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Sample records for primarily affects older

  1. Lamin A/C mutation affecting primarily the right side of the heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ollila

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available LMNA mutations are amongst the most important causes of familial dilated cardiomyopathy. The most important cause of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC is desmosomal pathology. The aim of the study was to elucidate the role of LMNA mutations among Finnish cardiomyopathy patients. We screened 135 unrelated cardiomyopathy patients for LMNA mutations. Because of unusual phenotype, two patients were screened for the known Finnish ARVC-related mutations of desmosomal genes, and their Plakophilin-2b gene was sequenced. Myocardial samples from two patients were examined by immunohistochemical plakoglobin staining and in one case by electron microscopy. We found a new LMNA mutation Phe237Ser in a family of five affected members with a cardiomyopathy affecting primarily the right side of the heart. The phenotype resembles ARVC but does not fulfill the Task Force Criteria. The main clinical manifestations of the mutation were severe tricuspid insufficiency, right ventricular enlargement and failure. Three of the affected patients died of the heart disease, and the two living patients received heart transplants at ages 44 and 47. Electron microscopy showed nuclear blebbing compatible with laminopathy. Immunohisto - chemical analysis did not suggest desmosomal pathology. No desmosomal mutations were found. The Phe237Ser LMNA mutation causes a phenotype different from traditional cardiolaminopathy. Our findings suggest that cardiomyopathy affecting primarily the right side of the heart is not always caused by desmosomal pathology. Our observations highlight the challenges in classifying cardiomyopathies, as there often is significant overlap between the traditional categories.

  2. Triacylglycerol Accumulation is not primarily affected in Myotubes established from Type 2 Diabetic Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, Michael; Beck-Nielsen, Henning

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation, glucose and fatty acid (FA) uptake, and glycogen synthesis (GS) in human myotubes from healthy, lean, and obese subjects with and without type 2 diabetes (T2D), exposed to increasing palmitate (PA) and oleate (OA...... uptake (P0.05). These results indicate that (1) TAG accumulation is not primarily affected in skeletal muscle tissue of obese and T2D; (2) induced inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation is followed by TAG accumulation...... in skeletal muscle of obese and T2D subjects is adaptive....

  3. Healthy younger and older adults control foot placement to avoid small obstacles during gait primarily by modulating step width

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulz Brian W

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Falls are a significant problem in the older population. Most falls occur during gait, which is primarily regulated by foot placement. Variability of foot placement has been associated with falls, but these associations are inconsistent and generally for smooth, level flooring. This study investigates the control of foot placement and the associated gait variability in younger and older men and women (N=7/group, total N=28 while walking at three different speeds (slow, preferred, and fast across a control surface with no obstacles and surfaces with multiple (64 small (10cm long ×13mm high visible and hidden obstacles. Results Minimum obstacle distance between the shoe and nearest obstacle during each footfall was greater on the visible obstacles surface for older subjects because some of them chose to actively avoid obstacles. This obstacle avoidance strategy was implemented primarily by modulating step width and to a lesser extent step length as indicated by linear regressions of step width and length variability on minimum obstacle distance. Mean gait speed, step length, step width, and step time did not significantly differ by subject group, flooring surface, or obstacle avoidance strategy. Conclusions Some healthy older subjects choose to actively avoid small obstacles that do not substantially perturb their gait by modulating step width and, to a lesser extent, step length. It is not clear if this obstacle avoidance strategy is appropriate and beneficial or overcautious and maladaptive, as it results in fewer obstacles encountered at a consequence of a less efficient gait pattern that has been shown to indicate increased fall risk. Further research is needed on the appropriateness of strategy selection when the environmental demands and/or task requirements have multiple possible completion strategies with conflicting objectives (i.e. perceived safety vs. efficiency.

  4. Diet Quality and Nutrient Intake of Urban Overweight and Obese Primarily African American Older Adults with Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevasti Vergis

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Diet quality may be a unique target for preventing and managing obesity-related osteoarthritis (OA. Using the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010, this study examined the nutrient intake and diet quality of 400 urban overweight and obese primarily African American older adults with self-reported lower extremity OA. Associations between sociodemographic and health-related factors and diet quality were explored. Participants (mean age 67.8 years, SD 5.9 were included. Habitual dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. Nutrient intake and diet quality were calculated from the FFQ. Results indicated that diet quality needs improvement (HEI-2010: 66.3 (SD 10.5. Age, body mass index, employment (multivariable model only, and OA severity (bivariate model only were significant predictors of HEI-2010 total score in linear models. Mean intakes for fiber, calcium, and vitamin D were below recommendations, while percentage of calories as total fat exceeded recommendations. These findings can inform future dietary intervention trials and public health messaging for a sub-population at a high risk for obesity-related OA.

  5. Incidence of diseases primarily affecting the skin by age group: population-based epidemiologic study in Olmsted County, Minnesota, and comparison with age-specific incidence rates worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessman, Laurel L; Andersen, Louise K; Davis, Mark D P

    2018-01-29

    Understanding the effects of age on the epidemiology of diseases primarily affecting the skin is important to the practice of dermatology, both for proper allocation of resources and for optimal patient-centered care. To fully appreciate the effect that age may have on the population-based calculations of incidence of diseases primarily affecting the skin in Olmsted County, Minnesota, and worldwide, we performed a review of all relevant Rochester Epidemiology Project-published data and compared them to similar reports in the worldwide English literature. Using the Rochester Epidemiology Project, population-based epidemiologic studies have been performed to estimate the incidence of specific skin diseases over the past 50 years. In older persons (>65 years), nonmelanoma skin cancer, lentigo maligna, herpes zoster, delusional infestation, venous stasis syndrome, venous ulcer, and burning mouth syndrome were more commonly diagnosed. In those younger than 65 years, atypical nevi, psoriatic arthritis, pityriasis rosea, herpes progenitalis, genital warts, alopecia areata, hidradenitis suppurativa, infantile hemangioma, Behçet's disease, and sarcoidosis (isolated cutaneous, with sarcoidosis-specific cutaneous lesions and with erythema nodosum) had a higher incidence. Many of the incidence rates by age group of diseases primarily affecting the skin derived from the Rochester Epidemiology Project were similar to those reported elsewhere. © 2018 The International Society of Dermatology.

  6. In Graves' disease, increased muscle tension and reduced elasticity of affected muscles is primarily caused by active muscle contraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Simonsz (Huib); G. Kommerell (Guntram)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractIn three patients with Graves' disease of recent onset, length-tension diagrams were made during surgery for squint under eyedrop anesthesia, while the other eye looked ahead, into the field of action, or out of the field of action of the muscle that was measured. The affected muscles

  7. Nanoparticles affect PCR primarily via surface interactions with PCR components: using amino-modified silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles as a main model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanomaterials have been widely reported to affect the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, many studies in which these effects were observed were not comprehensive, and many of the proposed mechanisms have been primarily speculative. In this work, we used amino-modified silica-coated magnetic n...

  8. Depressive Symptoms Affect Working Memory in Healthy Older Adult Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Villanea, Monica; Liebmann, Edward; Garnier-Villarreal, Mauricio; Montenegro-Montenegro, Esteban; Johnson, David K

    2015-10-01

    Low and middle income nations will experience an unprecedented growth of the elderly population and subsequent increase in age-related neurological disorders. Worldwide prevalence and incidence of all-types of neurological disorders with serious mental health complications will increase with life expectancy across the globe. One-in- ten individuals over 75 has at least moderate cognitive impairment. Prevalence of cognitive impairment doubles every 5 years thereafter. Latin America's population of older adult's 65 years and older is growing rapidly, yet little is known about cognitive aging among healthy older Latinos. Clinically significant depressive symptomatology is common among community-dwelling older adults and is associated with deficits across multiple cognitive domains, however much of the literature has not modeled the unique effects of depression distinct from negative and low positive affect. Our objective was to understand how mental health affects cognitive health in healthy aging Latinos. The present study used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the relative effects of Negative Affect, Positive Affect and Geriatric Depression on Verbal Memory, Verbal Reasoning, Processing Speed, and Working Memory in healthy aging Latinos. Data was collected from a sample of healthy community dwelling older adults living in San Jose, Costa Rica. Modeling of latent variables attenuated error and improved measurement reliability of cognition, affect, and depression variables. Costa Ricans enjoy a notoriety for being much happier than US citizens and are renowned as one of the happiest nations in the world in global surveys. This was born out in these data. Costa Rican affective profiles differed substantively from US profiles. Levels of negative affect and depression were similar to US samples, but their levels of positive affect were much higher. Cognitive performance of these Costa Rican older adults was similar to US

  9. Risky choice in younger versus older adults: Affective context matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumi Huang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Earlier frameworks have indicated that older adults tend to experience decline in their deliberative decisional capacity, while their affective abilities tend to remain intact (Peters, Hess, Vastfjall, and Auman, 2007. The present study applied this framework to the study of risky decision-making across the lifespan. Two versions of the Columbia Card Task (CCT were used to trigger either affective decision-making (i.e., the ``warm'' CCT or deliberative decision-making (i.e., the ``cold'' CCT in a sample of 158 individuals across the lifespan. Overall there were no age differences in risk seeking. However, there was a significant interaction between age and condition, such that older adults were relatively more risk seeking in the cold condition only. In terms of everyday decision-making, context matters and risk propensity may shift within older adults depending upon the context.

  10. Factors affecting the number and type of student research products for chemistry and physics students at primarily undergraduate institutions: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellis, Birgit; Soto, Patricia; Bruce, Chrystal D; Lacueva, Graciela; Wilson, Anne M; Jayasekare, Rasitha

    2018-01-01

    For undergraduate students, involvement in authentic research represents scholarship that is consistent with disciplinary quality standards and provides an integrative learning experience. In conjunction with performing research, the communication of the results via presentations or publications is a measure of the level of scientific engagement. The empirical study presented here uses generalized linear mixed models with hierarchical bootstrapping to examine the factors that impact the means of dissemination of undergraduate research results. Focusing on the research experiences in physics and chemistry of undergraduates at four Primarily Undergraduate Institutions (PUIs) from 2004-2013, statistical analysis indicates that the gender of the student does not impact the number and type of research products. However, in chemistry, the rank of the faculty advisor and the venue of the presentation do impact the number of research products by undergraduate student, whereas in physics, gender match between student and advisor has an effect on the number of undergraduate research products. This study provides a baseline for future studies of discipline-based bibliometrics and factors that affect the number of research products of undergraduate students.

  11. Factors affecting the number and type of student research products for chemistry and physics students at primarily undergraduate institutions: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Patricia; Bruce, Chrystal D.; Lacueva, Graciela; Wilson, Anne M.; Jayasekare, Rasitha

    2018-01-01

    For undergraduate students, involvement in authentic research represents scholarship that is consistent with disciplinary quality standards and provides an integrative learning experience. In conjunction with performing research, the communication of the results via presentations or publications is a measure of the level of scientific engagement. The empirical study presented here uses generalized linear mixed models with hierarchical bootstrapping to examine the factors that impact the means of dissemination of undergraduate research results. Focusing on the research experiences in physics and chemistry of undergraduates at four Primarily Undergraduate Institutions (PUIs) from 2004–2013, statistical analysis indicates that the gender of the student does not impact the number and type of research products. However, in chemistry, the rank of the faculty advisor and the venue of the presentation do impact the number of research products by undergraduate student, whereas in physics, gender match between student and advisor has an effect on the number of undergraduate research products. This study provides a baseline for future studies of discipline-based bibliometrics and factors that affect the number of research products of undergraduate students. PMID:29698502

  12. Affect and well-being similarity among older Indian spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, Holly B

    2015-01-01

    Previous work suggests that husbands and wives are likely to share affective states so that depression or happiness in one spouse is predictive of depression or happiness in the other. Studies that have examined spousal affect similarity, however, have been concentrated in the Western world where the meaning of marriage may be different than it is in other cultural contexts. Marriage in India, unlike that in the United States, is focused on the extended family so that love and intimacy between spouses are downplayed. This study examined affect and well-being similarity between 603 older married couples in India using pilot data from the Longitudinal Aging Study of India. We ran linear regression models to assess the relationship between the well-being states of husbands and wives using dyadic observations for four different measures: depressive symptoms, dissatisfaction with daily life, social isolation, and overall life satisfaction. Across all four measures, the well-being scores of one spouse were positively and significantly associated with the well-being scores of the other. These associations did not vary by marital satisfaction, but were slightly stronger for respondents reporting poor health. Our increased understanding of social connectedness has prompted a shift from the consideration of single individuals to a broader understanding of individuals in the context of their social environments. The results of this study suggest that interventions designed to foster well-being among older adults in India might benefit from a focus on couples as a unit rather than individuals.

  13. Affective health bias in older adults: Considering positive and negative affect in a general health context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Brenda R; Bergeman, C S

    2016-09-01

    Because subjective health reports are a primary source of health information in a number of medical and research-based contexts, much research has been devoted to establishing the extent to which these self-reports of health correspond to health information from more objective sources. One of the key factors considered in this area is trait affect, with most studies emphasizing the impact of negative affect (negative emotions) over positive affect (positive emotions), and focusing on high-arousal affect (e.g., anger, excitement) over moderate- or low-arousal affect (e.g., relaxed, depressed). The present study examines the impact of both Positive and Negative Affect (PA/NA)-measured by items of both high and low arousal-on the correspondence between objective health information and subjective health reports. Another limitation of existing literature in the area is the focus on samples suffering from a particular diagnosis or on specific symptom reports; here, these effects are investigated in a sample of community-dwelling older adults representing a broader spectrum of health. 153 older adults (Mage = 71.2) took surveys assessing Perceived Health and Affect and underwent an objective physical health assessment. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the extent to which the relationship between Objective Health and Perceived Health was moderated by PA or NA, which would indicate the presence of affective health bias. Results reveal a significant moderation effect for NA, but not for PA; PA appeared to serve a more mediational function, indicating that NA and PA operate on health perceptions in distinct ways. These findings provide evidence that in our high-functioning, community-dwelling sample of older adults, a) affective health bias is present within a general health context, and not only within specific symptom or diagnostic categories; and b) that both PA and NA play important roles in the process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  14. How Arousal Affects Younger and Older Adults' Memory Binding

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    Nashiro, Kaoru; Mather, Mara

    2009-01-01

    A number of recent studies have shown that associative memory for within-item features is enhanced for emotionally arousing items, whereas arousal-enhanced binding is not seen for associations between distinct items (for a review see Mather, 2007). The costs and benefits of arousal in memory binding have been examined for younger adults but not for older adults. The present experiment examined whether arousal would enhance younger and older adults' within-item and between-item memory binding. The results revealed that arousal improved younger adults' within-item memory binding but not that of older adults. Arousal worsened both groups' between-item memory binding. PMID:21240821

  15. When touch matters: an affective tactile intervention for older adults.

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    Mammarella, Nicola; Fairfield, Beth; Di Domenico, Alberto

    2012-10-01

    Our goal was to test the hypothesis that positive tactile experiences can lead to an improvement in cognitive, emotional skills and perceived quality of life in a group of healthy community-dwelling older adults. During a 10-week period, older adults completed a series of activities that required manipulating either a piece of velvet, a piece of canvas or velcro. Only older adults who worked with velvet showed an increase in cognitive and emotional skills, and the perceived quality of life. Our study is one of the first to show that positive tactile experiences might have a beneficial effect on the psychological well-being of healthy community-dwelling older adults across different domains. © 2012 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  16. Factors Affecting Cognitive Function in Older Adults: A Turkish Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Akdag, Beyza; Telci, Emine Aslan; Cavlak, Ugur

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the influential factors of cognitive function in older adults. Methods: In this study, 377 older adults (mean age: 74.71 ± 6.15 years) were examined. The Hodkinson Abbreviated Mental Test (HAMT) was used to describe cognitive function of the individuals. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL-4) survey tool was used to measure the quality of life. Possible influential factors of cognitive function w...

  17. Motivational Interviewing to Affect Behavioral Change in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Sherry M.; Cooper, R. Lyle; Cassie, Kim McClure

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews and assesses the existing research literature on the efficacy of motivational interviewing (MI) to promote lifestyle changes and improve functioning among older adults confronting serious health challenges. A comprehensive literature review was conducted of intervention studies that tested the use of MI to achieve behavioral…

  18. Positive Affect and Suicide Ideation in Older Adult Primary Care Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Jameson K.; Duberstein, Paul R.; Chapman, Benjamin; Lyness, Jeffrey M.

    2007-01-01

    Suicide is a significant public health problem for older adults. Identification of protective factors associated with reduced risk is important. The authors examined the association of positive affect and suicide ideation in 462 primary care patients ages 65 and older. Positive affect distinguished suicide ideators from nonideators, after controlling for age, gender, depression, negative affect, illness burden, activity, sociability, cognitive functioning, and physical functioning. There was ...

  19. Older Siblings Affect Gut Microbiota Development in Early Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Zachariassen, Gitte; Bahl, Martin Iain

    .006) at 18 months. Further, having older siblings was associated with increased relative abundance of several bacterial taxa at both 9 and 18 months of age. Compared to the effect of having siblings, presence of household furred pets and early life infections had less pronounced effects on the gut microbiota....... Gut microbiota characteristics were not significantly associated with cumulative occurrence of eczema and asthmatic bronchitis during the first three years of life. Conclusions: Presence of older siblings is associated with increased gut microbial diversity and richness during early childhood, which...... could contribute to the substantiation of the hygiene hypothesis. However, no associations were found between gut microbiota and atopic symptoms of eczema and asthmatic bronchitis during early childhood and thus further studies are required to elucidate whether sibling-associated gut microbial changes...

  20. Affect or cognition: which is more influencing older adult consumers' loyalty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Deepraj; Mustika, Martina Dwi; Sjabadhyni, Bertina

    2018-04-01

    In studies on consumer behavior science, it is argued that brand affect, consumer satisfaction, and disconfirmation influence brand loyalty. This study aims to investigate whether the interaction of brand affect and cognition predicts brand loyalty in older adult consumers if consumer satisfaction is considered. A group of 344 older adult consumers participated and a mediated moderation analysis of the data was used to test our hypotheses. The results showed that consumer satisfaction increased the relationship between brand affect and brand loyalty in older adult consumers. However, disconfirmation did not influence that relationship. It can be concluded that the loyalty of older adult consumers toward a brand was more likely to be influenced by their affection than their cognition. Therefore, marketers should design products that better satisfy this population group and create loyalty to the product through enhancing affect connections.

  1. Affect or cognition: which is more influencing older adult consumers' loyalty?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepraj Kaur

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In studies on consumer behavior science, it is argued that brand affect, consumer satisfaction, and disconfirmation influence brand loyalty. This study aims to investigate whether the interaction of brand affect and cognition predicts brand loyalty in older adult consumers if consumer satisfaction is considered. A group of 344 older adult consumers participated and a mediated moderation analysis of the data was used to test our hypotheses. The results showed that consumer satisfaction increased the relationship between brand affect and brand loyalty in older adult consumers. However, disconfirmation did not influence that relationship. It can be concluded that the loyalty of older adult consumers toward a brand was more likely to be influenced by their affection than their cognition. Therefore, marketers should design products that better satisfy this population group and create loyalty to the product through enhancing affect connections. Keywords: Business, Psychology

  2. Factors affecting self-regulatory driving practices among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Lisa J; Charlton, Judith L; Eby, David W; Langford, Jim; Koppel, Sjaan; Kolenic, Giselle E; Marshall, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to better understand how self-regulatory driving practices at multiple levels of driver decision making are influenced by various factors. Specifically, the study investigated patterns of tactical and strategic self-regulation among a sample of 246 Australian older drivers. Of special interest was the relative influence of several variables on the adoption of self-regulation, including self-perceptions of health, functioning, and abilities for safe driving and driving confidence and comfort. The research was carried out at the Monash University Accident Research Centre, as part of its Ozcandrive study, a partnership with the Canadian Driving Research Initiative for Vehicular Safety in the Elderly (Candrive), and in conjunction with the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI). Candrive/Ozcandrive represents the first study to follow a large group of older drivers over several years and collect comprehensive self-reported and objectively derived data on health, functioning, and driving. This study used a subset of data from the Candrive/Ozcandrive study. Upon enrolling in the study, participants underwent a comprehensive clinical assessment during which data on visual, cognitive, and psychomotor functioning were collected. Approximately 4 months after study enrollment, participants completed the Advanced Driving Decisions and Patterns of Travel (ADDAPT) questionnaire, a computer-based self-regulation instrument developed and pilot-tested at UMTRI. Self-regulation among older adults was found to be a multidimensional concept. Rates of self-regulation were tied closely to specific driving situations, as well as level of decision making. In addition, self-regulatory practices at the strategic and tactical levels of decision making were influenced by different sets of factors. Continuing efforts to better understand the self-regulatory practices of older drivers at multiple levels of driver performance and

  3. Eye Movements Affect Postural Control in Young and Older Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Neil M; Bampouras, Theodoros M; Donovan, Tim; Dewhurst, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Visual information is used for postural stabilization in humans. However, little is known about how eye movements prevalent in everyday life interact with the postural control system in older individuals. Therefore, the present study assessed the effects of stationary gaze fixations, smooth pursuits, and saccadic eye movements, with combinations of absent, fixed and oscillating large-field visual backgrounds to generate different forms of retinal flow, on postural control in healthy young and older females. Participants were presented with computer generated visual stimuli, whilst postural sway and gaze fixations were simultaneously assessed with a force platform and eye tracking equipment, respectively. The results showed that fixed backgrounds and stationary gaze fixations attenuated postural sway. In contrast, oscillating backgrounds and smooth pursuits increased postural sway. There were no differences regarding saccades. There were also no differences in postural sway or gaze errors between age groups in any visual condition. The stabilizing effect of the fixed visual stimuli show how retinal flow and extraocular factors guide postural adjustments. The destabilizing effect of oscillating visual backgrounds and smooth pursuits may be related to more challenging conditions for determining body shifts from retinal flow, and more complex extraocular signals, respectively. Because the older participants matched the young group's performance in all conditions, decreases of posture and gaze control during stance may not be a direct consequence of healthy aging. Further research examining extraocular and retinal mechanisms of balance control and the effects of eye movements, during locomotion, is needed to better inform fall prevention interventions.

  4. Visual function affects prosocial behaviors in older adults.

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    Teoli, Dac A; Smith, Merideth D; Leys, Monique J; Jain, Priyanka; Odom, J Vernon

    2016-02-01

    Eye-related pathological conditions such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration commonly lead to decreased peripheral/central field, decreased visual acuity, and increased functional disability. We sought to answer if relationships exist between measures of visual function and reported prosocial behaviors in an older adult population with eye-related diagnoses. The sample consisted of adults, aged ≥ 60 years old, at an academic hospital's eye institute. Vision ranged from normal to severe impairment. Medical charts determined the visual acuities, ocular disease, duration of disease (DD), and visual fields (VF). Measures of giving help were via validated questionnaires on giving formal support (GFS) and giving informal support; measures of help received were perceived support (PS) and informal support received (ISR). ISR had subscales: tangible support (ISR-T), emotional support (ISR-E), and composite (ISR-C). Visual acuities of the better and worse seeing eyes were converted to LogMAR values. VF information converted to a 4-point rating scale of binocular field loss severity. DD was in years. Among 96 participants (mean age 73.28; range 60-94), stepwise regression indicated a relationship of visual variables to GFS (p T (p prosocial behavior in older adults.

  5. Storm Impact and Depression Among Older Adults Living in Hurricane Sandy-Affected Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirey, Jo Anne; Berman, Jacquelin; Halkett, Ashley; Giunta, Nancy; Kerrigan, Janice; Raeifar, Elmira; Artis, Amanda; Banerjee, Samprit; Raue, Patrick J

    2017-02-01

    Research on the impact of natural disasters on the mental health of older adults finds both vulnerabilities and resilience. We report on the rates of clinically significant depression among older adults (aged ≥60 years) living in areas affected by Hurricane Sandy in 2012 and the factors associated with mental health need. The Sandy Mobilization, Assessment, Referral and Treatment for Mental Health (SMART-MH) program integrates community outreach and needs assessments to identify older adults with mental health and aging service needs. Older adults with significant anxiety or depressive symptoms were offered short-term psychotherapy. Social service referrals were made directly to community agencies. All SMART-MH activities were offered in Spanish, Russian, Mandarin/Cantonese, and English. Across the full sample, 14% of participants screened positive for depression. Hurricane Sandy stressors predicted increased odds of depression, including storm injury, post-storm crime, and the total count of stressors. Outcomes varied significantly by age group, such that all Sandy-related variables remained significant for younger-old adults (aged 60-74 years), whereas only the loss of access to medical care was significant for older-old adults (aged ≥75 years). Storm-affected communities show higher rates of depressive symptoms than seen in the general population, with storm stressors affecting mental health needs differentially by age group. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:97-109).

  6. Factors affecting mortality in older trauma patients-A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammy, Ian; Lecky, Fiona; Sutton, Anthea; Leaviss, Joanna; O'Cathain, Alicia

    2016-06-01

    Major trauma in older people is a significant health burden in the developed world. The aging of the population has resulted in larger numbers of older patients suffering serious injury. Older trauma patients are at greater risk of death from major trauma, but the reasons for this are less well understood. The aim of this review was to identify the factors affecting mortality in older patients suffering major injury. A systematic review of Medline, Cinhal and the Cochrane database, supplemented by a manual search of relevant papers was undertaken, with meta-analysis. Multi-centre cohort studies of existing trauma registries that reported risk-adjusted mortality (adjusted odds ratios, AOR) in their outcomes and which analysed patients aged 65 and older as a separate cohort were included in the review. 3609 papers were identified from the electronic databases, and 28 from manual searches. Of these, 15 papers fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Demographic variables (age and gender), pre-existing conditions (comorbidities and medication), and injury-related factors (injury severity, pattern and mechanism) were found to affect mortality. The 'oldest old', aged 75 and older, had higher mortality rates than younger patients, aged 65-74 years. Older men had a significantly higher mortality rate than women (cumulative odds ratio 1.51, 95% CI 1.37-1.66). Three papers reported a higher risk of death in patients with pre-existing conditions. Two studies reported increased mortality in patients on warfarin (cumulative odds ratio 1.32, 95% CI 1.05-1.66). Higher mortality was seen in patients with lower Glasgow coma scores and systolic blood pressures. Mortality increased with increased injury severity and number of injuries sustained. Low level falls were associated with higher mortality than motor vehicle collisions (cumulative odds ratio 2.88, 95% CI 1.26-6.60). Multiple factors contribute to mortality risk in older trauma patients. The relation between these factors and

  7. The effect of exercise on affective and self-efficacy responses in older and younger women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the self-efficacy and affective responses to an acute exercise bout in sedentary older and younger women to determine whether aging has an effect on affective states. Twenty-five sedentary younger (mean age = 19.9 yrs) and 25 older (mean age = 55.7 yrs) women completed an acute bout of exercise. Affective responses were measured before, during, and immediately following exercise. Self-efficacy responses were measured before and immediately following exercise. Positive engagement, revitalization, tranquility, Felt Arousal and Feeling Scale responses, and self-efficacy were all higher immediately following compared with before or during exercise for both groups of women. In addition, older women experienced higher overall positive engagement and lower physical exhaustion compared with younger women as well as higher tranquility and Feeling Scale responses immediately following exercise. This investigation found that an acute bout of moderate-intensity exercise produced more positive and fewer negative affective states in both younger and older women.

  8. Working memory affects older adults' use of context in spoken-word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janse, Esther; Jesse, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Many older listeners report difficulties in understanding speech in noisy situations. Working memory and other cognitive skills may modulate older listeners' ability to use context information to alleviate the effects of noise on spoken-word recognition. In the present study, we investigated whether verbal working memory predicts older adults' ability to immediately use context information in the recognition of words embedded in sentences, presented in different listening conditions. In a phoneme-monitoring task, older adults were asked to detect as fast and as accurately as possible target phonemes in sentences spoken by a target speaker. Target speech was presented without noise, with fluctuating speech-shaped noise, or with competing speech from a single distractor speaker. The gradient measure of contextual probability (derived from a separate offline rating study) affected the speed of recognition. Contextual facilitation was modulated by older listeners' verbal working memory (measured with a backward digit span task) and age across listening conditions. Working memory and age, as well as hearing loss, were also the most consistent predictors of overall listening performance. Older listeners' immediate benefit from context in spoken-word recognition thus relates to their ability to keep and update a semantic representation of the sentence content in working memory.

  9. COMPARISON OF SEVERITY AFFECTING FACTORS BETWEEN YOUNG AND OLDER DRIVERS INVOLVED IN SINGLE VEHICLE CRASHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunanda DISSANAYAKE, Ph.D., P.E.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Single vehicle crashes contribute to a significant amount of fatalities in the United States. At the same time, fatality crash involvement rates of young and older drivers are well above the average and both groups are identified as critical groups when it comes to highway safety. Therefore, the study described in this paper developed separate models to predict crash severity of single vehicle crashes by young and older drivers. By using the models, factors affecting towards increased crash severity were identified for each group and comparisons were made. Almost all the common identified factors influenced both driver groups in the same manner except in the case of alcohol and drug usage, which indicated an interesting finding in the case of crash severity of older drivers. Speeding and non-usage of a restraint device were the two most important factors affecting towards increased crash severity for both driver groups at all severity levels. Additionally, ejection and existence of curve/grade were determinants of higher young driver crash severity at all levels. For older drivers, having a frontal impact point was a severity determinant at all levels. County of residence and weather condition were not effective in making any changes with respect to crash severity at any level, while some other factors had a minimal affect. Findings of this study are beneficial in investigating the potential ways of reducing crash severity, which could also be influential in reducing the occurrence of crashes as well.

  10. Automobile driving in older adults: factors affecting driving restriction in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie Dit Asse, Laetitia; Fabrigoule, Colette; Helmer, Catherine; Laumon, Bernard; Lafont, Sylviane

    2014-11-01

    To identify factors associated with driving restriction in elderly men and women. Prospective cohort study of French drivers from 2003 to 2009. The Three-City Cohort of Bordeaux, a prospective study of 2,104 people aged 65 and older. Five hundred twenty-three drivers with a mean age of 76 (273 male, 250 female). Sociodemographic characteristics, driving habits, health variables, cognitive evaluation and dementia diagnosis. Predementia was defined as no dementia at one follow-up and dementia at the next follow-up. Over the 6-year period, 54% of men and 63% of women stopped driving or reduced the distance they drove. Predementia, Parkinson's disease, older age, and a high number of kilometers previously driven were common restriction factors in both sexes. Prevalent dementia, depressive symptomatology, a decline in one or more instrumental activities of daily living, and poor visual working memory were specific factors in men. In women, low income, fear of falling, slow processing speed, and severe decline in global cognitive performance all affected driving restriction. Older women restricted their driving activity more than older men, regardless of the number of kilometers previously driven, physical health, and cognitive status. Factors affecting driving restriction differed according to sex, and women were more likely to stop driving than men in the period preceding a dementia diagnosis. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  11. Typography manipulations can affect priming of word stem completion in older and younger adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, J M; Brooks, J O; Friedman, L; Yesavage, J A

    1993-12-01

    The experiments reported here investigated whether changes of typography affected priming of word stem completion performance in older and younger adults. Across all experiments, the typeface in which a word appeared at presentation either did or did not match that of its 3-letter stem at test. In Experiment 1, no significant evidence of a typography effect was found when words were presented with a sentence judgment or letter judgment task. However, subsequent experiments revealed that, in both older and younger adults, only words presented with a syllable judgment task gave rise to the typography effect (Experiments 2-4). Specifically, performance was greater, when the presentation and test typeface matched than when they did not. Experiment 5, which used stem-cued recall, did not reveal a difference between syllable and letter judgment tasks. These findings highlight the complex nature of word stem completion performance.

  12. Factors affecting aging cognitive function among community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chun-Ja; Park, JeeWon; Kang, Se-Won; Schlenk, Elizabeth A

    2017-08-01

    The study purpose was to determine factors affecting aging cognitive function of 3,645 community-dwelling older adults in Korea. The Hasegawa Dementia Scale assessed aging cognitive function, blood analyses and anthropometrics assessed cardio-metabolic risk factors, and the Geriatric Depression Scale Short Form Korean Version assessed depressive symptoms. Participants with poor aging cognitive function were more likely to be in the late age group (≥75 y) and currently smoking and have a medical history of stroke, high body mass index, and high level of depressive symptoms; they were also less likely to engage in regular meals and physical activities. Regular meals and physical activities may be primary factors for clinical assessment to identify older adults at risk for aging cognitive function. With aging, depressive symptoms and other unhealthy lifestyle behaviours should be managed to prevent cognitive function disorders. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. The Effects of Daily Co-Occurrence of Affect on Older Adults’ Reactivity to Health Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jennifer L.; Neupert, Shevaun D.; Mroczek, Daniel K.; Spiro, Avron

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The present study examined age differences among older adults in the daily co-occurrence of affect and its potential role in buffering the negative effects of health stressors. Design Participants were from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study (NAS) and included 249 young-old adults (age = 60–79 years, M=71.6) and 64 old-old adults (age = 80–89, M = 82.9) who completed questionnaires assessing stressors, physical health symptoms, and positive and negative affect on eight consecutive days. Results An independent samples t-test showed young-old and old-old adults did not significantly differ in their mean levels of daily co-occurrence of affect. The between-person relationships among stressors, health, and daily co-occurrence of affect revealed that neither stressors nor health were significantly related to daily co-occurrence of affect. However, results from a multilevel model revealed a three-way cross-level interaction (Health Stressor X Age Group X Co-Occurrence of Affect) where old-old adults with higher levels of co-occurrence of affect were less emotionally reactive to health stressors than young-old adults. Conclusion These findings provide support for the assertion that co-occurrence of affect functions in an adaptive capacity and highlight the importance of examining domain specific stressors. PMID:26518259

  14. The effects of daily co-occurrence of affect on older adults' reactivity to health stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jennifer L; Neupert, Shevaun D; Mroczek, Daniel K; Spiro, Avron

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined age differences among older adults in the daily co-occurrence of affect and its potential role in buffering the negative effects of health stressors. Participants were from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study and included 249 young-old adults (age = 60-79 years, M = 71.6) and 64 old-old adults (age = 80-89, M = 82.9) who completed questionnaires assessing stressors, physical health symptoms, and positive and negative affect for eight consecutive days. An independent samples t-test showed young-old and old-old adults did not significantly differ in their mean levels of daily co-occurrence of affect. The between-person relationships among stressors, health and daily co-occurrence of affect revealed that neither stressors nor health were significantly related to daily co-occurrence of affect. However, results from a multilevel model revealed a three-way cross-level interaction (health stressor × age group × co-occurrence of affect) where old-old adults with higher levels of co-occurrence of affect were less emotionally reactive to health stressors than young-old adults. These findings provide support for the assertion that co-occurrence of affect functions in an adaptive capacity and highlight the importance of examining domain-specific stressors.

  15. Stronger Association Between Valence- and Arousal Ratings of Affective Pictures with Older Age: Evidence for Variation Across Emotion Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mai Bjørnskov; Mehlsen, Mimi Yung; Lyby, Marlene Skovgaard

    A sample of older and younger adults rated affective pictures according to valence, arousal and emotion category (happiness, sadness and disgust). Results indicate that older age is associated with a stronger linear association between ratings of arousal and valence. Further, the strength...... of the association vary according to emotion category....

  16. Exercise holds immediate benefits for affect and cognition in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Candice L; Mata, Jutta; Carstensen, Laura L

    2013-06-01

    Physical activity is associated with improved affective experience and enhanced cognitive processing. Potential age differences in the degree of benefit, however, are poorly understood because most studies examine either younger or older adults. The present study examined age differences in cognitive performance and affective experience immediately following a single bout of moderate exercise. Participants (144 community members aged 19 to 93) were randomly assigned to one of two experimental conditions: (a) exercise (15 min of moderate intensity stationary cycling) or (b) control (15 min completing ratings of neutral IAPS images). Before and after the manipulation, participants completed tests of working memory and momentary affect experience was measured. Results suggest that exercise is associated with increased levels of high-arousal positive affect (HAP) and decreased levels of low-arousal positive affect (LAP) relative to control condition. Age moderated the effects of exercise on LAP, such that younger age was associated with a drop in reported LAP postexercise, whereas the effects of exercise on HAP were consistent across age. Exercise also led to faster RTs on a working memory task than the control condition across age. Self-reported negative affect was unchanged. Overall, findings suggest that exercise may hold important benefits for both affective experience and cognitive performance regardless of age. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Affective Norms for Italian Words in Older Adults: Age Differences in Ratings of Valence, Arousal and Dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairfield, Beth; Ambrosini, Ettore; Mammarella, Nicola; Montefinese, Maria

    2017-01-01

    In line with the dimensional theory of emotional space, we developed affective norms for words rated in terms of valence, arousal and dominance in a group of older adults to complete the adaptation of the Affective Norms for English Words (ANEW) for Italian and to aid research on aging. Here, as in the original Italian ANEW database, participants evaluated valence, arousal, and dominance by means of the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) in a paper-and-pencil procedure. We observed high split-half reliabilities within the older sample and high correlations with the affective ratings of previous research, especially for valence, suggesting that there is large agreement among older adults within and across-languages. More importantly, we found high correlations between younger and older adults, showing that our data are generalizable across different ages. However, despite this across-ages accord, we obtained age-related differences on three affective dimensions for a great number of words. In particular, older adults rated as more arousing and more unpleasant a number of words that younger adults rated as moderately unpleasant and arousing in our previous affective norms. Moreover, older participants rated negative stimuli as more arousing and positive stimuli as less arousing than younger participants, thus leading to a less-curved distribution of ratings in the valence by arousal space. We also found more extreme ratings for older adults for the relationship between dominance and arousal: older adults gave lower dominance and higher arousal ratings for words rated by younger adults with middle dominance and arousal values. Together, these results suggest that our affective norms are reliable and can be confidently used to select words matched for the affective dimensions of valence, arousal and dominance across younger and older participants for future research in aging.

  18. Do social networks affect the use of residential aged care among older Australians?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glonek Gary FV

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Older people's social networks with family and friends can affect residential aged care use. It remains unclear if there are differences in the effects of specific (with children, other relatives, friends and confidants and total social networks upon use of low-level residential care and nursing homes. Methods Data were drawn from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Six waves of data from 1477 people aged ≥ 70 collected over nine years of follow-up were used. Multinomial logistic regressions of the effects of specific and total social networks on residential care use were carried out. Propensity scores were used in the analyses to adjust for differences in participant's health, demographic and lifestyle characteristics with respect to social networks. Results Higher scores for confidant networks were protective against nursing home use (odds ratio [OR] upper versus lower tertile of confidant networks = 0.50; 95%CI 0.33–0.75. Similarly, a significant effect of upper versus lower total network tertile on nursing home use was observed (OR = 0.62; 95%CI 0.43–0.90. Evidence of an effect of children networks on nursing home use was equivocal. Nursing home use was not predicted by other relatives or friends social networks. Use of lower-level residential care was unrelated to social networks of any type. Social networks of any type did not have a significant effect upon low-level residential care use. Discussion Better confidant and total social networks predict nursing home use in a large cohort of older Australians. Policy needs to reflect the importance of these particular relationships in considering where older people want to live in the later years of life.

  19. The Intersectionality of Stigmas among Key Populations of Older Adults Affected by HIV: a Thematic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson Shen, Megan; Freeman, Ryann; Karpiak, Stephen; Brennan-Ing, Mark; Seidel, Liz; Siegler, Eugenia L

    2018-03-26

    The present study examined the intersectionality of stigma across varying groups of older persons living with HIV (PWH). Four focus groups of older PWH (gay/bisexual men, heterosexual men, heterosexual and bisexualwomen, and Spanish-speaking) were audio-recorded and transcribed. Inductive thematic text analysis was used to identify qualitative themes. Five major themes emerged from the data: 1) disclosure of HIV status; 2) types of stigma experienced; 3) discrimination experienced; 4) other outcomes associated with experiencing stigma; and 5) influence of aging on social isolation experienced due to stigma. Findings indicate women did not suffer from the intersection of stigmas. Other groups suffered from the intersection of stigma due to HIV status and age (gay/bisexual males); HIV status and perceived stigma of sexual orientation or drug use (heterosexual males); and HIV status and culture/ethnicity (Spanish-speaking). Results indicate that many at-risk groups, including heterosexual men, homosexual men, and Spanish-speaking individuals, experience an intersection of stigma between aging and their sexuality, HIV status, or real or perceived drug use. Results highlight the need for HIV support, especially social support, to address intersection of stigmas for unique groups of individuals disproportionately affected by HIV.

  20. Do Changes in Welfare and Health Policy Affect Life Satisfaction of Older Citizens in Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaroiu, Marinela; Alexa, Ioana Dana; van den Heuvel, Wim J A

    2017-01-01

    Ageing of societies causes serious political concerns on well-being of old citizens and care for the (frail) old. These concerns increased with the economic crisis of 2008. In European countries policy measures were taken to deal with the consequences of this crisis. This study explores the possible effects of these measures on life satisfaction of older citizens. Life satisfaction was assessed through international surveys in 2007 and 2013 and changes in societal conditions, using eight indicators on demography, welfare, and health, are assessed in 31 European countries in 2006 and in 2014. Data are standardised and based on official, national surveys and statistics. The former found that U-shape relationship between age and life satisfaction disappeared after the crisis. Negative changes in social protection and care arrangements, taken after the economic crisis, are related to low life satisfaction in old citizens. Various societal conditions deteriorated in 2014 as compared to 2006. Policy measures, taken due to the 2008 economic crisis, have changed societal conditions and affected life satisfaction of older citizens negatively. In countries with a rudimentary structure of health and welfare provisions old citizens could not cope with the imposed policy measures.

  1. Relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorders and diseases affecting primarily the basal ganglia Relação entre transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo e doenças neurológicas dos gânglios da base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex S. S. Freire Maia

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD has been reported in association with some neurological diseases that affect the basal ganglia such as Tourette's syndrome, Sydenham's chorea, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease. Furthermore, studies such as neuroimaging, suggest a role of the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of OCD. The aim of this paper is to describe the association of OCD and several neurologic disorders affecting the basal ganglia, report the existing evidences of the role of the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of OCD, and analyze the mechanisms probably involved in this pathophysiology.O transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo (TOC tem sido reportado em associação com algumas doenças neurológicas que afetam primariamente os gânglios da base como a síndrome de Tourette , a coréia de Sydenham, a doença de Parkinson e a doença de Huntington. Da mesma forma, estudos de neuroimagem sugerem a participação dos gânglios da base na fisiopatologia do TOC. O objetivo deste estudo é rever a coexistência de TOC e várias doenças que afetam os gânglios da base, as evidências da participação dessas estruturas na fisiopatologia do TOC e os mecanismos neurais subjacentes a esse distúrbio psiquiátrico.

  2. Getting older can be exhausting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Rohit; Ford, Mandy L; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2014-07-29

    Sepsis is a disease that affects primarily the aged. Although mortality is higher in both older septic patients and aged septic mice, the mechanisms underlying decreased survival in older hosts are incompletely understood. New work by Inoue and colleagues demonstrates persistent inflammation and T-cell exhaustion in older septic patients and aged septic mice. The clinical significance of these findings is manifested not only in increased mortality but also in a marked difference in secondary infections in older patients as long as a month following ICU admission.

  3. Cerebral Blood Flow and Amyloid-β Interact to Affect Memory Performance in Cognitively Normal Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine J. Bangen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral blood flow (CBF alterations and amyloid-β (Aβ accumulation have been independently linked to cognitive deficits in older adults at risk for dementia. Less is known about how CBF and Aβ may interact to affect cognition in cognitively normal older adults. Therefore, we examined potential statistical interactions between CBF and Aβ status in regions typically affected in Alzheimer’s disease (AD within a sample of older adults from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI study. Sixty-two cognitively normal participants (mean age = 72 years underwent neuroimaging and memory testing. Arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging was used to quantify CBF and florbetapir PET amyloid imaging was used to measure Aβ deposition. Aβ status (i.e., positivity versus negativity was determined based on established cutoffs (Landau et al., 2013. The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test was used to assess memory. Linear regression models adjusted for age, education, and sex, demonstrated significant interactions between CBF and Aβ status on memory performance. Among Aβ positive older adults, there were significant negative associations between higher CBF in hippocampus, posterior cingulate, and precuneus and poorer memory performance. In contrast, among Aβ negative older adults, there were no significant associations between CBF and cognition. Our findings extend previous CBF studies of dementia risk by reporting interactions between Aβ status and CBF on memory performance in a sample of well-characterized, cognitively normal older adults. Results suggest that differential CBF-cognition associations can be identified in healthy, asymptomatic Aβ positive older adults relative to Aβ negative individuals. Associations between higherCBF and poorer memory among Aβ positive older adults may reflect a cellular and/or vascular compensatory response to pathologic processes whereby higher CBF is needed to maintain normal memory

  4. The Development of Assistive Systems to Support Older People: Issues that Affect Success in Practice

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    Jean D. Hallewell Haslwanter

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to an aging population in Europe, the development of Ambient Assisted Living technologies (AAL is increasingly the target of research financing. These technologies promise to enable older people to remain in their own homes longer, something many people report wanting and which may also reduce the costs of care. To date however there are few systems on the market. Other studies have tried to understand this by looking at user acceptance. However, by looking only at the user acceptance, we may miss important aspects to explain why systems went wrong in the first place, since decisions made during the development may affect the success later. To address this, we report on a study in which we applied qualitative methods, including workshops and an interactive poster, to consult with people who have experience in the development of these technologies. We present the common issues reported across various AAL development projects done in Europe that the participants thought were important to the success or failure of projects. We also describe some ideas from participants for addressing some of these problems. The results demonstrate the importance of issues related to financing with grants for projects but also the need for improved user-centered practice.

  5. Factors Affecting Mobility in Community-dwelling Older Koreans with Chronic Illnesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-A Yeom, PhD, RN, ANP-C

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: A high-risk group for mobility limitation includes low income, sedentary older men who are at risk for increased fatigue and sleep deficit. Further research should incorporate other psychological and lifestyle factors such as depression, smoking, drinking behavior, and/or obesity into the prediction model of mobility to generate specific intervention strategies for mobility enhancement recommendations for older adults.

  6. Factors affecting sexuality in older Australian women: sexual interest, sexual arousal, relationships and sexual distress in older Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, J R; O'Neill, S; Travers, C

    2006-10-01

    To investigate the sexual behavior, sexual relationships, sexual satisfaction, sexual dysfunction and sexual distress in a population of older urban Australian women. In 2004, 474 women participating in the Longitudinal Assessment of Ageing in Women (LAW) Study completed a series of questionnaires about sexuality. They included the Short Personal Experiences Questionnaire (SPEQ), Relationship Assessment Scale (RAS), Female Sexual Distress Scale (FSDS), questions concerning past sexual abuse based on the Sex in Australia Study, and questions comparing present and past sexual interest and activity. The percentage of women with partners ranged from 83.3% in the 40 - 49-year age group to 46.4% women in the 70 - 79-year age group. The sexual ability of partners diminished markedly with age, with only 4.8% of the partners using medication to enable erections. Only 2.5% of women reported low relationship satisfaction. The incidence of sexual distress was also low, being reported by only 5.7% of women. Younger women and women with partners had higher levels of distress than older women. Indifference to sexual frequency rose from 26.7% in women aged 40 - 49 years to 72.3% in the 70 - 79-year age group. Past sexual abuse was recalled by 22.7% of women and 11.6% recalled multiple episodes of abuse. Women who recalled abuse had lower scores for satisfaction with sexual frequency. It appears from this study that there is a wide range of sexual experience amongst aging women, from never having had a sexual partner, to having solitary sex, to having a relationship with or without sex into the seventh decade. As women age, they experience a decrease in sexual activity, interest in sex, and distress about sex. This may be associated with the loss of intimate relationships as part of separation, divorce or bereavement. Decreased sexual activity with aging may be interpreted as a biological phenomenon (part of the aging process) or as sexual dysfunction, or it may be the result of

  7. [How educating students in depression among older people can affect their motivation to work with this population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favier, S; Izaute, M; Teissèdre, F

    2017-04-01

    Negative representations of ageing are conveyed in our society. We see that people frequently avoid working with older people, due to a lack of motivation. Depressive signs in older people are more frequently associated with normal ageing, rather than a pathology, giving health professionals the feeling that therapeutic efforts are likely to be unproductive. Yet, depression is a major public health problem, particularly among older people. It is a real pathology, affecting 20% of people aged 65 and older. In retirement homes the percentage can be as high as 45%. To study and evaluate how theoretical knowledge about older people and depression affects the motivation of 2nd year psychology students to work with this population. The study involves two groups. One of the groups (experimental group) followed an 8hour course on depression in older people, whereas the other (control group) followed an 8hour course on a different topic. The study was conducted in two parts. First, the two groups answered an initial questionnaire which measured how motivated they were to work with older people and what they knew about depression in older people. Then, after the experimental phase, all of the students answered the same questionnaire a second time. The comparison shows a significant decline in knowledge between T1 and T2 for the control group (Pdepression, students are more motivated to work with older people. Moreover, we observe that the more knowledge students have in this field, the more motivated they will be to work with older people. Whereas there were no differences in knowledge before the course, we observed that the knowledge of the group who took part in the course about older people improved. Also, the evaluation showed that students who took the course were significantly more knowledgeable. Regarding motivation, our results vary according to the type of motivation. Overall, as regards intrinsic motivation, we observed an increase in motivation, insofar as the

  8. Health, wellbeing, and disability among older people infected or affected by HIV in Uganda and South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makandwe Nyirenda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe and compare the health status, emotional wellbeing, and functional status of older people in Uganda and South Africa who are HIV infected or affected by HIV in their families. Methods: Data came from the general population cohort and Entebbe cohort of the Medical Research Council/Uganda Virus Research Institute, and from the Africa Centre Demographic Information System through cross-sectional surveys in 2009/10 using instruments adapted from the World Health Organization (WHO Study on Global Ageing and adult health (SAGE. Analysis was based on 932 people aged 50 years or older (510 Uganda, 422 South Africa. Results: Participants in South Africa were slightly younger (median age − 60 years in South Africa, 63 in Uganda, and more were currently married, had no formal education, were not working, and were residing in a rural area. Adjusting for socio-demographic factors, older people in South Africa were significantly less likely to have good functional ability [adjusted odds ratio (aOR 0.72, 95% CI 0.53–0.98] than those in Uganda, but were more likely to be in good subjective wellbeing (aOR 2.15, 95% CI 1.60–2.90. South Africans were more likely to be obese (aOR 5.26, 95% CI 3.46–8.00 or to be diagnosed with hypertension (aOR 2.77, 95% CI 2.06–3.73. Discussion and conclusions: While older people's health problems are similar in the two countries, marked socio-demographic differences influence the extent to which older people are affected by poorer health. It is therefore imperative when designing policies to improve the health and wellbeing of older people in sub-Saharan Africa that the region is not treated as a homogenous entity.

  9. Personal and other factors affecting acceptance of smartphone technology by older Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qi; Chan, Alan H S; Chen, Ke

    2016-05-01

    It has been well documented that in the 21st century, there will be relatively more older people around the world than in the past. Also, it seems that technology will expand in this era at an unprecedented rate. Therefore, it is of critical importance to understand the factors that influence the acceptance of technology by older people. The positive impact that the use of mobile applications can have for older people was confirmed by a previous study (Plaza et al., 2011). The study reported here aimed to explore and confirm, for older adults in China, the key influential factors of smartphone acceptance, and to describe the personal circumstances of Chinese older adults who use smartphone. A structured questionnaire and face to face individual interviews were used with 120 Chinese older adults (over 55). Structural Equation Modeling was used to confirm a proposed smartphone acceptance model based on Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), and the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). The results showed that those who were younger, with higher education, non-widowed, with better economic condition related to salary or family support were more likely to use smartphone. Also, cost was found to be a critical factor influencing behavior intention. Self-satisfaction and facilitating conditions were proved to be important factors influencing perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Longitudinal association of delta activity at sleep onset with cognitive and affective function in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Makoto; Beaudreau, Sherry A; Gould, Christine E; Hantke, Nathan C; Cotto, Isabelle; Jordan, Josh T; Hirst, Rayna B; O'Hara, Ruth

    2016-10-01

    This investigation sought to determine whether delta activity at sleep onset (DASO) in the sleep electroencephalography of older adults represents normal variation or is associated with clinical pathology. To this end, we examined its longitudinal associations with cognitive and affective function in older adults without dementia. Participants were 153 community-dwelling older adults without dementia. We evaluated polysomnography (PSG), cognitive performance, and affective function at four time points: baseline, 12, 24, and 36 months. All participants completed PSG and measures of global cognition, delayed verbal memory, information processing speed, attention, inhibition, verbal naming, visuospatial ability, and measures of anxiety and depression. DASO was defined as sequences of rhythmic anterior delta activity on PSG in the transition from awake to sleep during the baseline assessment (Figure ). At the baseline, 83 women and 70 men, mean age 71.3 ± 0.6 years participated and 19.6% of participants exhibited DASO. Age, years of education, gender, and body mass index did not differ according to DASO status. Linear mixed modeling showed that the presence of DASO was actually associated with lower levels of anxiety and depression. Further, participants with DASO, versus those without DASO, exhibited a trend towards better cognitive performance over time, although none of these associations reached statistical significance. Whereas DASO was associated with better affective function, no significant association was found between DASO and cognitive change over time. These longitudinal findings support the view that the presence of DASO in healthy older adults represents normal variation rather than pathological aging. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. National Economic Development Status May Affect the Association between Central Adiposity and Cognition in Older Adults.

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    Asri Maharani

    Full Text Available Obesity is becoming a global problem, rather than one found only in developed countries. Although recent studies have suggested a detrimental effect of obesity on cognition, studies of the relationship between obesity and cognition among older adults have been limited to developed countries. We aimed to examine the associations between central obesity, as measured by waist circumference, and cognition level in adults aged 50 years and older in England and Indonesia.We used linear regression models to analyse these associations and multiple imputation to manage missing data. The 2006 English Longitudinal Study of Ageing Wave 3 is the source of data from England, while data from Indonesia is sourced from the 2007 Indonesian Family Life Survey Wave 4.Centrally obese respondents had lower cognition levels than non-centrally obese respondents in England. In contrast, central adiposity had a statistically significant positive association with cognition in Indonesia. Higher levels of education and higher economic status were associated with higher cognitive ability, while age was associated with lower cognition in both countries. Elevated C-reactive protein (CRP concentrations and smoking behaviour, both linked to higher risk of obesity, were negatively associated with cognitive ability among older adults in England, but they had no statistically significant association with cognition among Indonesians.The contradictory findings on obesity and cognition in England and Indonesia not only create a puzzle, but they may also have different policy implications in these countries. Reducing the prevalence of obesity may be the main focus in England and other developed countries to maintain older adults' cognition. However, Indonesia and other developing countries should place more emphasis on education, in addition to continued efforts to tackle the double burden of malnutrition, in order to prevent cognitive impairment among older adults.

  12. When Contact Is Not Enough: Affecting First Year Medical Students' Image towards Older Persons.

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    Sasmita Kusumastuti

    Full Text Available Many medical schools have initiated care internships to familiarize their students with older persons and to instil a professional attitude.To examine the impact of care internships on the image that first-year medical students have of older persons and to explore the underlying concepts that may play a role in shaping this image.Survey before and after a two-week compulsory care internship using the Aging Semantic Differential (ASD; 32 adjectives and the Attitudes toward Old People (AOP; 34 positions questionnaires.Before and after a care internship involving interpersonal contact, 252 and 244 first-year medical students at the Leiden University Medical Centre (LUMC in the academic year 2012-2013 participated.Descriptive statistics, analyses of variance, and principal component analysis were used; clusters of adjectives and positions were reduced into concepts to examine dominant patterns of views. Changes in image were investigated as mean differences of the total and concept scores.Both the ASD and the AOP questionnaires showed a poor general image of older persons that significantly worsened after the care internship (p < 0.01. The percentage of students considering over 75 years as being old increased from 17.2% to 31.2% (p < 0.01 and those who thought they would find as much satisfaction in care for older as for younger patients decreased from 78.5% to 62.1% (p < 0.001. Exploratory principal component analysis showed particularly low scores on 'comportment' and 'pleasurable interaction' whereas the scores on 'personality traits' and 'habitual behaviour' significantly deteriorated (both p < 0.001. These patterns were irrespective of the student's gender and previous contact experience.Medical schools should carefully consider care internships to ensure that students do not worsen their views on older patients, which may occur due to inadequate contact depth and quality within a rather unsupportive context.

  13. Posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and perceived needs for psychological care in older persons affected by Hurricane Ike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, Robert H.; Southwick, Steven M.; Tracy, Melissa; Galea, Sandro; Norris, Fran H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the prevalence and correlates of disaster-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and needs for psychological care in older persons affected by Hurricane Ike. Method A total of 193 adults age 60 or older who resided in the Galveston Bay area were interviewed 2–5 months following Hurricane Ike. Pre-, peri-, and post-disaster variables hypothesized to be related to PTSD and depressive symptoms, and perceived needs for psychological care were assessed. Results Weighted prevalences of past-month Ike-related PTSD and depression were 7.6% and 8.6%, respectively. Risk factors for Ike-related PTSD symptoms were predominantly peri-disaster in nature, with greater hurricane exposure, and peri-event dissociative and autonomic activation symptoms associated positively with these symptoms. Risk factors for depressive symptoms were predominantly pre-disaster in nature, with being married/living with partner associated negatively, and prior disaster exposure and pre-disaster PTSD or depression associated positively with these symptoms. 27.2% of the sample endorsed at least one of the perceived needs for psychological care assessed. A history of PTSD or depression, greater peri-event autonomic activation, and Ike-related PTSD and depressive symptoms were associated with greater need for psychological care. Limitations This study is limited by its cross-sectional design and employment of psychiatric screening instruments. Conclusions A substantial proportion of older adults may have PTSD and depression, as well as perceived needs for psychological care, after a disaster. Assessment of disaster exposures, and peri-event dissociative and autonomic symptoms may help identify older adults at risk for disaster-related psychopathology. Older adults with a history of PTSD or depression, and greater peri-event autonomic activation and PTSD symptoms may be more likely to have needs for psychological care. PMID:22285792

  14. Physical activity enhances long-term quality of life in older adults: efficacy, esteem, and affective influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elavsky, Steriani; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W; Konopack, James F; Marquez, David X; Hu, Liang; Jerome, Gerald J; Diener, Ed

    2005-10-01

    Physical activity has been effective in enhancing quality of life (QOL) of older adults over relatively short periods of time. However, little is known about the long-term effects of physical activity and even less about the possible mediators of this relationship. We examined the mediating effects of psychological variables on the relationship between physical activity and global QOL (satisfaction with life) in older adults over a 4-year period. Participants (N = 174, M age = 66.7 years) completed a battery of psychosocial measures at 1 and 5 years following enrollment in a 6-month randomized controlled exercise trial. Panel analysis conducted within a covariance modeling framework indicated that physical activity was related to self-efficacy, physical self-esteem, and positive affect at 1 year, and in turn, greater levels of self-efficacy and positive affect were associated with higher levels of QOL. Analyses indicated that changes in physical activity over the 4-year period were related to increases in physical self-esteem and positive affect, but only positive affect directly influenced improvements in QOL. The findings lend support to the position that physical activity effects on QOL are in part mediated by intermediate psychological outcomes and that physical activity can have long-term effects on well-being.

  15. Factors Affecting Gynecologic and Sexual Assessment in Older Women: A Lesson for Primary Care Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayasha Thomason

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for screening of cervical cancer and pelvic exams for older women have recently changed. These changes may have unexpected sequelae in women over 65 years of age. This manuscript provides a review of gynecologic screening recommendations for older women in the U.S. and potential ramifications of these recent changes. Peer reviewed guidelines from the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology, U.S. Preventative Task Force Services, the American Cancer Society, The Centers for Disease Control, and multiple original research articles and reviews were reviewed for this manuscript. Women over 65 are at greatest risk to develop late stage diagnoses of cancers, pelvic organ disease, incontinence, and infections. Clinicians will need to acutely consider this fact when communicating and screening this population. We conclude that practitioners should be aware of the new guidelines and should consider including gynecologic health history and symptom analysis as part of annual exams in women of all ages.

  16. The Development of Assistive Systems to Support Older People: Issues that Affect Success in Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Jean D. Hallewell Haslwanter; Geraldine Fitzpatrick

    2017-01-01

    Due to an aging population in Europe, the development of Ambient Assisted Living technologies (AAL) is increasingly the target of research financing. These technologies promise to enable older people to remain in their own homes longer, something many people report wanting and which may also reduce the costs of care. To date however there are few systems on the market. Other studies have tried to understand this by looking at user acceptance. However, by looking only at the user acceptance, w...

  17. Factors affecting institutionalization in older Hong Kong Chinese patients after recovery from acute medical illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, James Ka Hay; Chiu, Patrick Ka Chun; Chu, Leung Wing

    2009-01-01

    Older patients with medical illnesses are at risk of institutionalization. The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors leading to institutionalization in older patients after recovery from medical illnesses. We studied 535 older patients in two convalescence hospitals in Hong Kong. Of them, 116 patients (21.7%) needed to move to nursing homes upon discharge. Univariate analysis showed that age, single/divorced/widowed status, longer length of stay, pressure sores, urinary incontinence, urinary catheterization, falls, dementia, diabetes mellitus, Barthel index (100), Elderly Mobility Score (EMS), Chinese version of the mini-mental state examination (C-MMSE) and albumin levels were significant factors associated with institutionalization. Multivariate analysis showed that being single/divorced/widowed (odds ratio=OR=2.74, 95% confidence interval=CI=1.36-5.53, p=0.0048), having urinary incontinence on discharge (OR=5.13, CI=2.66-10.6, p<0.001) and admission due to falls (OR=2.4, CI=1.03-5.57, p=0.04) were independent risk factors for nursing home admission. Higher admission EMS (OR=0.91, CI=0.84-0.97, p=0.009), admission C-MMSE (OR=0.93, CI=0.87-0.98, p=0.019), and discharge albumin levels (OR=0.93, CI=0.88-0.99, p=0.02) were independent protecting factors against nursing home admission. Knowledge of these factors can allow us to predict accommodation outcome and develop intervention strategy to reduce institutionalization in the older patients.

  18. Selective attention affects conceptual object priming and recognition: A study with young and older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Soledad eBallesteros; Julia eMayas

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of selective attention at encoding on conceptual object priming (Experiment 1) and old–new recognition memory (Experiment 2) tasks in young and older adults. The procedures of both experiments included encoding and memory test phases separated by a short delay. At encoding, the picture outlines of two familiar objects, one in blue and the other in green, were presented to the left and to the right of fixation. In Experiment 1, participants wer...

  19. Selective attention affects conceptual object priming and recognition: a study with young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Mayas, Julia

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of selective attention at encoding on conceptual object priming (Experiment 1) and old-new recognition memory (Experiment 2) tasks in young and older adults. The procedures of both experiments included encoding and memory test phases separated by a short delay. At encoding, the picture outlines of two familiar objects, one in blue and the other in green, were presented to the left and to the right of fixation. In Experiment 1, participants were instructed to attend to the picture outline of a certain color and to classify the object as natural or artificial. After a short delay, participants performed a natural/artificial speeded conceptual classification task with repeated attended, repeated unattended, and new pictures. In Experiment 2, participants at encoding memorized the attended pictures and classify them as natural or artificial. After the encoding phase, they performed an old-new recognition memory task. Consistent with previous findings with perceptual priming tasks, we found that conceptual object priming, like explicit memory, required attention at encoding. Significant priming was obtained in both age groups, but only for those pictures that were attended at encoding. Although older adults were slower than young adults, both groups showed facilitation for attended pictures. In line with previous studies, young adults had better recognition memory than older adults.

  20. Selective attention affects conceptual object priming and recognition: A study with young and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad eBallesteros

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated the effects of selective attention at encoding on conceptual object priming (Experiment 1 and old-new recognition memory (Experiment 2 tasks in young and older adults. The procedures of both experiments included encoding and memory test phases separated by a short delay. At encoding, the picture outlines of two familiar objects, one in blue and the other in green, were presented to the left and to the right of fixation. In Experiment 1, participants were instructed to attend to the picture outline of a certain color and to classify the object as natural or artificial. After a short delay, participants performed a natural/ artificial speeded conceptual classification task with repeated attended, repeated unattended and new pictures. In Experiment 2, participants at encoding memorized the attended pictures and classified them as natural or artificial. After the encoding phase, they performed an old-new recognition memory task. Consistent with previous findings with perceptual priming tasks, we found that conceptual object priming, like explicit memory, required attention at encoding. Significant priming was obtained in both age groups, but only for those pictures that were attended at encoding. Although older adults were slower than young adults, both groups showed facilitation for attended pictures. In line with previous studies, young adults had better recognition memory than older adults.

  1. Word class and context affect alpha-band oscillatory dynamics in an older population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika eMellem

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Differences in the oscillatory EEG dynamics of reading open class and closed class words have previously been found (Bastiaansen et al., 2005 and are thought to reflect differences in lexical-semantic content between these word classes. In particular, the theta band (4–7 Hz seems to play a prominent role in lexical-semantic retrieval. We tested whether this theta effect is robust in an older population of subjects. Additionally, we examined how the context of a word can modulate the oscillatory dynamics underlying retrieval for the two different classes of words. Older participants (mean age 55 read words presented in either syntactically-correct sentences or in a scrambled order (scrambled sentence while their EEG was recorded. We performed time-frequency analysis to examine how power varied based on the context or class of the word. We observed larger power decreases in the alpha (8–12Hz band between 200–700 ms for the open class compared to closed class words, but this was true only for the scrambled sentence context. We did not observe differences in theta power between these conditions. Context exerted an effect on the alpha and low beta (13–18 Hz bands between 0–700 ms. These results suggest that the previously observed word class effects on theta power changes in a younger participant sample do not seem to be a robust effect in this older population. Though this is an indirect comparison between studies, it may suggest the existence of aging effects on word retrieval dynamics for different populations. Additionally, the interaction between word class and context suggests that word retrieval mechanisms interact with sentence-level comprehension mechanisms in the alpha band.

  2. Prevalence and correlates of depression among HIV-infected and -affected older people in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyirenda, M; Chatterji, S; Rochat, T; Mutevedzi, P; Newell, M-L

    2013-10-01

    Little is known about depression in older people in sub-Saharan Africa, the associated impact of HIV, and the influence on health perceptions. Examine the prevalence and correlates of depression; explore the relationship between depression and health perceptions in HIV-infected and -affected older people. In 2010, 422 HIV-infected and -affected participants aged 50+ were recruited into a cross-sectional study. Nurse professionals interviewed participants and a diagnosis of depressive episode was derived from the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (Depression module) using the International Classification of Diseases diagnostic criteria and categorised as major (MDE) or brief (BDE). Overall, 42.4% (n=179) had a depressive episode (MDE: 22.7%, n=96; BDE: 19.7%, n=83). Prevalence of MDE was significantly higher in HIV-affected (30.1%, 95% CI 24.0-36.2%) than HIV-infected (14.8%, 95% CI 9.9-19.7%) participants; BDE was higher in HIV-infected (24.6%, 95% CI 18.7-30.6%) than in HIV-affected (15.1%, 95% CI 10.3-19.8%) participants. Being female (aOR 3.04, 95% CI 1.73-5.36), receiving a government grant (aOR 0.34, 95% CI 0.15-0.75), urban residency (aOR 1.86, 95% CI 1.16-2.96) and adult care-giving (aOR 2.37, 95% CI 1.37-4.12) were significantly associated with any depressive episode. Participants with a depressive episode were 2-3 times more likely to report poor health perceptions. Study limitations include the cross-sectional design, limited sample size and possible selection biases. Prevalence of depressive episodes was high. Major depressive episodes were higher in HIV-affected than HIV-infected participants. Psycho-social support similar to that of HIV treatment programmes around HIV-affected older people may be useful in reducing their vulnerability to depression. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence and correlates of depression among HIV-infected and -affected older people in rural South Africa☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyirenda, M.; Chatterji, S.; Rochat, T.; Mutevedzi, P.; Newell, M.-L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about depression in older people in sub-Saharan Africa, the associated impact of HIV, and the influence on health perceptions. Objectives Examine the prevalence and correlates of depression; explore the relationship between depression and health perceptions in HIV-infected and -affected older people. Methods In 2010, 422 HIV-infected and -affected participants aged 50+ were recruited into a cross-sectional study. Nurse professionals interviewed participants and a diagnosis of depressive episode was derived from the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (Depression module) using the International Classification of Diseases diagnostic criteria and categorised as major (MDE) or brief (BDE). Results Overall, 42.4% (n=179) had a depressive episode (MDE: 22.7%, n=96; BDE: 19.7%, n=83). Prevalence of MDE was significantly higher in HIV-affected (30.1%, 95% CI 24.0–36.2%) than HIV-infected (14.8%, 95% CI 9.9–19.7%) participants; BDE was higher in HIV-infected (24.6%, 95% CI 18.7–30.6%) than in HIV-affected (15.1%, 95% CI 10.3–19.8%) participants. Being female (aOR 3.04, 95% CI 1.73–5.36), receiving a government grant (aOR 0.34, 95% CI 0.15–0.75), urban residency (aOR 1.86, 95% CI 1.16–2.96) and adult care-giving (aOR 2.37, 95% CI 1.37–4.12) were significantly associated with any depressive episode. Participants with a depressive episode were 2–3 times more likely to report poor health perceptions. Limitations Study limitations include the cross-sectional design, limited sample size and possible selection biases. Conclusions Prevalence of depressive episodes was high. Major depressive episodes were higher in HIV-affected than HIV-infected participants. Psycho-social support similar to that of HIV treatment programmes around HIV-affected older people may be useful in reducing their vulnerability to depression. PMID:23726780

  4. How does difficulty communicating affect the social relationships of older adults? An exploration using data from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Andrew D; Newsom, Jason T; Rook, Karen S

    2016-01-01

    Healthy social relationships are important for maintaining mental and physical health in later life. Less social support, smaller social networks, and more negative social interactions have been linked to depression, poorer immune functioning, lower self-rated health, increased incidence of disease, and higher mortality. Overwhelming evidence suggests that communication disorders adversely affect social relationships. Much less is known about whether some or all aspects of social relationships are negatively affected by a communication disorder. The relative impact of a communication disorder on social relationships, as compared to other kinds of disability, is also poorly understood. Data were analyzed from a representative national sample of community-dwelling adults aged 65 and older living in the continental United States (n=742). Results from multiple regressions indicated that difficulty communicating was significantly associated with several parameters of social relationships even after controlling for age, gender, partnership status, health, functional limitations, and visual impairment. Communication difficulty was a significant predictor of smaller social network size, fewer positive social exchanges, less frequent participation in social activities, and higher levels of loneliness, but was not a significant predictor of negative social exchanges. These findings suggest that communication disorders may place older adults at increased risk for mental and physical health problems because of social isolation, reduced social participation, and higher rates of loneliness. In addition, it appears that communication disorders may have a greater impact on positive, rather than negative, aspects of social relationships. As a result of this activity, the following learning outcomes will be realized: Readers will be able to (1) describe changes in the social relationships of older adults that occur as part of normal aging, (2) identify the aspects of social

  5. PARO robot affects diverse interaction modalities in group sensory therapy for older adults with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šabanović, Selma; Bennett, Casey C; Chang, Wan-Ling; Huber, Lesa

    2013-06-01

    We evaluated the seal-like robot PARO in the context of multi-sensory behavioral therapy in a local nursing home. Participants were 10 elderly nursing home residents with varying levels of dementia. We report three principle findings from our observations of interactions between the residents, PARO, and a therapist during seven weekly therapy sessions. Firstly, we show PARO provides indirect benefits for users by increasing their activity in particular modalities of social interaction, including visual, verbal, and physical interaction, which vary between primary and non-primary interactors. Secondly, PARO's positive effects on older adults' activity levels show steady growth over the duration of our study, suggesting they are not due to short-term "novelty effects." Finally, we show a variety of ways in which individual participants interacted with PARO and relate this to the "interpretive flexibility" of its design.

  6. Factors affecting walking activity of older people from culturally diverse groups: an Australian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Stephen R; Radermacher, Harriet; Sims, Jane; Feldman, Susan; Browning, Colette; Thomas, Shane

    2010-07-01

    This study sought to investigate the walking habits of older people from diverse cultural backgrounds, and to identify the factors associated with their walking. Three hundred and thirty three people over the age of 60 years were recruited from seven culturally diverse groups from the Western suburbs of Melbourne, Australia. A survey questionnaire recording physical activity, and various factors related to activity, was interviewer-administered in the participants' preferred language. Data were analysed using Kruskal-Wallis, chi(2) and Mann-Whitney tests. Forty-seven percent of the participants walked at least 150 min per week, with no significant difference in prevalence between genders or cultural groups. Some cultural differences were found in relation to reasons and locations for walking, and women were more likely than men to report walking in the shopping mall, whilst men were more likely than women to report walking in the park and along walking trails. Those who attained >150 min of walking were more likely to report health and fitness as reasons for walking, to perceive their walking environment as more pleasurable, to use walking trails, and to consider their environment safe and to facilitate social interaction. This study indicates that the continued advocating of walking as a health promoting activity should be central to future campaigns to increase physical activity in this age group. The provision of locations that are accessible, safe, aesthetically pleasing, and encourage social engagement are likely to facilitate older people's participation in walking. For maximum effectiveness, however, strategies may benefit from being tailored to meet specific gender and cultural preferences. Copyright 2009 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Liquid and Solid Meal Replacement Products Differentially Affect Postprandial Appetite and Food Intake in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stull, April J.; Apolzan, John W.; Thalacker-Mercer, Anna E.; Iglay, Heidi B.; Campbell, Wayne W.

    2008-01-01

    Liquid and solid foods are documented to elicit differential appetitive and food intake responses. This study was designed to assess the influences of liquid vs solid meal replacement products on postprandial appetite ratings and subsequent food intake in healthy older adults. This study used a randomized and crossover design with two 1-day trials (1 week between trials), and 24 adults (12 men and 12 women) aged 50 to 80 years with body mass index (calculated as kg/m2) between 22 and 30 participated. After an overnight fast, the subjects consumed meal replacement products as either a beverage (liquid) or a bar (solid). The meal replacement products provided 25% of each subject's daily estimated energy needs with comparable macro-nutrient compositions. Subjects rated their appetite on a 100 mm quasilogarithmic visual analog scale before and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 150 minutes after consuming the meal replacement product. At minute 120, each subject consumed cooked oatmeal ad libitum to a “comfortable level of fullness.” Postprandial composite (area under the curve from minute 15 to minute 120) hunger was higher (P=0.04) for the liquid vs solid meal replacement products and desire to eat (P=0.15), preoccupation with thoughts of food (P=0.07), and fullness (P=0.25) did not differ for the liquid vs solid meal replacement products. On average, the subjects consumed 13.4% more oatmeal after the liquid vs solid (P=0.006) meal replacement product. These results indicate that meal replacement products in liquid and solid form do not elicit comparable appetitive and ingestive behavior responses and that meal replacement products in liquid form blunt the postprandial decline in hunger and increase subsequent food intake in older adults. PMID:18589034

  8. How Does Difficulty Communicating Affect the Social Relationships of Older Adults? An Exploration Using Data from a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Andrew D.; Newsom, Jason T.; Rook, Karen S.

    2016-01-01

    Healthy social relationships are important for maintaining mental and physical health in later life. Less social support, smaller social networks, and more negative social interactions have been linked to depression, poorer immune functioning, lower self-rated health, increased incidence of disease, and higher mortality. Overwhelming evidence suggests that communication disorders adversely affect social relationships. Much less is known about whether some or all aspects of social relationships are negatively affected by a communication disorder. The relative impact of a communication disorder on social relationships, as compared to other kinds of disability, is also poorly understood. Data were analyzed from a representative national sample of community-dwelling adults aged 65 and older living in the continental United States (n = 742). Results from multiple regressions indicated that difficulty communicating was significantly associated with several parameters of social relationships even after controlling for age, gender, partnership status, health, functional limitations, and visual impairment. Communication difficulty was a significant predictor of smaller social network size, fewer positive social exchanges, less frequent participation in social activities, and higher levels of loneliness, but was not a significant predictor of negative social exchanges. These findings suggest that communication disorders may place older adults at increased risk for mental and physical health problems because of social isolation, reduced social participation, and higher rates of loneliness. In addition, it appears that communication disorders may have a greater impact on positive, rather than negative, aspects of social relationships. PMID:27420152

  9. Coping, affect, and the metabolic syndrome in older men: how does coping get under the skin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancura, Loriena A; Aldwin, Carolyn M; Levenson, Michael R; Spiro, Avron

    2006-09-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a complex construct with interrelated factors of obesity, blood pressure, lipids, and glucose. It is a risk factor for a number of chronic diseases in late life. This study tested a model in which the relationship between stress and the metabolic syndrome was mediated by appraisal, coping, and affect. Data were collected from 518 male participants in the Normative Aging Study (X(age) = 68.17 years). The model was partially confirmed. Relationships among stress, appraisal, coping, and affect were valenced along positive and negative pathways. However, affect was not directly related to the metabolic syndrome. The metabolic syndrome was related to positive coping as operationalized by self-regulatory strategies. The results of this study suggest that the influence of coping on physical health may occur through emotional regulation.

  10. Factors Affecting Prolonged Working Life for the Older Workforce: the Swedish Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Berglund

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to uncover some of the mechanisms that could make the older workforce willing and able to stay employed. Our focus is on work-related factors that predict the probability of staying in employment despite entitlement to old-age pension. The analyses are based on data from the first and second waves of the Panel Survey of Ageing and the Elderly (PSAE. The focus is on employed persons aged 52–59 years in 2002/2003 and the probability that they were still employed in 2010/2011.The analysis focuses on the work situation for the respondents in 2002–2003. Our analysis shows that physical job demands (negatively and job satisfaction (positively have an effect on the probability of staying. However, a counteracting force seems to be a norm to quit related to aging, emphasized by the institutionalized pension system, and the values and preferences connected to life as a pensioner.

  11. Seek and Ye shall Find : How Search Requirements Affect Job Finding Rates of Older Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hullegie, P.G.J.; van Ours, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Unemployment insurance recipients in the Netherlands were for a long time exempted from the requirement to actively search for a job when they reached the age of 57.5. We study how this exemption affected the job finding rates of the recipients involved. We find evidence that the job

  12. Seek and ye shall find : How search requirements affect job finding rates of older workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hullegie, P.G.J.; van Ours, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Unemployment insurance recipients in the Netherlands were for many years exempted from the requirement to actively search for a job after they reached the age of 57.5. We study how this exemption affected the job finding rates of the recipients involved. Our results indicate that the job finding

  13. Pre-injury beta blocker use does not affect the hyperdynamic response in older trauma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Evans

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Trauma dogma dictates that the physiologic response to injury is blunted by beta-blockers and other cardiac medications. We sought to determine how the pre-injury cardiac medication profile influences admission physiology and post-injury outcomes. Materials and Methods: Trauma patients older than 45 evaluated at our center were retrospectively studied. Pre-injury medication profiles were evaluated for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors / angiotensin receptor blockers (ACE-I/ARB, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, amiodarone, or a combination of the above mentioned agents. Multivariable logistic regression or linear regression analyses were used to identify relationships between pre-injury medications, vital signs on presentation, post-injury complications, length of hospital stay, and mortality. Results: Records of 645 patients were reviewed (mean age 62.9 years, Injury Severity Score >10, 23%. Our analysis demonstrated no effect on systolic and diastolic blood pressures from beta-blocker, ACE-I/ARB, calcium channel blocker, and amiodarone use. The triple therapy (combined beta-blocker, calcium channel blocker, and ACE-I/ARB patient group had significantly lower heart rate than the no cardiac medication group. No other groups were statistically different for heart rate, systolic, and diastolic blood pressure. Conclusions: Pre-injury use of cardiac medication lowered heart rate in the triple-agent group (beta-blocker, calcium channel blocker, and ACEi/ARB when compared the no cardiac medication group. While most combinations of cardiac medications do not blunt the hyperdynamic response in trauma cases, patients on combined beta-blocker, calcium channel blocker, and ACE-I/ARB therapy had higher mortality and more in-hospital complications despite only mild attenuation of the hyperdynamic response.

  14. Using activity triggered e-diaries to reveal the associations between physical activity and affective states in older adult's daily living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanning, Martina; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich; Schlicht, Wolfgang

    2015-09-17

    Evidence suggests that older adults show positive affects after participating in exercise bouts. However, it is less clear, if and how physical activities in daily living enhance affective states, too. This is dissatisfying, as most of older adults' physical activities are part of their daily living. To answer these questions we used activity-triggered e-diaries to investigate the within-subject effects of physical activity on three dimensions of affective states (valence, energetic arousal, calmness) during everyday life. Older adults (N = 74) between 50 and 70 years took part in the study during three consecutive days. Physical activity in daily living was objectively assessed using accelerometers. Affects were measured 10 min after a study participant surpassed a predefined threshold for activity or inactivity. The participants were prompted by an acoustic signal to assess their momentary affective states on an e-diary. Data were analyzed with hierarchical multilevel analyses. Whenever older individuals were more physically active, they felt more energized (energetic arousal) and agitated (calmness). However, they did not feel better (valence). Interestingly, body mass index (BMI) and valence were associated in a significant cross-level interaction. BMI acts as a moderating variable in the way that lower BMI scores were associated with higher levels of valence scores after being physically active. The innovative ambulatory assessment used here affords an interesting insight to the affective effects of daily activity of older adults. These effects are no simple and no linear ones, i.e. physical activity is not associated with positive affects per se as shown several times in experimental studies with single activity bouts. Rather there is a differentiating association seen as an enhanced feeling of energy and agitation, which is not accompanied by a better feeling. Socio-emotional selectivity theory may support the finding that older individuals are

  15. Are age-related differences between young and older adults in an affective working memory test sensitive to the music effects?

    OpenAIRE

    Borella, Erika; Carretti, Barbara; Grassi, Massimo; Nucci, Massimo; Sciore, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    There are evidences showing that music can affect cognitive performance by improving our emotional state. The aim of the current study was to analyze whether age-related differences between young and older adults in a Working Memory (WM) Span test in which the stimuli to be recalled have a different valence (i.e., neutral, positive, or negative words), are sensitive to exposure to music. Because some previous studies showed that emotional words can sustain older adults’ performance in WM, we ...

  16. Affective problems and decline in cognitive state in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, A; Patel, U; Rusted, J; Richards, M; Gaysina, D

    2018-05-24

    Evidence suggests that affective problems, such as depression and anxiety, increase risk for late-life dementia. However, the extent to which affective problems influence cognitive decline, even many years prior to clinical diagnosis of dementia, is not clear. The present study systematically reviews and synthesises the evidence for the association between affective problems and decline in cognitive state (i.e., decline in non-specific cognitive function) in older adults. An electronic search of PubMed, PsycInfo, Cochrane, and ScienceDirect was conducted to identify studies of the association between depression and anxiety separately and decline in cognitive state. Key inclusion criteria were prospective, longitudinal designs with a minimum follow-up period of 1 year. Data extraction and methodological quality assessment using the STROBE checklist were conducted independently by two raters. A total of 34 studies (n = 71 244) met eligibility criteria, with 32 studies measuring depression (n = 68 793), and five measuring anxiety (n = 4698). A multi-level meta-analysis revealed that depression assessed as a binary predictor (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.05-1.76, p = 0.02) or a continuous predictor (B = -0.008, 95% CI -0.015 to -0.002, p = 0.012; OR 0.992, 95% CI 0.985-0.998) was significantly associated with decline in cognitive state. The number of anxiety studies was insufficient for meta-analysis, and they are described in a narrative review. Results of the present study improve current understanding of the temporal nature of the association between affective problems and decline in cognitive state. They also suggest that cognitive function may need to be monitored closely in individuals with affective disorders, as these individuals may be at particular risk of greater cognitive decline.

  17. Selecting process quality indicators for the integrated care of vulnerable older adults affected by cognitive impairment or dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebel Paule

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed at evaluating face and content validity, feasibility and reliability of process quality indicators developed previously in the United States or other countries. The indicators can be used to evaluate care and services for vulnerable older adults affected by cognitive impairment or dementia within an integrated service system in Quebec, Canada. Methods A total of 33 clinical experts from three major urban centres in Quebec formed a panel representing two medical specialties (family medicine, geriatrics and seven health or social services specialties (nursing, occupational therapy, psychology, neuropsychology, pharmacy, nutrition, social work, from primary or secondary levels of care, including long-term care. A modified version of the RAND®/University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA appropriateness method, a two-round Delphi panel, was used to assess face and content validity of process quality indicators. The appropriateness of indicators was evaluated according to a agreement of the panel with three criteria, defined as a median rating of 7–9 on a nine-point rating scale, and b agreement among panellists, judged by the statistical measure of the interpercentile range adjusted for symmetry. Feasibility of quality assessment and reliability of appropriate indicators were then evaluated within a pilot study on 29 patients affected by cognitive impairment or dementia. For measurable indicators the inter-observer reliability was calculated with the Kappa statistic. Results Initially, 82 indicators for care of vulnerable older adults with cognitive impairment or dementia were submitted to the panellists. Of those, 72 (88% were accepted after two rounds. Among 29 patients for whom medical files of the preceding two years were evaluated, 63 (88% of these indicators were considered applicable at least once, for at least one patient. Only 22 indicators were considered applicable at least once for ten or more out

  18. Depression in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here Home » Depression In Older Adults: More Facts Depression In Older Adults: More Facts Depression affects more ... combination of both. [8] Older Adult Attitudes Toward Depression: According to a Mental Health America survey [9] ...

  19. Risk of Social Isolation among Older Patients: What Factors Affect the Availability of Family, Friends, and Neighbors upon Hospitalization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jung-Hwa; Hougham, Gavin W; Meltzer, David O

    2018-03-02

    To examine the prevalence of social isolation among older patients admitted to a hospital, and the effects of sociodemographic and health-related factors on the availability of their family, friends, and neighbor networks. Analyses are based on interviews with a sample of 2,449 older patients admitted to an urban academic medical center in the United States. A nine-item version of Lubben's Social Network Scale was developed and used to assess the availability of different social networks. About 47% of the sample was at risk of social isolation. The oldest old and non-White older adults showed greater risk. The availability of family networks was associated with age, sex, marital status, and prior hospitalization; friend networks with age, race, education, prior hospitalization, and functional limitations; neighbor networks with race, education, marital status, and functional limitations. The risk of social isolation and the availability of social support for hospitalized older adults varies by both patient and network characteristics. Health professionals should attend to this risk and the factors associated with such risk. By assessing the availability of various types and frequency of support among older patients, health professionals can better identify those who may need additional support after discharge. Such information should be used in discharge planning to help prevent unnecessary complications and potential readmission.

  20. Resources predicting positive and negative affect during the experience of stress: a study of older Asian Indian immigrants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, Sadhna; Jonnalagadda, Satya S; Balaswamy, Shantha

    2004-10-01

    Using the life stress model of psychological well-being, in this study we examined risks and resources predicting the occurrence of both positive and negative affect among older Asian Indian immigrants who experienced stressful life events. We collected data through a telephone survey of 226 respondents (aged 50 years and older) in the Southeastern United States. We used hierarchical, negative binomial regression analyses to examine correlates of positive and negative affect. Different coping resources influenced positive and negative affect when stressful life events were controlled for. Being female was a common risk factor for poorer positive and increased negative affect. Satisfaction with friendships and a cultural or ethnic identity that is either bicultural or more American were predictive of greater positive affect. Greater religiosity and increased mastery were resources predicting less negative affect. Cognitive and structural interventions that increase opportunities for social integration, increasing mastery, and addressing spiritual concerns are discussed as ways of coping with stress to improve the well-being of individuals in this immigrant community.

  1. Are age-related differences between young and older adults in an affective working memory test sensitive to the music effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borella, Erika; Carretti, Barbara; Grassi, Massimo; Nucci, Massimo; Sciore, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    There are evidences showing that music can affect cognitive performance by improving our emotional state. The aim of the current study was to analyze whether age-related differences between young and older adults in a Working Memory (WM) Span test in which the stimuli to be recalled have a different valence (i.e., neutral, positive, or negative words), are sensitive to exposure to music. Because some previous studies showed that emotional words can sustain older adults' performance in WM, we examined whether listening to music could enhance the benefit of emotional material, with respect to neutral words, on WM performance decreasing the age-related difference between younger and older adults. In particular, the effect of two types of music (Mozart vs. Albinoni), which differ in tempo, arousal and mood induction, on age-related differences in an affective version of the Operation WM Span task was analyzed. Results showed no effect of music on the WM test regardless of the emotional content of the music (Mozart vs. Albinoni). However, a valence effect for the words in the WM task was found with a higher number of negative words recalled with respect to positive and neutral ones in both younger and older adults. When individual differences in terms of accuracy in the processing phase of the Operation Span task were considered, only younger low-performing participants were affected by the type music, with the Albinoni condition that lowered their performance with respect to the Mozart condition. Such a result suggests that individual differences in WM performance, at least when young adults are considered, could be affected by the type of music. Altogether, these findings suggest that complex span tasks, such as WM tasks, along with age-related differences are not sensitive to music effects.

  2. Are Age-Related Differences Between Young and Older Adults in an Affective Working Memory Test Sensitive to the Music Effects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika eBorella

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available There are evidences showing that music can affect cognitive performance by improving our emotional state. The aim of the current study was to analyze whether age-related differences between young and older adults in a Working Memory (WM Span test in which the stimuli to be recalled have a different valence (i.e., neutral, positive, or negative words, are sensitive to exposure to music. Because some previous studies showed that emotional words can sustain older adults’ performance in WM, we examined whether listening to music could enhance the benefit of emotional material, with respect to neutral words, on WM performance decreasing the age-related difference between younger and older adults. In particular, the effect of two types of music (Mozart vs. Albinoni, which differ in tempo, arousal and mood induction, on age-related differences in an affective version of the Operation WM Span task were analyzed.Results showed no effect of music on the WM test regardless of the emotional content of the music (Mozart vs. Albinoni. However, as in previous studies, a valence effect for the words in the WM task was found with a higher number of negative words recalled with respect to positive and neutral ones in both younger and older adults. When individual differences, in terms of accuracy in the processing phase of the Operation Span task, were considered, only younger low-performing participants were affected by the type music, with the Albinoni condition that lowered their performance with respect to the Mozart condition. Such a result suggests that individual differences in WM performance, at least when young adults are considered, could be affected by the type of music.Altogether, these findings suggest that complex span tasks, such as WM tasks, along with age-related differences are less sensitive to music effects.

  3. Examination of factors affecting gait properties in healthy older adults: focusing on knee extension strength, visual acuity, and knee joint pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demura, Tomohiro; Demura, Shin-ichi; Uchiyama, Masanobu; Sugiura, Hiroki

    2014-01-01

    Gait properties change with age because of a decrease in lower limb strength and visual acuity or knee joint disorders. Gait changes commonly result from these combined factors. This study aimed to examine the effects of knee extension strength, visual acuity, and knee joint pain on gait properties of for 181 healthy female older adults (age: 76.1 (5.7) years). Walking speed, cadence, stance time, swing time, double support time, step length, step width, walking angle, and toe angle were selected as gait parameters. Knee extension strength was measured by isometric dynamometry; and decreased visual acuity and knee joint pain were evaluated by subjective judgment whether or not such factors created a hindrance during walking. Among older adults without vision problems and knee joint pain that affected walking, those with superior knee extension strength had significantly greater walking speed and step length than those with inferior knee extension strength (P pain in both knees showed slower walking speed and longer stance time and double support time. A decrease of knee extension strength and visual acuity and knee joint pain are factors affecting gait in the female older adults. Decreased knee extension strength and knee joint pain mainly affect respective distance and time parameters of the gait.

  4. Affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cetinic, M.; Diamanti, J.; Szeman, I.; Blacker, S.; Sully, J.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter historicizes four divergent but historically contemporaneous genres of affect theory – romantic, realist, speculative, and materialist. While critics credited with the turn to affect in the 1990s wrote largely in the wake of poststructuralism from the perspective of gender and queer

  5. Psychosocial Adaptation to Visual Impairment and Its Relationship to Depressive Affect in Older Adults with Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolman, Jennifer; Hill, Robert D.; Kleinschmidt, Julia J.; Gregg, Charles H.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: In this study we examined psychosocial adaptation to vision loss and its relationship to depressive symptomatology in legally blind older adults with age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). Design and Methods: The 144 study participants were outpatients of a large regional vision clinic that specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of…

  6. Adult Age Differences in Dual Information Processes: Implications for the Role of Affective and Deliberative Processes in Older Adults' Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ellen; Hess, Thomas M; Västfjäll, Daniel; Auman, Corinne

    2007-03-01

    Age differences in affective/experiential and deliberative processes have important theoretical implications for judgment and decision theory and important pragmatic implications for older-adult decision making. Age-related declines in the efficiency of deliberative processes predict poorer-quality decisions as we age. However, age-related adaptive processes, including motivated selectivity in the use of deliberative capacity, an increased focus on emotional goals, and greater experience, predict better or worse decisions for older adults depending on the situation. The aim of the current review is to examine adult age differences in affective and deliberative information processes in order to understand their potential impact on judgments and decisions. We review evidence for the role of these dual processes in judgment and decision making and then review two representative life-span perspectives (based on aging-related changes to cognitive or motivational processes) on the interplay between these processes. We present relevant predictions for older-adult decisions and make note of contradictions and gaps that currently exist in the literature. Finally, we review the sparse evidence about age differences in decision making and how theories and findings regarding dual processes could be applied to decision theory and decision aiding. In particular, we focus on prospect theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979) and how prospect theory and theories regarding age differences in information processing can inform one another. © 2007 Association for Psychological Science.

  7. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) serum basal levels is not affected by power training in mobility-limited older adults - A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvid, L G; Nielsen, M K F; Simonsen, C; Andersen, M; Caserotti, P

    2017-07-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a potential important factor involved in neuroplasticity, and may be a mediator for eliciting adaptations in neuromuscular function and physical function in older individuals following physical training. As power training taxes the neural system to a very high extent, it may be particularly effective in terms of eliciting increases in systemic BDNF levels. We examined the effects of 12weeks of power training on mature BDNF (mBDNF) and total BDNF (tBDNF) in mobility-limited older adults from the Healthy Ageing Network of Competence (HANC) study. We included 47 older men and women: n=22 in the training group (TG: progressive high intensity power training, 2 sessions per week; age 82.7±5.4years, 55% women) and n=25 in the control group (CG: no interventions; age 82.2±4.5years, 76% women). Following overnight fasting, basal serum levels of mBDNF and tBDNF were assessed (human ELISA kits) at baseline and post-intervention. At baseline, mBDNF and tBDNF levels were comparable in the two groups, TG and CG. Post-intervention, no significant within-group or between-group changes were observed in mBDNF or tBDNF. Moreover, when divided into responder tertiles based upon changes in mBDNF and tBDNF (i.e. decliners, maintainers, improvers), respectively, comparable findings were observed for TG and CG. Altogether, basal systemic levels of serum mBDNF and tBDNF are not affected in mobility-limited older adults following 12-weeks of power training, and do not appear to be a major mechanistic factor mediating neuroplasticity in mobility-limited older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Factors affecting food choices of older adults from high and low socioeconomic groups: a discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphuis, Carlijn B M; de Bekker-Grob, Esther W; van Lenthe, Frank J

    2015-04-01

    Healthiness, price, and convenience are typically indicated as important motives for food choices; however, it is largely unknown to what extent older adults from high and low socioeconomic groups differ in these underlying motives. A discrete choice experiment (DCE) is an innovative way to elicit implicit motives for food choices. The aim was to investigate differences in food motives between socioeconomic groups by means of a DCE. A DCE was carried out during a face-to-face interview among older adults as part of the Health and Living Conditions in Eindhoven and surrounding cities (GLOBE) cohort study, The Netherlands. Participants (n = 399; mean age: 63.3 y) were offered a series of choice sets about a usual dinner at home and were asked to choose in each choice set between 2 meals and an opt-out choice, with different combinations of attribute levels. We included 5 meal attributes (taste, healthiness, preparation time, travel time to shops, and price) and 3 or 4 levels for each attribute. Data were analyzed by multinomial logit models. Healthiness, taste, price, and travel time to the grocery store proved to significantly influence older adults' meal decisions; preparation time was not significant. Healthiness was the most important attribute for all of the participants. More highly educated participants rated a healthy and less expensive meal to be more important than did less educated participants. Those with a high income rated a meal that was healthy and very tasteful to be more important than did those with a lower income. Healthiness, taste, price, and travel time to grocery shops influenced older adults' meal decisions. Higher socioeconomic groups valued health more than did lower socioeconomic groups. DCEs represent a promising method to gain insight into the relative importance of motives for food choices. This trial was registered at www.isrctn.com as ISRCTN60293770. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Religiousness affects mental health, pain and quality of life in older people in an outpatient rehabilitation setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetti, Giancarlo; Lucchetti, Alessandra Granero; Badan-Neto, Antonio M; Peres, Patricia T; Peres, Mario F P; Moreira-Almeida, Alexander; Gomes, Cláudio; Koenig, Harold G

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate the relationship between religiousness and mental health, hospitalization, pain, disability and quality of life in older adults from an outpatient rehabilitation setting in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Cross-sectional study. A total of 110 patients aged 60 years or older were interviewed during attendance at an outpatient rehabilitation service. Researchers administered a standardized questionnaire that assessed socio-demographic data, religiousness, self-reported quality of life, anxiety, physical activity limitation, depression, pain and cognition. Predictors were included in each model analysis, and a backward conditional method was used for variable selection using logistic regression (categorical outcomes) or linear regression (continuous outcomes). Thirty-one patients (28.2%) fulfilled criteria for significant depressive symptoms, 27 (24.5%) for anxiety, and 10 (9.6%) for cognitive impairment. Pain was present in 89 (80.7%) patients. Limited depressive symptoms (as assessed by the Geriatric Depression Scale), and greater self-reported quality of life were related to greater self-reported religiousness, as were scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination (less cognitive impairment), and lower ratings of pain. Religiousness is related to significantly less depressive symptoms, better quality of life, less cognitive impairment, and less perceived pain. Clinicians should consider taking a spiritual history and ensuring that spiritual needs are addressed among older patients in rehabilitation settings.

  10. How Stereotype Threat Affects Healthy Older Adults' Performance on Clinical Assessments of Cognitive Decline: The Key Role of Regulatory Fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Sarah J; Mather, Mara; Gatz, Margaret

    2015-11-01

    Stereotype threat can impair older adults' performance on clinical assessments for cognitive decline. We examined why this occurs. Based upon the regulatory focus account of stereotype threat, we predicted that the effects of stereotype threat should depend upon the assessments' reward structure. Stereotype threat should be associated with poor performance when the assessment emphasizes gaining correct answers, but not when it emphasizes avoiding mistakes. Healthy older adults completed a series of mental status examinations. Half of the participants completed these examinations under stereotype threat about their cognitive abilities. Monetary incentives were also manipulated. For half of the participants correct responding led to gains. For the remaining participants incorrect responding/forgetting led to losses. Consistent with the regulatory focus account, stereotype threat was associated with poor performance when the mental status examinations had a gains-based structure, but not when they had a losses-based structure. Older adults respond to stereotype threat by becoming vigilant to avoid the losses that will make them their worst. Researchers and clinicians can capitalize on this motivational change to combat stereotype threat's negative effects. By using a loss-avoidance frame, stereotype threat's negative effects can be attenuated or even eliminated. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. How Stereotype Threat Affects Healthy Older Adults’ Performance on Clinical Assessments of Cognitive Decline: The Key Role of Regulatory Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Mara; Gatz, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Stereotype threat can impair older adults’ performance on clinical assessments for cognitive decline. We examined why this occurs. Based upon the regulatory focus account of stereotype threat, we predicted that the effects of stereotype threat should depend upon the assessments’ reward structure. Stereotype threat should be associated with poor performance when the assessment emphasizes gaining correct answers, but not when it emphasizes avoiding mistakes. Method. Healthy older adults completed a series of mental status examinations. Half of the participants completed these examinations under stereotype threat about their cognitive abilities. Monetary incentives were also manipulated. For half of the participants correct responding led to gains. For the remaining participants incorrect responding/forgetting led to losses. Results. Consistent with the regulatory focus account, stereotype threat was associated with poor performance when the mental status examinations had a gains-based structure, but not when they had a losses-based structure. Discussion. Older adults respond to stereotype threat by becoming vigilant to avoid the losses that will make them their worst. Researchers and clinicians can capitalize on this motivational change to combat stereotype threat’s negative effects. By using a loss-avoidance frame, stereotype threat’s negative effects can be attenuated or even eliminated. PMID:25752896

  12. Depression Affects the Scores of All Facets of the WHOQOL-BREF and May Mediate the Effects of Physical Disability among Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chen Chang

    Full Text Available Geriatric depression is associated with the overall quality of life (QOL. However, how depressive symptoms affect the different domains and facets of QOL in older adults, and whether depressive symptoms mediate the relationship between physical disability and QOL in older adults are unclear.A total of 490 ambulatory community-dwelling older adults aged 65 years or above were interviewed using the brief version of the World Health Organisation Quality of Life instrument (WHOQOL-BREF, the Modified Barthel Index (MBI, the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15, and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE. Sequential models for multiple linear regressions were analysed to determine if the MBI, GDS-15 and MMSE scores predict the WHOQOL-BREF scores. The potential mediation effects of depression (as determined by the GDS-15 on the relationship between MBI and WHOQOL-BREF were also analysed.The GDS-15 score was predictive of the scores of the four domains and all 26 facets of the WHOQOL-BREF. The significant predictive effects of the MBI score on 15 of the 26 facets of the WHOQOL-BREF were reduced to three after the adjustment for the GDS-15 score. Depression (as assessed by the GDS-15 is a mediator of the relationship between MBI and the physical, psychological and environmental domains of the WHOQOL-BREF.Depression (assessed by the GDS-15 may affect the scores of every domain and all facets of the WHOQOL-BREF in the elderly. Furthermore, it may mediate the relationship between the MBI and on QOL scores. We recommend taking depressive symptoms into consideration when measuring community-dwelling older adults' QOL and providing active ageing programs.

  13. Sense of control and self-reported health in a population-based sample of older Americans: assessment of potential confounding by affect, personality, and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Michael M

    2013-03-01

    Sense of control has been linked to improved health outcomes, but it is unclear if this association is independent of other psychosocial factors. The aim of this study is to test the strength of association between sense of control and self-reported health after adjustment for positive and negative affect, "Big 5" personality factors, and social support. Data on sense of control (measured by personal mastery, perceived constraints, and a health-specific rating of control), affect, personality, social support, and two measures of self-reported health (global rating of fair or poor health and presence of functional limitations) were obtained on 6,891 participants in the Health and Retirement Study, a population-based survey of older Americans. The cross-sectional association between sense of control measures and each measure of self-reported health was tested in hierarchical logistic regression models, before and after adjustment for affect, personality, and social support. Participants with higher personal mastery were less likely to report fair/poor health (odds ratio 0.76 per 1-point increase) while those with higher perceived constraints were more likely to report fair/poor health (odds ratio 1.37 per 1-point increase). Associations remained after adjustment for affect, but adjustment for affect attenuated the association of personal mastery by 37% and of perceived constraints by 67%. Further adjustment for personality and social support did not alter the strength of association. Findings were similar for the health-specific rating of control, and for associations with functional limitations. Sense of control is associated with self-reported health in older Americans, but this association is partly confounded by affect.

  14. Cognitive function affects trainability for physical performance in exercise intervention among older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Kazuki; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko; Yoshida, Daisuke; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Anan, Yuya; Suzuki, Takao

    2013-01-01

    Although much evidence supports the hypothesis that cognitive function and physical function are interrelated, it is unclear whether cognitive decline with mild cognitive impairment influences trainability of physical performance in exercise intervention. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between cognitive function at baseline and change in physical performance after exercise intervention in older adults with mild cognitive impairment. Forty-four older adults diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment based on the Peterson criteria (mean age 74.8 years) consented to and completed a 6-month twice weekly exercise intervention. The Timed Up and Go (TUG) test was used as a measure of physical performance. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Trail Making Test Part B, Geriatric Depression Scale, baseline muscle strength of knee extension, and attendance rate of intervention, were measured as factors for predicting trainability. In the correlation analysis, the change in TUG showed modest correlations with attendance rate in the exercise program (r = -0.354, P = 0.027) and MMSE at baseline (r = -0.321, P = 0.034). A multiple regression analysis revealed that change in TUG was independently associated with attendance rate (β = -0.322, P = 0.026) and MMSE score (β = -0.295, P = 0.041), controlling for age and gender. General cognitive function was associated with improvements in physical performance after exercise intervention in subjects with mild cognitive impairment. Further research is needed to examine the effects of exercise programs designed to address cognitive obstacles in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

  15. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene Val66Met polymorphism affects memory performance in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeredo, Lucas A de; De Nardi, Tatiana; Levandowski, Mateus L; Tractenberg, Saulo G; Kommers-Molina, Julia; Wieck, Andrea; Irigaray, Tatiana Q; Silva, Irênio G da; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    Memory impairment is an important contributor to the reduction in quality of life experienced by older adults, and genetic risk factors seem to contribute to variance in age-related cognitive decline. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an important nerve growth factor linked with development and neural plasticity. The Val66Met polymorphism in the BDNF gene has been associated with impaired episodic memory in adults, but whether this functional variant plays a role in cognitive aging remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism on memory performance in a sample of elderly adults. Eighty-seven subjects aged > 55 years were recruited using a community-based convenience sampling strategy in Porto Alegre, Brazil. The logical memory subset of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised was used to assess immediate verbal recall (IVR), delayed verbal recall (DVR), and memory retention rate. BDNF Met allele carriers had lower DVR scores (p = 0.004) and a decline in memory retention (p = 0.017) when compared to Val/Val homozygotes. However, we found no significant differences in IVR between the two groups (p = 0.088). These results support the hypothesis of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism as a risk factor associated with cognitive impairment, corroborating previous findings in young and older adults.

  16. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF gene Val66Met polymorphism affects memory performance in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas A. de Azeredo

    Full Text Available Objective: Memory impairment is an important contributor to the reduction in quality of life experienced by older adults, and genetic risk factors seem to contribute to variance in age-related cognitive decline. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is an important nerve growth factor linked with development and neural plasticity. The Val66Met polymorphism in the BDNF gene has been associated with impaired episodic memory in adults, but whether this functional variant plays a role in cognitive aging remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism on memory performance in a sample of elderly adults. Methods: Eighty-seven subjects aged > 55 years were recruited using a community-based convenience sampling strategy in Porto Alegre, Brazil. The logical memory subset of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised was used to assess immediate verbal recall (IVR, delayed verbal recall (DVR, and memory retention rate. Results: BDNF Met allele carriers had lower DVR scores (p = 0.004 and a decline in memory retention (p = 0.017 when compared to Val/Val homozygotes. However, we found no significant differences in IVR between the two groups (p = 0.088. Conclusion: These results support the hypothesis of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism as a risk factor associated with cognitive impairment, corroborating previous findings in young and older adults.

  17. Cognitive function affects trainability for physical performance in exercise intervention among older adults with mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uemura K

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Kazuki Uemura,1,3 Hiroyuki Shimada,1 Hyuma Makizako,1,3 Takehiko Doi,1 Daisuke Yoshida,1 Kota Tsutsumimoto,1 Yuya Anan,1 Takao Suzuki21Section for Health Promotion, Department for Research and Development to Support Independent Life of Elderly, Center for Gerontology and Social Science, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, 2Research Institute, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Aichi, 3Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, JapanBackground: Although much evidence supports the hypothesis that cognitive function and physical function are interrelated, it is unclear whether cognitive decline with mild cognitive impairment influences trainability of physical performance in exercise intervention. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between cognitive function at baseline and change in physical performance after exercise intervention in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.Methods: Forty-four older adults diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment based on the Peterson criteria (mean age 74.8 years consented to and completed a 6-month twice weekly exercise intervention. The Timed Up and Go (TUG test was used as a measure of physical performance. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, Trail Making Test Part B, Geriatric Depression Scale, baseline muscle strength of knee extension, and attendance rate of intervention, were measured as factors for predicting trainability.Results: In the correlation analysis, the change in TUG showed modest correlations with attendance rate in the exercise program (r = -0.354, P = 0.027 and MMSE at baseline (r = -0.321, P = 0.034. A multiple regression analysis revealed that change in TUG was independently associated with attendance rate (ß = -0.322, P = 0.026 and MMSE score (ß = -0.295, P = 0.041, controlling for age and gender.Conclusion: General cognitive function was associated with improvements in physical performance after exercise intervention in

  18. Intraindividual variability in cognitive performance in three groups of older adults: cross-domain links to physical status and self-perceived affect and beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Esther; MacDonald, Stuart W S; Hunter, Michael; Moll, Alex; Hultsch, David F

    2002-11-01

    Intraindividual variability of physical status and affect/beliefs as well as their relations with cognition were examined in 3 groups of older adults: healthy elderly, individuals with a nonneurological health-related disturbance (arthritis) and people with neurological compromise (dementia). The findings showed that greater inconsistency in physical performance was observed in groups characterized by central nervous system dysfunction. By contrast, fluctuations in affect appeared to reflect other more transient sources, such as pain. In general, increased inconsistency in non-cognitive domains was associated with poorer cognitive function. There were cross-domain links between inconsistency in physical functioning and fluctuations in cognitive performance, although the nature of the links depended largely upon the neurological status of the individuals. Considered together, the result indicated that measures of cognitive as well as physical variability are important behavioral markers of neurological integrity.

  19. CASP-19 special section: how does chronic disease status affect CASP quality of life at older ages? Examining the WHO ICF disability domains as mediators of this relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, E; King-Kallimanis, B L; Layte, R; Hickey, A

    2015-07-01

    The effect of chronic disease status on quality of life (QoL) has been well established. However, less is known about how chronic diseases affect QoL. This article examines impairment in three domains of the WHO International Classification of Functioning, Health and Disability (ICF) - body function, activity and participation, as well as affective well-being, - as potential mediators of the relationship between chronic disease and QoL. A cross-sectional sample (n = 4961) of the general Irish community-dwelling population aged 50+ years was obtained from the Irish Longitudinal Study of Ageing (TILDA). The CASP measure of QoL was examined as two dimensions - control/autonomy and self-realisation/pleasure. Structural equation modelling was used to test the direct and indirect effects of chronic disease on QoL, via variables capturing body function, activity, participation and positive affect. A factor analysis showed that indicators of body function and activity loaded onto a single overall physical impairment factor. This physical impairment factor fully mediated the effect of chronic disease on positive affect and QoL. The total effect of chronic disease on control/autonomy (-0.160) was primarily composed of an indirect effect via physical impairment (-0.86), and via physical impairment and positive affect (-0.45). The decomposition of effects on self-realisation/pleasure was similar, although the direct effect of physical impairment was weaker. The model fitted the data well (RMSEA = 0.02, TLI = 0.96, CFI = 0.96). Chronic disease affects QoL through increased deficits in physical body function and activity. This overall physical impairment affects QoL both directly and indirectly via reduced positive affect.

  20. Primarily Experimental Results for a W Wire Array Z Pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuai Bin; Aici, Qiu; Wang Liangping; Zeng Zhengzhong; Wang Wensheng; Cong Peitian; Gai Tongyang; Wei Fuli; Guo Ning; Zhang Zhong

    2006-01-01

    Primarily experimental results are given for a W wire array Z pinch imploded with up to 2 MA in 100 ns on a Qiangguang-I pulsed power generator. The configuration and parameters of the generator, the W wire array load assembly and the diagnostic system for the experiment are described. The total X-ray energy has been obtained with a averaged power of X-ray radiation of 1.28 TW

  1. Can memory training positively affect the skills of learning a foreign language and support learning English by older students?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Kozak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment covered in this paper was conducted from November 2011 until February 2012 in the University of Third Age at the University of Wrocław in Poland as a part of the Third Age and New Technologies (TANT project which was realised as a Grundtvig partnership programme. The aim of the experiment was to determine whether memory training can positively affect learning a foreign language (English by senior students.

  2. Considering an Affect Regulation Framework for Examining the Association Between Body Dissatisfaction and Positive Body Image in Black Older Adolescent Females: Does Body Mass Index Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study provided an initial evaluation of an affect regulation model describing the association between body dissatisfaction and two contemporary measures of positive body image among 247 Black college-bound older adolescent females. We further tested whether possessing a higher body mass index (BMI) would strengthen these associations. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI. Respondents also completed a culturally-sensitive figure rating scale along with assessments of body appreciation and body image flexibility. Results indicated a robust positive association between the two measures of positive body image; BMI was the strongest predictor of both body appreciation and body image flexibility with body size discrepancy (current minus ideal) contributing incremental variance to both models tested. Implications for improving our understanding of the association between positive and negative body image and bolstering positive body image to promote health-protective behaviors among Black young women at this developmental juncture are discussed. PMID:25079011

  3. Factors affecting the physical and mental health of older adults in China: The importance of marital status, child proximity, and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindy Williams

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is accumulating about the association between strong family ties and the emotional and physical welfare of older adults, and researchers have identified negative consequences of being unmarried, being childless, and/or living alone. These associations have been recognized in multiple contexts, including in Asia where living with a spouse and/or grown children has been shown in some studies to improve elderly well-being. Social support, especially family support, is expected to continue to be important where populations are aging and social safety nets are weak. Using longitudinal data from the 2010 and 2012 waves of the China Family Panel Studies, we focus on the effects of marital status at times 1 and 2, changes in marital status between the two surveys, and other family-related indicators of social connectedness on ratings of depression, levels of life satisfaction, and self-reported physical health among those aged 50 and over. Our sample includes 9831 respondents who have valid data on wellbeing indicators for Wave 1 and Wave 2, as well as complete information on the other covariates controlled in our analysis. In analyses of the full sample, those who were married at both points in time reported lower depression scores than those who were never-married, divorced, or widowed at both time points, and those whose unions dissolved in the interval. Those who were married at both times also generally reported greater levels of life satisfaction than those who were never married at both time points and those who became divorced during the interval. Important underlying gender differences are observed both for life satisfaction and depression. In addition, those who were married at both time points reported being in better physical health than those who became widowed during the interval (significant primarily for women, and those who had never been married (significant primarily for men. Our study contributes to the literature on social

  4. Factors affecting the physical and mental health of older adults in China: The importance of marital status, child proximity, and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lindy; Zhang, Renling; Packard, Kevin C

    2017-12-01

    Evidence is accumulating about the association between strong family ties and the emotional and physical welfare of older adults, and researchers have identified negative consequences of being unmarried, being childless, and/or living alone. These associations have been recognized in multiple contexts, including in Asia where living with a spouse and/or grown children has been shown in some studies to improve elderly well-being. Social support, especially family support, is expected to continue to be important where populations are aging and social safety nets are weak. Using longitudinal data from the 2010 and 2012 waves of the China Family Panel Studies, we focus on the effects of marital status at times 1 and 2, changes in marital status between the two surveys, and other family-related indicators of social connectedness on ratings of depression, levels of life satisfaction, and self-reported physical health among those aged 50 and over. Our sample includes 9831 respondents who have valid data on wellbeing indicators for Wave 1 and Wave 2, as well as complete information on the other covariates controlled in our analysis. In analyses of the full sample, those who were married at both points in time reported lower depression scores than those who were never-married, divorced, or widowed at both time points, and those whose unions dissolved in the interval. Those who were married at both times also generally reported greater levels of life satisfaction than those who were never married at both time points and those who became divorced during the interval. Important underlying gender differences are observed both for life satisfaction and depression. In addition, those who were married at both time points reported being in better physical health than those who became widowed during the interval (significant primarily for women), and those who had never been married (significant primarily for men). Our study contributes to the literature on social ties and the

  5. Parasites Affect Food Web Structure Primarily through Increased Diversity and Complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunne, J.A.; Lafferty, K.D.; Dobson, A.P.; Hechinger, R.F.; Kuris, A.M.; Martinez, N.D.; McLaughlin, J.P.; Mouritsen, K.N.; Poulin, R.; Reise, K.; Stouffer, D.B.; Thieltges, D.W.; Williams, R.J.; Zander, C.D.

    2013-01-01

    Comparative research on food web structure has revealed generalities in trophic organization, produced simple models, and allowed assessment of robustness to species loss. These studies have mostly focused on free-living species. Recent research has suggested that inclusion of parasites alters

  6. Parasites affect food web structure primarily through increased diversity and complexity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A Dunne

    Full Text Available Comparative research on food web structure has revealed generalities in trophic organization, produced simple models, and allowed assessment of robustness to species loss. These studies have mostly focused on free-living species. Recent research has suggested that inclusion of parasites alters structure. We assess whether such changes in network structure result from unique roles and traits of parasites or from changes to diversity and complexity. We analyzed seven highly resolved food webs that include metazoan parasite data. Our analyses show that adding parasites usually increases link density and connectance (simple measures of complexity, particularly when including concomitant links (links from predators to parasites of their prey. However, we clarify prior claims that parasites "dominate" food web links. Although parasites can be involved in a majority of links, in most cases classic predation links outnumber classic parasitism links. Regarding network structure, observed changes in degree distributions, 14 commonly studied metrics, and link probabilities are consistent with scale-dependent changes in structure associated with changes in diversity and complexity. Parasite and free-living species thus have similar effects on these aspects of structure. However, two changes point to unique roles of parasites. First, adding parasites and concomitant links strongly alters the frequency of most motifs of interactions among three taxa, reflecting parasites' roles as resources for predators of their hosts, driven by trophic intimacy with their hosts. Second, compared to free-living consumers, many parasites' feeding niches appear broader and less contiguous, which may reflect complex life cycles and small body sizes. This study provides new insights about generic versus unique impacts of parasites on food web structure, extends the generality of food web theory, gives a more rigorous framework for assessing the impact of any species on trophic organization, identifies limitations of current food web models, and provides direction for future structural and dynamical models.

  7. Human punishment is not primarily motivated by inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczyk, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    Previous theorizing about punishment has suggested that humans desire to punish inequality per se. However, the research supporting such an interpretation contains important methodological confounds. The main objective of the current experiment was to remove those confounds in order to test whether generating inequality per se is punished. Participants were recruited from an online market to take part in a wealth-alteration game with an ostensible second player. The participants were given an option to deduct from the other player's payment as punishment for their behavior during the game. The results suggest that human punishment does not appear to be motivated by inequality per se, as inequality that was generated without inflicting costs on others was not reliably punished. Instead, punishment seems to respond primarily to the infliction of costs, with inequality only becoming relevant as a secondary input for punishment decisions. The theoretical significance of this finding is discussed in the context of its possible adaptive value.

  8. Human punishment is not primarily motivated by inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczyk, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    Previous theorizing about punishment has suggested that humans desire to punish inequality per se. However, the research supporting such an interpretation contains important methodological confounds. The main objective of the current experiment was to remove those confounds in order to test whether generating inequality per se is punished. Participants were recruited from an online market to take part in a wealth-alteration game with an ostensible second player. The participants were given an option to deduct from the other player’s payment as punishment for their behavior during the game. The results suggest that human punishment does not appear to be motivated by inequality per se, as inequality that was generated without inflicting costs on others was not reliably punished. Instead, punishment seems to respond primarily to the infliction of costs, with inequality only becoming relevant as a secondary input for punishment decisions. The theoretical significance of this finding is discussed in the context of its possible adaptive value. PMID:28187166

  9. Human punishment is not primarily motivated by inequality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Marczyk

    Full Text Available Previous theorizing about punishment has suggested that humans desire to punish inequality per se. However, the research supporting such an interpretation contains important methodological confounds. The main objective of the current experiment was to remove those confounds in order to test whether generating inequality per se is punished. Participants were recruited from an online market to take part in a wealth-alteration game with an ostensible second player. The participants were given an option to deduct from the other player's payment as punishment for their behavior during the game. The results suggest that human punishment does not appear to be motivated by inequality per se, as inequality that was generated without inflicting costs on others was not reliably punished. Instead, punishment seems to respond primarily to the infliction of costs, with inequality only becoming relevant as a secondary input for punishment decisions. The theoretical significance of this finding is discussed in the context of its possible adaptive value.

  10. Short-term testosterone manipulations do not affect cognition or motor function but differentially modulate emotions in young and older male rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brian; Maguire-Herring, Vanessa; Rose, Christian M; Gore, Heather E; Ferrigno, Stephen; Novak, Melinda A; Lacreuse, Agnès

    2014-11-01

    Human aging is characterized by declines in cognition and fine motor function as well as improved emotional regulation. In men, declining levels of testosterone (T) with age have been implicated in the development of these age-related changes. However, studies examining the effects of T replacement on cognition, emotion and fine motor function in older men have not provided consistent results. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) are excellent models for human cognitive aging and may provide novel insights on this issue. We tested 10 aged intact male rhesus monkeys (mean age=19, range 15-25) on a battery of cognitive, motor and emotional tasks at baseline and under low or high T experimental conditions. Their performance was compared to that of 6 young males previously tested in the same paradigm (Lacreuse et al., 2009; Lacreuse et al., 2010). Following a 4-week baseline testing period, monkeys were treated with a gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist (Depot Lupron, 200 μg/kg) to suppress endogenous T and were tested on the task battery under a 4-week high T condition (injection of Lupron+T enanthate, 20 mg/kg, n=8) or 4-week low T condition (injection of Lupron+oil vehicle, n=8) before crossing over to the opposite treatment. The cognitive tasks consisted of the Delayed Non-Matching-to-Sample (DNMS), the Delayed Response (DR), and the Delayed Recognition Span Test (spatial-DRST). The emotional tasks included an object Approach-Avoidance task and a task in which monkeys were played videos of unfamiliar conspecifics in different emotional context (Social Playbacks). The fine motor task was the Lifesaver task that required monkeys to remove a Lifesaver candy from rods of different complexity. T manipulations did not significantly affect visual recognition memory, working memory, reference memory or fine motor function at any age. In the Approach-Avoidance task, older monkeys, but not younger monkeys, spent more time in proximity of novel objects in the high T condition

  11. Inappropriate pharmacological treatment in older adults affected by cardiovascular disease and other chronic comorbidities: a systematic literature review to identify potentially inappropriate prescription indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucenteforte E

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ersilia Lucenteforte,1 Niccolò Lombardi,1,* Davide Liborio Vetrano,2,* Domenico La Carpia,2,* Zuzana Mitrova,3 Ursula Kirchmayer,3 Giovanni Corrao,4 Francesco Lapi,5 Alessandro Mugelli,1 Alfredo Vannacci1 On behalf of the Italian Group for Appropriate Drug prescription in the Elderly (I-GrADE 1Department of Neurosciences, Psychology, Drug Research and Child Health (NEUROFARBA, University of Florence, Florence, Italy; 2Department of Geriatrics Catholic University, Rome, Italy; 3Department of Epidemiology, ASL 1 Rome, Italy; 4Department of Statistics and Quantitative Methods, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milan, Italy; 5Epidemiology Unit, ARS Toscana, Florence, Italy *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Avoiding medications in which the risks outweigh the benefits in the elderly patient is a challenge for physicians, and different criteria to identify inappropriate prescription (IP exist to aid prescribers. Definition of IP indicators in the Italian geriatric population affected by cardiovascular disease and chronic comorbidities could be extremely useful for prescribers and could offer advantages from a public health perspective. The purpose of the present study was to identify IP indicators by means of a systematic literature review coupled with consensus criteria. A systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE, and CENTRAL databases was conducted, with the search structured around four themes and combining each with the Boolean operator “and”. The first regarded “prescriptions”, the second “adverse events”, the third “cardiovascular conditions”, and the last was planned to identify studies on “older people”. Two investigators independently reviewed titles, abstracts, full texts, and selected articles addressing IP in the elderly affected by cardiovascular condition using the following inclusion criteria: studies on people aged ≥65 years; studies on patients with no restriction on age but with data on subjects

  12. Smoking and Older Adults

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-27

    This podcast discusses the importance of older adults quitting smoking and other tobacco products. It is primarily targeted to public health and aging services professionals.  Created: 10/27/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/20/2008.

  13. Whole-body electromyostimulation and protein supplementation favorably affect sarcopenic obesity in community-dwelling older men at risk: the randomized controlled FranSO study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemmler W

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Wolfgang Kemmler,1 Anja Weissenfels,1 Marc Teschler,1 Sebastian Willert,1 Michael Bebenek,1 Mahdieh Shojaa,1 Matthias Kohl,2 Ellen Freiberger,3 Cornel Sieber,3 Simon von Stengel1 1Institute of Medical Physics, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany; 2Faculty of Medical and Life Science, University of Furtwangen, Schwenningen, Germany; 3Institute of Biomedicine of Aging, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Nürnberg, Germany Background: Sarcopenic obesity (SO is a geriatric syndrome characterized by the disproportion between the amount of lean mass and fat mass. Exercise decreases fat and maintains muscle mass; however, older people fail to exercise at doses sufficient to affect musculoskeletal and cardiometabolic risk factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS, a time-efficient, joint-friendly and highly individualized exercise technology, on sarcopenia and SO in older men. Materials and methods: A total of 100 community-dwelling northern Bavarian men aged ≥70 years with sarcopenia and obesity were randomly (1–1–1 assigned to either 16 weeks of 1 WB-EMS and protein supplementation (WB-EMS&P, 2 isolated protein supplementation or 3 nonintervention control. WB-EMS consisted of 1.5×20 min (85 Hz, 350 µs, 4 s of strain to 4 s of rest applied with moderate-to-high intensity while moving. We further generated a daily protein intake of 1.7–1.8 g/kg/body mass per day. The primary study end point was Sarcopenia Z-Score, and the secondary study end points were body fat rate (%, skeletal muscle mass index (SMI and handgrip strength. Results: Intention-to-treat analysis determined a significantly favorable effect of WB-EMS&P (P<0.001 and protein (P=0.007 vs control. Both groups significantly (P<0.001 lost body fat (WB-EMS&P: 2.1%; protein: 1.1% and differed significantly (P≤0.004 from control (0.3%. Differences between WB

  14. Dietary Vitamin C, E and β-Carotene Intake Does Not Significantly Affect Plasma or Salivary Antioxidant Indices and Salivary C-Reactive Protein in Older Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawron-Skarbek, Anna; Guligowska, Agnieszka; Prymont-Przymińska, Anna; Godala, Małgorzata; Kolmaga, Agnieszka; Nowak, Dariusz; Szatko, Franciszek; Kostka, Tomasz

    2017-07-09

    It is not clear whether habitual dietary intake influences the antioxidant or inflammatory status. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of antioxidative vitamins C, E, and β-carotene obtained from daily food rations on plasma and salivary Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC), uric acid and salivary C-reactive protein (CRP). The study involved 80 older subjects (66.9 ± 4.3 years), divided into two groups: group 1 ( n = 43) with lower and group 2 ( n = 37) with higher combined vitamins C, E and β-carotene intake. A 24-h dietary recall was obtained from each individual. TAC was assessed simultaneously with two methods in plasma (Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma-FRAP, 2.2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-DPPH) and in saliva (FRAS and DPPHS test). Lower vitamin C intake corresponded to higher FRAS. There were no other correlations between vitamins C, E or β-carotene intake and antioxidant indices. Salivary CRP was not related to any antioxidant indices. FRAS was decreased in group 2 ( p < 0.01) but no other group differences for salivary or for plasma antioxidant parameters and salivary CRP were found. Habitual, not extra supplemented dietary intake does not significantly affect plasma or salivary TAC and salivary CRP.

  15. Considering an affect regulation framework for examining the association between body dissatisfaction and positive body image in Black older adolescent females: does body mass index matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jennifer B; Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A

    2014-09-01

    The present study provided an initial evaluation of an affect regulation model describing the association between body dissatisfaction and two contemporary measures of positive body image among 247 Black college-bound older adolescent females. We further tested whether possessing a higher body mass index (BMI) would strengthen these associations. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI. Respondents also completed a culturally-sensitive figure rating scale along with assessments of body appreciation and body image flexibility. Results indicated a robust positive association between the two measures of positive body image; BMI was the strongest predictor of both body appreciation and body image flexibility with body size discrepancy (current minus ideal) contributing incremental variance to both models tested. Implications for improving our understanding of the association between positive and negative body image and bolstering positive body image to promote health-protective behaviors among Black young women at this developmental juncture are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Do bonding and bridging social capital affect self-rated health, depressive mood and cognitive decline in older Japanese? A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Hiroshi; Nishi, Mariko; Matsuo, Eri; Nofuji, Yu; Shimizu, Yumiko; Taniguchi, Yu; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Shinkai, Shoji

    2013-12-01

    Little is known regarding the longitudinal effects of bonding and bridging social capital on health. This study examined the longitudinal associations of bonding and bridging social capital with self-rated health, depressive mood, and cognitive decline in community-dwelling older Japanese. Data analyzed in this study were from the 2010 (baseline) and 2012 (follow-up) Hatoyama Cohort Study. Bonding social capital was assessed by individual perception of homogeneity of the neighborhood (the level of homogeneity among neighbors) and of networks (the amount of homogeneous personal networks) in relation to age, gender, and socioeconomic status. Bridging social capital was assessed by individual perception of heterogeneity of networks (the amount of heterogeneous personal networks) in relation to age, gender, and socioeconomic status. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate the effects of baseline social capital on poor health outcome at follow-up by logistic regression analysis. In total, 681 people completed baseline and follow-up surveys. The mean age of participants was 71.8 ± 5.1 years, and 57.9% were male. After adjusting for sociodemographics, lifestyle factors, comorbidity, functional capacity, baseline score of each outcome, and other bonding/bridging social capital, stronger perceived neighborhood homogeneity was inversely associated with poor self-rated health (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.30-1.00) and depressive mood assessed by the Geriatric Depression Scale (OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.34-0.99). When participants who reported a depressive mood at baseline were excluded, stronger perceived heterogeneous network was inversely associated with depressive mood (OR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.19-0.87). Neither bonding nor bridging social capital was significantly associated with cognitive decline assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination. In conclusion, bonding and bridging social capital affect health in different ways, but they both have

  17. A change in social activity affect cognitive function in middle-aged and older Koreans: analysis of a Korean longitudinal study on aging (2006-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young; Park, Sohee; Cho, Kyoung Hee; Chun, Sung-Youn; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2016-08-01

    To examine the association between a changes in social activity and cognitive function in Koreans aged 45 years or older. Data were obtained from 6076 participants aged 45 years and older included in the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (2006-2012). Cognitive function was measured using the mini-mental state examination-Korean version (MMSE-K). Participation in social activities was classified as "consistent participation," "consistent non-participation," "participation to non-participation," and "non-participation to participation." Linear mixed models were used to investigate the relationship between type of social activity (religious organizations, friendship organizations, leisure/culture/sports clubs, family or school reunion, volunteering work, and political organizations), and cognitive function. Individuals who reported "no participation to participation" (b = 0.778, p cognitive decline than those who reported "consistent non-participation" (p cognitive function and consistent participation in religious activities, friendship organizations, and family/school reunions was particularly strong (b = 0.325, p older persons) may help preserve cognitive function in individuals aged 45 years or older in Korea. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Pre-meal inulin consumption does not affect acute energy intake in overweight and obese middle-aged and older adults: A randomized controlled crossover pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiljanec, Katarina; Mitchell, Cassie M; Privitera, Olivia F; Neilson, Andrew P; Davy, Kevin P; Davy, Brenda M

    2017-06-01

    Three-fourths of adults older than 55 years in the United States are overweight or obese. Prebiotics including inulin-type fructans may benefit with weight management. We aimed to investigate the acute effects of pre-meal inulin consumption on energy intake (EI) and appetite in older adults. Sedentary, overweight or obese middle-aged and older adults ( n = 7, 60.9 ± 4.4 years, BMI 32.9 ± 4.3 kg/m 2 ) ingested inulin (10 g) or a water preload before each test period in a randomly assigned order. EI, appetite and gastrointestinal symptoms were monitored during the following 24 h. No differences in EI were noted between conditions (inulin: 14744 ± 5552 kJ, control: 13924 ± 4904 kJ, p > 0.05). Rumbling was increased with inulin consumption ( p inulin consumption does not acutely decrease EI or suppress appetite in older adults. Further research should address individual differences among diets, eating behaviors, and microbiota profiles.

  19. PTSD, food addiction, and disordered eating in a sample of primarily older veterans: The mediating role of emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Karen S; Wolf, Erika J

    2016-09-30

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with eating disorders (EDs) and addictive behaviors, including the relatively new construct food addiction. However, few studies have investigated mechanisms that account for these associations, and men are underrepresented in studies of EDs and food addiction. We examined whether lifetime PTSD symptoms were associated with current food addiction and ED symptoms, and whether emotion regulation (expressive suppression and cognitive reappraisal), which has been associated with both PTSD and EDs, mediated these relations, in a sample of trauma-exposed, male (n=642) and female (n=55) veterans. Participants were recruited from the Knowledge Networks-GfK Research Panel and completed an online questionnaire. Structural equation modeling revealed that PTSD was directly associated with ED symptoms, food addiction, expressive suppression, and cognitive reappraisal in the full sample and with all constructs except cognitive reappraisal in the male subsample. Expressive suppression was significantly associated with ED symptoms and mediated the PTSD-ED relation. These results highlight the importance of investigating PTSD as a risk factor for food addiction and ED symptoms and the potential mediating role of emotion regulation in the development of PTSD and EDs in order to identify targets for treatments. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. Temporal integration of loudness in listeners with hearing losses of primarily cochlear origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Søren; Florentine, Mary; Poulsen, Torben

    1999-01-01

    To investigate how hearing loss of primarily cochlear origin affects the loudness of brief tones, loudness matches between 5- and 200-ms tones were obtained as a function of level for 15 listeners with cochlear impairments and for seven age-matched controls. Three frequencies, usually 0.5, 1, and 4...... of temporal integration—defined as the level difference between equally loud short and long tones—varied nonmonotonically with level and was largest at moderate levels. No consistent effect of frequency was apparent. The impaired listeners varied widely, but most showed a clear effect of level on the amount...... of temporal integration. Overall, their results appear consistent with expectations based on knowledge of the general properties of their loudness-growth functions and the equal-loudness-ratio hypothesis, which states that the loudness ratio between equal-SPL long and brief tones is the same at all SPLs...

  1. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) serum basal levels is not affected by power training in mobility-limited older adults - A randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Lars G; Nielsen, Martin KF; Simonsen, Casper

    2017-01-01

    high extent, it may be particularly effective in terms of eliciting increases in systemic BDNF levels. We examined the effects of 12 weeks of power training on mature BDNF (mBDNF) and total BDNF (tBDNF) in mobility-limited older adults from the Healthy Ageing Network of Competence (HANC) study. We......Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a potential important factor involved in neuroplasticity, and may be a mediator for eliciting adaptations in neuromuscular function and physical function in older individuals following physical training. As power training taxes the neural system to a very...... included 47 older men and women: n = 22 in the training group (TG: progressive high intensity power training, 2 sessions per week; age 82.7 ± 5.4 years, 55% women) and n = 25 in the control group (CG: no interventions; age 82.2 ± 4.5 years, 76% women). Following overnight fasting, basal serum levels of m...

  2. Oral Health and Older Adults

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-27

    This podcast discusses the importance of older adults maintaing good oral health habits. It is primarily targeted to public health and aging services professionals.  Created: 10/27/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/27/2008.

  3. Why older nurses leave the workforce and the implications of them staying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Christine; Graham, Elizabeth; Donoghue, Judith; Griffiths, Rhonda; Bichel-Findlay, Jen; Dimitrelis, Sofia

    2015-03-01

    To identify factors that motivate older nurses to leave the workforce. As many older nurses are now reaching retirement age and will be eligible for government-funded pensions, governments are concerned about the impending financial burden. To prepare for this scenario, many are looking at increasing the age of retirement to 67 or 70 years. Little is known about how this will affect the continuing employment of older nurses and the consequences for employers and the nurses themselves if they remain longer in the workforce. Prospective randomised quantitative survey study. The Mature Age Workers Questionnaire, Job Descriptive Index and Job in General Scale were used to measure job satisfaction, intention to retire and factors encouraging retirement in registered nurses aged 45 years and over (n = 352) in Australia (July-August 2007). There were 319 respondents. The mean age proposed for leaving the workforce was 61·7 years. Key motivators were: financial considerations (40·1%), primarily financial security; nurse health (17·4%) and retirement age of partner (13·3%). Older nurses are leaving the workforce prior to retirement or pension age, primarily for financial, social and health reasons, taking with them significant experience and knowledge. As financial considerations are important in older nurses decisions to continue to work, increasing the age of retirement may retain them. However, consideration will need to be given to ensure that they continue to experience job satisfaction and are physically and mentally able to undertake demanding work. Increasing retirement age may retain older nurses in the workforce, however, the impact on the health of older nurses is not known, nor is the impact for employers of older nurses continuing to work known. Employers must facilitate workplace changes to accommodate older nurses. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Thyroid Function Variations Within the Reference Range Do Not Affect Quality of Life, Mood, or Cognitive Function in Community-Dwelling Older Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Mary H; Kaimal, Rajani; Waring, Avantika; Fink, Howard A; Yaffe, Kristine; Hoffman, Andrew R; Orwoll, Eric; Bauer, Douglas

    2016-09-01

    Variations in thyroid function within the laboratory reference range have been associated with a number of clinical outcomes. However, quality of life, mood, and cognitive function have not been extensively studied, and it is not clear whether mild variations in thyroid function have major effects on these neurocognitive outcomes. Data were analyzed from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study, a cohort of community-dwelling men aged 65 years and older in the United States. A total of 539 participants who were not taking thyroid medications and had age-adjusted TSH levels within the reference range underwent detailed testing of quality of life, mood, and cognitive function at baseline. The same quality of life, mood, and cognitive outcomes were measured again in 193 of the men after a mean follow-up of 6 years. Outcomes were analyzed using thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) levels as continuous independent variables, adjusting for relevant covariates. At baseline, there were no associations between TSH or FT4 levels and measures of quality of life, mood, or cognition in the 539 euthyroid men. Baseline thyroid function did not predict changes in these outcomes over a mean of 6 years in the 193 men in the longitudinal analysis. Variations in thyroid function within the age-adjusted laboratory reference range are not associated with variations in quality of life, mood, or cognitive function in community-dwelling older men.

  5. Cognitive assessment of older people

    OpenAIRE

    Young, John; Meagher, David; MacLullich, Alasdair J

    2011-01-01

    peer-reviewed Cognitive assessment involves examination of higher cortical functions, particularly memory, attention, orientation, language, executive function (planning activities), and praxis (sequencing of activities). This article will focus on cognitive assessment of older people (those aged over about 65 years) in the context of possible dementia, delirium, and depression. These are common and serious clinical syndromes affecting older people, and accurate cognit...

  6. Efficient transfection of DNA into primarily cultured rat sertoli cells by electroporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fuping; Yamaguchi, Kohei; Okada, Keisuke; Matsushita, Kei; Enatsu, Noritoshi; Chiba, Koji; Yue, Huanxun; Fujisawa, Masato

    2013-03-01

    The expression of exogenous DNA in Sertoli cells is essential for studying its functional genomics, pathway analysis, and medical applications. Electroporation is a valuable tool for nucleic acid delivery, even in primarily cultured cells, which are considered difficult to transfect. In this study, we developed an optimized protocol for electroporation-based transfection of Sertoli cells and compared its efficiency with conventional lipofection. Sertoli cells were transfected with pCMV-GFP plasmid by square-wave electroporation under different conditions. After transfection of plasmid into Sertoli cells, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expression could be easily detected by fluorescent microscopy, and cell survival was evaluated by dye exclusion assay using Trypan blue. In terms of both cell survival and the percentage expressing EGFP, 250 V was determined to produce the greatest number of transiently transfected cells. Keeping the voltage constant (250 V), relatively high cell survival (76.5% ± 3.4%) and transfection efficiency (30.6% ± 5.6%) were observed with a pulse length of 20 μm. The number of pulses significantly affected cell survival and EGFP expression (P transfection methods, the transfection efficiency of electroporation (21.5% ± 5.7%) was significantly higher than those of Lipofectamine 2000 (2.9% ± 1.0%) and Effectene (1.9% ± 0.8%) in this experiment (P transfection of Sertoli cells.

  7. Identification of a novel CoA synthase isoform, which is primarily expressed in Brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemazanyy, Ivan; Panasyuk, Ganna; Breus, Oksana; Zhyvoloup, Alexander; Filonenko, Valeriy; Gout, Ivan T.

    2006-01-01

    CoA and its derivatives Acetyl-CoA and Acyl-CoA are important players in cellular metabolism and signal transduction. CoA synthase is a bifunctional enzyme which mediates the final stages of CoA biosynthesis. In previous studies, we have reported molecular cloning, biochemical characterization, and subcellular localization of CoA synthase (CoASy). Here, we describe the existence of a novel CoA synthase isoform, which is the product of alternative splicing and possesses a 29aa extension at the N-terminus. We termed it CoASy β and originally identified CoA synthase, CoASy α. The transcript specific for CoASy β was identified by electronic screening and by RT-PCR analysis of various rat tissues. The existence of this novel isoform was further confirmed by immunoblot analysis with antibodies directed to the N-terminal peptide of CoASy β. In contrast to CoASy α, which shows ubiquitous expression, CoASy β is primarily expressed in Brain. Using confocal microscopy, we demonstrated that both isoforms are localized on mitochondria. The N-terminal extension does not affect the activity of CoA synthase, but possesses a proline-rich sequence which can bring the enzyme into complexes with signalling proteins containing SH3 or WW domains. The role of this novel isoform in CoA biosynthesis, especially in Brain, requires further elucidation

  8. Measuring positive and negative affect in older adults over 56 days: comparing trait level scoring methods using the partial credit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbacher, Monica K; Schmidt, Karen M; Boker, Steven M; Bergeman, Cindy S

    2012-01-01

    Positive (PA) and negative affect (NA) are important constructs in health and well-being research. Good longitudinal measurement is crucial to conducting meaningful research on relationships between affect, health, and well-being across the lifespan. One common affect measure, the PANAS, has been evaluated thoroughly with factor analysis, but not with Racsh-based latent trait models (RLTMs) such as the Partial Credit Model (PCM), and not longitudinally. Current longitudinal RLTMs can computationally handle few occasions of data. The present study compares four methods of anchoring PCMs across 56 occasions to longitudinally evaluate the psychometric properties of the PANAS plus additional items. Anchoring item parameters on mean parameter values across occasions produced more desirable results than using no anchor, using first occasion parameters as anchors, or allowing anchor values to vary across occasions. Results indicated problems with NA items, including poor category utilization, gaps in the item distribution, and a lack of easy-to-endorse items. PA items had much more desirable psychometric qualities.

  9. Age management in Slovenian enterprises: the viewpoint of older employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Žnidaršič

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this research is to highlight age management within Slovenian enterprises from the viewpoint of older employees by finding out what influences older employees to decide “should I stay or should I go”. The empirical research methodology is based on mixed strategy of approaching organizations (employees, which means that the quantitative (factor analysis, cluster analysis, correlation, regression, descriptive statistics and frequency distributions and qualitative parts (in-depth interviews analysis of research were conducted simultaneously. The results of the research indicate that there are in fact two groups of older employees, which can be referred to as “susceptible” and “insusceptible” in terms of how the employer can affect their decisions. “The unsusceptible” have already decided to retire as soon as possible and they cannot be influenced by any employer measure. On the other hand, “the susceptible” employees are sensitive to employers’ measures aimed at prolonging their working lives. Besides, a regression analysis confirmed a statistically significant correlation between the inclination towards extending one’s employment period and the susceptibility to the employer measures. It can thus be concluded that, through age management measures, an employer has an impact on an extended employment period of older employees. However, employers should be interested primarily in those employees who are inclined towards extending their working lives.

  10. Older workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ybema,J.F.; Giesen, F.

    2014-01-01

    Due to an ageing population and global economic competition, there is a societal need for people to extend their working lives while maintaining high work productivity. This article presents an overview of the labour participation, job performance, and job characteristics of older workers in the

  11. Effective communication with older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Louise

    2017-06-07

    Communication is an essential aspect of life, yet it can be taken for granted. Its centrality to being in the world and in professional practice often becomes evident when nurses and older adults encounter communication difficulties. The factors that can affect nurses' communication with older adults relate to the older adult, the nurse, sociocultural considerations and the environment, and the interactions between these factors. In adopting a person-centred approach to communicating with older adults, it is necessary to get to know the person as an individual and ensure communication meets their needs and abilities. Effective communication is essential in nursing practice and requires professional competence and engagement. This article can be used by nurses to support effective communication with older adults across the continuum of care.

  12. Dehydration in the Older Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Hayley J

    2015-09-01

    Dehydration affects 20% to 30% of older adults. It has a greater negative outcome in this population than in younger adults and increases mortality, morbidity, and disability. Dehydration is often caused by water deprivation in older adults, although excess water loss may also be a cause. Traditional markers for dehydration do not take into consideration many of the physiological differences present in older adults. Clinical assessment of dehydration in older adults poses different findings, yet is not always diagnostic. Treatment of dehydration should focus on prevention and early diagnosis before it negatively effects health and gives rise to comorbidities. The current article discusses what has most thoroughly been studied; the best strategies and assessment tools for evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of dehydration in older adults; and what needs to be researched further. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 41(9), 8-13.]. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Pulmonary hypertension in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArdle, John R; Trow, Terence K; Lerz, Kathryn

    2007-12-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a frequently encountered problem in older patients. True idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension can also be seen and requires careful exclusion in older patients. Institution of therapies must be tempered with an appreciation of individual comorbidities and functional limitations that may affect patients' ability to comply and benefit from the complex treatments available for pulmonary arterial hypertension. This article reviews the existing data on the various forms of pulmonary hypertension presenting in older patients and on appropriate therapy in this challenging population.

  14. 29 CFR 780.607 - “Primarily employed” in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âPrimarily employedâ in agriculture. 780.607 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements...

  15. Sexuality in Older Adults (65+)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Træen, Bente; Hald, Gert Martin; Graham, Cynthia A.

    2017-01-01

    INFO. Results: The review showed that although common biological changes may adversely affect sexual function in old age, sexual experience seems to also be affected by psychological and interpersonal factors. Conclusions: Greater life expectancy and better medical care will result in older individuals......Objectives: The aim of the current article was to provide an overview of literature on sexual function and sexual difficulties in older adults. Method: The authors conducted a narrative review of papers published in English between January 2005 and July 2015 based on an extensive search in Psyc...... with chronic diseases living longer. The need for help to cope with changes in sexual health is likely to increase in older adults, as sexuality may be negatively affected through several pathways....

  16. Emergency Preparedness Concerns for Older Adults

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-01-26

    This podcast discusses the special concerns many older adults face during a disaster. It is primarily targeted to public health and aging services professionals.  Created: 1/26/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP) and Coordinating Office for Terrorism Preparedness and Emergency Response (COTPER).   Date Released: 1/26/2009.

  17. Hydrogen peroxide production is not primarily increased in human myotubes established from type 2 diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minet, A D; Gaster, M

    2011-09-01

    Increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction have been implicated in the development of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. To date, it is unknown whether increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in skeletal muscle from patients with type 2 diabetes is primarily increased or a secondary adaptation to environmental, lifestyle, and hormonal factors. This study investigates whether ROS production is primarily increased in isolated diabetic myotubes. Mitochondrial membrane potential, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), superoxide, and mitochondrial mass were determined in human myotubes precultured under normophysiological conditions. Furthermore, the corresponding ATP synthesis was measured in isolated mitochondria. Muscle biopsies were taken from 10 lean subjects, 10 obese subjects, and 10 subjects with type 2 diabetes; satellite cells were isolated, cultured, and differentiated to myotubes. Mitochondrial mass, membrane potential/mitochondrial mass, and superoxide-production/mitochondrial mass were not different between groups. In contrast, H(2)O(2) production/mitochondrial mass and ATP production were significantly reduced in diabetic myotubes compared to lean controls (P production is not primarily increased in diabetic myotubes but rather is reduced. Moreover, the comparable ATP/H(2)O(2) ratios indicate that the reduced ROS production in diabetic myotubes parallels the reduced ATP production because ROS production in diabetic myotubes must be considered to be in a proportion comparable to lean. Thus, the increased ROS production seen in skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetic patients is an adaptation to the in vivo conditions.

  18. Older Chinese-Australian and Chinese community music engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Sicong

    2017-01-01

    This research study will investigate community music engagement by both Chinese-Australians and Chinese older people at two different older people’s organizations with the aim of exploring the affects of music engagement on older people. The study seeks to explore cultural differences between Chinese-Australian older people and Chinese older people as they relate to their music engagement. The research contentions were that (1) active music engagement can enhance the quality of the life of ol...

  19. Sexuality in Older Adults (65+)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Træen, Bente; Carvalheira, Ana; Kvalem, Ingela Lundin

    2017-01-01

    with their bodies than men, particularly in sexual contexts, older women appear to be less vulnerable to body-related dissatisfaction than younger women. Despite the age-specific dynamics of sexual satisfaction and sexual well-being, which parallel age-related decrease in the frequency of sexual activity, research...... findings from different countries show that substantial proportions of aging men and women are satisfied with their sex life. There is some limited evidence that this proportion may be increasing across cohorts. Gender differences in factors that influence sexual satisfaction among older adults appear...... marginal. Conclusion: Older age can affect sexual satisfaction on individual, interpersonal, and culture-related levels. Future research in older adults' sexuality should focus on sexual well-being in women who are without partners, sexual satisfaction among aging lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender...

  20. Disgust sensitivity is primarily associated with purity-based moral judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagemans, Fieke M A; Brandt, Mark J; Zeelenberg, Marcel

    2018-03-01

    Individual differences in disgust sensitivity are associated with a range of judgments and attitudes related to the moral domain. Some perspectives suggest that the association between disgust sensitivity and moral judgments will be equally strong across all moral domains (i.e., purity, authority, loyalty, care, fairness, and liberty). Other perspectives predict that disgust sensitivity is primarily associated with judgments of specific moral domains (e.g., primarily purity). However, no study has systematically tested if disgust sensitivity is associated with moral judgments of the purity domain specifically, more generally to moral judgments of the binding moral domains, or to moral judgments of all of the moral domains equally. Across 5 studies (total N = 1,104), we find consistent evidence for the notion that disgust sensitivity relates more strongly to moral condemnation of purity-based transgressions (meta-analytic r = .40) than to moral condemnation of transgressions of any of the other domains (range meta-analytic rs: .07-.27). Our findings are in line with predictions from Moral Foundations Theory, which predicts that personality characteristics like disgust sensitivity make people more sensitive to a certain set of moral issues. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Cancer in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Navigating Cancer Care > For Older Adults For Older Adults A full-text transcript is available. More than ... Advanced Cancer For Children For Teens For Young Adults For Older Adults Aging and Cancer Cancer Care Decisions for ...

  2. Older Adults and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS Older Adults A national 2008 survey found that about 40 ... of adults ages 65 and older drink alcohol. Older adults can experience a variety of problems from drinking ...

  3. Direct healthcare costs of selected diseases primarily or partially transmitted by water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, S A; Stockman, L J; Hicks, L A; Garrison, L E; Zhou, F J; Beach, M J

    2012-11-01

    Despite US sanitation advancements, millions of waterborne disease cases occur annually, although the precise burden of disease is not well quantified. Estimating the direct healthcare cost of specific infections would be useful in prioritizing waterborne disease prevention activities. Hospitalization and outpatient visit costs per case and total US hospitalization costs for ten waterborne diseases were calculated using large healthcare claims and hospital discharge databases. The five primarily waterborne diseases in this analysis (giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, Legionnaires' disease, otitis externa, and non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection) were responsible for over 40 000 hospitalizations at a cost of $970 million per year, including at least $430 million in hospitalization costs for Medicaid and Medicare patients. An additional 50 000 hospitalizations for campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, shigellosis, haemolytic uraemic syndrome, and toxoplasmosis cost $860 million annually ($390 million in payments for Medicaid and Medicare patients), a portion of which can be assumed to be due to waterborne transmission.

  4. The Serotonin Transporter Undergoes Constitutive Internalization and Is Primarily Sorted to Late Endosomes and Lysosomal Degradation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbek-Clemmensen, Troels; Bay, Tina; Eriksen, Jacob; Gether, Ulrik; Jørgensen, Trine Nygaard

    2014-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) plays a critical role in regulating serotonin signaling by mediating reuptake of serotonin from the extracellular space. The molecular and cellular mechanisms controlling SERT levels in the membrane remain poorly understood. To study trafficking of the surface resident SERT, two functional epitope-tagged variants were generated. Fusion of a FLAG-tagged one-transmembrane segment protein Tac to the SERT N terminus generated a transporter with an extracellular epitope suited for trafficking studies (TacSERT). Likewise, a construct with an extracellular antibody epitope was generated by introducing an HA (hemagglutinin) tag in the extracellular loop 2 of SERT (HA-SERT). By using TacSERT and HA-SERT in antibody-based internalization assays, we show that SERT undergoes constitutive internalization in a dynamin-dependent manner. Confocal images of constitutively internalized SERT demonstrated that SERT primarily co-localized with the late endosomal/lysosomal marker Rab7, whereas little co-localization was observed with the Rab11, a marker of the “long loop” recycling pathway. This sorting pattern was distinct from that of a prototypical recycling membrane protein, the β2-adrenergic receptor. Furthermore, internalized SERT co-localized with the lysosomal marker LysoTracker and not with transferrin. The sorting pattern was further confirmed by visualizing internalization of SERT using the fluorescent cocaine analog JHC1-64 and by reversible and pulse-chase biotinylation assays showing evidence for lysosomal degradation of the internalized transporter. Finally, we found that SERT internalized in response to stimulation with 12-myristate 13-acetate co-localized primarily with Rab7- and LysoTracker-positive compartments. We conclude that SERT is constitutively internalized and that the internalized transporter is sorted mainly to degradation. PMID:24973209

  5. Rheumatoid Arthritis: Can It Affect the Eyes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheumatoid arthritis: Can it affect the eyes? Can rheumatoid arthritis affect the eyes? Answers from April Chang-Miller, M.D. Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease that primarily affects the ...

  6. Sexuality in the Older Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Laura

    2017-09-01

    Sexuality is an important part of a person's life continuing into older age. Physiologic changes that occur with aging can affect sexual function and may be exacerbated by comorbid disease. To diagnose sexual dysfunction, providers must obtain a thorough history and physical examination, including psychosocial factors. The causes of sexual dysfunction along with patient preferences within the patient's social system serve as the foundation for developing person-centered strategies to address these concerns. To improve care of older adults with sexual concerns, providers should initiate discussions with, listen to, and work with patients to create a comprehensive management plan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Wound Healing in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Lisa J; Fulton, Ana Tuya

    2016-02-01

    Impaired wound healing in the elderly represents a major clinical problem that is growing as our population ages. Wound healing is affected by age and by co-morbid conditions, particularly diabetes and obesity. This is particularly important in Rhode Island as the state has a very high percentage of vulnerable older adults. A multi- disciplinary approach that incorporates the skills of a comprehensive wound center with specialized nursing, geriatric medicine and palliative care will facilitate rapid wound healing, reduce costs and improve outcomes for our older adults that suffer from 'problem wounds'.

  8. "My legs affect me a lot. … I can no longer walk to the forest to fetch firewood": challenges related to health and the performance of daily tasks for older women in a high HIV context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Enid; Gilbert, Leah

    2014-01-01

    Compromised health negatively impacts older persons' ability to participate in expected social roles. Researchers have published little empirical work, however, to explore these issues in HIV endemic African settings. Qualitative interviews with 30 women, aged 60-plus, in rural South Africa, provide insight into the relationship between health and daily activities, with attention to the fulfillment of social roles. In this poor HIV endemic context, older women make connections between their compromised health and their (lack of) capacity to perform the daily tasks that they view as expected of them. By expanding the conceptualization of health to include the capacity to achieve the expectations and perform the tasks expected of one, we better understand how and why health and performance of daily activities are so intricately linked in the minds of respondents. This also provides a starting point for thinking about the social and structural support needed by older persons in these settings, especially as HIV erodes familial supports.

  9. Nitric oxide circulates in mammalian plasma primarily as an S-nitroso adduct of serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamler, J S; Jaraki, O; Osborne, J; Simon, D I; Keaney, J; Vita, J; Singel, D; Valeri, C R; Loscalzo, J

    1992-01-01

    We have recently shown that nitric oxide or authentic endothelium-derived relaxing factor generated in a biologic system reacts in the presence of specific protein thiols to form S-nitrosoprotein derivatives that have endothelium-derived relaxing factor-like properties. The single free cysteine of serum albumin, Cys-34, is particularly reactive toward nitrogen oxides (most likely nitrosonium ion) under physiologic conditions, primarily because of its anomalously low pK; given its abundance in plasma, where it accounts for approximately 0.5 mM thiol, we hypothesized that this plasma protein serves as a reservoir for nitric oxide produced by the endothelial cell. To test this hypothesis, we developed a methodology, which involves UV photolytic cleavage of the S--NO bond before reaction with ozone for chemiluminescence detection, with which to measure free nitric oxide, S-nitrosothiols, and S-nitrosoproteins in biologic systems. We found that human plasma contains approximately 7 microM S-nitrosothiols, of which 96% are S-nitrosoproteins, 82% of which is accounted for by S-nitroso-serum albumin. By contrast, plasma levels of free nitric oxide are only in the 3-nM range. In rabbits, plasma S-nitrosothiols are present at approximately 1 microM; 60 min after administration of NG-monomethyl-L-arginine at 50 mg/ml, a selective and potent inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetases, S-nitrosothiols decreased by approximately 40% (greater than 95% of which were accounted for by S-nitrosoproteins, and approximately 80% of which was S-nitroso-serum albumin); this decrease was accompanied by a concomitant increase in mean arterial blood pressure of 22%. These data suggest that naturally produced nitric oxide circulates in plasma primarily complexed in S-nitrosothiol species, principal among which is S-nitroso-serum albumin. This abundant, relatively long-lived adduct likely serves as a reservoir with which plasma levels of highly reactive, short-lived free nitric oxide can be

  10. The development and characterization of a primarily mineral calcium phosphate - poly(epsilon-caprolactone) biocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkley, Ian Robert

    Orthopaedic reconstruction often involves the surgical introduction of structural implants that provide for rigid fixation, skeletal stabilization, and bone integration. The high stresses incurred by these implanted devices have historically limited material choices to metallic and select polymeric formulations. While mechanical requirements are achieved, these non-degradable materials do not participate actively in the remodeling of the skeleton and present the possibility of long-term failure or rejection. This is particularly relevant in cervical fusion, an orthopaedic procedure to treat damaged, degenerative or diseased intervertebral discs. A significant improvement on the available synthetic bone replacement/regeneration options for implants to treat these conditions in the cervical spine may be achieved with the development of primarily mineral biocomposites comprised of a bioactive ceramic matrix reinforced with a biodegradable polymer. Such a biocomposite may be engineered to possess the clinically required mechanical properties of a particular application, while maintaining the ability to be remodeled completely by the body. A biocomposite of Si-doped calcium phosphate (Si-CaP) and poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) was developed for application as such a synthetic bone material for potential use as a fusion device in the cervical spine. In this thesis, a method by which high mineral content Si-CaP/PCL biocomposites with interpenetrating matrices of mineral and polymer phases may be prepared will be demonstrated, in addition to the effects of the various preparation parameters on the biocomposite density, porosity and mechanical properties. This new technique by which dense, primarily ceramic Si-CaP/PCL biocomposites were prepared, allowed for the incorporation of mineral contents ranging between 45-97vol%. Polymer infiltration, accomplished solely by passive capillary uptake over several days, was found to be capable of fully infiltrating the microporosity

  11. Perceptions of Mindfulness in a Low-income, Primarily African American Treatment-Seeking Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Claire Adams; Houchins, Sean C; Bamatter, Wendy P; Barrueco, Sandra; Hoover, Diana Stewart; Perskaudas, Rokas

    2017-12-01

    Individuals with low socioeconomic status (SES) and members of racial/ethnic minority groups often experience profound disparities in mental health and physical well-being. Mindfulness-based interventions show promise for improving mood and health behaviors in higher-SES and non-Latino White populations. However, research is needed to explore what types of adaptations, if any, are needed to best support underserved populations. This study used qualitative methods to gain information about a) perceptions of mindfulness, b) experiences with meditation, c) barriers to practicing mindfulness, and d) recommendations for tailoring mindfulness-based interventions in a low-income, primarily African American treatment-seeking sample. Eight focus groups were conducted with 32 adults (16 men and 16 women) currently receiving services at a community mental health center. Most participants (91%) were African American. Focus group data were transcribed and analyzed using NVivo 10. A team of coders reviewed the transcripts to identify salient themes. Relevant themes included beliefs that mindfulness practice might improve mental health (e.g., managing stress and anger more effectively) and physical health (e.g., improving sleep and chronic pain, promoting healthier behaviors). Participants also discussed ways in which mindfulness might be consistent with, and even enhance, their religious and spiritual practices. Results could be helpful in tailoring mindfulness-based treatments to optimize feasibility and effectiveness for low-SES adults receiving mental health services.

  12. GOLD HULL AND INTERNODE2 encodes a primarily multifunctional cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kewei; Qian, Qian; Huang, Zejun; Wang, Yiqin; Li, Ming; Hong, Lilan; Zeng, Dali; Gu, Minghong; Chu, Chengcai; Cheng, Zhukuan

    2006-03-01

    Lignin content and composition are two important agronomic traits for the utilization of agricultural residues. Rice (Oryza sativa) gold hull and internode phenotype is a classical morphological marker trait that has long been applied to breeding and genetics study. In this study, we have cloned the GOLD HULL AND INTERNODE2 (GH2) gene in rice using a map-based cloning approach. The result shows that the gh2 mutant is a lignin-deficient mutant, and GH2 encodes a cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). Consistent with this finding, extracts from roots, internodes, hulls, and panicles of the gh2 plants exhibited drastically reduced CAD activity and undetectable sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity. When expressed in Escherichia coli, purified recombinant GH2 was found to exhibit strong catalytic ability toward coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde, while the mutant protein gh2 completely lost the corresponding CAD and sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activities. Further phenotypic analysis of the gh2 mutant plants revealed that the p-hydroxyphenyl, guaiacyl, and sinapyl monomers were reduced in almost the same ratio compared to the wild type. Our results suggest GH2 acts as a primarily multifunctional CAD to synthesize coniferyl and sinapyl alcohol precursors in rice lignin biosynthesis.

  13. GOLD HULL AND INTERNODE2 Encodes a Primarily Multifunctional Cinnamyl-Alcohol Dehydrogenase in Rice1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kewei; Qian, Qian; Huang, Zejun; Wang, Yiqin; Li, Ming; Hong, Lilan; Zeng, Dali; Gu, Minghong; Chu, Chengcai; Cheng, Zhukuan

    2006-01-01

    Lignin content and composition are two important agronomic traits for the utilization of agricultural residues. Rice (Oryza sativa) gold hull and internode phenotype is a classical morphological marker trait that has long been applied to breeding and genetics study. In this study, we have cloned the GOLD HULL AND INTERNODE2 (GH2) gene in rice using a map-based cloning approach. The result shows that the gh2 mutant is a lignin-deficient mutant, and GH2 encodes a cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). Consistent with this finding, extracts from roots, internodes, hulls, and panicles of the gh2 plants exhibited drastically reduced CAD activity and undetectable sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity. When expressed in Escherichia coli, purified recombinant GH2 was found to exhibit strong catalytic ability toward coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde, while the mutant protein gh2 completely lost the corresponding CAD and sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activities. Further phenotypic analysis of the gh2 mutant plants revealed that the p-hydroxyphenyl, guaiacyl, and sinapyl monomers were reduced in almost the same ratio compared to the wild type. Our results suggest GH2 acts as a primarily multifunctional CAD to synthesize coniferyl and sinapyl alcohol precursors in rice lignin biosynthesis. PMID:16443696

  14. Heart transplantation from older donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Poptsov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current situation of the shortage of suitable donor organs, heart transplantation from older donors is one of the ways to increase the performance of more heart transplants, particularly, in patients with urgent need of transplantation. While planning a heart transplantation from older donor one should consider increased risk of early cardiac allograft dysfunction, preexisting coronary artery disease, accelerated transplant vasculopathy which may adversely affect early and long-term survival of recipients. Subject to careful selection of donor–recipient pairs, effective prevention and treatment of early cardiac allograft dysfunction, pre-existing atherosclerosis and transplant vasculopathy the early and long-term survival of heart transplant recipients from older donors is comparable to heart transplantation from young donors.

  15. The role of older siblings in infant motor development

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard, Hayley; Hill, EL

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that infant motor skills may be affected by older siblings, but has not considered whether this is due to specific characteristics of the older sibling, or of the quality of the sibling relationship. The current study used a longitudinal diary method to record infant motor milestones from 23 infants with older siblings, along with parent reports and standardised assessments of motor skills. Parent reports of the older siblings’ motor skills and the sibling rela...

  16. Homogenous stretching or detachment faulting? Which process is primarily extending the Aegean crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumerics, C.; Ring, U.

    2003-04-01

    In extending orogens like the Aegean Sea of Greece and the Basin-and-Range province of the western United States, knowledge of rates of tectonic processes are important for understanding which process is primarily extending the crust. Platt et al. (1998) proposed that homogeneous stretching of the lithosphere (i.e. vertical ductile thinning associated with a subhorizontal foliation) at rates of 4-5 km Myr-1 is the dominant process that formed the Alboran Sea in the western Mediterranean. The Aegean Sea in the eastern Mediterranean is well-known for its low-angle normal faults (detachments) (Lister et al., 1984; Lister &Forster, 1996) suggesting that detachment faulting may have been the primary agent achieving ~>250 km (McKenzie, 1978) of extension since the Miocene. Ring et al. (2003) provided evidence for a very fast-slipping detachment on the islands of Syros and Tinos in the western Cyclades, which suggests that normal faulting was the dominant tectonic process that formed the Aegean Sea. However, most extensional detachments in the Aegean do not allow to quantify the amount of vertical ductile thinning associated with extension and therefore a full evaluation of the significance of vertical ductile thinning is not possible. On the Island of Ikaria in the eastern Aegean Sea, a subhorizontal extensional ductile shear zone is well exposed. We studied this shear zone in detail to quantify the amount of vertical ductile thinning associated with extension. Numerous studies have shown that natural shear zones usually deviate significantly from progressive simple shear and are characterized by pronounced shortening perpendicular to the shear zone. Numerous deformed pegmatitic veins in this shear zone on Ikaria allow the reconstruction of deformation and flow parameters (Passchier, 1990), which are necessary for quantifying the amount of vertical ductile thinning in the shear zone. Furthermore, a flow-path and finite-strain study in a syn-tectonic granite, which

  17. CO2 leakage-induced vegetation decline is primarily driven by decreased soil O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueyan; Ma, Xin; Zhao, Zhi; Wu, Yang; Li, Yue

    2016-04-15

    To assess the potential risks of carbon capture and storage (CCS), studies have focused on vegetation decline caused by leaking CO2. Excess soil CO2 caused by leakage can affect soil O2 concentrations and soil pH, but how these two factors affect plant development remains poorly understood. This hinders the selection of appropriate species to mitigate potential negative consequences of CCS. Through pot experiments, we simulated CO2 leakage to examine its effects on soil pH and soil O2 concentrations. We subsequently assessed how maize growth responded to these changes in soil pH and O2. Decreased soil O2 concentrations significantly reduced maize biomass, and explained 69% of the biomass variation under CO2 leakage conditions. In contrast, although leaked CO2 changed soil pH significantly (from 7.32 to 6.75), it remained within the optimum soil pH range for maize growth. This suggests that soil O2 concentration, not soil pH, influences plant growth in these conditions. Therefore, in case of potential CO2 leakage risks, hypoxia-tolerant species should be chosen to improve plant survival, growth, and yield. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sub-micrometre Particulate Matter is Primarily in Liquid Form over Amazon Rainforests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bateman, Adam P.; Gong, Z. H.; Liu, Pengfei; Sato, Bruno; Cirino, Glauber; Zhang, Yue; Artaxo, Paulo; Bertram, Allan K.; Manzi, A.; Rizzo, L. V.; Souza, Rodrigo A.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) occurs in the Earth’s atmosphere both in liquid and non-liquid forms. The physical state affects the available physical and chemical mechanisms of growth and reactivity, ultimately affecting the number, size, and composition of the atmospheric particle population. Herein, the physical state, including the response to relative humidity (RH), was investigated on-line and in real time for PM (< 1 μm) over the tropical rain forest of central Amazonia during both the wet and dry seasons of 2013. The results show that the PM was liquid for RH > 80% across 296 to 300 K. These results, in conjunction with the distributions of RH and temperature in Amazonia, imply that near-surface submicron PM in Amazonia is liquid most of the time. The observations are consistent with laboratory experiments showing that PM produced by isoprene photo-oxidation is liquid across these meteorological conditions. The findings have implications for the mechanisms of new particle production in Amazonia, the growth of submicron particles and hence dynamics of the cloud life cycle, and the sensitivity of these processes to anthropogenic activities. An approach for inclusion of particle physical state in chemical transport models is presented.

  19. Eningiomas: outcome, and analysis of prognostic factors of primarily resected tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stafford, S.L.; Perry, A.; Suman, V.; Meyer, B.; Scheithauer, B.W.; Shaw, E.G.; Earle, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: 582 consecutive cases of primary intracranial meningioma undergoing resection at the Mayo Clinic, (Rochester, MN) were reviewed to determine overall survival (OS), progression free survival(PFS), prognostic factors predicting recurrence, and to determine the importance of radiation therapy in the management of this tumor. Materials and Methods: Between 1978-1988, 582 cases of primarily resected meningiomas were identified based on the tumor and operative registries where diagnosis was between 1978-1988 inclusive. PFS was identified by radiographic progression. Follow-up was accomplished by chart review, and a detailed questionnaire sent to patients and referring physicians. Estimation of OS and PFS distributions were done by the Kaplan-Meier method. The log rank test was used to assess which factors were associated with PFS. Proportional hazard modeling was performed to obtain a subset of independent predictors of PFS. Results: the median age was 57(5-93). 67% were female. CT identified the tumor in 91% of cases. There was associated edema in 21% and 2% were radiographically en plaque. There were 17 patients with multiple tumors, four of whom had a known diagnosis of neurofibromatosis. Gross total resection (GTR) was accomplished in 80%, radical subtotal or subtotal resection(STR) in 20%, and biopsy in 53) cellularity, and four or more mitoses per 10 HPF. Multivariate analysis indicated young age, male sex, en plaque at surgery, were significant for decreased PFS when only patient characteristics were considered. When treatment and pathologic factors were also considered, then young age, male sex, less than GTR, and tumor sheeting were predictors for decreased PFS. 10 patients had RT after initial resection, two of whom recurred. There were 107 first recurrences. 50 were observed(no intervention within 3 months), 35 treated by surgery alone, 11 had S+RT, and 11 were treated with RT alone. Considering those patients treated at recurrence (n=57), PFS was at

  20. Analysis of survival for patients with chronic kidney disease primarily related to renal cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jitao; Suk-Ouichai, Chalairat; Dong, Wen; Antonio, Elvis Caraballo; Derweesh, Ithaar H; Lane, Brian R; Demirjian, Sevag; Li, Jianbo; Campbell, Steven C

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate predictors of long-term survival for patients with chronic kidney disease primarily due to surgery (CKD-S). Patients with CKD-S have generally good survival that approximates patients who do not have CKD even after renal cancer surgery (RCS), yet there may be heterogeneity within this cohort. From 1997 to 2008, 4 246 patients underwent RCS at our centre. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) follow-up was 9.4 (7.3-11.0) years. New baseline glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was defined as highest GFR between nadir and 6 weeks after RCS. We retrospectively evaluated three cohorts: no-CKD (new baseline GFR of ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ); CKD-S (new baseline GFR of cancer-related survival (NRCRS) for the CKD-S cohort. Kaplan-Meier analysis assessed the longitudinal impact of new baseline GFR (45-60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 vs <45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ) and Cox regression evaluated relative impact of preoperative GFR, new baseline GFR, and relevant demographics/comorbidities. Of the 4 246 patients who underwent RCS, 931 had CKD-S and 1 113 had CKD-M/S, whilst 2 202 had no-CKD even after RCS. Partial/radical nephrectomy (PN/RN) was performed in 54%/46% of the patients, respectively. For CKD-S, 641 patients had a new baseline GFR of 45-60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 and 290 had a new baseline GFR of <45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . Kaplan-Meier analysis showed significantly reduced NRCRS for patients with CKD-S with a GFR of <45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 compared to those with no-CKD or CKD-S with a GFR of 45-60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 (both P ≤ 0.004), and competing risk analysis confirmed this (P < 0.001). Age, gender, heart disease, and new baseline GFR were all associated independently with NRCRS for patients with CKD-S (all P ≤ 0.02). Our data suggest that CKD-S is heterogeneous, and patients with a reduced new baseline GFR have compromised survival, particularly if <45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . Our findings may have implications regarding choice of PN/RN in patients at risk of developing

  1. LMFBR fuel-design environment for endurance testing, primarily of oxide fuel elements with local faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warinner, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    The US Department of Energy LMFBR Lines-of-Assurance are briefly stated and local faults are given perspective with an historical review and definition to help define the constraints of LMFBR fuel-element designs. Local-fault-propagation (fuel-element failure-propagation and blockage propagation) perceptions are reviewed. Fuel pin designs and major LMFBR parameters affecting pin performance are summarized. The interpretation of failed-fuel data is aided by a discussion of the effects of nonprototypicalities. The fuel-pin endurance expected in the US, USSR, France, UK, Japan, and West Germany is outlined. Finally, fuel-failure detection and location by delayed-neutron and gaseous-fission-product monitors are briefly discussed to better realize the operational limits

  2. Ah receptor mediated suppression of the antibody response in mice is primarily dependent on the Ah phenotype of lymphoid tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silkworth, J.B.; Antrim, L.A.; Sack, G.

    1986-01-01

    Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons act through the aromatic hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor in mice to produce a series of toxic effects of the immune system. The receptor protein is a product of the Ah gene locus. Ah responsive (Ahb/Ahb) mice express a high affinity receptor in both lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues whereas nonresponsive Ahd/Ahd mice express a poor affinity receptor. To determine the role of the Ah receptor of lymphoid tissue relative to that of nonlymphoid tissue in the induction of immune impairment, bone marrow was used to reconstitute lethally irradiated mice of the same or opposite Ah phenotype. All mice were given 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (35 and 350 mumol/kg) ip 2 days before immunization with sheep erythrocytes (SRBC). The immune response to this T dependent antigen and organ weights were determined 5 or 7 days later in normal or chimeric mice, respectively. Monoclonal Lyt 1.1 and Lyt 1.2 antibodies were used to establish the origin of the cells which repopulated the chimeric thymuses. The immune responses of both BALB/cBy (Ahb/Ahb) and the BALB/cBy X DBA/2 hybrid, CByD2F1 (Ahb/Ahd), were significantly suppressed but DBA/2 mice were unaffected. The immune responses of chimeric BALB/cBy----BALB/cBy and BALB/cBy----DBA/2 (donor----recipient) mice were also significantly suppressed and thymic atrophy was observed in both cases. The serum anti-SRBC antibody titers of DBA/2----BALB/cBy chimeras were also significantly decreased although not to the same extent as in BALB/cBy----DBA/2 mice. Chimeric DBA/2----DBA/2 mice were not affected. These results indicate that the sensitivity to Ah receptor mediated suppression of the antibody response is primarily determined by the Ah phenotype of the lymphoid tissue

  3. Evaluating Older Drivers' Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Research has demonstrated that older drivers pose a higher risk of involvement in fatal crashes at intersections than : younger drivers. Age-triggered restrictions are problematic as research shows that the majority of older people : have unimpaired ...

  4. Older persons' definitions and explanations of elder abuse in the Netherlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mysyuk, Yuliya; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Lindenberg, Jolanda

    2016-01-01

    persons in society, which result in disrespect toward older persons and a lack of social control and responsibility. The older persons' explanations for the occurrence of abuse mainly focus on societal changes; older persons seem to regard elder abuse primarily as a societal problem. This understanding of......In this article we explore older persons' definitions of and explanations for elder abuse in the Netherlands by means of interviews with older persons. A qualitative study was conducted based on semi-structured interviews with 35 older persons who had no experience with abuse. Our findings show...... that older persons participating in our study define elder abuse foremost as physical violence that is performed intentionally. The study participants explain elder abuse as a result of the dependency and vulnerability of older persons, of changing norms and values, and of changes in the position of older...

  5. Affects and Affect Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    MONSEN, JON T.; EILERTSEN, DAG ERIK; MELGÅRD, TROND; ØDEGÅRD, PÅL

    1996-01-01

    Affect consciousness (AC) was operationalized as degrees of awareness, tolerance, nonverbal expression, and conceptual expression of nine specific affects. A semistructured interview (ACI) and separate scales were developed to assess these aspects of affect integration. Their psychometric properties were preliminarily explored by having 20 former psychiatric outpatients complete the interview. Concurrent validity was assessed by using DSM-III-R Axis I and II diagnoses, the Health-Sickness Rating Scale, SCL-90-R, and several indexes from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Satisfactory interrater reliability and high levels of internal consistency supported the construct validity of the measure. Results suggest the most meaningful use of this instrument is in measuring specific affect and overall AC. Clinically, the ACI has provided highly specific and relevant qualitative data for use in planning psychotherapeutic interventions. PMID:22700292

  6. Culturable bioaerosols along an urban waterfront are primarily associated with coarse particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Montero

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The source, characteristics and transport of viable microbial aerosols in urban centers are topics of significant environmental and public health concern. Recent studies have identified adjacent waterways, and especially polluted waterways, as an important source of microbial aerosols to urban air. The size of these aerosols influences how far they travel, their resistance to environmental stress, and their inhalation potential. In this study, we utilize a cascade impactor and aerosol particle monitor to characterize the size distribution of particles and culturable bacterial and fungal aerosols along the waterfront of a New York City embayment. We seek to address the potential contribution of bacterial aerosols from local sources and to determine how their number, size distribution, and taxonomic identity are affected by wind speed and wind direction (onshore vs. offshore. Total culturable microbial counts were higher under offshore winds (average of 778 CFU/m3 ± 67, with bacteria comprising the majority of colonies (58.5%, as compared to onshore winds (580 CFU/m3 ± 110 where fungi were dominant (87.7%. The majority of cultured bacteria and fungi sampled during both offshore winds (88% and onshore winds (72% were associated with coarse aerosols (>2.1 µm, indicative of production from local sources. There was a significant correlation (p < 0.05 of wind speed with both total and coarse culturable microbial aerosol concentrations. Taxonomic analysis, based on DNA sequencing, showed that Actinobacteria was the dominant phylum among aerosol isolates. In particular, Streptomyces and Bacillus, both spore forming genera that are often soil-associated, were abundant under both offshore and onshore wind conditions. Comparisons of bacterial communities present in the bioaerosol sequence libraries revealed that particle size played an important role in microbial aerosol taxonomy. Onshore and offshore coarse libraries were found to be most similar

  7. Leisure-time physical activities for community older people with chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Chun; Huang, Lian-Hua; Yeh, Mei Chang; Tai, John Jen

    2011-04-01

    (1) To explore the types and three components (frequency, duration and caloric expenditure) of leisure-time physical activity in community older people with chronic diseases. (2) To identify leisure-time physical activity-related factors in these community older people. Previous research has focused primarily on measuring the actual physiological or psychological benefits of exercise or leisure-time physical activity, little is known about the factors that determine the frequency, intensity and duration of exercise or leisure-time physical activity. The identification of reliable predictors of the various components of leisure-time physical activity will enable healthcare providers to intervene and change the patterns of leisure-time physical activity in the sedentary older people more effectively. A cross-sectional design was used for this study. Participants were recruited from the Xinyi District in Taipei, Taiwan. A total of 206 older people were recruited and were asked to complete three questionnaires during a face-to-face interview with a researcher at the activity setting. The results showed that walking leisurely was the most frequent leisure-time physical activity for participants. The age, gender, living arrangement, affective feeling and environmental control were significant variables of leisure-time physical activity. The study constructs accounted for moderate amounts of variance (22% for leisure-time physical activity frequency, 27% for leisure-time physical activity duration and 24% for leisure-time physical activity caloric expenditure). This study also showed that different variables play different influential roles in the different components of LTPA. An effective intervention strategy for improving leisure-time physical activity of older people may involve tailoring the type, format, intensity, frequency and duration of a physical activity according to an individual's needs. This study described some environmental barriers to LTPA and

  8. Cognitive characteristics of older Japanese drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilowati, Indri H; Yasukouchi, Akira

    2012-02-29

    Some causes of accidents among older drivers are: not paying attention to traffic signals; missing stop lines; and having to deal with and misjudging emergency situations. These causes of accidents reveal problems with attention and cognition. Such incidents are also related to driver perception and stress-coping mechanisms. It is important to examine the relation of stress reactions to attention and cognition as a factor influencing the causes of accidents commonly involving older drivers. Subjects were 10 young drivers (23.3 ± 3.33 years) and 25 older drivers divided into two groups (older1 [60 to 65 years] and older2 [> 65 years]). This study revealed the correlation within driver stress inventory and driver coping questionnaires parameters was observed only in older drivers. They also needed a longer response time for Trail Making Test A and B. The factors affected the attention and cognition of older drivers by age but not driving experience itself, and coping parameters such as emotion focus, reappraisal, and avoidance were not included as stress inventory parameters. Being prone to fatigue was less for younger drivers than older drivers. Because they have shorter distances, shorter drive times, and no need for expressways, older drivers also had a significantly lower risk of thrill-seeking behaviour and more patience. The intervention addressing their attention skills, aggressive feelings, and emotion focus should be considered. The technological improvements in cars will make older drivers feel safer and make driving easier which might lower the attention paid to the road, and regular driving training might be needed to assess and enhance their safety.

  9. Cognitive characteristics of older Japanese drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susilowati Indri H

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some causes of accidents among older drivers are: not paying attention to traffic signals; missing stop lines; and having to deal with and misjudging emergency situations. These causes of accidents reveal problems with attention and cognition. Such incidents are also related to driver perception and stress-coping mechanisms. It is important to examine the relation of stress reactions to attention and cognition as a factor influencing the causes of accidents commonly involving older drivers. Finding Subjects were 10 young drivers (23.3 ± 3.33 years and 25 older drivers divided into two groups (older1 [60 to 65 years] and older2 [> 65 years]. This study revealed the correlation within driver stress inventory and driver coping questionnaires parameters was observed only in older drivers. They also needed a longer response time for Trail Making Test A and B. The factors affected the attention and cognition of older drivers by age but not driving experience itself, and coping parameters such as emotion focus, reappraisal, and avoidance were not included as stress inventory parameters. Being prone to fatigue was less for younger drivers than older drivers. Because they have shorter distances, shorter drive times, and no need for expressways, older drivers also had a significantly lower risk of thrill-seeking behaviour and more patience. Conclusion The intervention addressing their attention skills, aggressive feelings, and emotion focus should be considered. The technological improvements in cars will make older drivers feel safer and make driving easier which might lower the attention paid to the road, and regular driving training might be needed to assess and enhance their safety.

  10. Older workers' age as a moderator of the relationship between career adaptability and job satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacher, Hannes; Griffin, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Research on career adaptability and its relationships with work outcomes has so far primarily focused on the cohort of younger workers and largely neglected older workers. We investigated the relationship between career adaptability and job satisfaction in a sample of 577 older workers from

  11. Barriers to Care for Depressed Older People: Perceptions of Aged Care among Medical Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Marita P.; Davison, Tanya; Mellor, David; George, Kuruvilla

    2009-01-01

    The current study evaluated barriers to detection of depression among older people. Focus groups were conducted with 21 professional carers, 4 nurses, 10 general practitioners, and 7 aged care managers. The results demonstrated that care for older people is primarily focused on physical care. Further, staff resources, a lack of continuity of care,…

  12. The Significance of Sexuality and Intimacy in the Lives of Older African Americans With HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevedal, Andrea; Sankar, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Aging and HIV/AIDS research focuses primarily on standardized clinical, social, and behavioral measures, leaving unanswered questions about how this chronic and stigmatizing condition affects life course expectations and the meaning of aging with the disease. Utilizing Gaylene Becker’s (1997) life course disruption theory, we explored older African Americans’ experiences of living with HIV/AIDS. Design and Methods: A purposive sample (N = 43) of seropositive African Americans aged 50 and older was selected from a parent study. Thirteen participants completed one semi-structured in-depth interview on life course expectations and experiences of living with HIV/AIDS. Interview transcripts were analyzed using standard qualitative coding and thematic analysis. Results: Responding to broad, open-ended questions about the impact of HIV on life course expectations, participants emphasized how HIV limited their ability to experience sexuality and intimacy. Two major themes emerged, damaged sexuality and constrained intimacy. Implications: Older African Americans’ discussions of living with HIV focused on the importance of and the challenges to sexuality and intimacy. Researchers and clinicians should be attentive to significant and ongoing HIV-related challenges to sexuality and intimacy facing older African Americans living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:26035889

  13. The Significance of Sexuality and Intimacy in the Lives of Older African Americans With HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevedal, Andrea; Sankar, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Aging and HIV/AIDS research focuses primarily on standardized clinical, social, and behavioral measures, leaving unanswered questions about how this chronic and stigmatizing condition affects life course expectations and the meaning of aging with the disease. Utilizing Gaylene Becker's (1997) life course disruption theory, we explored older African Americans' experiences of living with HIV/AIDS. A purposive sample (N = 43) of seropositive African Americans aged 50 and older was selected from a parent study. Thirteen participants completed one semi-structured in-depth interview on life course expectations and experiences of living with HIV/AIDS. Interview transcripts were analyzed using standard qualitative coding and thematic analysis. Responding to broad, open-ended questions about the impact of HIV on life course expectations, participants emphasized how HIV limited their ability to experience sexuality and intimacy. Two major themes emerged, damaged sexuality and constrained intimacy. Older African Americans' discussions of living with HIV focused on the importance of and the challenges to sexuality and intimacy. Researchers and clinicians should be attentive to significant and ongoing HIV-related challenges to sexuality and intimacy facing older African Americans living with HIV/AIDS. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Catastrophic events and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloyd, Elizabeth; Dyer, Carmel B

    2010-12-01

    policy development, serve on rescue teams, perform patient assessments, and deliver care. Nurses are crucial to well-planned and executed programs for catastrophic events that affect older adults. Also, all health care providers involved must be aware of the physical and psychological ramifications of disaster relief. The health and resilience of disaster-relief teams depend on paying attention to signs and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and seeking appropriate treatment should it occur. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Oxytocin improves emotion recognition for older males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Anna; Ruffman, Ted; Murray, Janice E; Glue, Paul

    2014-10-01

    Older adults (≥60 years) perform worse than young adults (18-30 years) when recognizing facial expressions of emotion. The hypothesized cause of these changes might be declines in neurotransmitters that could affect information processing within the brain. In the present study, we examined the neuropeptide oxytocin that functions to increase neurotransmission. Research suggests that oxytocin benefits the emotion recognition of less socially able individuals. Men tend to have lower levels of oxytocin and older men tend to have worse emotion recognition than older women; therefore, there is reason to think that older men will be particularly likely to benefit from oxytocin. We examined this idea using a double-blind design, testing 68 older and 68 young adults randomly allocated to receive oxytocin nasal spray (20 international units) or placebo. Forty-five minutes afterward they completed an emotion recognition task assessing labeling accuracy for angry, disgusted, fearful, happy, neutral, and sad faces. Older males receiving oxytocin showed improved emotion recognition relative to those taking placebo. No differences were found for older females or young adults. We hypothesize that oxytocin facilitates emotion recognition by improving neurotransmission in the group with the worst emotion recognition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A photovoice documentation of the role of neighborhood physical and social environments in older adults' physical activity in two metropolitan areas in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Atiya; Chaudhury, Habib; Michael, Yvonne L; Campo, Michael; Hay, Kara; Sarte, Ann

    2012-04-01

    A substantial body of evidence indicates that regular engagement in moderate-intensity physical activity on most days of the week is sufficient for older adults to achieve positive health outcomes. Although there is a growing body of literature that examines the affect of neighborhood environment on physical activity in older adults, the research tends to overlook social aspects that potentially shape the relationship between physical environment and physical activity. This article presents qualitative themes related to the role of the physical and social environments in influencing physical activity among older adults as identified through the photovoice method with sixty-six older adults in eight neighborhoods in metropolitan Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada and Greater Portland, Oregon, USA. The photovoice data generated seven themes: being safe and feeling secure, getting there, comfort in movement, diversity of destinations, community-based programs, peer support and intergenerational/volunteer activities. Although the majority of these themes have explicit or implicit physical and social aspects, certain themes are primarily based on physical environmental aspects (e.g., safe and feeling secure, comfort in movement), while a few themes are more oriented to social context (e.g., peer support, intergenerational activity/volunteering). The themes are discussed with a focus on how the neighborhood physical and social environmental aspects interplay to foster or hinder older adults in staying active in both everyday activities and intentional physical activities. Policy implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Coping and health in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancura, Loriena A; Aldwin, Carolyn M

    2008-02-01

    Although coping has been shown to influence physical health in younger populations, whether coping affects health in older adults appears to depend upon how coping and health are conceptualized. This article reviews recent literature on coping and health in older adults in three areas. First, we discuss coping's distinct relevance to health in older adults. Second, we describe ways in which coping may differ between older and younger populations. Third, we detail recent and notable findings of coping's specific effects on biomedical health and health in general. The recent literature suggests that coping may be a developmental and multifaceted process. Positive coping strategies may have positive and even protective effects on health, whereas negative strategies may have negative effects.

  18. Attitudes and stereotypes regarding older women and HIV risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulaurier, Richard; Fortuna, Karen; Lind, Danielle; Emlet, Charles A

    2014-01-01

    Persons aged 50 years and over will soon disproportionately represent the future of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. It is estimated that by 2015 older adults will represent 50% of persons living with HIV in the United States. Despite the HIV/AIDS growing population among older adults, attitudes, beliefs, and stereotypes toward older adults that exist in general society have affected HIV prevention, education, and care. Specifically, ageist attitudes about the sexuality of older adults in general and older women in particular, low clinical HIV suspicion among healthcare providers, lack of knowledge about risk among older women, and differentials in power related to negotiating sexual practices all lead to heightened concerns for the prevention, identification, and treatment of HIV disease in mature women. This article examines common attitudes, beliefs, and stereotypes that exist within general society as well as health and social service providers that place older women at a disadvantage when it comes to HIV prevention, education, and treatment.

  19. Examining Change in K-3 Teachers' Mathematical Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs: The Case of Primarily Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutaka, T. S.; Ren, L.; Smith, W. M.; Beattie, H. L.; Edwards, C. P.; Green, J. L.; Chernyavskiy, P.; Stroup, W.; Heaton, R. M.; Lewis, W. J.

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the impact of the Primarily Math Elementary Mathematics Specialist program on K-3 teachers' mathematical content knowledge for teaching, attitudes toward learning mathematics, and beliefs about mathematics teaching and learning. Three cohorts of teachers participating in the program were compared to a similar group of…

  20. Older drivers : a review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakamies-Blomqvist, L. Sirén, A. & Davidse, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    The proportion of senior citizens (aged 65+) will grow from about 15 per cent in the year 2000 to about 30 per cent in the year 2050. The share of older drivers in the driver population will grow even faster because of increasing licensing rates among the ageing population. Older drivers do not have

  1. Older migrants in exile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dorthe Susanne; Minet, Lisbeth; Zeraiq, Lina

    2017-01-01

    , Lost in language barriers and Having a national sense of belonging. The main findings emphasise the vulnerability of older migrants in a resettlement country. With an unclear national identity and without the local language, older migrants struggle to develop a clear vision of their role in a minority...

  2. Sport for Older Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France).

    The following papers were prepared for a seminar on sport for older people: (1) "Gerontological Aspects of Physical Exercise" (Eino Heikkinen); (2) "Sporting Activities in the Individual Life from the View of Older Persons" (Henning Allmer); (3) "Reasons Why Decision-Makers Should Urge Old People to Practise Physical and Sporting Activities"…

  3. Naturalistic distraction and driving safety in older drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksan, Nazan; Dawson, Jeffrey D; Emerson, Jamie L; Yu, Lixi; Uc, Ergun Y; Anderson, Steven W; Rizzo, Matthew

    2013-08-01

    In this study, we aimed to quantify and compare performance of middle-aged and older drivers during a naturalistic distraction paradigm (visual search for roadside targets) and to predict older drivers performance given functioning in visual, motor, and cognitive domains. Distracted driving can imperil healthy adults and may disproportionally affect the safety of older drivers with visual, motor, and cognitive decline. A total of 203 drivers, 120 healthy older (61 men and 59 women, ages 65 years and older) and 83 middle-aged drivers (38 men and 45 women, ages 40 to 64 years), participated in an on-road test in an instrumented vehicle. Outcome measures included performance in roadside target identification (traffic signs and restaurants) and concurrent driver safety. Differences in visual, motor, and cognitive functioning served as predictors. Older drivers identified fewer landmarks and drove slower but committed more safety errors than did middle-aged drivers. Greater familiarity with local roads benefited performance of middle-aged but not older drivers.Visual cognition predicted both traffic sign identification and safety errors, and executive function predicted traffic sign identification over and above vision. Older adults are susceptible to driving safety errors while distracted by common secondary visual search tasks that are inherent to driving. The findings underscore that age-related cognitive decline affects older drivers' management of driving tasks at multiple levels and can help inform the design of on-road tests and interventions for older drivers.

  4. Eating disorders in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podfigurna-Stopa, Agnieszka; Czyzyk, Adam; Katulski, Krzysztof; Smolarczyk, Roman; Grymowicz, Monika; Maciejewska-Jeske, Marzena; Meczekalski, Blazej

    2015-10-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are disturbances that seriously endanger the physical health and often the lives of sufferers and affect their psychosocial functioning. EDs are usually thought of as problems afflicting teenagers. However, the incidence in older women has increased in recent decades. These cases may represent either late-onset disease or, more likely, a continuation of a lifelong disorder. The DSM-5 classification differentiates 4 categories of eating disorder: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorders and other specified feeding and eating disorders. The weight loss and malnutrition resulting from EDs have widespread negative consequences for physical, mental and social health. The main risk factors for developing long-term consequences are the degree of weight loss and the chronicity of the illness. Most of the cardiac, neurological, pulmonary, gastric, haematological and dermatological complications of EDs are reversible with weight restoration. EDs are serious illnesses and they should never be neglected or treated only as a manifestation of the fashion for dieting or a woman's wish to achieve an imposed standard feminine figure. Additionally, EDs are associated with high risk of morbidity and mortality. The literature concerning EDs in older, postmenopausal women is very limited. The main aim of this paper is to ascertain the epidemiology and prognosis of EDs in older women, and to review their diagnosis and management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Dry mouth and older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, W M

    2015-03-01

    Dry mouth is more common among older people than in any other age group. Appropriate definition and accurate measurement of dry mouth is critical for better understanding, monitoring and treatment of the condition. Xerostomia is the symptom(s) of dry mouth; it can be measured using methods ranging from single questions to multi-item summated rating scales. Low salivary flow (known as salivary gland hypofunction, or SGH) must be determined by measuring that flow. The relationship between SGH and xerostomia is not straightforward, but both conditions are common among older people, and they affect sufferers' day-to-day lives in important ways. The major risk factor for dry mouth is the taking of particular medications, and older people take more of those than any other age group, not only for symptomatic relief of various age-associated chronic diseases, but also in order to reduce the likelihood of complications which may arise from those conditions. The greater the number taken, the greater the associated anticholinergic burden, and the more likely it is that the individual will suffer from dry mouth. Since treating dry mouth is such a challenge for clinicians, there is a need for dentists, doctors and pharmacists to work together to prevent it occurring. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  6. Older Motorcyclists in Ireland

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, D

    2017-06-01

    Older motorcyclists are under-recognised as vulnerable road users. Using Irish data from the Central Statistics Office, the Road Safety Authority and the Healthcare Pricing Office, we explored the trend of ageing riders and factors in older motorcyclist collisions and injuries. In 2005, 17 motorcyclists ≥55 were injured compared to 31 in 2012. Motorcyclists aged between 30 and 49 years and ≥50 have longer lengths of stay compared to riders <30. The percentage of motorcycles with an engine capacity of ≥750cc increased from 39.6% in 2007 to 46.7% in 2015. Older motorcyclists are less likely to be fatally injured in single vehicle collisions. Older motorcyclists are generally safer than younger riders but the proportion of older motorcyclist injury is rising. Irish road safety strategies and trauma services need to incorporate these findings into planning and development of preventive and treatment approaches

  7. Older Adults in Public Open Spaces: Age and Gender Segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noon, Rinat Ben; Ayalon, Liat

    2018-01-18

    There is a substantial body of literature on the importance of the environment in the lives of older adults. Nonetheless, to date, there has been limited research on everyday activities of urban older adults in public open spaces. The present study examined the activities of older adults in public open spaces in Israel with a specific focus on age and gender as potential variables of relevance. Using still photography, we systematically photographed four sessions in two different public outdoor settings attended by older Israelis. Still photographs were converted to narrative descriptions, and then coded, quantified, and compared using descriptive statistics. The majority (311, 97%) of older adults arrived alone to the public setting. Of these, 44% formed a social group of two or more people, whereas the remaining older adults stayed alone. When social interactions occurred, they were primarily gender homogenous (69%); women were more likely to integrate in spontaneous social conversations and men were more likely to participate in common games. Our findings call attention to the important role played by the outdoor environment as a venue for social activities among older adults. The findings further stress the high levels of aloneness experienced by older adults, which do not seem to be alleviated by the mere attendance of public spaces. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Food Access Patterns and Barriers among Midlife and Older Adults with Mobility Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah L. Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined where midlife and older adults with a mobility disability accessed food outside the home in King County, Washington, USA, how they travelled to these food destinations, and facilitators and barriers to food access using qualitative interviews. Thirty-five adults aged ≥50 years with a mobility disability (defined as use of an assistive device for mobility were interviewed. Supplemental objective information was obtained from a Global Positioning System device worn by participants for 3 days. Participants primarily accessed food at grocery stores, restaurants, and coffee shops/cafés. The most common transportation modes were walking, obtaining a ride from friends, motorized chair/scooter, and public transit. Location and proximity of food destinations were factors affecting participants’ ability to access these destinations. Adequate space, ease of entry, available amenities such as restrooms, and helpful people were facilitators for participants to access food outside the home.

  9. X-ray and CT signs of connective tissue dysplasia in patients with primarily diagnosed infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhanova, L.A.; Sharmazanova, O.P.

    2009-01-01

    The x-ray signs of connective tissue systemic dysplasia (CTSD) in patients with primarily diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis was investigated. Fifty-four patients (28 med and 26 women aged 18-70) with primarily diagnosed infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis underwent x-ray study. In patients with infiltration pulmonary tuberculosis CTSD in the lungs manifests by their diminishing, deformity of the lung pattern, high position of the diaphragm cupola, mediastinum shift to the side of the pathology, which is better seen on CT. The degree of CTSD x-ray signs in the lungs depends on the number of phenotypical signs that is the degree of the disease manifestation. CT allows more accurate determining of the signs of connective tissue dysplasia in which tuberculosis develops

  10. Assessment of Vegetation Variation on Primarily Creation Zones of the Dust Storms Around the Euphrates Using Remote Sensing Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Amanollahi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, period frequency and effect domain of the dust storms that enter Iran from Iraq have increased. In this study, in addition to detecting the creation zones of the dust storms, the effect of vegetation cover variation on their creation was investigated using remote sensing. Moderate resolution image Spectroradiometer (MODIS and Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM5 have been utilized to identify the primarily creation zones of the dust storms and to assess the vegetation cover variation, respectively. Vegetation cover variation was studied using Normalized Differences Vegetation Index (NDVI obtained from band 3 and band 4 of the Landsate satellite. The results showed that the surrounding area of the Euphrates in Syria, the desert in the vicinity of this river in Iraq, including the deserts of Alanbar Province, and the north deserts of Saudi Arabia are the primarily creation zones of the dust storms entering west and south west of Iran. The results of NDVI showed that excluding the deserts in the border of Syria and Iraq, the area with very weak vegetation cover have increased between 2.44% and 20.65% from 1991 to 2009. In the meanwhile, the retention pound surface areas in the south deserts of Syria as well as the deserts in its border with Iraq have decreased 6320 and 4397 hectares, respectively. As it can be concluded from the findings, one of the main environmental parameters initiating these dust storms is the decrease in the vegetation cover in their primarily creation zones.

  11. How Going to School Affects the Family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landersø, Rasmus; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Simonsen, Marianne

    in school starting age induced by date of birth, we find that the timing of these transitions affect parental outcomes. At child age seven, for example, being one year older at school start increases maternal employment with four percentage points. At child age 15, similarly, being one year older at school...

  12. The range of abdominal surgical emergencies in children older than ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-02-08

    Feb 8, 2010 ... survey of all children older than 1 year undergoing an emergency abdominal surgery was carried out. ..... that affect the small bowel leading to perforations are ..... Source of Support: Nil, Con.ict of Interest: None declared.

  13. Allegheny County Older Housing

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Older housing can impact the quality of the occupant's health in a number of ways, including lead exposure, housing quality, and factors that may exacerbate...

  14. Older Adults and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... find more information? Reprints Share Older Adults and Depression Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... depression need treatment to feel better. Types of Depression There are several types of depression. The most ...

  15. The Older Worker. Statistical Reports on Older Americans, No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Teresita; Fowles, Donald G.

    Trends in the labor force participation and unemployment of older workers were reviewed in a study. A declining rate of labor force participation by older men and a growth in participation by older women were noticed. Examination of labor force participation rates by race revealed a higher participation rate for minority women than for older white…

  16. OLDER DRIVERS AND ADAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragnhild J. DAVIDSE

    2006-01-01

    Next, based on the available literature, relevant ADAS are discussed in terms of their availability, their effects on safety and the willingness of older drivers to use and buy them. One of the conclusions is that only very few of the types of support that are thought to be most beneficial to the safety of older drivers are provided by the ADAS that are currently available.

  17. Erectile Dysfunction in the Older Adult Male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mola, Joanna R

    2015-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) in the older adult male is a significant problem affecting more than 75% of men over 70 years of age in the United States. Older men have an increased likelihood of developing ED due to chronic disease, comorbid conditions, and age-related changes. Research has demonstrated that while the prevalence and severity of ED increases with age, sexual desire often remains unchanged. This article discusses the clinical picture of ED, including relevant pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and evaluation and treatment options.

  18. Aging and the Socioeconomic Life of Older Adults in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Bakshi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study attempts to approach aging in India from three perspectives, namely, the well-being of an aging individual, the aging household, and the aging population. The aspects, namely, work, financial dependence, integration, empowerment, and elder abuse are studied and their relation to age, gender, and marital status is investigated. The data sets pertaining to the National Sample Surveys for the reference periods 1986-1987, 1995-1996, and 2004 are primarily utilized for the purpose. The data sets from Building Knowledge Base on Population Ageing in India Survey, 2011, are also utilized for information on elder abuse. The results show that the older males are more likely to participate in household activities when compared with the older females. The married older adults are also more likely to participate in household activities when compared with their widowed counterparts. In a similar way, gender and marital status are found to be associated with empowerment of older adults. The working older adults, those who possess property and/or assets are more likely to be financially independent. Furthermore, the older females and the financially dependent older adults are more likely to face abuses of different kinds. Households are classified into three different types. Type I households have no older adults, Type II households have older adults and other younger members, and Type III households have older adults only. Results show that Type III households are found to be relatively more deprived and report higher average monthly expenditure when compared with other types of households.

  19. FADD Expression as a Prognosticator in Early-Stage Glottic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx Treated Primarily With Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrijvers, Michiel L.; Pattje, Wouter J.; Slagter-Menkema, Lorian; Mastik, Mirjam F.; Gibcus, Johan H.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Wal, Jacqueline E. van der; Laan, Bernard F.A.M. vn der; Schuuring, E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We recently reported on the identification of the Fas-associated death domain (FADD) as a possible driver of the chromosome 11q13 amplicon and the association between increased FADD expression and disease-specific survival in advanced-stage laryngeal carcinoma. The aim of this study was to examine whether expression of FADD and its Ser194-phosphorylated isoform (pFADD) predicts local control in patients with early-stage glottic carcinoma primarily treated with radiotherapy only. Methods and Materials: Immunohistochemical staining for FADD and pFADD was performed on pretreatment biopsy specimens of 92 patients with T1–T2 glottic squamous cell carcinoma primarily treated with radiotherapy between 1996 and 2005. Cox regression analysis was used to correlate expression levels with local control. Results: High levels of pFADD were associated with significantly better local control (hazard ratio, 2.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.04–5.55; p = 0.040). FADD overexpression showed a trend toward better local control (hazard ratio, 3.656; 95% confidence interval, 0.853–15.663; p = 0.081). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that high pFADD expression was the best predictor of local control after radiotherapy. Conclusions: This study showed that expression of phosphorylated FADD is a new prognostic biomarker for better local control after radiotherapy in patients with early-stage glottic carcinomas.

  20. Back to School in Later Life: Older Chinese Adults' Perspectives on Learning Participation Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Renfeng; De Donder, Liesbeth; De Backer, Free; Shihua, Li; Honghui, Pan; Thomas, Valerie; Vanslambrouck, Silke; Lombaerts, Koen

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim: Even though the beneficial effects of elderly learning are widely acknowledged, many older Chinese people are still not involved. This paper aims to examine the barriers that affect the level of educational participation of older adults in China. Methodology: Using a focus group methodology, 43 older participants (aged 55 years…

  1. Perceptions of emotion and age among younger, midlife, and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santorelli, Gennarina D; Ready, Rebecca E; Mather, Molly A

    2018-03-01

    Older adults report greater emotional well-being than younger persons, yet negative stereotypes about aging are pervasive. Little is known about age group perceptions of emotion in adulthood, particularly for familiar persons. Thus, this project determined perceptions of general affect in familiar younger and older adults. In two studies, participants (Study 1, younger adult n = 123, older adult n = 43; Study 2, younger adult n = 34, midlife adult n = 41, older adult n = 16) provided self-report data about their affect in general, as well as reported on the affect of a familiar younger person (aged 18--34) and a familiar older person (aged 65 or older). Emotion scales assessed high- and low-arousal positive and negative affect. Results suggest a less favorable perception of emotion experiences of older adults compared to younger adults. Specifically, participants of all age groups rated older adults as having lower positive emotions and higher negative emotions than is found in self-report data. Perceptions of emotion in older adulthood reflect stereotypes of negative functioning. Older adult participants were not immune to holding negative views about older adults. Negative perceptions about emotion experiences in later life may be detrimental to the physical and mental health of older adults.

  2. Older Persons at Risk of Hospital Readmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mona Kyndi

    Hospital readmission is common and considered an adverse health outcome in older persons. Acute readmission of recently discharged patients puts additional pressure on clinical resources within health care services and support. Despite the frequency of readmissions, affecting health and wellbeing...... of older persons, there is still a relatively incomplete understanding of the broader array of factors pertaining to hospital readmission. The current evidence on risk factors for hospital readmission is not adequate to identify person at risk of readmission in a heterogeneous population of older persons....... Few studies have explored patients’ experiences of circumstances and incidents leading to readmission. This thesis uses a mixed methods approach and combines quantitative as well as qualitative data to explore and identify risk factors and predictors of hospital readmission. Use of health care...

  3. Hypothyroidism: challenges when treating older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Tamera

    2013-01-01

    Hypothyroidism frequently affects older adults' general sense of health, their cognitive abilities, and quality of life. Management decisions regarding when to start treatment and at what dosage to begin medication are influenced by both laboratory values and patient symptoms. Although specific guidelines regarding management of hypothyroidism in older adults do not exist, general recommendations include initiating hormone replacement with levothyroxine (Levoxyl(®), Synthroid(®), and others) at 12.5 mcg to 25 mcg and titrating the dose slowly based on response at 6-week intervals. Multiple medications and certain foods can interact with levothyroxine; therefore, the best dosage time is when a person is fasting or 4 hours postprandial. Using a consistent brand-name drug for hormone replacement with levothyroxine is important due to variations in the active ingredient in generic formulations. Providers need to be aware of the prevalence of hypothyroidism and management issues when caring for older adults. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Education for older drivers in the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esko Keskinen

    2014-07-01

    Five presumptions have to be considered when addressing future education for older drivers: 1. Driving a car will continue to be one element of mobility in the future; 2. Older people want to be able to keep driving; 3. Safety will be an even more important factor in mobility in the future; 4. Ecological values will be more important in the future; and 5. Innovative technological applications will be more important in the future. Hierarchical models of driving are suitable in increasing understanding of older drivers' needs and abilities. The highest levels of the driving hierarchy in the Goals for Driver Education (GDE model are especially important for the safety of both young and elderly drivers. In these highest levels goals for life, skills for living, and social environment affect everyday decision making in general but also driving, which has an impact on driver safety. Giving up driving is very much a social decision and should be taken as such. However, the highest levels of the driving hierarchy are by nature inaccessible to teacher-centered instruction These levels require more coaching-like education methods where the learner takes the central role and the teacher helps the drivers understand their own abilities and limitations in traffic. Testing and selecting older drivers to enhance safety is not, according to research findings, working in a proper way. Older drivers do not so much need more information concerning traffic rules, etc., but rather better understanding of themselves, their health restrictions, their skills, and their abilities to ensure daily mobility. Their closest companions also need tools to help them in discussions of traffic safety issues affecting older drivers.

  5. Health professionals’ knowledge and attitudes toward older people in primary care in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamri, Badrya H.; Xiao, Lily D.

    2017-01-01

    Previous international studies have indicated that a range of factors influence knowledge and attitudes toward older people were education, past work experiences, and social contact with healthy older people. This article reports on the findings of a literature review in relation to attitudes toward older people among health professionals working in primary healthcare centers in Saudi Arabia. The findings of this narrative literature are reported through 5 themes: the instruments used in the selected studies to measure attitudes toward older people; the instruments used to measure knowledge on ageing; attitudes toward older people; knowledge of the care of older people; and factors that influence knowledge and attitudes toward older people. Further investigation is needed to identify the level of knowledge on ageing, attitudes toward older people, and the factors which affect health professionals’ knowledge and attitudes toward older people in primary healthcare centers in Saudi Arabia. PMID:28251216

  6. Health professionals' knowledge and attitudes toward older people in primary care in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamri, Badrya H; Xiao, Lily D

    2017-03-01

    Previous international studies have indicated that a range of factors influence knowledge and attitudes toward older people were education, past work experiences, and social contact with healthy older people. This article reports on the findings of a literature review in relation to attitudes toward older people among health professionals working in primary healthcare centers in Saudi Arabia. The findings of this narrative literature are reported through 5 themes: the instruments used in the selected studies to measure attitudes toward older people; the instruments used to measure knowledge on ageing; attitudes toward older people; knowledge of the care of older people; and factors that influence knowledge and attitudes toward older people. Further investigation is needed to identify the level of knowledge on ageing, attitudes toward older people, and the factors which affect health professionals' knowledge and attitudes toward older people in primary healthcare centers in Saudi Arabia.

  7. Accumulation of a poly(hydroxyalkanoate) copolymer containing primarily 3-hydroxyvalerate from simple carbohydrate substrates by Rhodococcus sp. NCIMB 40126.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, G W; Anderson, A J; Williams, D R; Dawes, E A; Ewing, D F

    1991-04-01

    A number of taxonomically-related bacteria have been identified which accumulate poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) copolymers containing primarily 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) monomer units from a range of unrelated single carbon sources. One of these, Rhodococcus sp. NCIMB 40126, was further investigated and shown to produce a copolymer containing 75 mol% 3HV and 25 mol% 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) from glucose as sole carbon source. Polyesters containing both 3HV and 3HB monomer units, together with 4-hydroxybutyrate (4HB), 5-hydroxyvalerate (5HV) or 3-hydroxyhexanoate (3HHx), were also produced by this organism from certain accumulation substrates. With valeric acid as substrate, almost pure (99 mol% 3HV) poly(3-hydroxyvalerate) was produced. N.m.r. analysis confirmed the composition of these polyesters. The thermal properties and molecular weight of the copolymer produced from glucose were comparable to those of PHB produced by Alcaligenes eutrophus.

  8. Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Rape Myth Acceptance: Preliminary Findings From a Sample of Primarily LGBQ-Identified Survey Respondents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Corina; Koon-Magnin, Sarah

    2017-02-01

    This study is among the first to examine the relationship between sexual orientation and rape myth adherence using a nationwide survey of primarily lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) respondents (n = 184). The more established Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale and a modified Male Rape Survey serve as the primary instruments to test both rape myth adherence and instrument-appropriateness. Results suggest that respondents were most likely to support myths that discredit sexual assault allegations or excuse rape as a biological imperative and least likely to support myths related to physical resistance. Consistent with previous work, men exhibited higher levels of rape myth adherence than women. Regarding sexual orientation, respondents who identified as queer consistently exhibited lower levels of rape myth adherence than respondents who identified as gay.

  9. Multi-Province Listeriosis Outbreak Linked to Contaminated Deli Meat Consumed Primarily in Institutional Settings, Canada, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Andrea; Farber, Jeffrey M; Nadon, Céline; Sharma, Davendra; Whitfield, Yvonne; Gaulin, Colette; Galanis, Eleni; Bekal, Sadjia; Flint, James; Tschetter, Lorelee; Pagotto, Franco; Lee, Brenda; Jamieson, Fred; Badiani, Tina; MacDonald, Diane; Ellis, Andrea; May-Hadford, Jennifer; McCormick, Rachel; Savelli, Carmen; Middleton, Dean; Allen, Vanessa; Tremblay, Francois-William; MacDougall, Laura; Hoang, Linda; Shyng, Sion; Everett, Doug; Chui, Linda; Louie, Marie; Bangura, Helen; Levett, Paul N; Wilkinson, Krista; Wylie, John; Reid, Janet; Major, Brian; Engel, Dave; Douey, Donna; Huszczynski, George; Di Lecci, Joe; Strazds, Judy; Rousseau, Josée; Ma, Kenneth; Isaac, Leah; Sierpinska, Urszula

    2015-08-01

    A multi-province outbreak of listeriosis occurred in Canada from June to November 2008. Fifty-seven persons were infected with 1 of 3 similar outbreak strains defined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and 24 (42%) individuals died. Forty-one (72%) of 57 individuals were residents of long-term care facilities or hospital inpatients during their exposure period. Descriptive epidemiology, product traceback, and detection of the outbreak strains of Listeria monocytogenes in food samples and the plant environment confirmed delicatessen meat manufactured by one establishment and purchased primarily by institutions was the source of the outbreak. The food safety investigation identified a plant environment conducive to the introduction and proliferation of L. monocytogenes and persistently contaminated with Listeria spp. This outbreak demonstrated the need for improved listeriosis surveillance, strict control of L. monocytogenes in establishments producing ready-to-eat foods, and advice to vulnerable populations and institutions serving these populations regarding which high-risk foods to avoid.

  10. Elements affecting wound healing time: An evidence based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Hanan; Cullen, Marianne; Chambers, Helen; Carroll, Matthew; Walker, Judi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the predominant client factors and comorbidities that affected the time taken for wounds to heal. A prospective study design used the Mobile Wound Care (MWC) database to capture and collate detailed medical histories, comorbidities, healing times and consumable costs for clients with wounds in Gippsland, Victoria. There were 3,726 wounds documented from 2,350 clients, so an average of 1.6 wounds per client. Half (49.6%) of all clients were females, indicating that there were no gender differences in terms of wound prevalence. The clients were primarily older people, with an average age of 64.3 years (ranging between 0.7 and 102.9 years). The majority of the wounds (56%) were acute and described as surgical, crush and trauma. The MWC database categorized the elements that influenced wound healing into 3 groups--factors affecting healing (FAH), comorbidities, and medications known to affect wound healing. While there were a multitude of significant associations, multiple linear regression identified the following key elements: age over 65 years, obesity, nonadherence to treatment plan, peripheral vascular disease, specific wounds associated with pressure/friction/shear, confirmed infection, and cerebrovascular accident (stroke). Wound healing is a complex process that requires a thorough understanding of influencing elements to improve healing times.© 2015 by the Wound Healing Society. © 2015 by the Wound Healing Society.

  11. Development and Sensitivity Analysis of a Frost Risk model based primarily on freely distributed Earth Observation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louka, Panagiota; Petropoulos, George; Papanikolaou, Ioannis

    2015-04-01

    The ability to map the spatiotemporal distribution of extreme climatic conditions, such as frost, is a significant tool in successful agricultural management and decision making. Nowadays, with the development of Earth Observation (EO) technology, it is possible to obtain accurately, timely and in a cost-effective way information on the spatiotemporal distribution of frost conditions, particularly over large and otherwise inaccessible areas. The present study aimed at developing and evaluating a frost risk prediction model, exploiting primarily EO data from MODIS and ASTER sensors and ancillary ground observation data. For the evaluation of our model, a region in north-western Greece was selected as test site and a detailed sensitivity analysis was implemented. The agreement between the model predictions and the observed (remotely sensed) frost frequency obtained by MODIS sensor was evaluated thoroughly. Also, detailed comparisons of the model predictions were performed against reference frost ground observations acquired from the Greek Agricultural Insurance Organization (ELGA) over a period of 10-years (2000-2010). Overall, results evidenced the ability of the model to produce reasonably well the frost conditions, following largely explainable patterns in respect to the study site and local weather conditions characteristics. Implementation of our proposed frost risk model is based primarily on satellite imagery analysis provided nowadays globally at no cost. It is also straightforward and computationally inexpensive, requiring much less effort in comparison for example to field surveying. Finally, the method is adjustable to be potentially integrated with other high resolution data available from both commercial and non-commercial vendors. Keywords: Sensitivity analysis, frost risk mapping, GIS, remote sensing, MODIS, Greece

  12. Overview of persistent pain in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molton, Ivan R; Terrill, Alexandra L

    2014-01-01

    With the shifting age demographics of the U.S. population, more psychologists will be asked to provide clinical services to older adults. Given the high prevalence of persistent pain in aging, in many cases this will mean providing empirically supported interventions for pain and the interference it creates. The purpose of this review is to provide a broad overview of the scope and impact of persistent pain in older people and to discuss mechanisms by which persistent geriatric pain can lead to suffering and disability. We consider the unique context of pain in older adulthood and review differences between older and younger people in terms of pain perception, the social network, beliefs about pain, pain-related coping, and adherence to pain medication. Finally, we discuss special issues affecting pain management in older adults, including dementia, polypharmacy, and barriers to accessing adequate pain care. This review also highlights a need for greater provider training in pain management to meet the needs of a changing U.S. population. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Transitions in Relationships With Older Parents: From Middle to Later Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Merril D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Although intergenerational relationships have been extensively examined, studies applying dynamic multidimensional treatments are rare. Employing the life course framework and the intergenerational solidarity and ambivalence paradigms, a typology of intergenerational relationships was derived and propositions about dynamics of intergenerational relationships were tested. Method. Using latent transition analysis, we modeled 4 waves of panel data spanning 18 years from the Longitudinal Study of Generations to examine how older parent–child relationships (N = 938) transitioned in and out of complex relational configurations. Results. We derived 5 relationship types roughly corresponding to those found in earlier research. Transitions in relationship type occurred mostly when both generations were relatively young, and along the lines of what attachment, ambivalence, and latent kinship theories would predict. When change did occur, it was primarily structured by factors affecting the availability of adult children, as well as circumstances that elevated the dependency of older parents and promoted both positive and negative reactivity in their adult children. Discussion. This study has demonstrated how typological analysis captures both the complexities and dynamics of intergenerational relationships in mature families. By including behavioral, emotional, and normative aspects of later life intergenerational relationships, we told a story that was more about continuity than change. PMID:24958693

  14. Domestic violence and mental health in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Lucy; Hester, Marianne

    2016-10-01

    Domestic violence affects every age group and is present throughout the life span, but, while the mental health impact of domestic violence is clearly established in working age adults, less is known about the nature and impact of domestic violence among older adults. This review, therefore, aimed to synthesize findings on the prevalence, nature, and impact of domestic violence among older adults, and its identification and management. Electronic searches were conducted of Medline, PsycINFO, Cinahl, and Embase to identify studies reporting on the mental health and domestic violence in older adults. Findings suggested that, although prevalence figures are variable, the likely lifetime prevalence for women over the age of 65 is between 20-30%. Physical abuse is suggested to decrease with age, but rates of emotional abuse appear to be stable over the lifespan. Among older adults, domestic violence is strongly associated with physical and mental health problems, and the scarce research comparing the impact of domestic violence across the age cohorts suggests that the physical health of older victims may be more severely affected than younger victims. In contrast, there is evidence that older victims may experience less psychological distress in response to domestic violence than younger victims. Internationally, evidence on the management of domestic violence in older adults is sparse. Findings suggest, however, that identification of domestic violence is poor among older adults, and there are very limited options for onwards referral and support.

  15. Challenges for Older Drivers in Urban, Suburban, and Rural Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi P. Payyanadan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Along with age-related factors, geographical settings—urban, suburban, and rural areas—also contribute to the differences in fatal crashes among older drivers. These differences in crash outcomes might be attributed to the various driving challenges faced by older drivers residing in different locations. To understand these challenges from the perspective of the older driver, a focus group study was conducted with drivers 65 and older from urban, suburban, and rural settings. Guided-group interviews were used to assess driving challenges, mobility options, opportunities for driver support systems (DSS, and alternate transportation needs. Content analysis of the interview responses resulted in four categories representing common challenges faced by older drivers across the settings: behavior of other drivers on the road, placement of road signs, reduced visibility of road signs due to age-related decline, and difficulties using in-vehicle technologies. Six categories involved location-specific challenges such as heavy traffic situations for urban and suburban drivers, and multi-destination trips for rural drivers. Countermeasures implemented by older drivers to address these challenges primarily involved route selection and avoidance. Technological advances of DSS systems provide a unique opportunity to support the information needs for route selection and avoidance preferences of drivers. Using the content analysis results, a framework was built to determine additional and modified DSS features to meet the specific challenges of older drivers in urban, suburban, and rural settings. These findings suggest that there is heterogeneity in the driving challenges and preferences of older drivers based on their location. Consequently, DSS technologies and vehicle automation need to be tailored to not only meet the driving safety and mobility needs of older drivers as a population, but also to their driving environment.

  16. A cross-cultural longitudinal examination of the effect of cumulative adversity on the mental and physical health of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palgi, Yuval; Shrira, Amit

    2016-03-01

    Self-oriented adversity refers to traumatic events that primarily inflict the self, whereas other-oriented adversity refers to events that affect the self by primarily targeting others. The present study aimed to examine whether cultural background moderates the effects of self-oriented and other-oriented adversity on mental and physical health of older adults. Using longitudinal data from the Israeli component of the Survey of Health and Retirement, we focused on 370 Jews and 239 Arabs who reported their exposure to various adversities across the life span, and completed questionnaires regarding mental and physical health. Results showed that the effect of self-oriented adversity on health did not differ among Jews and Arabs. However, other-oriented adversity showed a stronger effect on Arabs' mental and physical health than on Jews' health. Our findings suggest that the accumulation of adverse events that affect the self by primarily targeting others may have a stronger impact in collectivist cultures than in individualist cultures. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Assessing the Prayer Lives of Older Whites, Older Blacks and Older Mexican Americans: A Descriptive Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to see whether differences emerge between older whites, older blacks, and older Mexican Americans in 12 measures of prayer. These measures assess four dimensions of prayer: The social context of prayer, interpersonal aspects of prayer, beliefs about how prayer operates, and the content or focus of prayers. Data from two nationwide surveys of older adults suggest that with respect to all four dimensions, the prayer lives of older whites appear be less developed than the prayer lives of older blacks and older Mexican Americans. In contrast, relatively few differences were found in the prayer lives of older African Americans and older Mexican Americans. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:22523464

  18. Older Consumers Safety Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 한국어 Español ภาษาไทย Tiếng Việt Text Size: Decrease Font Increase Font Contact CPSC Consumers: Businesses: Report an Unsafe Product ... can become entrapped and suffocate in older, latch-type freezers, refrigerators, dryers and coolers. GFCI Fact Sheet ...

  19. Rehabilitation and older people.

    OpenAIRE

    Young, J.

    1996-01-01

    Rehabilitation is concerned with lessening the impact of disabling conditions. These are particularly common in older people and considerable health gain can be achieved by successful rehabilitation. Hospital doctors and general practitioners should be aware of the core principles of rehabilitation, be able to recognise rehabilitation need in their patients, and have sufficient knowledge of their local rehabilitation services to trigger the referral process.

  20. Older people. Courtesy entitles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calnan, Michael; Woolhead, Gillian; Dieppe, Paul

    2003-02-20

    A study of 72 people, with an average age of 72, showed that dignity--and lack of it--were key issues in their estimation of care. Concerns about lack of dignity centred on lack of privacy, mixed sex wards, forms of address and loss of independence. The study suggested that older people do not complain about care for fear of retaliation.

  1. Falls in older people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dieën, Jaap H.; Pijnappels, Mirjam

    Falls are common incidents, which can have major con-sequences. For example, falls and the interrelated category of accidents being struck by or against objects account for more than 40% of injuries and 30% of injury costs in the USA (Corso et al., 2006). Especially among older adults, falls occur

  2. Dance for Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruett, Diane Milhan, Ed.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Dance programs for older adults that encourage exercise and socializing are described in six articles. Program guidelines of the American Alliance Committee on Aging are explained, and other articles emphasize a movement education approach that may involve intergenerational contact. A dance program held in a worship setting is also discussed. (PP)

  3. Adolescent Pornography Use and Dating Violence among a Sample of Primarily Black and Hispanic, Urban-Residing, Underage Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily F. Rothman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study was designed to characterize the pornography viewing preferences of a sample of U.S.-based, urban-residing, economically disadvantaged, primarily Black and Hispanic youth (n = 72, and to assess whether pornography use was associated with experiences of adolescent dating abuse (ADA victimization. The sample was recruited from a large, urban, safety net hospital, and participants were 53% female, 59% Black, 19% Hispanic, 14% Other race, 6% White, and 1% Native American. All were 16–17 years old. More than half (51% had been asked to watch pornography together by a dating or sexual partner, and 44% had been asked to do something sexual that a partner saw in pornography. Adolescent dating abuse (ADA victimization was associated with more frequent pornography use, viewing pornography in the company of others, being asked to perform a sexual act that a partner first saw in pornography, and watching pornography during or after marijuana use. Approximately 50% of ADA victims and 32% of non-victims reported that they had been asked to do a sexual act that their partner saw in pornography (p = 0.15, and 58% did not feel happy to have been asked. Results suggest that weekly pornography use among underage, urban-residing youth is common, and may be associated with ADA victimization.

  4. Adolescent Pornography Use and Dating Violence among a Sample of Primarily Black and Hispanic, Urban-Residing, Underage Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Emily F.; Adhia, Avanti

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was designed to characterize the pornography viewing preferences of a sample of U.S.-based, urban-residing, economically disadvantaged, primarily Black and Hispanic youth (n = 72), and to assess whether pornography use was associated with experiences of adolescent dating abuse (ADA) victimization. The sample was recruited from a large, urban, safety net hospital, and participants were 53% female, 59% Black, 19% Hispanic, 14% Other race, 6% White, and 1% Native American. All were 16–17 years old. More than half (51%) had been asked to watch pornography together by a dating or sexual partner, and 44% had been asked to do something sexual that a partner saw in pornography. Adolescent dating abuse (ADA) victimization was associated with more frequent pornography use, viewing pornography in the company of others, being asked to perform a sexual act that a partner first saw in pornography, and watching pornography during or after marijuana use. Approximately 50% of ADA victims and 32% of non-victims reported that they had been asked to do a sexual act that their partner saw in pornography (p = 0.15), and 58% did not feel happy to have been asked. Results suggest that weekly pornography use among underage, urban-residing youth may be common, and may be associated with ADA victimization. PMID:26703744

  5. Predictors of moderated drinking in a primarily alcohol dependent sample of men who have sex with men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuerbis, Alexis; Morgenstern, Jon; Hail, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Understanding for whom moderated drinking is a viable, achievable, and sustainable goal among those with a range of alcohol use disorders (AUD) remains an important public health question. Despite common acceptance as severe risk factors, there is little empirical evidence to conclude whether co-occurring mental health disorders or drug dependence contribute to an individual’s inability to successfully moderate his drinking. Utilizing secondary data analysis, the purpose of this study was to identify predictors of moderation among both treatment seeking and non-treatment seeking, primarily alcohol dependent, problem drinking men who have sex with men (MSM), with an emphasis on the high risk factors psychiatric comorbidity and drug dependence. Problem drinkers (N=187) were assessed, provided feedback about their drinking, given the option to receive brief AUD treatment or change their drinking on their own, and then followed for 15 months. Findings revealed that neither psychiatric comorbidity or drug dependence predicted ability to achieve moderation when controlling for alcohol dependence severity. Those who were younger, more highly educated, and had more mild alcohol dependence were more likely to achieve moderated drinking. Impact of treatment on predictors is explored. Limitations of this study and arenas for future research are discussed. PMID:22201219

  6. An integrated dementia intervention for Korean older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hee-Young; Bae, Yeong-Suk; Kim, Eun-Hee; Lee, Kap-Soon; Chae, Myeong-Jeong; Ju, Ree-Aie

    2010-12-01

    Called dotage in Korea, dementia is primarily characterized by cognitive impairments. Secondary manifestations include mental-emotional problems, including depression. This study was designed to examine the effects of an integrated dementia intervention for Korean older adults. The intervention is composed of cognitive stimulation training, exercise, music, art, and horticultural therapy. Participants included 38 older adults with mild dementia. Twenty were assigned to the experimental group and 18 to the control group. Participants in the experimental group attended 18 program sessions. Significant differences were found postintervention between the two groups in measures of cognitive function, depression levels, and mental-emotional health. The findings indicate that this integrated dementia intervention can be applied to help older adults with mild dementia. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Salinity-induced inhibition of growth in the aquatic pteridophyte Azolla microphylla primarily involves inhibition of photosynthetic components and signaling molecules as revealed by proteome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thagela, Preeti; Yadav, Ravindra Kumar; Mishra, Vagish; Dahuja, Anil; Ahmad, Altaf; Singh, Pawan Kumar; Tiwari, Budhi Sagar; Abraham, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    Salinity stress causes adverse physiological and biochemical changes in the growth and productivity of a plant. Azolla, a symbiotic pteridophyte and potent candidate for biofertilizer due to its nitrogen fixation ability, shows reduced growth and nitrogen fixation during saline stress. To better understand regulatory components involved in salinity-induced physiological changes, in the present study, Azolla microphylla plants were exposed to NaCl (6.74 and 8.61 ds/m) and growth, photochemical reactions of photosynthesis, ion accumulation, and changes in cellular proteome were studied. Maximum dry weight was accumulated in control and untreated plant while a substantial decrease in dry weight was observed in the plants exposed to salinity. Exposure of the organism to different concentrations of salt in hydroponic conditions resulted in differential level of Na + and K + ion accumulation. Comparative analysis of salinity-induced proteome changes in A. microphylla revealed 58 salt responsive proteins which were differentially expressed during the salt exposure. Moreover, 42 % spots among differentially expressed proteins were involved in different signaling events. The identified proteins are involved in photosynthesis, energy metabolism, amino acid biosynthesis, protein synthesis, and defense. Downregulation of these key metabolic proteins appears to inhibit the growth of A. microphylla in response to salinity. Altogether, the study revealed that in Azolla, increased salinity primarily affected signaling and photosynthesis that in turn leads to reduced biomass.

  8. Cancer: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A to Z › Cancer › Unique to Older Adults Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Unique ... group with other older people with the same type of cancer. Researchers have found that support groups ...

  9. Alcohol and older drivers' crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Researchers have examined the effects of alcohol consumption : on older adults functioning, and some have : addressed alcohols effects on older drivers crash risk. : Generally, the findings have shown that alcohol is less : likely to be a fa...

  10. Affective ambiences created with lighting for older people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijsters, A.; Redi, J.; Ruyter, B.E.R. de; Seuntiens, P.; Heynderickx, I.

    2015-01-01

    Current lighting technologies provide huge flexibility in creating ambiences that may be adapted to the needs of an occupant in a room. These ambiences not only satisfy visual needs, but may also improve people’s well-being. This paper describes one possible application of adaptable light ambiences,

  11. Inward Rectifier K+ Currents Are Regulated by CaMKII in Endothelial Cells of Primarily Cultured Bovine Pulmonary Arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Lihui; Yu, Lei; Wang, Yanli; Jin, Xin; Zhang, Qianlong; Lu, Ping; Yu, Xiufeng; Zhong, Weiwei; Zheng, Xiaodong; Cui, Ningren; Jiang, Chun; Zhu, Daling

    2015-01-01

    Endothelium lines the interior surface of vascular walls and regulates vascular tones. The endothelial cells sense and respond to chemical and mechanical stimuli in the circulation, and couple the stimulus signals to vascular smooth muscles, in which inward rectifier K+ currents (Kir) play an important role. Here we applied several complementary strategies to determine the Kir subunit in primarily cultured pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAECs) that was regulated by the Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). In whole-cell voltage clamp, the Kir currents were sensitive to micromolar concentrations of extracellular Ba2+. In excised inside-out patches, an inward rectifier K+ current was observed with single-channel conductance 32.43 ± 0.45 pS and Popen 0.27 ± 0.04, which were consistent with known unitary conductance of Kir 2.1. RT-PCR and western blot results showed that expression of Kir 2.1 was significantly stronger than that of other subtypes in PAECs. Pharmacological analysis of the Kir currents demonstrated that insensitivity to intracellular ATP, pinacidil, glibenclamide, pH, GDP-β-S and choleratoxin suggested that currents weren't determined by KATP, Kir2.3, Kir2.4 and Kir3.x. The currents were strongly suppressed by exposure to CaMKII inhibitor W-7 and KN-62. The expression of Kir2.1 was inhibited by knocking down CaMKII. Consistently, vasodilation was suppressed by Ba2+, W-7 and KN-62 in isolated and perfused pulmonary arterial rings. These results suggest that the PAECs express an inward rectifier K+ current that is carried dominantly by Kir2.1, and this K+ channel appears to be targeted by CaMKII-dependent intracellular signaling systems.

  12. Inward Rectifier K+ Currents Are Regulated by CaMKII in Endothelial Cells of Primarily Cultured Bovine Pulmonary Arteries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihui Qu

    Full Text Available Endothelium lines the interior surface of vascular walls and regulates vascular tones. The endothelial cells sense and respond to chemical and mechanical stimuli in the circulation, and couple the stimulus signals to vascular smooth muscles, in which inward rectifier K+ currents (Kir play an important role. Here we applied several complementary strategies to determine the Kir subunit in primarily cultured pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAECs that was regulated by the Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII. In whole-cell voltage clamp, the Kir currents were sensitive to micromolar concentrations of extracellular Ba2+. In excised inside-out patches, an inward rectifier K+ current was observed with single-channel conductance 32.43 ± 0.45 pS and Popen 0.27 ± 0.04, which were consistent with known unitary conductance of Kir 2.1. RT-PCR and western blot results showed that expression of Kir 2.1 was significantly stronger than that of other subtypes in PAECs. Pharmacological analysis of the Kir currents demonstrated that insensitivity to intracellular ATP, pinacidil, glibenclamide, pH, GDP-β-S and choleratoxin suggested that currents weren't determined by KATP, Kir2.3, Kir2.4 and Kir3.x. The currents were strongly suppressed by exposure to CaMKII inhibitor W-7 and KN-62. The expression of Kir2.1 was inhibited by knocking down CaMKII. Consistently, vasodilation was suppressed by Ba2+, W-7 and KN-62 in isolated and perfused pulmonary arterial rings. These results suggest that the PAECs express an inward rectifier K+ current that is carried dominantly by Kir2.1, and this K+ channel appears to be targeted by CaMKII-dependent intracellular signaling systems.

  13. Y-Chromosomal Diversity in Europe Is Clinal and Influenced Primarily by Geography, Rather than by Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Zoë H.; Zerjal, Tatiana; Hurles, Matthew E.; Adojaan, Maarja; Alavantic, Dragan; Amorim, António; Amos, William; Armenteros, Manuel; Arroyo, Eduardo; Barbujani, Guido; Beckman, Gunhild; Beckman, Lars; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Bosch, Elena; Bradley, Daniel G.; Brede, Gaute; Cooper, Gillian; Côrte-Real, Helena B. S. M.; de Knijff, Peter; Decorte, Ronny; Dubrova, Yuri E.; Evgrafov, Oleg; Gilissen, Anja; Glisic, Sanja; Gölge, Mukaddes; Hill, Emmeline W.; Jeziorowska, Anna; Kalaydjieva, Luba; Kayser, Manfred; Kivisild, Toomas; Kravchenko, Sergey A.; Krumina, Astrida; Kučinskas, Vaidutis; Lavinha, João; Livshits, Ludmila A.; Malaspina, Patrizia; Maria, Syrrou; McElreavey, Ken; Meitinger, Thomas A.; Mikelsaar, Aavo-Valdur; Mitchell, R. John; Nafa, Khedoudja; Nicholson, Jayne; Nørby, Søren; Pandya, Arpita; Parik, Jüri; Patsalis, Philippos C.; Pereira, Luísa; Peterlin, Borut; Pielberg, Gerli; Prata, Maria João; Previderé, Carlo; Roewer, Lutz; Rootsi, Siiri; Rubinsztein, D. C.; Saillard, Juliette; Santos, Fabrício R.; Stefanescu, Gheorghe; Sykes, Bryan C.; Tolun, Aslihan; Villems, Richard; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Jobling, Mark A.

    2000-01-01

    Clinal patterns of autosomal genetic diversity within Europe have been interpreted in previous studies in terms of a Neolithic demic diffusion model for the spread of agriculture; in contrast, studies using mtDNA have traced many founding lineages to the Paleolithic and have not shown strongly clinal variation. We have used 11 human Y-chromosomal biallelic polymorphisms, defining 10 haplogroups, to analyze a sample of 3,616 Y chromosomes belonging to 47 European and circum-European populations. Patterns of geographic differentiation are highly nonrandom, and, when they are assessed using spatial autocorrelation analysis, they show significant clines for five of six haplogroups analyzed. Clines for two haplogroups, representing 45% of the chromosomes, are continentwide and consistent with the demic diffusion hypothesis. Clines for three other haplogroups each have different foci and are more regionally restricted and are likely to reflect distinct population movements, including one from north of the Black Sea. Principal-components analysis suggests that populations are related primarily on the basis of geography, rather than on the basis of linguistic affinity. This is confirmed in Mantel tests, which show a strong and highly significant partial correlation between genetics and geography but a low, nonsignificant partial correlation between genetics and language. Genetic-barrier analysis also indicates the primacy of geography in the shaping of patterns of variation. These patterns retain a strong signal of expansion from the Near East but also suggest that the demographic history of Europe has been complex and influenced by other major population movements, as well as by linguistic and geographic heterogeneities and the effects of drift. PMID:11078479

  14. Social Media Use and its Association with Sexual Risk and Parental Monitoring among a Primarily Hispanic Adolescent Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo, Dina L; Garnett, Chelsea; Younger, Alayna P; Stockwell, Melissa S; Soren, Karen; Catallozzi, Marina; Neu, Natalie

    2017-08-01

    In this study we assessed the association between social media (SM) use with sexual risk, and with parental monitoring among Hispanic adolescents. Self-administered anonymous survey. Urban primary care clinics. Primarily Hispanic adolescents ages 13-21 years old. Chi-square and regression analyses controlling for age and gender were used to assess associations between SM use or sexting and sexual behaviors (kissing, touching genitals, vaginal oral, and anal sex), sexual risk (≥4 lifetime partners, >1 recent partner, inconsistent condom use, and history of sexually transmitted infection diagnosis) and contraceptive use. Similar analyses were used to assess relationships between adolescent-reported parental monitoring and SM use, and sexting. Participants with frequent SM use (social networking sites or apps) had greater odds of all sexual activity. Ever sexters had greater odds of penetrative sex only (oral, vaginal, and anal sex) as well as use of hormonal contraception (except long-acting reversible contraception). Approximately half of the participants reported parental access to profiles on SM. Female participants had higher odds of parental access to online profiles and having a parental discussion of privacy settings. Those having privacy discussions had greater odds of "private" profiles on SM and lower odds of ever sexting. Frequent SM use and sexting was associated with an increase in all types of sexual behaviors; sexting alone was associated with more lifetime and recent sexual partners. Parental discussion of privacy settings was found to be protective. Providers and parents should be aware of the effect of SM use on sexual behaviors. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Lifelong Learning and Older Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmel, Tom; Woods, Davinia

    2004-01-01

    Discussion about Australia's ageing population has focused on the importance of increasing labour force participation rates of older people. This paper examines the influence of education and training on the participation of older people in the labour market, and the pay-off of undertaking education and training as an older-person compared to…

  16. Familism and Health Care Provision to Hispanic Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Brittany; Foli, Karen J; Edwards, Nancy E; Abrahamson, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    The Hispanic older adult population's rapid growth calls for an awareness of values that can affect the rendering and receipt of care. Familism, or familismo, a traditional Hispanic value, places importance of family over the self and can potentially affect health care perceptions and practices for Hispanic older adults. The current article discusses familism, which is upheld by some Hispanic older adults, and the potential for underuse of health care services. The traditional feminine role, marianismo, and masculine role, machismo, are considered, as well as implications for how decision making may be made by family members rather than the patient. Clinical implications for the provision of health care to Hispanic older adults are provided, along with the importance of considering acculturation and ethnic heterogeneity. Health care management strategies that reflect recognition and respect of familism, yet emphasize optimization of adherence and self-care, are described. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Patterns of effective connectivity during memory encoding and retrieval differ between patients with mild cognitive impairment and healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampstead, B M; Khoshnoodi, M; Yan, W; Deshpande, G; Sathian, K

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that there is considerable overlap in the neural networks mediating successful memory encoding and retrieval. However, little is known about how the relevant human brain regions interact during these distinct phases of memory or how such interactions are affected by memory deficits that characterize mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a condition that often precedes dementia due to Alzheimer's disease. Here we employed multivariate Granger causality analysis using autoregressive modeling of inferred neuronal time series obtained by deconvolving the hemodynamic response function from measured blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) time series data, in order to examine the effective connectivity between brain regions during successful encoding and/or retrieval of object location associations in MCI patients and comparable healthy older adults. During encoding, healthy older adults demonstrated a left hemisphere dominant pattern where the inferior frontal junction, anterior intraparietal sulcus (likely involving the parietal eye fields), and posterior cingulate cortex drove activation in most left hemisphere regions and virtually every right hemisphere region tested. These regions are part of a frontoparietal network that mediates top-down cognitive control and is implicated in successful memory formation. In contrast, in the MCI patients, the right frontal eye field drove activation in every left hemisphere region examined, suggesting reliance on more basic visual search processes. Retrieval in the healthy older adults was primarily driven by the right hippocampus with lesser contributions of the right anterior thalamic nuclei and right inferior frontal sulcus, consistent with theoretical models holding the hippocampus as critical for the successful retrieval of memories. The pattern differed in MCI patients, in whom the right inferior frontal junction and right anterior thalamus drove successful memory retrieval, reflecting the

  18. The Muscle Metabolome Differs between Healthy and Frail Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazelzadeh, Parastoo; Hangelbroek, Roland W J; Tieland, Michael; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Verdijk, Lex B; van Loon, Luc J C; Smilde, Age K; Alves, Rodrigo D A M; Vervoort, Jacques; Müller, Michael; van Duynhoven, John P M; Boekschoten, Mark V

    2016-02-05

    Populations around the world are aging rapidly. Age-related loss of physiological functions negatively affects quality of life. A major contributor to the frailty syndrome of aging is loss of skeletal muscle. In this study we assessed the skeletal muscle biopsy metabolome of healthy young, healthy older and frail older subjects to determine the effect of age and frailty on the metabolic signature of skeletal muscle tissue. In addition, the effects of prolonged whole-body resistance-type exercise training on the muscle metabolome of older subjects were examined. The baseline metabolome was measured in muscle biopsies collected from 30 young, 66 healthy older subjects, and 43 frail older subjects. Follow-up samples from frail older (24 samples) and healthy older subjects (38 samples) were collected after 6 months of prolonged resistance-type exercise training. Young subjects were included as a reference group. Primary differences in skeletal muscle metabolite levels between young and healthy older subjects were related to mitochondrial function, muscle fiber type, and tissue turnover. Similar differences were observed when comparing frail older subjects with healthy older subjects at baseline. Prolonged resistance-type exercise training resulted in an adaptive response of amino acid metabolism, especially reflected in branched chain amino acids and genes related to tissue remodeling. The effect of exercise training on branched-chain amino acid-derived acylcarnitines in older subjects points to a downward shift in branched-chain amino acid catabolism upon training. We observed only modest correlations between muscle and plasma metabolite levels, which pleads against the use of plasma metabolites as a direct read-out of muscle metabolism and stresses the need for direct assessment of metabolites in muscle tissue biopsies.

  19. 49 CFR 37.195 - Purchase or lease of OTRBs by private entities not primarily in the business of transporting people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... primarily in the business of transporting people. 37.195 Section 37.195 Transportation Office of the... transporting people. This section applies to all purchases or leases of new vehicles by private entities which are not primarily engaged in the business of transporting people, with respect to buses delivered to...

  20. HIV Infection and Older Americans: The Public Health Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchacz, Kate; Gebo, Kelly A.; Mermin, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    HIV disease is often perceived as a condition affecting young adults. However, approximately 11% of new infections occur in adults aged 50 years or older. Among persons living with HIV disease, it is estimated that more than half will be aged 50 years or older in the near future. In this review, we highlight issues related to HIV prevention and treatment for HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected older Americans, and outline unique considerations and emerging challenges for public health and patient management in these 2 populations. PMID:22698038

  1. Tackling malnutrition among older people in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Anna

    2007-03-01

    Undernutrition - of both macronutrients and micronutrients - is still a surprisingly common problem among older people in the UK. There is a variety of nutritional supplements that community nurses need to be aware of in managing their patients' nutritional requirements. Different supplements are taken for different disease states. This article looks at the various nutrient and energy requirements that relate directly to clients on the district nurse's caseload. Some of the negative consequences of malnutrition of the older adult are discussed, as are the NICE guidelines for nutrition. Factors affecting dietary intake in older people are considered.

  2. FEAR OF FALLING AMONG COMMUNITY DWELLING OLDER ADULTS

    OpenAIRE

    Michaela Dingová; Eva Králová

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to describe experience with falls, fear of falling, perceptions of the consequences of falls and how the fear of falling affects daily life in community-dwelling older adults. Design: The study used a qualitative design to describe the lived experiences of community-dwelling older adults with the fear of falling. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted individually with six participants who reported the fear of falling. Results: Five main areas emerged...

  3. Family Support and Loneliness among Older Persons in Multiethnic Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Teh, Jane Kimm Lii; Tey, Nai Peng; Ng, Sor Tho

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates factors affecting older persons' state of loneliness in multiethnic Malaysia using data from the 2004 Malaysian Population and Family Survey, the first nationally representative sample in Malaysia. The study sample was extracted to include Malays, Chinese, Indians and other Indigenous groups aged 60 and above, and who had children (n = 1791). Cross tabulations and ordinal logistic regression methods were used in the analysis. Among the ethnic groups, older Malays were ...

  4. Vaccines for Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worz, Chad; Martin, Caren McHenry; Travis, Catherine

    2017-09-01

    Several vaccine-preventable diseases-influenza, pneumonia, herpes zoster, and pertussis-threaten the health of older adults in the United States. Both the costs associated with treating these diseases and the potential to increase morbidity and mortality are high for this patient population. Pharmacists and other health care professionals play a significant role in ensuring the elderly patient receives the recommended vaccines at the recommended intervals.

  5. Older Consumers in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    David R. Phillips; Fon Sim Ong

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to understand the concerns and problems faced by older people in an industrializing middle-income country, Malaysia, in their process of acquiring products to meet their everyday needs. Respondents aged 55 and over were interviewed in eight states throughout Peninsular Malaysia providing 1356 usable questionnaires; two-thirds from urban and one-third from rural areas. Education, health status, and life satisfaction were recorded. Service patronage behaviou...

  6. TRPA1 is functionally expressed primarily by IB4-binding, non-peptidergic mouse and rat sensory neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie E Barabas

    functionally expressed primarily in the IB4-positive, CGRP-negative subpopulation of small lumbar DRG neurons from rodents. Thus, IB4 binding is a better indicator than neuropeptides for TRPA1 expression.

  7. TRPA1 Is Functionally Expressed Primarily by IB4-Binding, Non-Peptidergic Mouse and Rat Sensory Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky, Cheryl L.

    2012-01-01

    primarily in the IB4-positive, CGRP-negative subpopulation of small lumbar DRG neurons from rodents. Thus, IB4 binding is a better indicator than neuropeptides for TRPA1 expression. PMID:23133534

  8. Obesity Prevention in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Stella Lucia; Sukumar, Deeptha; Milliron, Brandy-Joe

    2016-06-01

    The number of older adults living in the USA, 65 years of age and older, has been steadily increasing. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007-2010, indicate that more than one-third of older adults, 65 years of age and older, were obese. With the increased rate of obesity in older adults, the purpose of this paper is to present research on different methods to prevent or manage obesity in older adults, namely dietary interventions, physical activity interventions, and a combination of dietary and physical activity interventions. In addition, research on community assistance programs in the prevention of obesity with aging will be discussed. Finally, data on federal programs for older adults will also be presented.

  9. Transport of thyroxine across the blood-brain barrier is directed primarily from brain to blood in the mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banks, W.A.; Kastin, A.J.; Michals, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    The role of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in the transport of thyroxine was examined in mice. Radioiodinated (hot thyroxine (hT 4 ) administered icv had a half-time disappearance from the brain of 30 min. This increased to 60 min (p 4 ). The Km for this inhibition of hT 4 transport out of the brain by cT 4 was 9.66 pmole/brain. Unlabeled 3,3',5 triiodothyronine (cT 3 ) was unable to inhibit transport of hT 4 out of the brain, although both cT 3 (p 4 (p 3 ) to a small degree. Entry of hT 4 into the brain after peripheral administration was negligible and was not affected by either cT 4 nor cT 3 . By contrast, the entry of hT 3 into the brain after peripheral administration was inhibited by cT 3 (p 4 (p < 0.01). The levels of the unlabeled thyroid hormones administered centrally in these studies did not affect bulk flow, as assessed by labeled red blood cells (/sup 99m/Tc-RBC), or the carrier mediated transport of iodide out of the brain. Likewise, the vascular space of the brain and body, as assessed by /sup 99m/Tc-RBC, was unchanged by the levels of peripherally administered unlabeled thyroid hormones. Therefore, the results of these studies are not due to generalized effects of thyroid hormones on BBB transport. The results indicate that in the mouse the major carrier-mediated system for thyroxine in the BBB transports thyroxine out of the brain, while the major system for triiodothyronine transports hormone into the brain. 14 references, 3 figures, 2 tables

  10. Interrelations of stress, optimism and control in older people's psychological adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretherton, Susan Jane; McLean, Louise Anne

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the influence of perceived stress, optimism and perceived control of internal states on the psychological adjustment of older adults. The sample consisted of 212 older adults, aged between 58 and 103 (M = 80.42 years, SD = 7.31 years), living primarily in retirement villages in Melbourne, Victoria. Participants completed the Perceived Stress Scale, Life Orientation Test-Revised, Perceived Control of Internal States Scale and the World Health Organisation Quality of Life-Bref. Optimism significantly mediated the relationship between older people's perceived stress and psychological health, and perceived control of internal states mediated the relationships among stress, optimism and psychological health. The variables explained 49% of the variance in older people's psychological adjustment. It is suggested that strategies to improve optimism and perceived control may improve the psychological adjustment of older people struggling to adapt to life's stressors. © 2014 ACOTA.

  11. Affective Urbanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    Urban design and architecture are increasingly used as material and affective strategies for setting the scene, for manipulation and the production of urban life: The orchestration of atmospheres, the framing and staging of urban actions, the programming for contemplation, involvement, play......, experience and consumption are all strategic design tools applied by planners and architects. Whereas urban design in former modernist planning served merely functional or political means, urban design has increasingly become an aesthetical mediator of ideologies embedded in the urban field of life forces....... Under these circumstances affective aesthetics operate strategically within the urban field of interests, capital flows and desires of the social. This ‘affective urbanism’ (Anderson & Holden 2008) is linked to a society influenced by new kinds of information flows, where culture is mediated and enacted...

  12. Decision support aids with anthropomorphic characteristics influence trust and performance in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Richard; Fink, Nicole; Price, Margaux; Bass, Brock; Sturre, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the use of deliberately anthropomorphic automation on younger and older adults' trust, dependence and performance on a diabetes decision-making task. Research with anthropomorphic interface agents has shown mixed effects in judgments of preferences but has rarely examined effects on performance. Meanwhile, research in automation has shown some forms of anthropomorphism (e.g. etiquette) have effects on trust and dependence on automation. Participants answered diabetes questions with no-aid, a non-anthropomorphic aid or an anthropomorphised aid. Trust and dependence in the aid was measured. A minimally anthropomorphic aide primarily affected younger adults' trust in the aid. Dependence, however, for both age groups was influenced by the anthropomorphic aid. Automation that deliberately embodies person-like characteristics can influence trust and dependence on reasonably reliable automation. However, further research is necessary to better understand the specific aspects of the aid that affect different age groups. Automation that embodies human-like characteristics may be useful in situations where there is under-utilisation of reasonably reliable aids by enhancing trust and dependence in that aid. Practitioner Summary: The design of decision-support aids on consumer devices (e.g. smartphones) may influence the level of trust that users place in that system and their amount of use. This study is the first step in articulating how the design of aids may influence user's trust and use of such systems.

  13. Older persons' definitions and explanations of elder abuse in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysyuk, Yuliya; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Lindenberg, Jolanda

    2016-01-01

    In this article we explore older persons' definitions of and explanations for elder abuse in the Netherlands by means of interviews with older persons. A qualitative study was conducted based on semistructured interviews with 35 older persons who had no experience with abuse. Our findings show that older persons participating in our study define elder abuse foremost as physical violence that is performed intentionally. The study participants explain elder abuse as a result of the dependency and vulnerability of older persons, of changing norms and values, and of changes in the position of older persons in society, which result in disrespect toward older persons and a lack of social control and responsibility. The older persons' explanations for the occurrence of abuse mainly focus on societal changes; older persons seem to regard elder abuse primarily as a societal problem. This understanding of, and explanation for, elder abuse may influence their detection and reporting behavior, as they may tend to acknowledge only severe cases of intentional physical violence that leave clear and therefore physically detectable evidence.

  14. Towards enhanced emotional interactions with older persons: findings from a nursing intervention in home health care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenvliet, C.; Eide, H.; Lange, M.A. de; Dulmen, S. van

    2016-01-01

    Background. Living at home with a physical condition that requires assistance places high emotional burden on older persons that needs to be attended to by nurses. However, nurses in home health care have previously been found to communicate primarily in an instrumental way. This increases the risk

  15. Affect Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe Holm; Poulsen, Stig Bernt; Lunn, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Gergely and colleagues’ state that their Social Biofeedback Theory of Parental Affect Mirroring” can be seen as a kind of operationalization of the classical psychoanalytic concepts of holding, containing and mirroring. This article examines to what extent the social biofeedback theory of parenta...

  16. Older Consumers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Phillips

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to understand the concerns and problems faced by older people in an industrializing middle-income country, Malaysia, in their process of acquiring products to meet their everyday needs. Respondents aged 55 and over were interviewed in eight states throughout Peninsular Malaysia providing 1356 usable questionnaires; two-thirds from urban and one-third from rural areas. Education, health status, and life satisfaction were recorded. Service patronage behaviour was examined for four main categories of commonly-sought consumer goods: groceries, health supplements, apparel, eating outlets, plus selected services (public transport, vacation packages and financial services. The findings showed that older adults in Malaysia are rather discerning consumers. Many respondents are price conscious and have developed consumer attitudes with regard to attitude of staff and assistance rendered. Many display a good ability to discriminate and to select, especially on the basis of price and durability of products and many appear to be acting as effectively as consumers in any other age group.

  17. CPAP Adherence is Associated With Attentional Improvements in a Group of Primarily Male Patients With Moderate to Severe OSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deering, Sean; Liu, Lin; Zamora, Tania; Hamilton, Joanne; Stepnowsky, Carl

    2017-12-15

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a widespread condition that adversely affects physical health and cognitive functioning. The prevailing treatment for OSA is continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), but therapeutic benefits are dependent on consistent use. Our goal was to investigate the relationship between CPAP adherence and measures of sustained attention in patients with OSA. Our hypothesis was that the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) would be sensitive to attention-related improvements resulting from CPAP use. This study was a secondary analysis of a larger clinical trial. Treatment adherence was determined from CPAP use data. Validated sleep-related questionnaires and a sustained-attention and alertness test (PVT) were administered to participants at baseline and at the 6-month time point. Over a 6-month time period, the average CPAP adherence was 3.32 h/night (standard deviation [SD] = 2.53), average improvement in PVT minor lapses was -4.77 (SD = 13.2), and average improvement in PVT reaction time was -73.1 milliseconds (standard deviation = 211). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that higher CPAP adherence was significantly associated with a greater reduction in minor lapses in attention after 6 months of continuous treatment with CPAP therapy (β = -0.72, standard error = 0.34, P = .037). The results of this study showed that higher levels of CPAP adherence were associated with significant improvements in vigilance. Because the PVT is a performance-based measure that is not influenced by prior learning and is not subjective, it may be an important supplement to patient self-reported assessments. Name: Effect of Self-Management on Improving Sleep Apnea Outcomes, URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00310310, Identifier: NCT00310310. © 2017 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

  18. The role of older siblings in infant motor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Hayley C; Hill, Elisabeth L

    2016-12-01

    Previous research has suggested that infant motor skills may be affected by older siblings but has not considered whether this is due to specific characteristics of the older sibling or of the quality of the sibling relationship. The current study used a longitudinal diary method to record infant motor milestones from 23 infants with older siblings along with parent reports and standardized assessments of motor skills. Parent reports of the older siblings' motor skills and the sibling relationship were also collected until the infants were 18months old. The motor skills, age, and sex of the older siblings were not significantly related to any measure of infant motor development. A significant correlation was revealed between perceived agonism between siblings and infant fine motor skills at 18months, suggesting the importance of considering reciprocal effects of motor development on sibling relationships. Overall, the suggestion that older siblings may provide a good model of motor skills for infants is not supported by the current data. In the future, it will be important to assess the dynamic interactions between different factors in predicting infant motor development, allowing early identification of motor difficulties, which could affect other areas of cognitive development and health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. "Heart trouble" and religious involvement among older white men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Edward H; Killgore, Leslie; Connors, Heather

    2009-09-01

    Objective Few studies examine how older adults' health status affects spiritual and religious involvement. This study examined the effects of gender and poor cardiac health on older adults' ends, means, and quest religious motivations and frequency of private devotion. Method Longitudinal data (12 months between the T1 and T2 interviews) with 182 older adults sampled from a Northeast city were used to examine in a multivariate analysis of covariance whether gender and the existence of cardiac health problems at T1 affected older adults' spiritual and religious involvement at T2. Findings A gender and cardiac health condition interaction showed older men with heart trouble had more changes in religious involvement-they engaged in more religious doubt, prayed less, and were not as intrinsically oriented at T2. Discussion The findings strongly suggest that older men with heart trouble may maintain a masculine style and shun seeking divine help.

  20. Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Soo Kim

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the near future, the majority of patients with diabetes will be adults aged 65 or older. Unlike young adults with diabetes, elderly diabetic people may be affected by a variety of comorbid conditions such as depression, cognitive impairment, muscle weakness (sarcopenia, falls and fractures, and physical frailty. These geriatric syndromes should be considered in the establishment of treatment goals in older adults with diabetes. Although there are several guidelines for the management of diabetes, only a few are specifically designed for the elderly with diabetes. In this review, we present specific conditions of elderly diabetes which should be taken into account in the management of diabetes in older adults. We also present advantages and disadvantages of various glucose-lowering agents that should be considered when choosing a proper regimen for older adults with diabetes.

  1. Feelings of Gratitude Toward God Among Older Whites, Older African Americans, and Older Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal

    2012-03-01

    The first goal of this study is to see if social relationships in the church influence feelings of gratitude toward God. The second goal is to assess the impact of race and ethnicity on this relationship. The data support the following hypotheses: (1) older people who go to church more often tend to receive more spiritual support from fellow church members; (2) older adults who receive more spiritual support at church will derive a deeper understanding of themselves and others; (3) older people who develop greater insight into themselves and others will derive a greater sense of religious meaning in life; and (4) older adults who develop a deeper sense of religious meaning in life will feel more grateful to God. The results also indicate that the study model explains how feelings of gratitude toward God arise among older blacks and whites, but not older Mexican Americans.

  2. Feelings of Gratitude Toward God Among Older Whites, Older African Americans, and Older Mexican Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal

    2011-01-01

    The first goal of this study is to see if social relationships in the church influence feelings of gratitude toward God. The second goal is to assess the impact of race and ethnicity on this relationship. The data support the following hypotheses: (1) older people who go to church more often tend to receive more spiritual support from fellow church members; (2) older adults who receive more spiritual support at church will derive a deeper understanding of themselves and others; (3) older people who develop greater insight into themselves and others will derive a greater sense of religious meaning in life; and (4) older adults who develop a deeper sense of religious meaning in life will feel more grateful to God. The results also indicate that the study model explains how feelings of gratitude toward God arise among older blacks and whites, but not older Mexican Americans. PMID:23543840

  3. Visual complexity, player experience, performance and physical exertion in motion-based games for older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Smeddinck, Jan D.; Gerling, Kathrin M.; Tiemkeo, Saranat

    2013-01-01

    Motion-based video games can have a variety of benefits for the players and are increasingly applied in physical therapy, rehabilitation and prevention for older adults. However, little is known about how this audience experiences playing such games, how the player experience affects the way older adults interact with motion-based games, and how this can relate to therapy goals. In our work, we decompose the player experience of older adults engaging with motion-based games, focusing on the e...

  4. Relationships of exercise with frailty, depression, and cognitive function in older women

    OpenAIRE

    Jeoung, Bog Ja

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to provide basic data to identify which types of exercise promote health of older adults. To this end, this study investigated how exercise affects frailty, depression, and cognitive functions in older adults. Frailty, depression, and cognitive function assessed in the exercise participants, 164 older adult women. Results revealed that participants’ frailty and depression varied according to exercise participation time and frequency. In particular, dancing...

  5. Sexuality in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Sapetti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Just as the body and its functions undergo changes with age, in the same way sexuality shares this aging process. However, remember a golden rule that we are sexual since we are born until we die; only possibilities are modified with the passage of the years. This article intends to show the changes that occur in the sexual response of the elderly. If sexual life during youth was pleasant and satisfactory this will condition sexuality in the socalled third age and the elderly seek to maintain it, this is not the case for those who had a dysfunctional past. This article briefly describes the andropause and the SIM, vicissitudes, changes and differences in sexual response and chances to maintain eroticism in the older adult. 

  6. Marketing to Older American Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Barbara; Stephens, Nancy

    1986-01-01

    Examined older adults as a potential market for American businesses. Data indicate that in terms of size and income, senior citizens comprise a substantial buying group. Their buying styles, product and service needs, and shopping behavior vary from younger adults and within the older adult population. Strategies for successful marketing are…

  7. AIDS and the Older Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allers, Christopher T.

    1990-01-01

    Older adults are finding themselves the neighbors of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients as well as the primary caregivers of infected adult children. Focuses on roles, issues, and conflicts older adults face in dealing with relatives or neighbors with AIDS. Case management and educational intervention strategies are also offered.…

  8. Clinical Interviewing with Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohlman, Jan; Sirota, Karen Gainer; Papp, Laszlo A.; Staples, Alison M.; King, Arlene; Gorenstein, Ethan E.

    2012-01-01

    Over the next few decades the older adult population will increase dramatically, and prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders are also expected to increase in the elderly cohort. These demographic projections highlight the need for diagnostic instruments and methods that are specifically tailored to older adults. The current paper discusses the…

  9. Affective Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    . In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human made disasters has become one of the focal point of affective knowledge production. These ‘more-than-humangeographies’ practices include notions of species, space and territory, and movement towards a new political ecology. This type...... of digital cartographies has been highlighted as the ‘processual turn’ in critical cartography, whereas in related computational journalism it can be seen as an interactive and iterative process of mapping complex and fragile ecological developments. This paper looks at computer-assisted cartography as part...

  10. Reminiscence functions and the health of Israeli Holocaust survivors as compared to other older Israelis and older Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Norm; Bachner, Yaacov G; Cappeliez, Philippe; Chaudhury, Habib; Carmel, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Existing research with English-speaking samples indicates that various ways in which older adults recall their past affect both their physical and mental health. Self-positive reminiscence functions (i.e. identity, problem-solving, death preparation) correlate and predict mental health in later life whereas self-negative functions (i.e. bitterness revival, boredom reduction, intimacy maintenance) correlate and predict the physical health of older adults. For this study, we recruited 295 Israeli Holocaust survivors to ascertain if early life trauma affects these associations between reminiscence and health. In order to distinguish cross-national differences from survivor-specific effects, we also recruited two comparative samples of other older Israelis (not Holocaust survivors; n = 205) and a second comparative sample of 335 older Canadians. Three separate structural equation models were computed to replicate this tripartite reminiscence and health model. Coefficients for self-negative functions significantly differed between survivors and both Canadians and other older Israelis, and between Canadians and both Israeli samples. However, no differences were found between prosocial and self-positive functions. Moreover, the higher order structure of reminiscence and health appears largely indistinguishable across these three groups. Early life trauma does not appear to fundamentally affect associations between reminiscence and health. These findings underscore the resilience of Holocaust survivors.

  11. Jaw muscles in older overdenture patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, James P; McManus, Frank C; Menhenick, Stephen

    2004-03-01

    To determine, using computer tomography (CT), whether the retention of a small number of teeth in the older adult used to support overdentures could affect the cross-sectional area (CSA) and X-ray density of two jaw closing muscles. Cross-sectional study of a group of older patients subdivided into dentate, edentulous and those wearing overdentures supported by two to five teeth. The sample consisted of 24 subjects aged 55-68 years. CSA and X-ray density of two jaw closing muscles, masseter and medial pterygoid were measured and evaluated using CT. There were no significant differences between left and right jaw muscles, but the CSA of the masseter muscles were significantly larger than the medial pterygoid muscles. The CSA of the masseter and medial pterygoid muscles was significantly smaller in edentulous subjects compared with dentate subjects but no significant difference was observed between subjects wearing overdentures and those with a natural dentition. No significant differences were observed with the X-ray density between different muscles or dental states. The retention of a small number of teeth in the older adult used to support overdentures appears to sustain the CSA of two jaw closing muscles and therefore could enhance these patients' masticatory ability compared with those who were edentulous.

  12. Factors Affecting Mortality in Elderly Patients Hospitalized for Nonmalignant Reasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teslime Ayaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Elderly population is hospitalized more frequently than young people, and they suffer from more severe diseases that are difficult to diagnose and treat. The present study aimed to investigate the factors affecting mortality in elderly patients hospitalized for nonmalignant reasons. Demographic data, reason for hospitalization, comorbidities, duration of hospital stay, and results of routine blood testing at the time of first hospitalization were obtained from the hospital records of the patients, who were over 65 years of age and hospitalized primarily for nonmalignant reasons. The mean age of 1012 patients included in the study was 77.8 ± 7.6. The most common reason for hospitalization was diabetes mellitus (18.3%. Of the patients, 90.3% had at least a single comorbidity. Whilst 927 (91.6% of the hospitalized patients were discharged, 85 (8.4% died. Comparison of the characteristics of the discharged and dead groups revealed that the dead group was older and had higher rates of poor general status and comorbidity. Differences were observed between the discharged and dead groups in most of the laboratory parameters. Hypoalbuminemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hypopotassemia, hypernatremia, hyperuricemia, and high TSH level were the predictors of mortality. In order to meet the health necessities of the elderly population, it is necessary to well define the patient profiles and to identify the risk factors.

  13. Social networks of older adults living with HIV in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Nuno Ribeiro; Kylmä, Jari; Kirsi, Tapio; Pereira, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the social networks of older adults living with HIV. Interviews were conducted with nine individuals aged 50 or older living with HIV in Helsinki, Finland. Analysis of transcripts was analysed by inductive qualitative content analysis. Results indicated that these participants' networks tended to be large, including those both aware and unaware of the participants' health status. Analysis identified three main themes: large multifaceted social networks, importance of a support group, and downsizing of social networks. Support received appeared to be of great importance in coping with their health condition, especially since the time of diagnosis. Friends and family were the primary source of informal support. The majority of participants relied mostly on friends, some of whom were HIV-positive. Formal support came primarily from the HIV organisation's support group. In this study group, non-disclosure did not impact participants' well-being. In years to come, social networks of older adults living with HIV may shrink due to personal reasons other than HIV-disclosure. What is of primary importance is that healthcare professionals become knowledgeable about psychosocial issues of older adults living with HIV, identifying latent problems and developing adequate interventions in the early stages of the disease; this would help prevent social isolation and foster successful ageing with HIV.

  14. Structural brain correlates of associative memory in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Nina; Laukka, Erika J; Kalpouzos, Grégoria; Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe; Bäckman, Lars; Brehmer, Yvonne

    2015-09-01

    Associative memory involves binding two or more items into a coherent memory episode. Relative to memory for single items, associative memory declines greatly in aging. However, older individuals vary substantially in their ability to memorize associative information. Although functional studies link associative memory to the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and prefrontal cortex (PFC), little is known about how volumetric differences in MTL and PFC might contribute to individual differences in associative memory. We investigated regional gray-matter volumes related to individual differences in associative memory in a sample of healthy older adults (n=54; age=60years). To differentiate item from associative memory, participants intentionally learned face-scene picture pairs before performing a recognition task that included single faces, scenes, and face-scene pairs. Gray-matter volumes were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry region-of-interest (ROI) analyses. To examine volumetric differences specifically for associative memory, item memory was controlled for in the analyses. Behavioral results revealed large variability in associative memory that mainly originated from differences in false-alarm rates. Moreover, associative memory was independent of individuals' ability to remember single items. Older adults with better associative memory showed larger gray-matter volumes primarily in regions of the left and right lateral PFC. These findings provide evidence for the importance of PFC in intentional learning of associations, likely because of its involvement in organizational and strategic processes that distinguish older adults with good from those with poor associative memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Acute stress and working memory in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulopulos, Matias M; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Almela, Mercedes; Puig-Perez, Sara; Villada, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have shown that acute stress affects working memory (WM) in young adults, but the effect in older people is understudied. As observed in other types of memory, older people may be less sensitive to acute effects of stress on WM. We performed two independent studies with healthy older men and women (from 55 to 77 years old) to investigate the effects of acute stress (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST) and cortisol on WM. In study 1 (n = 63), after the TSST women (but not men) improved their performance on Digit Span Forward (a measure of the memory span component of WM) but not on Digit Span Backward (a measure of both memory span and the executive component of WM). Furthermore, in women, cortisol levels at the moment of memory testing showed a positive association with the memory span component of WM before and after the TSST, and with the executive component of WM only before the stress task. In study 2 (n = 76), although participants showed a cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) response to the TSST, stress did not affect performance on Letter-Number Sequencing (LNS; a task that places a high demand on the executive component of WM). Cortisol and sAA were not associated with WM. The results indicate that circulating cortisol levels at the moment of memory testing, and not the stress response, affect memory span in older women, and that stress and the increase in cortisol levels after stress do not affect the executive component of WM in older men and women. This study provides further evidence that older people may be less sensitive to stress and stress-induced cortisol response effects on memory processes.

  16. Pulmonary Function Affects Language Performance in Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewina O Lee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Good pulmonary function (PF is associated with preservation of cognitive performance, primarily of executive functions, in aging (Albert et al., 1995; Chyou et al., 1996; Emery, Finkel, & Pedersen, 2012; Yohannes & Gindo, 2013. The contribution of PF to older adults’ language abilities, however, has never been explored, to our knowledge. We addressed this gap by examining the effects of PF on older adults’ language functions, as measured by naming and sentence processing accuracy. We predicted similar effects as found for executive functions, given the positive associations between executive functions and sentence processing in aging (e.g., Goral et al., 2011. Methods Data were collected from 190 healthy adults aged 55 to 84 years (M = 71.1, SD = 8.1, with no history of neurological or psychiatric disorders. Procedure PF was measured prior to language testing. Measures included forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC. Language functions were assessed through performance on computer-administered lexical retrieval and sentence processing tasks. Sentence processing was measured using two auditory comprehension tasks: one, of embedded sentences (ES, the other, of sentences with multiple negatives (MN. Lexical retrieval was measured using the Boston Naming Test (BNT and Action Naming Test (ANT. Performance was scored for percent accuracy. Additionally, lexical retrieval was evaluated with a phonemic fluency task (FAS, which also taps executive function abilities. Statistical Analyses Multiple regression was used to examine the association between pulmonary and language functions, adjusting for age, education, gender, history of respiratory illness, current level of physical activities, and current and past smoking. Results Better PF was associated with better sentence processing and lexical retrieval on naming tasks, but not with phonemic fluency, after adjusting for covariates. Higher FVC was

  17. Poles apart: The processing and consequences of mixed media stereotypes of older workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, A.C.; van Selm, M.; ter Hoeven, C.L.; Vliegenthart, R.

    2016-01-01

    This study uses the Stereotype Content Model to examine how mixed-media stereotypes about older workers affect the implicit activation and application of competence and warmth stereotypes among employees. By means of a 2 × 2 experiment, we show that a newspaper article portraying older workers in a

  18. The Effect of Implicit Stereotypes on the Physical Performance of Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriello, Gabriele; Cotter, J. James; Shook, Nathalie; Dodd-McCue, Diane; Welleford, E. Ayn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how stereotypes affect physical performance in older adults. During Experiment 1, older adults were primed with objects representing aging stereotypes to determine whether these objects can activate stereotypes of aging. Results from the first part of this study provide evidence that certain material…

  19. Circadian Sleep-Wake Rhythm of Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maaskant, Marijke; van de Wouw, Ellen; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.; Echteld, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    The circadian sleep-wake rhythm changes with aging, resulting in a more fragmented sleep-wake pattern. In individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID), brain structures regulating the sleep-wake rhythm might be affected. The aims of this study were to compare the sleep-wake rhythm of older adults with ID to that of older adults in the general…

  20. Motivational determinants of exergame participation for older people in assisted living facilities : Mixed-methods study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meekes, W.M.A.; Stanmore, E.K.

    2017-01-01

    Exergames (exercise-based videogames) for delivering strength and balance exercise for older people are growing in popularity with the emergence of new Kinect-based technologies; however, little is known about the factors affecting their uptake and usage by older people.The aim of this study was to

  1. What's different about older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crome, Peter

    2003-10-01

    Older people can be regarded as a marginalised group within society from a number of perspectives including that of health. When it comes to the use of medication older people have suffered from a double whammy. Not only are they more at risk from the adverse effects of drugs but also their involvement in clinical trials has been limited so that rational prescribing both to maximise benefit and to reduce risk has been problematic. Their special problems have been recognised formerly by the Department of Health in its NSF for Older People [National Service Framework for Older People. Department of Health, London (2001a)], [Medicines and Older People. Implementing medicines-related aspects of the NSF for Older People. Department of Health (2001b)]. Early studies focussed on compliance, the avoidance of poly-pharmacy and the high prevalence of adverse effects of drugs and the reasons for this. Studies in long-stay patients showed dramatic differences in pharmacokinetics between such older people and young healthy volunteers. Initially such differences were ascribed to age alone and the overall message became "start low and go slow". Studies in healthy older people then revealed that age differences in drug metabolism were, as a rule, not so marked although clearance of renally excreted drugs was reduced in line with the age associated decline in renal function. Including older people in clinical trials poses challenges. Many traditional trialists do not have ready access to older people, co-morbidity and poly-pharmacy are common and most people feel reluctant to ask older people to take part in complex and potentially hazardous trials. Concern about compliance is unwarranted. Adverse events may be more serious. Thus in a younger patient postural hypotension may make a subject unsteady but in an older subject the unsteadiness may lead to a fall, the fall to a fracture, and the fracture to poor recovery. The choice of end-points is crucial. Although reduction of

  2. [Affective dependency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy.

  3. Immediate rather than delayed memory impairment in older adults with latent toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendy, Angelico; Vieira, Edgar R; Albatineh, Ahmed N; Gasana, Janvier

    2015-03-01

    The neurotropic parasite Toxoplasma gondii infects one third of the world population, but its effect on memory remains ambiguous. To examine a potential relationship of the infection with immediate and delayed memory, a population-based study was conducted in 4485 participants of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey aged 60years and older. Serum anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies were measured by enzyme immune assay and verbal memory was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination and the East Boston Memory Test. The prevalence of latent toxoplasmosis was 41%; in one way analysis of variance, anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibody levels significantly differed across tertiles for immediate (P=0.006) but not delayed memory scores (P=0.22). In multinomial logistic regression adjusting for covariates, Toxoplasma seropositivity was associated with lower immediate memory performance (OR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.44, 0.97 for medium tertile and OR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.37, 0.98 for highest tertile in reference to the lowest tertile), especially in non-Hispanic Whites (OR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.36, 0.88 for medium tertile and OR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.30, 0.87 for highest tertile in reference to the lowest tertile). However, no relationship with delayed memory was observed. In conclusion, latent toxoplasmosis is widespread in older adults and may primarily affect immediate rather than delayed memory, particularly in White Americans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. What's in a Name? Categorising "Disadvantaged Older Workers"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    The institutionalised categorisation of adults who are over 55 years of age, unemployed and low-skilled as "older" and "disadvantaged" may adversely affect their employment prospects and their self-esteem. This paper reports on the findings of a study that explored the experiences of a small group of such adults; in particular,…

  5. Quality of Life of Older Malaysians Living Alone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahaya, Nurizan; Abdullah, Siti Suhailah; Momtaz, Yadollah Abolfathi; Hamid, Tengku Aizan

    2010-01-01

    According to the 2000 census report, about 7% of the 1.4 million people 60 years and over in Malaysia live alone. This study investigated socioeconomic factors affecting the quality of life of this vulnerable population. Data from a subsample of the study on Mental Health and Quality of Life of Older Malaysians were used in this paper. About 10%…

  6. Health Literacy, Social Support, and Health Status among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shoou-Yih D.; Arozullah, Ahsan M.; Cho, Young Ik; Crittenden, Kathleen; Vicencio, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The study examines whether social support interacts with health literacy in affecting the health status of older adults. Health literacy is assessed using the short version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Social support is measured with the Medical Outcome Study social support scale. Results show, unexpectedly, that rather…

  7. Differences in the Morale of Older, Rural Widows and Widowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jean Pearson; Kivett, Vira R.

    1985-01-01

    Examined effect of sex differences on morale of 257 older rural widows and widowers. Sex of respondent was not found to affect morale; however, perceived financial status and self-rated health had significant direct effects. Widows and widowers reporting higher morale had higher perceived financial status and rated their health as good.…

  8. The Burden of ADHD in Older Adults: A Qualitative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, M.; de Kruif, J. Th C.M.; Comijs, H. C.; van Mierlo, S.; Semeijn, E. J.; Beekman, A. T.F.; Deeg, D. J.H.; Kooij, J. J.S.

    Objective: To explore how ADHD may have affected the lives of older adults who meet the diagnostic criteria of ADHD, but are unaware of their diagnosis. Our second aim was to examine whether the reported symptoms change over the life span. Method: A qualitative study was conducted. Seventeen Dutch

  9. The Burden of ADHD in Older Adults : A Qualitative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, M; de Kruif, J Th C M; Comijs, H C; van Mierlo, S; Semeijn, E J; Beekman, A T F; Deeg, D J H; Kooij, J J S

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore how ADHD may have affected the lives of older adults who meet the diagnostic criteria of ADHD, but are unaware of their diagnosis. Our second aim was to examine whether the reported symptoms change over the life span. METHOD: A qualitative study was conducted. Seventeen Dutch

  10. Ability performance of older workers - Internal and external influencing factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittmann-Kohli, F.; Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der

    1996-01-01

    Internal and external factors affecting ability and performance of older employees are being analyzed in a short literature review. Internal factors like physical capacity, sensory capacity, cognitive abilities and general health are reduced with ageing; their effect on performance, however, depends

  11. Older employees’ desired retirement age: a JD-R perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frins, W.; Ruysseveldt, J. van; Dam, K. van; Bossche, S.N.J. van den

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Using the job demands-resources (JD-R) model as a theoretical framework, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how job demands and job resources affect older employees’ desired retirement age, through an energy-depletion and a motivational process. Furthermore, the importance of gain

  12. [DSM-5 classification of personality disorders in older persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alphen, S.P. van; Rossi, G.; Dierckx, E.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although it is generally agreed that personality disorders are an important topic in old-age psychiatry, DSM-5 has paid relatively little attention to older persons affected with this severe mental disorder. AIM: To look closely and carefully at several aspects of the way in which DSM-5

  13. A concept analysis of dignity for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacelon, Cynthia S; Connelly, Thomas W; Brown, Rana; Proulx, Kathy; Vo, Thuy

    2004-10-01

    Human dignity is an essential value of professional nursing education as well as a component of the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics. Nurses are exhorted to treat patients with dignity, and older adults want to be treated with dignity and die with dignity. Although dignity, particularly the dignity of older adults, is often discussed in the health care literature, its meaning is not always clear. The aim of this paper is to describe a concept analysis to develop a definition of dignity in older adults. Data were collected using a literature review and five focus groups composed of older adults. The literature provided data about professionals' ideas of dignity and the focus groups provided qualitative data about the nature of dignity in older people. The literature review and focus groups were carried out concurrently, followed by synthesis of the findings. Dignity is an inherent characteristic of being human, it can be subjectively felt as an attribute of the self, and is made manifest through behaviour that demonstrates respect for self and others. Dignity must be learned, and an individual's dignity is affected by the treatment received from others. A behavioural definition of dignity was constructed and this could provide the theoretical basis for nurses to develop interventions that foster dignity for older people.

  14. Walking through doorways causes forgetting: Younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radvansky, Gabriel A; Pettijohn, Kyle A; Kim, Joonsung

    2015-06-01

    Previous research on event cognition has found that walking through doorways can cause forgetting. The explanation for this finding is that there is a competition between event models, producing interference, and depressing performance. The current study explored the degree to which this might be affected by the natural aging process. This is of interest because there is some evidence that older adults have trouble coordinating sources of interference, which is what is thought to underlie this effect. This would suggest that older adults should do worse on this task. Alternatively, there is also evidence that older adults are typically not disrupted at the event level of processing per se. This would suggest that older adults should perform similarly to younger adults on this task. In the study reported here, younger and older participants navigated through a virtual environment, and memory was tested with probes either before or after a shift and for objects that were associated with the participant (i.e., just picked up). In general, both younger and older adults had memory disrupted after walking through a doorway. Importantly, the magnitude of this disruption was similar in the 2 age groups. This is consistent with the idea that processing at the event level is relatively unaffected by the natural aging process. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. The Utility of Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring for Diagnosing White Coat Hypertension in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Kristi; Bowling, C Barrett; Sim, John J; Sridharan, Lakshmi; Harrison, Teresa N; Shimbo, Daichi

    2015-11-01

    The beneficial effect of antihypertensive medication on reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events is supported by data from randomized controlled trials of older adults with hypertension. However, in clinical practice, overtreatment of hypertension in older adults may lead to side effects and an increased risk of falls. The diagnosis and treatment of hypertension is primarily based on blood pressure measurements obtained in the clinic setting. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) complements clinic blood pressure by measuring blood pressure in the out-of-clinic setting. ABPM can be used to identify white coat hypertension, defined as elevated clinic blood pressure and non-elevated ambulatory blood pressure. White coat hypertension is common in older adults but does not appear to be associated with an increased risk of CVD events among this population. Herein, we review the current literature on ABPM in the diagnoses of white coat hypertension in older adults, including its potential role in preventing overtreatment.

  16. The Utility of Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring for Diagnosing White Coat Hypertension in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Kristi; Bowling, C. Barrett; Sim, John J.; Sridharan, Lakshmi; Harrison, Teresa N.; Shimbo, Daichi

    2015-01-01

    The beneficial effect of antihypertensive medication on reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events is supported by data from randomized controlled trials of older adults with hypertension. However, in clinical practice, overtreatment of hypertension in older adults may lead to side effects and an increased risk of falls. The diagnosis and treatment of hypertension is primarily based on blood pressure measurements obtained in the clinic setting. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) complements clinic blood pressure by measuring blood pressure in the out-of-clinic setting. ABPM can be used to identify white coat hypertension, defined as elevated clinic blood pressure and non-elevated ambulatory blood pressure. White coat hypertension is common in older adults but does not appear to be associated with an increased risk of CVD events among this population. Herein, we review the current literature on ABPM in the diagnoses of white coat hypertension in older adults, including its potential role in preventing overtreatment. PMID:26400076

  17. Age-related differences in affective responses to and memory for emotions conveyed by music: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieillard, Sandrine; Gilet, Anne-Laure

    2013-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that aging is associated with the maintenance of positive affect and the decrease of negative affect to ensure emotion regulation goals. Previous empirical studies have primarily focused on a visual or autobiographical form of emotion communication. To date, little investigation has been done on musical emotions. The few studies that have addressed aging and emotions in music were mainly interested in emotion recognition, thus leaving unexplored the question of how aging may influence emotional responses to and memory for emotions conveyed by music. In the present study, eighteen older (60–84 years) and eighteen younger (19–24 years) listeners were asked to evaluate the strength of their experienced emotion on happy, peaceful, sad, and scary musical excerpts (Vieillard et al., 2008) while facial muscle activity was recorded. Participants then performed an incidental recognition task followed by a task in which they judged to what extent they experienced happiness, peacefulness, sadness, and fear when listening to music. Compared to younger adults, older adults (a) reported a stronger emotional reactivity for happiness than other emotion categories, (b) showed an increased zygomatic activity for scary stimuli, (c) were more likely to falsely recognize happy music, and (d) showed a decrease in their responsiveness to sad and scary music. These results are in line with previous findings and extend them to emotion experience and memory recognition, corroborating the view of age-related changes in emotional responses to music in a positive direction away from negativity. PMID:24137141

  18. Age-related differences in affective responses to and memory for emotions conveyed by music: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine eVieillard

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There is mounting evidence that aging is associated with the maintenance of positive affect and the decrease of negative affect to ensure emotion regulation goals. Previous empirical studies have primarily focused on a visual or autobiographical form of emotion communication. To date, little investigation has been done on musical emotions. The few studies that have addressed aging and emotions in music were mainly interested in emotion recognition, thus leaving unexplored the question of how aging may influence emotional responses to and memory for music. In the present study, eighteen older (60-84 years and eighteen younger (19-24 years listeners were asked to evaluate the strength of their experienced emotion on happy, peaceful, sad, and scary musical excerpts (Vieillard, et al., 2008 while facial muscle activity was recorded. Participants then performed an incidental recognition task followed by a task in which they judged to what extent they experienced happiness, peacefulness, sadness, and fear when listening to music. Compared to younger adults, older adults (a reported a stronger emotional reactivity for happiness than other emotion categories, (b showed an increased zygomatic activity for scary stimuli, (c were more likely to falsely recognize happy music, and (d showed a decrease in their responsiveness to sad and scary music. These results are in line with previous findings and extend them to emotion experience and memory recognition, corroborating the view of age-related changes in emotional responses to music in a positive direction away from negativity.

  19. Does handwriting on a tablet screen affect students' graphomotor execution? A comparison between Grades Two and Nine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamargot, Denis; Morin, Marie-France

    2015-12-01

    We sought to ascertain how handwriting with a plastic-tipped pen on the screen of a digital tablet affects graphomotor execution in students, compared with handwriting on paper with a ballpoint pen. We predicted that the modification to propriokinesthetic feedback induced by the screen/plastic tip combination would differently disturb younger and older students, who rely on perceptual feedback either to form letters (former) or to adjust movement execution (latter). Twenty-eight students from Grades Two and Nine were asked to handwrite the alphabet and their names and surnames under the two conditions. Kinematics were recorded using the tablet, controlled by Eye and Pen software. Results showed that handwriting on the tablet surface with a plastic-tipped pen primarily affected pen pauses in the second graders and pen movements in the ninth graders, suggesting a disturbance in segment trajectory calculation in the younger participants and reduced control of muscular adjustment in the older children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Age-related differences in affective responses to and memory for emotions conveyed by music: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieillard, Sandrine; Gilet, Anne-Laure

    2013-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that aging is associated with the maintenance of positive affect and the decrease of negative affect to ensure emotion regulation goals. Previous empirical studies have primarily focused on a visual or autobiographical form of emotion communication. To date, little investigation has been done on musical emotions. The few studies that have addressed aging and emotions in music were mainly interested in emotion recognition, thus leaving unexplored the question of how aging may influence emotional responses to and memory for emotions conveyed by music. In the present study, eighteen older (60-84 years) and eighteen younger (19-24 years) listeners were asked to evaluate the strength of their experienced emotion on happy, peaceful, sad, and scary musical excerpts (Vieillard et al., 2008) while facial muscle activity was recorded. Participants then performed an incidental recognition task followed by a task in which they judged to what extent they experienced happiness, peacefulness, sadness, and fear when listening to music. Compared to younger adults, older adults (a) reported a stronger emotional reactivity for happiness than other emotion categories, (b) showed an increased zygomatic activity for scary stimuli, (c) were more likely to falsely recognize happy music, and (d) showed a decrease in their responsiveness to sad and scary music. These results are in line with previous findings and extend them to emotion experience and memory recognition, corroborating the view of age-related changes in emotional responses to music in a positive direction away from negativity.

  1. Sexuality and the older woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremayne, Penny; Norton, Wendy

    2017-07-27

    Sexual health is a key public health issue. The older woman faces a number of changes to her sexual health, wellbeing and sexuality. These changes result in many older women having to adapt to a series of complex transitions that can be challenging. This article aims to identify and explore some of these changes and how they can have a significant impact on women's quality of life. Nurses play an important role in assessing and helping women to manage normal and pathological age-related changes in order to improve the sexual health of older women and ensure they receive the advice and support needed at this stage of their life.

  2. Self-perceived Age and Attitudes Toward Marketing of Older Consumers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Bin

    2010-01-01

    Understanding consumer psychological characteristics and their impact on consumer behavior is an important foundation for business marketing strategies. Self-perceived age has a great impact on older consumers’ behavior. This article defines the gray market in China, investigates the factors that affect the differences between older consumers’ self-perceived age and life age, and analyzes the influence of self-perceived age on older Chinese consumers’ behavior. In this study, 1,120 older consumers were randomly selected from six cities in China. Findings show that over half of the respondents feel younger than their actual life age. Related marketing strategies are discussed. PMID:20835378

  3. Age-related physical and psychological vulnerability as pathways to problem gambling in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parke, Adrian; Griffiths, Mark; Pattinson, Julie; Keatley, David

    2018-03-01

    Background To inform clinical treatment and preventative efforts, there is an important need to understand the pathways to late-life gambling disorder. Aims This study assesses the association between age-related physical health, social networks, and problem gambling in adults aged over 65 years and assesses the mediating role of affective disorders in this association. Methods The sample comprised 595 older adults (mean age: 74.4 years, range: 65-94 years; 77.1% female) who were interviewed using a structured questionnaire to assess physical frailty, geriatric pain, loneliness, geriatric depression, geriatric anxiety, and problem gambling. Results Pathway analysis demonstrated associations between these variables and gambling problems, providing a good fit for the data, but that critically these relationships were mediated by both anxiety and depression symptoms. Conclusions This study indicates that late-life problem gambling may develop as vulnerable individuals gamble to escape anxiety and depression consequent to deteriorating physical well-being and social support. When individuals develop late-life problem gambling, it is recommended that the treatment primarily focuses upon targeting and replacing avoidant coping approaches.

  4. The impact of augmented information on visuo-motor adaptation in younger and older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Hegele

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adjustment to a visuo-motor rotation is known to be affected by ageing. According to previous studies, the age-related differences primarily pertain to the use of strategic corrections and the generation of explicit knowledge on which strategic corrections are based, whereas the acquisition of an (implicit internal model of the novel visuo-motor transformation is unaffected. The present study aimed to assess the impact of augmented information on the age-related variation of visuo-motor adjustments. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants performed aiming movements controlling a cursor on a computer screen. Visual feedback of direction of cursor motion was rotated 75 degrees relative to the direction of hand motion. Participants had to adjust to this rotation in the presence and absence of an additional hand-movement target that explicitly depicted the input-output relations of the visuo-motor transformation. An extensive set of tests was employed in order to disentangle the contributions of different processes to visuo-motor adjustment. Results show that the augmented information failed to affect the age-related variations of explicit knowledge, adaptive shifts, and aftereffects in a substantial way, whereas it clearly affected initial direction errors during practice and proprioceptive realignment. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to expectations, older participants apparently made no use of the augmented information, whereas younger participants used the additional movement target to reduce initial direction errors early during practice. However, after a first block of trials errors increased, indicating a neglect of the augmented information, and only slowly declined thereafter. A hypothetical dual-task account of these findings is discussed. The use of the augmented information also led to a selective impairment of proprioceptive realignment in the younger group. The mere finding of proprioceptive realignment in adaptation to a visuo

  5. Statistical Profile of Older Hispanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... all older Americans (10.2 percent). *Income and poverty estimates are based on redesigned income questions from the Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement. SELF-RATED ...

  6. Delirium: Issues for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a bone. Common fractures are those of the hip, wrist, or a bone in the back (vertebra). ... leading cause for dehydration among older adults is water pills (diuretics). In addition to not feeling thirsty, ...

  7. Diabetes: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Urinary Incontinence Related Documents PDF Choosing Wisely: Diabetes Tests and Treatments Download Related Video Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Diabetes Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ...

  8. Older women, work and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, S; Doyal, L

    2010-05-01

    Older women make up an increasingly important sector in the labour market. However, we know little about their health-the various influences on their health and the ways in which paid and unpaid work impact on both physical and mental well being. This paper reviews the available literature on older women's health in the workplace, focussing on work-specific and more general risks for older women, including stress, discrimination, physical hazards and the 'double burden' of paid work and caring responsibilities. Databases searched included Web of Science, CAS, CINAHL, Medline and ASSIA, together with UK and European statistical sources. We conclude with a three-point research agenda, calling for more empirical work on the risks faced by older women, studies that take a life-course perspective of women's occupational health and work that explores the interactions between unpaid and paid work in later life.

  9. Hip Fractures among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... out some of our online STEADI resources for older adults. These resources include: Stay Independent brochure What You Can Do to Prevent Falls brochure Check for Safety brochure Postural Hypotension brochure Chair Rise Exercise Related Pages Important ...

  10. Innovative Older-Worker Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup, Denise; Greenberg, Barbara

    1989-01-01

    Describes program innovations to keep older workers employed: retraining, job sharing, flexible working hours, job redesign, and phased retirement. Addresses costs and savings, disincentives for workers and employers, and future trends. (SK)

  11. Drugs and the older person

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-09-14

    Sep 14, 2007 ... Sebastiana Kalula is Head of Geriatric Medicine and Acting Director of The Albertina and Walter .... performance of cognitive and physical .... Older persons may need multiple drug therapy for an increased number of chronic.

  12. Heat Stress in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Extreme Heat Older Adults (Aged 65+) Infants and Children Chronic Medical Conditions Low Income Athletes Outdoor Workers Pets Hot Weather Tips Warning Signs and Symptoms FAQs Social Media How to Stay Cool Missouri Cooling Centers Extreme ...

  13. Fewer Ups and Downs: Daily Stressors Mediate Age Differences in Negative Affect

    OpenAIRE

    Charles, Susan Turk; Luong, Gloria; Almeida, David M.; Ryff, Carol; Sturm, Maggie; Love, Gayle

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined age differences in daily stressors, positive events (uplifts), and their associations with emotional experience among healthy older women. Women (N = 101, 63--93 years old) reported their daily experiences across 1 week. Older age was related to fewer stressors and less frequent negative affect. However, the association between negative affect and age was no longer significant after accounting for the occurrence of daily stressors. Older age was not significantly re...

  14. Older Californians At Risk for

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, Steven; Pourat,, Nadereh; Durazo, Eva; Leos, Rosana

    2010-01-01

    This policy brief examines the growing rate of repeated falls among senior citizens, comparing data from the 2003 and 2007 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS). The authors found that over half million older Californians (565,000) fell more than once in 2007—about 100,00 more seniors with repeated falls than in 2003. National guidelines by the American Geriatrics Society (AGS) and a recent synthesis of the scientific literature recommend reducing the risk of falling by older adu...

  15. Ethnic differences in attitudes and bias toward older people comparing White and Asian nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Shin

    2015-03-01

    To identify attitudes and bias toward aging between Asian and White students and identify factors affecting attitudes toward aging. A cross-sectional sample of 308 students in a nursing program completed the measure of Attitudes Toward Older People and Aging Quiz electronically. There were no differences in positive attitudes and pro-aged bias between Asian and White groups, but Asian students had significantly more negative attitudes and anti-aged bias toward older people than White students. Multiple regression analysis showed ethnicity/race was the strongest variable to explain negative attitudes toward older people. Feeling uneasy about talking to older adults was the most significant factor to explain all attitudinal concepts. Asian students were uneasy about talking with older people and had negative attitudes toward older adults. To become competent in cross-cultural care and communication in nursing, educational strategies to reduce negative attitudes on aging are necessary. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. The Moderating Role of Executive Functioning in Older Adults' Responses to a Reminder of Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxfield, Molly; Pyszczynski, Tom; Greenberg, Jeff; Pepin, Renee; Davis, Hasker P.

    2011-01-01

    In previous research, older adults responded to mortality salience (MS) with increased tolerance, whereas younger persons responded with increased punitiveness. One possible explanation for this is that many older adults adapt to challenges of later life, such as the prospect of mortality, by becoming more flexible. Recent studies suggest that positively-oriented adaptation is more likely for older adults with high levels of executive functioning. We thus hypothesized that the better an older adult's executive functioning, the more likely MS would result in increased tolerance. Older and younger adults were randomly assigned to MS or control conditions, and then evaluated moral transgressors. As in previous research, younger adults were more punitive following reminders of mortality; executive functioning did not affect their responses. Among older adults, high functioning individuals responded to MS with increased tolerance rather than intolerance, whereas those low in functioning became more punitive. PMID:21728445

  17. CT examinations in older patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciuk, J.; Peters, P.E.

    1989-01-01

    A total of 2,878 unselected subsequent CT examinations carried out in 1984 were analyzed retrospectively. All studies were performed in a university hospital with a centralized department of diagnostic radiology. Most of the patients investigated were hospitalized; there were only 12% outpatients. Of the patients studied 12.6% were older than 65 years and 20.5% older than 60; 17.7% were emergency cases and patients between 16 and 25 years of age represented the largest fraction. In all other age groups the relative distribution between emergency cases and regular studies revealed no significant differences. There was no statistically significant difference between the older age group (patients older than 65 years) and the total population of this study in almost all items investigated, i.e., no differences in CT examination time and no differences in preparation time (time between two CT studies). The rate of abdominal CT examinations was 7% higher in the older age group, while the relative distribution of all other CT examinations was again comparable to the total population under study. Thus, the expected increase in patients in the older age group does not measurably prolong the CT examination time. This statement applies to a major referral center with a high percentage of inpatients. (orig.) [de

  18. Pain management in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Bridget; Sean Morrison, R

    2013-11-01

    Chronic pain is prevalent among older adults but is underrecognized and undertreated. The approach to pain assessment and management in older adults requires an understanding of the physiology of aging, validated assessment tools, and common pain presentations among older adults. To identify the overall principles of pain management in older adults with a specific focus on common painful conditions and approaches to pharmacologic treatment. We searched PubMed for common pain presentations in older adults with heart failure, end-stage renal disease, dementia, frailty, and cancer. We also reviewed guidelines for pain management. Our review encompassed 2 guidelines, 10 original studies, and 22 review articles published from 2000 to the present. This review does not discuss nonpharmacologic treatments of pain. Clinical guidelines support the use of opioids in persistent nonmalignant pain. Opioids should be used in patients with moderate or severe pain or pain not otherwise controlled but with careful attention to potential toxic effects and half-life. In addition, clinical practice guidelines recommend use of oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with extreme caution and for defined, limited periods. An understanding of the basics of pain pathophysiology, assessment, pharmacologic management, and a familiarity with common pain presentations will allow clinicians to effectively manage pain for older adults. © 2013 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. DELIRIUM IN OLDER ADULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popeo, Dennis M.

    2011-01-01

    Delirium is a common neuropsychiatric syndrome in the elderly that can occur in several different settings caused by several different processes. It is common and causes increased morbidity and mortality to those affected. This clinical review discusses the prediction, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of delirium in the elderly population. Several strategies to predict delirium are noted with the discussion of pharmacological and non-pharmacological trials of prevention and treatment. Diagnosis of delirium, specifically with the use of objective instruments, is discussed, as is the evidence for pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment strategies. Discussion of the neurobiology and genetic markers for delirium may elucidate further areas for future research. PMID:21748745

  20. The Burden of ADHD in Older Adults: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michielsen, M; de Kruif, J Th C M; Comijs, H C; van Mierlo, S; Semeijn, E J; Beekman, A T F; Deeg, D J H; Kooij, J J S

    2018-04-01

    To explore how ADHD may have affected the lives of older adults who meet the diagnostic criteria of ADHD, but are unaware of their diagnosis. Our second aim was to examine whether the reported symptoms change over the life span. A qualitative study was conducted. Seventeen Dutch older people (>65 years) diagnosed in this study with ADHD participated in in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed according to techniques of thematic approach. Seven themes emerged from the analyses. Four themes correspond to ADHD symptoms: "being active," "being impulsive," "attention problems," and "mental restlessness." In addition, the themes "low self-esteem," "overstepping boundaries," and "feeling misunderstood" emerged. The impact of ADHD symptoms seems to have declined with age. ADHD has a negative impact on late life, and older adults with the disorder may benefit from treatment. Moreover, this study's findings call for early detection and treatment of ADHD in children and adults.

  1. Social relations and the self-esteem of older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, G R; Shehan, C L

    1989-12-01

    This study employs survey data from a sample of persons 55 years of age and older to examine the antecedents of self-esteem. Hypotheses are derived from a theoretical orientation that hinges on the ability of the individual to terminate relations that might be productive of negative reflected appraisals. Consistent with hypotheses, friendship interaction is positively related to self-esteem, whereas kinship interaction is not. Marital satisfaction also affects self-esteem positively; among men, this effect is stronger for the retired than for the employed. Finally, never-married and nonemployed older women have lower self-esteem than other women have. Implications are drawn regarding the importance and role of self-esteem in theories of psychological well-being among older persons.

  2. Older/Younger Sibling Pairs in the Context of a Community Outreach Children's Choir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrickson, William E.; Byrnes, Suzanne R.; Aycock, Sylvia R.

    2018-01-01

    This article was designed to explore the behaviors observed and document the interactions of older and younger siblings in a children's choir rehearsal environment. Observations by a music education student observer, the director/teacher of the group, and some parent recollections indicate that the sibling interactions do have a primarily positive…

  3. Antithrombotics in trauma: management strategies in the older patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong H

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Henna Wong,1,2 Nicola Lovett,3 Nicola Curry,1 Ku Shah,2 Simon J Stanworth1,2,4 1Department of Clinical Haematology, Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, 2Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford BRC Haematology Theme, 3Department of Geratology, Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, 4Department of Haematology, NHS Blood and Transplant, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Oxford, UK Abstract: The ageing population has resulted in a change in the demographics of trauma, and older adult trauma now accounts for a growing number of trauma admissions. The management of older adult trauma can be particularly challenging, and exhibits differences to that of the younger age groups affected by trauma. Frailty syndromes are closely related with falls, which are the leading cause of major trauma in older adults. Comorbid disease and antithrombotic use are more common in the older population. Physiological changes that occur with ageing can alter the expected clinical presentation of older persons after injury and their susceptibility to injury. Following major trauma, definitive control of hemorrhage remains essential for improving outcomes. In the initial assessment of an injured patient, it is important to consider whether the patient is taking anticoagulants or antiplatelets and if measures to promote hemostasis such as reversal are indicated. After hemostasis is achieved and bleeding has stopped, longer-term decisions to recommence antithrombotic agents can be challenging, especially in older people. In this review, we discuss one aspect of management for the older trauma patients in greater detail, that is, acute and longer-term management of antithrombotic therapy. As we consider the health needs of an ageing population, rise in elderly trauma and increasing use of antithrombotic therapy, the need for research in this area becomes more pressing to establish best

  4. Perceived duration of emotional events: evidence for a positivity effect in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Jeffrey R; Tanner, Jessica; Clarke, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: Arousal and negative affect modulate the effect of emotion on the subjective experience of the passage of time. Given that older adults are less aroused by negative emotional stimuli, and report lower levels of negative affect, compared with younger adults, the present study examined whether the effect of emotion on time perception differed in older and younger adults. Participants performed a temporal bisection task for emotional (i.e., angry, sad, happy) and neutral facial expressions presented at varying temporal intervals. Older adults perceived the duration of both positive and threatening events longer than neutral events, whereas younger adults only perceived threatening events longer than neutral events. The results, which are partially consistent with the positivity effect of aging postulated by the socioemotional selectivity theory, are the first to show how the effect of emotion on perceived duration affects older adults, and support previous research indicating that only threatening events prolong perceived duration in younger adults.

  5. Losing a dime with a satisfied mind: positive affect predicts less search in sequential decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Helversen, Bettina; Mata, Rui

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the contribution of cognitive ability and affect to age differences in sequential decision making by asking younger and older adults to shop for items in a computerized sequential decision-making task. Older adults performed poorly compared to younger adults partly due to searching too few options. An analysis of the decision process with a formal model suggested that older adults set lower thresholds for accepting an option than younger participants. Further analyses suggested that positive affect, but not fluid abilities, was related to search in the sequential decision task. A second study that manipulated affect in younger adults supported the causal role of affect: Increased positive affect lowered the initial threshold for accepting an attractive option. In sum, our results suggest that positive affect is a key factor determining search in sequential decision making. Consequently, increased positive affect in older age may contribute to poorer sequential decisions by leading to insufficient search. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  6. Older Adults’ Coping with the Digital Everyday Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenche M. Rønning

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was motivated by a concern for how older adults adjust to their digital everyday life. Theories of motivation and self-efficacy are applied in order to understand how older adults master and adjust to the rapid development into a paper-free, online world. A sample of eighteen older adults (62-90 years were interviewed about the reasons and motivations underlying their ICT usage, and how this affects their perception of mastering their everyday life. A semi-structured interview guide was developed for this purpose. The data were analyzed using an inductive coding procedure involving descriptive and interpretive phases based on the theoretical assumptions about motivation and mastery. Three overarching categories were evident in the data material; Challenges, Connectedness and Expanding. The first category describes new challenges mastering everyday life activities, and how this brings about feelings of pressure, barriers, and fear. The other two categories give a more positive picture of how older adults perceive the new developments. Internet and social media is perceived as positive because it enables them to stay connected to family, old and new friends. It also enables them to cultivate and expand leisure and hobby activities in new ways. Based on the findings we underscore the necessity of devising strategies that will prevent older people from being marginalized in relation to the digital everyday life.

  7. Family Support and Loneliness among Older Persons in Multiethnic Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Jane Kimm Lii; Tey, Nai Peng; Ng, Sor Tho

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates factors affecting older persons' state of loneliness in multiethnic Malaysia using data from the 2004 Malaysian Population and Family Survey, the first nationally representative sample in Malaysia. The study sample was extracted to include Malays, Chinese, Indians and other Indigenous groups aged 60 and above, and who had children (n = 1791). Cross tabulations and ordinal logistic regression methods were used in the analysis. Among the ethnic groups, older Malays were more likely than their Chinese and Indian counterparts to experience loneliness. Loneliness was found to be associated with age, marital status, education level, sources of income, health status, and physical limitations. Among older people, feelings of loneliness were inversely related with coresidence with adult children and participation in religious activities. Sociodemographic changes have eroded the traditional family support system for the elderly, while social security remains inadequate. This study shows the important role of family in alleviating loneliness among older people. Hence the need to promote and facilitate coresidence, as well as participation in religious activities, and a healthy lifestyle as a priority strategy is in line with the objectives of the National Policy for the Older People. PMID:25383374

  8. Family Support and Loneliness among Older Persons in Multiethnic Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Kimm Lii Teh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates factors affecting older persons’ state of loneliness in multiethnic Malaysia using data from the 2004 Malaysian Population and Family Survey, the first nationally representative sample in Malaysia. The study sample was extracted to include Malays, Chinese, Indians and other Indigenous groups aged 60 and above, and who had children (n = 1791. Cross tabulations and ordinal logistic regression methods were used in the analysis. Among the ethnic groups, older Malays were more likely than their Chinese and Indian counterparts to experience loneliness. Loneliness was found to be associated with age, marital status, education level, sources of income, health status, and physical limitations. Among older people, feelings of loneliness were inversely related with coresidence with adult children and participation in religious activities. Sociodemographic changes have eroded the traditional family support system for the elderly, while social security remains inadequate. This study shows the important role of family in alleviating loneliness among older people. Hence the need to promote and facilitate coresidence, as well as participation in religious activities, and a healthy lifestyle as a priority strategy is in line with the objectives of the National Policy for the Older People.

  9. Family support and loneliness among older persons in multiethnic Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Jane Kimm Lii; Tey, Nai Peng; Ng, Sor Tho

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates factors affecting older persons' state of loneliness in multiethnic Malaysia using data from the 2004 Malaysian Population and Family Survey, the first nationally representative sample in Malaysia. The study sample was extracted to include Malays, Chinese, Indians and other Indigenous groups aged 60 and above, and who had children (n = 1791). Cross tabulations and ordinal logistic regression methods were used in the analysis. Among the ethnic groups, older Malays were more likely than their Chinese and Indian counterparts to experience loneliness. Loneliness was found to be associated with age, marital status, education level, sources of income, health status, and physical limitations. Among older people, feelings of loneliness were inversely related with coresidence with adult children and participation in religious activities. Sociodemographic changes have eroded the traditional family support system for the elderly, while social security remains inadequate. This study shows the important role of family in alleviating loneliness among older people. Hence the need to promote and facilitate coresidence, as well as participation in religious activities, and a healthy lifestyle as a priority strategy is in line with the objectives of the National Policy for the Older People.

  10. Health Literacy and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesser, Amy K.; Keene Woods, Nikki; Smothers, Kyle; Rogers, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this review was to assess published literature relating to health literacy and older adults. Method: The current review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses. Results: Eight articles met inclusion criteria. All studies were conducted in urban settings in the United States. Study sample size ranged from 33 to 3,000 participants. Two studies evaluated health-related outcomes and reported significant associations between low health literacy and poorer health outcomes. Two other studies investigated the impact of health literacy on medication management, reporting mixed findings. Discussion: The findings of this review highlight the importance of working to improve health care strategies for older adults with low health literacy and highlight the need for a standardized and validated clinical health literacy screening tool for older adults. PMID:28138488

  11. New Perspectives for Motivating Better Decisions in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JoNell eStrough

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making competence in later adulthood is affected by declines in cognitive skills, and age-related changes in affect and experience can sometimes compensate. However, recent findings suggest that age-related changes in motivation also affect the extent to which adults draw from experience, affect, and deliberative skills when making decisions. To date, relatively little attention has been given to strategies for addressing age-related changes in motivation to promote better decisions in older adults. To address this limitation, we draw from diverse literatures to suggest promising intervention strategies for motivating older recipients’ motivation to make better decisions. We start by reviewing the life-span developmental literature, which suggests that older adults’ motivation to put effort into decisions depends on the perceived personal relevance of decisions as well as their self-efficacy (i.e., confidence in applying their ability and knowledge. Next, we discuss two approaches from the health intervention design literature, the mental models approach and the patient activation approach, which aim to improve motivation for decision making by improving personal relevance or by building self-efficacy or confidence to use new information and skills. Using examples from these literatures, we discuss how to construct interventions to motivate good decisions in later adulthood.

  12. New perspectives for motivating better decisions in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strough, JoNell; de Bruin, Wändi Bruine; Peters, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Decision-making competence in later adulthood is affected by declines in cognitive skills, and age-related changes in affect and experience can sometimes compensate. However, recent findings suggest that age-related changes in motivation also affect the extent to which adults draw from experience, affect, and deliberative skills when making decisions. To date, relatively little attention has been given to strategies for addressing age-related changes in motivation to promote better decisions in older adults. To address this limitation, we draw from diverse literatures to suggest promising intervention strategies for motivating older recipients’ motivation to make better decisions. We start by reviewing the life-span developmental literature, which suggests that older adults’ motivation to put effort into decisions depends on the perceived personal relevance of decisions as well as their self-efficacy (i.e., confidence in applying their ability and knowledge). Next, we discuss two approaches from the health intervention design literature, the mental models approach and the patient activation approach, which aim to improve motivation for decision making by improving personal relevance or by building self-efficacy or confidence to use new information and skills. Using examples from these literatures, we discuss how to construct interventions to motivate good decisions in later adulthood. PMID:26157398

  13. Happiness, rather than depression, is associated with sexual behaviour in partnered older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freak-Poli, Rosanne; De Castro Lima, Gustavo; Direk, Nese; Jaspers, Loes; Pitts, Marian; Hofman, Albert; Tiemeier, Henning

    2017-01-19

    The relation between positive psychological well-being (PPWB) and sexual behaviour is understudied in older adult groups. To examine the relation between PPWB (positive affect and life satisfaction) and sexual behaviour (sexual activity and physical tenderness) in older adults, and whether it is independent from depressive symptoms and uniform across older age groups. Cross-sectional. Community-dwelling adults aged 65 years or older, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Sexual behaviour, the Cantril Self-Anchoring Striving Scale, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale and partner status were assessed in 2,373 dementia-free older adults from the Rotterdam Study. For partnered participants, greater positive affect and life satisfaction was associated with more sexual activity and physical tenderness. Although CES-D was negatively associated with sexual behaviour within partnered older adults, there was no association between the negative affect sub-scale and sexual behaviour. The relations were independent of depressive symptoms, physical health and chronic disease status and were observed for both sexes at all older ages. For unpartnered participants, greater life satisfaction and was associated with more physical tenderness. There was low prevalence of sexual behaviour in unpartnered participants, limiting further stratification. Greater PPWB was associated with more sexual behaviour in partnered, community-dwelling older adults. We are the first to demonstrate that sexual behaviour is associated with PPWB, rather than lack of depressive symptoms; and that the association was present at all ages for partnered older adults. Limited conclusions can be drawn for unpartnered older adults as their sexual behaviour was infrequent. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  14. Fewer ups and downs: daily stressors mediate age differences in negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Susan Turk; Luong, Gloria; Almeida, David M; Ryff, Carol; Sturm, Maggie; Love, Gayle

    2010-05-01

    The current study examined age differences in daily stressors, positive events (uplifts), and their associations with emotional experience among healthy older women. Women (N = 101, 63-93 years old) reported their daily experiences across 1 week. Older age was related to fewer stressors and less frequent negative affect. However, the association between negative affect and age was no longer significant after accounting for the occurrence of daily stressors. Older age was not significantly related to positive affect, although positive uplifts were reported less frequently with age. Findings provide a contextual explanation for emotional experience in very late life, where reduced exposure to stressors partially explains age-related reductions in negative affect.

  15. Cost that is Directly Incurred as a Result of Operating the Train Service on the 1520 mm Rail with Primarily Freight Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Hudenko, J; Ribakova, N; Počs, R

    2016-01-01

    Under the Directive 2012/34/EU (21 November 2012) "the charges for … [rail] infrastructure … shall be set at the cost that is directly incurred as a result of operating the train service". This charging rule is new for Baltic States’ railways, where due to the favorable geographic position a full cost application without detalization was possible. Although, a big number of relevant studies on the issue was made in EU, all of them covered only 1435mm railways with primarily passenger transport...

  16. Assessing shyness in Chinese older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Kee-Lee

    2005-09-01

    The Shyness Scale (SS) is a brief instrument for assessing shyness as a personality trait. The psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the SS were investigated in a random sample of 192 Macau Chinese older adults. The Chinese version of the SS possesses high internal consistency and exhibited satisfactory short-term test-retest reliability. The Chinese version of the SS exhibited acceptable convergent validity with other negative measures of psychological well-being including negative emotional states (assessed by the Negative Affect Scale), loneliness (assessed by the UCLA Loneliness Scale), and state anxiety and trait anxiety (assessed by STAI). The divergent validity of the Chinese version of the SS was demonstrated by the negative but significant association between the SS and self esteem (assessed by Rosenberg Self Esteem Inventory).

  17. Optimal management of ADHD in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torgersen T

    2016-01-01

    include a thorough clinical examination, and medication should be titrated with low doses initially and with a slow increase. In motivated patients, different psychological therapies alone or in addition to pharmacotherapy should be considered.Conclusion: It is essential when treating older adult patients with ADHD to provide good support based on knowledge and understanding of how ADHD symptoms have affected health, quality of life, and function through the life span. Individualized therapy for each elderly patient should be recommended to balance risk–benefit ratio when pharmacotherapy is considered to be a possible treatment. Keywords: ADHD, adults, older adults, pharmacotherapy, central stimulants

  18. Affective Computing used in an imaging interaction paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Nette

    2003-01-01

    This paper combines affective computing with an imaging interaction paradigm. An imaging interaction paradigm means that human and computer communicates primarily by images. Images evoke emotions in humans, so the computer must be able to behave emotionally intelligent. An affective image selection...

  19. To end life or to save life: ageism moderates the effect of message framing on attitudes towards older adults' suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamliel, Eyal; Levi-Belz, Yossi

    2016-08-01

    Global suicide rates among older adults are very high. Public attitudes towards older adults' suicide may affect older adults upon their contemplating such an act. Previous research has demonstrated that message framing affects persons' judgments and decision making. Thus, message framing may have particular significance in the context of attitudes towards end-of-life phenomena, such as physician-aided suicide. This study examined the possible role of ageism in moderating the effect of message framing on attitudes towards older adults' suicide. Two studies examined the association between ageism and attitudes towards older adults' suicide. Study 1 assessed both variables by self-administered questionnaires; Study 2 further examined these variables, incorporating participants' responses to a suicide-related vignette, and evaluating the possible effect of message framing, using a between-participants design. High-ageism participants expressed greater acceptance for older adults' suicide, whereas low-ageism participants expressed a less permissive approach to it (Study 1). In addition, ageism moderated the effect of message framing on attitudes towards older adults' suicide: High-ageism participants revealed a more permissive attitude towards older adults' suicide when the issue was presented in positive terms of not prolonging life, relative to a negative presentation of ending life; a similar effect was not found for low-ageism participants (Study 2). The moderating effect of ageism on attitudes towards older adults' suicide has both theoretical and practical implications. We discuss these implications with respect to suicide prevention among older adults, and suggest future research.

  20. A randomized trial of a DWI intervention program for first offenders: intervention outcomes and interactions with antisocial personality disorder among a primarily American-Indian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, W Gill; Delaney, Harold D; Kunitz, Stephen J; Westerberg, Verner S; Zhao, Hongwei

    2007-06-01

    Randomized trial evidence on the effectiveness of incarceration and treatment of first-time driving while intoxicated (DWI) offenders who are primarily American Indian has yet to be reported in the literature on DWI prevention. Further, research has confirmed the association of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) with problems with alcohol including DWI. A randomized clinical trial was conducted, in conjunction with 28 days of incarceration, of a treatment program incorporating motivational interviewing principles for first-time DWI offenders. The sample of 305 offenders including 52 diagnosed as ASPD by the Diagnostic Interview Schedule were assessed before assignment to conditions and at 6, 12, and 24 months after discharge. Self-reported frequency of drinking and driving as well as various measures of drinking over the preceding 90 days were available at all assessments for 244 participants. Further, DWI rearrest data for 274 participants were available for analysis. Participants randomized to receive the first offender incarceration and treatment program reported greater reductions in alcohol consumption from baseline levels when compared with participants who were only incarcerated. Antisocial personality disorder participants reported heavier and more frequent drinking but showed significantly greater declines in drinking from intake to posttreatment assessments. Further, the treatment resulted in larger effects relative to the control on ASPD than non-ASPD participants. Nonconfrontational treatment may significantly enhance outcomes for DWI offenders with ASPD when delivered in an incarcerated setting, and in the present study, such effects were found in a primarily American-Indian sample.

  1. Evaluating a County-Sponsored Social Marketing Campaign to Increase Mothers' Initiation of HPV Vaccine for their Pre-teen Daughters in a Primarily Rural Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Joan R; Shafer, Autumn; Diehl, Sandra J; Deal, Allison M

    2011-01-01

    Routine vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV), the main cause of cervical cancer, is recommended for 11-12 year old girls, yet vaccine uptake is low. This study evaluates a social marketing campaign initiated by 13 North Carolina counties to raise awareness among parents and reduce barriers to accessing the vaccine in a primarily rural area. The 3-month campaign targeted mothers of girls ages 11-12 and healthcare practices serving pre-teen girls in four counties. Principles of social marketing were: product (recommended vaccine against HPV), price (cost, perception of safety and efficacy, and access), promotion (posters, brochures, website, news releases, doctor's recommendation), and place (doctors' offices, retail outlets). We analyzed (1) website traffic, hotline calls, and media placement; (2) cross-sectional surveys of mothers and providers; and (3) HPV immunization rates in intervention versus non-intervention counties. Of respondent mothers (n=225), 82% heard or saw campaign messages or materials. Of respondent providers (n=35), 94% used campaign brochures regularly or occasionally in conversations with parents. HPV vaccination rates within six months of campaign launch were 2% higher for 9-13 year old girls in two of the four intervention counties compared to 96 non-intervention counties. This evaluation supports campaign use in other primarily rural and underserved areas.

  2. Fragment-Specific Fixation Versus Volar Locking Plates in Primarily Nonreducible or Secondarily Redisplaced Distal Radius Fractures: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgren, Marcus; Abramo, Antonio; Geijer, Mats; Kopylov, Philippe; Tägil, Magnus

    2017-03-01

    To compare the patient-reported, clinical, and radiographic outcome of 2 methods of internal fixation in distal radius fractures. Fifty patients, mean age 56 years (range, 21-69 years) with primarily nonreducible or secondarily redisplaced distal radius fractures were randomized to open reduction internal fixation using volar locking plates (n = 25) or fragment-specific fixation (n = 25). The patients were assessed on grip strength, range of motion, patient-reported outcome (Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand), pain (visual analog scale), health-related quality of life (Short Form-12 [SF-12]), and radiographic evaluation. Grip strength at 12 months was the primary outcome measure. At 12 months, no difference was found in grip strength, which was 90% of the uninjured side in the volar plate group and 87% in the fragment-specific fixation group. No differences were found in range of motion and the median Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score was 5 in both groups. The overall complication rate was significant, 21% in the volar locking plate group, compared with 52% in the fragment-specific group. In treatment of primarily nonreducible or secondarily redisplaced distal radius fractures, volar locking plates and fragment-specific fixation both achieve good and similar patient-reported outcomes, although more complications were recorded in the fragment-specific group. Therapeutic II. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluating a County-Sponsored Social Marketing Campaign to Increase Mothers’ Initiation of HPV Vaccine for their Pre-teen Daughters in a Primarily Rural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Joan R.; Shafer, Autumn; Diehl, Sandra J.; Deal, Allison M.

    2011-01-01

    Routine vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV), the main cause of cervical cancer, is recommended for 11–12 year old girls, yet vaccine uptake is low. This study evaluates a social marketing campaign initiated by 13 North Carolina counties to raise awareness among parents and reduce barriers to accessing the vaccine in a primarily rural area. The 3-month campaign targeted mothers of girls ages 11–12 and healthcare practices serving pre-teen girls in four counties. Principles of social marketing were: product (recommended vaccine against HPV), price (cost, perception of safety and efficacy, and access), promotion (posters, brochures, website, news releases, doctor’s recommendation), and place (doctors’ offices, retail outlets). We analyzed (1) website traffic, hotline calls, and media placement; (2) cross-sectional surveys of mothers and providers; and (3) HPV immunization rates in intervention versus non-intervention counties. Of respondent mothers (n=225), 82% heard or saw campaign messages or materials. Of respondent providers (n=35), 94% used campaign brochures regularly or occasionally in conversations with parents. HPV vaccination rates within six months of campaign launch were 2% higher for 9–13 year old girls in two of the four intervention counties compared to 96 non-intervention counties. This evaluation supports campaign use in other primarily rural and underserved areas. PMID:21804767

  4. Active Strategies for Older Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    This report is also to be published by ETUI (Euruopean Trade Unions' Institute) in a book on Active Strategies for Older Workers. It is the National report for Denmark and contains a short section on characteristics of the Danish labour market, with a special focus on the situation of the elderly...

  5. Older Americans and the Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Jaqueline Tippett

    The potential force for the mutual enrichment of the arts on the lives of older people was investigated by an advisory committee representing the John F. Kennedy Center for Performing Arts and The National Council on the Aging. This prospectus, a report of the committee findings, includes a review of a representative spectrum of cultural programs…

  6. Thermal comfort and older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, van J.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2006-01-01

    The majority of the increasing number of older adults wishes to age-in-place. Appropriate and comfortable housing is of great importance to facilitate this desire. One of the aspects of concern is thermal comfort. This is normally assessed using the model of Fanger, however, one might ask if this

  7. Health Literacy in Older Adults

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-09-20

    In this podcast, Dr. Lynda Anderson, former Director of CDC’s Healthy Aging Program, discusses the importance of improving health literacy among older adults.  Created: 9/20/2011 by Office of the Associate Director for Communication (OADC), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/20/2011.

  8. Visuomotor Binding in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloesch, Emily K.; Abrams, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    Action integration is the process through which actions performed on a stimulus and perceptual aspects of the stimulus become bound as a unitary object. This process appears to be controlled by the dopaminergic system in the prefrontal cortex, an area that is known to decrease in volume and dopamine functioning in older adults. Although the…

  9. Older Couple Relationships and Loneliness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong Gierveld, J.; Broese van Groenou, M.; Bookwala, Jamila

    2016-01-01

    The couple relationship is a major factor in alleviating loneliness. Midlife and older adults without a couple relationship, especially after widowhood or divorce, are at serious risk of loneliness. Outcomes of empirical research, both dating back to the former century (Lopata, 1980, 1996), as well

  10. Older drivers with cognitive impairments : issues of detection and assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, Catarina

    2003-01-01

    Older drivers are often presented as a traffic safety problem . Age-related medical conditions such as dementias and stroke impair cognitive functions that are crucial for safe driving Uncertainty remains regarding the most appropriate clinical methods to assess driving fitness in these patient groups. Furthermore, preclinical dementia and cognitive impairment may affect driving performance and lead to an increased crash risk. The first general aim of the thesis was to inve...

  11. An Algorithm for Neuropathic Pain Management in Older People

    OpenAIRE

    Pickering, Gis?le; Marcoux, Margaux; Chapiro, Sylvie; David, Laurence; Rat, Patrice; Michel, Micheline; Bertrand, Isabelle; Voute, Marion; Wary, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Neuropathic pain frequently affects older people, who generally also have several comorbidities. Elderly patients are often poly-medicated, which increases the risk of drug?drug interactions. These patients, especially those with cognitive problems, may also have restricted communication skills, making pain evaluation difficult and pain treatment challenging. Clinicians and other healthcare providers need a decisional algorithm to optimize the recognition and management of neuropathic pain. W...

  12. Reduced negativity effect in older adults' memory for emotional pictures: the heterogeneity-homogeneity list paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grühn, Daniel; Scheibe, Susanne; Baltes, Paul B

    2007-09-01

    Using the heterogeneity-homogeneity list paradigm, the authors investigated 48 young adults' (20-30 years) and 48 older adults' (65-75 years) recognition memory for emotional pictures. The authors obtained no evidence for a positivity bias in older adults' memory: Age differences were primarily driven by older adults' diminished ability to remember negative pictures. The authors further found a strong effect of list types: Pictures, particularly neutral ones, were better recognized in homogeneous (blocked) lists than in heterogeneous (mixed) ones. Results confirm those of a previous study by D. Grühn, J. Smith, and P. B. Baltes (2005) that used a different type of to-be-remembered material, that is, pictures instead of words. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. At risk, infected, and invisible: older gay men and HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, A H

    1995-01-01

    Older gay men over the age of 50 have been and continue to be an invisible part of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The reasons for this phenomenon are many, but among them are societal beliefs, myths, and stereotypes emanating from ageism and homophobia. In addition, HIV/AIDS is sometimes misdiagnosed in older adults because many of its symptoms mimic other illness that affect older people. Among the HIV risk factors of older gay men are internalized homophobia, denial of risk, alcohol and other substance use, and anonymous sexual encounters. The challenge for nurses and other providers is to reach, educate, and assist older gay men effectively in changing and maintaining safe behaviors when they are engaging in sexual and drug-using behaviors that can transmit HIV.

  14. Ageing in an inconvenient paradise: the immigrant experiences of older Korean people in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hong-Jae; Kim, Chang Gi

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the immigrant experiences of older Korean people and their intergenerational family relationships in the New Zealand context. Data were collected from qualitative interviews with older people, community leaders and professionals in Christchurch and Auckland. Data analysis was conducted using concept mapping techniques in the cross-cultural context where two languages were simultaneously used. The findings of the study show that older Korean people in New Zealand were likely to face multiple challenges due to the combined effects of immigration and ageing in a new country. Some older people experienced difficulties in managing their immigrant lives and intergenerational relationships in the transnational family context in which their family members were dispersed across two or more nations. The immigrant experiences of older migrants might be affected by an 'invisible' source of isolation and exclusion at familial, community, societal and transnational levels. © 2013 The Authors. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2013 ACOTA.

  15. Menopausal women's positive experience of growing older

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, Lotte

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to describe menopausal women's positive experience of growing older and becoming middle-aged.......This paper aims to describe menopausal women's positive experience of growing older and becoming middle-aged....

  16. Physiological Parameters Database for Older Adults

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Physiological Parameters Database for Older Adults is available for download and contains physiological parameters values for healthy older human adults (age 60...

  17. The Impact of Perceived Stress, Social Support, and Home-Based Physical Activity on Mental Health among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwag, Kyung Hwa; Martin, Peter; Russell, Daniel; Franke, Warren; Kohut, Marian

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how perceived stress, social support, and home-based physical activity affected older adults' fatigue, loneliness, and depression. We also explored whether social support and physical activity mediated the relationships between stress and mental health problems. The data of 163 older participants were analyzed in this…

  18. Construct development, description and initial validation of the Knowledge about Older Patients Quiz (KOP-Q) for nurses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikken, Jeroen; Hoogerduijn, Jita G.; Schuurmans, Marieke J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Literature shows that nurses have a negative attitude toward older patients. Increasing nurses' knowledge (part of attitudes) may affect hospital nurses' attitudes and improve the quality of care for older patients. A first step is understanding nurses' current knowledge. This can be

  19. Additive benefit of higher testosterone levels and vitamin D plus calcium supplementation in regard to fall risk reduction among older men and women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both testosterone and vitamin D levels affect muscle and thus may also affect risk of falling. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between sex hormone levels and the risk of falling in older men and women. 199 men and 246 women age 65 or older living at home followed for 3 years...

  20. Job search requirements for older unemployed workers

    OpenAIRE

    Bloemen, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Many OECD countries have, or have had, a policy that exempts older unemployed people from the requirement to search for a job. An aging population and low participation by older workers in the labor market increasingly place public finances under strain, and spur calls for policy measures that activate labor force participation by older workers. Introducing job search requirements for the older unemployed aims to increase their re-employment rates. Abolishing the exemption from job search req...

  1. Patterns of Quality Of Life among Older Urban Dwellers with Mobility Disability in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Nairan Abdullah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobility disability affects the quality of life for the older urban population. The objectives of this research paper were to determine the burden of mobility disability and explore influential factors affecting the quality of life of urban community aged 50 and above with mobility disability. Total of 481 participants who were randomly selected from two urban health centres have been interviewed using structured questionnaire in December 2014. The prevalence of mobility disability was 23.1%. All domains quality of life of older urbanites with mobility disability were significantly affected as compared with those without. These factors need to be emphasized in future planning for elderly.

  2. 75 FR 23559 - Older Americans Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... have contributed so much to our Nation. This year's theme for Older Americans Month, ``Age Strong, Live... Senior Corps. My Administration is committed to ensuring older Americans can age strong and live long. By.... Many of our Nation's older men and women have worked tirelessly and sacrificed so their children could...

  3. Stereotypes of Older Lesbians and Gay Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Sara L.; Canetto, Silvia Sara

    2009-01-01

    This study examined stereotypes of older lesbians and gay men. Key findings are that older lesbians and gay men were perceived as similar to older heterosexual women and men with regard to aging stereotypes, such as being judicious. At the same time, sexual minorities were targets of unique stereotypes. Consistent with the implicit inversion…

  4. Changing Medical Students' Attitudes toward Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Ernest; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Gilbert, Pat

    2010-01-01

    Given the growth in the number of older adults and the ageist attitudes many in the health care profession hold, interventions aimed at improving health professionals' attitudes toward older adults are imperative. Vital Visionaries is an intergenerational art program designed to improve medical students' attitudes toward older adults. Participants…

  5. Unjust Desserts: Financial Realities of Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrine, Judith

    This brochure presents the facts about the financial situation of older women. It explains the vital role of Social Security (SS) for women and offers suggestions to improve their financial outlook. A true/false checklist tests knowledge about women growing older and remaining financially secure. These reasons for poorer older women are outlined:…

  6. Older Siblings Influence Younger Siblings' Motor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Sarah E.; Nuzzo, Katie

    2008-01-01

    Evidence exists for two competing theories about the effects of having an older sibling on development. Previous research has found that having an older sibling has both advantages and disadvantages for younger siblings' development. This study examined whether and how older siblings influenced the onset of their own younger siblings' motor…

  7. Older Adults and Gambling: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyabuddhiphongs, Vanchai

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses the social cognitive theory model to review the literature on older adult gambling, and related personal and environment characteristics. Results show that lottery is the kind of gambling most frequently played by older adults, followed by casino games. Older adults take trips to casinos to socialize, find excitement, and win…

  8. Risk factors for falls of older citizens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelens, C.; Hekman, Edsko E.G.; Verkerke, Gijsbertus Jacob

    2013-01-01

    METHOD: A literature search was conducted to retrieve studies of the past 25 years. All participants from the studies lived in the community or institutions and were aged 60 or older. The following key word combinations were used, limited to the title: elderly or older people or older adults and

  9. Interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha sensitize primarily resistant human endometrial stromal cells to Fas-mediated apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fluhr, Herbert; Krenzer, Stefanie; Stein, Gerburg M

    2007-01-01

    The subtle interaction between the implanting embryo and the maternal endometrium plays a pivotal role during the process of implantation. Human endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) express Fas and the implanting trophoblast cells secrete Fas ligand (FASLG, FasL), suggesting a possible role for Fas......-mediated signaling during early implantation. Here we show that ESCs are primarily resistant to Fas-mediated apoptosis independently of their state of hormonal differentiation. Pre-treatment of ESCs with interferon (IFN)-gamma and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha sensitizes them to become apoptotic upon stimulation...... of Fas by an agonistic anti-Fas antibody. Incubation of ESCs with the early embryonic signal human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, CGB) does not influence their reaction to Fas stimulation. The sensitizing effect of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha was accompanied by a significant upregulation of Fas and FLICE...

  10. Situation Selection and Modification for Emotion Regulation in Younger and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Kimberly M; Isaacowitz, Derek M

    2015-11-01

    This research investigated age differences in use and effectiveness of situation selection and situation modification for emotion regulation. Socioemotional selectivity theory suggests stronger emotional well-being goals in older age; emotion regulation may support this goal. Younger and older adults assigned to an emotion regulation or "just view" condition first freely chose to engage with negative, neutral, or positive material (situation selection), then chose to view or skip negative and positive material (situation modification), rating affect after each experience. In both tasks, older adults in both goal conditions demonstrated pro-hedonic emotion regulation, spending less time with negative material compared to younger adults. Younger adults in the regulate condition also engaged in pro-hedonic situation selection, but not modification. Whereas situation selection was related to affect, modification of negative material was not. This research supports more frequent pro-hedonic motivation in older age, as well as age differences in use of early-stage emotion regulation.

  11. Elevated plasma 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α levels in human smokers originate primarily from enzymatic instead of non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van 't Erve, Thomas J; Lih, Fred B; Kadiiska, Maria B; Deterding, Leesa J; Mason, Ronald P

    2018-02-01

    It is widely accepted that free radicals in tobacco smoke lead to oxidative stress and generate the popular lipid peroxidation biomarker 8-iso-prostaglandin F 2α (8-iso-PGF 2α ). However, 8-iso-PGF 2α can simultaneously be produced in vivo by the prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthases (PGHS) induced by inflammation. This inflammation-dependent mechanism has never been considered as a source of elevated 8-iso-PGF 2α in tobacco smokers. The goal of this study is to quantify the distribution of chemical- and PGHS-dependent 8-iso-PGF 2α formation in the plasma of tobacco smokers and non-smokers. The influences of gender and hormonal contraceptive use were accounted for. The distribution was determined by measuring the 8-iso-PGF 2α /prostaglandin F 2α (PGF 2α ) ratio. When comparing smokers (n = 28) against non-smokers (n = 30), there was a statistically significant increase in the 8-iso-PGF 2α concentration. The source of this increased 8-iso-PGF 2α was primarily from PGHS. When stratifying for gender, the increase in 8-iso-PGF 2α in male smokers (n = 9) was primarily from PGHS. Interestingly, female smokers on hormonal contraceptives had increased 8-iso-PGF 2α in both pathways, whereas those not on hormonal contraceptives did not have increased 8-iso-PGF 2α . In conclusion, increased plasma 8-iso-PGF 2α in tobacco smokers has complex origins, with PGHS-dependent formation as the primary source. Accounting for both pathways provides a definitive measurement of both oxidative stress and inflammation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Evidence-informed recommendations for rehabilitation with older adults living with HIV: a knowledge synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kelly K; Solomon, Patricia; Trentham, Barry; MacLachlan, Duncan; MacDermid, Joy; Tynan, Anne-Marie; Baxter, Larry; Casey, Alan; Chegwidden, William; Robinson, Greg; Tran, Todd; Wu, Janet; Zack, Elisse

    2014-01-01

    recommendations were derived was either low or very low, consisting primarily of narrative reviews or descriptive studies with small sample sizes. Recommendations addressed approaches to rehabilitation assessment and interventions, and contextual factors to consider for rehabilitation with older adults living with HIV. Conclusions These evidence-informed recommendations provide a guide for rehabilitation with older adults living with HIV. PMID:24833687

  13. Factors associated with sexual health and well being in older adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinstäuber, Maria

    2017-09-01

    To provide an update of recent studies on factors associated with sexual well being in older people with a special focus on sexual activity, satisfaction and function. Most recent studies confirmed the relationship between mental health status, especially negative affect and depressive symptoms, and sexual health in older adulthood. However, when this relationship is investigated more deeply, it seems that in fact positive psychological well being (positive affect and quality of life) accounts for sexual activity rather than the lack of depressive symptoms. Moreover, recent studies provided more insight into the relationship between marital characteristics, religion, cognitive functioning and sleeping difficulties and different dimensions of sexual health in older adulthood. In summary, there is substantial previous research revealing associations between various psychosocial, health-related and demographic variables and sexual health in older adulthood. Most considered variables are, for example, age, sex, general physical and mental health. For future research, it is important to consider that relationships between specific variables and sexual health in higher age are usually more complex than they are expected to be and factors differ between different dimensions of sexual health. Communication about sexuality between health-care providers and older patients still implies a lot of barriers and lack of knowledge. Therefore, the provision of communication training for health-care providers to older people in which knowledge is gained about correlates of sexual health in older adulthood should be implemented.

  14. The impact of driving cessation on older Kuwaiti adults: implications to occupational therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hassani, Samar B; Alotaibi, Naser M

    2014-07-01

    Older adults consider driving as a fundamental part of their identity and independence. In most western countries, driving cessation has been recognized as a major issue affecting their health and well-being. This study aimed to compare older Kuwaiti adults who were active drivers and those who had ceased driving, and to explore the impact of driving cessation on the psychological well-being and lifestyle of older ex-drivers. Participants included 114 community-dwelling older adults aged 55 years and older. A questionnaire based on the driving rehabilitation literature was administered along with the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Results indicated that active drivers did not place greater importance on driving and spend more time in leisure pursuits. The overarching feelings following driving cessation were loss of control over one's life and an increased sense of dependency. Driving cessation also contributed to a reduced ability to perform family duties, and it was associated with giving up previously performed leisure activities. Our findings indicate that driving cessation adversely affects older adults' independence and role performance. Older ex-drivers may require assistance and intervention to facilitate their psychological well-being and community participation.

  15. Older adult awareness of the influence of cardiovascular disease risk factors on cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Regina S; Ford, Cassandra; Sniscak, Courtney R

    2017-03-01

    The aims of the current study were to (i) assess older people's awareness of the association between CVD risk factors and cognitive function; and (ii) examine whether awareness varies as a function of demographic factors. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors have been linked to subtle deficits in cognitive function. CVD risk factors increase the risk of cognitive decline and dementia. The association between cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and cognitive decrements has been well documented among older people; however, we are unaware of any studies that have measured older people's awareness of this relationship in an effort to assess educational needs. A descriptive, cross-sectional survey design was employed. Community-based older adults aged 60 and older completed a survey that assessed their knowledge of the association between CVD risk factors and cognitive function. One hundred fifty older adults, with a mean age of 72.88 years, completed the survey. Results showed that over 75% of the sample was aware that CVD risk factors affect cognitive function. White older adults and older adults with greater perceived financial well-being tended to be more aware of these relationships than non-White participants with less perceived financial well-being. Results suggest that many, but not all older people have awareness of this relationship. As such, there is a need for increased education about the cognitive effects of CVD risk factors, particularly among older people who are already at risk for developing CVD and those with lesser financial well-being. Appropriate educational strategies can expose older patients to the importance of healthy lifestyle and self-care to maintain cognitive function. Nurses can incorporate education into care by identifying patients that would benefit from tailored interventions and providing information to at-risk patients about how to maintain their cognitive function through management of specific CVD risk factors. © 2016

  16. Burden of poor oral health in older age: findings from a population-based study of older British men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, S E; Whincup, P H; Watt, R G; Tsakos, G; Papacosta, A O; Lennon, L T; Wannamethee, S G

    2015-12-29

    Evidence of the extent of poor oral health in the older UK adult population is limited. We describe the prevalence of oral health conditions, using objective clinical and subjective measures, in a population-based study of older men. Cross-sectional study. A representative sample of men aged 71-92 years in 2010-2012 from the British Regional Heart Study, initially recruited in 1978-1980 from general practices across Britain. Physical examination among 1660 men included the number of teeth, and periodontal disease in index teeth in each sextant (loss of attachment, periodontal pocket, gingival bleeding). Postal questionnaires (completed by 2147 men including all participants who were clinically examined) included self-rated oral health, oral impacts on daily life and current perception of dry mouth experience. Among 1660 men clinically examined, 338 (20%) were edentulous and a further 728 (43%) had 5.5 mm) affecting 1-20% of sites while 303 (24%) had >20% sites affected. The prevalence of gingival bleeding was 16%. Among 2147 men who returned postal questionnaires, 35% reported fair/poor oral health; 11% reported difficulty eating due to oral health problems. 31% reported 1-2 symptoms of dry mouth and 20% reported 3-5 symptoms of dry mouth. The prevalence of edentulism, loss of attachment, or fair/poor self-rated oral health was greater in those from manual social class. These findings highlight the high burden of poor oral health in older British men. This was reflected in both the objective clinical and subjective measures of oral health conditions. The determinants of these oral health problems in older populations merit further research to reduce the burden and consequences of poor oral health in older people. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Genome-wide Meta-analysis on the Sense of Smell Among US Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Jing; Yang, Jingyun; Tranah, Greg; Franceschini, Nora; Parimi, Neeta; Alkorta-Aranburu, Gorka; Xu, Zongli; Alonso, Alvaro; Cummings, Steven R.; Fornage, Myriam; Huang, Xuemei; Kritchevsky, Stephen; Liu, Yongmei; London, Stephanie; Niu, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Olfactory dysfunction is common among older adults and affects their safety, nutrition, quality of life, and mortality. More importantly, the decreased sense of smell is an early symptom of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson disease (PD) and Alzheimer disease. However, the genetic determinants for the sense of smell have been poorly investigated. We here performed the first genome-wide meta-analysis on the sense of smell among 6252 US older adults of European descent from t...

  18. Oral Health Conditions of Older People: Focus on the Balkan Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Chatzopoulos Georgios S.

    2015-01-01

    Oral health plays a pivotal role in general health, especially in older people. Oral diseases may affect the development of systemic conditions, such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, stroke and hypertension. The most important oral health conditions that have been recorded in dental literature for older population include tooth loss, dental caries, periodontal diseases, xerostomia (dry mouth) and oral cancer. Edentulism influences social life, either causing aesthetic problems or...

  19. Distinct neural correlates of emotional and cognitive empathy in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Raeanne C; Dev, Sheena I; Jeste, Dilip V; Dziobek, Isabel; Eyler, Lisa T

    2015-04-30

    Empathy is thought to be a mechanism underlying prosocial behavior across the lifespan, yet little is known about how levels of empathy relate to individual differences in brain functioning among older adults. In this exploratory study, we examined the neural correlates of affective and cognitive empathy in older adults. Thirty older adults (M=79 years) underwent fMRI scanning and neuropsychological testing and completed a test of affective and cognitive empathy. Brain response during processing of cognitive and emotional stimuli was measured by fMRI in a priori and task-related regions and was correlated with levels of empathy. Older adults with higher levels of affective empathy showed more deactivation in the amygdala and insula during a working memory task, whereas those with higher cognitive empathy showed greater insula activation during a response inhibition task. Our preliminary findings suggest that brain systems linked to emotional and social processing respond differently among older adults with more or less affective and cognitive empathy. That these relationships can be seen both during affective and non-emotional tasks of "cold" cognitive abilities suggests that empathy may impact social behavior through both emotional and cognitive mechanisms. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. The portrayal of older people's social participation on german prime-time TV advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Eva-Marie; Schwender, Clemens; Bowen, Catherine E

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the portrayal of older people's social participation on TV advertisements according to a set of theoretically meaningful indicators from communication science and gerontology. We examined a representative sample of 656 prime-time advertisements broadcast for a period of 2 weeks in 2005 in Germany. Five percent of the advertisements featured at least one older character. Each of the characters in the subsample was rated according to role prominence, viewer-character distance, employment status, openness to experience, social interactions, and loneliness. This portrayal was compared with the portrayal of younger characters appearing in the same commercials and with the portrayal of younger characters in commercials without an older character according to the same indicators. 4.5% of the characters were rated 60 years or older. Older characters were disproportionately featured in major roles, depicted as employed and open to new experience. Furthermore, older characters were most often depicted within intergenerational and nonfamily contexts. Older characters were kept at a greater camera distance than younger characters in "young commercials." Although rare, when older characters did appear, they were depicted as socially engaged. We compare this portrayal with real-world gerontological evidence and age stereotypes and discuss how the portrayal might affect viewers.

  1. The Effects of Feedback on Memory Strategies of Younger and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Xin; Luo, Meng; Geng, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    Existing literature suggests that feedback could effectively reduce false memories in younger adults. However, it is unclear whether memory performance in older adults also might be affected by feedback. The current study tested the hypothesis that older adults can use immediate feedback to adjust their memory strategy, similar to younger adults, but after feedback is removed, older adults may not be able to maintain using the memory strategy. Older adults will display more false memories than younger adults due to a reduction in attentional resources. In Study 1, both younger and older adults adjusted gist processing and item-specific processing biases based on the feedback given (i.e., biased and objective feedback). In Study 2 after the feedback was removed, only younger adults with full attention were able to maintain the feedback-shaped memory strategy; whereas, both younger adults with divided attention and older adults had increased false memories after feedback was removed. The findings suggest that environmental support helps older adults as well as younger adults to adopt a memory strategy that demands high attentional resources, but when the support is removed, older adults can no longer maintain such a strategy.

  2. Sexuality in Nigerian older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatayo, Adeoti Adekunle; Kubwa, Ojo Osaze; Adekunle, Ajayi Ebenezer

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Oftentimes the older adults are assumed to be asexual as few studies explore into the sexuality of this age group worldwide and even in Nigeria. It is an important aspect of quality of life which is often neglected by people in this age group, attending physicians and the society as a whole. The study was aimed at determining the perception of older adults about sexuality, identify the factors that could militate against sexuality and fill any void in information in this regard. Methods Descriptive study conducted in one hundred older adults. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to consenting participants between 1st of September 2013 and 31st of March 2014. Results Mean age of respondents was 66.42± 5.77 years. Seventy-eight percent of the male respondents considered engaging in sexual activity as safe compared to 45.8% of the female respondents. More of the women (33.3%) regarded sexuality in the older adults as a taboo when compared to the men (5.4%). However, the men were more favourably disposed to discussing sexual problems than the women with their spouses (42% vs 20%) and Physicians (23.2% vs 0.0%). Major factors responsible for sexual inactivity were participants’ medical ailments (65%), partners’ failing health (15%) as well as anxiety about sexual performance (25%) in the men and dyspareunia (25%) in women. Conclusion There is an urgent need to correct the misconception about sexuality in this age group especially among the women and for the physicians to explore the sexual history of every patient. PMID:26977224

  3. Insomnia (primary) in older people

    OpenAIRE

    Alessi, Cathy; Vitiello, Michael V

    2011-01-01

    Up to 40% of older adults have insomnia, with difficulty getting to sleep, early waking, or feeling unrefreshed on waking. The prevalence of insomnia increases with age. Other risk factors include medical and psychiatric illnesses, psychological factors, stress, daytime napping, and hyperarousal.Primary insomnia is a chronic and relapsing condition that may increase the risks of accidents.Primary insomnia is chronic insomnia without specific underlying medical, psychiatric, or other sleep ...

  4. Osteoporotic fractures in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Colón-Emeric, Cathleen S.; Saag, Kenneth G.

    2006-01-01

    Osteoporotic fractures are emerging as a major public health problem in the aging population. Fractures result in increased morbidity, mortality and health expenditures. This article reviews current evidence for the management of common issues following osteoporotic fractures in older adults including: (1) thromboembolism prevention; (2) delirium prevention; (3) pain management; (4) rehabilitation; (5) assessing the cause of fracture; and (6) prevention of subsequent fractures. Areas for prac...

  5. Sexuality in Nigerian older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatayo, Adeoti Adekunle; Kubwa, Ojo Osaze; Adekunle, Ajayi Ebenezer

    2015-01-01

    Oftentimes the older adults are assumed to be asexual as few studies explore into the sexuality of this age group worldwide and even in Nigeria. It is an important aspect of quality of life which is often neglected by people in this age group, attending physicians and the society as a whole. The study was aimed at determining the perception of older adults about sexuality, identify the factors that could militate against sexuality and fill any void in information in this regard. Descriptive study conducted in one hundred older adults. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to consenting participants between 1(st) of September 2013 and 31(st) of March 2014. Mean age of respondents was 66.42 ± 5.77 years. Seventy-eight percent of the male respondents considered engaging in sexual activity as safe compared to 45.8% of the female respondents. More of the women (33.3%) regarded sexuality in the older adults as a taboo when compared to the men (5.4%). However, the men were more favourably disposed to discussing sexual problems than the women with their spouses (42% vs 20%) and Physicians (23.2% vs 0.0%). Major factors responsible for sexual inactivity were participants' medical ailments (65%), partners' failing health (15%) as well as anxiety about sexual performance (25%) in the men and dyspareunia (25%) in women. There is an urgent need to correct the misconception about sexuality in this age group especially among the women and for the physicians to explore the sexual history of every patient.

  6. Overview of factors affecting the leachability of nuclear waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of various factors that affect the leachability of nuclear waste forms is presented. The factors affect primarily the leaching system (temperature, for example), the leachant (pH, for example), or the solid being leached (surface condition, for example). A qualitative understanding exists of the major factors affecting leaching, but further studies are needed to establish leaching mechanisms and develop predictive models. 67 refs

  7. The effects of environmental context and personal resources on depressive symptomatology in older age: a test of Lawton model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knipscheer, C.P.M.; Broese Van Groenou, M.I.; Leene, G.J.F.; Beekman, A.; Deeg, D.J.H.

    2000-01-01

    This study examines the environmental and psychosocial determinants of depression in older adults. Based on Lawton's environmental docility thesis, the question is posed: is the strong association between functional limitations and depressive symptomatology affected when environmental conditions,

  8. Work Engagament of Older Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnė Gaurylienė

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aging of the labor force is observed in most developed and developing countries. The employment rate of older employees has been increasing every year and it appears to be not changed in the nearest future. The aging workforce is a serious challenge for organizations due to the prevailing stereotypical approach that older employees are less motivated, demonstrate lower labor productivity, they have more difficulties adopting new information, technologies and the lower ability to adapt to innovations. The aim of the paper is to investigate the impact of the work characteristics on the involvement in the work, the influence of employee’s characteristics on the work engagement, the influence of age and related factors on the involvement in the work and the relationship between age and achievements. The research is based on the analysis and synthesis of scientific literature, investigating to reveal the diversity of the concepts and methodologies and to systematize prevailing issues. The paper integrates the main researches in the field of older employees’ engagement and provides recommendations for future research.

  9. Older men, work and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granville, G; Evandrou, M

    2010-05-01

    To consider the complex interrelationships between work and health among older men, drawing out the importance of considering gender difference in approaches to occupational medicine. The method used in the literature search was to review national and international research published in English since 1990 on the health and work of older men. Journal articles were the primary source. Databases used included Web of Science, CSA Illumina Social Sciences, CINAHL, Medline and ANGINFO. The review of the evidence was structured in terms of key themes emerging from the literature into which issues of gender, ethnicity, age and socio-economic inequalities were cross cut. The current paper now focuses on two of those themes that have particular relevance to occupational medicine: work-caused and work-related ill-health, and secondly promoting workplace health. It begins by setting the scene with a profile of older men in the labour market. Two key themes emerge from the review, which are of particular significance. One is the central role that work plays in the lives and identity of men and therefore the impact this has on their health, both in and out of work. Secondly, the occupational histories of men expose them to work-related and work-caused ill-health, which has consequences for life expectancy and chronic disease in old age. These findings have implications for future research, policy formulation and implementation, and for public health practice.

  10. Preventing Falls in Older Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncada, Lainie Van Voast; Mire, L Glen

    2017-08-15

    The American Geriatrics Society and British Geriatrics Society recommend that all adults older than 65 years be screened annually for a history of falls or balance impairment. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force and American Academy of Family Physicians recommend exercise or physical therapy and vitamin D supplementation to prevent falls in community-dwelling older adults who are at increased risk of falls. Although the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force and American Academy of Family Physicians do not recommend routine multifactorial intervention to prevent falls in all community-dwelling older adults, they state that it may be appropriate in individual cases. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed an algorithm to aid in the implementation of the American Geriatrics Society/British Geriatrics Society guideline. The algorithm suggests assessment and multifactorial intervention for those who have had two or more falls or one fall-related injury. Multifactorial interventions should include exercise, particularly balance, strength, and gait training; vitamin D supplementation with or without calcium; management of medications, especially psychoactive medications; home environment modification; and management of postural hypotension, vision problems, foot problems, and footwear. These interventions effectively decrease falls in the community, hospital, and nursing home settings. Fall prevention is reimbursed as part of the Medicare Annual Wellness Visit.

  11. Evaluating everyday competence in older adult couples: epidemiological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Roger A

    2011-01-01

    Among older adults, everyday competence is often expressed in the context of other participating individuals. Although this active human context may be occasionally comprised of mere acquaintances, long-term partners (such as couples) often act as a unit in engaging in everyday actions or reporting on familiar domains. This special section reflects an important movement in aging research to examine couples as an alternative but normatively common unit of analysis. My discussion focuses on 2 main issues. First, I sketch the rationale, logic, expectation and evidence that long-term couples might develop and display unique advantages in everyday competence. Second, I explore the possibilities that epidemiological principles - thus far applied primarily to individual-level aging, decline and disease - may provide concepts or models for research on long-term changes in couple-level adaptation. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Survival period after tube feeding in bedridden older patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaka, Yoichi; Nakagawa-Satoh, Takuma; Ohrui, Takashi; Fujii, Masahiko; Arai, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Hidetada

    2012-04-01

    We prospectively studied survival periods after tube feeding. Participants were 163 bedridden older patients suffering from dysphagia. A wide range of survival periods after tube feeding were observed within half a year without tube feeding after being bedridden. After this initial period, survival periods after tube feeding were limited to approximately half a year. Survival periods after tube feeding were positively proportional to the length of time patients were free from pneumonia after tube feeding. After tube feeding, patients died from pneumonia within half a year, and the frequency of pneumonia was 3.1 ± 2.7 times (mean ± SD) before death. Survival periods after tube feeding for less than 1 year were primarily determined by being bedridden for more than half a year without tube feeding and once pneumonia occurred; patients who were tube fed did not survive for more than half a year. © 2012 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  13. The Challenges of Treating Sciatica Pain in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Manuela L; McLachlan, Andrew

    2016-11-01

    Sciatica is a debilitating condition affecting approximately 25 % of the population. Typically, the patient will complain of lower limb pain that is more severe than pain in the lower back, usually accompanied by numbness and motor weakness. Most international guidelines recommend pharmacological management for the pain relief of sciatica, including paracetamol, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, opioid analgesics, anticonvulsants, and corticosteroids, among others. However, the evidence for most of these pharmacological options is scarce, and the majority of clinical trials exclude older patients. There is overall very limited information on the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of these medicines in older patients with sciatica. This review presents a critical appraisal of the existing evidence for the pharmacological treatment of sciatica, with a special focus on the older adult. The age-related changes in the health of older patients, as well as their impact on the response to pharmacological treatment, including polypharmacy, drug interactions, and drug-disease interactions, is also discussed.

  14. Transition from the labor market: older workers and retirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Chris L; Murphy, Greg

    2010-01-01

    The new millennium has seen the projected growth of older populations as a source of many problems, not the least of which is how to sustain this increasingly aging population. Some decades ago, early retirement from work posed few problems for governments, but most nations are now trying to ensure that workers remain in the workforce longer. In this context, the role played by older employees can be affected by at least two factors: their productivity (or perceived productivity) and their acceptance by younger workers and management. If the goal of maintaining employees into older age is to be achieved and sustained, opportunities must be provided, for example, for more flexible work arrangements and more possibilities to pursue bridge employment (work after formal retirement). The retirement experience varies, depending on people's circumstances. Some people, for example, have retirement forced upon them by illness or injury at work, by ill-health (such as chronic illnesses), or by downsizing and associated redundancies. This article focuses on the problems and opportunities associated with working to an older age or leaving the workforce early, particularly due to factors beyond one's control.

  15. Antisocial Personality Disorder in Older Adults: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Katherine J; Vaughn, Michael G

    2017-11-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) has enormous negative impacts on the affected individuals, their loved ones, and society. This burden is intensified by the social and functional changes related to age. The lower prevalence of ASPD in older adults compared to younger adults is well-documented. This discrepancy, often attributed solely to antisocial "burnout," contributes to the lack of attention given to this disorder in older adults and may signify difficulty measuring ASPD in this population. These measurement issues likely stem from problems with the validity of the diagnostic criteria for older adults which may not effectively capture changes that occur with age. This review focuses on the current literature surrounding the validity of ASPD criteria with older adults and relevant concepts, including the connection between criminality and ASPD. Issues with screening tools and the measurement of ASPD caused by problems with the criteria are also discussed. Finally, recommendations for improvement, including use of dimensional models of personality disorders, a potential geriatric subclassification of criteria, and modification of the existing criteria are presented with clinical implications and suggestions for future research.

  16. Leukoaraiosis significantly worsens driving performance of ordinary older drivers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimihiko Nakano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leukoaraiosis is defined as extracellular space caused mainly by atherosclerotic or demyelinated changes in the brain tissue and is commonly found in the brains of healthy older people. A significant association between leukoaraiosis and traffic crashes was reported in our previous study; however, the reason for this is still unclear. METHOD: This paper presents a comprehensive evaluation of driving performance in ordinary older drivers with leukoaraiosis. First, the degree of leukoaraiosis was examined in 33 participants, who underwent an actual-vehicle driving examination on a standard driving course, and a driver skill rating was also collected while the driver carried out a paced auditory serial addition test, which is a calculating task given verbally. At the same time, a steering entropy method was used to estimate steering operation performance. RESULTS: The experimental results indicated that a normal older driver with leukoaraiosis was readily affected by external disturbances and made more operation errors and steered less smoothly than one without leukoaraiosis during driving; at the same time, their steering skill significantly deteriorated. CONCLUSIONS: Leukoaraiosis worsens the driving performance of older drivers because of their increased vulnerability to distraction.

  17. Intersection assistance: a safe solution for older drivers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotzauer, Mandy; Caljouw, Simone R; de Waard, Dick; Brouwer, Wiebo H

    2013-10-01

    Within the next few decades, the number of older drivers operating a vehicle will increase rapidly (Eurostat, 2011). As age increases so does physical vulnerability, age-related impairments, and the risk of being involved in a fatal crashes. Older drivers experience problems in driving situations that require divided attention and decision making under time pressure as reflected by their overrepresentation in at-fault crashes on intersections. Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) especially designed to support older drivers crossing intersections might counteract these difficulties. In a longer-term driving simulator study, the effects of an intersection assistant on driving were evaluated. 18 older drivers (M=71.44 years) returned repeatedly completing a ride either with or without a support system in a driving simulator. In order to test the intersection assistance, eight intersections were depicted for further analyses. Results show that ADAS affects driving. Equipped with ADAS, drivers allocated more attention to the road center rather than the left and right, crossed intersections in shorter time, engaged in higher speeds, and crossed more often with a critical time-to-collision (TTC) value. The implications of results are discussed in terms of behavioral adaptation and safety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Identifying Challenging Job and Environmental Demands of Older Nurses Within the National Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durosaiye, Isaiah Oluremi; Hadjri, Karim; Liyanage, Champika Lasanthi

    2016-04-01

    To explore the existing theoretical contexts of the job and environmental demands of the nursing profession in the National Health Service (NHS) and to investigate how these job and environmental demands impact on the personal constructs of older nurses within the NHS. Nursing is the single most widely practiced profession in the healthcare sector in the United Kingdom. However, nurses contend with challenging job and environmental demands on a daily basis, which deplete them of personal constructs (or resources) required to stay in the profession. A multilevel exploratory qualitative research design was employed. Ten managers were interviewed for the preliminary study, based on which the three characteristics of an age-friendly NHS workplace were established: health, retirement, and flexibility. Then an in-depth literature review revealed that the most adversely affected job within the NHS was the nursing profession. Finally, a focus group study was undertaken with six older nurses working in the NHS. The most compelling finding of this study is that older nurses would generally not want to stay on the job if they had to work in the ward area. The physical, cognitive, and sensory constructs of older nurses are negatively affected by the job and environmental demands of the ward areas. Understanding how these job and environmental demands of the workplace affect an older nurse's personal constructs may help support a better design of nurse work and the wards and help extend the working lives of older nurses in the NHS. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Fatigue in Younger and Older Drivers: Effectiveness of an Alertness-Maintaining Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Woojin; Woon, Fu L; Doong, Alice; Persad, Carol; Tijerina, Louis; Pandit, Pooja; Cline, Carol; Giordani, Bruno

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of an alertness-maintaining task (AMT) in older, fatigued drivers. Fatigue during driving increases crash risk, and previous research suggests that alertness and driving in younger adults may be improved using a secondary AMT during boring, fatigue-eliciting drives. However, the potential impact of an AMT on driving has not been investigated in older drivers whose ability to complete dual tasks has been shown to decline and therefore may be negatively affected with an AMT in driving. Younger ( n = 29) and older drivers ( n = 39) participated in a 50-minute simulated drive designed to induce fatigue, followed by four 10-minute sessions alternating between driving with and without an AMT. Younger drivers were significantly more affected by fatigue on driving performance than were older drivers but benefitted significantly from the AMT. Older drivers did not demonstrate increased driver errors with fatigue, and driving did not deteriorate significantly during participation in the AMT condition, although their speed was significantly more variable with the AMT. Consistent with earlier research, an AMT applied during fatiguing driving is effective in improving alertness and reducing driving errors in younger drivers. Importantly, older drivers were relatively unaffected by fatigue, and use of an AMT did not detrimentally affect their driving performance. These results support the potential use of an AMT as a new automotive technology to improve fatigue and promote driver safety, though the benefits of such technology may differ between different age groups.

  20. Attitudes of neurology specialists toward older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seferoğlu, Meral; Yıldız, Demet; Pekel, Nilüfer Büyükkoyuncu; Güneş, Aygül; Yıldız, Abdülmecit; Tufan, Fatih

    2017-08-01

    Attitude of healthcare providers toward older people is very important in the aging world. Neurologists contact older adults very frequently. We aimed to investigate the attitudes of neurologists toward older adults. We recorded participants age; sex; duration of clinical practice in neurology; existence of older adult relatives; and history of geriatrics education, nursing home visits, older adult patient density in their clinical practice, and participation in voluntary public activities. UCLA Geriatrics Attitude Scale was used to evaluate participants' attitudes. A total of 100 neurologists participated in this study. Seventy-seven percent had positive, 3 % had neutral, and 20 % had negative attitudes. Twenty-seven percent of the participants had history of geriatrics education, and these participants tended to have a higher rate of positive attitudes. Neurologists with positive attitudes tended to be older than those with negative attitudes. Participants with history of living with older adult relatives had lower rates of positive attitudes. The most common diagnoses of the patients the participants encountered were stroke and dementia. Independent factors associated with positive attitudes were history of geriatrics education and older age. History of living with older relatives tended to have a negative effect. Most of the negative items of the attitude scale were associated with the natural course and behavior of the common diseases in neurology practice. Generalization of geriatrics education may translate into a better understanding and improved care for older patients. Development of instruments and implementation of qualitative studies to assess attitudes of neurologists toward older adults are needed.

  1. Driving patterns in older adults with glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Landingham, Suzanne W; Hochberg, Chad; Massof, Robert W; Chan, Emilie; Friedman, David S; Ramulu, Pradeep Y

    2013-02-21

    The ability to drive is important for ensuring quality of life for many older adults. Glaucoma is prevalent in this age group and may affect driving. The purpose of this study is to determine if glaucoma and glaucomatous visual field (VF) loss are associated with driving cessation, limitations, and deference to another driver in older adults. Cross-sectional study. Eighty-one glaucoma subjects and 58 glaucoma suspect controls between age 60 and 80 reported if they had ceased driving, limited their driving in various ways, or preferred another to drive. Twenty-three percent of glaucoma subjects and 6.9% of suspects had ceased driving (p = 0.01). Glaucoma subjects also had more driving limitations than suspects (2.0 vs. 1.1, p = 0.007). In multivariable models, driving cessation was more likely for glaucoma subjects as compared to suspects (OR = 4.0; 95% CI = 1.1-14.7; p = 0.03). The odds of driving cessation doubled with each 5 decibel (dB) decrement in the better-eye VF mean deviation (MD) (OR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.4-2.9; p driving limitations (OR = 4.7; 95% CI = 1.3-16.8; p = 0.02). The likelihood of reporting more limitations increased with the VF loss severity (OR = 1.6 per 5 dB decrement in the better-eye VF MD; 95% CI = 1.1-2.4; p = 0.02). Neither glaucoma nor VF MD was associated with other driver preference (p > 0.1 for both). Glaucoma and glaucomatous VF loss are associated with greater likelihood of driving cessation and greater limitation of driving in the elderly. Further prospective study is merited to assess when and why people with glaucoma change their driving habits, and to determine if their observed self-regulation of driving is adequate to ensure safety.

  2. Irrational ideas. Older vs. younger inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyer, L A; Jacobsen, R; Harrison, W R

    1985-04-01

    The relationship to age of irrational beliefs among psychiatric inpatients has not been explored using the rational-emotive model. This study addressed the following two questions: 1) Do older and younger psychiatric inpatients differ in irrational beliefs? 2) Do older depressives differ from older nondepressives in irrational beliefs? Upon admission to a large medical center, 58 younger (less than 45 years old) and 54 older (greater than 55 years old) subjects were assessed on a battery of psychological tests, including the Idea Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory. Results showed that older and younger inpatients did not differ on irrational beliefs. Results also showed that older and younger groups of depressives did not differ on the irrationality scores. When a correlational analysis was used, depression was related to irrationality within the older group but not within the younger group.

  3. Sexual Homicide by Older Male Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Wade C; Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Mariano, Timothy Y; Safarik, Mark E; Geberth, Vernon J

    2017-07-01

    Recent research has expanded our understanding of sexual homicide offenders (SHOs). However, little exists beyond case reports for older SHOs. We characterized male SHOs ≥ 55 years, comparing them to typical adult male SHOs who are in their 20s. Analysis of 37 years (1976-2012) of US Supplementary Homicide Reports data provided a large SHO sample (N = 3453). Three case reports provide clinical context for the diverse nature and patterns of older SHOs. Only 32 older male SHOs and no older female SHOs were identified. Murders by older SHOs accounted for only 0.5% of US sexual homicides. Unlike typical SHOs that generally target young adult females, over two-thirds of older SHO victims were ≥40 years, and one-third were ≥55 years. Sexual homicides by older SHOs, like sexual homicide in general, decreased over the study period. These crimes, while exceedingly rare, do occur, warranting special consideration. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. Socioeconomic Factors and All Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality among Older People in Latin America, India, and China: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ferri, Cleusa P.; Acosta, Daisy; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Llibre-Rodriguez, Juan J.; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Williams, Joseph D.; Gaona, Ciro; Liu, Zhaorui; Noriega-Fernandez, Lisseth; Jotheeswaran, A. T.; Prince, Martin J.

    2012-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Worldwide, half of all deaths occur in people aged 60 or older. Yet mortality among older people is a neglected topic in global health. In high income countries, where 84% of people do not die until they are aged 65 years or older, the causes of death among older people and the factors (determinants) that affect their risk of dying are well documented. In Europe, for example, the leading causes of death among older people are heart disease, stroke, and other chroni...

  5. How does real affect affect affect recognition in speech?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong, Khiet Phuong

    2009-01-01

    The automatic analysis of affect is a relatively new and challenging multidisciplinary research area that has gained a lot of interest over the past few years. The research and development of affect recognition systems has opened many opportunities for improving the interaction between man and

  6. Attitudes Toward Older Workers and Human Resource Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Kluge, Annette; Krings, Franciska

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated attitudes towards older employees, perceived age discrimination, and HR practices (personnel development and reward) in 240 employees. Attitudes toward older employees were largely positive, thus supporting the notion that attitudes toward older employees are becoming increasingly positive. Older employees' attitudes towards older employees were more positive, but younger employees' attitudes were still favorable. Moreover, older and younger employees reported benefiti...

  7. Chlamydia trachomatis recombinant MOMP encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles triggers primarily T helper 1 cellular and antibody immune responses in mice: a desirable candidate nanovaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairley SJ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Stacie J Fairley, Shree R Singh, Abebayehu N Yilma, Alain B Waffo, Praseetha Subbarayan, Saurabh Dixit, Murtada A Taha, Chino D Cambridge, Vida A Dennis Center for NanoBiotechnology Research, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL, USA Abstract: We recently demonstrated by in vitro experiments that PLGA (poly D, L-lactide-co-glycolide potentiates T helper 1 (Th1 immune responses induced by a peptide derived from the recombinant major outer membrane protein (rMOMP of Chlamydia trachomatis, and may be a promising vaccine delivery system. Herein we evaluated the immune-potentiating potential of PLGA by encapsulating the full-length rMOMP (PLGA-rMOMP, characterizing it in vitro, and investigating its immunogenicity in vivo. Our hypothesis was that PLGA-rMOMP triggers Th1 immune responses in mice, which are desirable prerequisites for a C. trachomatis candidate nanovaccine. Physical-structural characterizations of PLGA-rMOMP revealed its size (approximately 272 nm, zeta potential (−14.30 mV, apparent spherical smooth morphology, and continuous slow release pattern. PLGA potentiated the ability of encapsulated rMOMP to trigger production of cytokines and chemokines by mouse J774 macrophages. Flow cytometric analyses revealed that spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunized with PLGA-rMOMP had elevated numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets, and secreted more rMOMP-specific interferon-gamma (Th1 and interleukin (IL-12p40 (Th1/Th17 than IL-4 and IL-10 (Th2 cytokines. PLGA-rMOMP-immunized mice produced higher serum immunoglobulin (IgG and IgG2a (Th1 than IgG1 (Th2 rMOMP-specific antibodies. Notably, sera from PLGA-rMOMP-immunized mice had a 64-fold higher Th1 than Th2 antibody titer, whereas mice immunized with rMOMP in Freund's adjuvant had only a four-fold higher Th1 than Th2 antibody titer, suggesting primarily induction of a Th1 antibody response in PLGA-rMOMP-immunized mice. Our data underscore PLGA as an effective delivery system for a C

  8. Delayed Compensatory Postural Adjustments After Lateral Perturbations Contribute to the Reduced Ability of Older Adults to Control Body Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudino, Renato; Dos Santos, Marcio José; Mazo, Giovana Zarpellon

    2017-10-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the timing of compensatory postural adjustments in older adults during body perturbations in the mediolateral direction, circumstances that increase their risk of falls. The latencies of leg and trunk muscle activation to body perturbations at the shoulder level and variables of center of pressure excursion, which characterize postural stability, were analyzed in 40 older adults (nonfallers and fallers evenly split) and in 20 young participants. The older adults exhibited longer latencies of muscular activation in eight out of 15 postural muscles as compared with young participants; for three muscles, the latencies were longer for the older fallers than nonfallers. Simultaneously, the time for the center of pressure displacement reached its peak after the perturbation was significant longer in both groups of older adults. The observed delays in compensatory postural adjustments may affect the older adults' ability to prompt control body balance after postural disturbances and predispose them to falls.

  9. Affective disorders in childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Burgić-Radmanović

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Affective disorders in childhood have been more intensively studied in the last three decades. They can be recognized among the children of all ages, but are more frequent among the older children. The main characteristics of mood disorders are similar among children, adolescents and adults, although development factors affect their clinical features. Development factors affect the manifestation of all symptoms. Two main criteria for these disorders in childhood are mood disorders, such as reduced or elevated mood and irritability. These symptoms may result in social or academic damage. Depression among children is a wide-spread, family and recurrent condition, which continues episodically in adulthood. Depression is frequently associated with other psychiatric disorders, increasing the risk of suicidal behaviour, misuse of psychoactive substances and behavioural disorders. Depression in childhood brings about worse psychosocial, academic and family functioning. Family, social and environmental factors have a significant role in affective disorders of children and young people.

  10. Relationship of metabolic and endocrine parameters to brain glucose metabolism in older adults: do cognitively-normal older adults have a particular metabolic phenotype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, S; Castellano, C A; Bocti, C; Dionne, I; Fulop, T; Cunnane, S C

    2016-02-01

    Our primary objective in this study was to quantify whole brain and regional cerebral metabolic rates of glucose (CMRg) in young and older adults in order to determine age-normalized reference CMRg values for healthy older adults with normal cognition for age. Our secondary objectives were to--(i) report a broader range of metabolic and endocrine parameters including body fat composition that could form the basis for the concept of a 'metabolic phenotype' in cognitively normal, older adults, and (ii) to assess whether medications commonly used to control blood lipids, blood pressure or thyroxine affect CMRg values in older adults. Cognition assessed by a battery of tests was normal for age and education in both groups. Compared to the young group (25 years old; n = 34), the older group (72 years old; n = 41) had ~14% lower CMRg (μmol/100 g/min) specifically in the frontal cortex, and 18% lower CMRg in the caudate. Lower grey matter volume and cortical thickness was widespread in the older group. These differences in CMRg, grey matter volume and cortical thickness were present in the absence of any known evidence for prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD). Percent total body fat was positively correlated with CMRg in many brain regions but only in the older group. Before and after controlling for body fat, HOMA2-IR was significantly positively correlated to CMRg in several brain regions in the older group. These data show that compared to a healthy younger adult, the metabolic phenotype of a cognitively-normal 72 year old person includes similar plasma glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides and TSH, higher hemoglobin A1c and percent body fat, lower CMRg in the superior frontal cortex and caudate, but the same CMRg in the hippocampus and white matter. Age-normalization of cognitive test results is standard practice and we would suggest that regional CMRg in cognitively healthy older adults should also be age-normalized.

  11. Developmental Regulation with Progressive Vision Loss: Use of Control Strategies and Affective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Oliver K.; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Boerner, Kathrin; Horowitz, Amy; Reinhardt, Joann P.; Cimarolli, Verena R.; Brennan-Ing, Mark; Heckhausen, Jutta

    2016-01-01

    The present study addresses older adults' developmental regulation when faced with progressive and irreversible vision loss. We used the motivational theory of life span development as a conceptual framework and examined changes in older adults' striving for control over everyday goal achievement, and their association with affective well-being,…

  12. Experiences and perspectives of older people regarding advance care planning: A meta-synthesis of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Li-Shan; Huang, Xiaoyan; Hu, Wen-Yu; O'Connor, Margaret; Lee, Susan

    2017-05-01

    Studies have indicated that family members or health professionals may not know or predict their older relatives' or patients' health preferences. Although advance care planning is encouraged for older people to prepare end-of-life care, it is still challenging. To understand the experiences and perspectives of older people regarding advance care planning. A systematic review of qualitative studies and meta-synthesis was conducted. CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO databases were searched. A total of 50 articles were critically appraised and a thematic synthesis was undertaken. Four themes were identified: life versus death, internal versus external, benefits versus burdens, and controlling versus being controlled. The view of life and death influenced older people's willingness to discuss their future. The characteristics, experiences, health status, family relationship, and available resources also affected their plans of advance care planning. Older people needed to balance the benefits and burdens of advance care planning, and then judge their own ability to make decisions about end-of-life care. Older people's perspectives and experiences of advance care planning were varied and often conflicted; cultural differences amplified variances among older people. Truthful information, available resources, and family support are needed to enable older people to maintain dignity at the end of life. The views of life and death for older people from different cultures should be compared to assist health professionals to understand older people's attitudes toward advance care planning, and thus to develop appropriate strategies to promote advance care planning in different cultures.

  13. Acute lesions that impair affective empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Kenichi; Hsu, John; Lindquist, Martin; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Jarso, Samson; Crainiceanu, Ciprian; Mori, Susumu

    2013-01-01

    Functional imaging studies of healthy participants and previous lesion studies have provided evidence that empathy involves dissociable cognitive functions that rely on at least partially distinct neural networks that can be individually impaired by brain damage. These studies converge in support of the proposal that affective empathy—making inferences about how another person feels—engages at least the following areas: prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal gyrus, anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex, temporal pole, amygdala and temporoparietal junction. We hypothesized that right-sided lesions to any one of these structures, except temporoparietal junction, would cause impaired affective empathy (whereas bilateral damage to temporoparietal junction would be required to disrupt empathy). We studied 27 patients with acute right hemisphere ischaemic stroke and 24 neurologically intact inpatients on a test of affective empathy. Acute impairment of affective empathy was associated with infarcts in the hypothesized network, particularly temporal pole and anterior insula. All patients with impaired affective empathy were also impaired in comprehension of affective prosody, but many patients with impairments in prosodic comprehension had spared affective empathy. Patients with impaired affective empathy were older, but showed no difference in performance on tests of hemispatial neglect, volume of infarct or sex distribution compared with patients with intact affective empathy. PMID:23824490

  14. Prostaglandin (PG) E3 synthesis elicted by adrenergic stimuli in guinea-pig trachea (GPT) is mediated primarily by B2 adrenergic receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadel, G.L.; Malik, K.U.; Lew, D.B.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism and to characterize the type of adrenergic receptor (AR) involved in the production of the major metabolite of this fatty acid. [ 14 C]AA was incubated with GPT-rings and the radiolabelled products were extracted and separated by TLC method. The medium was also assayed for radiolabelled immunoreactive PG's (iPG's) and leukotrienes (LT) B4 and C4 by RIA or Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) after exposure to various AR agonists. [ 14 C]AA was incorporated into GPT-rings and metabolized mainly into iPGE2 and smaller amounts into PGF2α. Trace amounts of PGD2 and 6-keto-PGF1α but not LTB4 or LTC4 were detected by RIA and/or EIA. Incubation of GPT rings for 15 minutes with isoproterenol and salbutamol resulted in a significant increase of PGE2 synthesis (optimum conc: 10 -7 , 10 -7 M respectively). In contrast, dobutamine, norepinephrine, phenylnephrine and xylazine (up to 10 -6 M) did not significantly increase PGE2 production. Isoproterenol-induced iPGE2 production was inhibited by a selective β2 antagonist, butoxamine (70%: 10 -7 M, 91%: 10 -6 M) and somewhat reduced by β1 antagonists practolol and metoprolol (30-64%:10 -6 M). These data suggest that isoproterenol induced iPGE2 synthesis is primarily mediated via activation of β2 adrenergic receptor

  15. Hydroa vacciniforme-like lymphoma with primarily periorbital swelling: 7 cases of an atypical clinical manifestation of this rare cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Jose A; Sangueza, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Hydroa vacciniforme-like lymphoma (HVL) is a rare cutaneous T-cell lymphoma that is usually seen in children of Hispanic or Asian origin. Association between chronic latent Epstein-Barr virus infection in both hydroa vacciniforme (HV) and HVL has been demonstrated and has recently been categorized by the World Health Organization as one of the Epstein Barr virus-positive lymphoproliferative disorders of childhood. Patients with HVL present with a cutaneous rash characterized by edema, blisters, ulcers, and scars mainly seen on the face and extremities that mimic HV; however, unlike in HV, the lesions tend to be extensive and deeper and are associated with severe scarring, necrosis, and systemic manifestations. We are reporting 7 cases of an unusual clinical variant of HVL with primarily periorbital edema. All of our patients in this series presented with progressive periorbital edema that was accompanied with systemic symptoms including fever, malaise, and lymphadenopathy. Most cases were initially misinterpreted as inflammatory processes including cellulitis, arthropod bite reactions, and periorbital lupus erythematosus. The biopsy of these lesions revealed an atypical lymphocytic infiltrate predominantly distributed in the deep dermis and in subcutaneous fat. Immunohistochemistry studies revealed a cytotoxic T-cell (CD8) profile. All cases were associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection. Our study presents a rare clinical variant of HVL with predominant periorbital edema. This variant could potentially be overlooked and misdiagnosed as an inflammatory condition; thus, it needs to be included in the differential diagnosis of periorbital edema in young patients.

  16. High mobility group protein number17 cross-links primarily to histone H2A in the reconstituted HMG 17 - nucleosome core particle complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, G.R.; Yau, P.; Yasuda, H.; Traut, R.R.; Bradbury, E.M.

    1986-01-01

    The neighbor relationship of lamb thymus High Mobility Group (HMG) protein 17 to native HeLa nucleosome core particle histones in the reconstituted complex has been studied. 125 I-labeled HMG 17 was cross-linking to core histones using the protein-protein cross-linking reagent 2-iminothiolane. Specific cross-linked products were separated on a two-dimensional Triton-acid-urea/SDS gel system, located by autoradiography, excised and quantified. Disulfide bonds in the cross links were then cleaved and the protein constituents were identified by SDS gel electrophoresis. HMG 17 cross-linked primarily to histone H2A while lower levels of cross-linking occurred between HMG 17 and the other histones. In contrast, cross-linking between two HMG 17 molecules bound on the same nucleosome was relatively rare. It is concluded that the same nucleosome was relatively rare. It is concluded that H2A comprises part of the HMG 17 binding site but that HMG 17 is sufficiently elongated and mobile to permit cross-linking to the other histones and to a second HMG 17 molecule. These results are in agreement with the current model for the structure of the nucleosome and the proposed binding sites for HMG 17

  17. Bacterial diversity shift determined by different diets in the gut of the spotted wing fly Drosophila suzukii is primarily reflected on acetic acid bacteria

    KAUST Repository

    Vacchini, Violetta

    2016-11-25

    The pivotal role of diet in shaping gut microbiota has been evaluated in different animal models, including insects. Drosophila flies harbour an inconstant microbiota among which acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are important components. Here, we investigated the bacterial and AAB components of the invasive pest Drosophila suzukii microbiota, by studying the same insect population separately grown on fruit-based or non-fruit artificial diet. AAB were highly prevalent in the gut under both diets (90 and 92% infection rates with fruits and artificial diet, respectively). Fluorescent in situ hybridization and recolonization experiments with green fluorescent protein (Gfp)-labelled strains showed AAB capability to massively colonize insect gut. High-throughput sequencing on 16S rRNA gene indicated that the bacterial microbiota of guts fed with the two diets clustered separately. By excluding AAB-related OTUs from the analysis, insect bacterial communities did not cluster separately according to the diet, suggesting that diet-based diversification of the community is primarily reflected on the AAB component of the community. Diet influenced also AAB alpha-diversity, with separate OTU distributions based on diets. High prevalence, localization and massive recolonization, together with AAB clustering behaviour in relation to diet, suggest an AAB role in the D. suzukii gut response to diet modification. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparative Transcriptional Profiling Established the Awn as the Major Photosynthetic Organ of the Barley Spike While the Lemma and the Palea Primarily Protect the Seed

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    Tilahun Abebe

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The lemma, palea, and awn of a barley ( L. spike are photosynthetic organs that supply the developing seed with carbohydrates. The lemma and palea also enclose the seed and protect it from pathogens and insects. Despite the important roles they play, little information exists on gene expression in these organs that identifies their function. In this study, we compared gene expression among the lemma, palea, awn, and developing seed of barley during grain filling using the Barley1 Genome Array to identify highly expressed genes involved in the primary function of these organs. Hierarchical clustering and mixed model analysis revealed that the lemma and palea have closely related gene expression patterns. In addition, the lemma and palea overexpressed defense-related genes compared with the awn. The awn preferentially expressed genes for photosynthesis, the biosynthesis of chlorophyll and carotenoids, and reactive oxygen species scavenging. This suggests the lemma and palea are mainly protective organs whereas the awn is primarily a photosynthetic structure. The seed was enriched with genes for the biosynthesis of starch, storage proteins, enzyme inhibitors, and cell proliferation.

  19. Is Walking Capacity in Subjects with Multiple Sclerosis Primarily Related to Muscle Oxidative Capacity or Maximal Muscle Strength? A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Hansen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. Walking capacity is reduced in subjects with multiple sclerosis (MS. To develop effective exercise interventions to enhance walking capacity, it is important to determine the impact of factors, modifiable by exercise intervention (maximal muscle strength versus muscle oxidative capacity, on walking capacity. The purpose of this pilot study is to discriminate between the impact of maximal muscle strength versus muscle oxidative capacity on walking capacity in subjects with MS. Methods. From 24 patients with MS, muscle oxidative capacity was determined by calculation of exercise-onset oxygen uptake kinetics (mean response time during submaximal exercise bouts. Maximal muscle strength (isometric knee extension and flexion peak torque was assessed on dynamometer. All subjects completed a 6-minute walking test. Relationships between walking capacity (as a percentage of normal value and muscle strength (of knee flexors and extensors versus muscle oxidative capacity were assessed in multivariate regression analyses. Results. The expanded disability status score (EDSS showed a significant univariate correlation (r=-0.70, P<0.004 with walking capacity. In multivariate regression analyses, EDSS and mean response time, but not muscle strength, were independently related to walking capacity (P<0.05. Conclusions. Walking distance is, next to disability level and not taking neurologic symptoms/deficits into account, primarily related to muscle oxidative capacity in subjects with MS. Additional study is needed to further examine/verify these findings.

  20. Association of impairments of older persons with caregiver burden among family caregivers: Findings from rural South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajay, Shweta; Kasthuri, Arvind; Kiran, Pretesh; Malhotra, Rahul

    In India, owing to cultural norms and a lack of formal long-term care facilities, responsibility for care of the older person falls primarily on the family. Based on the stress process model, we assessed the association of type and number of impairments of older persons (∼primary stressors) with caregiver burden among their family caregivers in rural South India. All impaired older persons (aged ≥60, with impairment in activities of daily living (ADL) or cognition or vision or hearing) residing in 8 villages in Bangalore district, Karnataka, India, and their primary informal caregivers were interviewed. Caregiver burden was measured using the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI; higher score indicating greater perceived burden). Linear regression models, adjusting for background characteristics of older persons and caregivers, assessed the association of type of impairment (physical [Yes/No], cognitive [Yes/No], vision [Yes/No] and hearing [Yes/No]) and number (1 or 2 or 3 or 4) of older person impairments with caregiver burden. A total of 140 caregivers, caring for 149 older persons, were interviewed. The mean (standard deviation) ZBI score was 21.2 (12.9). Of the various older person impairments, ZBI score was associated only with physical impairment (β=6.6; 95% CI: 2.1-11.1). Relative to caregivers of older person with one impairment, those caring for an older person with all 4 impairments had significantly higher ZBI score (β=13.9; CI: 2.5-25.4). Caregivers of older persons with multiple impairments, especially physical impairment, are vulnerable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Living in an older adult community: a pharmacy student's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasia, Emily; Estus, Erica

    2013-12-01

    Interacting with older adults is a daily practice for pharmacists. It is important to understand how medications affect their wellbeing, but there are many other factors that affect quality of life. To truly understand some of the challenges facing older adults, Emily Anastasia, a sixth-year pharmacy student at the University of Rhode Island, moved into South Bay Retirement Living, a senior living community, for an eight-day immersion experience as a special project within one of her advanced pharmacy practice experience rotations. During her stay, she did not attend classes nor leave the facility unless on the South Bay bus with the other assisted living residents. She lived with a 92-year-old roommate, developed close friendships with many of the residents, and kept a detailed journal of her experience. The purpose of this reflection is to share her experience and recognize lifestyle as well as social and physical environment as factors in understanding the aging process. Immersing a pharmacy student within an assisted living community provides a unique opportunity to observe and appreciate characteristics of older adults that cannot be learned within a classroom setting.

  2. TRX Suspension Training: A New Functional Training Approach for Older Adults - Development, Training Control and Feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaedtke, Angus; Morat, Tobias

    Because of its proximity to daily activities functional training becomes more important for older adults. Sling training, a form of functional training, was primarily developed for therapy and rehabilitation. Due to its effects (core muscle activation, strength and balance improvements), sling training may be relevant for older adults. However, to our knowledge no recent sling training program for healthy older adults included a detailed training control which is indeed an essential component in designing and implementing this type of training to reach positive effects. The purpose of this study was to develop a TRX Suspension Training for healthy older adults (TRX-OldAge) and to evaluate its feasibility. Eleven participants finished the 12 week intervention study. All participants trained in the TRX-OldAge whole-body workout which consists of seven exercises including 3-4 progressively advancing stages of difficulty for every exercise. At each stage, intensity could be increased through changes in position. Feasibility data was evaluated in terms of training compliance and a self-developed questionnaire for rating TRX-OldAge. The training compliance was 85 %. After study period, 91 % of the participants were motivated to continue with the program. The training intensity, duration and frequency were rated as optimal. All participants noted positive effects whereas strength gains were the most. On the basis of the detailed information about training control, TRX-OldAge can be individually adapted for each older adult appropriate to its precondition, demands and preference.

  3. Silver Memories: implementation and evaluation of a unique radio program for older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Catherine; Bartlett, Helen P

    2011-03-01

    A unique radio program, Silver Memories, specifically designed to address social isolation and loneliness in older people by broadcasting music (primarily), serials and other programs relevant to the period when older people grew up--the 1920-1950s--first aired in Brisbane, Australia, in April 2008. The impact of the program upon older listeners' mood, quality of life (QOL) and self-reported loneliness was independently evaluated. One hundred and thirteen community-dwelling persons and residents of residential care facilities, aged 60 years and older participated in a three month evaluation of Silver Memories. They were asked to listen to the program daily and baseline and follow-up measures of depression, QOL and loneliness were obtained. Participants were also asked for their opinions regarding the program's quality and appeal. The results showed a statistically significant improvement in measures of depression and QOL from baseline to follow-up but there was no change on the measure of loneliness. The results did not vary by living situation (community vs. residential care), whether the participant was lonely or not lonely, socially isolated or not isolated, or whether there had been any important changes in the participant's health or social circumstances throughout the evaluation. It was concluded that listening to Silver Memories appears to improve the QOL and mood of older people and is an inexpensive intervention that is flexible and readily implemented.

  4. Health and functional status among older people with HIV/AIDS in Uganda

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    Scholten Francien

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about the health and functional status of older people who either themselves are HIV infected or are affected by HIV and AIDS in the family. This aim of this study was to describe health among older people in association with the HIV epidemic. Methods The cross-sectional survey consisted of 510 participants aged 50 years and older, equally divided into five study groups including; 1 HIV infected and on antiretroviral therapy (ART for at least 1 year; 2 HIV infected and not yet eligible for ART; 3 older people who had lost a child due to HIV/AIDS; 4 older people who have an adult child with HIV/AIDS; 5 older people not known to be infected or affected by HIV in the family. The participants were randomly selected from ongoing studies in a rural and peri-urban area in Uganda. Data were collected using a WHO standard questionnaire and performance tests. Eight indicators of health and functioning were examined in an age-adjusted bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results In total, 198 men and 312 women participated. The overall mean age was 65.8 and 64.5 years for men and women respectively. Men had better self-reported health and functional status than women, as well as lower self-reported prevalence of chronic diseases. In general, health problems were common: 35% of respondents were diagnosed with at least one of the five chronic conditions, including 15% with depression, based on algorithms; 31% of men and 35% of women had measured hypertension; 25% of men and 21% of women had poor vision test results. HIV-positive older people, irrespective of being on ART, and HIV-negative older people in the other study groups had very similar results for most health status and functioning indicators. The main difference was a significantly lower BMI among HIV-infected older people. Conclusion The systematic exploration of health and well being among older people, using eight self-reported and

  5. Health care for older persons in Argentina: a country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Odasso, Manuel; Przygoda, Pablo; Redondo, Nélida; Adamson, Juan; Kaplan, Roberto

    2004-10-01

    Argentina is a large country situated at the southern end of the Americas. It is highly urbanized, and almost one-third of the population lives in the capital city and its surrounding area (Buenos Aires). The population is composed of heterogeneous groups, formed primarily by descendants of European immigration who constitute 85% of the inhabitants. In the last 30 years, Argentina has witnessed a growth in the elderly population from less than 7% to nearly 10% of the total population. Additionally, in Buenos Aires City, more than 17% are aged 65 or older. The healthcare systems for the elderly lack nationwide coverage. The Programa de Atención Médica Integral (PAMI) is the largest program for elderly care. It is a state-run program for disabled and senior citizens. PAMI serves 65% of the approximately 3.6 million older people in Argentina. The quality of PAMI healthcare delivery has decreased in the last 2 decades and has largely declined since the Argentinean economic crisis of late 2001. The rehabilitation and long-term care services are relatively underdeveloped, and fewer than 2% of senior citizens live in residential or nursing homes. Recently, the government has proposed a system of care built up from the primary care resources of the community.

  6. Rational therapeutic choice for older patients with lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bron, Dominique; Soubeyran, Pierre

    2017-09-01

    The choice for an optimal treatment in older lymphoma patients is a real challenge for hemato-oncologists. They have to treat a potentially curative lymphoma, and concomitantly protect their patients from unacceptable toxicities. Some recommendations are provided for the major subtypes of lymphomas including the antitumoral treatment and primarily the optimal supportive care. All the recent literature data converge to say that the approach of an older patient with a malignant hemopathy is a multistep procedure. This process comprises the appraisal of life expectancy of the patient with or without the disease, the prognostic factors of the tumor, the functional, physiological and cognitive functions evaluation, the socio-economical environment and the patient's expectancy in terms of quality of life. Major progresses have been achieved in the management of diffuse large B cell lymphoma and mantle cell lymphoma in patients up to 80 and above 80 years old. With all these information in hands, the hematologist will decide if the treatment's objective is the standard treatment with optimal supportive care (fit patients), tailor-made adapted chemotherapy (unfit patients) or preservation of quality of life (frail patients).

  7. Hippocampal Sclerosis in Older Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cykowski, Matthew D.; Powell, Suzanne Z.; Schulz, Paul E.; Takei, Hidehiro; Rivera, Andreana L.; Jackson, Robert E.; Roman, Gustavo; Jicha, Gregory A.; Nelson, Peter T.

    2018-01-01

    Context Autopsy studies of the older population (≥65 years of age), and particularly of the “oldest-old” (≥85 years of age), have identified a significant proportion (~20%) of cognitively impaired patients in which hippocampal sclerosis is the major substrate of an amnestic syndrome. Hippocampal sclerosis may also be comorbid with frontotemporal lobar degeneration, Alzheimer disease, and Lewy body disease. Until recently, the terms hippocampal sclerosis of aging or hippocampal sclerosis dementia were applied in this context. Recent discoveries have prompted a conceptual expansion of hippocampal sclerosis of aging because (1) cellular inclusions of TAR DNA-binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43) are frequent; (2) TDP-43 pathology may be found outside hippocampus; and (3) brain arteriolosclerosis is a common, possibly pathogenic, component. Objective To aid pathologists with recent recommendations for diagnoses of common neuropathologies in older persons, particularly hippocampal sclerosis, and highlight the recent shift in diagnostic terminology from HS-aging to cerebral age-related TDP-43 with sclerosis (CARTS). Data Sources Peer-reviewed literature and 5 autopsy examples that illustrate common age-related neuropathologies, including CARTS, and emphasize the importance of distinguishing CARTS from late-onset frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 pathology and from advanced Alzheimer disease with TDP-43 pathology. Conclusions In advanced old age, the substrates of cognitive impairment are often multifactorial. This article demonstrates common and frequently comorbid neuropathologic substrates of cognitive impairment in the older population, including CARTS, to aid those practicing in this area of pathology. PMID:28467211

  8. Veterans Affairs Intensive Case Management for older veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Somaia; Neale, Michael S; Rosenheck, Robert

    2009-08-01

    There is a growing need for information on evidence-based practices that may potentially address needs of elderly people with severe mental illness (SMI), and more specifically on community-based services such as assertive community treatment (ACT). This study examines national evaluation data from fiscal year 2001-2005 from Veterans Affairs Mental Health Intensive Case Management (MHICM) program (N = 5,222), an ACT-based service model, to characterize the age distribution of participants and the distinctive needs, patterns of service delivery, and treatment outcomes for elderly veterans. Altogether, 24.8% of participants were 55-64 years; 7.4% 65-74 years; and 2.8% were older than 75. Veterans over 75 formed a distinct subgroup that had a later age of onset of primarily nonpsychotic illnesses without comorbid substance abuse and had experienced more limited lifetime hospital treatment than younger participants. Older veterans were less symptomatic and more satisfied with their social relationships than younger clients. They mostly live independently or in minimally restrictive housing, but they received less recovery-focused services and more crisis intervention and medical services. They thus do not appear to be young patients with SMI who have aged but rather constitute a distinct group with serious late-onset problems. It is possible that MHICM services keep them in the community and avoid costly nursing home placement while providing a respite service that reduces family burden. These data highlight the unique characteristics of older veterans receiving ACT-like services and the need to focus greater attention on recovery-oriented services as well as community support for this subgroup.

  9. Lower thermal sensation in normothermic and mildly hyperthermic older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Ryosuke; Imai, Daiki; Suzuki, Akina; Ota, Akemi; Naghavi, Nooshin; Yamashina, Yoshihiro; Hirasawa, Yoshikazu; Yokoyama, Hisayo; Miyagawa, Toshiaki; Okazaki, Kazunobu

    2016-05-01

    It is important to know how thermal sensation is affected by normal aging under conditions that elevate core body temperature for the prevention of heat-related illness in older people. We assessed whether thermal sensation under conditions of normothermia (NT) and mild hyperthermia (HT) is lowered in older adults. Seventeen younger (23 ±  3 years) and 12 older (71 ±  3 years) healthy men underwent measurements of the cold and warmth detection thresholds ( ± 0.1 °C/s) of their chest and forearm skin, and whole body warmth perception under NT (esophageal temperature, T es, ~36.5 °C) and HT (T es, ~37.3 °C; lower legs immersed in 42 °C water) conditions. Warmth detection threshold at the forearm was increased in older compared with younger participants under both NT (P = 0.006) and HT (P = 0.004) conditions. In contrast, cold detection threshold at the forearm was decreased in older compared with younger participants under NT (P = 0.001) but not HT (P = 0.16). Mild hyperthermia decreased cold detection threshold at forearm in younger participants (P = 0.001) only. There were no effects of age and condition on warmth and cold detection thresholds at chest. Whole body warmth perception increased during HT compared with NT in both groups (both, P perception under NT and HT and skin cold detection thresholds at forearm under NT deteriorated with aging.

  10. Stereotype Threat Lowers Older Adults' Self-Reported Hearing Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Sarah J; Lee, Soohyoung Rain

    2015-01-01

    Although stereotype threat is a well-documented phenomenon, previous studies examining it in older adults have almost exclusively focused on objective cognitive outcomes. Considerably less attention has been paid to the impact of stereotype threat on older adults' subjective assessments of their own abilities or to the impact of stereotype threat in noncognitive domains. Older adults are stereotyped as having experienced not only cognitive declines, but physical declines as well. The current study tested the prediction that stereotype threat can negatively influence older adults' subjective hearing abilities. To test this, 115 adults (mean age 50.03 years, range 41-67) read either a positive or negative description about how aging affects hearing. All participants then answered a questionnaire in which they assessed their own hearing abilities. The impact of stereotype threat on self-reported hearing was moderated by chronological age. Participants in their 40s and early 50s were unaffected by the stereotype threat manipulation. In contrast, participants in their late 50s and 60s rated their hearing as being subjectively worse when under stereotype threat. The current study provides a clear demonstration that stereotype threat negatively impacts older adults' subjective assessments of their own abilities. It is also the first study to demonstrate an effect of stereotype threat within the domain of hearing. These results have important implications for researchers investigating age-related hearing decline. Stereotype threat can lead to overestimation of the prevalence of age-related hearing decline. It can also serve as a confounding variable when examining the psychosocial correlates of hearing loss. Because of this, researchers studying age-related hearing loss should aim to provide a stereotype threat-free testing environment and also include assessments of stereotype threat within their studies. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Stereotype threat lowers older adults’ self-reported hearing abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Sarah J.; Lee, Soohyoung Rain

    2016-01-01

    Background Although stereotype threat is a well-documented phenomenon, previous studies examining it in older adults have almost exclusively focused on objective cognitive outcomes. Considerably less attention has been paid to the impact of stereotype threat on older adults’ subjective assessments of their own abilities or to the impact of stereotype threat in non-cognitive domains. Objective Older adults are stereotyped as having experienced not only cognitive declines, but physical declines as well. The current study tested the prediction that stereotype threat can negatively influence older adult's subjective hearing abilities. Methods To test this, 115 adults (M age = 50.02, range = 41-67) read either a positive or negative description about how aging affects hearing. All participants then answered a questionnaire in which they assessed their own hearing abilities. Results The impact of stereotype threat on self-reported hearing was moderated by chronological age. Participants in their 40's and early 50's were unaffected by the stereotype threat manipulation. In contrast, participants in their late 50's and 60's rated their hearing as being subjectively worse when under stereotype threat. Conclusion The current study provides a clear demonstration that stereotype threat negatively impacts older adults’ subjective assessments of their own abilities. It is also the first study to demonstrate an effect of stereotype threat within the domain of hearing. These results have important implications for researchers investigating age-related hearing decline. Stereotype threat can lead to overestimation of the prevalence of age-related hearing decline. It can also serve as a confounding variable when examining the psychosocial correlates of hearing loss. Because of this, researchers studying age-related hearing loss should aim to provide a stereotype-threat free testing environment and also include assessments of stereotype threat within their studies. PMID:26461273

  12. Emotional memory for musical excerpts in young and older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Irene; Dellacherie, Delphine; Samson, Séverine

    2015-01-01

    The emotions evoked by music can enhance recognition of excerpts. It has been suggested that memory is better for high than for low arousing music (Eschrich et al., 2005; Samson et al., 2009), but it remains unclear whether positively (Eschrich et al., 2008) or negatively valenced music (Aubé et al., 2013; Vieillard and Gilet, 2013) may be better recognized. Moreover, we still know very little about the influence of age on emotional memory for music. To address these issues, we tested emotional memory for music in young and older adults using musical excerpts varying in terms of arousal and valence. Participants completed immediate and 24 h delayed recognition tests. We predicted highly arousing excerpts to be better recognized by both groups in immediate recognition. We hypothesized that arousal may compensate consolidation deficits in aging, thus showing more prominent benefit of high over low arousing stimuli in older than younger adults on delayed recognition. We also hypothesized worst retention of negative excerpts for the older group, resulting in a recognition benefit for positive over negative excerpts specific to older adults. Our results suggest that although older adults had worse recognition than young adults overall, effects of emotion on memory do not seem to be modified by aging. Results on immediate recognition suggest that recognition of low arousing excerpts can be affected by valence, with better memory for positive relative to negative low arousing music. However, 24 h delayed recognition results demonstrate effects of emotion on memory consolidation regardless of age, with a recognition benefit for high arousal and for negatively valenced music. The present study highlights the role of emotion on memory consolidation. Findings are examined in light of the literature on emotional memory for music and for other stimuli. We finally discuss the implication of the present results for potential music interventions in aging and dementia. PMID

  13. Emotional memory for musical excerpts in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Irene; Dellacherie, Delphine; Samson, Séverine

    2015-01-01

    The emotions evoked by music can enhance recognition of excerpts. It has been suggested that memory is better for high than for low arousing music (Eschrich et al., 2005; Samson et al., 2009), but it remains unclear whether positively (Eschrich et al., 2008) or negatively valenced music (Aubé et al., 2013; Vieillard and Gilet, 2013) may be better recognized. Moreover, we still know very little about the influence of age on emotional memory for music. To address these issues, we tested emotional memory for music in young and older adults using musical excerpts varying in terms of arousal and valence. Participants completed immediate and 24 h delayed recognition tests. We predicted highly arousing excerpts to be better recognized by both groups in immediate recognition. We hypothesized that arousal may compensate consolidation deficits in aging, thus showing more prominent benefit of high over low arousing stimuli in older than younger adults on delayed recognition. We also hypothesized worst retention of negative excerpts for the older group, resulting in a recognition benefit for positive over negative excerpts specific to older adults. Our results suggest that although older adults had worse recognition than young adults overall, effects of emotion on memory do not seem to be modified by aging. Results on immediate recognition suggest that recognition of low arousing excerpts can be affected by valence, with better memory for positive relative to negative low arousing music. However, 24 h delayed recognition results demonstrate effects of emotion on memory consolidation regardless of age, with a recognition benefit for high arousal and for negatively valenced music. The present study highlights the role of emotion on memory consolidation. Findings are examined in light of the literature on emotional memory for music and for other stimuli. We finally discuss the implication of the present results for potential music interventions in aging and dementia.

  14. Phase-shifting response to light in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Jae; Benloucif, Susan; Reid, Kathryn Jean; Weintraub, Sandra; Kennedy, Nancy; Wolfe, Lisa F; Zee, Phyllis C

    2014-01-01

    Age-related changes in circadian rhythms may contribute to the sleep disruption observed in older adults. A reduction in responsiveness to photic stimuli in the circadian timing system has been hypothesized as a possible reason for the advanced circadian phase in older adults. This project compared phase-shifting responses to 2 h of broad-spectrum white light at moderate and high intensities in younger and older adults. Subjects included 29 healthy young (25.1 ± 4.1 years; male to female ratio: 8: 21) and 16 healthy older (66.5 ± 6.0 years; male to female ratio: 5: 11) subjects, who participated in two 4-night and 3-day laboratory stays, separated by at least 3 weeks. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three different time-points, 8 h before (-8), 3 h before (-3) or 3 h after (+3) the core body temperature minimum (CBTmin) measured on the baseline night. For each condition, subjects were exposed in a randomized order to 2 h light pulses of two intensities (2000 lux and 8000 lux) during the two different laboratory stays. Phase shifts were analysed according to the time of melatonin midpoint on the nights before and after light exposure. Older subjects in this study showed an earlier baseline phase and lower amplitude of melatonin rhythm compared to younger subjects, but there was no evidence of age-related changes in the magnitude or direction of phase shifts of melatonin midpoint in response to 2 h of light at either 2000 lux or 8000 lux. These results indicate that the acute phase-shifting response to moderate- or high-intensity broad spectrum light is not significantly affected by age.

  15. Emotional memory for musical excerpts in young and older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene eAlonso

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The emotions evoked by music can enhance recognition of excerpts. It has been suggested that memory is better for high than for low arousing music (Eschrich et al., 2005; Samson et al., 2009, but it remains unclear whether positively (Eschrich et al., 2008 or negatively valenced music (Aubé et al., 2013; Vieillard and Gilet, 2013 may be better recognized. Moreover, we still know very little about the influence of age on emotional memory for music. To address these issues, we tested emotional memory for music in young and older adults using musical excerpts varying in terms of arousal and valence. Participants completed immediate and 24h delayed recognition tests. We predicted highly arousing excerpts to be better recognized by both groups in immediate recognition. We hypothesized that arousal may compensate consolidation deficits in aging, thus showing more prominent benefit of high over low arousing stimuli in older than younger adults on delayed recognition. We also hypothesized worst retention of negative excerpts for the older group, resulting in a recognition benefit for positive over negative excerpts specific to older adults. Our results suggest that although older adults had worse recognition than young adults overall, effects of emotion on memory do not seem to be modified by aging. Results on immediate recognition suggest that recognition of low arousing excerpts can be affected by valence, with better memory for positive relative to negative low arousing music. However, 24h delayed recognition results demonstrate effects of emotion on memory consolidation regardless of age, with a recognition benefit for high arousal and for negatively valenced music. The present study highlights the role of emotion on memory consolidation. Findings are examined in light of to the literature on emotional memory for music and for other stimuli. We finally discuss the implication of the present results for potential music interventions in aging and

  16. Dysphagia in the Older Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Samia; Tulunay-Ugur, Ozlem E

    2018-05-17

    Dysphagia in older adults is a challenging problem and necessitates a team approach. The key to effective management is recognition. Patients tend to dismiss their symptoms as normal aging; therefore, early diagnosis depends on the diligence of the primary care doctors. No diagnostic technique can replace the benefits of a thorough history, with a detailed understanding of nutritional status and aspiration risk. Although one of the main goals in management is to ensure safe swallowing, the impact of a nonoral diet on the quality of life of patients should not be underestimated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Family caregivers' adjustment to nursing home placement of older relatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Szu-Yao; Davies, Elizabeth

    2007-06-01

    The literature on the impact of nursing home placement of older parents on family caregivers is still incomplete. Family caregivers experience stress, shock, anxiety, fear, resistance, and guilt in the process of decision making. The literature has demonstrated that family caregivers continue to experience stress and problems after placing older relatives into a long term care facility. Cultural values impact on people's attitudes, values and expectations. Culture will therefore affect the care-giving experience. Relatively little information is available from Asian and multicultural societies. Identifying family caregiver experiences after nursing home placement can alert professionals to the need for family guidance prior to nursing home placement and assist in early identification of potential problems. This article reviews the literature and discusses the impact on family caregivers of making a decision for nursing home placement and dealing with the stress and challenges that persist after nursing home admission.

  18. Financial capacity in older adults: a growing concern for clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Paul A; Byrne, Gerard J; Mitchell, Leander K; Pachana, Nancy A

    2015-02-02

    Older people with cognitive impairment and/or dementia may be particularly vulnerable to diminished financial decision-making capacity. Financial capacity refers to the ability to satisfactorily manage one's financial affairs in a manner consistent with personal self-interest and values. Impairment of financial capacity makes the older individual vulnerable to financial exploitation, may negatively affect their family's financial situation and places strain on relationships within the family. Clinicians are often on the front line of responding to queries regarding decision-making capacity, and clinical evaluation options are often not well understood. Assessment of financial capacity should include formal objective assessment in addition to a clinical interview and gathering contextual data. Development of a flexible, empirically supported and clinically relevant assessment approach that spans all dimensions of financial capacity yet is simple enough to be used by non-specialist clinicians is needed.

  19. ROMANIAN PENSION SYSTEMS AND LABOR SUPPLY OF OLDER WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina CIURARU-ANDRICA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Prolonging working lives, in the context of an ageing population, has been seen as a good way to improve, on the one hand, the financial sustainability of the public pension system and, on the other hand, the adequacy of the pension benefit. As the literature has shown, even when measures for extending working lives have been taken, the characteristics of the national pension system (especially those of public pension system deliberately or inherently affected the labor market exit of older workers. Thus, through an econometric analysis, we estimate the relationship between the participation rate of Romanian older workers and certain characteristics of the Romanian pension systems (but not only, hoping to complement a more general literature on the effects of pension systems on retirement decision.

  20. Factors Influencing Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables in Older Adults in New Orleans, Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clum, G; Gustat, J; O'Malley, K; Begalieva, M; Luckett, B; Rice, J; Johnson, C

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify demographic, social and structural factors associated with intake of fruit and vegetables in older adults in New Orleans, Louisiana. A cross-sectional randomly sampled, address-based telephone survey of households in Orleans Parish, Louisiana was conducted with the household's main grocery shopper. All participants were in the New Orleans metro area and were surveyed in 2011. Participants were 2,834 residents identified as the households' main grocery shopper in Orleans Parish, Louisiana. Participants were primarily female (75%), African-American (53%), approximately 10 percent of the sample reported receipt of government assistance. Approximately 37% of the sample was age 65 and older. Measures included a telephone administered survey assessing demographic characteristics, food intake, access to supermarkets and other food sources, transportation, self-reported health, and frequency of grocery shopping. Older adults consumed fewer fresh fruits and vegetables (FV) than younger adults (p<0.01). Bivariate associations with decreased FV included older age, receipt of government assistance, African American race, use of mobility aid, and poorer health. Multivariate factors associated with lower consumption include age, African American race, and poorer self-reported health. Women reported more fruit and vegetable consumption than men. FV consumption is associated with improved health and reduced mortality. Older adults are less likely to consume fruits and vegetables, therefore addressing reduced FV consumption in older adults is a potential target for improving health outcomes in older adults. Specifically targeting African Americans and those with poorer health, as well as males may be an important focus for interventions.

  1. Pterins and affective disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Hoekstra (Rocco)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThe pathophysiology of affective disorders is largely unknown. In patients with various affective disorders the activity of pterins and related amino acids were investigated before and after clinical treatment. In particular the bipolar affective disorder could be

  2. Becoming a guest in your own home: Home care in Sweden from the perspective of older people with multimorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarling, Aleksandra; Rydström, Ingela; Ernsth-Bravell, Marie; Nyström, Maria; Dalheim-Englund, Ann-Charlotte

    2018-03-30

    To describe the meaning of the phenomenon home care from the perspective of older persons who live alone with multimorbidity. In line with worldwide changing demographics, conditions for older people in need of home care are changing. In Sweden there is a stay-in-place policy and older people are expected to live and be cared for in their own home as long as possible. Home care, instituted by different laws, is a challenge affecting the older person when the private home becomes a workplace. This study uses a qualitative design with a lifeworld approach. The study having been conducted in Sweden in 2016, the researchers interviewed 12 older persons that live alone and receive home care. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The findings illustrate four sub-themes: adapting to a caring culture, feeling exposed, unable to influence care and forced relations. The overall theme reveals that older people experience a life-changing situation when receiving home care and they become a guest in their own home. Becoming older with increased needs means to disrupt one's life when one's private home becomes a public arena. The gap between an older person's rights by law and the older person's experiences of receiving home care needs to be highlighted to meet the oncoming challenges in providing a home care that includes participation of the older themselves. Only then can care be offered that enables older people to have a sense of control and experience their home as their own. The findings emphasise the need to view older people as being self-determinant and independent. Older people receiving home care need to be seen as individuals, and their entire life situation should be considered by also acknowledging the important role played by relatives and caregivers. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Cis-Natural Antisense Transcripts Are Mainly Co-expressed with Their Sense Transcripts and Primarily Related to Energy Metabolic Pathways during Muscle Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunxia; Hou, Ye; Zhao, Changzhi; Liu, Fei; Luan, Yu; Jing, Lu; Li, Xinyun; Zhu, Mengjin; Zhao, Shuhong

    2016-01-01

    Cis-natural antisense transcripts (cis-NATs) are a new class of RNAs identified in various species. However, the biological functions of cis-NATs are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the transcriptional characteristics and functions of cis-NATs in the muscle tissue of lean Landrace and indigenous fatty Lantang pigs. In total, 3,306 cis-NATs of 2,469 annotated genes were identified in the muscle tissue of pigs. More than 1,300 cis-NATs correlated with their sense genes at the transcriptional level, and approximately 80% of them were co-expressed in the two breeds. Furthermore, over 1,200 differentially expressed cis-NATs were identified during muscle development. Function annotation showed that the cis-NATs participated in muscle development mainly by co-expressing with genes involved in energy metabolic pathways, including citrate cycle (TCA cycle), glycolysis or gluconeogenesis, mitochondrial activation and so on. Moreover, these cis-NATs and their sense genes abruptly increased at the transition from the late fetal stages to the early postnatal stages and then decreased along with muscle development. In conclusion, the cis-NATs in the muscle tissue of pigs were identified and determined to be mainly co-expressed with their sense genes. The co-expressed cis-NATs and their sense gene were primarily related to energy metabolic pathways during muscle development in pigs. Our results offered novel evidence on the roles of cis-NATs during the muscle development of pigs.

  4. (-)Deprenyl and (-)1-phenyl-2-propylaminopentane, [(-)PPAP], act primarily as potent stimulants of action potential-transmitter release coupling in the catecholaminergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, J; Miklya, I; Knoll, B; Markó, R; Kelemen, K

    1996-01-01

    The activity of the catecholaminergic neurons in the rat brain is enhanced significantly 30 min after the subcutaneous injection of very small doses of (-)deprenyl (threshold doses: 0.01 mg/kg for noradrenergic neurons and 0.025 mg/kg for dopaminergic neurons). As a catecholaminergic activity enhancer (CAE) substance (-)deprenyl is about ten times more potent than its parent compound, (-)methamphetamine. While the (+)methamphetamine is 3-5 times more potent than (-)methamphetammine in releasing catecholamines, the (-)methamphetamine is the more potent CAE substance. The mechanism of the CAE effect of (-)deprenyl and (-)PPAP, a deprenyl-derived substance devoid of MAO inhibitory potency, was studied in rats by measuring: a) the release of catecholamines from striatum, substantia nigra, tuberculum olfactorium and locus coeruleus; b) the stimulation induced release of 3H-noradrenaline from the isolated brain stem; and c) the antagonistic effect against tetrabenazine-induced depression of learning in the shuttle box. The CAE effect was found to be unrelated: a) to the inhibition of MAO activity; b) to the inhibition of presynaptic catecholamine receptors; c) to the inhibition of the uptake of catecholamines; and d) to the release of catecholamines. It was concluded that (-)deprenyl and (-)PPAP act primarily as potent stimulants of action potential-transmitter release coupling in the catecholaminergic neurons of the brain. We show that both (-)deprenyl and (-)PPAP enhance the inward Ca2+ current in sino-auricular fibers of the frog heart. (-)PPAP was much more potent than either (+)PPAP or (-)deprenyl in this test.

  5. HIV/AIDS stigma among a sample of primarily African-American and Latino men who have sex with men social media users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garett, Renee; Smith, Justin; Chiu, Jason; Young, Sean D

    2016-01-01

    The recent increase in social media use allows these technologies to rapidly reach communities with higher HIV prevalence, such as African-American and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). However, no studies have looked at HIV/AIDS stigma among social media users from African-American and Latino MSM communities, or the association between stigma and social media use among these groups. This study sought to assess the level of HIV/AIDS stigma among a sample of social media-using African-American and Latino MSM from Los Angeles. A total of 112 (primarily African-American and Latino, n = 98, 88%) MSM Facebook users completed a survey on demographics, online social network use, and HIV/AIDS stigma. A composite stigma score was created by taking the cumulative score from a 15-item stigma questionnaire. Cumulative logistic models were used to assess the association between HIV/AIDS stigma and online social network use. In general, participants reported a low level of HIV/AIDS stigma (mean = 22.2/75, SD = 5.74). HIV/AIDS stigma composite score was significantly associated with increased time spent on online social networks each day (Adjusted odds ratios (AOR): 1.07, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.15). Among this diverse sample of MSM online social network users, findings suggest that HIV/AIDS stigma is associated with usage of social media. We discuss the implications of this work for future HIV prevention.

  6. Prostaglandin (PG) E3 synthesis elicted by adrenergic stimuli in guinea-pig trachea (GPT) is mediated primarily by B2 adrenergic receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadel, G.L.; Malik, K.U.; Lew, D.B. (Univ. of Tennessee, Memphis (United States))

    1990-02-26

    The purpose of this study was to examine arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism and to characterize the type of adrenergic receptor (AR) involved in the production of the major metabolite of this fatty acid. ({sup 14}C)AA was incubated with GPT-rings and the radiolabelled products were extracted and separated by TLC method. The medium was also assayed for radiolabelled immunoreactive PG's (iPG's) and leukotrienes (LT) B4 and C4 by RIA or Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) after exposure to various AR agonists. ({sup 14}C)AA was incorporated into GPT-rings and metabolized mainly into iPGE2 and smaller amounts into PGF2{alpha}. Trace amounts of PGD2 and 6-keto-PGF1{alpha} but not LTB4 or LTC4 were detected by RIA and/or EIA. Incubation of GPT rings for 15 minutes with isoproterenol and salbutamol resulted in a significant increase of PGE2 synthesis (optimum conc: 10{sup {minus}7}, 10{sup {minus}7}M respectively). In contrast, dobutamine, norepinephrine, phenylnephrine and xylazine (up to 10{sup {minus}6}M) did not significantly increase PGE2 production. Isoproterenol-induced iPGE2 production was inhibited by a selective {beta}2 antagonist, butoxamine (70%: 10{sup {minus}7}M, 91%: 10{sup {minus}6}M) and somewhat reduced by {beta}1 antagonists practolol and metoprolol (30-64%:10{sup {minus}6}M). These data suggest that isoproterenol induced iPGE2 synthesis is primarily mediated via activation of {beta}2 adrenergic receptor.

  7. Sitagliptin reduces cardiac apoptosis, hypertrophy and fibrosis primarily by insulin-dependent mechanisms in experimental type-II diabetes. Potential roles of GLP-1 isoforms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Picatoste

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Myocardial fibrosis is a key process in diabetic cardiomyopathy. However, their underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated, leading to a lack of therapy. The glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 enhancer, sitagliptin, reduces hyperglycemia but may also trigger direct effects on the heart. METHODS: Goto-Kakizaki (GK rats developed type-II diabetes and received sitagliptin, an anti-hyperglycemic drug (metformin or vehicle (n=10, each. After cardiac structure and function assessment, plasma and left ventricles were isolated for biochemical studies. Cultured cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts were used for in vitro assays. RESULTS: Untreated GK rats exhibited hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, plasma GLP-1 decrease, and cardiac cell-death, hypertrophy, fibrosis and prolonged deceleration time. Moreover, cardiac pro-apoptotic/necrotic, hypertrophic and fibrotic factors were up-regulated. Importantly, both sitagliptin and metformin lessened all these parameters. In cultured cardiomyocytes and cardiac fibroblasts, high-concentration of palmitate or glucose induced cell-death, hypertrophy and fibrosis. Interestingly, GLP-1 and its insulinotropic-inactive metabolite, GLP-1(9-36, alleviated these responses. In addition, despite a specific GLP-1 receptor was only detected in cardiomyocytes, GLP-1 isoforms attenuated the pro-fibrotic expression in cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts. In addition, GLP-1 receptor signalling may be linked to PPARδ activation, and metformin may also exhibit anti-apoptotic/necrotic and anti-fibrotic direct effects in cardiac cells. CONCLUSIONS: Sitagliptin, via GLP-1 stabilization, promoted cardioprotection in type-II diabetic hearts primarily by limiting hyperglycemia e hyperlipidemia. However, GLP-1 and GLP-1(9-36 promoted survival and anti-hypertrophic/fibrotic effects on cultured cardiac cells, suggesting cell-autonomous cardioprotective actions.

  8. Improved techniques for CE-MALDI-MS off-line coupling and MALDI-MS analysis of primarily hydrophobic proteins and peptides

    OpenAIRE

    Jacksén, Johan

    2007-01-01

    Due to the hydrophobic nature of integral membrane proteins (IMP) they give rise to several difficulties concerning handling and analysis, which is not the case for the most water soluble proteins. New analysis methods are needed, where the insolubility problems of the hydrophobic proteins due to aggregation and adhesion are tackled. Those problems also affect digestion performance and equipment compatibility for the analysis. Protocols for analysis and separation specified for IMP are presen...

  9. Older Norwegians' understanding of loneliness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solveig Hauge

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This interpretive study explored older people's understanding of loneliness and what they considered appropriate and effective ways of dealing with it. Thirty elderly people were interviewed in-depth; 12 described themselves as “lonely” and 18 as “not lonely.” We found a striking difference in the way “lonely” and “not lonely” people talked about loneliness. The “not lonely” participants described loneliness as painful, caused by the person's negative way of behaving and a state they should pull themselves out of. The “lonely” participants also described loneliness as painful, and gave more detailed descriptions of loneliness as disconnection from others, from their former home and from today's society. The “lonely” participants were more reserved and subdued in trying to explain loneliness, attributing it partly to themselves, but mostly to the lack of social contact with important others. Some felt able to handle their loneliness, while others felt unable to cope. This study underlines the importance of subjective experiences in trying to understand a phenomenon like loneliness and of developing support for lonely older people unable to cope on their own.

  10. MIDGUT MALROTATION IN OLDER CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nahvi Z. Khorgami

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Midgut malrotation is typically presented during the first few months of life but sometimes may encounter later in life, causing difficulties and mistakes in diagnosis. We reviewed records of eleven rare patients with midgut malrotation older than one year of age and extracted their clinical and paraclinical data. The most common presenting symptoms were bilious vomiting, recurrent abdominal pain and constipation. Five of eleven patients had presented from neonatal period. The average interval between first symptoms and surgical correction of malrotation was about 22 months. Some of the patients had been undergone false treatments. Most cases were diagnosed by contrast studies (upper gastrointestinal series and barium enema. Diagnosing midgut malrotation in older children is often delayed. This anomaly should be suspected in all children with signs and symptoms of small bowel obstruction, chronic abdominal pain and vague abdominal discomfort and in all patients of any age with abdominal discomfort who do not respond to other therapies. Contrast studies may be necessary to rule out malrotation in suspected patients.

  11. Why training older employees is less effective

    OpenAIRE

    Zwick, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows that training of older employees is less effective. Training effectiveness is measured with respect to key dimensions such as career development, earnings, adoption of new skills, flexibility or job security. Older employees also pursue less ambitious goals with their training participation. An important reason for these differences during the life cycle might be that firms do not offer the “right” training forms and contents. Older employees get higher returns from informal ...

  12. Lateral step initiation behavior in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Sparto, Patrick J; Jennings, J Richard; Furman, Joseph M; Redfern, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    Older adults have varied postural responses during induced and voluntary lateral stepping. The purpose of the research was to quantify the occurrence of different stepping strategies during lateral step initiation in older adults and to relate the stepping responses to retrospective history of falls. Seventy community-ambulating older adults (mean age 76 y, range 70–94 y) performed voluntary lateral steps as quickly as possible to the right or left in response to a visual cue, in a blocked de...

  13. Do Older Investors Make Better Investment Decisions?

    OpenAIRE

    George M Korniotis; Alok Kumar

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the investment decisions of older individual investors. We find that older and experienced investors are more likely to follow rules of thumb that reflect greater investment knowledge. However, older investors are less effective in applying their investment knowledge and exhibit worse investment skill, especially if they are less educated, earn lower income, and belong to minority racial/ethnic groups. Overall, the adverse effects of aging dominate the positive effects of ...

  14. Powerlessness of older people in Hong Kong: a political economy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Ping-kwong

    2003-01-01

    Gerontologists agree that old age can be associated with an increase in powerlessness both in the personal domain and in the social and political fields. This paper is an attempt to understand the concept of powerlessness in old age within a political economy theoretical framework. The paper argues that the powerlessness of older people is not biologically determined. Rather, it is socially constructed. It has its roots in the social, economic, and political structure of society. For this reason, the paper argues that (a) the capitalist economic system discriminates against and marginalizes older people in the labor market. The current unfavorable economic climate will make the economic situation of older people worse. (b) The residual welfare system does not counteract the unfavorable impact of the economic system. Rather, it deprives older people of the necessary financial resources and social service supports that would enable them to lead independent and dignified lives. (c) The authoritarian political system creates adverse conditions that make it very difficult for older people to participate in the decision-making process on issues that affect their lives, as well as on broader political issues that affect the whole of society. It is the interplay among these economic, social, and political forces in Hong Kong that creates the political economy of powerlessness in old age and prevents older people from using their powers to master and control their lives.

  15. Understanding the Effect of Workload on Automation Use for Younger and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Sara E.; Rogers, Wendy A.; Fisk, Arthur D.

    2018-01-01

    Objective This study examined how individuals, younger and older, interacted with an imperfect automated system. The impact of workload on performance and automation use was also investigated. Background Automation is used in situations characterized by varying levels of workload. As automated systems spread to domains such as transportation and the home, a diverse population of users will interact with automation. Research is needed to understand how different segments of the population use automation. Method Workload was systematically manipulated to create three levels (low, moderate, high) in a dual-task scenario in which participants interacted with a 70% reliable automated aid. Two experiments were conducted to assess automation use for younger and older adults. Results Both younger and older adults relied on the automation more than they complied with it. Among younger adults, high workload led to poorer performance and higher compliance, even when that compliance was detrimental. Older adults’ performance was negatively affected by workload, but their compliance and reliance were unaffected. Conclusion Younger and older adults were both able to use and double-check an imperfect automated system. Workload affected how younger adults complied with automation, particularly with regard to detecting automation false alarms. Older adults tended to comply and rely at fairly high rates overall, and this did not change with increased workload. Application Training programs for imperfect automated systems should vary workload and provide feedback about error types, and strategies for identifying errors. The ability to identify automation errors varies across individuals, thereby necessitating training. PMID:22235529

  16. Understanding the effect of workload on automation use for younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Sara E; Rogers, Wendy A; Fisk, Arthur D

    2011-12-01

    This study examined how individuals, younger and older, interacted with an imperfect automated system. The impact of workload on performance and automation use was also investigated. Automation is used in situations characterized by varying levels of workload. As automated systems spread to domains such as transportation and the home, a diverse population of users will interact with automation. Research is needed to understand how different segments of the population use automation. Workload was systematically manipulated to create three levels (low, moderate, high) in a dual-task scenario in which participants interacted with a 70% reliable automated aid. Two experiments were conducted to assess automation use for younger and older adults. Both younger and older adults relied on the automation more than they complied with it. Among younger adults, high workload led to poorer performance and higher compliance, even when that compliance was detrimental. Older adults' performance was negatively affected by workload, but their compliance and reliance were unaffected. Younger and older adults were both able to use and double-check an imperfect automated system. Workload affected how younger adults complied with automation, particularly with regard to detecting automation false alarms. Older adults tended to comply and rely at fairly high rates overall, and this did not change with increased workload. Training programs for imperfect automated systems should vary workload and provide feedback about error types, and strategies for identifying errors. The ability to identify automation errors varies across individuals, thereby necessitating training.

  17. UNDERSTANDING OLDER ADULT LEARNERS IN DISTANCE EDUCATION: The Case of Universiti Sains Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nailul Morad MOHD NOR

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available World population ageing is unprecedented and pervasive which will affect all countries in the world. According to a United Nation report (2010: “By 2045, the number of older persons in the world will exceed the number of young for the first time in history.” The number of the older adult learners in distance education programs is also expected to increase in tandem with the growth of ageing population throughout the world. As such distance education institutions and instructors should be vigilant to this new emerging group of learners. The objectives of this study were to identify factors related to older adult learners’ participation in the distance education degree programs and their characteristics. Data were collected by using interviews and questionnaires. Respondents for the study were older adult learners age 50 and over who enrolled in degree programs at the School of Distance Education (SDE, Universiti Sains Malaysia in Malaysia. Five older adult learners were interviewed and 72 out of 123 respondents completed the questionnaires. The findings indicated that older adult learners’ participation in the distance education degree programs is mainly due to career advancement and to seek knowledge. The older adult learners’ distinct characteristics are high motivation, eager to learn, health conscious, effective time management, good social skills, no financial difficulties and have strong family support.

  18. Peripheral vision and perceptual asymmetries in young and older martial arts athletes and nonathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muiños, Mónica; Ballesteros, Soledad

    2014-11-01

    The present study investigated peripheral vision (PV) and perceptual asymmetries in young and older martial arts athletes (judo and karate athletes) and compared their performance with that of young and older nonathletes. Stimuli were dots presented at three different eccentricities along the horizontal, oblique, and vertical diameters and three interstimulus intervals. Experiment 1 showed that although the two athlete groups were faster in almost all conditions, karate athletes performed significantly better than nonathlete participants when stimuli were presented in the peripheral visual field. Experiment 2 showed that older participants who had practiced a martial art at a competitive level when they were young were significantly faster than sedentary older adults of the same age. The practiced sport (judo or karate) did not affect performance differentially, suggesting that it is the practice of martial arts that is the crucial factor, rather than the type of martial art. Importantly, older athletes lose their PV advantage, as compared with young athletes. Finally, we found that physical activity (young and older athletes) and age (young and older adults) did not alter the visual asymmetries that vary as a function of spatial location; all participants were faster for stimuli presented along the horizontal than for those presented along the vertical meridian and for those presented at the lower rather than at the upper locations within the vertical meridian. These results indicate that the practice of these martial arts is an effective way of counteracting the processing speed decline of visual stimuli appearing at any visual location and speed.

  19. Role of Affective Self-Regulatory Efficacy in Diverse Spheres of Psychosocial Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, Albert; Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Barbaranelli, Claudio; Gerbino, Maria; Pastorelli, Concetta

    2003-01-01

    Examined influence of perceived self-efficacy for affect regulation with older adolescents. Found that self-efficacy to regulate affect related to high efficacy to manage academic development, resist social pressures for antisocial activities, and engage with empathy in others' emotional experiences. Perceived self-efficacy for affect regulation…

  20. Conflict and collaboration in middle-aged and older couples: I. Age differences in agency and communion during marital interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy W; Berg, Cynthia A; Florsheim, Paul; Uchino, Bert N; Pearce, Gale; Hawkins, Melissa; Henry, Nancy J M; Beveridge, Ryan M; Skinner, Michelle A; Olsen-Cerny, Chrisanna

    2009-06-01

    Prior theory and research regarding age differences in marital interaction suggest that older couples display and experience more positivity and less negativity than middle-aged couples. However, studies of overt behavior in older couples are relatively rare and have emphasized disagreement, neglecting other important contexts for older couples such as collaboration during everyday problem solving. Further, the affiliation or communion dimension of social interaction (i.e., warmth vs. hostility) is commonly assessed but not the control or agency dimension (e.g., dominance vs. submissiveness). The present study examined affect, cognitive appraisals, and overt behavior during disagreement (i.e., discussing a current conflict) and collaboration (i.e., planning errands) in 300 middle-aged and older married couples. Older couples reported less negative affect during disagreement and rated spouses as warmer than did middle-aged couples. However, these effects were eliminated when older couples' greater marital satisfaction was controlled. For observed behavior, older couples displayed little evidence of greater positivity and reduced negativity-especially women. During collaboration, older couples displayed a unique blend of warmth and control, suggesting a greater focus on emotional and social concerns during problem solving. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Conflict and Collaboration in Middle-Aged and Older Couples: I: Age Differences in Agency and Communion during Marital Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy W.; Berg, Cynthia A.; Florsheim, Paul; Uchino, Bert N.; Pearce, Gale; Hawkins, Melissa; Henry, Nancy J.M.; Beveridge, Ryan M.; Skinner, Michelle A.; Olsen-Cerny, Chrisanna

    2011-01-01

    Prior theory and research regarding age differences in marital interaction suggest that older couples display and experience more positivity and less negativity than middle-aged couples. However, studies of overt behavior in older couples are relatively rare and have emphasized disagreement, neglecting other important contexts for older couples such as collaboration during everyday problem solving. Further, the affiliation or communion dimension of social interaction (i.e., warmth vs. hostility) is commonly assessed, but not the control or agency dimension (e.g., dominance vs. submissiveness). The present study examined affect, cognitive appraisals, and overt behavior during disagreement (i.e., discussing a current conflict) and collaboration (i.e., planning errands) in 300 middle-aged and older married couples. Older couples reported less negative affect during disagreement and rated spouses as warmer than did middle-aged couples. However, these effects were eliminated when older couples’ greater marital satisfaction was controlled. For observed behavior, older couples displayed little evidence of greater positivity and reduced negativity – especially women. During collaboration, older couples displayed a unique blend of warmth and control, suggesting a greater focus on emotional and social concerns during problem solving. PMID:19485646

  2. Clear speech and lexical competition in younger and older adult listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Engen, Kristin J

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated whether clear speech reduces the cognitive demands of lexical competition by crossing speaking style with lexical difficulty. Younger and older adults identified more words in clear versus conversational speech and more easy words than hard words. An initial analysis suggested that the effect of lexical difficulty was reduced in clear speech, but more detailed analyses within each age group showed this interaction was significant only for older adults. The results also showed that both groups improved over the course of the task and that clear speech was particularly helpful for individuals with poorer hearing: for younger adults, clear speech eliminated hearing-related differences that affected performance on conversational speech. For older adults, clear speech was generally more helpful to listeners with poorer hearing. These results suggest that clear speech affords perceptual benefits to all listeners and, for older adults, mitigates the cognitive challenge associated with identifying words with many phonological neighbors.

  3. Happily distracted: mood and a benefit of attention dysregulation in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée K. Biss

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Positive mood states are believed to broaden the focus of attention in younger adults, but it is unclear whether the same is true for older adults. Here we examined one consequence of broader attention that has been shown in young adults: that memory for distraction is greater for those in a positive mood. In the current study, positive and neutral moods were induced in older adults (mean age = 67.9 prior to a 1-back task in which participants were instructed to attend to relevant pictures and ignore distracting words. Following a 10-min filled interval, participants performed a word fragment completion task that tested implicit memory for the distracting words from the 1-back task. Older adults in the positive mood group showed greater implicit memory for previous distraction compared to those in the neutral mood group. These findings suggest that affect influences the ability to regulate attention in a similar manner for younger and older adults.

  4. Development and Validation of the Elder Learning Barriers Scale Among Older Chinese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Renfeng; De Donder, Liesbeth; De Backer, Free; He, Tao; Van Regenmortel, Sofie; Li, Shihua; Lombaerts, Koen

    2017-12-01

    This study describes the development and validation of the Elder Learning Barriers (ELB) scale, which seeks to identify the obstacles that affect the level of educational participation of older adults. The process of item pool design and scale development is presented, as well as the testing and scale refinement procedure. The data were collected from a sample of 579 older Chinese adults (aged over 55) in the Xi'an region of China. After randomly splitting the sample for cross-validation purposes, the construct validity of the ELB scale was confirmed containing five dimensions: dispositional, informational, physical, situational, and institutional barriers. Furthermore, developmental differences in factor structure have been examined among older age groups. The results indicated that the scale demonstrated good reliability and validity. We conclude in general that the ELB scale appears to be a valuable instrument for examining the learning barriers that older Chinese citizens experience for participating in organized educational activities.

  5. [Usefulness of the comprehensive geriatric assessment for evaluating the health of older adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez-Cano, Miguel; Chávez-Jimeno, Helver; Aliaga-Diaz, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    Older adults comprise a heterogeneous population group that usually has a high disease burden, comorbidities, and, in many cases, subclinical conditions that compromise their health and quality of life. In addition to the physical component, the health conditions of elderly individuals are significantly influenced by cognitive and affective components, social and family factors such as abandonment, and functional factors including the ability to perform everyday activities. In response to this complex scenario, the comprehensive geriatric evaluation constitutes a multidimensional and interdisciplinary diagnostic tool that assesses the health of older adults in all of its complexity by considering the physical, mental, social/family, and functional needs to obtain full knowledge of older person's health status and creating a plan that consists of appropriate and individualized interventions that considers the preferences and values of older individuals and their families.

  6. Intelligibility of emotional speech in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Kate; Pichora-Fuller, M Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the influence of vocal emotions on speech understanding. Word recognition accuracy for stimuli spoken to portray seven emotions (anger, disgust, fear, sadness, neutral, happiness, and pleasant surprise) was tested in younger and older listeners. Emotions were presented in either mixed (heterogeneous emotions mixed in a list) or blocked (homogeneous emotion blocked in a list) conditions. Three main hypotheses were tested. First, vocal emotion affects word recognition accuracy; specifically, portrayals of fear enhance word recognition accuracy because listeners orient to threatening information and/or distinctive acoustical cues such as high pitch mean and variation. Second, older listeners recognize words less accurately than younger listeners, but the effects of different emotions on intelligibility are similar across age groups. Third, blocking emotions in list results in better word recognition accuracy, especially for older listeners, and reduces the effect of emotion on intelligibility because as listeners develop expectations about vocal emotion, the allocation of processing resources can shift from emotional to lexical processing. Emotion was the within-subjects variable: all participants heard speech stimuli consisting of a carrier phrase followed by a target word spoken by either a younger or an older talker, with an equal number of stimuli portraying each of seven vocal emotions. The speech was presented in multi-talker babble at signal to noise ratios adjusted for each talker and each listener age group. Listener age (younger, older), condition (mixed, blocked), and talker (younger, older) were the main between-subjects variables. Fifty-six students (Mage= 18.3 years) were recruited from an undergraduate psychology course; 56 older adults (Mage= 72.3 years) were recruited from a volunteer pool. All participants had clinically normal pure-tone audiometric thresholds at frequencies ≤3000 Hz. There were significant main effects of

  7. Caregiving and Adults with Intellectual Disabilities Affected by Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtenay, Ken; Jokinen, Nancy S.; Strydom, Andre

    2010-01-01

    Authors conducted a systematic review of the available Dutch, English, and German language literature for the period 1997-2008 on the current knowledge on social-psychological and pharmacological caregiving with respect to older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) affected by dementia. Authors note that caregiving occurs on a personal level…

  8. Evaluating family function in caring for a geriatric group: Family APGAR applied for older adults by home care nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei-Wen; Huang, Yi-Yu

    2016-06-01

    Family function is an essential factor affecting older adults' health. However, there has been no appropriate method to assess the family function of most older adults with fragility or poor health status. The present study aimed to explore the differences and relevance of family function estimated by home care nurses and the older adults, and to determine if nurses could represent older adults to provide the estimation. Study participants were 50 older adults who were aged older 65 years and were taken care of at home by well-trained nurses. The present study used the Family APGAR as the questionnaire. We compared the results evaluated by the older adults and their home care nurses. The results included the level of dysfunction and the total scores of the questionnaire. The paired t-test and McNemar-Bowker test were used for the analysis. Family function could be leveled as "good," "moderate dysfunction" and "severe dysfunction" according to the scores. The family function levels estimated by nurses showed no significant differences to the patients' condition (P = 0.123 > 0.05). Comparing the total scores of the older adults with those of their own home care nurses, the results showed a moderate to nearly high correlation (R = 0.689/P older adults' family problems much earlier and to improve the their health status by enhancing family support. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2015; ●●: ●●-●●. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  9. Social Workers as Research Psychotherapists in an Investigation of Cognitive–Behavioral Therapy among Rural Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Avani; Scogin, Forrest; Presnell, Andrew; Morthland, Martin; Kaufman, Allan V.

    2013-01-01

    This is a report on the treatment fidelity of in-home cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) delivered by a sample of clinically trained, master's-level social workers to a group of primarily rural, medically frail older adults as part of the Project to Enhance Aged Rural Living (PEARL) clinical trial. The social workers in this study received brief didactic and experiential CBT training. Audiotaped sessions were randomly selected and evaluated by independent reviewers. Results showed that the so...

  10. Illustrations enhance older colorectal cancer patients' website satisfaction and recall of online cancer information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bol, N; Smets, E M A; Eddes, E H; de Haes, J C J M; Loos, E F; van Weert, J C M

    2015-03-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of illustrations in online cancer information on older cancer patients' website satisfaction (i.e. satisfaction with the attractiveness, comprehensibility and emotional support from the website) and recall of information. In an online experiment, 174 younger (text-only information, text with two cognitive illustrations or text with two affective illustrations. In general, adding cognitive illustrations compared with text-only information improved the satisfaction with the attractiveness of the website in both younger and older patients. For older patients in particular, cognitive illustrations facilitated recall of cancer information: whereas older patients recalled less information overall compared with younger patients (39% vs. 50%), no statistically significant differences in age on recall were observed when cognitive illustrations were added to text. Furthermore, older patients were more satisfied with the emotional support from the website than younger patients, especially when affective illustrations were present. Our results suggest that effective online cancer communication for ageing populations involves considering both cognitive and affective illustrations to enhance website satisfaction and recall of cancer information. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Text Messaging for Exercise Promotion in Older Adults From an Upper-Middle-Income Country: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Andre Matthias; Khoo, Selina; Morris, Tony

    2016-01-07

    Mobile technology to promote exercise is effective; however, most evidence is from studies of younger groups in high-income countries. Investigating if short message service (SMS) texting can affect exercise participation in older adults from an upper-middle-income country is important considering the proliferation of mobile phones in developing regions and the increased interest of older adults in using mobile phones. The main objective was to examine the short- and long-term effects of SMS text messaging on exercise frequency in older adults. Secondary objectives were to investigate how SMS text messages impact study participants' exercise frequency and the effects of the intervention on secondary outcomes. The Malaysian Physical Activity for Health Study (myPAtHS) was a 24-week, 2-arm, parallel randomized controlled trial conducted in urban Malaysia. Participants were recruited via health talks in resident associations and religious facilities. Older Malaysians (aged 55-70 years) who used mobile phones and did not exercise regularly were eligible to participate in the study. Participants randomly allocated to the SMS texting arm received an exercise booklet and 5 weekly SMS text messages over 12 weeks. The content of the SMS text messages was derived from effective behavior change techniques. The non-SMS texting arm participants received only the exercise booklet. Home visits were conducted to collect outcome data: (1) exercise frequency at 12 and 24 weeks, (2) secondary outcome data (exercise self-efficacy, physical activity-related energy expenditure, sitting time, body mass index, grip and leg strength) at baseline and at 12 and 24 weeks. Intention-to-treat procedures were applied for data analysis. Semistructured interviews focusing primarily on the SMS text messages and their impact on exercise frequency were conducted at weeks 12 and 24. In total, 43 participants were randomized into the SMS texting arm (n=22) and the non-SMS texting arm (n=21). Study

  12. Possible Effects of the Financial Crisis on Managers’ Attitudes to Older Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Erik Solem

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the possible short-term effects of the financial crisis in Norway on cognitive, affective, and behavioral components of managers’ attitudes to older workers. The quick shifts in business cycles in 2008 and 2009, i.e., the financial crisis, produced some immediate reactions among managers. In particular, the protection of older workers by downsizing (the seniority principle gained less support within the first half year of the crisis; however, there was a return to the former level of support within the next half year. This pattern of change was observed in the private sector, while managers in the public sector changed attitudes on a smaller scale and in the direction of increased support for the seniority principle. The data are from the Norwegian Senior Policy Barometer where national samples of managers in private companies and in the public sector are interviewed. The study has a time series design with new samples (N=750 each year from 2003 to 2011. The cognitive component of attitudes was less affected by the financial crisis than the behavioral disposition mentioned above. The tendency was for more positive conceptions of older workers among managers in the public sector. In the private sector, the views of managers changed even less and in the opposite direction. An impact of more gradual business cycles is seen in the affective component of attitudes. Yet, older workers are among the least popular categories to recruit in both rising and falling cycles. The finding that managers in the private sector are more affected than managers in the less market-exposed public sector supports the possible effects of the financial crisis on attitudes to older workers. For senior policy, it is notable to keep track of long-term trends and not to be beset by short-term shifts in the need for older workers. Lasting effects of falling business cycles on the employment of older workers may be prevented by reinforcing a solid basis

  13. Measuring Older Adults’ Individual Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Bai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Research shows that maintaining high individual modernity level can enable the shaping of positive self-image and boost life satisfaction for older people along with better adaptation to the process of societal modernization. This study examined the factorial structure and evaluated the psychometric properties of the adapted Multidimensional Scale of Chinese Individual Modernity (MS-CIM in a sample of 445 elders (the finalized version is named “MS-CIME” and added a self-constructed nine-item behavioral modernity domain. Principal component analysis suggested a conceptually meaningful seven-factor model, which was further supported by the results of the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. The final 25-item MS-CIME indicated an acceptable level of reliability. The convergent validity was demonstrated by its associations with socio-economic status, participation in daily activities, self-image, and life satisfaction in expected directions.

  14. Integrating Affective Learning in the Classroom: A Heuristic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figley, Charles R.

    This paper describes a structured three-hour program in the area of interpersonal relations designed to supplement classroom instruction. The program, called the Discovery Session, is designed primarily to meet specific affective educational objectives associated with a college undergraduate course in intimate interpersonal relationships.…

  15. Antipsychotic prescribing in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, Wendy; Curran, Stephen; Wattis, John

    2003-09-01

    older people. There is a need to redress this balance to ensure that the prescribing of antipsychotics in older people is evidence based.

  16. Idioms of Distress Among Depressed White-Non-Mexican and Mexican-Origin Older Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apesoa-Varano, Ester Carolina; Barker, Judith C; Unutzer, Jurgen; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Johnson, Megan Dwight; Tran, Cindy; Guarnaccia, Peter; Hinton, Ladson

    2015-09-01

    Older men are less likely than older women to receive depression treatment. Latino older men in particular have been found to have significantly lower rates of depression treatment than their white-non-Mexican (WNM) counterparts. Prior research has shown that men are less likely than women to express overt affect and/or report depression symptoms that may prompt primary care physicians' inquiry about depression. Previous studies have overlooked the idioms of distress common among older men. This study investigates: a) the range of idioms of distress that emerge in the narratives of depressed older men, and b) the use of these idioms among depressed WNM and Mexican-origin older men. The present report is based on qualitative data collected through the Men's Health and Aging Study (MeHAS), a mixed-method study of clinically depressed WNM and Mexican-origin older (65 and above) men recruited in primary care settings. Qualitative analysis of 77 interviews led to identification of idioms of distress and informed idiom categories. Study findings show that: a) both groups of men utilized a range of idioms of distress that met current DSM criteria for depression, b) both groups were also likely to utilize idioms that feel outside clinical depression criteria, and c) there were similarities as well as differences between WNM and Mexican-origin men. This study provides a larger vocabulary that clinicians might consider in recognizing depression and initiating depression care for older men from diverse ethnic backgrounds. This is important to improve depression care among older men in general and those of Mexican-origin in particular.

  17. Reward-related decision making in older adults: relationship to clinical presentation of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Amanda R; Alexopoulos, George S; Yuen, Genevieve S; Morimoto, Sarah Shizuko; Gunning-Dixon, Faith M

    2014-11-01

    Impairment in reward processes has been found in individuals with depression and in the aging population. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to use an affective neuroscience probe to identify abnormalities in reward-related decision making in late-life depression; and (2) to examine the relationship of reward-related decision making abnormalities in depressed, older adults to the clinical expression of apathy in depression. We hypothesized that relative to older, healthy subjects, depressed, older patients would exhibit impaired decision making and that apathetic, depressed patients would show greater impairment in decision making than non-apathetic, depressed patients. We used the Iowa Gambling Task to examine reward-related decision making in 60 non-demented, older patients with non-psychotic major depression and 36 older, psychiatrically healthy participants. Apathy was quantified using the Apathy Evaluation Scale. Of those with major depression, 18 individuals reported clinically significant apathy, whereas 42 participants did not have apathy. Older adults with depression and healthy comparison participants did not differ in their performance on the Iowa Gambling Task. However, apathetic, depressed older adults adopted an advantageous strategy and selected cards from the conservative decks compared with non-apathetic, depressed older adults. Non-apathetic, depressed patients showed a failure to adopt a conservative strategy and persisted in making risky decisions throughout the task. This study indicates that apathy in older, depressed adults is associated with a conservative response style on a behavioral probe of the systems involved in reward-related decision making. This conservative response style may be the result of reduced sensitivity to rewards in apathetic individuals. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Caregivers of older persons with multiple sclerosis: determinants of health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhse, Marijean; Della Ratta, Carol; Galiczewski, Janet; Eckardt, Patricia

    2015-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine which factors (clinical and demographic) are associated with mental and physical health-related quality of life (HRQOL) for caregivers of older persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). The Andersen's Healthcare Utilization Model guided this study. Knowledge of identified predictors of HRQOL may prompt nurses who care for persons with MS to address these issues and provide supportive care. A cross-sectional descriptive design was used to examine the relationship between patient with MS and caregiver clinical and demographic factors with caregiver physical and mental HRQOL. Patients with MS aged 60 years or older and their caregivers from four MS centers on Long Island, New York, self-selected into this study (n = 102). A caregiver survey was administered that collected demographic information and included validated questionnaires measuring HRQOL, caregiver burden, and caregiver perception of risk for neuropsychological impairment of patients with MS. Patient surveys collected demographic information and validated questionnaires measuring cognition, depression, and disability. Multivariate linear regression was used to examine patient and caregiver variables to explain caregiver physical and mental HRQOL. The caregivers in this study were older (mean age = 61 years) with existing comorbidities. We found that caregiver mental HRQOL was negatively associated with patient depression and, surprisingly, positively associated with caregiver burden and caregiver comorbidity of heart disease. Caregiver physical HRQOL was negatively associated with caregiver comorbidities of arthritis and diabetes and lower household income. The challenges older caregivers face when caring for older persons with MS have been shown to affect their mental and physical QOL. Nurses who care for older patients with MS will increasingly rely on older caregivers to provide patient-centered interventions. This descriptive study, based on the Anderson theoretical

  19. Reconstructing nurses' relationships with older patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swauger, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    This book will attempt to deconstruct communication patterns between registered nurses and older patients and propose methods for re-constructing the manner in which nurses and older patients relate to one another. The number of Americans over the age of 65 grew from 3.1 million in 1900 (about 4% of

  20. Suicide in older adults: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conejero, Ismael; Olié, Emilie; Courtet, Philippe; Calati, Raffaella

    2018-01-01

    Suicidal behavior in older adults (65 years old and over) is a major public health issue in many countries. Suicide rates increase during the life course and are as high as 48.7/100,000 among older white men in the USA. Specific health conditions and stress factors increase the complexity of the explanatory model for suicide in older adults. A PubMed literature search was performed to identify most recent and representative studies on suicide risk factors in older adults. The aim of our narrative review was to provide a critical evaluation of recent findings concerning specific risk factors for suicidal thoughts and behaviors among older people: psychiatric and neurocognitive disorders, social exclusion, bereavement, cognitive impairment, decision making and cognitive inhibition, physical illnesses, and physical and psychological pain. We also aimed to approach the problem of euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide in older adults. Our main findings emphasize the need to integrate specific stress factors, such as feelings of social disconnectedness, neurocognitive impairment or decision making, as well as chronic physical illnesses and disability in suicide models and in suicide prevention programs in older adults. Furthermore, the chronic care model should be adapted for the treatment of older people with long-term conditions in order to improve the treatment of depressive disorders and the prevention of suicidal thoughts and acts. PMID:29719381

  1. Learning Choices, Older Australians and Active Ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton-Lewis, Gillian M.; Buys, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of qualitative, semistructured interviews conducted with 40 older Australian participants who either did or did not engage in organized learning. Phenomenology was used to guide the interviews and analysis to explore the lived learning experiences and perspectives of these older people. Their experiences of…

  2. Testimony on Physical Fitness for Older Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

    Collected here are fourteen statements on the beneficial effects of physical fitness programs for older persons presented at hearings before the Subcommittee on Aging of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, U.S. Senate. Areas discussed include: What research tells us regarding the contribution of exercise to the health of older people;…

  3. Assessing Oral Hygiene in Hospitalized Older Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Poor oral health for all older adults can result in higher risk for heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and oral cancer. Findings from this study indicated older veterans needed to improve their oral hygiene habits but barriers to oral hygiene performance prevented them from receiving and performing oral hygiene measures.

  4. Breast cancer screening in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, L S; Haynes, S G

    1996-01-01

    There is currently an epidemic of breast cancer in women 65 years of age and older. The purposes of this paper are to explore the breast cancer screening behaviors of older women and to identify some of the determinants of screening in these women. Data were analyzed from the 1987 National Health Interview Survey, a continuous nationwide household interview survey of the U.S. civilian, noninstitutionalized population. As in other studies, the utilization of breast cancer screening by older women was less in older women than in younger women. This was true for both mammography and clinical breast examination. A number of determinants of screening in older women were identified here. Women with a usual source of care and/or no activity limitation, as well as high school graduates, were the ones most likely to have received a screening mammogram and/or a screening clinical breast exam during the past year. The failure of older women to receive adequate breast cancer screening is an important concern which should be reevaluated, given the breast cancer epidemic in this population. This study identified a number of determinants of breast cancer screening in older women. For the most part, these determinants point to the primary care physician as the key to breast cancer screening in these women. Therefore, the primary care physician must be informed of, and encouraged to follow, the recommendations for periodic breast cancer screening in older women.

  5. Older Adults' Acceptance of Information Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Rau, Pei-Luen Patrick; Salvendy, Gavriel

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated variables contributing to older adults' information technology acceptance through a survey, which was used to find factors explaining and predicting older adults' information technology acceptance behaviors. Four factors, including needs satisfaction, perceived usability, support availability, and public acceptance, were…

  6. Older Adults' Knowledge of Internet Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Galen A.; Hough, Michelle G.; Mazur, Elizabeth; Signorella, Margaret L.

    2010-01-01

    Older adults are less likely to be using computers and less knowledgeable about Internet security than are younger users. The two groups do not differ on trust of Internet information. The younger group shows no age or gender differences. Within the older group, computer users are more trusting of Internet information, and along with those with…

  7. Protect Your Health as You Grow Older

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you get older. It’s important to: Keep your body and mind active Choose healthy foods Get enough sleep Talk to your doctor ... Just like physical activity is good for your body, activities that challenge your ... your brain healthy. As you grow older, it's important to: Learn ...

  8. Second Career Opportunities for Older Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute of Lifetime Learning, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet describes some of the employment opportunities available to older adults and discusses procedures for obtaining the training for, and actually beginning, a second career. Covered in the individual sections of the brochure are the following topics: characteristics and attitudes of older workers, long-range planning, employment…

  9. Online Attention Training for Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Wennberg, Alexandra; Kueider, Alexandra; Spira, Adam; Adams, Gregory; Rager, Robert; Rebok, George

    2014-01-01

    Evidence suggests that cognitive training interventions can improve older adults' cognitive performance. Successful training programs are adaptable and train multiple cognitive domains to target individual strengths and weaknesses. Computerized training programs are useful because they allow older adults to easily access training. This pilot study used an online attention training program, ATTENTION WORKOUT™, to enhance three aspects of attention– coordination, allocation, and selective focus...

  10. SOFIE, a bicycle that supports older cyclists?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubbeldam, R.; Baten, C.; Buurke, J. H.; Rietman, J. S.

    2017-01-01

    Older cyclists remain at high risk of sustaining an injury after a fall with their bicycle. A growing awareness for the need and possibilities to support safety of older cyclists has been leading to bicycle design ideas. However, the effectiveness and acceptance of such designs has not been studied

  11. Rethinking Worklife Options for Older Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Jack, Ed.; Nusberg, Charlotte, Ed.

    This volume contains 19 papers that were presented at a conference addressing critical issues related to employment options for older persons. They are arranged in four sections that cover early retirement policies and their implications; older workers of Asia and the Pacific; the impact of technological change on the employment prospects of older…

  12. Older People of Tomorrow: A Psychosocial Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstone, Barbara

    1996-01-01

    Attempts to narrow the scope of present uncertainties about the older population by sketching a psychosocial profile of the older people of tomorrow based on what is known today. Focuses on the baby boom generation and the interplay between personal attributes they could bring to late life and the social and physical environment in which they…

  13. Exploring Older Adults' Health Information Seeking Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manafo, Elizabeth; Wong, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore older adults' (55-70 years) health information-seeking behaviors. Methods: Using a qualitative methodology, based on grounded theory, data were collected using in-depth interviews. Participants were community-living, older adults in Toronto, Canada who independently seek nutrition and health information. Interview transcripts…

  14. Changing Students' Stereotypes of Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtele, Sandy K.; Maruyama, LaRae

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that university students tend to hold negative attitudes about older adults. However, there is some evidence to suggest that these ageist attitudes can be challenged and changed through curricular intervention. The current study was designed to determine whether the "Activities of Older Adults" exercise as part of a…

  15. Student Nurse-Older Person Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuohy, Dympna

    2003-01-01

    Observations and interviews of eight student nurses in clinical placements with older patients yielded four themes: task- and nontask-related communication, need for verbal and nonverbal communication, communication hindrances and enhancers, and students' approach to communicating with older persons. A person-centered approach to elder care and…

  16. Crying and Depression Among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastrup, Janice L.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Self-reports of frequency of crying episodes are described for two nonclinical samples of younger and older adult men and women. Comparison of samples revealed no evidence for either a decreased or increased frequency of crying among the older sample. Crying episodes function as an adaptive coping response to and should not be automatically…

  17. Kidney transplant outcomes from older deceased donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pippias, Maria; Jager, Kitty J; Caskey, Fergus

    2018-01-01

    As the median age of deceased kidney donors rises, updated knowledge of transplant outcomes from older deceased donors in differing donor-recipient age groups is required. Using ERA-EDTA Registry data we determined survival outcomes of kidney allografts donated from the same older deceased donor...

  18. Chronic diseases among older cancer survivors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deckx, L.; Akker, M. van den; Metsemakers, J.; Knottnerus, A.; Schellevis, F.; Buntinx, F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To compare the occurrence of pre-existing and subsequent comorbidity among older cancer patients (≥60 years) with older non-cancer patients. Material and Methods. Each cancer patient (n = 3835, mean age 72) was matched with four non-cancer patients in terms of age, sex, and practice. The

  19. Older Adults Have Difficulty in Decoding Sarcasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Louise H.; Allen, Roy; Bull, Rebecca; Hering, Alexandra; Kliegel, Matthias; Channon, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    Younger and older adults differ in performance on a range of social-cognitive skills, with older adults having difficulties in decoding nonverbal cues to emotion and intentions. Such skills are likely to be important when deciding whether someone is being sarcastic. In the current study we investigated in a life span sample whether there are…

  20. Older Adults and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... counselor at a crisis center in your area 24/7. Disaster Distress Helpline : People affected by natural or ... MSC 9663 Bethesda, MD 20892-9663 Follow Us Facebook Twitter YouTube Google Plus NIMH Newsletter NIMH RSS ...