously published data combined with recent unpublished records and presents a synthesis of 649 confirmed white shark records from the NWA compiled over a 210-year period (1800-2010), resulting in the largest white shark dataset yet compiled from this region. These comprehensive records were used to update our understanding of their seasonal distribution, relative abundance trends, habitat use, and fisheries interactions. All life stages were present in continental shelf waters year-round, but median latitude of white shark occurrence varied seasonally. White sharks primarily occurred between Massachusetts and New Jersey during summer and off Florida during winter, with broad distribution along the coast during spring and fall. The majority of fishing gear interactions occurred with rod and reel, longline, and gillnet gears. Historic abundance trends from multiple sources support a significant decline in white shark abundance in the 1970s and 1980s, but there have been apparent increases in abundance since the 1990s when a variety of conservation measures were implemented. Though the white shark's inherent vulnerability to exploitation warrants continued protections, our results suggest a more optimistic outlook for the recovery of this iconic predator in the Atlantic. PMID:24918579

  19. Spaceflight Effect on White Matter Structural Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jessica K.; Kopplemans, Vincent; Paternack, Ofer; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Seidler, Rachael D.

    2017-01-01

    Recent reports of elevated brain white matter hyperintensity (WMH) counts and volume in postflight astronaut MRIs suggest that further examination of spaceflight's impact on the microstructure of brain white matter is warranted. To this end, retrospective longitudinal diffusion-weighted MRI scans obtained from 15 astronauts were evaluated. In light of the recent reports of microgravity-induced cephalad fluid shift and gray matter atrophy seen in astronauts, we applied a technique to estimate diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics corrected for free water contamination. This approach enabled the analysis of white matter tissue-specific alterations that are unrelated to fluid shifts, occurring from before spaceflight to after landing. After spaceflight, decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) values were detected in an area encompassing the superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi and the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. Increased radial diffusivity (RD) and decreased axial diffusivity (AD) were also detected within overlapping regions. In addition, FA values in the corticospinal tract decreased and RD measures in the precentral gyrus white matter increased from before to after flight. The results show disrupted structural connectivity of white matter in tracts involved in visuospatial processing, vestibular function, and movement control as a result of spaceflight. The findings may help us understand the structural underpinnings of the extensive spaceflight-induced sensorimotor remodeling. Prospective longitudinal assessment of the white matter integrity in astronauts is needed to characterize the evolution of white matter microstructural changes associated with spaceflight, their behavioral consequences, and the time course of recovery. Supported by a grant from the National Space Biomedical Research Institute, NASA NCC 9-58.

  20. The Challenge of White Dialectics: Making the "Invisible" Visible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue, Derald Wing

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author comments on the substance of Todd and Abrams's study on "White Dialectics: A New Framework for Theory, Research, and Practice With White Students" (2011). The study is a major contribution to the importance of raising awareness of how Whiteness, White privilege, and one's own complicity in the perpetuation of racism are…