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Sample records for prevotella intermedia lipopolysaccharide-induced

  1. Effect of azithromycin on Prevotella intermedia lipopolysaccharide-induced production of interleukin-6 in murine macrophages.

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    Choi, Eun-Young; Jin, Ji-Young; Choi, Jeom-Il; Choi, In Soon; Kim, Sung-Jo

    2014-04-15

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a key proinflammatory cytokine which plays a central role in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. Host modulatory agents targeting at inhibiting IL-6, therefore, appear to be beneficial in slowing the progression of periodontal disease and potentially reducing destructive aspects of the host response. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of the macrolide antibiotic azithromycin on IL-6 generation in murine macrophages treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Prevotella intermedia, a pathogen implicated in inflammatory periodontal disease, and its mechanisms of action. Azithromycin significantly suppressed IL-6 production as well as its mRNA expression in P. intermedia LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells. LPS-induced activation of JNK and p38 was not affected by azithromycin treatment. Azithromycin failed to prevent P. intermedia LPS from degrading IκB-α. Instead, azithromycin significantly diminished nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity of NF-κB p50 subunit induced with LPS. Azithromycin inhibited P. intermedia LPS-induced STAT1 and STAT3 phosphorylation. In addition, azithromycin up-regulated the mRNA level of SOCS1 in cells treated with LPS. In conclusion, azithromycin significantly attenuated P. intermedia LPS-induced production of IL-6 in murine macrophages via inhibition of NF-κB, STAT1 and STAT3 activation, which is possibly related to the activation of SOCS1 signaling. Further in vivo studies are required to better evaluate the potential of azithromycin in the treatment of periodontal disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. DHA suppresses Prevotella intermedia lipopolysaccharide-induced production of proinflammatory mediators in murine macrophages.

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    Choi, Eun-Young; Jin, Ji-Young; Choi, Jeom-Il; Choi, In Soon; Kim, Sung-Jo

    2014-04-14

    Several reports have indicated that dietary intake of DHA is associated with lower prevalence of periodontitis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of DHA on the production of proinflammatory mediators in murine macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) isolated from Prevotella intermedia, a pathogen implicated in inflammatory periodontal disease, and its mechanisms of action. LPS was isolated from lyophilised P. intermedia ATCC 25,611 cells using the standard hot-phenol-water protocol. Culture supernatants were collected and assayed for NO, IL-1β and IL-6. Real-time PCR analysis was carried out to detect the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), IL-1β, IL-6 and haeme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) mRNA. Immunoblot analysis was carried out to quantify the expression of iNOS and HO-1 protein and concentrations of signalling proteins. DNA-binding activities of NF-κB subunits were determined using an ELISA-based assay kit. DHA significantly attenuated the production of NO, IL-1β and IL-6 at both gene transcription and translation levels in P. intermedia LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells. DHA induced the expression of HO-1 in cells treated with P. intermedia LPS. Selective inhibition of HO-1 activity by tin protoporphyrin IX significantly mitigated the inhibitory effects of DHA on LPS-induced NO production. DHA significantly attenuated the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase induced by LPS. In addition, DHA suppressed the transcriptional activity of NF-κB by regulating the nuclear translocation and DNA-binding activity of NF-κB p50 subunit and inhibited the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1. Further in vivo studies are needed to better evaluate the potential of DHA in humans as a therapeutic agent to treat periodontal disease.

  3. Leptin potentiates Prevotella intermedia lipopolysaccharide-induced production of TNF-alpha in monocyte-derived macrophages.

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    Kim, Sung-Jo

    2010-06-01

    In addition to regulating body weight, leptin is also recognized for its role in the regulation of immune function and inflammation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of leptin on Prevotella (P.) intermedia lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha production in differentiated THP-1 cells, a human monocytic cell line. LPS from P. intermedia ATCC 25611 was prepared by the standard hot phenol-water method. THP-1 cells were incubated in the medium supplemented with phorbol myristate acetate to induce differentiation into macrophage-like cells. The amount of TNF-alpha and interleukin-8 secreted into the culture medium was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). TNF-alpha and Ob-R mRNA expression levels were determined by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Leptin enhanced P. intermedia LPS-induced TNF-alpha production in a dose-dependent manner. Leptin modulated P. intermedia LPS-induced TNF-alpha expression predominantly at the transcriptional level. Effect of leptin on P. intermedia LPS-induced TNF-alpha production was not mediated by the leptin receptor. The ability of leptin to enhance P. intermedia LPS-induced TNF-alpha production may be important in the establishment of chronic lesion accompanied by osseous tissue destruction observed in inflammatory periodontal disease.

  4. Effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on Prevotella intermedia lipopolysaccharide-induced production of proinflammatory mediators in murine macrophages.

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    Choi, E-Y; Choe, S-H; Hyeon, J-Y; Choi, J-I; Choi, I S; Kim, S-J

    2015-12-01

    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) has numerous potentially beneficial properties, including antioxidant, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the effect of CAPE on periodontal disease has not been studied before. This study was designed to investigate the efficacy of CAPE in ameliorating the production of proinflammatory mediators in macrophages activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Prevotella intermedia, a pathogen implicated in periodontal disease. LPS from P. intermedia ATCC 25611 was isolated by using the standard hot phenol-water method. Culture supernatants were assayed for nitric oxide (NO), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6. We used real-time polymerase chain reaction to quantify inducible NO synthase, IL-1β, IL-6, heme oxygenase (HO)-1 and suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) 1 mRNA expression. HO-1 protein expression and levels of signaling proteins were assessed by immunoblot analysis. DNA-binding activities of NF-κB subunits were analyzed by using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based kits. CAPE exerted significant inhibitory effects on P. intermedia LPS-induced production of NO, IL-1β and IL-6 as well as their mRNA expression in RAW264.7 cells. CAPE-induced HO-1 expression in cells activated with P. intermedia LPS, and selective inhibition of HO-1 activity by tin protoporphyrin IX attenuated the inhibitory effect of CAPE on LPS-induced NO production. CAPE did not interfere with IκB-α degradation induced by P. intermedia LPS. Instead, CAPE decreased nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 and p50 subunits induced with LPS, and lessened LPS-induced p50 binding activity. Further, CAPE showed strong inhibitory effects on LPS-induced signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 and 3 phosphorylation. Besides, CAPE significantly elevated SOCS1 mRNA expression in P. intermedia LPS-stimulated cells. Modulation of host response by CAPE may represent an attractive strategy towards the treatment of periodontal disease

  5. Effect of nitric oxide-releasing derivative of indomethacin on Prevotella intermedia lipopolysaccharide-induced production of proinflammatory mediators in murine macrophages.

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    Choe, So-Hui; Choi, Eun-Young; Hyeon, Jin-Yi; Choi, In Soon; Kim, Sung-Jo

    2017-10-14

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influences of NCX 2121, a nitric oxide (NO)-releasing derivative of indomethacin, upon the generation of proinflammatory mediators using murine macrophages activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) isolated from Prevotella intermedia, which is one of the pathogens implicated in periodontal diseases. Inducible NO synthase (iNOS)-derived NO, IL-1β and IL-6 as well as their relevant mRNA were significantly attenuated by NCX 2121 in RAW264.7 cells activated by P. intermedia LPS. NCX 2121 was much more effective than the parental compound indomethacin in reducing these proinflammatory mediators. NCX 2121 triggered induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in cells exposed to P. intermedia LPS, and its inhibitory influence upon P. intermedia LPS-elicited NO generation was notably blocked by SnPP treatment. NCX 2121 attenuated NF-κB-dependent SEAP release induced by P. intermedia LPS. NCX 2121 did not display inhibitory action towards IκB-α degradation triggered by LPS. Instead, it significantly diminished nuclear translocation as well as DNA-binding action of NF-κB p50 subunit elicited by P. intermedia LPS. Further, NCX 2121 significantly up-regulated SOCS1 mRNA expression in cells challenged with P. intermedia LPS. In summary, NCX 2121 down-regulates P. intermedia LPS-elicited generation of NO, IL-1β and IL-6 in murine macrophages in a mechanism that involves anti-inflammatory HO-1 induction as well as decrement of NF-κB activation, which may be associated with SOCS1 expression. NCX 2121 may have potential benefits as a host immunomodulatory agent for the therapy of periodontal disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. NCX 4040, a nitric oxide-donating aspirin derivative, inhibits Prevotella intermedia lipopolysaccharide-induced production of proinflammatory mediators in murine macrophages.

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    Choi, Eun-Young; Choe, So-Hui; Hyeon, Jin-Yi; Park, Hae Ryoun; Choi, Jeom-Il; Choi, In Soon; Kim, Sung-Jo

    2015-12-05

    In this study, the effects and underlying mechanisms of NCX 4040, a nitric oxide (NO)-donating aspirin derivative, on the production of proinflammatory mediators were examined using murine macrophages exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Prevotella intermedia, a pathogen implicated in the etiology of periodontal disease. NCX 4040 significantly reduced P. intermedia LPS-induced production of inducible NO synthase (iNOS)-derived NO, IL-1β and IL-6 as well as their mRNA expression in RAW264.7 cells. Notably, NCX 4040 was much more effective than the parental compound aspirin in reducing LPS-induced production of inflammatory mediators. NCX 4040 induced the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in cells treated with P. intermedia LPS, and the suppressive effect of NCX 4040 on LPS-induced NO production was significantly reversed by SnPP, a competitive HO-1 inhibitor. NCX 4040 did not influence LPS-induced phosphorylation of JNK and p38. IκB-α degradation as well as nuclear translocation and DNA-binding activities of NF-κB p65 and p50 subunits induced by P. intermedia LPS were significantly reduced by NCX 4040. Besides, LPS-induced phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT3 was significantly down-regulated by NCX 4040. Further, NCX 4040 elevated the SOCS1 mRNA in cells stimulated with LPS. This study indicates that NCX 4040 inhibits P. intermedia LPS-induced production of NO, IL-1β and IL-6 in murine macrophages through anti-inflammatory HO-1 induction and suppression of NF-κB, STAT1 and STAT3 activation, which is associated with the activation of SOCS1 signaling. NCX 4040 could potentially be a promising tool in the treatment of periodontal disease, although further studies are required to verify this. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-3 suppresses Prevotella intermedia lipopolysaccharide-induced production of nitric oxide and interleukin-1β in murine macrophages.

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    Choi, Eun-Young; Choe, So-Hui; Hyeon, Jin-Yi; Choi, Jeom-Il; Choi, In Soon; Kim, Sung-Jo

    2015-10-05

    This study was performed to analyze the effect of carbon monoxide (CO)-releasing molecule-3 (CORM-3) in alleviating the production of proinflammatory mediators in macrophages treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Prevotella intermedia, a pathogen associated with periodontal disease, and its possible mechanisms of action. LPS was isolated using the hot phenol-water method. Culture supernatants were assayed for nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Gene expression was quantified by real-time PCR, and protein expression by immunoblotting. DNA-binding activities of NF-κB subunits were determined using an ELISA-based kit. CORM-3 suppressed the production of inducible NO synthase (iNOS)-derived NO and IL-1β at both gene transcription and translation levels in P. intermedia LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells. CORM-3 enhanced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in cells stimulated with P. intermedia LPS, and inhibition of HO-1 activity by SnPP notably reversed the suppressive effect of CORM-3 on LPS-induced production of NO. LPS-induced phosphorylation of p38 and JNK was not affected by CORM-3. CORM-3 did not influence P. intermedia LPS-induced degradation of IκB-α. Instead, nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 and p50 subunits was blocked by CORM-3 in LPS-treated cells. In addition, CORM-3 reduced LPS-induced p65 and p50 binding to DNA. Besides, CORM-3 significantly suppressed P. intermedia LPS-induced phosphorylation of STAT1. Overall, this study indicates that CORM-3 suppresses the production of NO and IL-1β in P. intermedia LPS-activated murine macrophages via HO-1 induction and inhibition of NF-κB and STAT1 pathways. The modulation of host inflammatory response by CORM-3 would be an attractive therapeutic approach to attenuate the progression of periodontal disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Genistein suppresses Prevotella intermedia lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in macrophages and attenuates alveolar bone loss in ligature-induced periodontitis.

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    Choi, Eun-Young; Bae, Seung Han; Ha, Min Hee; Choe, So-Hui; Hyeon, Jin-Yi; Choi, Jeom-Il; Choi, In Soon; Kim, Sung-Jo

    2016-02-01

    Genistein is a major isoflavone subclass of flavonoids found in soybean and a potent tyrosine kinase inhibitor. The present study aimed to assess the effect of genistein on the production of proinflammatory mediators in murine macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) isolated from Prevotella intermedia, a pathogen associated with different forms of periodontal disease, and to evaluate its possible influence on alveolar bone loss in ligature-induced periodontitis using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis as well. LPS was isolated from P. intermedia ATCC 25611 by using the standard hot phenol-water method. Culture supernatants were analyzed for nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Inducible NO synthase (iNOS) protein expression was evaluated by immunoblot analysis. Real-time PCR was carried out to measure iNOS and IL-6 mRNA expression. In addition, effect of genistein on alveolar bone loss was evaluated in a rat model of experimental periodontitis using micro-CT analysis. Genistein significantly attenuated P. intermedia LPS-induced production of iNOS-derived NO and IL-6 with attendant decrease in their mRNA expression in RAW264.7 cells. In addition, when genistein was administered to rats, decreases in alveolar bone height and bone volume fraction induced by ligature placement were significantly inhibited. Genistein administration also prevented ligature-induced alterations in the microstructural parameters of trabecular bone, including trabecular thickness, trabecular separation, bone mineral density and structure model index. While additional studies are required, we suggest that genistein could be utilized for the therapy of human periodontitis in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Agomelatine, a MT1/MT2 melatonergic receptor agonist with serotonin 5-HT2C receptor antagonistic properties, suppresses Prevotella intermedia lipopolysaccharide-induced production of proinflammatory mediators in murine macrophages.

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    Hyeon, Jin-Yi; Choi, Eun-Young; Choe, So-Hui; Park, Hae Ryoun; Choi, Jeom-Il; Choi, In Soon; Kim, Sung-Jo

    2017-10-01

    This study was performed in an attempt to examine the influence of agomelatine in mitigating the generation of proinflammatory mediators in RAW264.7 murine macrophages exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) obtained from Prevotella intermedia, a gram-negative anaerobic bacterium that is related with various types of periodontal diseases, and the molecular mechanisms behind its effects. LPS from P. intermedia strain ATCC 25611 was prepared employing the conventional phenol-water procedure. Conditioned culture media were analyzed for the levels of nitric oxide (NO), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6. Real-time PCR analysis was carried out to determine the mRNA levels of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), IL-1β, IL-6 and SOCS1. Protein expression levels were evaluated by immunoblot test. NF-κB-dependent SEAP reporter assay was performed using a reporter cell line. DNA-binding activities of NF-κB subunits were analyzed utilizing the ELISA-based kits. Agomelatine was found to down-regulate significantly the generation of iNOS-derived NO, IL-1β and IL-6 as well as the expression of their mRNAs in cells activated with P. intermedia LPS. Agomelatine decreased NF-κB-dependent SEAP release caused by P. intermedia LPS. Agomelatine did not inhibit NF-κB transcription induced by LPS at the level of IκB-α degradation. Instead, LPS-induced nuclear translocation and DNA binding of NF-κB p50 subunit was blocked by agomelatine. P. intermedia LPS-elicited activation of STAT1 and STAT3 was reduced notably by co-treatment with agomelatine. Agomelatine showed a tendency to enhance mRNA level of SOCS1 in LPS-activated cells as well. Agomelatine merits further evaluation to reveal its usefulness on the host modulation of periodontal disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Isorhamnetin inhibits Prevotella intermedia lipopolysaccharide-induced production of interleukin-6 in murine macrophages via anti-inflammatory heme oxygenase-1 induction and inhibition of nuclear factor-κB and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 activation.

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    Jin, J Y; Choi, E Y; Park, H R; Choi, J I; Choi, I S; Kim, S J

    2013-12-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a key proinflammatory cytokine that has been considered to be important in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. Therefore, host-modulatory agents directed at inhibiting IL-6 appear to be beneficial in terms of attenuating periodontal disease progression and potentially improving disease susceptibility. In the current study, we investigated the effect of the flavonoid isorhamnetin on the production of IL-6 in murine macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Prevotella intermedia, a pathogen implicated in inflammatory periodontal disease, and its mechanisms of action. Lipopolysaccharide from P. intermedia ATCC 25611 was isolated using the standard hot phenol-water method. Culture supernatants were collected and assayed for IL-6. We used real-time PCR to quantify IL-6 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) mRNA expression. The expression of HO-1 protein and the levels of signaling proteins were monitored using immunoblot analyses. The DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) was analyzed using ELISA-based assay kits. Isorhamnetin significantly down-regulated P. intermedia LPS-induced production of IL-6 as well as its mRNA expression in RAW264.7 cells. Isorhamnetin up-regulated the expression of HO-1 at both gene transcription and translation levels in cells stimulated with P. intermedia LPS. In addition, inhibition of HO-1 activity by tin protoporphyrin IX blocked the inhibitory effect of isorhamnetin on IL-6 production. Isorhamnetin failed to prevent LPS from activating either c-Jun N-terminal kinase or p38 pathways. Isorhamnetin did not inhibit NF-κB transcriptional activity at the level of inhibitory κB-α degradation. Isorhamnetin suppressed NF-κB signaling through inhibition of nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity of NF-κB p50 subunit and attenuated signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 signaling. Although further research is required to clarify the detailed mechanism of action, we propose

  11. The identification of genes specific to Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens using genomic subtractive hybridization.

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    Masakiyo, Yoshiaki; Yoshida, Akihiro; Shintani, Yasuyuki; Takahashi, Yusuke; Ansai, Toshihiro; Takehara, Tadamichi

    2010-06-01

    Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens, which are often isolated from periodontal sites, were once considered two different genotypes of P. intermedia. Although the genomic sequence of P. intermedia was determined recently, little is known about the genetic differences between P. intermedia and P. nigrescens. The subtractive hybridization technique is a powerful method for generating a set of DNA fragments differing between two closely related bacterial strains or species. We used subtractive hybridization to identify the DNA regions specific to P. intermedia ATCC 25611 and P. nigrescens ATCC 25261. Using this method, four P. intermedia ATCC 25611-specific and three P. nigrescens ATCC 25261-specific regions were determined. From the species-specific regions, insertion sequence (IS) elements were isolated for P. intermedia. IS elements play an important role in the pathogenicity of bacteria. For the P. intermedia-specific regions, the genes adenine-specific DNA-methyltransferase and 8-amino-7-oxononanoate synthase were isolated. The P. nigrescens-specific region contained a Flavobacterium psychrophilum SprA homologue, a cell-surface protein involved in gliding motility, Prevotella melaninogenica ATCC 25845 glutathione peroxide, and Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277 leucyl-tRNA synthetase. The results demonstrate that the subtractive hybridization technique was useful for distinguishing between the two closely related species. Furthermore, this technique will contribute to our understanding of the virulence of these species. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Antibacterial and antibiofilm effects of iron chelators against Prevotella intermedia.

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    Moon, Ji-Hoi; Kim, Cheul; Lee, Hee-Su; Kim, Sung-Woon; Lee, Jin-Yong

    2013-09-01

    Prevotella intermedia, a major periodontopathogen, has been shown to be resistant to many antibiotics. In the present study, we examined the effect of the FDA-approved iron chelators deferoxamine (DFO) and deferasirox (DFRA) against planktonic and biofilm cells of P. intermedia in order to evaluate the possibility of using these iron chelators as alternative control agents against P. intermedia. DFRA showed strong antimicrobial activity (MIC and MBC values of 0.16 mg ml(-1)) against planktonic P. intermedia. At subMICs, DFRA partially inhibited the bacterial growth and considerably prolonged the bacterial doubling time. DFO was unable to completely inhibit the bacterial growth in the concentration range tested and was not bactericidal. Crystal violet binding assay for the assessment of biofilm formation by P. intermedia showed that DFRA significantly decreased the biofilm-forming activity as well as the biofilm formation, while DFO was less effective. DFRA was chosen for further study. In the ATP-bioluminescent assay, which reflects viable cell counts, subMICs of DFRA significantly decreased the bioactivity of biofilms in a concentration-dependent manner. Under the scanning electron microscope, P. intermedia cells in DFRA-treated biofilm were significantly elongated compared to those in untreated biofilm. Further experiments are necessary to show that iron chelators may be used as a therapeutic agent for periodontal disease.

  13. Prevotella intermedia induces prostaglandin E2 via multiple signaling pathways.

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    Guan, S-M; Fu, S-M; He, J-J; Zhang, M

    2011-01-01

    Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) plays important roles in the bone resorption of inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis via specific prostaglandin receptors (i.e., EP1-EP4). In this study, the authors examined whether Prevotella intermedia regulates PGE(2) production and EP expression in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (hPDLs); they also explored the potential signaling pathways involved in PGE(2) production. P. intermedia induced PGE(2) production and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Indomethacin and NS-398 completely abrogated the P. intermedia-induced PGE(2) production without modulating COX-2 expression. Specific inhibitors of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, p38, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and protein kinase C--but not c-AMP and protein kinase A--significantly attenuated the P. intermedia-induced COX-2 and PGE(2) expression. P. intermedia reduced EP1 expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The results indicate that the COX-2-dependent induction of PGE(2) by P. intermedia in hPDLs is mediated by multiple signaling pathways.

  14. Invasion of Human Oral Epithelial Cells by Prevotella intermedia

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    Dorn, Brian R.; Leung, K.-P.; Progulske-Fox, Ann

    1998-01-01

    Invasion of oral epithelial cells by pathogenic oral bacteria may represent an important virulence factor in the progression of periodontal disease. Here we report that a clinical isolate of Prevotella intermedia, strain 17, was found to invade a human oral epithelial cell line (KB), whereas P. intermedia 27, another clinical isolate, and P. intermedia 25611, the type strain, were not found to invade the cell line. Invasion was quantified by the recovery of viable bacteria following a standard antibiotic protection assay and observed by electron microscopy. Cytochalasin D, cycloheximide, monodansylcadaverine, and low temperature (4°C) inhibited the internalization of P. intermedia 17. Antibodies raised against P. intermedia type C fimbriae and against whole cells inhibited invasion, but the anti-type-C-fimbria antibody inhibited invasion to a greater extent than the anti-whole-cell antibody. This work provides evidence that at least one strain of P. intermedia can invade an oral epithelial cell line and that the type C fimbriae and a cytoskeletal rearrangement are required for this invasion. PMID:9826397

  15. Incidence of Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens Carriage among Family Members with Subclinical Periodontal Disease

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    Fukui, Katsuhito; Kato, Naoki; Kato, Haru; Watanabe, Kunitomo; Tatematsu, Norichika

    1999-01-01

    We established a typing system for Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens using the combination of PCR ribotyping and arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR) fingerprinting and applied this system to the study of intrafamilial incidence of these species in the oral cavity. PCR ribotyping followed by subtyping by AP-PCR fingerprinting was applied to each type strain of P. intermedia and P. nigrescens and 54 isolates (32 isolates of P. intermedia and 24 isolates of P. nigrescens) from extraoral infections, resulting in an excellent discriminatory power (discrimination index, 0.99) for both species. A total of 18 subjects from six families, with the subjects from each family comprising the mother, the father, and a child who had subclinical early-stage to moderate adult periodontitis or simple gingivitis and who carried P. intermedia or P. nigrescens, or both, were enrolled in the study of intrafamilial carriage. When 20 colonies per specimen of subgingival plaque, if available, were picked from primary culture, 115 P. intermedia and 178 P. nigrescens isolates were recovered from the 18 subjects. Among the subjects studied, family members shared the same subtype strain(s) but non-family members did not. Multiple subtypes were found in 8 (57%) of the 14 P. nigrescens-positive subjects but in only 3 (27%) of the 11 P. intermedia-positive subjects; the difference was, however, not statistically significant (P = 0.14). These results suggest that the combination of PCR ribotyping and AP-PCR fingerprinting is well suited for the epidemiological study of P. intermedia and P. nigrescens and that each family seems to carry a distinct subtype(s) of these species. PMID:10488167

  16. Nucleases from Prevotella intermedia can degrade neutrophil extracellular traps.

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    Doke, M; Fukamachi, H; Morisaki, H; Arimoto, T; Kataoka, H; Kuwata, H

    2017-08-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease caused by periodontal bacteria in subgingival plaque. These bacteria are able to colonize the periodontal region by evading the host immune response. Neutrophils, the host's first line of defense against infection, use various strategies to kill invading pathogens, including neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). These are extracellular net-like fibers comprising DNA and antimicrobial components such as histones, LL-37, defensins, myeloperoxidase, and neutrophil elastase from neutrophils that disarm and kill bacteria extracellularly. Bacterial nuclease degrades the NETs to escape NET killing. It has now been shown that extracellular nucleases enable bacteria to evade this host antimicrobial mechanism, leading to increased pathogenicity. Here, we compared the DNA degradation activity of major Gram-negative periodontopathogenic bacteria, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. We found that Pr. intermedia showed the highest DNA degradation activity. A genome search of Pr. intermedia revealed the presence of two genes, nucA and nucD, putatively encoding secreted nucleases, although their enzymatic and biological activities are unknown. We cloned nucA- and nucD-encoding nucleases from Pr. intermedia ATCC 25611 and characterized their gene products. Recombinant NucA and NucD digested DNA and RNA, which required both Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ for optimal activity. In addition, NucA and NucD were able to degrade the DNA matrix comprising NETs. © 2016 The Authors Molecular Oral Microbiology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Detection of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Porphyromonas endodontalis, Prevotella intermedia, and Prevotella nigrescens in chronic endodontic infection.

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    Tomazinho, Luiz Fernando; Avila-Campos, Mario J

    2007-02-01

    Black-pigmented anaerobic rods such as Prevotella spp. and Porphyromonas spp. are involved in the etiology and perpetuation of endodontic infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of these species in chronic endodontic infections by using culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. Samples of 100 patients with root canals displaying chronic endodontic infections were obtained by sterilized paper points. Bacterial identification was performed by using culture and PCR techniques. By culture, in 33% of the samples, P. intermedia-P. nigrescens (75.8%), P. gingivalis (27.3%), and P. endodontalis (9.1%) were identified, and by PCR 60% of the samples harbored P. nigrescens (43.3%), P. gingivalis (43.3%), P. intermedia (31.7%), and P. endodontalis (23.3%). The presence of these black-pigmented anaerobic rods alone or in association in chronic endodontic infections seems to be frequent. PCR is a very sensitive technique for detecting DNA from bacterial cells. Culturing is only able to reveal living bacteria and is less sensitive for the identification of low numbers of bacterial cells.

  18. Development and evaluation of new primers for PCR-based identification of Prevotella intermedia.

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    Zhou, Yanbin; Liu, Dali; Wang, Yiwei; Zhu, Cailian; Liang, Jingping; Shu, Rong

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to develop new Prevotella intermedia-specific PCR primers based on the 16S rRNA. The new primer set, Pi-192 and Pi-468, increased the accuracy of PCR-based P. intermedia identification and could be useful in the detection of P. intermedia as well as epidemiological studies on periodontal disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pathogenicity of facultative and obligate anaerobic bacteria in monoculture and combined with either Prevotella intermedia or Prevotella nigrescens.

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    Siqueira, J F; Magalhães, F A; Lima, K C; de Uzeda, M

    1998-12-01

    The pathogenicity of obligate and facultative anaerobic bacteria commonly found in endodontic infections was tested using a mouse model. The capacity of inducing abscesses was evaluated seven days after subcutaneous injection of the bacteria in pure culture and in combinations with either Prevotella intermedia or Prevotella nigrescens. Nine of the fifteen bacterial strains tested were pathogenic in pure culture. No statistically significant differences were detected between these strains in pure culture and in mixtures with either P. intermedia or P. nigrescens. Synergism between the bacterial strains was only apparent when associating Porphyromonas endodontalis with P. intermedia or P. nigrescens. Histopathological examination of tissue sections from induced abscesses revealed an acute inflammatory reaction, dominated by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Sections from the control group using sterile medium showed no evidence of inflammatory reaction.

  20. Population-Genomic Insights into Variation in Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens Isolates and Its Association with Periodontal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifei Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available High-throughput sequencing has helped to reveal the close relationship between Prevotella and periodontal disease, but the roles of subspecies diversity and genomic variation within this genus in periodontal diseases still need to be investigated. We performed a comparative genome analysis of 48 Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens isolates that from the same cohort of subjects to identify the main drivers of their pathogenicity and adaptation to different environments. The comparisons were done between two species and between disease and health based on pooled sequences. The results showed that both P. intermedia and P. nigrescens have highly dynamic genomes and can take up various exogenous factors through horizontal gene transfer. The major differences between disease-derived and health-derived samples of P. intermedia and P. nigrescens were factors related to genome modification and recombination, indicating that the Prevotella isolates from disease sites may be more capable of genomic reconstruction. We also identified genetic elements specific to each sample, and found that disease groups had more unique virulence factors related to capsule and lipopolysaccharide synthesis, secretion systems, proteinases, and toxins, suggesting that strains from disease sites may have more specific virulence, particularly for P. intermedia. The differentially represented pathways between samples from disease and health were related to energy metabolism, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and amino acid metabolism, consistent with data from the whole subgingival microbiome in periodontal disease and health. Disease-derived samples had gained or lost several metabolic genes compared to healthy-derived samples, which could be linked with the difference in virulence performance between diseased and healthy sample groups. Our findings suggest that P. intermedia and P. nigrescens may serve as “crucial substances” in subgingival plaque, which may

  1. Population-Genomic Insights into Variation in Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens Isolates and Its Association with Periodontal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yifei; Zhen, Min; Zhan, Yalin; Song, Yeqing; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Jinfeng

    2017-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing has helped to reveal the close relationship between Prevotella and periodontal disease, but the roles of subspecies diversity and genomic variation within this genus in periodontal diseases still need to be investigated. We performed a comparative genome analysis of 48 Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens isolates that from the same cohort of subjects to identify the main drivers of their pathogenicity and adaptation to different environments. The comparisons were done between two species and between disease and health based on pooled sequences. The results showed that both P. intermedia and P. nigrescens have highly dynamic genomes and can take up various exogenous factors through horizontal gene transfer. The major differences between disease-derived and health-derived samples of P. intermedia and P. nigrescens were factors related to genome modification and recombination, indicating that the Prevotella isolates from disease sites may be more capable of genomic reconstruction. We also identified genetic elements specific to each sample, and found that disease groups had more unique virulence factors related to capsule and lipopolysaccharide synthesis, secretion systems, proteinases, and toxins, suggesting that strains from disease sites may have more specific virulence, particularly for P. intermedia . The differentially represented pathways between samples from disease and health were related to energy metabolism, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and amino acid metabolism, consistent with data from the whole subgingival microbiome in periodontal disease and health. Disease-derived samples had gained or lost several metabolic genes compared to healthy-derived samples, which could be linked with the difference in virulence performance between diseased and healthy sample groups. Our findings suggest that P. intermedia and P. nigrescens may serve as "crucial substances" in subgingival plaque, which may reflect changes in

  2. Prevotella intermedia and Porphyromonas gingivalis in dental caries with periapical granuloma

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    Risya Cilmiaty

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries with necrotic pulp is a multifactorial disease that attacks enamel involving tooth pulp. The anaerobic bacteria infection in the pulp chamber could induce the formation of periapical granuloma. However, the presence of the most frequently anaerobic bacteria identified in apical periodontitis, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia, in periapical granuloma have not been confirmed. Purpose: The aims of study were to determine the presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia in dental caries with necrotic pulp and to determine its relation to periapical granuloma. Methods: Thirty-six patients of dental caries with necrotic pulp in Dr. Moewardi General Hospital in Surakarta, Indonesia were involved and classified into two groups, the group of patients with periapical granuloma and the group of patients without periapical granuloma. The caries tooth was extracted, and the chronic periapical tissue was swabbed and cultured on blood agar medium in anaerobic condition. The bacterial DNA was extracted from the positive cultures and subjected for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. Results: Periapical granuloma was more likely found in women (OR 5.5, 95% CI=1.277-23.693; RR 2.5, 95% CI= 1.025-6.100. Black colonies bacteria were associated with periapical granuloma (OR 2.2, 95% CI=0.517-9.594; RR 1.5, 95% CI=0.655-3.623. Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia were detected in group with or without periapical granuloma, however, only Prevotella intermedia was associated with periapical granuloma (OR 1.6, 95% CI=0.418-5.903; RR 1.3, 95% CI=0.653-2.393. Conclusion: The presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia in periapical granuloma were confirmed, however, only Prevotella intermedia were associated with periapical granuloma.Latar belakang: Karies gigi dengan pulpa nekrosis adalah penyakit multifaktorial yang menyerang enamel hingga ruang pulpa gigi. Infeksi bakteri anaerob

  3. Comparative genome analysis of Prevotella intermedia strain isolated from infected root canal reveals features related to pathogenicity and adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Yunfeng; Shen, Lu; Zou, Yan; Qi, Zhengnan; Yin, Jun; Jiang, Jie; Guo, Liang; He, Lin; Chen, Zijiang; Tang, Zisheng; Qin, Shengying

    2015-02-25

    Many species of the genus Prevotella are pathogens that cause oral diseases. Prevotella intermedia is known to cause various oral disorders e.g. periodontal disease, periapical periodontitis and noma as well as colonize in the respiratory tract and be associated with cystic fibrosis and chronic bronchitis. It is of clinical significance to identify the main drive of its various adaptation and pathogenicity. In order to explore the intra-species genetic differences among strains of Prevotella intermedia of different niches, we isolated a strain Prevotella intermedia ZT from the infected root canal of a Chinese patient with periapical periodontitis and gained a draft genome sequence. We annotated the genome and compared it with the genomes of other taxa in the genus Prevotella. The raw data set, consisting of approximately 65X-coverage reads, was trimmed and assembled into contigs from which 2165 ORFs were predicted. The comparison of the Prevotella intermedia ZT genome sequence with the published genome sequence of Prevotella intermedia 17 and Prevotella intermedia ATCC25611 revealed that ~14% of the genes were strain-specific. The Preveotella intermedia strains share a set of conserved genes contributing to its adaptation and pathogenic and possess strain-specific genes especially those involved in adhesion and secreting bacteriocin. The Prevotella intermedia ZT shares similar gene content with other taxa of genus Prevotella. The genomes of the genus Prevotella is highly dynamic with relative conserved parts: on average, about half of the genes in one Prevotella genome were not included in another genome of the different Prevotella species. The degree of conservation varied with different pathways: the ability of amino acid biosynthesis varied greatly with species but the pathway of cell wall components biosynthesis were nearly constant. Phylogenetic tree shows that the taxa from different niches are scarcely distributed among clades. Prevotella intermedia ZT

  4. Chair-side detection of Prevotella Intermedia in mature dental plaque by its fluorescence.

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    Nomura, Yoshiaki; Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Okamoto, Masaaki; Sogabe, Kaoru; Okada, Ayako; Hanada, Nobuhiro

    2017-06-01

    Prevotella intermedia/nigrescens is one of the well-known pathogens causing periodontal diseases, and the red florescence excited by the visible blue light caused by the protoporphyrin IX in the bacterial cells could be useful for the chair-side detection. The aim of this study was to evaluated levels of periodontal pathogen, especially P. intermedia in clinical samples of red fluorescent dental plaque. Thirty two supra gingival plaque samples from six individuals were measured its fluorescence at 640nm wavelength excited by 409nm. Periodontopathic bacteria were counted by the Invader PLUS PCR assay. Co-relations the fluorescence intensity and bacterial counts were analyzed by Person's correlation coefficient and simple and multiple regression analysis. Positive and negative predictive values of the fluorescence intensities for with or without P. intermedia in supragingival plaque was calculated. When relative fluorescence unit (RFU) were logarithmic transformed, statistically significant linear relations between RFU and bacterial counts were obtained for P. intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia. By the multiple regression analysis, only P. intermedia had statistically significant co-relation with fluorescence intensities. All of the fluorescent dental plaque contained P. intermedia m. In contrast, 28% of non-fluorescent plaques contained P. intermedia. To check the fluorescence dental plaque in the oral cavity could be the simple chair-side screening of the mature dental plaque before examining the periodontal pathogens especially P. intermedia by the PCR method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. In vitro Resistance Testing of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, and Tannerella forsythia to Triclosan.

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    Farsi, Deema; Tanner, Anne

    2016-04-01

    To determine the sensitivity of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, and Tannerella forsythia to triclosan, and determine if these bacteria develop resistance to triclosan upon prolonged exposure. Susceptibility to triclosan was tested against three periodontal pathogens P. gingivalis, P. intermedia, and T. forsythia. Escherichia coli strains sensitive and resistant to triclosan were used as biological controls to confirm the efficacy of triclosan in the assays. Agar plates were prepared locally with vitamin K and hemin-supplemented medium. Porphyromonas gingivalis and P. intermedia did not grow on plates containing ≥ 2 μg/ml triclosan, while T. forsythia did not grow on ≥ 1.66 μg/ml. Colonies of P. intermedia resistant to triclosan developed after prolonged incubation at 2 μg/ml, but this resistance disappeared during subculture in the absence of triclosan. No significant resistance to triclosan was detected for these species. Dental products containing triclosan can be beneficial in controlling periodontal disease.

  6. Effect of estradiol on planktonic growth, coaggregation, and biofilm formation of the Prevotella intermedia group bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fteita, Dareen; Könönen, Eija; Söderling, Eva; Gürsoy, Ulvi Kahraman

    2014-06-01

    Alterations in the quantity and quality of biofilms at gingival margin are considered to play a role in the initiation and development of pregnancy-related gingivitis. Prevotella intermedia sensu lato is able to consume estradiol, the major sex hormone secreted during pregnancy, in the absence of vitamin K. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of estradiol on the planktonic growth, coaggregation, polysaccharide production, and biofilm formation of the P. intermedia group bacteria, namely P. intermedia, Prevotella nigrescens, and Prevotella pallens. In all experiments, the type strain (ATCC) and a clinical strain (AHN) of P. intermedia, P. nigrescens, and P. pallens were incubated with the concentrations of 0, 30, 90, and 120 nmol/L of estradiol. Planktonic growth was assessed by means of the colony forming unit method, while coaggregation and biofilm formation were assessed by spectrophotometric methods. In the determination of protein and polysaccharide levels, the Bradford and phenol-sulfuric acid methods were used, respectively. P. pallens AHN 9283 and P. nigrescens ATCC 33563 increased their numbers at planktonic stage with increasing estradiol concentrations. In 48-h biofilm tests, elevated protein levels were found for both strains of P. intermedia, and the strains P. nigrescens ATCC 33563 and P. pallens AHN 9283 in the presence of estradiol. The P. intermedia strains also increased the levels of polysaccharide formation in the biofilm. Coaggregation of the P. intermedia group organisms with Fusobacterium nucleatum was enhanced only in P. intermedia AHN 8290. In conclusion, our in vitro experiments indicate that estradiol regulates planktonic growth, coaggregation, polysaccharide production, and biofilm formation characteristics of P. intermedia, P. nigrescens, and P. pallens differently. These results may, at least partly, explain the differences seen in their contribution to the pathogenesis of pregnancy-related gingivitis

  7. Porphyromonas gingivalis, Porphyromonas endodontalis, Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens in endodontic lesions detected by culture and by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, B P F A; Jacinto, R C; Pinheiro, E T; Sousa, E L R; Zaia, A A; Ferraz, C C R; Souza-Filho, F J

    2005-08-01

    he aim of this study was to investigate the presence of four black-pigmented bacteria, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Porphyromonas endodontalis, Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens, in endodontic infections by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses. Microbial samples were obtained from 50 teeth with untreated necrotic pulps (primary infection) and from 50 teeth with failing endodontic treatment (secondary infection). Microbiological strict anaerobic techniques were used for serial dilution, plating, incubation, and identification. For PCR detection, the samples were analyzed using species-specific primers of 16S rDNA and the downstream intergenic spacer region. Culture and PCR detected the test species in 13/100 and 50/100 of the study teeth, respectively. The organisms were cultured from 11/50 (22%) of primarily infected root canal samples and from 2/50 (4%) of secondary root canal samples. PCR detection identified the target species in 32/50 (64%) and 18/50 (36%) of primary and secondary infections, respectively. P. gingivalis was rarely isolated by culture methods (1%), but was the most frequently identified test species by PCR (38%). Similarly, P. endodontalis was not recovered by culture from any tooth studied, but was detected by PCR in 25% of the sampled teeth. PCR-based identification also showed higher detection rates of P. intermedia (33%) and P. nigrescens (22%) than culture (13%). In conclusion, P. gingivalis, P. endodontalis, P. intermedia, and P. nigrescens were identified more frequently in teeth with necrotic pulp than in teeth with failing endodontic treatment. Also, a higher frequency of black-pigmented species was detected by PCR than by culture.

  8. Does estradiol have an impact on the dipeptidyl peptidase IV enzyme activity of the Prevotella intermedia group bacteria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fteita, Dareen; Könönen, Eija; Gürsoy, Mervi; Söderling, Eva; Gürsoy, Ulvi Kahraman

    2015-12-01

    Initiation and development of pregnancy-associated gingivitis is seemingly related to the microbial shift towards specific gram-negative anaerobes in subgingival biofilms. It is known that Prevotella intermedia sensu lato is able to use estradiol as an alternative source of growth instead of vitamin K. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of estradiol on the bacterial dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) enzyme activity in vitro as a virulent factor of the Prevotella intermedia group bacteria, namely P. intermedia, Prevotella nigrescens, Prevotella pallens, and Prevotella aurantiaca. In all experiments, 2 strains of each Prevotella species were used. Bacteria were incubated with the concentrations of 0, 30, 90, and 120 nmol/L of estradiol and were allowed to build biofilms at an air-solid interface. DPPIV activities of biofilms were measured kinetically during 20 min using a fluorometric assay. The enzyme activity was later related to the amount of protein produced by the same biofilm, reflecting the biofilm mass. Estradiol significantly increased DPPIV activities of the 8 Prevotella strains in a strain- and dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, our in vitro experiments indicate that estradiol regulates the DPPIV enzyme activity of P. intermedia, P. nigrescens, P. pallens, and P. aurantiaca strains differently. Our results may, at least partly, explain the role of estradiol to elicit a virulent state which contributes to the pathogenesis of pregnancy-related gingivitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Restriction-modification mediated barriers to exogenous DNA uptake and incorporation employed by Prevotella intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Christopher D; Skeete, Chelsey A; Fomenkov, Alexey; Roberts, Richard J; Rittling, Susan R

    2017-01-01

    Prevotella intermedia, a major periodontal pathogen, is increasingly implicated in human respiratory tract and cystic fibrosis lung infections. Nevertheless, the specific mechanisms employed by this pathogen remain only partially characterized and poorly understood, largely due to its total lack of genetic accessibility. Here, using Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) genome and methylome sequencing, bisulfite sequencing, in addition to cloning and restriction analysis, we define the specific genetic barriers to exogenous DNA present in two of the most widespread laboratory strains, P. intermedia ATCC 25611 and P. intermedia Strain 17. We identified and characterized multiple restriction-modification (R-M) systems, some of which are considerably divergent between the two strains. We propose that these R-M systems are the root cause of the P. intermedia transformation barrier. Additionally, we note the presence of conserved Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR) systems in both strains, which could provide a further barrier to exogenous DNA uptake and incorporation. This work will provide a valuable resource during the development of a genetic system for P. intermedia, which will be required for fundamental investigation of this organism's physiology, metabolism, and pathogenesis in human disease.

  10. In Vitro Effects of Polyphosphate against Prevotella intermedia in Planktonic Phase and Biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eun-Young; Kim, Minjung; Noh, Mi Hee; Moon, Ji-Hoi; Lee, Jin-Yong

    2016-02-01

    Polyphosphate (polyP) has gained a wide interest in the food industry due to its potential as a decontaminating agent. In this study, we examined the effect of sodium tripolyphosphate (polyP3; Na5P3O10) against planktonic and biofilm cells of Prevotella intermedia, a major oral pathogen. The MIC of polyP3 against P. intermedia ATCC 49046 determined by agar dilution method was 0.075%, while 0.05% polyP3 was bactericidal against P. intermedia in time-kill analysis performed using liquid medium. A crystal violet binding assay for the assessment of biofilm formation by P. intermedia showed that sub-MICs of polyP3 significantly decreased biofilm formation. Under the scanning electron microscope, decreased numbers of P. intermedia cells forming the biofilms were observed when the bacterial cells were incubated with 0.025% or higher concentrations of polyP3. Assessment of biofilm viability with LIVE/DEAD staining and viable cell count methods showed that 0.05% or higher concentrations of polyP3 significantly decreased the viability of the preformed biofilms in a concentration-dependent manner. The zone sizes of alpha-hemolysis formed on horse blood agar produced by P. intermedia were decreased in the presence of polyP3. The expression of the genes encoding hemolysins and the genes of the hemin uptake (hmu) locus was downregulated by polyP3. Collectively, our results show that polyP is an effective antimicrobial agent against P. intermedia in biofilms as well as planktonic phase, interfering with the process of hemin acquisition by the bacterium. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Prevotella intermedia infection causing acute and complicated aortitis-A case report.

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    Boersma, C; Kampschreur, L M; Buter, H; Doorenbos, B M; Klinkert, P; Koning, G G

    2017-01-01

    Aortitis is a general term that refers to all conditions involving an inflammation of the aortic wall. This case report describes the surgical approach of a patient with infectious and symptomatic aortitis caused by the rare vector Prevotella intermedia. A 44-year old male patient was admitted with fever and general discomfort after a period of sore throat in a non-teaching hospital. After two weeks he developed acute abdominal and back pain accompanied by sweating and elevated infection parameters. Computed tomography angiography revealed atherosclerotic changes of the infrarenal aorta with a locally contained rupture of the aorta alongside peri-aortal signs of inflammation (and aortitis aspects). An urgent aortic reconstruction was performed according to Nevelsteen. The blood cultures turned out positive for Prevotella intermedia. Postoperatively the patient received antibiotics for six weeks. The patient recovered uneventful from this infection and surgical procedure. A complicated and acute aortitis is a rare but potentially life-threatening disease. The aetiology can be ordered into two main groups; inflammatory and infectious. Diagnosis is based upon symptoms, biochemical values, microbiological results and imaging modalities. Treatment depends on aetiology and should be discussed in an experienced multidisciplinary setting. Infectious aortitis should be treated with antibiotics for at least six weeks with close monitoring of the patient's clinic and biochemical values, even after surgery. Prevotella intermedia is a rare causative agent for aortitis. Acute aortitis is a challenging clinical entity which should be managed in an equipped medical center by an experienced multidisciplinary team. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Interpain A, a cysteine proteinase from Prevotella intermedia, inhibits complement by degrading complement factor C3.

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    Michal Potempa

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of the supporting structures of the teeth caused by, among other pathogens, Prevotella intermedia. Many strains of P. intermedia are resistant to killing by the human complement system, which is present at up to 70% of serum concentration in gingival crevicular fluid. Incubation of human serum with recombinant cysteine protease of P. intermedia (interpain A resulted in a drastic decrease in bactericidal activity of the serum. Furthermore, a clinical strain 59 expressing interpain A was more serum-resistant than another clinical strain 57, which did not express interpain A, as determined by Western blotting. Moreover, in the presence of the cysteine protease inhibitor E64, the killing of strain 59 by human serum was enhanced. Importantly, we found that the majority of P. intermedia strains isolated from chronic and aggressive periodontitis carry and express the interpain A gene. The protective effect of interpain A against serum bactericidal activity was found to be attributable to its ability to inhibit all three complement pathways through the efficient degradation of the alpha-chain of C3 -- the major complement factor common to all three pathways. P. intermedia has been known to co-aggregate with P. gingivalis, which produce gingipains to efficiently degrade complement factors. Here, interpain A was found to have a synergistic effect with gingipains on complement degradation. In addition, interpain A was able to activate the C1 complex in serum, causing deposition of C1q on inert and bacterial surfaces, which may be important at initial stages of infection when local inflammatory reaction may be beneficial for a pathogen. Taken together, the newly characterized interpain A proteinase appears to be an important virulence factor of P. intermedia.

  13. Identification and functional analysis of the gene cluster for fructan utilization in Prevotella intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuse, Haruka; Fukamachi, Haruka; Inoue, Mitsuko; Igarashi, Takeshi

    2013-02-25

    Fructanase enzymes hydrolyze the β-2,6 and β-2,1 linkages of levan and inulin fructans, respectively. We analyzed the influence of fructan on the growth of Prevotella intermedia. The growth of P. intermedia was enhanced by addition of inulin, implying that P. intermedia could also use inulin. Based on this finding, we identified and analyzed the genes encoding a putative fructanase (FruA), sugar transporter (FruB), and fructokinase (FruK) in the genome of strain ATCC25611. Transcript analysis by RT-PCR showed that the fruABK genes were co-transcribed as a single mRNA and semi-quantitative analysis confirmed that the fruA gene was induced in response to fructose and inulin. Recombinant FruA and FruK were purified and characterized biochemically. FruA strongly hydrolyzed inulin, with slight degradation of levan via an exo-type mechanism, revealing that FruA is an exo-β-d-fructanase. FruK converted fructose to fructose-6-phosphate in the presence of ATP, confirming that FruK is an ATP-dependent fructokinase. These results suggest that P. intermedia can utilize fructan as a carbon source for growth, and that the fructanase, sugar transporter, and fructokinase proteins we identified are involved in this fructan utilization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Contribution of hly homologs to the hemolytic activity of Prevotella intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Naoko; Fukamachi, Haruka; Arimoto, Takafumi; Yamamoto, Matsuo; Igarashi, Takeshi

    2012-06-01

    Prevotella intermedia is a periodontal pathogen that requires iron for its growth. Although this organism has hemolytic activity, the precise nature of its hemolytic substances and their associated hemolytic actions are yet to be fully determined. In the present study, we identified and characterized several putative hly genes in P. intermedia ATCC25611 which appear to encode hemolysins. Six hly genes (hlyA, B, C, D, E, and hlyI) of P. intermedia were identified by comparing their nucleotide sequences to those of known hly genes of Bacteroides fragilis NCTC9343. The hlyA-E, and hlyI genes were overexpressed individually in the non-hemolytic Escherichia coli strain JW5181 and examined its contribution to the hemolytic activity on sheep blood agar plates. E. coli cells expressing the hlyA and hlyI genes exhibited hemolytic activity under anaerobic conditions. On the other hand, only E. coli cells stably expressing the hlyA gene were able to lyse the red blood cells when cultured under aerobic conditions. In addition, expression of the hlyA and hlyI genes was significantly upregulated in the presence of red blood cells. Furthermore, we found that the growth of P. intermedia was similar in an iron-limited medium supplemented with either red blood cells or heme. Taken together, our results indicate that the hlyA and hlyI genes of P. intermedia encode putative hemolysins that appear to be involved in the lysis of red blood cells, and suggest that these hemolysins might play important roles in the iron-dependent growth of this organism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Protective effect of an egg yolk-derived immunoglobulin (IgY) against Prevotella intermedia-mediated gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Y-Y; Zhen, Y-H; Wang, D; Zhu, J; Sun, D-X; Liu, X-T; Wang, H-X; Liu, Y; Long, Y-Y; Shu, X-H

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the effects of an egg yolk-derived immunoglobulin (IgY) specific to Prevotella intermedia in vitro and in vivo. An IgY specific to P. intermedia was produced by immunizing hens with formaldehyde-inactivated P. intermedia and showed high titres when subjected to an ELISA. The obtained IgY inhibited the growth of P. intermedia in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations from 1 to 20 mg ml(-1) in Center for Disease Control and Prevention liquid medium. Forty rats were challenged with P. intermedia on gingivae and then randomly divided into four groups, which were syringed respectively with phosphate-buffered saline, 1 mg ml(-1) of tinidazole, 20 mg ml(-1) of nonspecific IgY and 20 mg ml(-1) of the IgY specific to P. intermedia at a dosage of 300 μl per day. Gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing (BOP), counts of white blood cell (WBC) and histopathological slide of the gums were measured after treatment for 15 days. The gingivitis rats treated with the IgY specific to P. intermedia showed significantly decreased GI, PI, BOP and WBC (P intermedia-mediated gingivitis. A new immunoglobulin specific to P. intermedia was developed from egg yolk. This specific IgY can dose-dependently inhibit the growth of P. intermedia and protect rats from gingivitis induced by P. intermedia. The new IgY has potential for the treatment of P. intermedia-mediated gingivitis. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Relative contribution of Prevotella intermedia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to lung pathology in airways of patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Martina; Beer, Isabelle; Braitmaier, Peter; Dierkes, Michaela; Kummer, Florian; Krismer, Bernhard; Schumacher, Ulrike; Gräpler-Mainka, Ute; Riethmüller, Joachim; Jensen, Peter Ø; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Høiby, Niels; Bellon, Gabriel; Döring, Gerd

    2010-11-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) with Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections produce endobronchial mucus plugs allowing growth of obligate anaerobes including Prevotella spp. Whether obligate anaerobes contribute to the pathophysiology of CF lung disease is unknown. The virulence of Prevotella intermedia and Ps aeruginosa was investigated in vitro and in mice, antibodies against P intermedia in CF sera were assessed and a culture-independent detection method for P intermedia/P nigrescens in CF sputum was tested. P intermedia reached cell numbers of >10(5)->10(7) colony-forming units (CFU)/ml sputum. The majority of patients with CF (16/17; 94.1%) produced antibodies against two immunoreactive antigens of P intermedia. Culture supernatant fluids, collected from 10(9) P intermedia cells, were more cytotoxic to respiratory epithelial cells in vitro and inflammatory in mouse lungs than respective fluids from anaerobically grown Ps aeruginosa, while fluids from aerobically grown Ps aeruginosa had the highest cytotoxicity and inflammation. Both pathological effects were largely reduced when culture supernatant fluids from 10(7) cells of either species were used. P intermedia cells (∼10(6)CFU/lung) did not induce mortality in the agar beads lung infection mouse model, while Ps aeruginosa cells caused death in 30% of mice due to rapid multiplication. A P intermedia/P nigrescens-specific PNA probe was significantly more sensitive than culture-dependent diagnostic assays to detect these strict anaerobes. Ps aeruginosa and P intermedia become significantly virulent in vitro and in vivo when cell numbers exceed 10(8) CFU/lung.

  17. Comparison of the virulence of exopolysaccharide-producing Prevotella intermedia to exopolysaccharide non-producing periodontopathic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Takeshi; Yamane, Kazuyoshi; Furukawa, Tomoyo; Matsumoto-Mashimo, Chiho; Sugimori, Chieko; Nambu, Takayuki; Obata, Noboru; Walker, Clay B; Leung, Kai-Poon; Fukushima, Hisanori

    2011-08-25

    Evidence in the literature suggests that exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by bacterial cells are essential for the expression of virulence in these organisms. Secreted EPSs form the framework in which microbial biofilms are built. This study evaluates the role of EPS in Prevotella intermedia for the expression of virulence. This evaluation was accomplished by comparing EPS-producing P. intermedia strains 17 and OD1-16 with non-producing P. intermedia ATCC 25611 and Porphyromonas gingivalis strains ATCC 33277, 381 and W83 for their ability to induce abscess formation in mice and evade phagocytosis. EPS-producing P. intermedia strains 17 and OD1-16 induced highly noticeable abscess lesions in mice at 107 colony-forming units (CFU). In comparison, P. intermedia ATCC 25611 and P. gingivalis ATCC 33277, 381 and W83, which all lacked the ability to produce viscous materials, required 100-fold more bacteria (109 CFU) in order to induce detectable abscess lesions in mice. Regarding antiphagocytic activity, P. intermedia strains 17 and OD1-16 were rarely internalized by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes, but other strains were readily engulfed and detected in the phagosomes of these phagocytes. These results demonstrate that the production of EPS by P. intermedia strains 17 and OD1-16 could contribute to the pathogenicity of this organism by conferring their ability to evade the host's innate defence response.

  18. Development of Prevotella intermedia-specific PCR primers based on the nucleotide sequences of a DNA probe Pig27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jung; Hwang, Kyung Hwan; Lee, Young-Seok; Park, Jae-Yoon; Kook, Joong-Ki

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to develop Prevotella intermedia-specific PCR primers based on the P. intermedia-specific DNA probe. The P. intermedia-specific DNA probe was screened by inverted dot blot hybridization and confirmed by Southern blot hybridization. The nucleotide sequences of the species-specific DNA probes were determined using a chain termination method. Southern blot analysis showed that the DNA probe, Pig27, detected only the genomic DNA of P. intermedia strains. PCR showed that the PCR primers, Pin-F1/Pin-R1, had species-specificity for P. intermedia. The detection limits of the PCR primer sets were 0.4pg of the purified genomic DNA of P. intermedia ATCC 49046. These results suggest that the PCR primers, Pin-F1/Pin-R1, could be useful in the detection of P. intermedia as well as in the development of a PCR kit in epidemiological studies related to periodontal diseases. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Detection and genetic characterization of β-lactamases in Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens isolated from oral cavity infections and peritonsillar abscesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Canigia, Liliana; Cejas, Daniela; Gutkind, Gabriel; Radice, Marcela

    2015-06-01

    A prospective analysis on β-lactam resistance mechanisms and β-lactamase prevalence was conducted on Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens recovered from patients with chronic periodontitis and peritonsillar abscesses. Both phenotypic and genotypic methods were performed to characterize the β-lactamases, their coding genes and their genetic contexts. Overall, β-lactamase production was observed in 64% (16/25) P. intermedia and 23.8% (5/21) P. nigrescens (p intermedia (8/16) than in P. nigrescens (2/16) recovered from chronic periodontitis, almost all isolates from peritonsillar abscesses were producers (8/9 and 3/3, respectively). cfxA, but not cepA and cblA, was detected in those isolates, which were previously categorized as β-lactamase producers. CfxA producing isolates displayed higher β-lactam MICs than non-producers in both species. The most frequent allele was cfxA2, followed by cfxA3 and a new allelic variant named cfxA6. The analysis of the downstream flanking region in the three cfxA variants revealed the association with mobA of Tn4555, suggesting their localization in a mobilizable element. β-lactam resistance and cfxA carriage prevalence seems to be not only related to the bacterial species but also to the infection site. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Expression Profiles of TGF-β and TLR Pathways in Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia Challenged Osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Kubra; Ekinci, Fatma Yesim; Korachi, May

    2015-04-01

    The presence of certain oral pathogens at implant sites can hinder the osseointegration process. However, it is unclear how and by what microorganisms it happens. This study investigated whether the presence of oral pathogens of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia individually, play a role in the failure of bone formation by determining the expression profiles of Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGF-β/Bone Morphogenic Protein (BMP) and Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) pathways in challenged osteoblasts. Cell viability of P. gingivalis and P. intermedia challenged osteoblasts were determined by WST assay. Changes in osteoblast morphology and inhibition of mineralization were observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Von Kossa staining, respectively. Expression of TGF-β and TLR pathway genes on challenged cells were identified by RT profiler array. Both P. gingivalis and P. intermedia challenges resulted in reduced viability and mineralization of osteoblasts. Viability was reduced to 56.8% (P. gingivalis) and 52.75% (P. intermedia) at 1000 multiplicity. Amongst 48 genes examined, expressions of BMPER, SMAD1, IL8 and NFRKB were found to be highly upregulated by both bacterial challenges (Fold Change > 4). P. gingivalis and P. intermedia could play a role in implant failure by changing the expression profiles of genes related to bone formation and resorption.

  1. Effect of quercetin on the production of nitric oxide in murine macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide from Prevotella intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yun-Jung; Kim, Sung-Jo

    2013-08-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a short-lived bioactive molecule that is known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. In the current study, we investigated the effect of the flavonoid quercetin on the production of NO in murine macrophages activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Prevotella intermedia, a pathogen related to inflammatory periodontal disease, and tried to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of action. LPS was isolated from P. intermedia ATCC 25611 cells by the standard hot phenol-water method. The concentration of NO in cell culture supernatants was determined by measuring the accumulation of nitrite. Inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein expression, phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38, inhibitory κB (IκB)-α degradation, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) phosphorylation were analyzed via immunoblotting. Quercetin significantly attenuated iNOS-derived NO production in RAW246.7 cells activated by P. intermedia LPS. In addition, quercetin induced HO-1 protein expression in cells activated with P. intermedia LPS. Tin protoporphyrin IX (SnPP), a competitive inhibitor of HO-1, abolished the inhibitory effect of quercetin on LPS-induced NO production. Quercetin did not affect the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 induced by P. intermedia LPS. The degradation of IκB-α induced by P. intermedia LPS was inhibited when the cells were treated with quercetin. Quercetin also inhibited LPS-induced STAT1 signaling. Quercetin significantly inhibits iNOS-derived NO production in murine macrophages activated by P. intermedia LPS via anti-inflammatory HO-1 induction and inhibition of the nuclear factor-κB and STAT1 signaling pathways. Our study suggests that quercetin may contribute to the modulation of host-destructive responses mediated by NO and appears to have potential as a novel therapeutic agent for treating inflammatory periodontal disease.

  2. Genome sequence of Prevotella intermedia SUNY aB G8-9K-3, a biofilm forming strain with drug-resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ji-Hoi; Kim, Minjung; Lee, Jae-Hyung

    Prevotella intermedia has long been known to be as the principal etiologic agent of periodontal diseases and associated with various systemic diseases. Previous studies showed that the intra-species difference exists in capacity of biofilm formation, antibiotic resistance, and serological reaction among P. intermedia strains. Here we report the genome sequence of P. intermedia SUNY aB G8-9K-3 (designated ATCC49046) that displays a relatively high antimicrobial resistant and biofilm-forming capacity. Genome sequencing information provides important clues in understanding the genetic bases of phenotypic differences among P. intermedia strains. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. In vitro effects of N-acetyl cysteine alone and in combination with antibiotics on Prevotella intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ji-Hoi; Jang, Eun-Young; Shim, Kyu Sang; Lee, Jin-Yong

    2015-05-01

    N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) is an antioxidant that possesses anti-inflammatory activities in tissues. In the field of dentistry, NAC was demonstrated to prevent the expression of LPS-induced inflammatory mediators in phagocytic cells and gingival fibroblasts during the inflammatory process, but the effect of NAC on oral pathogens has been rarely studied. Here, we examined the effect of NAC against planktonic and biofilm cells of Prevotella intermedia, a major oral pathogen. NAC showed antibacterial activity against the planktonic P. intermedia with MIC value of 3 mg/ml and significantly decreased biofilm formation by the bacterium even at sub MIC. NAC did not affect the antibiotic susceptibility of planktonic P. intermedia, showing indifference (fractional inhibitory concentration index of 0.5-4) results against the bacterium in combination with ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline or metronidazole. On the other hand, viability of the pre-established bacterial biofilm exposed to the antibiotics except metronidazole was increased in the presence of NAC. Collectively, NAC may be used for prevention of the biofilm formation by P. intermedia rather than eradication of the pre-established bacterial biofilm. Further studies are required to explore antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity of NAC against mixed population of oral bacteria and its modulatory effect on antibiotics used for oral infectious diseases.

  4. Periodontitis in cardiovascular disease patients with or without Marfan syndrome--a possible role of Prevotella intermedia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-ichi Suzuki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although periodontitis is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD, the influence of periodontitis on Marfan syndrome (MFS with CVD is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between periodontal bacterial burden and MSF with CVD. METHODS AND RESULTS: The subjects were patients with MFS with CVD (n = 47; age and gender matched non-MFS CVD patients (n = 48 were employed as controls. Full-mouth clinical measurements, including number of teeth, probing of pocket depth (PD, bleeding on probing (BOP and community periodontal index (CPI were recorded. We also evaluated the existence of three periodontal pathogens, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, and Prevotella intermedia using polymerase chain reaction assays. Serum antibody titers against the pathogens were also measured. We revealed that MFS with CVD patients had periodontitis more frequently than the age and gender matched non-MFS CVD control subjects. MFS with CVD patients had significantly severer periodontitis, fewer remaining teeth and deeper PD compared to the non-MFS CVD controls. Furthermore, the serum antibody titer level against Prevotella intermedia was significantly lower in MFS plus CVD patients compared to the non-MFS CVD patients. CONCLUSION: Periodontitis may influence the pathophysiology of cardiovascular complications in MFS patients. A specific periodontal pathogen might be a crucial therapeutic target to prevent CVD development.

  5. Prevotella intermedia induces severe bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia in mice with upregulated platelet-activating factor receptor expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaoka, Kentaro; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Morinaga, Yoshitomo; Nakamura, Shigeki; Harada, Tatsuhiko; Hasegawa, Hiroo; Izumikawa, Koichi; Ishimatsu, Yuji; Kakeya, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Masaharu; Kohno, Shigeru

    2014-02-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of respiratory infection worldwide. Although oral hygiene has been considered a risk factor for developing pneumonia, the relationship between oral bacteria and pneumococcal infection is unknown. In this study, we examined the synergic effects of Prevotella intermedia, a major periodontopathic bacterium, on pneumococcal pneumonia. The synergic effects of the supernatant of P. intermedia (PiSup) on pneumococcal pneumonia were investigated in mice, and the stimulation of pneumococcal adhesion to human alveolar (A549) cells by PiSup was assessed. The effects of PiSup on platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) transcript levels in vitro and in vivo were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR, and the differences between the effects of pneumococcal infection induced by various periodontopathic bacterial species were verified in mice. Mice inoculated with S. pneumoniae plus PiSup exhibited a significantly lower survival rate, higher bacterial loads in the lungs, spleen, and blood, and higher inflammatory cytokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (macrophage inflammatory protein 2 and tumor necrosis factor alpha) than those infected without PiSup. In A549 cells, PiSup increased pneumococcal adhesion and PAFR transcript levels. PiSup also increased lung PAFR transcript levels in mice. Similar effects were not observed in the supernatants of Porphyromonas gingivalis or Fusobacterium nucleatum. Thus, P. intermedia has the potential to induce severe bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia with enhanced pneumococcal adhesion to lower airway cells.

  6. Curcumin suppresses the production of interleukin-6 in Prevotella intermedia lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW 264.7 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Curcumin is known to exert numerous biological effects including anti-inflammatory activity. In this study, we investigated the effects of curcumin on the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) by murine macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Prevotella intermedia, a major cause of inflammatory periodontal disease, and sought to determine the underlying mechanisms of action. Methods LPS was prepared from lyophilized P. intermedia ATCC 25611 cells by the standard hot phenol-water method. Culture supernatants were collected and assayed for IL-6. We used real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect IL-6 mRNA expression. IκB-α degradation, nuclear translocation of NF-κB subunits, and STAT1 phosphorylation were characterized via immunoblotting. DNA-binding of NF-κB was also analyzed. Results Curcumin strongly suppressed the production of IL-6 at both gene transcription and translation levels in P. intermedia LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cells. Curcumin did not inhibit the degradation of IκB-α induced by P. intermedia LPS. Curcumin blocked NF-κB signaling through the inhibition of nuclear translocation of NF-κB p50 subunit. Curcumin also attenuated DNA binding activity of p50 and p65 subunits and suppressed STAT1 phosphorylation. Conclusions Although further study is required to explore the detailed mechanism of action, curcumin may contribute to blockade of the host-destructive processes mediated by IL-6 and appears to have potential therapeutic values in the treatment of inflammatory periodontal disease. PMID:21811692

  7. Intraspecies Variability Affects Heterotypic Biofilms of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia: Evidences of Strain-Dependence Biofilm Modulation by Physical Contact and by Released Soluble Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Murta Barbosa

    Full Text Available It is well known that strain and virulence diversity exist within the population structure of Porphyromonas gingivalis. In the present study we investigate intra- and inter-species variability in biofilm formation of Porphyromonas gingivalis and partners Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens. All strains tested showed similar hydrophobicity, except for P. gingivalis W83 which has roughly half of the hydrophobicity of P. gingivalis ATCC33277. An intraspecies variability in coaggregation of P. gingivalis with P. intermedia was also found. The association P. gingivalis W83/P. intermedia 17 produced the thickest biofilm and strain 17 was prevalent. In a two-compartment system P. gingivalis W83 stimulates an increase in biomass of strain 17 and the latter did not stimulate the growth of P. gingivalis W83. In addition, P. gingivalis W83 also stimulates the growth of P. intermedia ATCC25611 although strain W83 was prevalent in the association with P. intermedia ATCC25611. P. gingivalis ATCC33277 was prevalent in both associations with P. intermedia and both strains of P. intermedia stimulate the growth of P. gingivalis ATCC33277. FISH images also showed variability in biofilm structure. Thus, the outcome of the association P. gingivalis/P. intermedia seems to be strain-dependent, and both soluble factors and physical contact are relevant. The association P. gingivalis-P. nigrescens ATCC33563 produced larger biomass than each monotypic biofilm, and P. gingivalis was favored in consortia, while no differences were found in the two-compartment system. Therefore, in consortia P. gingivalis-P. nigrescens physical contact seems to favor P. gingivalis growth. The intraspecies variability found in our study suggests strain-dependence in ability of microorganisms to recognize molecules in other bacteria which may further elucidate the dysbiosis event during periodontitis development giving additional explanation for periodontal bacteria, such as P

  8. Intraspecies Variability Affects Heterotypic Biofilms of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia: Evidences of Strain-Dependence Biofilm Modulation by Physical Contact and by Released Soluble Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Graziela Murta; Colombo, Andrea Vieira; Rodrigues, Paulo Henrique; Simionato, Maria Regina Lorenzetti

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that strain and virulence diversity exist within the population structure of Porphyromonas gingivalis. In the present study we investigate intra- and inter-species variability in biofilm formation of Porphyromonas gingivalis and partners Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens. All strains tested showed similar hydrophobicity, except for P. gingivalis W83 which has roughly half of the hydrophobicity of P. gingivalis ATCC33277. An intraspecies variability in coaggregation of P. gingivalis with P. intermedia was also found. The association P. gingivalis W83/P. intermedia 17 produced the thickest biofilm and strain 17 was prevalent. In a two-compartment system P. gingivalis W83 stimulates an increase in biomass of strain 17 and the latter did not stimulate the growth of P. gingivalis W83. In addition, P. gingivalis W83 also stimulates the growth of P. intermedia ATCC25611 although strain W83 was prevalent in the association with P. intermedia ATCC25611. P. gingivalis ATCC33277 was prevalent in both associations with P. intermedia and both strains of P. intermedia stimulate the growth of P. gingivalis ATCC33277. FISH images also showed variability in biofilm structure. Thus, the outcome of the association P. gingivalis/P. intermedia seems to be strain-dependent, and both soluble factors and physical contact are relevant. The association P. gingivalis-P. nigrescens ATCC33563 produced larger biomass than each monotypic biofilm, and P. gingivalis was favored in consortia, while no differences were found in the two-compartment system. Therefore, in consortia P. gingivalis-P. nigrescens physical contact seems to favor P. gingivalis growth. The intraspecies variability found in our study suggests strain-dependence in ability of microorganisms to recognize molecules in other bacteria which may further elucidate the dysbiosis event during periodontitis development giving additional explanation for periodontal bacteria, such as P. gingivalis and P

  9. A Preliminary Study of the Effects of pH upon Fluorescence in Suspensions of Prevotella intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Christopher K; Billingsley, Karen; de Josselin de Jong, Elbert; Higham, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    The quantification of fluorescence in dental plaque is currently being developed as a diagnostic tool to help inform and improve oral health. The oral anaerobe Prevotella intermedia exhibits red fluorescence due to the accumulation of porphyrins. pH affects the fluorescence of abiotic preparations of porphyrins caused by changes in speciation between monomers, higher aggregates and dimers, but this phenomenon has not been demonstrated in bacteria. Fluorescence spectra were obtained from suspensions of P. intermedia that were adjusted to pHs commensurate with the range found within dental plaque. Two fluorescent motifs were identified; 410 nm excitation / 634 nm emission (peak A) and 398 nm excitation / 622 nm emission (peak B). A transition in the fluorescence spectra was observed from peak A to peak B with increasing pH which was also evident as culture age increased from 24 hours to 96 hours. In addition to these 'blue-shifts', the intensity of peak A increased with pH whilst decreasing with culture age from 24 to 96 hours. A bacterium's relationship with the local physiochemical environment at the time of image capture may therefore affect the quantification of dental plaque fluorescence.

  10. Detection of Porphyromonas endodontalis, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia in primary endodontic infections in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, H; Qi, Z; Jiang, H; Zhao, J; Liu, Z; Tang, Z

    2012-08-01

    To assess the prevalence of three black-pigmented bacterial species (Porphyromonas endodontalis, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia) using microarray technology in root canals of teeth associated with primary endodontic infections in a Chinese population. Microbial samples were taken from root canals of 80 teeth with pulp necrosis and primary endodontic infections in a Chinese population. DNA extracted from the samples was amplified by PCR with universal bacterial primers based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, and the products hybridized with the microarrays in which the specific oligonucleotide probes were added. The results of hybridization were screened by a confocal laser scanner. Pearson chi-square test and the two-sided Fisher exact test were used to analyse whether a significant association existed between the species and symptoms as well as in co-existence of two target organisms by a statistical software package (SAS 8.02). The 16S rRNA gene microarray detected at least one of the three test species in 76% of the study teeth. P. endodontalis, P. gingivalis and P. intermedia were found in 50%, 33% and 45%, respectively. A significant association was found in the presence of the pair P. endodontalis / P. gingivalis (P endodontalis (P endodontalis and P. gingivalis was also associated with the presence of a sinus tract (Pendodontalis were associated with the presence of sinus tract and abscess formation. © 2012 International Endodontic Journal.

  11. Prevotella intermedia stimulates tissue-type plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 expression via multiple signaling pathways in human periodontal ligament cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Su-Min; He, Jian-Jun; Zhang, Ming; Shu, Lei

    2011-06-01

    Prevotella intermedia is an important periodontal pathogen that induces various inflammatory and immune responses. In this study, we investigated the effects of P. intermedia on the plasminogen system in human periodontal ligament (hPDL) cells and explored the signaling pathways involved. Using semi-quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and quantitative real-time RT-qPCR, we demonstrated that P. intermedia challenge increased tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-2 expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, but exerted no influence on urokinase-type plasminogen activator and PAI-1mRNA expression in hPDL cells. Prevotella intermedia stimulation also enhanced tPA protein secretion as confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Western blot results revealed that P. intermedia treatment increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 kinase (p38). ERK, JNK and protein kinase C inhibitors significantly attenuated the P. intermedia-induced tPA and PAI-2 expression. Furthermore, p38 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors markedly decreased PAI-2 expression, whereas they showed no or little inhibition on tPA expression. In contrast, inhibition of protein kinase A greatly enhanced the upregulatory effect of P. intermedia on tPA and PAI-2 expression. Our results suggest that P. intermedia may contribute to periodontal tissue destruction by upregulating tPA and PAI-2 expression in hPDL cells via multiple signaling pathways. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The complete genome sequencing of Prevotella intermedia strain OMA14 and a subsequent fine-scale, intra-species genomic comparison reveal an unusual amplification of conjugative and mobile transposons and identify a novel Prevotella-lineage-specific repeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Mariko; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Itoh, Takehiko; Shoji, Mikio; Okamoto, Masaaki; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Nakayama, Koji

    2016-02-01

    Prevotella intermedia is a pathogenic bacterium involved in periodontal diseases. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of a clinical strain, OMA14, of this bacterium along with the results of comparative genome analysis with strain 17 of the same species whose genome has also been sequenced, but not fully analysed yet. The genomes of both strains consist of two circular chromosomes: the larger chromosomes are similar in size and exhibit a high overall linearity of gene organizations, whereas the smaller chromosomes show a significant size variation and have undergone remarkable genome rearrangements. Unique features of the Pre. intermedia genomes are the presence of a remarkable number of essential genes on the second chromosomes and the abundance of conjugative and mobilizable transposons (CTns and MTns). The CTns/MTns are particularly abundant in the second chromosomes, involved in its extensive genome rearrangement, and have introduced a number of strain-specific genes into each strain. We also found a novel 188-bp repeat sequence that has been highly amplified in Pre. intermedia and are specifically distributed among the Pre. intermedia-related species. These findings expand our understanding of the genetic features of Pre. intermedia and the roles of CTns and MTns in the evolution of bacteria. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  13. Acquisition of complement inhibitor serine protease factor I and its cofactors C4b-binding protein and factor H by Prevotella intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm, Sven; Jusko, Monika; Eick, Sigrun; Potempa, Jan; Riesbeck, Kristian; Blom, Anna M

    2012-01-01

    Infection with the Gram-negative pathogen Prevotella intermedia gives rise to periodontitis and a growing number of studies implies an association of P. intermedia with rheumatoid arthritis. The serine protease Factor I (FI) is the central inhibitor of complement degrading complement components C3b and C4b in the presence of cofactors such as C4b-binding protein (C4BP) and Factor H (FH). Yet, the significance of complement inhibitor acquisition in P. intermedia infection and FI binding by Gram-negative pathogens has not been addressed. Here we show that P. intermedia isolates bound purified FI as well as FI directly from heat-inactivated human serum. FI bound to bacteria retained its serine protease activity as shown in degradation experiments with (125)I-labeled C4b. Since FI requires cofactors for its activity we also investigated the binding of purified cofactors C4BP and FH and found acquisition of both proteins, which retained their activity in FI mediated degradation of C3b and C4b. We propose that FI binding by P. intermedia represents a new mechanism contributing to complement evasion by a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen associated with chronic diseases.

  14. Relative contribution of Prevotella intermedia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to lung pathology in airways of patients with cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Martina; Beer, Isabelle; Braitmaier, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) with Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections produce endobronchial mucus plugs allowing growth of obligate anaerobes including Prevotella spp. Whether obligate anaerobes contribute to the pathophysiology of CF lung disease is unknown....

  15. Interaction of Prevotella intermedia strain 17 leucine-rich repeat domain protein AdpF with eukaryotic cells promotes bacterial internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Dipanwita; Kang, Dae-Joong; Anaya-Bergman, Cecilia; Wyant, Tiana; Ghosh, Arnab K; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Lewis, Janina P

    2014-06-01

    Prevotella intermedia is an oral bacterium implicated in a variety of oral diseases. Although internalization of this bacterium by nonphagocytic host cells is well established, the molecular players mediating the process are not well known. Here, the properties of a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain protein, designated AdpF, are described. This protein contains a leucine-rich region composed of 663 amino acid residues, and molecular modeling shows that it folds into a classical curved solenoid structure. The cell surface localization of recombinant AdpF (rAdpF) was confirmed by electron and confocal microscopy analyses. The recombinant form of this protein bound fibronectin in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the protein was internalized by host cells, with the majority of the process accomplished within 30 min. The internalization of rAdpF was inhibited by nystatin, cytochalasin, latrunculin, nocodazole, and wortmannin, indicating that microtubules, microfilaments, and signal transduction are required for the invasion. It is noteworthy that preincubation of eukaryotic cells with AdpF increased P. intermedia 17 internalization by 5- and 10-fold for HeLa and NIH 3T3 fibroblast cell lines, respectively. The addition of the rAdpF protein was also very effective in inducing bacterial internalization into the oral epithelial cell line HN4, as well as into primary cells, including human oral keratinocytes (HOKs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Finally, cells exposed to P. intermedia 17 internalized the bacteria more readily upon reinfection. Taken together, our data demonstrate that rAdpF plays a role in the internalization of P. intermedia 17 by a variety of host cells.

  16. Evaluation of anti-microbial activity of spore powder of Ganoderma lucidum on clinical isolates of Prevotella intermedia: A pilot study

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    Ranganath N Nayak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed at evaluating the anti-microbial activity of spore powder of Ganoderma lucidum on Prevotella intermedia isolated from subgingival plaque from chronic periodontitis patients. Settings and Design: Written informed consent was obtained from each subject enrolled in the study. The Institutional Ethics Committee granted the ethical clearance for the study. Materials and Methods: This study included 20 patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis. Pooled subgingival plaque samples were collected using sterile curettes from the deepest sites of periodontal pockets. The collected samples were then transported in 1 mL of reduced transport fluid. The organisms were cultured and confirmed. These organisms were then used for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC procedure. Statistical Analysis: Mean of the MIC value obtained was calculated. Results: Thirteen out of the 20 clinical samples were tested that showed sensitivity at various concentrations. Five samples showed sensitivity at all concentrations. Twelve samples showed sensitivity at 8 mcg/ml. Eleven samples showed sensitivity at 4 mcg/ml, 8 samples showed sensitivity at 2 mcg/ml, and 5 samples showed sensitivity even at 1 mcg/ml. Mean MIC value of G. lucidum spore powder for P. intermedia obtained was 3.62 mcg/ml. Conclusion: G. lucidum with its multipotential bioactivity could be used as an anti-microbial, in conjunction with conventional therapy in periodontal disease.

  17. Human dental stem cells suppress PMN activity after infection with the periodontopathogens Prevotella intermedia and Tannerella forsythia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieke, Cathleen; Kriebel, Katja; Engelmann, Robby; Müller-Hilke, Brigitte; Lang, Hermann; Kreikemeyer, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Periodontitis is characterized by inflammation associated with the colonization of different oral pathogens. We here aimed to investigate how bacteria and host cells shape their environment in order to limit inflammation and tissue damage in the presence of the pathogen. Human dental follicle stem cells (hDFSCs) were co-cultured with gram-negative P. intermedia and T. forsythia and were quantified for adherence and internalization as well as migration and interleukin secretion. To delineate hDFSC-specific effects, gingival epithelial cells (Ca9-22) were used as controls. Direct effects of hDFSCs on neutrophils (PMN) after interaction with bacteria were analyzed via chemotactic attraction, phagocytic activity and NET formation. We show that P. intermedia and T. forsythia adhere to and internalize into hDFSCs. This infection decreased the migratory capacity of the hDFSCs by 50%, did not disturb hDFSC differentiation potential and provoked an increase in IL-6 and IL-8 secretion while leaving IL-10 levels unaltered. These environmental modulations correlated with reduced PMN chemotaxis, phagocytic activity and NET formation. Our results suggest that P. intermedia and T. forsythia infected hDFSCs maintain their stem cell functionality, reduce PMN-induced tissue and bone degradation via suppression of PMN-activity, and at the same time allow for the survival of the oral pathogens. PMID:27974831

  18. Progression of periodontal inflammation in adolescents is associated with increased number of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Tannerella forsythensis, and Fusobacterium nucleatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ning-Yan; Zhang, Quan; Li, Jin-Lu; Yang, Sheng-Hui; Shi, Qing

    2014-05-01

    The study aims to evaluate the change of related subgingival periodontopathogens among different stage of gingivitis in adolescent and assess the relationship between periodontopathogens and the progression of periodontal inflammation. A total of 77 subgingival plaque samples from 35 adolescent individuals were divided into three groups including gingivitis group (mild, 15 samples; moderate, 16 samples; severe, 15 samples), chronic periodontitis group (15 samples) and healthy group (15 samples). Real-time PCR was used to quantitate Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Tannerella forsythensis, and Fusobacterium nucleatum in subgingival plaque samples. All species, except for F. nucleatum, were detected in samples from gingivitis and periodontitis groups in significantly greater number than in those from healthy group (P periodontitis group in significantly greater number than in those from moderate-to-severe gingivitis group (P periodontal inflammation in adolescents. Examination of periodontopathogens number in adolescents may be of some value for monitoring of periodontal disease development. © 2013 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Association of Distinct Fine Specificities of Anti-Citrullinated Peptide Antibodies With Elevated Immune Responses to Prevotella intermedia in a Subgroup of Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis and Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenzer, Anja; Quirke, Anne-Marie; Marzeda, Anna M; Wong, Alicia; Montgomery, Anna B; Sayles, Harlan R; Eick, Sigrun; Gawron, Katarzyna; Chomyszyn-Gajewska, Maria; Łazarz-Bartyzel, Katarzyna; Davis, Simon; Potempa, Jan; Kessler, Benedikt M; Fischer, Roman; Venables, Patrick J; Payne, Jeffrey B; Mikuls, Ted R; Midwood, Kim S

    2017-12-01

    In addition to the long-established link with smoking, periodontitis (PD) is a risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study was undertaken to elucidate the mechanism by which PD could induce antibodies to citrullinated peptides (ACPAs), by examining the antibody response to a novel citrullinated peptide of cytokeratin 13 (CK-13) identified in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), and comparing the response to 4 other citrullinated peptides in patients with RA who were well-characterized for PD and smoking. The citrullinomes of GCF and periodontal tissue from patients with PD were mapped by mass spectrometry. ACPAs of CK13 (cCK13), tenascin-C (cTNC5), vimentin (cVIM), α-enolase (CEP-1), and fibrinogen β (cFIBβ) were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in patients with RA (n = 287) and patients with osteoarthritis (n = 330), and cross-reactivity was assessed by inhibition assays. A novel citrullinated peptide cCK13-1 ( 444 TSNASGR-Cit-TSDV-Cit-RP 458 ) identified in GCF exhibited elevated antibody responses in RA patients (24%). Anti-cCK13-1 antibody levels correlated with anti-cTNC5 antibody levels, and absorption experiments confirmed this was not due to cross-reactivity. Only anti-cCK13-1 and anti-cTNC5 were associated with antibodies to the periodontal pathogen Prevotella intermedia (P = 0.05 and P = 0.001, respectively), but not with antibodies to Porphyromonas gingivalis arginine gingipains. Levels of antibodies to CEP-1, cFIBβ, and cVIM correlated with each other, and with smoking and shared epitope risk factors in RA. This study identifies 2 groups of ACPA fine specificities associated with different RA risk factors. One is predominantly linked to smoking and shared epitope, and the other links anti-cTNC5 and cCK13-1 to infection with the periodontal pathogen P intermedia. © 2017 The Authors. Arthritis & Rheumatology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Rheumatology.

  20. Evidence of mutualism between two periodontal pathogens: co-operative haem acquisition by the HmuY haemophore of Porphyromonas gingivalis and the cysteine protease interpain A (InpA) of Prevotella intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, D P; Potempa, J; Olczak, T; Smalley, J W

    2013-06-01

    Haem (iron protoporphyrin IX) is both an essential growth factor and a virulence regulator of the periodontal pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia, which acquire it through the proteolytic degradation of haemoglobin and other haem-carrying plasma proteins. The haem-binding lipoprotein HmuY haemophore and the gingipain proteases of P. gingivalis form a unique synthrophic system responsible for capture of haem from haemoglobin and methaemalbumin. In this system, methaemoglobin is formed from oxyhaemoglobin by the activities of gingipain proteases and serves as a facile substrate from which HmuY can capture haem. This study examined the possibility of cooperation between HmuY and the cysteine protease interpain A (InpA) of Pr. intermedia in the haem acquisition process. Using UV-visible spectroscopy and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, HmuY was demonstrated to be resistant to proteolysis and so able to cooperate with InpA to extract haem from haemoglobin, which was proteolytically converted to methaemoglobin by the protease. Spectroscopic pH titrations showed that both the iron(II) and iron(III) protoporphyrin IX-HmuY complexes were stable over the pH range 4-10, demonstrating that the haemophore could function over a range of pH that may be encountered in the dental plaque biofilm. This is the first demonstration of a bacterial haemophore working in conjunction with a protease from another bacterial species to acquire haem from haemoglobin and may represent mutualism between P. gingivalis and Pr. intermedia co-inhabiting the periodontal pocket. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Synergy in biofilm formation between Fusobacterium nucleatum and Prevotella species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Tamaki; Kokubu, Eitoyo; Kawana, Tomoko; Saito, Atsushi; Okuda, Katsuji; Ishihara, Kazuyuki

    2012-02-01

    The formation of biofilm by anaerobic, Gram-negative bacteria in the subgingival crevice plays an important role in the development of chronic periodontitis. The aim of this study was to characterize the role of coaggregation between Fusobacterium nucleatum and Prevotella species in biofilm formation. Coaggregation between F. nucleatum and Prevotella species was determined by visual assay. Effect of co-culture of the species on biofilm formation was assessed by crystal violet staining. Effect of soluble factor on biofilm formation was also examined using culture supernatant and two-compartment co-culture separated by a porous membrane. Production of autoinducer-2 (AI-2) by the organisms was evaluated using Vibrio harveyi BB170. Cells of all F. nucleatum strains coaggregated with Prevotella intermedia or Prevotella nigrescens with a score of 1-4. Addition of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid or l-lysine inhibited coaggregation. Coaggregation disappeared after heating of P. intermedia or P. nigrescens cells, or Proteinase K treatment of P. nigrescens cells. Co-culture of F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 with P. intermedia or P. nigrescens strains increased biofilm formation compared with single culture (p culture with culture supernatant of these strains, however, did not enhance biofilm formation by F. nucleatum. Production of AI-2 in Prevotella species was not related to enhancement of biofilm formation by F. nucleatum. These findings indicate that physical contact by coaggregation of F. nucleatum strains with P. intermedia or P. nigrescens plays a key role in the formation of biofilm by these strains. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. SIRT2 ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ae Sin; Jung, Yu Jin; Kim, Dal; Nguyen-Thanh, Tung; Kang, Kyung Pyo; Lee, Sik; Park, Sung Kwang; Kim, Won

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Knockout of SIRT2 attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS expression. • Lipopolysaccharide-induced NO production is decreased in SIRT2 KO macrophage. • SIRT2 deficiency suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced ROS production in macrophage. • M1-macrophage related factors are decreased in SIRT2 deficient cells. • SIRT2 deficiency decreases lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of NFκB. - Abstract: Introduction: SIRT2 is a NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases and associated with numerous processes such as infection, carcinogenesis, DNA damage and cell cycle regulation. However, the role of SIRT2 in inflammatory process in macrophage remains unclear. Materials and methods: In the present study, we have evaluated the regulatory effects of SIRT2 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages isolated from SIRT2 knockout (KO) and wild type (WT) mice or Raw264.7 macrophage cells. As inflammatory parameters, expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), the productions of nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and M1-macrophage-related factors were evaluated. We also examined the effects of SIRT2 on activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NFκB) signaling. Results: SIRT2 deficiency inhibits LPS-induced iNOS mRNA and protein expression in bone marrow derived macrophages. SIRT2-siRNA transfection also suppressed LPS-induced iNOS expression in Raw264.7 macrophage cells. Bone marrow derived macrophages isolated from SIRT2 KO mice produced lower nitric oxide and expressed lower levels of M1-macrophage related markers including iNOS and CD86 in response to LPS than WT mice. Decrease of SIRT2 reduced the LPS-induced reactive oxygen species production. Deficiency of SIRT2 resulted in inhibition of NFκB activation through reducing the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα. The phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of p65 was significantly decreased in SIRT2-deficient macrophages after LPS stimulation. Discussion: Our data suggested that

  3. SIRT2 ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ae Sin; Jung, Yu Jin; Kim, Dal; Nguyen-Thanh, Tung [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Kyung Pyo [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Chonbuk National University, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sik [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sung Kwang [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Chonbuk National University, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Won, E-mail: kwon@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Chonbuk National University, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • Knockout of SIRT2 attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS expression. • Lipopolysaccharide-induced NO production is decreased in SIRT2 KO macrophage. • SIRT2 deficiency suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced ROS production in macrophage. • M1-macrophage related factors are decreased in SIRT2 deficient cells. • SIRT2 deficiency decreases lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of NFκB. - Abstract: Introduction: SIRT2 is a NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases and associated with numerous processes such as infection, carcinogenesis, DNA damage and cell cycle regulation. However, the role of SIRT2 in inflammatory process in macrophage remains unclear. Materials and methods: In the present study, we have evaluated the regulatory effects of SIRT2 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages isolated from SIRT2 knockout (KO) and wild type (WT) mice or Raw264.7 macrophage cells. As inflammatory parameters, expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), the productions of nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and M1-macrophage-related factors were evaluated. We also examined the effects of SIRT2 on activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NFκB) signaling. Results: SIRT2 deficiency inhibits LPS-induced iNOS mRNA and protein expression in bone marrow derived macrophages. SIRT2-siRNA transfection also suppressed LPS-induced iNOS expression in Raw264.7 macrophage cells. Bone marrow derived macrophages isolated from SIRT2 KO mice produced lower nitric oxide and expressed lower levels of M1-macrophage related markers including iNOS and CD86 in response to LPS than WT mice. Decrease of SIRT2 reduced the LPS-induced reactive oxygen species production. Deficiency of SIRT2 resulted in inhibition of NFκB activation through reducing the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα. The phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of p65 was significantly decreased in SIRT2-deficient macrophages after LPS stimulation. Discussion: Our data suggested that

  4. Phylogeny of Bacteroides, Prevotella, and Porphyromonas spp. and related bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paster, B J; Dewhirst, F E; Olsen, I; Fraser, G J

    1994-01-01

    The phylogenetic structure of the bacteroides subgroup of the cytophaga-flavobacter-bacteroides (CFB) phylum was examined by 16S rRNA sequence comparative analysis. Approximately 95% of the 16S rRNA sequence was determined for 36 representative strains of species of Prevotella, Bacteroides, and Porphyromonas and related species by a modified Sanger sequencing method. A phylogenetic tree was constructed from a corrected distance matrix by the neighbor-joining method, and the reliability of tree branching was established by bootstrap analysis. The bacteroides subgroup was divided primarily into three major phylogenetic clusters which contained most of the species examined. The first cluster, termed the prevotella cluster, was composed of 16 species of Prevotella, including P. melaninogenica, P. intermedia, P. nigrescens, and the ruminal species P. ruminicola. Two oral species, P. zoogleoformans and P. heparinolytica, which had been recently placed in the genus Prevotella, did not fall within the prevotella cluster. These two species and six species of Bacteroides, including the type species B. fragilis, formed the second cluster, termed the bacteroides cluster. The third cluster, termed the porphyromonas cluster, was divided into two subclusters. The first contained Porphyromonas gingivalis, P. endodontalis, P. asaccharolytica, P. circumdentaria, P. salivosa, [Bacteroides] levii (the brackets around genus are used to indicate that the species does not belong to the genus by the sensu stricto definition), and [Bacteroides] macacae, and the second subcluster contained [Bacteroides] forsythus and [Bacteroides] distasonis. [Bacteroides] splanchnicus fell just outside the three major clusters but still belonged within the bacteroides subgroup. With few exceptions, the 16 S rRNA data were in overall agreement with previously proposed reclassifications of species of Bacteroides, Prevotella, and Porphyromonas. Suggestions are made to accommodate those species which do not

  5. Presence of Porphyromonas and Prevotella species in the oral microflora of cattle with periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Borsanelli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstratc: Bovine periodontitis is a progressive purulent infectious process associated with the presence of strictly and facultative anaerobic subgingival biofilm and epidemiologically related to soil management in large geographic areas of Brazil. This study aimed to detect species of the genera Porphyromonas and Prevotella, which occurr in periodontal pockets of cattle with lesions deeper than 5mm (n=26 and in gingival sulcus of animals considered periodontally healthy (n=25. Presence of the microorganisms was evaluated by independent-culture medium diagnostic method, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR with specific primers of Porphyromonas asaccharolytica, P. endodontalis, P. gingivalis, P. gulae, Prevotella buccae, P. intermedia, P. loescheii, P. melaninogenica, P. nigrescens, P. oralis and P. tannerae. The species P. endodontalis (80.7%, P. melaninogenica (73.1% and P. intermedia (61.5% were the most predominant in samples of cattle with periodontitis. Regarding non-injured gingival sulcus of cattle, P. endodontalis (40% and P. loeschei (40% prevailed. Porphyromonas gingivalis, P. gulae and Prevotella tannerae were not detected in the 51 samples studied. Data evaluation by T test, enabled to verify that ocorrence of Porphyromonas asaccharolytica (p=0.000003, P. endodontalis (p=0.0023, Prevotella buccae (p=0.0017, P. intermedia (p=0.0020, P. melaninogenica (p=0.00006 and P. oralis (p=0.0028 is correlated with bovine periodontitis.

  6. The Educational Uses of Intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launhardt, Julie; Kahn, Paul

    1992-01-01

    Uses of Intermedia, computer software designed to help instructors express relationships between concepts in the sciences and humanities, are discussed. The kinds of educational problems Intermedia was intended to address are described, some materials created using it are surveyed, and experiences with Intermedia in various educational contexts…

  7. Ramalina intermedia in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segal, S.

    1968-01-01

    The lichen Ramalina intermedia Del. apud Lamy was found near Apeldoorn on a decayed wall of an old castle in the possession of the Royal family. The wall, rising up from the castle moat, dates from the 16th century, but remained covered with soil for several centuries after the moat had been filled

  8. Circaea intermedia Ehrh. bij Winterswijk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weeda, E.J.

    1980-01-01

    Circaea intermedia, collected twice in southern Limburg (1897, 1939) and once near Winterswijk in the east of Gelderland (1940), was refound at the latter locality in 1979. The vegetation in which it occurs is shown by means of a relevé. The population of C. intermedia appears to form a clone, which

  9. [Current management of thalassemia intermedia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuret, I

    2014-11-01

    Thalassemia intermedia is a clinical entity where anemia is mild or moderate, requiring no or occasional transfusion. Non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia encompasses 3 main clinical forms: beta-thalassemia intermedia, hemoglobin E/beta-thalassemia and alpha-thalassemia intermedia (HbH disease). Clinical severity of thalassemia intermedia increases with age, with more severe anemia and more frequent complications such as extramedullary hematopoiesis and iron overload mainly related to increased intestinal absorption. Numerous adverse events including pulmonary hypertension and hypercoagulability have been associated with splenectomy, often performed in thalassemia intermedia patients. The potential preventive benefit of transfusion and chelation therapies on the occurrence of numerous complications supports the strategy of an earlier therapeutic intervention. Increasing knowledge about pathophysiological mechanisms involved in thalassemia erythropoiesis and related iron overload is currently translating in novel therapeutic approaches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Inhibitory Effects of Lactoferrin on Growth and Biofilm Formation of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Hiroyuki; Yamauchi, Koji; Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Yaeshima, Tomoko; Iwatsuki, Keiji; Yoshie, Hiromasa

    2009-01-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is an iron-binding antimicrobial protein present in saliva and gingival crevicular fluids, and it is possibly associated with host defense against oral pathogens, including periodontopathic bacteria. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro effects of LF-related agents on the growth and biofilm formation of two periodontopathic bacteria, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia, which reside as biofilms in the subgingival plaque. The planktonic growth of P. gingivalis and P. intermedia was suppressed for up to 5 h by incubation with ≥130 μg/ml of human LF (hLF), iron-free and iron-saturated bovine LF (apo-bLF and holo-bLF, respectively), and ≥6 μg/ml of bLF-derived antimicrobial peptide lactoferricin B (LFcin B); but those effects were weak after 8 h. The biofilm formation of P. gingivalis and P. intermedia over 24 h was effectively inhibited by lower concentrations (≥8 μg/ml) of various iron-bound forms (the apo, native, and holo forms) of bLF and hLF but not LFcin B. A preformed biofilm of P. gingivalis and P. intermedia was also reduced by incubation with various iron-bound bLFs, hLF, and LFcin B for 5 h. In an examination of the effectiveness of native bLF when it was used in combination with four antibiotics, it was found that treatment with ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, and minocycline in combination with native bLF for 24 h reduced the amount of a preformed biofilm of P. gingivalis compared with the level of reduction achieved with each agent alone. These results demonstrate the antibiofilm activity of LF with lower iron dependency against P. gingivalis and P. intermedia and the potential usefulness of LF for the prevention and treatment of periodontal diseases and as adjunct therapy for periodontal diseases. PMID:19451301

  11. Reactive oxygen species are involved in lipopolysaccharide-induced intrauterine growth restriction and skeletal development retardation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, De-Xiang; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Hua; Wei, Wei

    2006-12-01

    Maternal infection is a cause of adverse developmental outcomes including embryonic resorption, intrauterine fetal death, and preterm labor. Lipopolysaccharide-induced developmental toxicity at early gestational stages has been well characterized. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of maternal lipopolysaccharide exposure at late gestational stages on intrauterine fetal growth and skeletal development and to assess the potential role of reactive oxygen species in lipopolysaccharide-induced intrauterine fetal growth restriction and skeletal development retardation. The timed pregnant CD-1 mice were intraperitoneally injected with lipopolysaccharide (25 to 75 microg/kg per day) on gestational day 15 to 17. To investigate the role of reactive oxygen species on lipopolysaccharide-induced intrauterine fetal growth restriction and skeletal development retardation, the pregnant mice were injected with alpha-phenyl-N-t-butylnitrone (100 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) at 30 minutes before lipopolysaccharide (75 microg/kg per day, intraperitoneally), followed by an additional dose of alpha-phenyl-N-t-butylnitrone (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) at 3 hours after lipopolysaccharide. The number of live fetuses, dead fetuses, and resorption sites was counted on gestational day 18. Live fetuses in each litter were weighed. Crown-rump and tail lengths were examined and skeletal development was evaluated. Maternal lipopolysaccharide exposure significantly increased fetal mortality, reduced fetal weight and crown-rump and tail lengths of live fetuses, and retarded skeletal ossification in caudal vertebrae, anterior and posterior phalanges, and supraoccipital bone in a dose-dependent manner. Alpha-phenyl-N-t-butylnitrone, a free radical spin-trapping agent, almost completely blocked lipopolysaccharide-induced fetal death (63.2% in lipopolysaccharide group versus 6.5% in alpha-phenyl-N-t-butylnitrone + lipopolysaccharide group, P intrauterine growth restriction

  12. THALASSAEMIA INTERMEDIA : AN UPDATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Taher

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the molecular and pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the disease process in patients with thalassaemia intermedia (TI has substantially increased over the past decade. TI encompasses a wide clinical spectrum of beta-thalassaemia phenotypes. Some TI patients are asymptomatic until adult life, whereas others are symptomatic from as young as 2 years of age. A number of clinical complications commonly associated with TI are rarely seen in thalassaemia major, including extramedullary hematopoiesis, leg ulcers, gallstones, thrombosis and pulmonary hypertension. There are a number of options currently available for managing patients with TI, including transfusion therapy, iron chelation therapy, modulation of foetal haemoglobin production and haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. However, at present, there are no clear guidelines for an orchestrated optimal treatment plan.

  13. Evaluating the effect of local pH on fluorescence emissions from oral bacteria of the genus Prevotella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Christopher K.; Higham, Susan M.

    2016-08-01

    A number of anaerobic oral bacteria, notably Prevotellaceae, exhibit red fluorescence when excited by short-wavelength visible light due to their accumulation of porphyrins, particularly protoporphyrin IX. pH affects the fluorescence of abiotic preparations of porphyrins due to transformations in speciation between monomers, higher aggregates, and dimers. To elucidate whether the porphyrin speciation phenomenon could be manifested within a microbiological system, suspensions of Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens were examined by fluorescence spectrophotometry while being titrated against NaOH. The initial pH of the samples was oral cavity could affect the fluorescence of oral bacteria in vivo, which may in turn have connotations for any clinical diagnoses that may be inferred from dental plaque fluorescence.

  14. Prevotella timonensis sp. nov., isolated from a human breast abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazunova, Olga O; Launay, Thierry; Raoult, Didier; Roux, Véronique

    2007-04-01

    Gram-negative anaerobic rods were isolated from a human breast abscess. Based on genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, the novel strain belonged to the genus Prevotella. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons showed that it was closely related to Prevotella buccalis (94 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Prevotella salivae (90 %) and Prevotella oris (89.1 %). The major cellular fatty acid was C(14 : 0) (19.5 %). The new isolate represents a novel species in the genus Prevotella, for which the name Prevotella timonensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain 4401737(T) (=CIP 108522(T)=CCUG 50105(T)).

  15. THALASSAEMIA INTERMEDIA : AN UPDATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Domenica Cappellini

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Our understanding of the molecular and pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the disease process in patients with thalassaemia intermedia (TI has substantially increased over the past decade. TI encompasses a wide clinical spectrum of beta-thalassaemia phenotypes. Some TI patients are asymptomatic until adult life, whereas others are symptomatic from as young as 2 years of age. A number of clinical complications commonly associated with TI are rarely seen in thalassaemia major, including extramedullary hematopoiesis, leg ulcers, gallstones, thrombosis and pulmonary hypertension. There are a number of options currently available for managing patients with TI, including transfusion therapy, iron chelation therapy, modulation of foetal haemoglobin production and haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. However, at present, there are no clear guidelines for an orchestrated optimal treatment plan.

  16. [Ecology suitability study of Ephedra intermedia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Hui; Lu, You-Yuan; Huang, De-Dong; Zhu, Tian-Tian; Lv, Pei-Lin; Jin, Ling

    2017-06-01

    The study aims at predicting ecological suitability of Ephedra intermedia in China by using maximum entropy Maxent model combined with GIS, and finding the main ecological factors affecting the distribution of E. intermedia suitability in appropriate growth area. Thirty-eight collected samples of E. intermedia and E. intermedia and 116 distribution information from CVH information using ArcGIS technology were analyzed. MaxEnt model was applied to forecast the E. intermedia in our country's ecology. E. intermedia MaxEnt ROC curve model training data and testing data sets the AUC value was 0.986 and 0.958, respectively, which were greater than 0.9, tending to be 1.The calculated E. intermedia habitat suitability by the model showed a high accuracy and credibility, which indicated that MaxEnt model could well predict the potential distribution area of E. intermedia in China. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  17. Murine P-glycoprotein deficiency alters intestinal injury repair and blunts lipopolysaccharide-induced radioprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Elizabeth M; Yarbrough, Vanisha R; Schoeb, Trenton R; Daft, Joseph G; Tanner, Scott M; Steverson, Dennis; Lorenz, Robin G

    2012-09-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) has been reported to increase stem cell proliferation and regulate apoptosis. Absence of P-gp results in decreased repair of intestinal epithelial cells after chemical injury. To further explore the mechanisms involved in the effects of P-gp on intestinal injury and repair, we used the well-characterized radiation injury model. In this model, injury repair is mediated by production of prostaglandins (PGE(2)) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been shown to confer radioprotection. B6.mdr1a(-/-) mice and wild-type controls were subjected to 12 Gy total body X-ray irradiation and surviving crypts in the proximal jejunum and distal colon were evaluated 3.5 days after irradiation. B6.mdr1a(-/-) mice exhibited normal baseline stem cell proliferation and COX dependent crypt regeneration after irradiation. However, radiation induced apoptosis was increased and LPS-induced radioprotection was blunted in the C57BL6.mdr1a(-/-) distal colon, compared to B6 wild-type controls. The LPS treatment induced gene expression of the radioprotective cytokine IL-1α, in B6 wild-type controls but not in B6.mdr1a(-/-) animals. Lipopolysaccharid-induced radioprotection was absent in IL-1R1(-/-) animals, indicating a role for IL-1α in radioprotection, and demonstrating that P-gp deficiency interferes with IL-1α gene expression in response to systemic exposure to LPS.

  18. A novel podocyte gene, semaphorin 3G, protects glomerular podocyte from lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Ryoichi; Takemoto, Minoru; Akimoto, Yoshihiro; Ishikawa, Takahiro; He, Peng; Maezawa, Yoshiro; Sakamoto, Kenichi; Tsurutani, Yuya; Ide, Shintaro; Ide, Kana; Kawamura, Harukiyo; Kobayashi, Kazuki; Tokuyama, Hirotake; Tryggvason, Karl; Betsholtz, Christer; Yokote, Koutaro

    2016-05-16

    Kidney diseases including diabetic nephropathy have become huge medical problems, although its precise mechanisms are still far from understood. In order to increase our knowledge about the patho-physiology of kidney, we have previously identified >300 kidney glomerulus-enriched transcripts through large-scale sequencing and microarray profiling of the mouse glomerular transcriptome. One of the glomerulus-specific transcripts identified was semaphorin 3G (Sema3G) which belongs to the semaphorin family. The aim of this study was to analyze both the in vivo and in vitro functions of Sema3G in the kidney. Sema3G was expressed in glomerular podocytes. Although Sema3G knockout mice did not show obvious glomerular defects, ultrastructural analyses revealed partially aberrant podocyte foot processes structures. When these mice were injected with lipopolysaccharide to induce acute inflammation or streptozotocin to induce diabetes, the lack of Sema3G resulted in increased albuminuria. The lack of Sema3G in podocytes also enhanced the expression of inflammatory cytokines including chemokine ligand 2 and interleukin 6. On the other hand, the presence of Sema3G attenuated their expression through the inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced Toll like receptor 4 signaling. Taken together, our results surmise that the Sema3G protein is secreted by podocytes and protects podocytes from inflammatory kidney diseases and diabetic nephropathy.

  19. Paeonol attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced depressive-like behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Weiwei; Wang, Hanqing; Su, Qiang; Chen, Yanyan; Xue, Wenda; Xia, Baomei; Duan, Jinao; Chen, Gang

    2016-04-30

    The present study was designed to detect the anti-depressant effects of paeonol and the possible mechanisms in the lipopolysaccharide-induced depressive-like behavior. Open-field test(OFT), tail suspension test(TST) and forced swimming test(FST) were used to evaluate the behavioral activity. The contents of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) in mice hippocampus were determined by HPLC-ECD. Serum interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Our results showed that LPS significantly decreased the levels of 5-HT and NE in the hippocampus. LPS also reduced open-field activity, as well as increased immobility duration in FST and TST. Paeonol administration could effectively reverse the alterations in the concentrations of 5-HT, NE and reduce the IL-6 and TNF-α levels. Moreover, paeonol effectively downregulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) and Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in hippocampal. In conclusion, paeonol administration exhibited significant antidepressant-like effects in mice with LPS-induced depression. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. Prevotella bivia necrobacillosis following infectious mononucleosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huits, R.M.H.G.; van Assen, S.; Wildeboer- Veloo, Alida; Verschuuren, E.A.M.; Koeter, G.H.

    2006-01-01

    A case of Lemierre's syndrome is reported. Although Fusobacterium species are commonly associated with this presentation, Prevotella bivia was the causative micro-organism identified in this case. The finding that disseminated anaerobic sepsis followed primary EBV infection led to the construction

  1. The immune response to Prevotella bacteria in chronic inflammatory disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jeppe Madura

    2017-01-01

    the hunt for disease-modulating bacteria. Emerging studies in humans have linked the increased abundance of Prevotella species at mucosal sites to localized and systemic disease, including periodontitis, bacterial vaginosis, rheumatoid arthritis, metabolic disorders and low-grade systemic inflammation....... Intriguingly, Prevotella abundance is reduced within the lung microbiota of patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Increased Prevotella abundance is associated with augmented T helper type 17 (Th17) -mediated mucosal inflammation, which is in line with the marked capacity of Prevotella...... and various stromal cells. These findings indicate that some Prevotella strains may be clinically important pathobionts that can participate in human disease by promoting chronic inflammation....

  2. Cerium dioxide nanoparticles do not modulate the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in human monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain S

    2012-03-01

    were found either in vesicles or free in the cytoplasm. However, no significant differences in secreted cytokine profiles were observed between CeO2 nanoparticle-treated cells and control cells at noncytotoxic doses. No significant effects of CeO2 nanoparticle exposure subsequent to lipopolysaccharide priming was observed on cytokine secretion. Moreover, no significant difference in lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine production was observed after exposure to CeO2 nanoparticles followed by lipopolysaccharide exposure.Conclusion: CeO2 nanoparticles at noncytotoxic concentrations neither modulate pre-existing inflammation nor prime for subsequent exposure to lipopolysaccharides in human monocytes from healthy subjects.Keywords: cerium dioxide, nanoparticle, nanomedicine, inflammation, human monocyte, lipopolysaccharides

  3. New insights into Prevotella diversity and medical microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alauzet, Corentine; Marchandin, Hélène; Lozniewski, Alain

    2010-11-01

    In light of recent studies based on cultivation-independent methods, it appears that the diversity of Prevotella in human microbiota is greater than was previously assumed from cultivation-based studies, and that the implication of these bacteria in several human diseases was unrecognized. While some Prevotella taxa were found during opportunistic infections, changes in Prevotella abundance and diversity were discovered during dysbiosis-associated diseases. As member of the microbiota, Prevotella may also be considered as a reservoir for resistance genes. Greater knowledge on Prevotella diversity, as well as new insights into its pathogenic potential and implication in dysbiosis are expected from the use of human microbe identification microarrays, from whole-genome sequence analyse, and from the NIH Human Microbiome Project data. New approaches, including molecular-based methods, could contribute to improve the diagnosis of Prevotella infections.

  4. Prevotella maculosa sp. nov., isolated from the human oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, Julia; Sutcliffe, Iain C; Booth, Veronica; Wade, William G

    2007-12-01

    Three strains of anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli isolated from human oral sites were subjected to a comprehensive range of phenotypic and genotypic tests and were found to comprise a homogeneous group. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed the strains to constitute a novel group within the genus Prevotella, most closely related to Prevotella oris and Prevotella salivae. A novel species, Prevotella maculosa sp. nov., is proposed to accommodate these strains. Prevotella maculosa is saccharolytic and produces acetic and succinic acids as end products of fermentation. The G+C content of the DNA of the type strain is 48 mol%. The type strain of Prevotella maculosa is W1609(T) (=DSM 19339(T) =CCUG 54766(T)).

  5. Cytokine and acute phase protein gene expression in liver biopsies from dairy cows with a lipopolysaccharide - induced mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vels, J; Røntved, Christine M.; Bjerring, Martin

    2009-01-01

    A minimally invasive liver biopsy technique was tested for its applicability to study the hepatic acute phase response (APR) in dairy cows with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis. The hepatic mRNA expression profiles of the inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF......, a minimally invasive liver biopsy technique can be used for studying the hepatic APR in diseased cattle. Lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis resulted in a time-dependent production of inflammatory cytokines and SAA and Hp in the liver of dairy cows.......- ), IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10, and the acute phase proteins serum amyloid A isoform 3 (SAA3), haptoglobin (Hp), and 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) were determined by real-time reverse transcription-PCR. Fourteen primiparous cows in mid lactation were challenged with 200 µg of LPS (n = 8) or NaCl solution (n = 6...

  6. Content-based intermedia synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Dong-Young; Sampath-Kumar, Srihari; Rangan, P. Venkat

    1995-03-01

    Inter-media synchronization methods developed until now have been based on syntactic timestamping of video frames and audio samples. These methods are not fully appropriate for the synchronization of multimedia objects which may have to be accessed individually by their contents, e.g. content-base data retrieval. We propose a content-based multimedia synchronization scheme in which a media stream is viewed as hierarchial composition of smaller objects which are logically structured based on the contents, and the synchronization is achieved by deriving temporal relations among logical units of media object. content-based synchronization offers several advantages such as, elimination of the need for time stamping, freedom from limitations of jitter, synchronization of independently captured media objects in video editing, and compensation for inherent asynchronies in capture times of video and audio.

  7. Fluxacademy: From Intermedia to Interactive Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saper, Craig

    1992-01-01

    Advocates a Fluxus-based experimental pedagogy which is suited for scholarship confronted with film and electronic media. Notes that the theory explored in Fluxacademy focuses specifically on the use of intermedia for interactive education. (RS)

  8. Prevotella osteomyelitis after dental capping procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Williams

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a 49 year old man who presented to the emergency department with severe lower back pain of 5 days duration. One week prior he had been diagnosed with a right psoas muscle abscess and was discharged with a 28 day course of moxifloxacin after the preliminary culture from the psoas grew an anaerobic organism. MRI of the lumbar spine showed marrow edema in the L2 body, occupying most of the anterior two thirds of the body, with cortical erosion at the anteroinferior aspect of L1. Blood cultures were negative and bone biopsy of L2 showed neutrophilic invasion and reactive changes. Cultures grew Prevotella oralis. Hematogenous spread from a composite bonding procedure for exposed teeth roots is thought to be the source for the vertebral osteomyelitis. This is a plausible spread of infection in our case because it was thought that the osteomyelitis occurred first and spread to the psoas muscle.

  9. Aloin Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Response and Apoptosis by Inhibiting the Activation of NF-κB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Luo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Numerous herbal-derived natural products are excellent anti-inflammatory agents. Several studies have reported that aloin, the major anthraquinone glycoside obtained from the Aloe species, exhibits anti-inflammatory activity. However, the molecular mechanism of this activity is not well understood. In this report, we found that aloin suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion and nitric oxide production, and downregulates the expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin 6 (IL-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2. Aloin inhibits the phosphorylation and acetylation of the NF-κB p65 subunit by suppressing the upstream kinases p38 and Msk1, preventing LPS-induced p65 translocation to the nucleus. We have also shown that aloin inhibits LPS-induced caspase-3 activation and apoptotic cell death. Collectively, these findings suggest that aloin effectively suppresses the inflammatory response, primarily through the inhibition of NF-κB signaling.

  10. Dynamic Regulation of Delta-Opioid Receptor in Rat Trigeminal Ganglion Neurons by Lipopolysaccharide-induced Acute Pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Lv, Yiheng; Fu, Yunjie; Ren, Lili; Wang, Pan; Liu, Baozhu; Huang, Keqiang; Bi, Jing

    2015-12-01

    Delta-opioid receptor (DOR) and its endogenous ligands distribute in trigeminal system and play a very important role in modulating peripheral inflammatory pain. DOR activation can trigger p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK1/2) and Akt signaling pathways, which participate in anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. In this study, our purpose was to determine the dynamic changes of DOR in trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons during the process of acute dental pulp inflammation and elucidate its possible mechanism. Forty rats were used to generate lipopolysaccharide-induced acute pulpitis animal models at 6, 12, and 24 hours and sham-operated groups. Acute pulpitis was confirmed by hematoxylin-eosin staining, and TG neuron activation was determined by anti-c-Fos immunohistochemistry. DOR protein and gene expression in TG was investigated by immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and real-time polymerase chain reaction, and DOR expression in trigeminal nerves and dental pulp was also determined by immunohistochemistry. To further investigate the mechanism of DOR modulating acute inflammation, the change of pErk1/2 and pAkt in TG was examined by immunohistochemistry. Lipopolysaccharide could successfully induce acute pulpitis and activated TG neurons. Acute pulpitis could dynamically increase DOR protein and gene expression at 6, 12, and 24 hours in TG, and DOR dimerization was significantly increased at 12 and 24 hours. Acute pulpitis also induced the dynamic change of DOR protein in trigeminal nerve and dental pulp. Furthermore, ERK1/2 and Akt signaling pathways were inhibited in TG after acute pulpitis. Increased DOR expression and dimerization may play important roles in peripheral acute inflammatory pain. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Prevotella melaninogenica [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Prevotella melaninogenica 名詞 一般 * * * * Prevotella mela...ninogenica ... MeSH D001443 200906099099181179 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Prevotella melaninogenica

  12. Characteristics of Prevotella intermedia-specific CD4+ T cell clones from peripheral blood of a chronic adult periodontitis patient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassenaar, A.; Reinhardus, C.; Abraham-Inpijn, L.; Snijders, A.; Kievits, F.

    1998-01-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic destructive inflammatory disease associated with periodontopathic bacteria. In addition, autoantigens such as collagen and heat shock proteins (hsp) have been suggested to play a role. Established periodontal lesions are characterized by dense infiltrations of immune cells

  13. Transfusion regimens in thalassemia intermedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Karakas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thalassemia intermedia (TI is a heterogeneous disease, in terms of both clinical manifestations and underlying molecular defects. Some TI patients are asymptomatic until adult life, whereas others are symptomatic from early childhood. In contrast with patients with Thalassemia major (TM, the severity of anemia is less and the patients do not require transfusions during at least the first few years of life. Many patients with TI, especially older ones, have been exposed to the multiple long-term effects of chronic anemia and tissue hypoxia and their compensatory reactions, including enhanced erythropoiesis and increased iron absorption. Bone marrow expansion and extramedullary hematopoiesis lead to bone deformities and liver and spleen enlargement. Therapeutic strategies in TI are not clear and different criteria are used to decide the initiation of transfusion and chelation therapy, modulation of fetal hemoglobin production, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation on an individual basis. The clinical picture of well-treated TM patients with regular transfusionchelation therapy is better from TI patients who have not received adequate transfusion therapy. There is a significant role of early blood transfusion to prevent and treat complications commonly associated with TI, such as extramedullary erythropoiesis and bone deformities, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, leg ulcers, gallstones, pseudoxantoma elasticum, hyperuricosuria, gout and pulmonary hypertension, which are rarely seen in thalassemia major. Nowadays, indications of transfusion in patients with TI are chronic anemia (Hb < 7 g/dL, bone deformities, growth failure, extramedullary erythropoiesis, heart failure, pregnancy and preparation for surgical procedures. Conclusion: Adequate (regular or tailored transfusion therapy is an important treatment modality for increasing the quality of life in patients with thalassemia intermedia during childhood. 就临床表象和潜在的分子缺

  14. β-Thalassemia Intermedia: A Clinical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musallam, Khaled M.; Taher, Ali T.; Rachmilewitz, Eliezer A.

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of the molecular and pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the disease process in patients with β-thalassemia intermedia has substantially increased over the past decade. Earlier studies observed that patients with β-thalassemia intermedia experience a clinical-complications profile that is different from that in patients with β-thalassemia major. In this article, a variety of clinical morbidities are explored, and their associations with the underlying disease pathophysiology and risk factors are examined. These involve several organs and organ systems including the vasculature, heart, liver, endocrine glands, bone, and the extramedullary hematopoietic system. The effects of some therapeutic interventions on the development of clinical complications are also discussed. PMID:22762026

  15. Carbachol ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced intestinal epithelial tight junction damage by down-regulating NF-{kappa}{beta} and myosin light-chain kinase pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ying [Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care Medicine and Emergency Medicine Center, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, Hubei Province, People' s Republic of China (China); Li, Jianguo, E-mail: 2010lijianguo@sina.cn [Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care Medicine and Emergency Medicine Center, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, Hubei Province, People' s Republic of China (China)

    2012-11-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbachol reduced the lipopolysaccharide-induced intestinal barrier breakdown. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbachol ameliorated the lipopolysaccharide-induced ileal tight junction damage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbachol prevented the LPS-induced NF-{kappa}{beta} and myosin light-chain kinase activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbachol exerted its beneficial effects in an {alpha}7 nicotinic receptor-dependent manner. -- Abstract: Carbachol is a cholinergic agonist that protects the intestines after trauma or burn injury. The present study determines the beneficial effects of carbachol and the mechanisms by which it ameliorates the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intestinal barrier breakdown. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with 10 mg/kg LPS. Results showed that the gut barrier permeability was reduced, the ultrastructural disruption of tight junctions (TJs) was prevented, the redistribution of zonula occludens-1 and claudin-2 proteins was partially reversed, and the nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-{kappa}{beta}) and myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK) activation in the intestinal epithelium were suppressed after carbachol administration in LPS-exposed rats. Pretreatment with the {alpha}7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ({alpha}7nAchR) antagonist {alpha}-bungarotoxin blocked the protective action of carbachol. These results suggested that carbachol treatment can protect LPS-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction. Carbachol exerts its beneficial effect on the amelioration of the TJ damage by inhibiting the NF-{kappa}{beta} and MLCK pathways in an {alpha}7nAchR-dependent manner.

  16. Angina monocitica con sovrainfezione da Prevotella denticola: caso clinico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Allù

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Monocytic angina with superinfection of Prevotella denticola: clinical case Monocytic angina is a clinical sindrome caused by Epstein-Barr virus characterized by fever, pharyngitis, exudative tonsillitis, swollen lymphoglands, splenomegaly and hepatomegaly.The inflamed pharynx and necrotic tonsils of infectious mononucleosis are subject to bacterial superinfection initially or during the course of the illness; the reduced PO2 tension and low oxidation-reduction potential that prevail in a vascular and necrotic tissues favour the growth of anaerobes. In this article we reported the clinical case of a ten years old children, who presented fever and tonsillopharyngitis; he was treated with cefotaxime and piperacillin, he did not improve in health. He was admitted to hospital (Department of Otorhinolaryngology. The patient was treated with aminoglycoside (tobramycin, piperacillin and cortisone; the clinical situation deteriorated. Pus sample was collected from the tonsils and cultured. Isolated strain from culture anaerobic was identified biochemically (Rapid-ID32ANA.The microorganism isolated was: Prevotella denticola (oral anaerobic gram-negative rods; β-lactamase production was tested by using the chromogenic cephalosporin disk test.The susceptibility to antibiotics was performed according to NCCLS recommendations. Prevotella denticola (β-lactamase production was resistant to penicillin, cefoxitin, cefotetan, piperacillin, clindamycin and metronidazole it was susceptible to piperacillin-tazobactam, amoxicillin-clavulanate, ticarcillin-clavulanate, imipenem and chloramphenicol. Children was treated with piperacillin-tazobactam, with rapid symptomatic relief.

  17. Echocardiographic evaluation of thalassemia intermedia patients in Duhok, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Ameen Mosa

    2014-12-11

    Cardiac complications are among the most serious problems of thalassemia intermedia patients. The current study was initiated to address the latter issue through the study of the echocardiographic findings and correlate it with clinical characteristics of thalassemia intermedia patients in Duhok, Kurdistan region, Iraq. An echocardiographic assessment of 61 beta-thalassemia intermedia cases was performed. It included 30 males and 31 females, with a mean age 19.6 ± 7.5 years. The standard echostudy of two-dimension and M-mode measurements of cardiac chambers were done. The continuous doppler regurgitant jet of tricuspid and pulmonary valves were recorded. Left ventricle diastolic function was assessed by pulsed doppler of mitral valve inflow. To correlate the clinical with echocardiographic findings, patients were divided, according to tricuspid regurgitant velocity, into three groups (intermedia patients. Therapeutic trails targeting these complications are indicated, and echocardiographic assessment is necessary to be offered early for thalassemia intermedia.

  18. Ruptured Massa Intermedia Secondary to Hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Damaty, Ahmed; Langner, Soenke; Schroeder, Henry W S

    2017-01-01

    We report a case of ruptured massa intermedia (MI) as a sequela of hydrocephalus. A single case report is presented describing the sequelae of tumor bed hematoma after a posterior fossa hemangioblastoma resection in which the patient bled 3 days after surgery, resulting in secondary hydrocephalus and subsequently dilatation of the third ventricle, which resulted in rupture of the MI. The patient was managed on emergency basis with an external ventricular drain then endoscopically with a third ventriculostomy and clot extraction. Absent MI is not uncommon in hydrocephalic patients, and it is assumed to be the result of rupture from acute dilatation of the third ventricle. Our case report proves this assumption and documents the presence and absence of the MI before and after developing hydrocephalus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. β-Thalassemia intermedia: a comprehensive overview and novel approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadov, Chingiz; Alimirzoeva, Zohra; Mammadova, Tahira; Aliyeva, Gunay; Gafarova, Shahla; Mammadov, Jeyhun

    2018-01-29

    β-Thalassemia intermedia is a clinical condition of intermediate gravity between β-thalassemia minor, the asymptomatic carrier, and β-thalassemia major, the transfusion-dependent severe anemia. It is characterized by a significant clinical polymorphism, which is attributable to its genetic heterogeneity. Ineffective erythropoiesis, chronic anemia, and iron overload contribute to the clinical complications of thalassemia intermedia through stepwise pathophysiological mechanisms. These complications, including splenomegaly, extramedullary erythropoiesis, iron accumulation, leg ulcers, thrombophilia, and bone abnormalities can be managed via fetal hemoglobin induction, occasional transfusions, chelation, and in some cases, stem cell transplantation. Given its clinical diversity, thalassemia intermedia patients require tailored approaches to therapy. Here we present an overview and novel approaches to the genetic basis, pathophysiological mechanisms, clinical complications, and optimal management of thalassemia intermedia.

  20. Expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and CD74 in the inner ear and middle ear in lipopolysaccharide-induced otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Hisashi; Kariya, Shin; Okano, Mitsuhiro; Zhao, Pengfei; Maeda, Yukihide; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2016-10-01

    Significant expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and its receptor (CD74) was observed in both the middle ear and inner ear in experimental otitis media in mice. Modulation of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and its signaling pathway might be useful in the management of inner ear inflammation due to otitis media. Inner ear dysfunction secondary to otitis media has been reported. However, the specific mechanisms involved are not clearly understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and CD74 in the middle ear and inner ear in lipopolysaccharide-induced otitis media. BALB/c mice received a transtympanic injection of either lipopolysaccharide or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The mice were sacrificed 24 h after injection, and temporal bones were processed for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, histologic examination, and immunohistochemistry. PCR examination revealed that the lipopolysaccharide-injected mice showed a significant up-regulation of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in both the middle ear and inner ear as compared with the PBS-injected control mice. The immunohistochemical study showed positive reactions for macrophage migration inhibitory factor and CD74 in infiltrating inflammatory cells, middle ear mucosa, and inner ear in the lipopolysaccharide-injected mice.

  1. CITYMARKETING EN CIUDADES INTERMEDIAS: CASO PALMIRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ezequiel Badillo Mendoza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presentan los resultados de la investigación Citymarketing en ciudades intermedias: caso Palmira, específicamente en su etapa de diseño. Este proyecto surgió de la necesidad de generar acciones académicas y metodológicas para desarrollar un mecanismo que permitiera el diseño de un instrumento de gestión y promoción de la ciudad. La población de estudio se integró con habitantes de la ciudad, visitantes y dirigentes de diversos sectores del departamento del Valle del Cauca. La metodología empleada se basó en un estudio documental y el uso de instrumentos cualitativos, como cartografías urbanas, estudio de imaginarios y mediciones cuantitativas de comunicación publicitaria. Para su realización se estructuró en dos fases: La primera donde se estableció un eje conceptual para la implementación de un Plan de citymarketing en Palmira y una fase 2: donde se desarrolló la sensibilización, la caracterización de la ciudad, los lineamientos estratégicos, los parámetros para la construcción de la marca y el diseño del Plan de Comunicaciones.

  2. Morphometric and genetic analysis of Arcella intermedia and Arcella intermedia laevis (Amoebozoa, Arcellinida) illuminate phenotypic plasticity in microbial eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfírio-Sousa, Alfredo L; Ribeiro, Giulia M; Lahr, Daniel J G

    2017-04-01

    Testate amoebae are eukaryotic microorganisms characterized by the presence of an external shell (test). The shell morphology is used as a diagnostic character, but discordance between morphological and molecular data has been demonstrated in groups of arcellinids (Amoebozoa), one of the principal groups of testate amoebae. Morphology of the test is supposed to differentiate genera and species and it is applied in ecological, monitoring and paleontological studies. However, if phenotype does not reflect genotype, conclusions in these types of studies become severely impaired. The objective of this work is to evaluate the morphometrical and morphological variation of the closely related and morphologically similar taxa Arcella intermedia laevis Tsyganov and Mazei, 2006 and Arcella intermedia (Deflandre 1928) Tsyganov and Mazei, 2006 in nature and in cultured individuals and see how these are correlated with molecular data. Our results demonstrate that phenotypic plasticity in Arcella intermedia make morphological distinctions impossible in both taxa. Arcella intermedia and Arcella intermedia laevis are molecularly identical for SSU rDNA and a mitochondrial molecular marker (NAD9/7). We conclude that morphological techniques alone cannot identify phenotypic plasticity from natural populations. More work is clearly needed to better understand the morphological, morphometric and molecular variability in these organisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Thalidomide has a significant effect in patients with thalassemia intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, YunShuan; Ren, Quan; Zhou, Yali; Li, Pingping; Lin, Wanhua; Yin, Xiaolin

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the effect of thalidomide in patients with thalassemia intermedia. We observed the effect of thalidomide in seven patients with thalassemia intermedia requiring blood transfusion. Four of the patients were transfusion-independent, and three patients were transfusion-dependent. For the four transfusion-independent patients, hemoglobin concentration increased significantly (≥2 g/dl) in three and moderately (1-2 g/dl) in one. After 3 months of treatment, hemoglobin concentration increased 3.2 ± 1.2 g/dl compared to pretreatment. Among the three transfusion-dependent patients, transfusion was terminated after one month of treatment in one patient and decreased >50% in the other two patients, accompanied by an increase in the average hemoglobin concentration. Thalidomide had a significant effect in patients with thalassemia intermedia. Further studies of a larger scale and more rigorous design are warranted.

  4. Irradiation for progressive paraparesis in β-thalassemia intermedia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.J.; Hill, M.E.; Crookston, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    This article describes the case history of a patient suffering from β-thalassemia intermedia. The patient was treated with radiation to the thoraic spine (1500 rad in 5 days) and his condition improved. Subsequent tomography indicated the success of this type of irradiation without recourse to laminectomy. (T.I.)

  5. Circaea x intermedia Ehrh. (Klein heksenkruid) een tuinplant?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beringen, Ruud

    2001-01-01

    Circaea x intermedia, a very rare taxon in the Netherlands, was found on a new locality on the edge of a woodland near the outskirts of the town of Ede. Growing conditions on the site are not suitable for both parental species ( C. alpina and C. lutetiana). Therefore it is most unlikely the hybrid

  6. Sensitivity of spiral ganglion neurons to damage caused by mobile phone electromagnetic radiation will increase in lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in vitro model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Wen-Qi; Hu, Yu-Juan; Yang, Yang; Zhao, Xue-Yan; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Kong, Wen; Kong, Wei-Jia

    2015-05-29

    .0 W/kg when cells are in fragile or micro-damaged condition. It seems that the sensitivity of SGN to damage caused by mobile phone electromagnetic radiation will increase in a lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in vitro model.

  7. Molecular evidence for the existence of lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha factor (LITAF) and Rel/NF-kB pathways in disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zoysa, Mahanama; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Oh, Chulhong; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jae-Seong; Jung, Sung-Ju; Choi, Cheol Young; Lee, Jehee

    2010-01-01

    The lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha factor (LITAF) and Rel family nuclear factor kappaB (Rel/NF-kB) are two important transcription factors which play major roles in the regulating inflammatory cytokine, apoptosis and immune related genes. Here, we report the discovery of disk abalone LITAF (AbLITAF) and Rel/NF-kB (AbRel/NF-kB) homologues and their immune responses. Full-length cDNA of AbLITAF consists of 441 bp open reading frame (ORF) that translates into putative peptide of 147 aa. Analysis of AbLITAF sequence showed it has characteristic LITAF (Zn(+2)) binding domain with two CXXC motifs. Phylogenetic analysis results further revealed that AbLITAF is a member of LITAF family. AbRel/NF-kB is 584 aa protein that contains several characteristic motifs including Rel homology domain (RHD), Rel protein signature, DNA binding motif, nuclear localization signal (NLS) and transcription factor immunoglobulin - like fold (TIG) similar to their invertebrate and vertebrate counterparts. Tissue specific analysis results showed that both AbLITAF and AbRel/NF-kB mRNA was expressed ubiquitously in all selected tissues in constitutive manner. However, constitutive expression of AbLITAF was higher than AbRel/NF-kB in all tissues except mantle. Upon immune challenge by bacteria (Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahemolyticus and Lysteria monocytogenes) and viral hemoragic septicemia virus (VHSV), AbLITAF showed the significant up-regulation in gills while AbRel/NF-kB transcription was not change significantly. Based on transcriptional response against immune challenge, we could suggest that regulation of TNF-alpha expression may have occurred mainly by LITAF activation rather than NF-kB in disk abalone. The cumulative data from other molluscs and our data with reference to TNF-alpha, LITAF and Rel/NF-kB from disk abalone provide strong evidence that LITAF and NF-kB are independent pathways likely to occur throughout the Phylum mollusca. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. β-Thalassemia Intermedia: A Bird’s-Eye View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Haddad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Beta-thalassemia is due to a defect in the synthesis of the beta-globin chains, leading to alpha/beta imbalance, ineffective erythropoiesis, and chronic anemia. The spectrum of thalassemias is wide, with one end comprising thalassemia minor, which consists of a mild hypochromic microcytic anemia with no obvious clinical manifestations, while on the other end is thalassemia major, characterized by patients who present in their first years of life with profound anemia and regular transfusion requirements for survival. Along the spectrum lies thalassemia intermedia, a term developed to describe patients with manifestations that are neither mild enough nor severe enough to be classified in the spectrum’s extremes. Over the past decade, our understanding of β-thalassemia intermedia has increased tremendously with regards to molecular information as well as pathophysiology. It is now clear that β-thalassemia intermedia has a clinical presentation as well as complications associated with the disease that are different from those of β-thalassemia major. This review is designed to tackle issues related to β-thalassemia intermedia from the basic definition of the disease to paramedical issues, namely the quality of life in these patients. Genetics and pathophysiology are revisited, as well as the complications specific to this disease. These complications include effects on several organ systems, including the cardiovascular, hepatic, endocrine, renal, brain, and skeletal systems. Extramedullary hematopoiesis is also discussed in this article. Risk factors are highlighted and cutoffs are identified to minimize morbidities in β-thalassemia intermedia. Several treatment modalities are considered by shining a light on the pros and cons of each modality, as well as the role of special pharmacological agents in the progress of the disease and its morbidities. Finally, health-related quality of life is discussed in these patients with a direct comparison

  9. β-Thalassemia Intermedia: A Bird’s-Eye View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Anthony; Tyan, Paul; Radwan, Amr; Mallat, Naji; Taher, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Beta-thalassemia is due to a defect in the synthesis of the beta-globin chains, leading to alpha/beta imbalance, ineffective erythropoiesis, and chronic anemia. The spectrum of thalassemias is wide, with one end comprising thalassemia minor, which consists of a mild hypochromic microcytic anemia with no obvious clinical manifestations, while on the other end is thalassemia major, characterized by patients who present in their first years of life with profound anemia and regular transfusion requirements for survival. Along the spectrum lies thalassemia intermedia, a term developed to describe patients with manifestations that are neither mild enough nor severe enough to be classified in the spectrum’s extremes. Over the past decade, our understanding of β-thalassemia intermedia has increased tremendously with regards to molecular information as well as pathophysiology. It is now clear that β-thalassemia intermedia has a clinical presentation as well as complications associated with the disease that are different from those of β-thalassemia major. This review is designed to tackle issues related to β-thalassemia intermedia from the basic definition of the disease to paramedical issues, namely the quality of life in these patients. Genetics and pathophysiology are revisited, as well as the complications specific to this disease. These complications include effects on several organ systems, including the cardiovascular, hepatic, endocrine, renal, brain, and skeletal systems. Extramedullary hematopoiesis is also discussed in this article. Risk factors are highlighted and cutoffs are identified to minimize morbidities in β-thalassemia intermedia. Several treatment modalities are considered by shining a light on the pros and cons of each modality, as well as the role of special pharmacological agents in the progress of the disease and its morbidities. Finally, health-related quality of life is discussed in these patients with a direct comparison to the more severe

  10. β-Thalassemia Intermedia: A Bird's-Eye View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Anthony; Tyan, Paul; Radwan, Amr; Mallat, Naji; Taher, Ali

    2014-03-01

    Beta-thalassemia is due to a defect in the synthesis of the beta-globin chains, leading to alpha/beta imbalance, ineffective erythropoiesis, and chronic anemia. The spectrum of thalassemias is wide, with one end comprising thalassemia minor, which consists of a mild hypochromic microcytic anemia with no obvious clinical manifestations, while on the other end is thalassemia major, characterized by patients who present in their first years of life with profound anemia and regular transfusion requirements for survival. Along the spectrum lies thalassemia intermedia, a term developed to describe patients with manifestations that are neither mild enough nor severe enough to be classified in the spectrum's extremes. Over the past decade, our understanding of β-thalassemia intermedia has increased tremendously with regards to molecular information as well as pathophysiology. It is now clear that β-thalassemia intermedia has a clinical presentation as well as complications associated with the disease that are different from those of β-thalassemia major. This review is designed to tackle issues related to β-thalassemia intermedia from the basic definition of the disease to paramedical issues, namely the quality of life in these patients. Genetics and pathophysiology are revisited, as well as the complications specific to this disease. These complications include effects on several organ systems, including the cardiovascular, hepatic, endocrine, renal, brain, and skeletal systems. Extramedullary hematopoiesis is also discussed in this article. Risk factors are highlighted and cutoffs are identified to minimize morbidities in β-thalassemia intermedia. Several treatment modalities are considered by shining a light on the pros and cons of each modality, as well as the role of special pharmacological agents in the progress of the disease and its morbidities. Finally, health-related quality of life is discussed in these patients with a direct comparison to the more severe

  11. Effects of fruit and vegetable low molecular mass fractions on gene expression in gingival cells challenged with Prevotella intermedia and Actinomyces naeslundii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canesi, L.; Borghi, C.; Stauder, M.; Lingström, P.; Papetti, A.; Pratten, J.; Signoretto, C.; Spratt, D.A.; Wilson, M.; Zaura, E.; Pruzzo, C.

    2011-01-01

    Low molecular mass (LMM) fractions obtained from extracts of raspberry, red chicory, and Shiitake mushrooms have been shown to be an useful source of specific antibacterial, antiadhesion/coaggregation, and antibiofilm agent(s) that might be used for protection towards caries and gingivitis. In this

  12. Beta-lactamic resistance profiles in Porphyromonas, Prevotella, and Parvimonas species isolated from acute endodontic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagner, Francisco; Jacinto, Rogério Castilho; Correa Signoretti, Fernanda Graziela; Scheffer de Mattos, Vanessa; Grecca, Fabiana Soares; Gomes, Brenda Paula Figueiredo de Almeida

    2014-03-01

    Susceptibility to beta-lactamic agents has changed among anaerobic isolates from acute endodontic infections. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of the cfxA/cfxA2 gene in Prevotella spp., Porphyromonas spp., and Parviomonas micra strains and show its phenotypic expression. Root canal samples from teeth with acute endodontic infections were collected and Porphyromonas, Prevotella, and Parvimonas micra strains were isolated and microbiologically identified with conventional culture techniques. The susceptibility of the isolates was determined by the minimum inhibitory concentration of benzylpenicillin, amoxicillin, and amoxicillin + clavulanate using the E-test method (AB BIODISK, Solna, Sweden). The presence of the cfxA/cfxA2 gene was determined through primer-specific polymerase chain reaction. The nitrocefin test was used to determine the expression of the lactamase enzyme. Prevotella disiens, Prevotella oralis, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and P. micra strains were susceptible to benzylpenicillin, amoxicillin, and amoxicillin + clavulanate. The cfxA/cfxA2 gene was detected in 2 of 29 isolates (6.9%). Simultaneous detection of the cfxA/cfxA2 gene and lactamase production was observed for 1 Prevotella buccalis strain. The gene was in 1 P. micra strain but was not expressed. Three strains were positive for lactamase production, but the cfxA/cfxA2 gene was not detected through polymerase chain reaction. There is a low prevalence of the cfxA/cfxA2 gene and its expression in Porphyromonas spp., Prevotella spp., and P. micra strains isolated from acute endodontic infections. Genetic and phenotypic screening must be performed simultaneously to best describe additional mechanisms involved in lactamic resistance for strict anaerobes. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Dietary Fiber-Induced Improvement in Glucose Metabolism Is Associated with Increased Abundance of Prevotella

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovatcheva-Datchary, Petia; Nilsson, Anne; Akrami, Rozita

    2015-01-01

    consumption of barley kernel-based bread (BKB) with those who responded least to this dietary intervention. The Prevotella/Bacteroides ratio was higher in responders than non-responders after BKB. Metagenomic analysis showed that the gut microbiota of responders was enriched in Prevotella copri and had...

  14. Connection of Gnomonia intermedia to Discula betulina and its relationship to other taxa in Gnomoniaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Sarah; Castlebury, Lisa A

    2007-01-01

    Discula betulina is a foliar pathogen on birch (Betula) and Gnomonia intermedia is found on overwintered birch leaves. Perithecia of G. intermedia developed in vitro on colonies of D. betulina isolated from birch tissues in late summer, and single ascospores of G. intermedia consistently developed into colonies similar to D. betulina, producing typical D. betulina conidia. Isolates of D. betulina could be grouped into two mating types, which produced fertile perithecia of G. intermedia when mated with each other. Mycelia from single-ascospore and single-conidial isolates were inoculated onto shoots of downy birch, causing lesions and die-back from which D. betulina was consistently isolated. ITS region ribosomal DNA sequence analysis confirmed the results of the morphological and mating studies, and found that the closest known relatives of G. intermedia/D. betulina are Gnomoniella nana and Sirococcus clavigignenti-juglandacearum. The conclusion from these studies is that D. betulina is the anamorph of G. intermedia.

  15. CLINICAL APPLICATION OF RECOMBINANT ERYTHROPOIETIN IN BETA-THALASSAEMIA INTERMEDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadov, Ch; Alimirzoyeva, Z; Hasanova, M; Mammadova, T; Shirinova, A

    2016-06-01

    Research objective is to study the efficacy of recombinant erythropoietin (epoetin alfa) as alternative method of treatment beta-thalassemia intermedia. Study involved 58 patients with beta-thalassemia intermedia (23 women and 35 men). In all observed patients was defined levels of hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cells (RBC), erythrocyte indexes (MCV, MCH, MCHC), hemoglobin fractions (HbA, HbA2, HbF), serum ferritin, serum erythropoietin before and after administrated rEPO. All patients received rEPO during 6 month at the dose - 10000 IU subcutaneously. The majority of patients - 39 (67%) had a good response to rEPO (increase in hemoglobin level more than 20 g/l); 16 patients (28%) had a mean response (increase in Hb 10 - 20 g/l); in 3 (5%) patients occurred poor response to rEPO therapy (increase in Hb intermedia patients there was a statistically significant change in the number of RBC, levels of HbF and sEPO. The evaluation of interdependence between the indices of the baseline sEPO and increased Hb values in patients after rEPO treatment revealed the presence of the reverse direct relationship (r=-0.67). Based on the results, it can be concluded that the use of rEPO in complex therapy of beta-thalassemia intermedia leads to increased levels of Hb and consequently reducing the need for blood transfusions, and accordingly expected to prevent severe complications of blood transfusion (alloimmunization, hypersplenism, iron overload, contamination transmissible infections) facilitating normal growth and development, and a better quality of life.

  16. Pigment Production by the Edible Filamentous Fungus Neurospora Intermedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Gmoser

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The production of pigments by edible filamentous fungi is gaining attention as a result of the increased interest in natural sources with added functionality in the food, feed, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and textile industries. The filamentous fungus Neurospora intermedia, used for production of the Indonesian food “oncom”, is one potential source of pigments. The objective of the study was to evaluate the fungus’ pigment production. The joint effect from different factors (carbon and nitrogen source, ZnCl2, MgCl2 and MnCl2 on pigment production by N. intermedia is reported for the first time. The scale-up to 4.5 L bubble column bioreactors was also performed to investigate the effect of pH and aeration. Pigment production of the fungus was successfully manipulated by varying several factors. The results showed that the formation of pigments was strongly influenced by light, carbon, pH, the co-factor Zn2+ and first- to fourth-order interactions between factors. The highest pigmentation (1.19 ± 0.08 mg carotenoids/g dry weight biomass was achieved in a bubble column reactor. This study provides important insights into pigmentation of this biotechnologically important fungus and lays a foundation for future utilizations of N. intermedia for pigment production.

  17. Thalamic Massa Intermedia Duplication in a Dysmorphic 14 month-old Toddler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Matthew T

    2015-06-01

    The massa intermedia is an inconstant parenchymal band connecting the medial thalami. It may be thickened in various disease processes such as Chiari II malformation or absent in other disease states. However, the massa intermedia may also be absent in up to 30% of normal human brains. To the best of my knowledge, detailed imaging findings of massa intermedia duplication have only been described in a single case report. An additional case of thalamic massa intermedia duplication discovered on a routine brain MR performed for dysmorphic facial features is reported herein.

  18. Draft genome sequence of a Kluyvera intermedia isolate from a patient with a pancreatic abscess

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thele, Roland; Gumpert, Heidi; Christensen, Louise B.

    2017-01-01

    The genus Kluyvera comprises potential pathogens that can cause many infections. This study reports a Kluyvera intermedia strain (FOSA7093) from a pancreatic cyst specimen from a long-term hospitalised patient. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of the K. intermedia isolate was performed and the strain...... an efficient tool for monitoring Kluyvera spp. and its role as a reservoir of multidrug resistance. Therefore, this susceptible K. intermedia genome has many characteristics that allow comparison of resistant K. intermedia that might be discovered in the future....

  19. Sobre a dispersão de Lutzomyia Intermedia (Diptera, Psychodidae The dispersion of Lutzomyia intermedia (Diptera, Psychodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario B. Aragão

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando um mapa de domínios morfoclimáticos e um de vegetação, foram estudadas as áreas de dispersão da espécie e obtidas as seguintes conclusões: 1 - Lutzomyia intermedia é um flebótomo que ocorre nas florestas que apresentam o seu máximo de desenvolvimento nas encostas úmidas, mas, que ocupam também áreas de relevo pouco movimentadas ou planas. 2 - No Brasil, essas encostas pertencem às serras do Mar e da Mantiqueira e, no noroeste da Argentina, situam-se na Cordilheira dos Andes. 3 - E provável que a espécie exista nas serras florestadas do interior do nordeste brasileiro.Using vegetation and morphoclimactic domain maps the areas of dispersion of Lutzomyia intermedia were studied and the following conclusions were obtained: 1 - L. intermedia is a sandfly of the forests which have their maximum growth at the humid slopes although these forests can also be found in plains and areas with low hills. 2 - In Brazil these slopes are found at the Serras do Mar and Mantiqueira and in Argentina ath the Andes Mountains in the northwest of the country. 3 - This species probably occurs also in the forested mountainous areas of the northeastern region of Brazil.

  20. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma-associated Proteobacteria, but not commensal Prevotella spp., promote Toll-like receptor 2-independent lung inflammation and pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Musavian, Hanieh Sadat; Butt, Tariq Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    B, non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis). The commensal Prevotella spp. and pathogenic Proteobacteria were found to exhibit intrinsic differences in innate inflammatory capacities on murine lung cells in vitro. In vivo in mice, non-typeable H.influenzae induced severe Toll...... response to three Gram-negative commensal Prevotella strains (Prevotella melaninogenica, Prevotella nanceiensis and Prevotella salivae) and three Gram-negative pathogenic Proteobacteria known to colonize lungs of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma (Haemophilus influenzae...

  1. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide-induced systemic inflammation alters perfusion of white matter-rich regions without altering flow in brain-irrigating arteries: Relationship to blood-brain barrier breakdown?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaya, Ibtihel; Griton, Marion; Raffard, Gérard; Amri, Mohamed; Hiba, Bassem; Konsman, Jan Pieter

    2018-01-15

    To better understand brain dysfunction during sepsis, cerebral arterial blood flow was assessed with Phase Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging, perfusion with Arterial Spin Labeling and structure with diffusion-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in rats after intraperitoneal administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharides. Although cerebral arterial flow was not altered, perfusion of the corpus callosum region and diffusion parallel to its fibers were higher after lipopolysaccharide administration as compared to saline injection. In parallel, lipopolysaccharide induced perivascular immunoglobulin-immunoreactivity in white matter. These findings indicate that systemic inflammation can result in increased perfusion, blood-brain barrier breakdown and altered water diffusion in white matter. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. SYNCHROTRON X-RAY ABSORPTION-EDGE COMPUTED MICROTOMOGRAPHY IMAGING OF THALLIUM COMPARTMENTALIZATION IN IBERIS INTERMEDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thallium (TI) is an extremely toxic metal which, due to its similarities to K, is readily taken up by plants. Thallium is efficiently hyperaccumulated in Iberis intermedia as TI(I). Distribution and compartmentalization of TI in I. intermedia is highes...

  3. [Genetic relationship analysis of Ephedra intermedia from different habitat in Gansu by ISSR analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tian-Tian; Jin, Ling; Du, Tao; Cui, Zhi-Jia; Zhang, Xian-Fei; Wu, Di

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the genetic relationship of Ephedra intermedia from different habitats in Gansu. The genetic diversity and genetic relationship of E. intermedia from different habitats in Gansu were studied by ISSR molecular marker technique. Twelve ISSR primers were selected from 70 ISSR primers and used for ISSR amplification. Total 112 loci were amplified, in which 81 were polymorphic loci, the average percentage of polymorphie bands (PPB) was 72.32%. Clustering results indicated that the wild species and cultivating species were clustered into different group. The wild species, which had closer distance, were clustered into a group. E. intermedia of different habitats in Gansu have rich genetic diversities among species, it is the reason that E. intermedia has strong adaptability and wide distribution. Further, the genetic distance of E. intermedia is associated with geographical distance, the further distance can hinder the gene flow.

  4. Beta-thalassemia intermedia associated with moyamoya syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göksel, Basak Karakurum; Ozdogu, Hakan; Yildirim, Tulin; Oğuzkurt, Levent; Asma, Suheyl

    2010-07-01

    Moyamoya syndrome (MMS) is a progressive disorder. We report a 19-year-old boy with beta-thalassemia who presented with a left hemiparesis. Brain MRI showed old middle cerebral artery and left frontal subcortical white matter infarcts. Brain magnetic resonance angiography and digital subtraction angiography revealed occlusion of the bilateral internal carotid arteries with a rich network of basal collateral vessels. To our knowledge this is the third report of beta-thalassemia intermedia and MMS, and the first report of a patient in Turkey. It emphasizes the potential for cerebral infarct due to anemia, protein S and thrombocytosis.

  5. Non-contiguous finished genome sequence of the opportunistic oral pathogen Prevotella multisaccharivorax type strain (PPPA20T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Gronow, Sabine [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Lu, Megan [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hammon, Nancy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Deshpande, Shweta [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Liolios, Konstantinos [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Huntemann, Marcel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute

    2011-01-01

    Prevotella multisaccharivorax Sakamoto et al. 2005 is a species of the large genus Prevotella, which belongs to the family Prevotellaceae. The species is of medical interest because its members are able to cause diseases in the human oral cavity such as periodontitis, root caries and others. Although 77 Prevotella genomes have already been sequenced or are targeted for sequencing, this is only the second completed genome sequence of a type strain of a species within the genus Prevotella to be published. The 3,388,644 bp long genome is assembled in three non-contiguous contigs, harbors 2,876 protein-coding and 75 RNA genes and is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  6. Prevalence of new candidate pathogens Prevotella baroniae, Prevotella multisaccharivorax and as-yet-uncultivated Bacteroidetes clone X083 in primary endodontic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rôças, Isabela N; Siqueira, José F

    2009-10-01

    Culture-independent studies have revealed a broad spectrum of oral bacterial taxa that may be associated with disease. This study investigated the prevalence of three new candidate oral pathogens: Prevotella baroniae, Prevotella multisaccharivorax, and as-yet-uncultivated Bacteroidetes oral clone X083 in primary endodontic infections using a devised culture-independent approach. Genomic DNA was isolated from samples taken from 52 teeth with different forms of apical periodontitis and used as template in a taxon-specific 16S rRNA gene-based nested polymerase chain reaction assay to determine the prevalence of the 3 target taxa. Bacteroidetes clone X083, P. baroniae, and P. multisaccharivorax were respectively detected in 81%, 43%, and 38% of the root canals of teeth associated with chronic apical periodontitis, in 60%, 40% and 40% of the canals of teeth with acute apical periodontitis, and in 14%, 24%, and 5% of the pus aspirates from acute apical abscesses. No targeted taxon was positively associated with abscesses or clinical symptoms. Overall, Bacteroidetes clone X083, P. baroniae, and P. multisaccharivorax were found in 50%, 35%, and 25% of the samples taken from primary endodontic infections, respectively. Findings confirmed that the two newly named species and the uncultivated phylotype targeted in this study are associated with different forms of apical periodontitis, and a pathogenetic or at least an ecologic role is suspected.

  7. Mycelial pellet formation by edible ascomycete filamentous fungi, Neurospora intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ramkumar B; Lennartsson, Patrik R; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2016-12-01

    Pellet formation of filamentous fungi in submerged culture is an imperative topic of fermentation research. In this study, we report for the first time the growth of filamentous ascomycete fungus, Neurospora intermedia in its mycelial pellet form. In submerged culture, the growth morphology of the fungus was successfully manipulated into growing as pellets by modifying various cultivation conditions. Factors such as pH (2.0-10.0), agitation rate (100-150 rpm), carbon source (glucose, arabinose, sucrose, and galactose), the presence of additive agents (glycerol and calcium chloride) and trace metals were investigated for their effect on the pellet formation. Of the various factors screened, uniform pellets were formed only at pH range 3.0-4.0, signifying it as the most influential factor for N. intermedia pellet formation. The average pellet size ranged from 2.38 ± 0.12 to 2.86 ± 0.38 mm. The pellet formation remained unaffected by the inoculum type used and its size showed an inverse correlation with the agitation rate of the culture. Efficient glucose utilization was observed with fungal pellets, as opposed to the freely suspended mycelium, proving its viability for fast-fermentation processes. Scale up of the pelletization process was also carried out in bench-scale airlift and bubble column reactors (4.5 L).

  8. The pars intermedia: an anatomic basis for a coordinated vascular response to female genital arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Cheryl; Cold, Christopher J; Yang, Claire C

    2013-06-01

    The pars intermedia is an area of the vulva that has been inconsistently described in the literature. We conducted anatomic studies to better describe the tissues and vascular structures of the pars intermedia and proposed a functional rationale of the pars intermedia in the female sexual response. Nine cadaveric vulvectomy specimens were used. Each was serially sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome. Histologic ultrastructural description of the pars intermedia. The pars intermedia contains veins traveling longitudinally in the angle of the clitoris, supported by collagen-rich stromal tissues. These veins drain the different vascular compartments of the vulva, including the clitoris, the bulbs, and labia minora; also, the interconnecting veins link the different vascular compartments. The pars intermedia is not composed of erectile tissue, distinguishing it from the erectile tissues of the corpora cavernosa of the clitoris as well as the corpus spongiosum of the clitoral (vestibular) bulbs. The venous communications of the pars intermedia, linking the erectile tissues with the other vascular compartments of the vulva, appear to provide the anatomic basis for a coordinated vascular response during female sexual arousal. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  9. Control of postharvest Botrytis fruit rot of strawberry by volatile organic compounds of Candida intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, R; Li, G Q; Zhang, J; Yang, L; Che, H J; Jiang, D H; Huang, H C

    2011-07-01

    A study was conducted to identify volatile organic compounds or volatiles produced by Candida intermedia strain C410 using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and to determine efficacy of the volatiles of C. intermedia in suppression of conidial germination and mycelial growth of Botrytis cinerea and control of Botrytis fruit rot of strawberry. Results showed that, among 49 volatiles (esters, alcohols, alkenes, alkanes, alkynes, organic acids, ketones, and aldehydes) identified from C. intermedia cultures on yeast extract peptone dextrose agar, two compounds, 1,3,5,7-cyclooctatetraene and 3-methyl-1-butanol, were the most abundant. Synthetic chemicals of 1,3,5,7-cyclooctatetraene; 3-methyl-1-butanol; 2-nonanone; pentanoic acid, 4-methyl-, ethyl ester; 3-methyl-1-butanol, acetate; acetic acid, pentyl ester; and hexanoic acid, ethyl ester were highly inhibitory to conidial germination and mycelial growth of B. cinerea. Inhibition of conidial germination and mycelial growth of B. cinerea by volatiles of C. intermedia was also observed. Meanwhile, results showed that incidence and severity of Botrytis fruit rot of strawberry was significantly (P intermedia cultures or C. intermedia-infested strawberry fruit. These results suggest that the volatiles of C. intermedia C410 are promising biofumigants for control of Botrytis fruit rot of strawberry.

  10. Gravi-photomorphogenesis of the moss Pottia intermedia protonemata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demkiv, O. T.; Kyjak, N. Y.; Khorkavtsiv, Y. D.; Kit, N. A.

    The protonemata development proceeds in the process of gradual differentiation of growing apical cells and intercalar cells the shortened lateral branches of the latters being transformed into three-dimensional gametophore buds (Demkiv et al., 1991). Normal course of plant development needs favourable external conditions. Sometimes, however, external environment agents can accelerate the development of organism. So, apical protonema cells of darkgrown gravitropic P. intermedia differentiate gametophore-buds in light of low intensity (Ripetskyj, 1999). We investigate the influence of gravistimulation on bud formation in haploid and diploid P. intermedia protonema. Diploid protonema was found to react on light weaker than haploid one. Under the influence of light the darkgrown apical cells and lateral branches of haploid protonema were directly transformed into buds, while in diploid protonema at first the formation of bundles of rhizoid type filaments takes place on the tips of caulonema and buds appeared in center of such bundles. The participation of gravity in gametophore bud formation was assessed by clinorotating protonema in darkness. Being illuminated such protonema also developed buds quickly the latters being formed along all stolon. It can be suggested that at 1g the growth zone of apical cells actively attract inductors of bud formation. During clinorotation the inductors probably are transferred much more slower than under stationary state and that is why the buds arised not only at the tips of stolons but along all their length. It is known that gametophore bud formation can be stimulated by exogenous phytohormones. As M. Bopp (1980) has shown, that kinetin selectively promotes bud formation on moss protonema. Our observations have shown 0,5 -- 50 μ M of kinetin stimulate the bud formation on diploid aposporic protonema much more effectively that on haploid one. It can be concluded that the amount of endogenous cytokinins in haploid protonemal cells is

  11. Paraspinal extramedullary hematopoiesis in patients with thalassemia intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidar, Rachid; Mhaidli, Hani; Taher, Ali T

    2010-06-01

    Ineffective erythropoiesis in patients with thalassemia intermedia drives extramedullary hematopoietic tumor formation in several parts of the body. Paraspinal involvement has received increasing attention due to the associated morbidity secondary to spinal cord compression. Although the history and physical examination may help narrow the differential diagnosis, radiographic imaging remains essential to confirm the existence of hematopoietic tissue. Characteristic appearance has been observed mainly on magnetic resonance imaging. Several treatment options have been described, including transfusion therapy, laminectomy, radiotherapy, and the use of fetal hemoglobin inducing agents that decrease the hematopoietic drive. However, the ideal management scheme remains controversial. Until large prospective trials evaluate the efficacy and safety of the available treatment options, both in single and in combination therapy, an individualized approach should be entertained.

  12. Suppression of linalool acetate production in Lavandula x intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desautels, Amy; Biswas, Kamal; Lane, Alexander; Boeckelmann, Astrid; Mahmoud, Soheil S

    2009-11-01

    Linalool acetate, one of the major constituent of several essential oils, is heat-labile and decomposes upon exposure to the high injector temperature during gas chromatography. Here we report the development of an improved method for detection of this compound by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) using cold on-column injection of the sample. By using this sensitive method, it has been demonstrated that a lavandin (L. x intermedia) mutant accumulates trace quantities of linalool acetate and camphor and higher amounts of cineole and borneol compared to its parent. This plant, which very likely carries a point mutation in one or more of the genes involved in essential oil production, provides a unique tool for investigating regulation of essential oil biogenesis in plants.

  13. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Brachyspira intermedia isolates from European layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, Marc; Boyen, Filip; Pasmans, Frank; Garmyn, An; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Martel, An

    2011-09-01

    A broth microdilution method was used to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of 20 Brachyspira intermedia isolates obtained from different layer flocks in Belgium and The Netherlands between 2008 and 2010. The antimicrobial agents used were tylosin, tilmicosin, tiamulin, valnemulin, doxycycline, and lincomycin. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) distribution patterns of tylosin, tilmicosin, lincomycin, and doxycycline were bimodal, demonstrating acquired resistance against doxycycline in three strains, against the macrolides in two strains, and against lincomycin in one strain. The MICs of tiamulin and valnemulin showed a monomodal distribution, but with tailing toward the higher MIC values, possibly suggesting low-level acquired resistance in six isolates. Sequencing revealed a G1058C mutation in the 16S rRNA gene in all doxycycline-resistant strains. The strain resistant to tylosin, tilmicosin, and lincomycin had an A2058T mutation in the 23S rRNA gene.

  14. Approaches to management of beta-thalassemia intermedia

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    Joseph E. Maakaron

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Thalassemia intermedia is a genetically diverse group of diseases that is the result of an imbalance in the production of the alpha and beta chains with ensuing chronic hemolysis, ineffective erythropoiesis, and iron overload.Resulting complications include bone changes, hypercoagulability, and end-organ damage due to iron overload. This decade has witnessed major breakthroughs in the management of thalassemia. In this article, we examine these novelties in therapy including iron chelation therapy, stem cell transplant, and gene therapy.Iron chelation therapy has been revolutionized with the advent of deferasirox, a once-daily oral iron chelator, that has been shown to be safe and efficacious.Gene therapy was also at the core of this revolution with the discovery of novel gene elements and viral vectors allowing for better control and improved outcomes.

  15. Nuevos sistemas de frecuencia intermedia para el IAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olalde, J. C.; Perilli, D.; Larrarte, J. J.

    Se presenta el diagrama en bloques de los nuevos sistemas de Frecuencia Intermedia para los dos radiómetros instalados en el IAR. Entre las características más importantes del sistema podemos mencionar la posibilidad de conectar cualquiera de las dos antenas a los ``backend" disponibles: analizador espectral de alta resolución (META II) de 0,05 Hz, autocorrelador de 1008 canales y contínuo. Se incorporan al sistema nuevos sintetizadores de frecuencia implementados con PLL y la moderna técnica de síntesis digital directa. Por último, el conjunto del sistema es susceptible de ser configurado por las computadoras de adquisición de datos, supervisadas por otra, que entrega el estado de funcionamiento actual y evita la selección de configuraciones incorrectas por parte del usuario.

  16. Splenectomy for people with thalassaemia major or intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easow Mathew, Manu; Sharma, Akshay; Aravindakshan, Rajeev

    2016-06-14

    Thalassaemia is a genetic disease of the haemoglobin protein in red blood cells. It is classified into thalassaemia minor, intermedia and major, depending on the severity of the disease and the genetic defect. Thalassaemia major and intermedia require frequent blood transfusions to compensate for the lack of well-functioning red blood cells, although this need is significantly less in thalassaemia intermedia.Damaged or defective red blood cells are normally eliminated in the spleen. In people with thalassaemia there is a large quantity of defective red blood cells which results in an enlarged hyperfunctioning spleen (splenomegaly). Removal of the spleen may thus prolong red blood cell survival by reducing the amount of red blood cells removed from circulation and may ultimately result in the reduced need for blood transfusions. To assess the efficacy and safety of splenectomy in people with beta-thalassaemia major or intermedia. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Review Group's Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register, compiled from searches of electronic databases and the handsearching of journals and conference abstract books. We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles and reviews.Date of the most recent search: 25 April 2016. We included randomised controlled studies and quasi-randomised controlled studies of people of any age with thalassaemia major or intermedia, evaluating splenectomy in comparison to conservative treatment (transfusion therapy and iron chelation) or other forms of splenectomy compared to each other (laparoscopic, open, radio-frequency). Two authors independently selected and extracted data from the single included study using a customised data extraction form and assessed the risk of bias. One study, including 28 participants was included in the review; the results were described, primarily, in a narrative manner. The study assessed the feasibility of splenectomy using laparoscopy in comparison to open

  17. Development of Lutzomyia intermedia and Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae larvae in different diets

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    WERMELINGER E. D.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate, in laboratory, the development of Lutzomyia intermedia and Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae larvae, vectors of leishmaniasis in Brazil, in the following diets: industrialized food for rabbits, dogs, hamsters and aquarium fishes, besides liver powder, cooked lettuce, wheat germ, beer yeast, oat, wheat bran and a diet denominated aged food. Except wheat bran for L. intermedia, all diets provided adequate development for both species, which showed that any of them can be used in laboratory insectaries for these insects. L. intermedia showed better development with most nutritious diets and both species presented better development with aged food. Fungi as an additional nutrient source for L. intermedia and L. longipalpis is suggested.

  18. Draft genome sequence of a Kluyvera intermedia isolate from a patient with a pancreatic abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thele, Roland; Gumpert, Heidi; Christensen, Louise B; Worning, Peder; Schønning, Kristian; Westh, Henrik; Hansen, Thomas A

    2017-09-01

    The genus Kluyvera comprises potential pathogens that can cause many infections. This study reports a Kluyvera intermedia strain (FOSA7093) from a pancreatic cyst specimen from a long-term hospitalised patient. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of the K. intermedia isolate was performed and the strain was reported as sensitive to Danish-registered antibiotics although it had a fosA-like gene in the genome. There were nine contigs that aligned to a plasmid, and these contigs contained several heavy metal resistance gene homologues. Furthermore, a prophage was discovered in the genome. WGS represents an efficient tool for monitoring Kluyvera spp. and its role as a reservoir of multidrug resistance. Therefore, this susceptible K. intermedia genome has many characteristics that allow comparison of resistant K. intermedia that might be discovered in the future. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Transcriptional profiles of Rel/NF-κB, inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB), and lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α factor (LITAF) in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and two Vibrio sp.-exposed intertidal copepod, Tigriopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo-Mi; Jeong, Chang-Bum; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2014-02-01

    The immune system and the role of immunity-related genes have rarely been studied in copepods, even though copepods have a primitive immune response system and also have a potential in pathogen transport higher trophic levels. In this study, we firstly cloned and characterized three core immune genes such as nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB), and lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α factor (LITAF) genes in the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus. Several in silico analyses based on conserved domains, motifs, and phylogenetic relationships were supporting their annotations. To investigate the immune-related role of three genes, we exposed lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and two Vibrio sp. to T. japonicus. After exposure of different concentrations of LPS and two Vibrio sp., transcripts of TJ-IκB and TJ-LITAF genes were significantly elevated during the time course in a dose-dependent manner, while TJ-NF-κB transcripts were not significantly changed during exposure. These findings demonstrated that the copepod T. japonicus has a conserved immunity against infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevotella as a Hub for Vaginal Microbiota under the Influence of Host Genetics and Their Association with Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Jiyeon; You, Hyun Ju; Yu, Junsun; Sung, Joohon; Ko, GwangPyo

    2017-01-11

    While the vaginal ecosystem is maintained through mutualistic relationships between the host and the vaginal bacteria, the effect of host genetics on the vaginal microbiota has not been well characterized. We examined the heritability of vaginal microbiota and its association with obesity in 542 Korean females, including 222 monozygotic and 56 dizygotic twins. The vaginal microbiota significantly varied depending on host menopausal status and bacterial vaginosis. Lactobacillus and Prevotella, whose relative abundances are strongly associated with bacterial vaginosis, were the most heritable bacteria among the beneficial and potentially pathogenic vaginal microbiota, respectively. Candidate gene analysis revealed an association between genetic variants of interleukin-5 and the abundance of Prevotella sp. Furthermore, host obesity significantly increased the diversity of the vaginal microbiota in association with Prevotella. Our results provide insight into the effect of host genetics on the vaginal microbiota and their association with both vaginal and non-vaginal health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification and strain differentiation of 'Bacteroides fragilis group' species and Prevotella bivia by PCR fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claros, M; Schönian, G; Gräser, Y; Montag, T; Rodloff, A C; Citron, D M; Goldstein, E J

    1995-08-01

    Using single consensus primers of genomic nucleotide sequences, PCR-generated fingerprints were used for identification and differentiation of the Bacteroides fragilis group (B. fragilis, B. thetaiotaomicron, B. ovatus, B. distasonis, B. vulgatus) and Prevotella bivia (B. bivius) by comparing the DNA profiles with those of reference strains from the American Type Culture Collection and German Culture Collection. When primed by a single primer phage M13 core sequence, intra-species specific differences and species-specific bands were detected. Using primers derived from the evolutionarily conserved tRNA gene sequence, species-specific patterns were produced. A computer program, GelManager, was used to analyze the profiles and generate dendrograms. The correlation coefficients determined from the DNA fingerprint profiles of the clinical isolates (using the M13 core primer) fell within a narrow range, reflecting a high level of homology within the species. Based on the dendrograms, strains of one species were clearly differentiated from strains of other species. For comparison, SDS-PAGE analysis of whole cell extracts was also performed to obtain protein band patterns of various strains. Because of the simplicity of the PCR fingerprinting method and the ease of performance of computerized evaluation of data, this technique is a useful method for both species and strain differentiation, as well as for characterization of Bacteroides species and Prevotella bivia.

  2. Characterization of Atypical Isolates of Yersinia intermedia and Definition of Two New Biotypes▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Liliane; Leclercq, Alexandre; Savin, Cyril; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    The species Yersinia intermedia is a member of the genus Yersinia which belongs to the Enterobacteriaceae family. This species is divided into eight biotypes, according to Brenner's biotyping scheme. This scheme relies on five tests (utilization of Simmons citrate and acid production from d-melibiose, d-raffinose, α-methyl-d-glucoside [αMG], and l-rhamnose). The collection of the French Yersinia Reference Laboratory (Institut Pasteur, Paris, France) contained 44 strains that were originally identified as Y. intermedia but whose characteristics did not fit into the biotyping scheme. These 44 strains were separated into two biochemical groups: variant 1 (positive for acid production from l-rhamnose and αMG and positive for Simmons citrate utlization) and variant 2 (positive for acid production from l-rhamnose and αMG). These atypical strains could correspond to new biotypes of Y. intermedia, to Y. frederiksenii strains having the atypical property of fermenting αMG, or to new Yersinia species. These strains did not exhibit growth or phenotypic properties different from those of Y. intermedia and Y. frederiksenii and did not harbor any of the virulence traits usually found in pathogenic species. DNA-DNA hybridizations performed between one strain each of variants 1 and 2 and the Y. intermedia and Y. frederiksenii type strains demonstrated that these variants do belong to the Y. intermedia species. We thus propose that Brenner's biotyping scheme be updated by adding two new biotypes: 9 (for variant 1) and 10 (for variant 2) to the species Y. intermedia. PMID:19494062

  3. Gravitropism in caulonemata of the moss Pottia intermedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaban, C. I.; Kern, V. D.; Ripetskyj, R. T.; Demkiv, O. T.; Sack, F. D.

    1998-01-01

    The gravitropism of caulonemata of Pottia intermedia is described and compared with that of other mosses. Spore germination produces primary protonemata including caulonemata which give rise to buds that form the leafy moss plant, the gametophore. Primary caulonemata are negatively gravitropic but their growth and the number of filaments are limited in the dark. Axenic culture of gametophores results in the production of secondary caulonemata that usually arise near the leaf base. Secondary protonemata that form in the light are agravitropic. Secondary caulonemata that form when gametophores are placed in the dark for several days show strong negative gravitropism and grow well in the dark. When upright caulonemata are reorientated to the horizontal or are inverted, upward bending can be detected after 1 h and caulonemata reach the vertical within 1-2 d. Clear amyloplast sedimentation occurs 10-15 minutes after horizontal placement and before the start of upward curvature. This sedimentation takes place in a sub-apical zone. Amyloplast sedimentation also takes place along the length of upright and inverted Pottia protonemata. These results support the hypothesis that amyloplast sedimentation functions in gravitropic sensing since sedimentation occurs before gravitropism in Pottia and since the location and presence of a unique sedimentation zone is conserved in all four mosses known to gravitropic protonomata.

  4. Histone deacetylase inhibitors restore IL-10 expression in lipopolysaccharide-induced cell inflammation and reduce IL-1β and IL-6 production in breast silicone implant in C57BL/6J wild-type murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Liddo, Rosa; Valente, Sergio; Taurone, Samanta; Zwergel, Clemens; Marrocco, Biagina; Turchetta, Rosaria; Conconi, Maria Teresa; Scarpa, Carlotta; Bertalot, Thomas; Schrenk, Sandra; Mai, Antonello; Artico, Marco

    2016-01-20

    Among epigenetic enzymes, histone deacetylases (HDACs) are responsible for regulating the expression of an extensive array of genes by reversible deacetylation of nuclear histones as well as a large number of non-histone proteins. Initially proposed for cancer therapy, recently the interest for HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) as orally active, safe, and anti-inflammatory agents is rising due to their ability in reducing the severity of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. In particular, selective HDAC3, HDAC6, and HDAC8 inhibitors have been described to downregulate the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, TGF-β, IL-1β, and IL-6). Herein, using KB31, C2C12, and 3T3-J2 cell lines, we demonstrated that, under lipopolysaccharide-induced in vitro inflammation, HDAC3/6/8 inhibitor MC2625 and HDAC6-selective inhibitor MC2780 were effective at a concentration of 30 ng/mL to downregulate mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and IL-6) and to promote the transcription of IL-10 gene, without affecting the cell viability. Afterwards, we investigated by immunohistochemistry the activity of MC2625 and MC2780 at a concentration of 60 ng/kg animal weight to regulate silicone-triggered immune response in C57BL/6J female mice. Our findings evidenced the ability of such inhibitors to reduce host inflammation in silicone implants promoting a thickness reduction of peri-implant fibrous capsule, upregulating IL-10 expression, and reducing the production of both IL-1β and IL-6. These results underline the potential application of MC2625 and MC2780 in inflammation-related diseases.

  5. κ-Carrageenan Enhances Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Interleukin-8 Secretion by Stimulating the Bcl10-NF-κB Pathway in HT-29 Cells and Aggravates C. freundii-Induced Inflammation in Mice

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    Wei Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The dietary usage of carrageenan as common food additive has increased observably over the last 50 years. But there is substantial controversy about its safety. Methods. We investigated whether the κ-carrageenan could enhance lipopolysaccharide-induced IL-8 expression by studying its actions on the TLR4-NF-κB pathway. The aggravating effect of κ-carrageenan on Citrobacter freundii DBS100-induced intestinal inflammation was also investigated in a mouse model. Results. Our data show that κ-carrageenan pretreatment promoted LPS-induced IL-8 expression in HT-29 cells. Although CD14, MD-2, and TLR4 were upregulated, the binding of LPS was not enhanced. However, the pathway of Bcl10-NF-κB was triggered. Interestingly, κ-carrageenan competitively blocked the binding of FITC-LPS. Furthermore, pretreatment with κ-carrageenan for one week previous to gavage with C. freundii DBS100 markedly aggravated weight loss, mortality, and colonic damage. The secretion of cytokines was unbalanced and the ratio of Tregs was decreased significantly. In addition, κ-carrageenan, together with C. freundii DBS100, enhanced the transcription and secretion of TLR4 and NF-κB. Conclusions. κ-Carrageenan can synergistically activate LPS-induced inflammatory through the Bcl10-NF-κB pathway, as indicated by its aggravation of C. freundii DBS100-induced colitis in mice. General Significance. Our results suggest that κ-carrageenan serves as a potential inflammatory agent that magnifies existing intestinal inflammation.

  6. Tropical House Gecko (Hemidactylus mabouia predation on brown spiders (Loxosceles intermedia

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    E.N. Ramires

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Brown spiders (Loxosceles spp. are venomous arachnids, successfully adapted to urban habitats in Brazil. Loxoscelism became a serious public health problem in Paraná State, especially at the capital Curitiba, where the most abundant species is Loxosceles intermedia. Hemidactylus mabouia (Gekkonidae lizards are synanthropic predators of arthropods. In this paper, we describe the predatory behavior of the Tropical House Gecko H. mabouia on L. intermedia under laboratory conditions. Twelve geckos were observed, and all of them fed on brown spiders (n=123 observations. The attack consisted of a fast run followed by one bite on the spider’s abdomen or legs. The geckos did not attack L. intermedia anterior body parts, probably due to the fangs present in this region. Two Hemidactylus individuals were killed by L. intermedia bites: during a predatory encounter, and by an induced bite on a restrained lizard. The observations summarized in this paper show that H. mabouia could be used in the biological control of Loxosceles populations in human dwellings. However, additional field studies are necessary to quantify the impact of H. mabouia predation on urban populations of L. intermedia and other species of the same genus.

  7. Acoustic signals in the sand fly Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia intermedia (Diptera: Psychodidae

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    Peixoto Alexandre A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acoustic signals are part of the courtship of many insects and they often act as species-specific signals that are important in the reproductive isolation of closely related species. Here we report the courtship songs of the sand fly Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia intermedia, one of the main vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil. Findings Recordings were performed using insects from three localities from Eastern Brazil: Posse and Jacarepaguá in Rio de Janeiro State and Corte de Pedra in Bahia State. The three areas have remnants of the Brazilian Atlantic forest, they are endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis and L. intermedia is the predominant sand fly species. We observed that during courtship L. intermedia males from all populations produced pulse songs consisting of short trains. No significant differences in song parameters were observed between the males of the three localities. Conclusions L. intermedia males produce acoustic signals as reported for some other sand flies such as the sibling species of the Lutzomyia longipalpis complex. The lack of differences between the males from the three localities is consistent with previous molecular studies of the period gene carried out in the same populations, reinforcing the idea that L. intermedia is not a species complex in the studied areas and that the three populations are likely to have similar vectorial capacities.

  8. Acoustic signals in the sand fly Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) intermedia (Diptera: Psychodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Acoustic signals are part of the courtship of many insects and they often act as species-specific signals that are important in the reproductive isolation of closely related species. Here we report the courtship songs of the sand fly Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) intermedia, one of the main vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil. Findings Recordings were performed using insects from three localities from Eastern Brazil: Posse and Jacarepaguá in Rio de Janeiro State and Corte de Pedra in Bahia State. The three areas have remnants of the Brazilian Atlantic forest, they are endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis and L. intermedia is the predominant sand fly species. We observed that during courtship L. intermedia males from all populations produced pulse songs consisting of short trains. No significant differences in song parameters were observed between the males of the three localities. Conclusions L. intermedia males produce acoustic signals as reported for some other sand flies such as the sibling species of the Lutzomyia longipalpis complex. The lack of differences between the males from the three localities is consistent with previous molecular studies of the period gene carried out in the same populations, reinforcing the idea that L. intermedia is not a species complex in the studied areas and that the three populations are likely to have similar vectorial capacities. PMID:21569534

  9. Acoustic signals in the sand fly Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) intermedia (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigoder, Felipe M; Souza, Nataly A; Peixoto, Alexandre A

    2011-05-13

    Acoustic signals are part of the courtship of many insects and they often act as species-specific signals that are important in the reproductive isolation of closely related species. Here we report the courtship songs of the sand fly Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) intermedia, one of the main vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil. Recordings were performed using insects from three localities from Eastern Brazil: Posse and Jacarepaguá in Rio de Janeiro State and Corte de Pedra in Bahia State. The three areas have remnants of the Brazilian Atlantic forest, they are endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis and L. intermedia is the predominant sand fly species. We observed that during courtship L. intermedia males from all populations produced pulse songs consisting of short trains. No significant differences in song parameters were observed between the males of the three localities. L. intermedia males produce acoustic signals as reported for some other sand flies such as the sibling species of the Lutzomyia longipalpis complex. The lack of differences between the males from the three localities is consistent with previous molecular studies of the period gene carried out in the same populations, reinforcing the idea that L. intermedia is not a species complex in the studied areas and that the three populations are likely to have similar vectorial capacities.

  10. Comparison of bacteroides-prevotella 16S rRNA genetic markers for fecal samples from different animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Lisa R; Voytek, Mary A

    2005-10-01

    To effectively manage surface and ground waters it is necessary to improve our ability to detect and identify sources of fecal contamination. We evaluated the use of the anaerobic bacterial group Bacteroides-Prevotella as a potential fecal indicator. Terminal restriction length polymorphism (T-RFLP) of the 16S rRNA genes from this group was used to determine differences in populations and to identify any unique populations in chickens, cows, deer, dogs, geese, horses, humans, pigs, and seagulls. The group appears to be a good potential fecal indicator in all groups tested except for avians. Cluster analysis of Bacteroides-Prevotella community T-RFLP profiles indicates that Bacteroides-Prevotella populations from samples of the same host species are much more similar to each other than to samples from different source species. We were unable to identify unique peaks that were exclusive to any source species; however, for most host species, at least one T-RFLP peak was identified to be more commonly found in that species, and a combination of peaks could be used to identify the source. T-RFLP profiles obtained from water spiked with known-source feces contained the expected diagnostic peaks from the source. These results indicate that the approach of identifying Bacteroides-Prevotella molecular markers associated with host species might be useful in identifying sources of fecal contamination in the environment.

  11. Fermentation of model hemicelluloses by Prevotella strains and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens in pure culture and in ruminal enrichment cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemicelluloses are major components of plant biomass, but their fermentation in the rumens of cattle and other ruminants is poorly understood. We compared four species of the ruminally dominant genus Prevotella and the well-known hemicellulose utilizer, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, with respect to deg...

  12. Digital Distribution of Advertising for Publications (DDAP): a graphic arts prototype of electronic intermedia publishing (EIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Patrice M.

    1998-01-01

    The Digital Distribution of Advertising for Publications (DDAP) is a graphic arts industry prototype of Electronic Intermedia Publishing (EIP). EIP is a strategic, multi- industrial concept that seeks to enable the capture and input of volumes of data (i.e., both raster and object oriented data -- as well as the latter's antecedent which is vector data -- color data and black-and-white data) from a multiplicity of devices; then flowing, controlling, manipulating, modifying, storing, retrieving, transmitting, and shipping, that data through an industrial process for output to a multiplicity of output devices (e.g., ink on paper, toner on paper, bits and bytes on CD ROM, Internet, Multimedia, HDTV, etc.). As the technical requirements of the print medium are among the most rigorous in the Intermedia milieu the DDAP prototype addresses some of the most challenging issues faced in Electronic Intermedia Publishing (EIP).

  13. Serum Prohepcidin Levels in Children with Thalassemia Major and Intermedia

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    Celil Yılmaz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the role of hepcidin hormone levels in iron accumulation in patients with thalassemia major (TM and thalassemia intermedia (TI. Materials and Methods: Serum prohepcidin and ferritin levels were determined in 34 patient with TM, 10 patient with TI, who attended the Department of Pediatric Hematology Adnan Menderes University Medical Faculty and the Department of Pediatrics at Aydın Atatürk State Hospital between 1 September 2006 and 30 September 2007 and 40 control patients without infection/inflammation, hepatitis or liver failure. Serum prohepcidin levels were measured using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit (DRG International, Inc. Marburg, Germany; ferritin was studied with chemiluminescence method (Immulite 2000 DPC. Results: Mean serum ferritin levels in TM, TI and control groups were 2347.97±1724.81 ng/mL (range: 144-8015 ng/mL, 1352.40±918.94 ng/mL (range: 311-3109 ng/mL, and 33.35±12.03 ng/mL (range: 20-69.1 ng/mL, respectively. Serum prohepcidin levels in the same groups were 221.78±74.38 ng/mL (range: 7l.14-446.57 ng/mL, 173.31±52.14 ng/mL (range: 100.83-267.69 ng/mL, and 218.20±50.37 ng/mL (range: 116.18-330.43 ng/mL, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference in prohepcidin levels between patients with TI and control group only (p=0.016. No correlation was found between prohepcidin and ferritin levels in all groups (r=-0.023, p=0.839. Conclusion: Low levels of prohepcidin in patients with TI may be related to increased erythropoietic activity. Prohepcidin can be an indicator of active erythropoiesis.

  14. Paisajes del delito y la inseguridad en las ciudades intermedias

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    Quim Bonastra

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Until very recently, phenomena like delinquency were only considered dysfunctions of the system. However, nowadays this phenomenon has become inherent to its way of functioning. This dynamic is influenced by factors such as the increasing polarization of developed economies or the enormous masses of displaced people, due to either economic or political reasons, from developing countries who, in rich countries, often fall in situations of precariousness. In the following text we will see how all these pieces are interrelated in an intermediate city, and we will analyse the fluctuation of violent or intimidating thefts, as well as the most common places where these are committed.Si hasta hace bien poco se había considerado que fenómenos como la delincuencia no eran más que disfunciones del sistema, en el mundo en el que vivimos este fenómeno se ha convertido en inherente a su manera de funcionar. Influyen en esta dinámica factores como la polarización creciente de las economías desarrolladas o las ingentes masas de desplazados, ya sea por razones económicas o políticas, de países en vías de desarrollo que, en los países ricos, caen las más de las veces en la precariedad. En el texto que sigue se verá como se engarzan todas estas piezas en una ciudad intermedia y se analizará la fluctuación de los robos con violencia o intimidación, así como los lugares típicos en los que éstos se cometen.DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1739302

  15. Reduced Incidence of Prevotella and Other Fermenters in Intestinal Microflora of Autistic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilhan, Zehra Esra; Wallstrom, Garrick; LaBaer, Joshua; Adams, James B.; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    High proportions of autistic children suffer from gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, implying a link between autism and abnormalities in gut microbial functions. Increasing evidence from recent high-throughput sequencing analyses indicates that disturbances in composition and diversity of gut microbiome are associated with various disease conditions. However, microbiome-level studies on autism are limited and mostly focused on pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, here we aimed to define systemic changes in gut microbiome associated with autism and autism-related GI problems. We recruited 20 neurotypical and 20 autistic children accompanied by a survey of both autistic severity and GI symptoms. By pyrosequencing the V2/V3 regions in bacterial 16S rDNA from fecal DNA samples, we compared gut microbiomes of GI symptom-free neurotypical children with those of autistic children mostly presenting GI symptoms. Unexpectedly, the presence of autistic symptoms, rather than the severity of GI symptoms, was associated with less diverse gut microbiomes. Further, rigorous statistical tests with multiple testing corrections showed significantly lower abundances of the genera Prevotella, Coprococcus, and unclassified Veillonellaceae in autistic samples. These are intriguingly versatile carbohydrate-degrading and/or fermenting bacteria, suggesting a potential influence of unusual diet patterns observed in autistic children. However, multivariate analyses showed that autism-related changes in both overall diversity and individual genus abundances were correlated with the presence of autistic symptoms but not with their diet patterns. Taken together, autism and accompanying GI symptoms were characterized by distinct and less diverse gut microbial compositions with lower levels of Prevotella, Coprococcus, and unclassified Veillonellaceae. PMID:23844187

  16. Reduced incidence of Prevotella and other fermenters in intestinal microflora of autistic children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Wook Kang

    Full Text Available High proportions of autistic children suffer from gastrointestinal (GI disorders, implying a link between autism and abnormalities in gut microbial functions. Increasing evidence from recent high-throughput sequencing analyses indicates that disturbances in composition and diversity of gut microbiome are associated with various disease conditions. However, microbiome-level studies on autism are limited and mostly focused on pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, here we aimed to define systemic changes in gut microbiome associated with autism and autism-related GI problems. We recruited 20 neurotypical and 20 autistic children accompanied by a survey of both autistic severity and GI symptoms. By pyrosequencing the V2/V3 regions in bacterial 16S rDNA from fecal DNA samples, we compared gut microbiomes of GI symptom-free neurotypical children with those of autistic children mostly presenting GI symptoms. Unexpectedly, the presence of autistic symptoms, rather than the severity of GI symptoms, was associated with less diverse gut microbiomes. Further, rigorous statistical tests with multiple testing corrections showed significantly lower abundances of the genera Prevotella, Coprococcus, and unclassified Veillonellaceae in autistic samples. These are intriguingly versatile carbohydrate-degrading and/or fermenting bacteria, suggesting a potential influence of unusual diet patterns observed in autistic children. However, multivariate analyses showed that autism-related changes in both overall diversity and individual genus abundances were correlated with the presence of autistic symptoms but not with their diet patterns. Taken together, autism and accompanying GI symptoms were characterized by distinct and less diverse gut microbial compositions with lower levels of Prevotella, Coprococcus, and unclassified Veillonellaceae.

  17. Las organizaciones intermedias en los procesos de innovación en México

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Hernández, Maria del Pilar Monserrat

    2016-01-01

    Resumen: La actividad innovadora depende de los vínculos o mediación que exista entre los actores que generan la tecnología y el conocimiento y los usuarios finales de una y otro; este papel lo cumplen diversas organizaciones intermedias (OI), las cuales traducen las necesidades de los usuarios de tecnologías en desarrollo. Este trabajo analiza el papel de dichas organizaciones intermedias en los procesos de innovación en México. Así, se distingue que existen tres vacíos estructurales: en la ...

  18. Incomplete paraplegia caused by extramedullary hematopoiesis in a patient with thalassemia intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisamud-Din, Nurhasyimah; Mustafah, Nadia Mohd; Fauzi, Aishah Ahmad; Hashim, Natiara Mohamad

    2017-01-01

    Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) is the production of blood cell precursors outside the bone marrow that occur in various hematological diseases. In patients with thalassemia intermedia, ineffective erythropoiesis drives compensatory EMH in the liver, pancreas, pleura, spleen, ribs and spine. We describe a patient with thalassemia intermedia who presented with acute neurological symptoms caused by paraspinal EMH, which responded well to combination therapy of steroid, hypertransfusion, laminectomy and excision of pseudotumor and hydroxyurea therapy to boost the formation of fetal haemoglobin. Prompt recognition of EMH based on clinical presentation and typical radiological findings should be made. Early treatment is recommended to prevent irreversible damage to the spinal cord.

  19. The mass remote sensing image data management based on Oracle InterMedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xi'an; Shi, Shaowei

    2013-07-01

    With the development of remote sensing technology, getting the image data more and more, how to apply and manage the mass image data safely and efficiently has become an urgent problem to be solved. According to the methods and characteristics of the mass remote sensing image data management and application, this paper puts forward to a new method that takes Oracle Call Interface and Oracle InterMedia to store the image data, and then takes this component to realize the system function modules. Finally, it successfully takes the VC and Oracle InterMedia component to realize the image data storage and management.

  20. Prevalence of Pulmonary Hypertension in Patients with Thalassemia Intermedia in 2009: a single center's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Hassan Mottaghi; Badiei, Zahra; Eftekhari, Kambiz; Shakeri, Reza; Farhangi, Hamid

    2015-07-01

    There are various clinical symptoms of thalassemia intermedia, and they lie roughly between those of major and minor forms of the disease. Patients with thalassemia intermedia occasionally require blood transfusions. This renders them susceptible to pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) syndrome, which is one of the most significant complications in patients with thalassemia intermedia. PAH is more common in in thalassemia intermedia than in thalassemia major, and it may cause cardiac complications in patients who are older than 30. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of PAH in thalassemia intermedia patients so that they can be referred expeditiously for treatment, thereby preventing the complications that occur later. This cross sectional study was conducted under the supervision of hematology department of Mashhad Medical University. Forty-one patients with thalassemia intermedia were examined at the Sarvar Thalassemia and Hemophilia Clinic of Mashhad. Electrocardiography, chest radiography, and echocardiography tests were performed for all of the patients by the same pediatric cardiologist. The data were processed by SPSS software, version 11.5, and the results were analyzed using chi-squared, Student's t, and Mann-Whitney tests. The mean age of the patients was 21.93±8.34. They had been under pediatric heart specialists' constant examination and treatment since their childhood when they were diagnosed with TI, and continue to receive regular follow-up care. The prevalence of pulmonary hypertension was 24% in our study population. In patients with thalassemia intermedia, the left ventricular (LV) mass indices were about 3-5 times higher than would be expected in a normal population. Patients with higher LV mass indices have a greater risk of developing pulmonary hypertension, and those with serum ferritin levels below 1000 ng/ml are less susceptible to diastolic dysfunction. Pulmonary hypertension is common in patients with thalassemia

  1. Las organizaciones intermedias en el campo de la responsabilidad social empresarial

    OpenAIRE

    Abelenda Casalet, Lucía

    2010-01-01

    Se presenta un estudio sobre un tipo particular de organizaciones de la sociedad civil, las organizaciones intermedias. Focalizamos el estudio en las organizaciones intermedias que se desempeñan en el campo de la Responsabilidad Social Empresarial. La investigación está orientada a la búsqueda de rasgos que puedan definir la acción de estas organizaciones y su capacidad de innovación social en un campo particular. En el desarrollo de la investigación se jerarquizó el nivel micro, relacionado ...

  2. Suaeda japonica Makino Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide- Induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research June 2013; 12 (3): 351-356 ... expression and production of inflammatory mediators determined by Western blot analysis. Results: SJE significantly ..... This work was supported by Business for.

  3. Hara on lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    read), which permit unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research is indexed by Science Citation Index (SciSearch), Scopus,.

  4. Inhibition of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuroinflammatory Events ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research October 2014; 13 (10): 1615-1620. ISSN: 1596-5996 ... LPS-induced excessive production of inflammatory mediator such as iNOS was also ... several studies have reported antioxidant, antiallergic ...

  5. Oryza sativa (Rice) Hull Extract Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Response in RAW264.7 Macrophages by Suppressing Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase, c-Jun N-terminal Kinase, and Nuclear Factor-κB Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Sang Keun; Sung, Jeehye; Choi, Inwook; Kim, Yoonsook

    2016-01-01

    Rice ( Oryza sativa ) is a major cereal crop in many Asian countries and an important staple food source. Rice hulls have been reported to possess antioxidant activities. In this study, we evaluated the antiinflammatory effects of rice hull extract and associated signal transduction mechanisms in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. We found that rice hull extract inhibited nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E 2 by suppressing the expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, respectively. The release of interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α was also reduced in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, rice hull extract attenuated the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), as well as the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. This suggests that rice hull extract decreases the production of inflammatory mediators by downregulating ERK and JNK and the NF-κB signal pathway in RAW 264.7 cells. Rice hull extract inhibits the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in RAW264.7 macrophages.Rice hull extract inhibited nitric oxide and prostaglandin E 2 by suppressing the expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, respectively.Rice hull extract exerted anti-inflammatory effect through inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathways.Rice hull extract may provide a potential therapeutic approach for inflammatory diseases. Abbreviations used: COX-2: cyclooxygenase-2, ERK: extracellular signal-regulated kinase, IκB: inhibitory kappa B, IL-1β: interleukin-1β, iNOS: inducible NO synthase, JNK: c-Jun N-terminal kinase, LPS: lipopolysaccharide, MAPKs: mitogen-activated protein kinases, NF-κB: nuclear factor-κB, NO: nitric oxide, PGE2: prostaglandin E2, RHE: rice hull extract, ROS: reactive oxygen species

  6. A comparison of heart function and arrhythmia in clinically asymptomatic patients with beta thalassemia intermedia and beta thalassemia major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoozgar, Hamid; Zeighami, Samaneh; Haghpanah, Sezaneh; Karimi, Mehran

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare heart function and arrhythmia in clinically asymptomatic patients with beta thalassemia intermedia and beta thalassemia major. In this cross-sectional study, 60 patients with beta thalassemia major and 60 patients with beta thalassemia intermedia who had clinically no symptoms of arrhythmia and clinically normal heart function were evaluated using 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiogram monitoring and echocardiography. For data analysis SPSS ver.20 software was used. A P-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The mean age of the beta thalassemia intermedia patients was 24.18 ± 7.9 years and the mean age in beta thalassemia major was 24.38 ± 7.7 years (P>0.05). Premature atrial contractions (PACs) were observed in 14 (23.3%) patients with beta thalassemia intermedia and in 22 (36.6%) beta thalassemia major patients. Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) were detected in 8 (13.3%) patients in the beta thalassemia intermediate group and 16 (26.6) patients in the beta thalassemia major group, respectively. The left ventricular diastolic dimension, end-diastolic volume, and stroke volume were significantly higher in beta thalassemia intermedia group (Pintermedia group. Both atrial and ventricular arrhythmias were more common in the beta thalassemia major group. Higher end-diastolic volume and stroke volume were detected in the beta thalassemia intermedia group. Pulmonary acceleration time was lower in the beta thalassemia intermedia group, which can be an indicator of higher pulmonary pressure.

  7. Taxonomic study on Japanese Salvia (Lamiaceae): Phylogenetic position of S. akiensis, and polyphyletic nature of S. lutescens var. intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Atsuko

    2017-01-01

    Both Salvia akiensis and S. lutescens (Lamiaceae) are endemic to Japan. Salvia akiensis was recently described in 2014 in the Chugoku (= SW Honshu) region, and each four varieties of S. lutescens distributed allopatrically. Among varieties in S. lutescens , var. intermedia show a disjunctive distribution in the Kanto (=E Honshu) and Kinki (= W Honshu) regions. Recent field studies of S. lutescens var. intermedia revealed several morphological differences between the Kanto and Kinki populations. Here, I evaluated these differences among Salvia lutescens var. intermedia and its allies with morphological analysis and molecular phylogenetic analyses of nuclear ribosomal DNA (internal and external transcribed spacer regions) and plastid DNA ( ycf1-rps15 spacer, rbcL , and trnL-F ) sequences. Both morphological analysis and molecular phylogenetic analyses showed that S. lutescens var. intermedia from the Kinki region and var. lutescens were closely related to each other. However, var. intermedia from the Kanto region exhibited an association with S. lutescens var. crenata and var. stolonifera, which also grew in eastern Japan, rather than var. intermedia in the Kinki region. These results indicated that S. lutescens var. intermedia is not a taxon with a disjunctive distribution, but a combination of two or more allopatric taxa. Present study also suggested that S. akiensis was most closely related to S. omerocalyx .

  8. Experimental weed control of Najas marina ssp. intermedia and Elodea nuttallii in lakes using biodegradable jute matting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus A. Hoffmann

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of jute matting in managing the invasive aquatic macrophyte species Elodea nuttallii (Planch. H. St. John and Najas marina ssp. intermedia (Wolfg. ex Gorski Casper (Najas intermedia was studied in laboratory experiments and field trials. Four German lakes with predominant population of Najas intermedia or Elodea nuttalli were chosen for the experiment and areas between 150 and 300 m² were covered with jute textile. The effect of the matting on the growth of invasive and non-invasive macrophytes was determined through comparison with control transects. Biodegradable jute matting successfully suppressed the invasive macrophyte Najas intermedia and significantly reduced the growth of Elodea nuttalli in lakes. The results indicate that the capability of the matting to inhibit the growth of Elodea nuttallii and Najas intermedia depends on the mesh size of the jute weaving and that environmental conditions can affect its efficiency. Various indigenous species like Charales or Potamogeton pusillus L. were able to grow through the jute fabric and populate the treated areas. Until the end of the vegetation period, none of the invasive species were able to penetrate the covering and establish a stable population; in fact, in the subsequent year the jute matting affected only the spread of Najas intermedia. Jute matting proved to be an easy-to-use and cheap method to control the growth of Elodea nuttallii and Najas intermedia.

  9. Evaluation of the efficacy of vacuum cleaners for the integrated control of brown spider Loxosceles intermedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Ramires

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Some venomous spiders of the genus Loxosceles can reach high population densities inside and around houses. In Brazil, most spider accidents are related to Loxosceles intermedia. Control of loxoscelism should utilize integrated pest management tools, such as vacuum cleaners, to eliminate egg sacs, webs and spiders. The present study tested the efficacy of one type of vacuum cleaner (for professional and domestic use in the control of L. intermedia populations. Cockroaches (Pycnoscelus surinamensis were used in some tests for comparison. Vacuuming using standard accessories or a paper tube resulted in the death of all female (n=60, male (n=60, young (n=60 and just-hatched (n=60 L. intermedia, and all egg sacs (n=5 were destroyed. The removal of the plastic plate present at the bottom of the vacuuming tube inside the machine allowed some spiders to survive the vacuuming process. When kept inside a vacuum bag full of dust and debris, adult females (n=10 survived for 10 days; however, significant mortality was observed among male (n=10 and young individuals (n=10. Addition of cornstarch to the vacuum bag did not affect the spiders (n=20. Vacuum cleaners, such as the one used in the present investigation, are promising tools for integrated management of L. intermedia and other spiders in domestic environments.

  10. Composition, Cytotoxic and Antimicrobial Activities of Satureja intermedia C.A.Mey Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Sharifi-Rad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the essential oil (EO constituents from the aerial parts of Satureja intermedia C.A.Mey were detected by GC and GC/MS. The antimicrobial activity of EO on oral pathogens and its cytotoxicity to human cancer cells were determined by the microbroth dilution method and the crystal violet staining method, respectively. Thirty-nine compounds were identified and the main EO constituents were γ-terpinene (37.1%, thymol (30.2%, p-cymene (16.2%, limonene (3.9%, α-terpinene (3.3%, myrcene (2.5%, germacrene B (1.4%, elemicine (1.1% and carvacrol (0.5%. The S. intermedia EO showed a concentration-dependent decrease in viability of Hep-G2 (hepatocellular carcinoma and MCF-7 (breast adenocarcinoma human cancer cell lines (p < 0.05. Antimicrobial screening of S. intermedia EO demonstrated slight antibacterial and antifungal activities against Streptococcus mutants, S. salivarius, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and C. glabrata. Further preclinical studies are needed to assess the efficacy and safety of S. intermedia EO as a new promising anticancer agent.

  11. Rhamnus intermedia Steud. et Hochst. - a New Source of Bioactive Phytochemicals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Samec, D.; Kremer, D.; Grúz, Jiří; Grubešić, R. J.; Piljac-Žegarac, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 2 (2012), s. 125-129 ISSN 0011-1643 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200380801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Rhamnus intermedia * antioxidant activity * total phenols Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 0.614, year: 2012

  12. Polymorphism for pKALILO based senescence in Hawaiian populations of Neurospora intermedia and Neurospora tetrasperma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, M.F.P.M.; Mourik, van A.; Hoekstra, R.F.; Debets, A.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The natural population of Neurospora intermedia from Hawaii is polymorphic for the presence of the linear mitochondrial plasmid pKALILO that is associated with an infectious senescence syndrome. Although inter-specific horizontal transmission is experimentally possible, thus far pKALILO associated

  13. Intermedia: A System for Linking Multimedia Documents. IRIS Technical Report 86-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankelovich, Nicole

    "Intermedia" is a hypermedia system which was developed for use in university research and teaching. It provides a framework for object-oriented, direct manipulation editors and applications, and the capability to link together materials created with those applications. Instructors are able to construct exploratory environments for their…

  14. Formation of Lignans(-)-Secoisolariciresinol and (-)-Matairesinol with Forsythia intermedia Cell-Free Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umezawa, Toshiaki; Davin, Laurence B.; Lewis, Norman G.

    1991-01-01

    In vivo labeling experiments of Forsythia intermedia plant tissue with [8-(C-14)]- and [9,9-(2)H2,OC(2)H3]coniferyl alcohols revealed that the lignans, (-)-secoisolariciresinol and (-)-matairesinol, were derived from two coniferyl alcohol molecules; no evidence for the formation of the corresponding (+)-enantiomers was found. Administration of (+/-)-[Ar-(H-3)] secoisolariciresinols to excised shoots of F.intermedia resulted in a significant conversion into (-)-matairesinol; again, the (+)-antipode was not detected. Experiments using cell-free extracts of F.intermedia confirmed and extended these findings. In the presence of NAD(P)H and H2O2, the cell-free extracts catalyzed the formation of (-)- secoisolariciresinol, with either [8-(C-14)]- or [9,9-(2)H2,OC(2)H3]coniferyl alcohols as substrates. The (+)- enantiomer was not formed. Finally, when either (-)-[Ar-(H-3)] or (+/-)-[Ar-(H-2)]secoisolariciresinols were used as substrates, in the presence of NAD(P), only (-)- and not (+)-matairesinol formation occurred. The other antipode, (+)-secoisolariciresinol, did not serve as a substrate for the formation of either (+)- or (-)-matairesinol. Thus, in F.intermedia, the formation of the lignan, (-)-secoisolariciresinol, occurs under strict stereochemical control, in a reaction or reactions requiring NAD(P)H and H2O2 as cofactors. This stereoselectivity is retained in the subsequent conversion into (-)-matairesinol, since (+)-secoisolariciresinol is not a substrate. These are the first two enzymes to be discovered in lignan formation.

  15. Issues in Designing a Hypermedia Document System: The Intermedia Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankelovich, Nicole; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Intermedia, a hypermedia system developed at Brown University's Institute for Research (Rhode Island) in Information and Scholarship, is first described, and then used as a case study to explore a number of key issues that software designers must consider in the development of hypermedia document systems. A hypermedia document system is defined as…

  16. Reconstruction of chromosome rearrangements between the two most ancestral duckweed species Spirodela polyrhiza and S. intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Phuong T N; Schubert, Ingo

    2017-12-01

    The monophyletic duckweeds comprising five genera within the monocot order Alismatales are neotenic, free-floating, aquatic organisms with fast vegetative propagation. Some species are considered for efficient biomass production, for life stock feeding, and for (simultaneous) wastewater phytoremediation. The ancestral genus Spirodela consists of only two species, Spirodela polyrhiza and Spirodela intermedia, both with a similar small genome (~160 Mbp/1C). Reference genome drafts and a physical map of 96 BACs on the 20 chromosome pairs of S. polyrhiza strain 7498 are available and provide useful tools for further evolutionary studies within and between duckweed genera. Here we applied sequential comparative multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (mcFISH) to address homeologous chromosomes in S. intermedia (2n = 36), to detect chromosome rearrangements between both species and to elucidate the mechanisms which may have led to the chromosome number alteration after their evolutionary separation. Ten chromosome pairs proved to be conserved between S. polyrhiza and S. intermedia, the remaining ones experienced, depending on the assumed direction of evolution, translocations, inversion, and fissions, respectively. These results represent a first step to unravel karyotype evolution among duckweeds and are anchor points for future genome assembly of S. intermedia.

  17. The contingency of intermedia agenda setting: a longitudinal study in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, R.; Walgrave, S.

    2008-01-01

    This large-scale study investigates how intermedia agenda-setting effects are moderated by five factors: (1) lag length; (2) medium type; (3) language/institutional barriers; (4) issue type; and (5) election or non-election context. Longitudinal analyses of daily attention to twenty-five issues in

  18. Composition, Cytotoxic and Antimicrobial Activities of Satureja intermedia C.A.Mey Essential Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi-Rad, Javad; Sharifi-Rad, Mehdi; Hoseini-Alfatemi, Seyedeh Mahsan; Iriti, Marcello; Sharifi-Rad, Majid; Sharifi-Rad, Marzieh

    2015-08-03

    In this study, the essential oil (EO) constituents from the aerial parts of Satureja intermedia C.A.Mey were detected by GC and GC/MS. The antimicrobial activity of EO on oral pathogens and its cytotoxicity to human cancer cells were determined by the microbroth dilution method and the crystal violet staining method, respectively. Thirty-nine compounds were identified and the main EO constituents were γ-terpinene (37.1%), thymol (30.2%), p-cymene (16.2%), limonene (3.9%), α-terpinene (3.3%), myrcene (2.5%), germacrene B (1.4%), elemicine (1.1%) and carvacrol (0.5%). The S. intermedia EO showed a concentration-dependent decrease in viability of Hep-G2 (hepatocellular carcinoma) and MCF-7 (breast adenocarcinoma) human cancer cell lines (p intermedia EO demonstrated slight antibacterial and antifungal activities against Streptococcus mutants, S. salivarius, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and C. glabrata. Further preclinical studies are needed to assess the efficacy and safety of S. intermedia EO as a new promising anticancer agent.

  19. Isolation of Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. intermedia from fatal cases of diarrhoeal illness in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butler, T.; Islam, M.; Islam, M. R.; Azad, A. K.; Huq, M. I.; Speelman, P.; Roy, S. K.

    1984-01-01

    From three fatal cases of diarrhoeal illness in Bangladesh, Yersinia species were isolated from tissues at post-mortem examination. One patient was infected with Y. enterocolitica serotype 0:7, 8 and two patients were infected with Y. intermedia. These patients were infected also with other enteric

  20. Cloning, Codon Optimization, and Expression of Yersinia intermedia Phytase Gene in E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Maryam; Saffar, Behnaz; Shareghi, Behzad

    2016-06-01

    Phytate is an anti-nutritional factor in plants, which catches the most phosphorus contents and some vital minerals. Therefore, Phytase is added mainly as an additive to the monogastric animals' foods to hydrolyze phytate and increase absorption of phosphorus. Y. intermedia phytase is a new phytase with special characteristics such as high specific activity, pH stability, and thermostability. Our aim was to clone, express, and characterizea codon optimized Y. intermedia phytase gene in E. coli . The Y. intermedia phytase gene was optimized according to the codon usage in E. coli . The sequence was synthesized and sub-cloned in pET-22b (+) vector and transformed into E. coli Bl21 (DE3). The protein was expressed in the presence of IPTG at a final concentration of 1 mM at 30°C. The purification of recombinant protein was performed by Ni 2+ affinity chromatography. Phytase activity and stability were determined in various pH and temperatures. The codon optimized Y. intermedia phytase gene was sub-cloned successfully.The expression was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis. The recombinant enzyme (approximately 45 kDa) was purified. Specific activity of enzyme was 3849 (U.mg -1 ) with optimal pH 5 and optimal temperature of 55°C. Thermostability (80°C for 15 min) and pH stability (3-6) of the enzyme were 56 and more than 80%, respectively. The results of the expression and enzyme characterization revealed that the optimized Y. intermedia phytase gene has a good potential to be produced commercially andto be applied in animals' foodsindustry.

  1. Studies on the pathogenicity of anaerobes, especially Prevotella bivia, in a rat pyometra model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikamo, H; Kawazoe, K; Izumi, K; Watanabe, K; Ueno, K; Tamaya, T

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Prevotella bivia is one of the anaerobic bacteria that resides in the flora of the female genital tract. We studied the pathogenicity of P. bivia in a rat pyometra model. METHODS: The experimental animal (rat) model of pyometra was developed to investigate the pathogenicity of P. bivia in a rat pyometra model. RESULTS: In the groups inoculated with aerobes alone, the infection rate was 10% (1/10) in the Staphylococcus aureus- or Staphylococcus agalactiae-inoculated group and 20% (2/10) in the Escherichia coli-inoculated group. Infection was not established in the groups inoculated with anaerobes alone. High infection rates were observed in all the mixed-infection groups. In the S. agalactiae- and Bacteroides fragilis-, S. agalactiae- and P. bivia-, F. coli- and B. fragilis-, and E. coli- and P. bivia-inoculated groups, an infection rate of 100% (10/10) was demonstrated. The efficacy of antibiotics such as flomoxef (FMOX) could be determined using a rat pyometra model. In relation to the alteration of vaginal microbial flora during the menstrual cycle, estrogen increased the growth of P. bivia. CONCLUSION: Mixture of aerobic bacteria and P. bivia increased the pathogenicity of P. bivia. Estrogen would be useful for raising up the inflammatory change of the uterus in experimental models of genital tract infection due to P. bivia. PMID:9702587

  2. Identificação de Porphyromonas gingivalis e Prevotella intermedia isoladas de pacientes com doença periodontal e análise das resistências antimicrobianas

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Carminda Sílvia Nunes Monteiro da

    2017-01-01

    A cavidade oral é um dos locais do organismo humano que revela a mais complexa e heterogénea população microbiana, da qual fazem parte mais de meio milhar de espécies bacterianas. A doença periodontal (DP) é uma patologia oral de origem bacteriana caracterizada por um estado inflamatório que começa por afetar o tecido gengival e cuja progressão leva frequentemente à perda de dentes na idade adulta. As gengivites e periodontites são das patologias periodontais que surgem com ...

  3. Scaling and root planning, and locally delivered minocycline reduces the load of Prevotella intermedia in an interdependent pattern, correlating with symptomatic improvements of chronic periodontitis: a short-term randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, S.; Wang, Y.; Sun, W.; Chen, H.; Wu, G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the respective or combinatory efficacy of locally delivered 2% minocycline (MO) and scaling and root planning (SRP) by assessing both clinical parameters and the loads of four main periodontal pathogens in treating chronic periodontitis (CP). Methods: Seventy adults with CP

  4. Extramedullary hematopoiesis with spinal cord compression in a child with thalassemia intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ileri, Talia; Azik, Fatih; Ertem, Mehmet; Uysal, Zumrut; Gozdasoglu, Sevgi

    2009-09-01

    Spinal cord compression due to extramedullary hematopoiesis is an extremely rare complication of thalassemia intermedia. No cases with this complication have been reported in the first decade of life, because masses of heterotropic marrow developed in patients as a result of continuous erythropoiesis. We report the 9-year-old patient suffering from thalassemia intermedia and presenting spinal cord compression. We also review the literature about treatment options, because there is no consensus about the optimal treatment of these patients. Our patient was successfully treated with radiation therapy followed by hydroxyurea. With this combination therapy, he had no recurrence during the 4-year follow-up period. Clinical awareness of this phenomenon with the early treatment is essential for optimizing the successful outcome.

  5. Gibberella intermedia the pathogen of St. John's Wort, coneflower and marshmallow in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Snežana Đ.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gibberella intermedia (Kuhlmann Samuels et al. (anamorf: Fusarium proliferatum /Matsushima/ Nirenberg was isolated from seeds of St. John's wort, marshmallow, and coneflower, as well as from roots and stalks of marshmallow and roots of coneflower. These plants had symptoms of leaf chlorosis, malformation, withering and plant dwarfing and were collected from several localities in Serbia during five-year investigations of mycopopulations of the mentioned plants. The morphological characteristics of the pathogen were described.

  6. Gibberella intermedia the pathogen of St. John's Wort, coneflower and marshmallow in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlović Snežana Đ.; Stojšin Vera B.; Stojanović Saša D.; Starović Mira S.; Bagi Ferenc F.; Budakov Dragana B.

    2009-01-01

    Gibberella intermedia (Kuhlmann) Samuels et al. (anamorf: Fusarium proliferatum /Matsushima/ Nirenberg) was isolated from seeds of St. John's wort, marshmallow, and coneflower, as well as from roots and stalks of marshmallow and roots of coneflower. These plants had symptoms of leaf chlorosis, malformation, withering and plant dwarfing and were collected from several localities in Serbia during five-year investigations of mycopopulations of the mentioned plants. The morphological characterist...

  7. In Vitro Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Lavandula x intermedia Emeric ex Loisel. ‘Budrovka’

    OpenAIRE

    Blazekovic, Biljana; Stanic, Gordana; Pepeljnjak, Stjepan; Vladimir-Knezevic, Sanda

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities of Lavandula x intermedia Emeric ex Loisel. ‘Budrovka’, an indigenous Croatian cultivar of lavandin. For that purpose the activity of ethanolic extracts of flowers, inflorescence stalks and leaves against thirty one strains of bacteria, yeasts, dermatophytes and moulds were studied using both the agar well diffusion and broth dilution assays. Among the investigated extracts found to be effective against a broad ...

  8. Polarization of the interference field during reflection of electromagnetic waves from an intermedia boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulakhov, M. G.; Buyanov, Yu. I.; Yakubov, V. P.

    1996-10-01

    It has been shown that a full vector measurement of the total field allows one to uniquely distinguish the incident and reflected waves at each observation point without the use of a spatial difference based on an analysis of the polarization structure of the interference pattern which arises during reflection of electromagnetic waves from an intermedia boundary. We have investigated the stability of these procedures with respect to measurement noise by means of numerical modeling.

  9. Analisis Strategi Pemasaran Internasional Pada Produk Revoluzio (Studi Pada PT Beon Intermedia)

    OpenAIRE

    Aisyah, Nugrahanti Khairani; Mawardi, M. Kholid

    2017-01-01

    PT Beon Intermedia is company engaged in the field of ICT (information and communication technology. Based on preliminary observations conducted by researchers in the field, Revoluzio is an innovative e-business to implement automation in digital marketing. This product is an innovative e-business the most and become the only one, both Indonesia and abroad, so the company should also establish appropriate strategy for the International market. The aim of this study was to describe the changes...

  10. Del Distrito Industrial al Desarrollo Territorial: estrategias de innovación en ciudades intermedias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Méndez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Los contrastes territoriales se ha incrementado desde el inicio de los procesos de globalización e integración, pero, al mismo tiempo, las ciudades están mostrando diferente capacidad de respuesta ante esas transformaciones. Dentro de la Unión Europea, el policentrismo y el papel de las ciudades intermedias han cobrado creciente importancia en la actual agenda política, especialmente en el caso de las regiones periféricas con problemas estructurales que dificultan su desarrollo. El artículo hace una revisión crítica del paradigma de los distritos industriales y los ambientes innovadores para centrarse en su posible utilidad en la búsqueda de las claves para la construcción de ciudades intermedias innovadoras. Se concede especial importancia a los actores locales, las redes institucionales, la organización de sistemas productivos locales y la gobernabilidad territorial. Por último, se plantean algunas propuestas para apoyar la consolidación de procesos innovativos en ciudades intermedias.

  11. Morphology, morphogenesis, and phylogeny of an Anteholosticha intermedia (Ciliophora, Urostylida) population from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lingyun; Wu, Weining; El-Serehy, Hamed A; Hu, Xiaozhong; Clamp, John C

    2018-04-30

    A distinct population of Anteholosticha intermedia was isolated from soil in the Great Smoky Mountains of North Carolina, USA, and its morphology, morphogenesis and molecular phylogeny investigated by microscopic observations of live and protargol-prepared specimens and analyses of the sequence of small subunit (SSU) rDNA. Our population closely resembles the populations from Austria and Korea. Members of the genus Anteholosticha have been regarded as ontogenetically diverse, which is confirmed by the present work. The most noteworthy ontogenetic feature of the American population of A. intermedia is that the oral primordium in the proter appears apokinetally at the posterior end of the undulating membranes anlage at the beginning of division and then dedifferentiates midway through morphogenesis. Molecular phylogenetic analyses demonstrate, with high support, that the American population of A. intermedia is clearly distinct from congeners and branches as part of a sister lineage to the Bakuella-Urostyla clade that belongs to the major clade comprising the order Urostylida. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of pollen irradiation on hybridization of wheat and Eltrigia intermedia and their embryo development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guiying; Wang Linqing; Shi Jinguo

    2005-01-01

    Spikes of Eltrigia intermedia were radiated with 5-100 Gy γ-ray during anthesis, and then their pollens were collected to pollinate to the common wheat 'J-11' and 'Chinese Spring'. The effects of pollen irradiation on the seed setting, embryo development, embryo culture and plantlet rate were studied. The results showed that low dose (5-9 Gy) of irradiation enhanced the seed setting for Chinese spring x E. intermedia, but no such effect for J-11xE. intermedia. Irradiation with all doses damaged embryo development, percentage of seeds with embryos; rate of immature hybrid embryos developing into plantlets decreases with the increased doses. Percentage of seeds with abnormal embryos increased significantly with the doses. 12.9%-14.5% of embryos could develop into plants in 30 Gy treatment, which seldom occur to wheat. Embryos in 50 Gy-100 Gy treatment were affected so serious that even none of them could develop into plants in vitro culture. It may be an effective approach to obtaining more mutants and enhancing induced mutation breeding by using combination of pollen irradiation, immature embryo rescue and anther culture of the resultant progenies. (authors)

  13. Ruminal Prevotella spp. may play an important role in the conversion of plant lignans into human health beneficial antioxidants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L B Schogor

    Full Text Available Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG, the most abundant lignan in flaxseed, is metabolized by the ruminal microbiota into enterolignans, which are strong antioxidants. Enterolactone (EL, the main mammalian enterolignan produced in the rumen, is transferred into physiological fluids, with potentially human health benefits with respect to menopausal symptoms, hormone-dependent cancers, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis and diabetes. However, no information exists to our knowledge on bacterial taxa that play a role in converting plant lignans into EL in ruminants. In order to investigate this, eight rumen cannulated cows were used in a double 4 × 4 Latin square design and fed with four treatments: control with no flax meal (FM, or 5%, 10% and 15% FM (on a dry matter basis. Concentration of EL in the rumen increased linearly with increasing FM inclusion. Total rumen bacterial 16S rRNA concentration obtained using Q-PCR did not differ among treatments. PCR-T-RFLP based dendrograms revealed no global clustering based on diet indicating between animal variation. PCR-DGGE showed a clustering by diet effect within four cows that had similar basal ruminal microbiota. DNA extracted from bands present following feeding 15% FM and absent with no FM supplementation were sequenced and it showed that many genera, in particular Prevotella spp., contributed to the metabolism of lignans. A subsequent in vitro study using selected pure cultures of ruminal bacteria incubated with SDG indicated that 11 ruminal bacteria were able to convert SDG into secoisolariciresinol (SECO, with Prevotella spp. being the main converters. These data suggest that Prevotella spp. is one genus playing an important role in the conversion of plant lignans to human health beneficial antioxidants in the rumen.

  14. Abdominal wall phlebitis due to Prevotella bivia following renal transplantation in a patient with an occluded inferior vena cava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, S; van Donselaar-van der Pant, K A M I; van der Weerd, N C; Develter, W; Bemelman, F J; Grobusch, M P; Idu, M M; Ten Berge, I J M

    2013-02-01

    Pre-existing occlusion of the inferior vena cava may complicate renal transplantation. Suppurative abdominal wall phlebitis following renal transplantation was diagnosed in a patient with pre-existing thrombosis of the inferior vena cava of unknown cause. The phlebitis developed in the subcutaneous collateral veins of the abdominal wall contra-laterally to the renal transplant. Cultures from abdominal wall micro-abscesses yielded Prevotella bivia as the causative agent. This complication has not been described before in the context of renal transplantation. The pathogenesis and management of this serious complication are discussed in this paper.

  15. Anti-inflammatory effect of extract and fractions from the leaves of Byrsonima intermedia A. Juss. in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Lucimara Q; Vilela, Fabiana C; Orlandi, Lidiane; Dias, Danielle F; Santos, Ana Laura A; da Silva, Marcelo A; Paiva, Renato; Alves-da-Silva, Geraldo; Giusti-Paiva, Alexandre

    2011-11-18

    Byrsonima intermedia is commonly used for its antiseptic, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory properties in the treatment of diarrhea and dysentery in Brazilian folk medicine. The purpose of this study was to examine the anti-inflammatory activity of the aqueous extract and fractions of Byrsonima intermedia leaves. Rats with carrageenan-induced paw edema and fibrovascular tissue growth, which was induced by subcutaneous implantation of a cotton pellet, were used as acute and chronic animal models of inflammation to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of the aqueous extract and the individual ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and aqueous fractions of Byrsonima intermedia and catechin. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the fingerprint chromatogram of the aqueous extract and fractions of Byrsonima intermedia. The crude aqueous extract at test doses of 30-300 mg/kg p.o. clearly demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects by reducing carrageenan-induced paw edema, as did the ethyl acetate (100mg/kg) and aqueous fractions (30-100mg/kg). In the chronic inflammation rat animal model with fibrovascular tissue growth, the aqueous extract of Byrsonima intermedia (BiAE) at doses of 30-300 mg/kg and the individual EtOAc and aqueous fractions at doses of 30-100mg/kg and catechin significantly reduced the formation of granulomatous tissue. The presence of catechin and phenolic compounds in the extract and fractions of Byrsonima intermedia was confirmed using HPLC. BiAE and the individual EtOAc and aqueous fractions of Byrsonima intermedia exhibited chronic and acute anti-inflammatory efficacy in rats, which supports previous claims of its use in traditional medicine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Repeated exposure to Lutzomyia intermedia sand fly saliva induces local expression of interferon-inducible genes both at the site of injection in mice and in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinkopff, Tiffany; de Oliveira, Camila I; de Carvalho, Augusto M; Hauyon-La Torre, Yazmin; Muniz, Aline C; Miranda, Jose Carlos; Barral, Aldina; Tacchini-Cottier, Fabienne

    2014-01-01

    During a blood meal, Lutzomyia intermedia sand flies transmit Leishmania braziliensis, a parasite causing tegumentary leishmaniasis. In experimental leishmaniasis, pre-exposure to saliva of most blood-feeding sand flies results in parasite establishment in absence of any skin damages in mice challenged with dermotropic Leishmania species together with saliva. In contrast, pre-immunization with Lu. intermedia salivary gland sonicate (SGS) results in enhanced skin inflammatory exacerbation upon co-inoculation of Lu. intermedia SGS and L. braziliensis. These data highlight potential unique features of both L. braziliensis and Lu. intermedia. In this study, we investigated the genes modulated by Lu. intermedia SGS immunization to understand their potential impact on the subsequent cutaneous immune response following inoculation of both SGS and L. braziliensis. The cellular recruitment and global gene expression profile was analyzed in mice repeatedly inoculated or not with Lu. intermedia. Microarray gene analysis revealed the upregulation of a distinct set of IFN-inducible genes, an immune signature not seen to the same extent in control animals. Of note this INF-inducible gene set was not induced in SGS pre-immunized mice subsequently co-inoculated with SGS and L. braziliensis. These data suggest the parasite prevented the upregulation of this Lu. intermedia saliva-related immune signature. The presence of these IFN-inducible genes was further analyzed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) sampled from uninfected human individuals living in a L. braziliensis-endemic region of Brazil thus regularly exposed to Lu. intermedia bites. PBMCs were cultured in presence or absence of Lu. intermedia SGS. Using qRT-PCR we established that the IFN-inducible genes induced in the skin of SGS pre-immunized mice, were also upregulated by SGS in PBMCs from human individuals regularly exposed to Lu. intermedia bites, but not in PBMCs of control subjects. These data demonstrate

  17. Identification of the WRKY gene family and functional analysis of two genes in Caragana intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yongqing; Mao, Mingzhu; Wan, Dongli; Yang, Qi; Yang, Feiyun; Mandlaa; Li, Guojing; Wang, Ruigang

    2018-02-09

    WRKY transcription factors, one of the largest families of transcriptional regulators in plants, play important roles in plant development and various stress responses. The WRKYs of Caragana intermedia are still not well characterized, although many WRKYs have been identified in various plant species. We identified 53 CiWRKY genes from C. intermedia transcriptome data, 28 of which exhibited complete open reading frames (ORFs). These CiWRKYs were divided into three groups via phylogenetic analysis according to their WRKY domains and zinc finger motifs. Conserved domain analysis showed that the CiWRKY proteins contain a highly conserved WRKYGQK motif and two variant motifs (WRKYGKK and WKKYEEK). The subcellular localization of CiWRKY26 and CiWRKY28-1 indicated that these two proteins localized exclusively to nuclei, supporting their role as transcription factors. The expression patterns of the 28 CiWRKYs with complete ORFs were examined through quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) in various tissues and under different abiotic stresses (drought, cold, salt, high-pH and abscisic acid (ABA)). The results showed that each CiWRKY responded to at least one stress treatment. Furthermore, overexpression of CiWRKY75-1 and CiWRKY40-4 in Arabidopsis thaliana suppressed the drought stress tolerance of the plants and delayed leaf senescence, respectively. Fifty-three CiWRKY genes from the C. intermedia transcriptome were identified and divided into three groups via phylogenetic analysis. The expression patterns of the 28 CiWRKYs under different abiotic stresses suggested that each CiWRKY responded to at least one stress treatment. Overexpression of CiWRKY75-1 and CiWRKY40-4 suppressed the drought stress tolerance of Arabidopsis and delayed leaf senescence, respectively. These results provide a basis for the molecular mechanism through which CiWRKYs mediate stress tolerance.

  18. Treatment with hydroxyurea in thalassemia intermedia with paravertebral pseudotumors of extramedullary hematopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cario, H; Wegener, M; Debatin, K-M; Kohne, E

    2002-08-01

    Excessive ineffective erythropoiesis in thalassemia intermedia may cause paravertebral pseudotumors of extramedullary hematopoiesis. Due to the proximity to the spinal canal, these paravertebral masses carry the risk of severe neurological damage. Treatment strategies include hypertransfusion, radiotherapy, and laminectomy. Hydroxyurea, stimulating fetal hemoglobin synthesis, may represent an alternative therapeutic approach. We report on a 26-year-old patient suffering from thalassemia intermedia with progressive anemia symptoms and presenting multiple intrathoracic paravertebral pseudotumors of extramedullary hematopoiesis. Hypertransfusion therapy and splenectomy were followed by regular transfusion (baseline hemoglobin 10 g/dl) and chelation with desferrioxamine. With this treatment, clinical symptoms disappeared, paravertebral hematopoietic masses did not progress, but severe hemosiderosis developed within a few years. Hydroxyurea therapy was initiated to increase the efficacy of erythropoiesis, thereby reducing the required transfusion volume but suppressing concomitantly further expansion of extramedullary hematopoiesis, and finally leading to a reduction of transfusional iron load. Treatment was started with 4 mg/kg per day and stepwise increased to 12.5 mg/kg per day. The fetal hemoglobin concentration increased from 4.5 to 5.5 g/dl after 1 year and to 9.9 g/dl after 2 years of treatment. The yearly transfusion volume was halved during the 1st year of treatment. At present, after 26 months of treatment, the patient has been transfusion-independent for 10 months. Serum ferritin levels decreased from 2844 to 1335 ng/ml. Size and shape of paravertebral hematopoietic pseudotumors remained stable. No side effects of hydroxyurea have been observed. In thalassemia intermedia patients with extramedullary hematopoiesis, hydroxyurea may lead to independence from regular transfusion therapy without further expansion of ectopic hematopoietic tissue.

  19. Transcriptome Changes Associated with Anaerobic Growth in Yersinia intermedia (ATCC29909)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiley, Patricia J.; Glasner, Jeremy D.; Perna, Nicole T.

    2013-01-01

    Background The yersiniae (Enterobacteriaceae) occupy a variety of niches, including some in human and flea hosts. Metabolic adaptations of the yersiniae, which contribute to their success in these specialized environments, remain largely unknown. We report results of an investigation of the transcriptome under aerobic and anaerobic conditions for Y. intermedia, a non-pathogenic member of the genus that has been used as a research surrogate for Y. pestis. Y. intermedia shares characteristics of pathogenic yersiniae, but is not known to cause disease in humans. Oxygen restriction is an important environmental stimulus experienced by many bacteria during their life-cycles and greatly influences their survival in specific environments. How oxygen availability affects physiology in the yersiniae is of importance in their life cycles but has not been extensively characterized. Methodology/Principal Findings Tiled oligonucleotide arrays based on a draft genome sequence of Y. intermedia were used in transcript profiling experiments to identify genes that change expression in response to oxygen availability during growth in minimal media with glucose. The expression of more than 400 genes, constituting about 10% of the genome, was significantly altered due to oxygen-limitation in early log phase under these conditions. Broad functional categorization indicated that, in addition to genes involved in central metabolism, genes involved in adaptation to stress and genes likely involved with host interactions were affected by oxygen-availability. Notable among these, were genes encoding functions for motility, chemotaxis and biosynthesis of cobalamin, which were up-regulated and those for iron/heme utilization, methionine metabolism and urease, which were down-regulated. Conclusions/Significance This is the first transcriptome analysis of a non-pathogenic Yersinia spp. and one of few elucidating the global response to oxygen limitation for any of the yersiniae. Thus this study

  20. Comparison of right and left side heart functions in patients with thalassemia major, patients with thalassemia intermedia, and control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noori, Noormohammad; Mohamadi, Mehdi; Keshavarz, Kambiz; Alavi, Seyed Mostafa; Mahjoubifard, Maziar; Mirmesdagh, Yalda

    2013-01-01

    Heart disease is the main cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with beta thalassemia, rendering its early diagnosis vital. We studied and compared echocardiographic findings in patients with beta thalassemia major, patients with beta thalassemia intermedia, and a control group. Eighty asymptomatic patients with thalassemia major and 22 asymptomatic cases with thalassemia intermedia (8-25 years old) were selected from those referred to Ali Asghar Hospital (Zahedan-Iran) between June 2008 and June 2009. Additionally, 80 healthy individuals within the same age and sex groups were used as controls. All the individuals underwent echocardiography, the data of which were analyzed with the Student t-test. The mean value of the pre-ejection period/ejection time ratio of the left ventricle during systole, the diameter of the posterior wall of the left ventricle during diastole, the left and right isovolumic relaxation times, and the right myocardial performance index in the patients with beta thalassemia major and intermedia increased significantly compared to those of the controls, but the other parameters were similar between the two patient groups. The mean values of the left and right pre-ejection periods, left ventricular end systolic dimension, and left isovolumic contraction time in the patients with thalassemia intermedia increased significantly compared to those of the controls. In the left side, myocardial performance index, left ventricular mass index, isovolumic contraction time, and deceleration time exhibited significant changes between the patients with thalassemia major and those with thalassemia intermedia, whereas all the echocardiographic parameters of the right side were similar between these two groups. The results showed that the systolic and diastolic functions of the right and left sides of the heart would be impaired in patients with thalassemia major and thalassemia intermedia. Consequently, serial echocardiography is suggested in

  1. Functional transcriptomics of wild-caught Lutzomyia intermedia salivary glands: identification of a protective salivary protein against Leishmania braziliensis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Tatiana R; Oliveira, Fabiano; Carneiro, Marcia W; Miranda, José Carlos; Clarêncio, Jorge; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Brodskyn, Cláudia; Barral, Aldina; Ribeiro, José M C; Valenzuela, Jesus G; de Oliveira, Camila I

    2013-01-01

    Leishmania parasites are transmitted in the presence of sand fly saliva. Together with the parasite, the sand fly injects salivary components that change the environment at the feeding site. Mice immunized with Phlebotomus papatasi salivary gland (SG) homogenate are protected against Leishmania major infection, while immunity to Lutzomyia intermedia SG homogenate exacerbated experimental Leishmania braziliensis infection. In humans, antibodies to Lu. intermedia saliva are associated with risk of acquiring L. braziliensis infection. Despite these important findings, there is no information regarding the repertoire of Lu. intermedia salivary proteins. A cDNA library from the Salivary Glands (SGs) of wild-caught Lu. intermedia was constructed, sequenced, and complemented by a proteomic approach based on 1D SDS PAGE and mass/mass spectrometry to validate the transcripts present in this cDNA library. We identified the most abundant transcripts and proteins reported in other sand fly species as well as novel proteins such as neurotoxin-like proteins, peptides with ML domain, and three small peptides found so far only in this sand fly species. DNA plasmids coding for ten selected transcripts were constructed and used to immunize BALB/c mice to study their immunogenicity. Plasmid Linb-11--coding for a 4.5-kDa protein--induced a cellular immune response and conferred protection against L. braziliensis infection. This protection correlated with a decreased parasite load and an increased frequency of IFN-γ-producing cells. We identified the most abundant and novel proteins present in the SGs of Lu. intermedia, a vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Americas. We also show for the first time that immunity to a single salivary protein from Lu. intermedia can protect against cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. braziliensis.

  2. Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva or salivary protein LJM19 protects against Leishmania braziliensis and the saliva of its vector, Lutzomyia intermedia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia M Tavares

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leishmania transmission occurs in the presence of insect saliva. Immunity to Phlebotomus papatasi or Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva or salivary components confers protection against an infection by Leishmania in the presence of the homologous saliva. However, immunization with Lutzomyia intermedia saliva did not protect mice against Leishmania braziliensis plus Lu. intermedia saliva. In the present study, we have studied whether the immunization with Lu. longipalpis saliva or a DNA plasmid coding for LJM19 salivary protein would be protective against L. braziliensis infection in the presence of Lu. intermedia saliva, the natural vector for L. braziliensis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Immunization with Lu. longipalpis saliva or with LJM19 DNA plasmid induced a Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity (DTH response against Lu. longipalpis as well as against a Lu. intermedia saliva challenge. Immunized and unimmunized control hamsters were then intradermally infected in the ears with L. braziliensis in the presence of Lu. longipalpis or Lu. intermedia saliva. Animals immunized with Lu. longipalpis saliva exhibited smaller lesion sizes as well as reduced disease burdens both at lesion site and in the draining lymph nodes. These alterations were associated with a significant decrease in the expression levels of IL-10 and TGF-β. Animals immunized with LJM19 DNA plasmid presented similar findings in protection and immune response and additionally increased IFN-γ expression. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Immunization with Lu. longipalpis saliva or with a DNA plasmid coding LJM19 salivary protein induced protection in hamsters challenged with L. braziliensis plus Lu. intermedia saliva. These findings point out an important role of immune response against saliva components, suggesting the possibility to develop a vaccine using a single component of Lu. longipalpis saliva to generate protection against different species of Leishmania, even those

  3. Los límites de la ciudad intermedia : conectividad e innovación

    OpenAIRE

    Basurto Alvarez, Rodolfo

    2014-01-01

    Este trabajo vincula conectividad e innovación para fijar los alcances de la segunda modernidad de una ciudad intermedia (Hermosillo, Sonora, México), estableciendo sus restricciones para ascender como nodo de comunicación sur-norte de la ciudad global. Se evalúa la diversidad incipiente del ecosistema urbano mediante el referente hipotético de la existencia de flujos comunicacionales de una sola dirección (norte-sur) en el funcionamiento de las empresas multinacionales. ...

  4. Evolución cenozoica de la Depresión Intermedia (Cuenca-Guadalajara)

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, T.; Zapata, J. L.

    1987-01-01

    En este trabajo se analiza la evolución Cenozoica de la Depresión Intermedia, habiéndose determinado la existencia de dos ciclos paleógenos y cuatro neógenos. En todos ellos la sedimentación es continental y de carácter fluvial y lacustre-palustre. Si se exceptúa el Primer Ciclo Paleógeno, que tuvo su área fuente en una zona al sur de la cuenca en la que predominaban rocas paleozoicas, los cinco restantes las tuvieron en el Sistema Ibérico, donde predominan rocas mesozoicas

  5. Evolución cenozoica de la Depresión Intermedia (Cuenca-Guadalajara)

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Pérez-Hidalgo, Trinidad José

    1987-01-01

    En este trabajo se analiza la evolución Cenozoica de la Depresión Intermedia, habiéndose determinado la existencia de dos ciclos paleógenos y cuatro neógenos. En todos ellos la sedimentación es continental y de carácter fluvial y lacustre-palustre. Si se exceptúa el Primer Ciclo Paleógeno, que tuvo su área fuente en una zona al sur de la cuenca en la que predominaban rocas paleozoicas, los cinco restantes las tuvieron en el Sistema Ibérico, donde predominan rocas mesozoicas....

  6. Double heterozygocity for hemoglobin C and beta thalassemia dominant: A rare case of thalassemia intermedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Agapidou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Beta thalassemia dominant results from mutations in the β globin chain gene resulting in the production of elongated, highly unstable beta globin chains. Several such mutations have been described and in a heterozygous state they may confer a phenotype more severe than that of β thalassemia trait and lead to a clinical syndrome of thalassemia intermedia and its associated complications such as extramedullary hemopoiesis, bone disease, endocrinopathies and iron overload even in the absence of transfusion. In this report we present a case of double heterozygocity for HbC and β thalassemia dominant leading to a series of complications that were treated successfully once the correct diagnosis was made.

  7. Bacterial diversity of the American sand fly Lutzomyia intermedia using high-throughput metagenomic sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Carolina Cunha; Villegas, Luis Eduardo Martinez; Campolina, Thais Bonifácio; Pires, Ana Clara Machado Araújo; Miranda, Jose Carlos; Pimenta, Paulo Filemon Paolucci; Secundino, Nagila Francinete Costa

    2016-08-31

    Parasites of the genus Leishmania cause a broad spectrum of diseases, collectively known as leishmaniasis, in humans worldwide. American cutaneous leishmaniasis is a neglected disease transmitted by sand fly vectors including Lutzomyia intermedia, a proven vector. The female sand fly can acquire or deliver Leishmania spp. parasites while feeding on a blood meal, which is required for nutrition, egg development and survival. The microbiota composition and abundance varies by food source, life stages and physiological conditions. The sand fly microbiota can affect parasite life-cycle in the vector. We performed a metagenomic analysis for microbiota composition and abundance in Lu. intermedia, from an endemic area in Brazil. The adult insects were collected using CDC light traps, morphologically identified, carefully sterilized, dissected under a microscope and the females separated into groups according to their physiological condition: (i) absence of blood meal (unfed = UN); (ii) presence of blood meal (blood-fed = BF); and (iii) presence of developed ovaries (gravid = GR). Then, they were processed for metagenomics with Illumina Hiseq Sequencing in order to be sequence analyzed and to obtain the taxonomic profiles of the microbiota. Bacterial metagenomic analysis revealed differences in microbiota composition based upon the distinct physiological stages of the adult insect. Sequence identification revealed two phyla (Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria), 11 families and 15 genera; 87 % of the bacteria were Gram-negative, while only one family and two genera were identified as Gram-positive. The genera Ochrobactrum, Bradyrhizobium and Pseudomonas were found across all of the groups. The metagenomic analysis revealed that the microbiota of the Lu. intermedia female sand flies are distinct under specific physiological conditions and consist of 15 bacterial genera. The Ochrobactrum, Bradyrhizobium and Pseudomonas were the common genera. Our results detailing

  8. Intermedia transfer factors for fifteen toxic pollutants released to air basins in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, T.E.; Daniels, J.I. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Chiao, F.F.; Hsieh, D.P.H. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1993-10-01

    This report provides a summary definition of the intermedia-transfer factors (ITFs). Methods are discussed for estimating these parameters in the absence of measured values, and the estimation errors inherent in these estimation methods are considered. A detailed summary is provided of measured and estimated ITF values for fifteen air contaminants. They include: 1,3 butadiene; cadmium; cellosolve; cellosolve acetate; chloroform; di-2-ethylhexylphthalate; 1,4-dioxame; hexachlorobenzene; inorganic arsenic; inorganic lead; nickel; tetrachloroethylene; toluene; toluene-2,4-diisocyanate; and 1,3-xylene. Recommendations are made regarding the expected value and variance in these values for use in exposure models.

  9. Cloning of a sesquiterpene synthase from Lavandula x intermedia glandular trichomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Lukman S; Demissie, Zerihun A; Mahmoud, Soheil S

    2013-11-01

    The essential oil (EO) of Lavandula is dominated by monoterpenes, but can also contain small amounts of sesquiterpenes, depending on species and environmental conditions. For example, the sesquiterpene 9-epi-caryophyllene can make up to 8 % of the EO in a few species, including those commercially propagated for EO production. Here, we report the cloning and functional characterization of 9-epi-caryophyllene synthase (LiCPS) from the glandular trichomes of Lavandula x intermedia, cv. Grosso. The 1,617 bp open reading frame of LiCPS, which did not encode a transit peptide, was expressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant protein purified by Ni-NTA agarose affinity chromatography. The ca. 60 kDa recombinant protein specifically converted farnesyl diphosphate to 9-epi-caryophyllene. LiCPS also produced a few monoterpenes when assayed with the monoterpene precursor geranyl diphosphate (GPP), but--unlike most monoterpene synthases--was not able to derive detectable amounts of any products from the cis isomer of GPP, neryl diphosphate. The LiCPS transcripts accumulated in developing L. x intermedia flowers and were highly enriched in glandular trichomes, but were not detected in leaves suggesting that the transcriptional expression of this gene is spatially and developmentally regulated.

  10. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of borneol dehydrogenase from the glandular trichomes of Lavandula x intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Lukman S; Galata, Mariana; Demissie, Zerihun A; Mahmoud, Soheil S

    2012-12-15

    Several varieties of Lavandula x intermedia (lavandins) are cultivated for their essential oils (EOs) for use in cosmetic, hygiene and personal care products. These EOs are mainly constituted of monoterpenes including camphor, which contributes an off odor reducing the olfactory appeal of the oil. We have recently constructed a cDNA library from the glandular trichomes (the sites of EO synthesis) of L. x intermedia plants. Here, we describe the cloning of a borneol dehydrogenase cDNA (LiBDH) from this library. The 780 bp open reading frame of the cDNA encoded a 259 amino acid short chain alcohol dehydrogenase with a predicted molecular mass of ca. 27.5 kDa. The recombinant LiBDH was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified by Ni-NTA agarose affinity chromatography, and functionally characterized in vitro. The bacterially produced enzyme specifically converted borneol to camphor as the only product with K(m) and k(cat) values of 53 μM and 4.0 × 10(-4) s(-1), respectively. The LiBDH transcripts were specifically expressed in glandular trichomes of mature flowers indicating that like other Lavandula monoterpene synthases the expression of this gene is regulated in a tissue-specific manner. The cloning of LiBDH has far reaching implications in improving the quality of Lavandula EOs through metabolic engineering. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Morphology, ecology, and behaviour of Hylarana intermedia, a Western Ghats frog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambika Kamath

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite being common in the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka biodiversity hotspot, Golden-backed frogs (Hylarana, Ranidae remain poorly studied. In this paper, we present some preliminary data on the morphology, behaviour, and habitat use of Hylarana intermedia, a member of the Hylarana aurantiaca species group. We find evidence for female biased size dimorphism, as well as potential shape differences between the sexes in this species. Additionally, we investigate the relationships between traits that may contribute to male conspicuousness (call rates, dorsal coloration, and body size in two breeding habitats, a paddy field and a trench. Our results suggest both size-dependent and environment-dependent variation in call rate and colour in this species. Specifically, we find evidence against the adoption of sneaker mating strategies by small males in H. intermedia, and instead find variation both within and between populations in traits contributing to male conspicuousness. We conclude by proposing future directions for research on this common frog species.

  12. Spinal cord compression due to extramedullary hematopoiesis in beta-thalassemia intermedia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munn, Rita K.; Kramer, Carol A.; Arnold, Susanne M.

    1998-01-01

    Background: Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) occurs in many disorders, including thalassemias and other hemoglobinopathies, and commonly presents in the spleen and liver. We present a case of spinal cord compression in a patient with beta-thalassemia intermedia, and review the literature and available treatment options. Patient and Methods: A 35-year-old black female with beta-thalassemia intermedia presented with a 3-week history of back pain and lower extremity weakness. Neurologic examination was consistent with spinal cord compression, and gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed this diagnosis. She was given intravenous steroids and radiotherapy was begun in 200 cGy fractions to a total dose of 2000 cGy. Results: At the completion of radiotherapy the patient was ambulatory with mild residual weakness. MRI scans 16 months later showed smaller, but persistent masses, and she remains asymptomatic 5 years from her diagnosis. Conclusion: Recognition of spinal cord EMH requires prompt physical examination and MRI for accurate diagnosis. EMH can be managed with radiation, surgery, transfusions, or a combination of these therapies. Radiation in conservative doses of (750-3500 cGy) is non-invasive, avoids the surgical risks of potentially severe hemorrhage and incomplete resection, and has a high complete remission rate in the majority of patients. Relapse rates are moderate (37.5%), but retreatment provides excellent chance for second remission

  13. Noninvasive analysis of skin iron and zinc levels in beta-thalassemia major and intermedia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodetsky, R.; Goldfarb, A.; Dagan, I.; Rachmilewitz, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    Diagnostic x-ray spectrometry, a method based on x-ray fluorescence analysis, was used for noninvasive determination of iron and zinc in two distinct skin areas, representing predominantly dermal and epidermal tissues, in 56 patients with beta-thalassemia major and intermedia. The mean iron levels in the skin of patients with beta-thalassemia major and intermedia were elevated by greater than 200% and greater than 50%, respectively, compared with control values. The zinc levels of both skin areas examined were within the normal range. The data indicate that the rate and number of blood transfusions, which correlated well with serum ferritin levels (r . 0.8), are not the only factors that determine the amount of iron deposition in the skin (r less than 0.6). Other sources of iron intake contribute to the total iron load in the tissues, particularly in patients who are not given multiple transfusions. The noninvasive quantitation of skin levels may reflect the extent of iron deposition in major parenchymal organs. Repeated DXS examinations of the skin could monitor the clearance of iron from the tissues of patients with iron overload in the course of therapy with chelating agents

  14. Partial Splenectomy in the treatment of an adult with β thalassemia intermedia: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, João Guardado; Moreira, Nídia; Costa Almeida, Carlos Eduardo; Reis, Luís Simões

    2017-01-01

    Thalassemia is a common disease which treatment is often based on splenectomy. The risks associated with total splenectomy stimulated partial splenectomy as a potentially alternative therapy. A 45 year-old female patient with long term follow-up for β thalassemia intermedia started to develop signs of hypersplenism and iron overload. A partial splenectomy was performed and was observed a marked hematologic improvement while preserving the desired splenic function. Partial splenectomy proved to provide a persistent decrease in hemolytic rate while preserving the integrity of splenic phagocytic function, presenting itself as an effective alternative to total splenectomy. After being subjected to partial splenectomy, our patient experienced a sustained control of hemolysis and showed no signs of hypersplenism or iron overload. No splenic regrowth or infectious complications were observed. The major drawbacks of partial splenectomy are the increased risk of intra- and postoperative bleeding, splenic remnant torsion and splenic regrowth. Partial splenectomy is an alternative to total splenectomy for the treatment of adult β Thalassemia intermedia patients avoiding the risks associated with total splenectomy.

  15. Low-Molecular-Weight Chitosan Supplementation Increases the Population of Prevotella in the Cecal Contents of Weanling Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Yu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Low-molecular-weight chitosan (LC promoted growth in weaned piglets as an alternative to feed-grade antibiotics. To investigate the influence of LC supplementation on piglets' gut microbiome and compare the differences in community composition between LC and antibiotics with ZnO addition, we assessed the cecal microbial community by 16S rRNA gene sequencing with three treatments consisting of basal diet (CTR group, basal diet with low-molecular-weight chitosan (LC group, and basal diet with antibiotic and ZnO (AZ group. LC decreased pH more than AZ did in the cecum (both compared to CTR. Beta diversity analysis showed that community structure was distinctly different among the CTR, LC, and AZ treatments, indicating that either LC or AZ treatment modulated the piglet microbiota. Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria dominated the community [>98% of operational taxonomic units (OTUs] in piglet cecal contents. Compared to CTR, both LC, and AZ increased the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes while they decreased the count of Firmicutes and AZ decreased the population of Proteobacteria. In CTR the top four abundant genera were Prevotella (~10.4%, Succinivibrio (~6.2%, Lactobacillus (~5.6%, and Anaerovibrio (5.4%. Both LC and AZ increased the relative abundance of Prevotella but decreased the ratio of Lactobacillus when they compared with CTR. Moreover, LC increased the relative abundance of Succinivibrio and Anaerovibrio while AZ decreased them. The microbial function prediction showed LC enriched more pathways in the metabolism of cofactors and vitamins than CTR or AZ did. LC may potentially function as an alternative to feed-grade antibiotics in weaned piglets due to its beneficial regulation of the intestinal microbiome.

  16. Estudo da competência vetorial de Lutzomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 para Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis, Vianna, 1911 Study of the vectorial competence of Lutzomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 to Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis, Vianna, 1911

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos da Silva

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a competência vetorial de Lutzomyia intermedia (Diptera: Psychodidae do Vale do Ribeira (SP para estirpes de Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae, mediante pesquisa de infectividade natural; exposições de fêmeas silvestres e colonizadas (F1 às lesões de hamsters experimentalmente infectados e testes de transmissão via picada. A infectividade natural e os testes de transmissão revelaram-se negativos e, nas exposições, foram obtidas positividades de 74% (123+/166 dissecados e 70% (115+/164 dissecados para fêmeas silvestres e colonizadas respectivamente, e o desenvolvimento das formas evolutivas compatíveis com o modelo Peripilaria. A suscetibilidade às estirpes testadas associada aos indicadores epidemiológicos concorrem para a suspeita do papel vetorial de Lutzomyia intermedia na região estudada.This paper investigated the vectorial competence of Lutzomyia intermedia (Diptera: Psychodidae in Vale do Ribeira (SP to strains of Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae, by means of a search for natural infection; exposure of wild and colonized females (F1 to the lesions of experimentally infected hamsters and transmission tests by bite. The natural infection and the transmission tests were negative. In the exposures of Lu. intermedia to infected lesions we found rates of 74% (123+/166 dissected and 70% (115+/164 dissected for the wild and colonized females respectively. The development of the parasites was compatible with the development model of Peripilaria. The susceptibility of the tested strains associated with the epidemiological indicators contribute to the vectorial role suspicion of Lutzomyia intermedia in the studied region.

  17. Complete genome sequence of Brachyspira intermedia reveals unique genomic features in Brachyspira species and phage-mediated horizontal gene transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Brachyspira spp. colonize the intestines of some mammalian and avian species and show different degrees of enteropathogenicity. Brachyspira intermedia can cause production losses in chickens and strain PWS/AT now becomes the fourth genome to be completed in the genus Brachyspira. Results 15 classes of unique and shared genes were analyzed in B. intermedia, B. murdochii, B. hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli. The largest number of unique genes was found in B. intermedia and B. murdochii. This indicates the presence of larger pan-genomes. In general, hypothetical protein annotations are overrepresented among the unique genes. A 3.2 kb plasmid was found in B. intermedia strain PWS/AT. The plasmid was also present in the B. murdochii strain but not in nine other Brachyspira isolates. Within the Brachyspira genomes, genes had been translocated and also frequently switched between leading and lagging strands, a process that can be followed by different AT-skews in the third positions of synonymous codons. We also found evidence that bacteriophages were being remodeled and genes incorporated into them. Conclusions The accessory gene pool shapes species-specific traits. It is also influenced by reductive genome evolution and horizontal gene transfer. Gene-transfer events can cross both species and genus boundaries and bacteriophages appear to play an important role in this process. A mechanism for horizontal gene transfer appears to be gene translocations leading to remodeling of bacteriophages in combination with broad tropism. PMID:21816042

  18. Characterization of pars intermedia connections in amphibians by biocytin tract tracing and immunofluorescence aided by confocal microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, K; Fabro, C; Artero, C; Feuilloley, M; Vaudry, H; Fasolo, A; Franzoni, MF

    Biocytin, recently introduced in neuroanatomical studies, was used as a retrograde tract tracer in combination with immunofluorescence in order to analyse the neurochemical characters of some central neuronal projections to the pars intermedia in two amphibian species, the anuran Rana esculenta and

  19. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening, Quantitative Analysis of Alkaloids, and Antioxidant Activity of Crude Plant Extracts from Ephedra intermedia Indigenous to Balochistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Rahman; Jan, Syed Umer; Faridullah, Syed; Sherani, Samiullah; Jahan, Nusrat

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity, screening the phytogenic chemical compounds, and to assess the alkaloids present in the E. intermedia to prove its uses in Pakistani folk medicines for the treatment of asthma and bronchitis. Antioxidant activity was analyzed by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate assay. Standard methods were used for the identification of cardiac glycosides, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, anthraquinones, and alkaloids. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for quantitative purpose of ephedrine alkaloids in E. intermedia . The quantitative separation was confirmed on Shimadzu 10AVP column (Shampack) of internal diameter (id) 3.0 mm and 50 mm in length. The extract of the solute in flow rate of 1 ml/min at the wavelength 210 nm and methanolic extract showed the antioxidant activity and powerful oxygen free radicals scavenging activities and the IC50 for the E. intermedia plant was near to the reference standard ascorbic acid. The HPLC method was useful for the quantitative purpose of ephedrine (E) and pseudoephedrine (PE) used for 45 samples of one species collected from central habitat in three districts (Ziarat, Shairani, and Kalat) of Balochistan. Results showed that average alkaloid substance in E. intermedia was as follows: PE (0.209%, 0.238%, and 0.22%) and E (0.0538%, 0.0666%, and 0.0514%).

  20. Equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction: current understanding and recommendations from the Australian and New Zealand Equine Endocrine Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secombe, C J; Bailey, S R; de Laat, M A; Hughes, K J; Stewart, A S; Sonis, J M; Tan, Rhh

    2018-06-03

    The purpose of this article is to provide a review of the current knowledge and opinions about the epidemiology, clinical findings (including sequelae), diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction, particularly in the Australian context. This information and the recommendations provided will assist practitioners in making informed decisions regarding the diagnosis and management of this disorder. © 2018 Australian Veterinary Association.

  1. Different water use strategies of juvenile and adult Caragana intermedia plantations in the Gonghe Basin, Tibet Plateau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqing Jia

    Full Text Available In a semi-arid ecosystem, water is one of the most important factors that affect vegetation dynamics, such as shrub plantation. A water use strategy, including the main water source that a plant species utilizes and water use efficiency (WUE, plays an important role in plant survival and growth. The water use strategy of a shrub is one of the key factors in the evaluation of stability and sustainability of a plantation.Caragana intermedia is a dominant shrub of sand-binding plantations on sand dunes in the Gonghe Basin in northeastern Tibet Plateau. Understanding the water use strategy of a shrub plantation can be used to evaluate its sustainability and long-term stability. We hypothesized that C. intermedia uses mainly deep soil water and its WUE increases with plantation age. Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen were used to determine the main water source and leaf carbon isotope discrimination was used to estimate long-term WUE. The root system was investigated to determine the depth of the main distribution. The results showed that a 5-year-old C. intermedia plantation used soil water mainly at a depth of 0-30 cm, which was coincident with the distribution of its fine roots. However, 9- or 25-year-old C. intermedia plantations used mainly 0-50 cm soil depth water and the fine root system was distributed primarily at soil depths of 0-50 cm and 0-60 cm, respectively. These sources of soil water are recharged directly by rainfall. Moreover, the long-term WUE of adult plantations was greater than that of juvenile plantations.The C. intermedia plantation can change its water use strategy over time as an adaptation to a semi-arid environment, including increasing the depth of soil water used for root growth, and increasing long-term WUE.

  2. Different Water Use Strategies of Juvenile and Adult Caragana intermedia Plantations in the Gonghe Basin, Tibet Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhiqing; Zhu, Yajuan; Liu, Liying

    2012-01-01

    Background In a semi-arid ecosystem, water is one of the most important factors that affect vegetation dynamics, such as shrub plantation. A water use strategy, including the main water source that a plant species utilizes and water use efficiency (WUE), plays an important role in plant survival and growth. The water use strategy of a shrub is one of the key factors in the evaluation of stability and sustainability of a plantation. Methodology/Principal Findings Caragana intermedia is a dominant shrub of sand-binding plantations on sand dunes in the Gonghe Basin in northeastern Tibet Plateau. Understanding the water use strategy of a shrub plantation can be used to evaluate its sustainability and long-term stability. We hypothesized that C. intermedia uses mainly deep soil water and its WUE increases with plantation age. Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen were used to determine the main water source and leaf carbon isotope discrimination was used to estimate long-term WUE. The root system was investigated to determine the depth of the main distribution. The results showed that a 5-year-old C. intermedia plantation used soil water mainly at a depth of 0–30 cm, which was coincident with the distribution of its fine roots. However, 9- or 25-year-old C. intermedia plantations used mainly 0–50 cm soil depth water and the fine root system was distributed primarily at soil depths of 0–50 cm and 0–60 cm, respectively. These sources of soil water are recharged directly by rainfall. Moreover, the long-term WUE of adult plantations was greater than that of juvenile plantations. Conclusions The C. intermedia plantation can change its water use strategy over time as an adaptation to a semi-arid environment, including increasing the depth of soil water used for root growth, and increasing long-term WUE. PMID:23029303

  3. Diploid hybrid origin of Ostryopsis intermedia (Betulaceae) in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau triggered by Quaternary climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bingbing; Abbott, Richard J; Lu, Zhiqiang; Tian, Bin; Liu, Jianquan

    2014-06-01

    Despite the well-known effects that Quaternary climate oscillations had on shaping intraspecific diversity, their role in driving homoploid hybrid speciation is less clear. Here, we examine their importance in the putative homoploid hybrid origin and evolution of Ostryopsis intermedia, a diploid species occurring in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP), a biodiversity hotspot. We investigated interspecific relationships between this species and its only other congeners, O. davidiana and O. nobilis, based on four sets of nuclear and chloroplast population genetic data and tested alternative speciation hypotheses. All nuclear data distinguished the three species clearly and supported a close relationship between O. intermedia and the disjunctly distributed O. davidiana. Chloroplast DNA sequence variation identified two tentative lineages, which distinguished O. intermedia from O. davidiana; however, both were present in O. nobilis. Admixture analyses of genetic polymorphisms at 20 SSR loci and sequence variation at 11 nuclear loci and approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) tests supported the hypothesis that O. intermedia originated by homoploid hybrid speciation from O. davidiana and O. nobilis. We further estimated that O. davidiana and O. nobilis diverged 6-11 Ma, while O. intermedia originated 0.5-1.2 Ma when O. davidiana is believed to have migrated southward, contacted and hybridized with O. nobilis possibly during the largest Quaternary glaciation that occurred in this region. Our findings highlight the importance of Quaternary climate change in the QTP in causing hybrid speciation in this important biodiversity hotspot. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. HACIA UN CURRÍCULO FLEXIBLE: SALIDAS INTERMEDIAS Y CURSOS OPTATIVOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ortigoza Garcell

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tradicionalmente los currículos de las carreras universitarias se han caracterizado por el predominio de una formación de tipo terminal con una sola salida al mercado laboral. Con el fin de contribuir de manera flexible desde la Formación Laboral y Profesional a que los estudiantes definan su trayectoria formativa, en este trabajo se analizan las ventajas de las salidas intermedias en una carrera universitaria, sin afectar la continuidad de los estudios superiores ni la calidad en la formación del egresado universitario. Estas permiten a los estudiantes obtener un título de nivel medio que los pone en condiciones de salir al mercado laboral con un perfil ocupacional relacionado con la carrera universitaria que estudia. Desde la perspectiva curricular la propuesta realizada se basa en currículos flexibles con salidas intermedias donde pueden ser de gran utilidad los cursos optativos y/o electivos.PALABRAS CLAVE: currículo; salidas intermedias; asignaturas optativasTOWARDS A FLEXIBLE CURRICULUM: INTERMEDIATE EXITS AND OPTIONAL COURSES ABSTRACTTraditionally, the curricula of the university degree courses have been focused on the formation of professionals within the required period for their graduation (5-6 years, with a single exit to the labour market. This research is aimed at contributing, from the Labour and Professional Formation of the students, to the definition of their formative process, according to their needs and interests. This paper also analyses the advantages of the intermediate exits in a university degree course, and how they allow students to obtain a college degree without affecting the continuation of the higher education studies or the quality of the formation of the university graduate. Such reality favours the insertion of the students in the labour market under conditions that suit the qualifications and experience related to the degree they are doing. From the curricular perspective, the proposal is based on

  5. Desarrollo curricular, conciencia ambiental y tecnologia para estudiantes de intermedia: Una investigacion en accion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Ramos, Teresita

    Se llevó a cabo una investigación en acción con los propósitos de 1) documentar las relaciones de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación en las clases de ciencias de escuela intermedia como elemento de apoyo cuando se aborda el tema ambiental y sus conceptos pertinentes, a partir de las observaciones de la investigadora, así como las entrevistas y diarios reflexivos de los estudiantes de una escuela intermedia en la zona metropolitana, y luego 2) diseñar una unidad instruccional sobre el tema ambiental que integre actividades tecnologías para el curso de ciencias de la escuela intermedia según el modelo PROCIC y las observaciones que hayan iniciado los estudiantes participantes. Finalmente, se plantearon las implicaciones educativas para el currículo del Programa de Ciencias al instrumentar este modelo de unidad mediante PROCIC, e integrado la tecnología y el tema ambiental. Los hallazgos se analizaron y se categorizaron de acuerdo con las preguntas de investigación. El hallazgo principal de la investigación aborda las cuatro relaciones centrales en las que se articula la utilización de las tecnologías y sus aplicaciones en la clase de ciencias. Estas cuatro relaciones que recogen la posición de los estudiantes son: 1) Perspectiva de los estudiantes hacia la tecnología. 2) Participación de los estudiantes en los aspectos docentes. 3) Aprendizaje estudiantil sobre el ambiente, y 4) Conciencia ambiental en relación con la vida diaria. Estas relaciones ponen de manifiesto,cómo se plantea en las implicaciones, la necesidad de más investigación en acción en la sala de clases, la importancia—como tema transversal—de la conciencia ambiental mediante la tecnología al construir conocimientos significativos dentro y fuera de la escuela, asó como, valorar la investigación y la dialogicidad en la sala de clases como actividades que obligan al reexamen de la práctica didáctica en su formas curriculares de objetivos, recursos

  6. La tendencia ambiental urbana en ciudades intermedias. Una propuesta metodológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinzón Botero María Victoria

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Desde las últim as décadas, es evidente la preocupación m undial por los im pactos ambientales negativos que ponen en riesgo la sostenibilidad urbana y su calidad ambiental. Diferentes estudios exponen las variables más importantes para minim izar estos impactos ambientales, y en este sentido, este trabajo de investigación muestra cómo a partir de un diseño metodológico más sencillo con 27 variables am bientales estratégicas, es posible evaluar la tendencia am biental urbana de ciudades intermedias. Este grupo priorizado de variables trabajadas en el marco de una gestión compartida, orientará el desarrollo de la ciudad hacia una estructura territorial más sostenible, como reto para la planificación ambiental actual y con visión de futuro.

  7. Flujo vaginal. Etiología en una unidad intermedia de salud

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    Luz Marina Alzate

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available En una serie de 584 mujeres que consultaron por flujo vaginal a una Unidad Intermedia de Salud se halló que la entidad más frecuente era la vaginosis bacteriana (vaginitis inespecífica o por Gardnerella vaginalis con un 34,8% seguida por la candidiasis (9,4% y la tricomoniasis (43%; hubo también infecciones mixtas (7,2%; la candidiasis, la tricomoniasis y las infecciones mixtas, pero no la vaginosis bacteriana, fueron más frecuentes en mujeres embarazadas; se hace énfasis en la facilidad de diagnosticar vaginosis bacteriana en el laboratorio corriente con base en criterios de muy fácil determinación.

  8. Intermediação no futebol profissional : regime e âmbitos contratuais

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Fernanda Duarte de Barros, 1973-

    2018-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado em Direito, Universidade Lusíada de Lisboa, 2017 Exame público realizado em 23 de Janeiro de 2018 A presente dissertação de mestrado tem por objecto nuclear a análise do regime jurídico da actividade do empresário de futebol e do respectivo contrato que este firma com os jogadores de futebol ou com os clubes/sociedades desportivas vocacionado para a sua intermediação na celebração de contratos desportivos. A versátil, elástica e complexa actividade do empresário ...

  9. [Phylogenetic diversity of microorganisms associated with the deep-water sponge Baikalospongia intermedia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyzhnaya, O V; Itskovich, V B

    2014-07-01

    The diversity of bacteria associated with deep-water sponge Baikalospongia intermedia was evaluated by sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes from two sponge samples collected in Lake Baikal from depths of 550 and 1204 m. A total of 64 operational taxonomic units, belonging to nine bacterial phyla, Proteobacteria (classes Alphaproteobacteria,. Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Deltaproteobacteria), Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes, Cloroflexi, Verrucomicrobia, Acidobacteria, Chlorobi, and Nitrospirae, including candidate phylum WS5, were identified. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the examined communities contained phylotypes exhibiting homology to uncultured bacteria from different lake ecosystems, freshwater sediments, soil and geological formations. Moreover, a number of phylotypes were relative to psychrophilic, methane-oxidizing, sulfate-reducing bacteria, and to microorganisms resistant to the influence of heavy metals. It seems likely that the unusual habitation conditions of deep-water sponges contribute to the taxonomic diversity of associated bacteria and have an influence on the presence of functionally important microorganisms in bacterial communities.

  10. In Vitro Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Lavandula x intermedia Emeric ex Loisel. ‘Budrovka’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda Vladimir-Knezevic

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities of Lavandula x intermedia Emeric ex Loisel. ‘Budrovka’, an indigenous Croatian cultivar of lavandin. For that purpose the activity of ethanolic extracts of flowers, inflorescence stalks and leaves against thirty one strains of bacteria, yeasts, dermatophytes and moulds were studied using both the agar well diffusion and broth dilution assays. Among the investigated extracts found to be effective against a broad spectrum of microorganisms, the flower extract was considered to be the most potent one. Linalool and rosmarinic acid, as the most abundant constituents found, are very likely major contributors to the observed antimicrobial effects. The results suggest that flowers of lavandin ‘Budrovka’ could serve as a rich source of natural terpene and polyphenol antimicrobial agents.

  11. Networked Intermedia Agenda Setting: The Geography of a Hyperlinked Scandinavian News Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøvaag, Helle; Stavelin, Eirik; Karlsson, Michael

    How does agenda setting work within the hyperlinked Scandinavian news ecology? This paper investigates intermedia agenda setting within and between the local, regional, national and supra-national levels in Sweden, Denmark and Norway; analyses the center/periphery dimensions of hyperlink connecti......, social geography and hyperlinked news agendas in Scandinavia, adding to the research on the political implications of the Internet on national public spheres....... March 2016, amounting to approximately 2 million hyperlinks, each geotagged with publication origin. The visualisation of the hyperlink structure is one of the main results of the analysis, illuminating a) the relative disconnect between local and national hyperlinked agendas, b) the relative disconnect...... between news agendas in the three countries, and c) the connectedness enabled by size, resources and central location in the Scandinavian hyperlinked information structure. The network analysis provides new insights into the relationship between centralized political structures, media ownership dispersal...

  12. Histopathological hoof laminar changes in horses with Pituitary Pars Intermedia Adenoma: cases report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Laskoski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTLaminitis in horses is often associated with endocrine disorders, especially the pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID in older animals. Morphologic exams of the laminar tissue of the hoof were performed in two horses with suspected PPID, with no clinical signs of laminitis. Changes compatible with laminitis of endocrine origin were observed, such as rounding of the nuclei of the basal cells, thinning and stretching of the secondary epidermal laminae and tissue proliferation. PPID horses with no clinical signs of laminitis may be affected by lesions of the laminar tissue of the hoof that compromise the integrity of the dermal-epidermal junction and may develop clinical symptoms of the disease. It has been suggested that the development stage of endocrine laminitis is longer, but further studies should be conducted to confirm it.

  13. Side effects of Deferasirox Iron Chelation in Patients with Beta Thalassemia Major or Intermedia

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    Murtadha Al-Khabori

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Chelating agents remain the mainstay in reducing the iron burden and extending patient survival in homozygous beta-thalassemia but adverse and toxic effects may increase with the institution and long term use of this essential therapy. This study aimed to estimate the incidence of deferasirox (DFX side effects in patients with thalassemia major or intermedia.Methods: A retrospective study of 72 patients (mean age: 20.3±0.9 yrs; 36 male, 36 female with thalassemia major or intermedia treated at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman, was performed to assess the incidence of side effects related to deferasirox over a mean of 16.7 month follow-up period.Results: Six patients experienced rashes and 6 had gastro-intestinal upset. DFX was discontinued in 18 patients for the following reasons: persistent progressive rise(s in serum creatinine (7 patients; 40% mean serum creatinine rise from baseline, feeling unwell (2, severe diarrhea (1, pregnancy (1, death unrelated to chelator (2 and rise in serum transaminases (2. Three patients were reverted to desferoxamine and deferiprone combination therapy as DFX was no longer biochemically effective after 18 months of therapy. There was no correlation between baseline serum ferritin and serum creatinine or a rise in serum creatinine. Cardiac MRI T2* did not change with DFX therapy. However, there was an improvement in liver MRI T2* (p=0.013.Conclusion: Renal side effects related to deferasirox appear to be higher than those reported in published clinical trials. Further larger studies are required to confirm these findings.

  14. Activity of pradofloxacin against Porphyromonas and Prevotella spp. Implicated in periodontal disease in dogs: susceptibility test data from a European multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Bernd; Greife, Heinrich A; Pridmore, Andrew; Silley, Peter

    2008-06-01

    Collaborating veterinarians from five European countries collected subgingival bacterial samples from dogs exhibiting clinical periodontal disease. Sterile endodontic paper points were used for collection of the samples, which were transported to a central laboratory for susceptibility testing. Anaerobic bacteria were isolated and Porphyromonas and Prevotella isolates identified to the species level; susceptibility to pradofloxacin and metronidazole was determined using the CLSI agar dilution methodology. A total of 630 isolates, 310 of Porphyromonas spp. and 320 of Prevotella spp., were isolated. Pradofloxacin MIC data for all isolates were in the range of periodontal disease and shows activity against metronidazole-resistant isolates. The broad-spectrum activity of pradofloxacin makes it a suitable candidate for the treatment of periodontal disease in dogs.

  15. Microbial Culturomics Broadens Human Vaginal Flora Diversity: Genome Sequence and Description of Prevotella lascolaii sp. nov. Isolated from a Patient with Bacterial Vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diop, Khoudia; Diop, Awa; Levasseur, Anthony; Mediannikov, Oleg; Robert, Catherine; Armstrong, Nicholas; Couderc, Carine; Bretelle, Florence; Raoult, Didier; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Fenollar, Florence

    2018-03-01

    Microbial culturomics is a new subfield of postgenomic medicine and omics biotechnology application that has broadened our awareness on bacterial diversity of the human microbiome, including the human vaginal flora bacterial diversity. Using culturomics, a new obligate anaerobic Gram-stain-negative rod-shaped bacterium designated strain khD1 T was isolated in the vagina of a patient with bacterial vaginosis and characterized using taxonogenomics. The most abundant cellular fatty acids were C 15:0 anteiso (36%), C 16:0 (19%), and C 15:0 iso (10%). Based on an analysis of the full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences, phylogenetic analysis showed that the strain khD1 T exhibited 90% sequence similarity with Prevotella loescheii, the phylogenetically closest validated Prevotella species. With 3,763,057 bp length, the genome of strain khD1 T contained (mol%) 48.7 G + C and 3248 predicted genes, including 3194 protein-coding and 54 RNA genes. Given the phenotypical and biochemical characteristic results as well as genome sequencing, strain khD1 T is considered to represent a novel species within the genus Prevotella, for which the name Prevotella lascolaii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is khD1 T ( = CSUR P0109, = DSM 101754). These results show that microbial culturomics greatly improves the characterization of the human microbiome repertoire by isolating potential putative new species. Further studies will certainly clarify the microbial mechanisms of pathogenesis of these new microbes and their role in health and disease. Microbial culturomics is an important new addition to the diagnostic medicine toolbox and warrants attention in future medical, global health, and integrative biology postgraduate teaching curricula.

  16. Estabelecimento de colonia, em laboratório, de Lutzomyia intermedia Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae Establishment of colony, in laboratory, of Lutzomyia intermedia Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae

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    Elizabeth F. Rangel

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available Para a utilização em infecções experimentais e xenodiagnósticos de infecções naturais por leishmânias dermotrópicas do Rio de Janeiro, estabelecemos, em laboratório, uma colônia de Lutzomyia intermedia apresentando aqui a metodologia seguida, juntamente com dados relativos ao rendimento e duração de cada fase evolutiva nas quatro primeiras gerações.A laboratory colony of the sandfly Lutzomyia intermedia was established (at present in its seventh generation in order to provide specimens for experimental infection and for experimental xenodiagnosis of natural infections due to cutaneous leishmanias in Rio de Janeiro. Date are presented on the methodology and on the yield and duration of each stage of development, during the first four generations.

  17. Antibacterial Efficacy of Silver Nanoparticles on Endometritis Caused by Prevotella melaninogenica and Arcanobacterum pyogenes in Dairy Cattle

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    Sangiliyandi Gurunathan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Bovine postpartum diseases remain one of the most significant and highly prevalent illnesses with negative effects on the productivity, survival, and welfare of dairy cows. Antibiotics are generally considered beneficial in the treatment of endometritis; however, frequent usage of each antibiotic drug is reason for the emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR of the pathogenic microorganisms, representing a major impediment for the successful diagnosis and management of infectious diseases in both humans and animals. We synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs with an average size of 10 nm using the novel biomolecule apigenin as a reducing and stabilizing agent, and evaluated the efficacy of the AgNPs on the MDR pathogenic bacteria Prevotella melaninogenica and Arcanobacterium pyogenes isolated from uterine secretion samples. AgNPs inhibited cell viability and biofilm formation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, the metabolic toxicity of the AgNPs was assessed through various cellular assays. The major toxic effect of cell death was caused by an increase in oxidative stress, as evidenced by the increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl content, and nitric oxide. The formation of ROS is considered to be the primary mechanism of bacterial death. Therefore, the biomolecule-mediated synthesis of AgNPs shows potential as an alternative antimicrobial therapy for bovine metritis and endometritis.

  18. The production of 7-methyljuglone, plumbagin and quercetin in wild and cultivated Drosera rotundifolia and Drosera intermedia

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    B. Baranyai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The recent establishment of Sphagnum farming areas has created large artificial habitats where Drosera grows under semi-natural conditions. Here we test the suitability, for pharmaceutical purposes, of two Drosera species collected from such areas. We measured the concentration of the biologically active compounds 7-methyljuglone, plumbagin and quercetin in Drosera rotundifolia and D. intermedia. All three compounds were found in pharmacologically suitable concentrations with 7-methlyjuglone characteristic for D. rotundifolia and plumbagin for D. intermedia. The concentrations required for pharmacological purposes were achieved within one year, but higher concentrations occurred in older plants and plants in flower. Concentrations did not differ between plants collected in the morning and in the afternoon. Drosera plants cultivated under semi-natural conditions are suitable as sources of raw materials for industrial pharmacological applications.

  19. Evaluation of antioxidant potential of Lavandula x intermedia Emeric ex Loisel. 'Budrovka': a comparative study with L. angustifolia Mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazeković, Biljana; Vladimir-Knezević, Sanda; Brantner, Adelheid; Stefan, Maja Bival

    2010-08-30

    A Croatian indigenous cultivar of lavandin, Lavandula x intermedia 'Budrovka' (Lamiaceae) was studied for the phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, procyanidins and total tannins, as well as total polyphenols content, in the flower, inflorescence stalk and leaf ethanolic extracts. Antioxidant potentials on these plant part extracts were assessed by the DPPH free radical scavenging activity, iron chelating activity, reducing power, lipid peroxidation inhibition properties and total antioxidant capacity assays. All results were compared with those of Lavandula angustifolia, the only member of the Lavandula genus officially used in modern phytotherapy. Based on the results of our parallel study, we may suggest that Lavandula x intermedia 'Budrovka' is as potent an antioxidant as Lavandula angustifolia and the antioxidant activity of the Lavandula extracts is mainly due to the presence of rosmarinic acid. A good correlation was found between the polyphenol contents and antioxidant activities of the extracts.

  20. Evaluation of Antioxidant Potential of Lavandula x intermedia Emeric ex Loisel. 'Budrovka': A Comparative Study with L. angustifolia Mill.

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    Maja Bival Štefan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A Croatian indigenous cultivar of lavandin, Lavandula x intermedia 'Budrovka' (Lamiaceae was studied for the phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, procyanidins and total tannins, as well as total polyphenols content, in the flower, inflorescence stalk and leaf ethanolic extracts. Antioxidant potentials on these plant part extracts were assessed by the DPPH free radical scavenging activity, iron chelating activity, reducing power, lipid peroxidation inhibition properties and total antioxidant capacity assays. All results were compared with those of Lavandula angustifolia, the only member of the Lavandula genus officially used in modern phytotherapy. Based on the results of our parallel study, we may suggest that Lavandula x intermedia 'Budrovka' is as potent an antioxidant as Lavandula angustifolia and the antioxidant activity of the Lavandula extracts is mainly due to the presence of rosmarinic acid. A good correlation was found between the polyphenol contents and antioxidant activities of the extracts

  1. Evaluation of Antioxidant Potential of Lavandula x intermedia Emeric ex Loisel. 'Budrovka': A Comparative Study with L. angustifolia Mill.

    OpenAIRE

    Blažeković, Biljana; Vladimir-Knežević, Sanda; Brantner, Adelheid; Štefan, Maja Bival

    2010-01-01

    A Croatian indigenous cultivar of lavandin, Lavandula x intermedia 'Budrovka' (Lamiaceae) was studied for the phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, procyanidins and total tannins, as well as total polyphenols content, in the flower, inflorescence stalk and leaf ethanolic extracts. Antioxidant potentials on these plant part extracts were assessed by the DPPH free radical scavenging activity, iron chelating activity, reducing power, lipid peroxidation inhibition properties and total antioxi...

  2. Kinetics activity of Yersinia Intermedia Against ZnO Nanoparticles Either Synergism Antibiotics by Double-Disc Synergy Test Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi Azar Khavarani, Motahareh; Najafi, Mahla; Shakibapour, Zahra; Zaeifi, Davood

    2016-03-01

    Bacterial resistance to the commonly used antibacterial agents is an increasing challenge in the medicine, and a major problem for the health care systems; the control of their spread is a constant challenge for the hospitals. In this study, we have investigated the antimicrobial activity of the Zinc Oxide nanoparticles against clinical sample; Yersinia intermedia bacteria. Nanoparticle susceptibility constants and death kinetic were used to evaluate the antimicrobial characteristics of the Zinc Oxide (ZnO) against the bacteria. Antimicrobial tests were performed with 10 8 cfu.mL -1 at baseline. At first, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of ZnO was determined and then nanoparticle suspension at one and two times of the MIC was used for death kinetic and susceptibility constant assay at 0 to 360 min treatment time. ZnO nanoparticles with size ranging from 10 to 30 nm showed the highest susceptibility reaction against Y. intermedia (Z=39.06 mL.μg -1 ). The process of Y. intermedia death in ZnO suspension was assumed to follow the first-order kinetics and the survival ratio of bacteria decreased with the increasing treatment time. An increased concentration of the nanoparticle was seen to enhance the bactericidal action of the nanoparticle. Then we performed the best ratio of the nanoparticles on semi-sensitive and resistance antibiotic for the bacteria. However, based on experimental results, synergy of ZnO nanoparticles and Oxacilin was determined and Y. intermedia showed a higher sensitivity compared to the ZnO nanoparticles alone. The results of the present study illustrates that ZnO has a strong antimicrobial effect and could potentially be employed to aid the bacterial control. It could also improve- antibacterial effects in combination with the antibiotics.

  3. Influence of in-feed zinc bacitracin and tiamulin treatment on experimental avian intestinal spirochaetosis caused by Brachyspira intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, D J; Oxberry, S L; Stephens, C P

    2002-06-01

    Thirty individually caged layer hens were inoculated with Brachyspira intermedia, and 20 control birds remained unchallenged. Birds received a diet containing 100 parts/10(6) zinc bacitracin (ZnB), and were monitored for 10 weeks. B. intermedia was recovered sporadically from five of the inoculated birds, and there were no significant effects on body weight, faecal water or egg production. ZnB was presumed to be indirectly inhibiting spirochaete growth, and when removed from the diet, 18 of the 30 inoculated birds rapidly became culture positive. After 4 weeks, 10 of the 30 infected birds were treated with tiamulin at 25 mg/kg for 5 days, and 10 were returned to the diet containing ZnB. Birds receiving tiamulin became spirochaete negative and maintained their egg production, but re-infection occurred. The other 20 infected birds had a significant drop in egg production, but those receiving ZnB showed a reduced colonization by B. intermedia after 3 weeks.

  4. Fatty acid methyl ester from Neurospora intermedia N-1 isolated from Indonesian red peanut cake (oncom merah).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priatni, S; Hartati, S; Dewi, P; Kardono, L B S; Singgih, M; Gusdinar, T

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) from Neurospora intermedia N-1 that isolated from Indonesian red peanut cake (oncom). FAME profiles have been used as biochemical characters to study many different groups of organisms, such as bacteria and yeasts. FAME from N. intermedia N-1 was obtained by some stages of extraction the orange spores and fractination using a chromatotron. The pure compound (1) was characterized by 500 mHz NMR (1H and 13C), FTIR and LC-MS. Summarized data's of 1H and 13C NMR spectra of compound 1 contained 19 Carbon, 34 Hydrogen and 2 Oxygen (C19H34O2). The position of the double bonds at carbon number 8 and 12 were indicated in the HMBC spectrum (2D-NMR). LC-MS spectrum indicates molecular weight of the compound 1 as 294 which is visible by the presence of protonated molecular ion [M+H] at m/z 295. Methyl esters of long chain fatty acids was presented by a 3 band pattern of IR spectrum with bands near 1249, 1199 and 1172 cm(-1). We suggested that the structure of the pure compound 1 is methyl octadeca-8,12-dienoate. The presence methyl octadeca-8,12-dienoate in N. intermedia is the first report.

  5. Biocidal Potential and Chemical Composition of Industrial Essential Oils from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula × intermedia var. Super, and Santolina chamaecyparissus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz de Elguea-Culebras, Gonzalo; Sánchez-Vioque, Raúl; Berruga, María Isabel; Herraiz-Peñalver, David; González-Coloma, Azucena; Andrés, María Fé; Santana-Méridas, Omar

    2018-01-01

    This work presents the biocidal (insecticidal, ixodicidal, nematicidal, and phytotoxic) effects and chemical compositions of three essential oils obtained from the industrial steam distillation (IEOs) of hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.), lavandin (Lavandula × intermedia or L. × hybrida var. Super), and cotton lavender (Santolina chamaecyparissus L.). Their chemical composition analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry showed 1,8-cineole (53%) and β-pinene (16%) as the major components of H. officinalis, linalyl acetate (38%) and linalool (29%) of L. × intermedia; and 1,8-cineole (10%) and 8-methylene-3-oxatricyclo[5.2.0.0 2,4 ]nonane (8%) in S. chamaecyparissus. The biocidal tests showed that L. × intermedia IEO was the most active against the insect Spodoptera littoralis and toxic to the tick Hyalomma lusitanicum, IEO of H. officinalis was strongly active against S. littoralis, and finally, S. chamaecyparissus IEO was a strong antifeedant against the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi, toxic to H. lusitanicum and with moderate effects against Leptinotarsa decemlineata, S. littoralis, and Lolium perenne. © 2018 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  6. [Effects of cutting and reseeding on the ground-dwelling arthropod community in Caragana intermedia forest in desert steppe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ren-Tao; Chai, Yong-Qing; Yang, Xin-Guo; Song, Nai-Ping; Wang, Xin-Yun; Wang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Taking a 25-year-old Caragana intermedia forest in desert steppe as test object, an investigation was conducted on the ground-dwelling arthropod community in cutting and no-cutting stands with and without reseeding, aimed to understand the effects of cutting, reseeding and their interaction on the individual number and group richness of ground-dwelling arthropod in C. intermedia forest. There were significantly lower number and richness of ground-dwelling arthropod in the open spaces than under the shrubs in the no-cutting and no-reseeding stands. Cutting, reseeding and both of them could significantly increase the number and richness of ground-dwelling arthropod in the open spaces, but not under the shrubs, compared with no cutting or reseeding. Consequently, there were no significant differences in the distribution of ground-dwelling arthropod in the open spaces and under the shrubs in the cutting, reseeding, or cutting and reseeding stands. Further, there was a similar buffer effect between cutting and reseeding on the ground-dwelling arthropod. No significant differences were observed in the ground-dwelling arthropod distribution, between cutting stand and reseeding stand, between cutting stand and cutting and reseeding stand, and between reseeding stand and cutting and reseeding stand. It was suggested that cutting, reseeding, or both of them could significantly improve the ground-dwelling arthropod diversity especially in the open spaces, being beneficial for the restoration of degraded grassland ecosystem and the rational management on artificial C. intermedia forest in desert steppe.

  7. Rapid Identification of Key Pathogens in Wound Infection by Molecular Means

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    3 3 5 4 7 T I NT NT NT NT - - - Prevotella denticola ATCC 33185 1 NT NT NT NT - - - Prevotella intermedia ATCC 2561 IT I NT NT NT NT - - Prevotella...TaqMan and SYBR Green for Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia , tetQ gene and total bacteria...detection of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis. J. Clin.Microbiol. 41, 863-866. (2003). 20. Higgins ,D. et al. CLUSTAL W

  8. Uveítis intermedia: Experiencias terapéuticas Intermediate uveitis: Therapeutic experiences

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    Sandra M. Borges Pérez

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo prospectivo a 50 ojos (41 pacientes con el diagnóstico de uveítis intermedia durante un período de 3 años. Esta patología fue más frecuente en la mujer (58 %, en edades jóvenes (25 a 45 años y en plena actividad laboral. Se presentan complicaciones y dentro de ellas el edema macular cistoide constituye la causa que más afecta la visión. La mejoría de la agudeza visual fue más notable en los pacientes bajo régimen de tratamiento médico acompañado de tratamiento quirúrgico (40 %. El 50 % de los pacientes presentaron recidivas.A descriptive and prospective study of 50 eyes (41 patients with the diagnosis of intermediate uveitis was conducted during 3 years. This pathology was more frequent in women (58 %, in young patients (25-45 years old and among workers. Among the complications, the cystoid macular edema was the main cause of vision affections. The improvement of visual acuity was more remarkable in patients under medical and surgical treatment (40 %. 50 % of the patients had relapses.

  9. BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES OF LAVANDULA X INTERMEDIA EMERIC EX LOISEL (LAMIACEAE

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    A. E. Paliy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Data about qualitative and quantitative composition of biologically active substances (volatile and phenolic compounds in water- ethanol extract of Lavandula x intermedia Emeric ex Loisel (Lamiaceae cv. ‘Bora’ bred in Nikitsky Botanical Garden are presented in the article. Concentration of volatile compounds in Lavandin extract was 398 mg/dm3 and 51 components were identified. Main volatiles in Lavandin cv. «Bora» extract were linalyl acetate (36,9% and linalool (33,5%. Content of phenolic compounds in water- ethanol extract of Lavandin was 945 mg/dm3 and 14 components were found out. Among the variety of Lavandin cv. ‘Bora’ phenolic compounds luteolin-7-O-glycoside and п-coumaric acid are predominated. The conclusion about possible use of Lavandin cv. ‘Bora’ for creation of food, cosmetic, therapeutic and preventive products is made.

  10. POLÍTICAS URBANAS PARA EL DESARROLLO Y LA INNOVACIÓN EN LAS CIUDADES INTERMEDIAS

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    Henar Pascual Ruiz-Valdepeñas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años se asiste al fortalecimiento del papel de las ciudades intermedias al estimarsesu capacidad para lograr una mayor cohesión económica, social y territorial en Europa. Las políticas territoriales se orientan a reforzar sus ventajas competitivas y a potenciar la configuración y consolidación de redes de cooperación en las que las ciudades actúan como partes de un modelo policéntrico. La valoración de los impactos de los programas europeos en las ciudades y el análisis de las políticas y estrategias urbanas, ponen de relieve la naturaleza específica de los diversos niveles de intervención pública en el territorio y la multiplicidad de las interacciones que se generan entre ellos. En el nivel local de intervención, la planificación estratégica amplía el abanico de objetivos y actuaciones y aporta nuevos instrumentos que ponen el acento en el reforzamiento de los factores de competitividad urbana.

  11. Identification of Stria Medullaris Fibers in the Massa Intermedia Using Diffusion Tensor Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanski, Ryan B; Dawe, Robert; Kocak, Mehmet; Sani, Sepehr

    2018-04-01

    The massa intermedia (MI) or interthalamic adhesion is an inconsistent band spanning between bilateral medial thalami that is absent in up to 20%-30% of individuals. Little is known of its significance, especially in regard to functional pathways. Probabilistic diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has recently been used to seed the lateral habenula and define its afferent white matter pathway, the stria medullaris thalami (SM). We sought to determine whether the MI serves as a conduit for crossing of limbic fibers such as the SM. Probabilistic DTI was performed on 10 subjects who had presence of a MI as visualized on magnetic resonance imaging. Tractography was also performed on 2 subjects without MI. Manual identification of the lateral habenula on axial T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was used for the initial seed region for tractography. In all subjects, the SM was reliably visualized. In 7 of the 10 subjects with MI, there was evidence of SM fibers that crossed to the ipsilateral hemisphere. Three subjects with small diameter MI did not have tractographic evidence of crossing SM fibers. Of the 7 subjects with crossing SM fibers within the MI, 5 showed predilection toward the right orbitofrontal cortex from both the left and right seed regions. Probabilistic DTI provides evidence of SM fibers within the MI. Given its anatomic location as a bridging pathway between thalami, further studies are necessary to assess its role within the limbic functional network. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Amelioration of atopic-like skin conditions in NC/Tnd mice by topical application with distilled Alpinia intermedia Gagnep extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amagai, Yosuke; Katsuta, Chihiro; Nomura, Yoshihiro; Oida, Kumiko; Matsuda, Kenshiro; Jang, Hyosun; Ahn, Ginnae; Hamasaki, Tetsuyoshi; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Akane

    2017-11-01

    Alpinia intermedia, a perennial plant that belongs to the Zingiberaceae family, has been used in folk medicine for a long time in the southern region of Japan. Because skin care is an effective approach that enables patients to manage their atopic dermatitis (AD), various herbal ingredients with few adverse effects have been evaluated for use in AD patients in recent years. In this study, we examined whether distilled extracts obtained from A. intermedia were beneficial for AD-like skin conditions in NC/Tnd mice. Topical application with the A. intermedia extracts significantly reduced the severity of AD, transepidermal water loss and scratching behavior in the mice. Supplementation of the extracts to cell cultures suppressed the expression of Tslp mRNA in PAM212 keratinocytes, degranulation in bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells (BMCMC), and neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells and dorsal root ganglia. In addition, the component analysis revealed that β-pinene was a major constituent of the A. intermedia extracts. The inhibitory effects of β-pinene both in vivo and in vitro were also demonstrated. These results indicate that topical application with the A. intermedia extract to the skin of NC/Tnd mice improved the condition of the skin by suppressing multiple inflammatory responses. The extracts may become novel skin-care remedies for AD patients. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Dermatological Association.

  13. Biology of the first generation of a laboratory colony of Nyssomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 and Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto, 1926 (Diptera: Psychodidae

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    José Dilermando Andrade Filho

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The phlebotomine sand flies Nyssomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 and Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto, 1926 are very close and may be involved in the transmission of Leishmania spp. Ross, 1903 in Brazil. The biology of the first laboratory-reared generations of these species, descended from insects captured in Além Paraíba (N. intermedia and Corinto (N. neivai in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais, is described here. The captured females were fed on hamsters and maintained individually in rearing pots. Laboratory temperature and relative humidity were maintained at 25-26ºC and 80% respectively. The productivity of the first generation of N. intermedia was greater than that of N. neivai, and its development time clearly shorter, particularly for the second and third larval instars.

  14. Biology of the first generation of a laboratory colony of Nyssomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) and Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto, 1926) (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade Filho, José Dilermando; Galati, Eunice A Bianchi; Falcão, Alda Lima

    2004-10-01

    The phlebotomine sand flies Nyssomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) and Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto, 1926) are very close and may be involved in the transmission of Leishmania spp. Ross, 1903 in Brazil. The biology of the first laboratory-reared generations of these species, descended from insects captured in Além Paraíba (N. intermedia) and Corinto (N. neivai) in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais, is described here. The captured females were fed on hamsters and maintained individually in rearing pots. Laboratory temperature and relative humidity were maintained at 25-26 masculineC and 80% respectively. The productivity of the first generation of N. intermedia was greater than that of N. neivai, and its development time clearly shorter, particularly for the second and third larval instars.

  15. Red blood cells free α-haemoglobin pool: a biomarker to monitor the β-thalassemia intermedia variability. The ALPHAPOOL study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasseur, Corinne; Domingues-Hamdi, Elisa; Ledudal, Katia; Le Corvoisier, Philippe; Barau, Caroline; Ghaleh, Bijan; Rialland, Amandine; Pissard, Serge; Galactéros, Frédéric; Baudin-Creuza, Véronique

    2017-10-01

    The severity of β-thalassaemia (β-thal) intermedia is mainly correlated to the degree of imbalanced α/non α-globin chain synthesis. The phenotypic diversity of β-thal depends on this imbalance and reflects all possible combinations of α- and β-globin genotypes, levels of fetal haemoglobin (HbF) and co-inheritance of other modulating factors. This study aimed to demonstrate the validity of a new surrogate of α/non α-globin biosynthetic ratio by measuring the soluble α-Hb pool in lysed red blood cells. Our results confirm that the α-Hb pool measurement allows a good discrimination between β-thal intermedia patients, controls and α-thal patients (P intermedia patients and may be clinically useful for monitoring the evolution of the disequilibrium of globin synthesis in response to treatments. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Molecular Basis of β-Thalassemia Intermedia in Erbil Province of Iraqi Kurdistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamoon, Rawand P; Al-Allawi, Nasir A S; Cappellini, Maria D; Di Pierro, Elena; Brancaleoni, Valentina; Granata, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    β-Thalassemia intermedia (β-TI) is a clinical term describing a range of clinical phenotypes that are intermediate in severity between the carrier state and β-thalassemia major (β-TM). To characterize the molecular basis of β-TI in Erbil Province, Northern Iraq, 83 unrelated patients were investigated. Detection of β-globin gene mutations was carried out by reverse hybridization assay and direct gene sequencing. All patients were screened for the XmnI polymorphism by direct sequencing of HBG2 ((G)γ promoter gene). Detection of α-globin gene deletions and triplication was carried out using the reverse hybridization assay. Four main molecular patterns were identified in association with the β-TI phenotype, namely: β(+)/β(+) (38.5%), β(+)/β(0) (21.6%), β(0)/β(0) (31.3%), and β(0)/wild type (8.4%). IVS-I-6 (T > C) was the most frequently encountered mutation (55 alleles, 34.6%), followed by IVS-II-1 (G > A) and codon 8 (-AA); furthermore, we report for the first time from Iraq two β(+) mutations, -87 (C > G) and 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) +22 (G > A). The XmnI polymorphism was detected in 47.0% of patients, mainly in association with the β(0)/β(0) genotype. The α-globin gene deletions were encountered in four cases, including one case with (- -(FIL)) double gene deletion, a report that is the first from our country. The α-globin gene triplication was detected in five of the seven heterozygous β-thalassemia (β-thal) patients. Similar to other Mediterranean countries, inheritance of mild β-globin mutations was the main molecular pattern underlying β-TI in our patients followed by the ameliorating effect of the XmnI polymorphism.

  17. Hydroxyurea appears beneficial in patients with beta-thalassaemia major and intermedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. F.S.A. Abdul Wahid

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Patients with severe inherited β-globin chain disorders may have milder illness if they produce high levels of fetal hemoglobin (HbF. Hydroxyurea (HU has been shown to enhance HbF levels in patients with sickle cell disease and may be useful in β-thalassemias. We administered HU to 13 patients with β-thalassemia intermedia or major, including 6 splenectomized patients. The patients received escalating doses (10 to 25 mg/kg/d of HU for around 2 years (median: 21 months, range: 8 - 55 months. Eleven patients responded with an increase in the pre-transfusion HbF levels, from a base line median of 8.0% (2.5 - 61.3% to 28.0% (6.6 - 49.2% and 40.7% (4.8 - 72.3% at 3 months and 18 months post-HU, respectively. A concomitant increment in median hemoglobin levels was noted at 1, 3 and 18 months of HU therapy. Six of 7 transfusion-dependent patients who had an increment of HbF (one with β-thalassemia major also had reduced transfusion requirement over the 2-year period of HU therapy. Response to HU was also shown by a reduction in spleen size. Apart from oral ulcers that resolved upon dose reduction of HU, no significant toxicity was noted. We conclude that increased HbF production in β-thalassemia patients, with an improvement in erythropoiesis, can be achieved using HU with minimal toxicity. (Med J Indones 2007; 16:78-83 Keywords: fetal hemoglobin (HbF, erythropoiesis, toxicity

  18. A Novel Hyaluronidase from Brown Spider (Loxosceles intermedia) Venom (Dietrich's Hyaluronidase): From Cloning to Functional Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Valéria Pereira; de Mari, Thiago Lopes; Gremski, Luiza Helena; Trevisan Silva, Dilza; da Silveira, Rafael Bertoni; Gremski, Waldemiro; Chaim, Olga Meiri; Senff-Ribeiro, Andrea; Nader, Helena Bonciani; Veiga, Silvio Sanches

    2013-01-01

    Loxoscelism is the designation given to clinical symptoms evoked by Loxosceles spider's bites. Clinical manifestations include skin necrosis with gravitational spreading and systemic disturbs. The venom contains several enzymatic toxins. Herein, we describe the cloning, expression, refolding and biological evaluation of a novel brown spider protein characterized as a hyaluronidase. Employing a venom gland cDNA library, we cloned a hyaluronidase (1200 bp cDNA) that encodes for a signal peptide and a mature protein. Amino acid alignment revealed a structural relationship with members of hyaluronidase family, such as scorpion and snake species. Recombinant hyaluronidase was expressed as N-terminal His-tag fusion protein (∼45 kDa) in inclusion bodies and activity was achieved using refolding. Immunoblot analysis showed that antibodies that recognize the recombinant protein cross-reacted with hyaluronidase from whole venom as well as an anti-venom serum reacted with recombinant protein. Recombinant hyaluronidase was able to degrade purified hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS), while dermatan sulfate (DS) and heparan sulfate (HS) were not affected. Zymograph experiments resulted in ∼45 kDa lytic zones in hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) substrates. Through in vivo experiments of dermonecrosis using rabbit skin, the recombinant hyaluronidase was shown to increase the dermonecrotic effect produced by recombinant dermonecrotic toxin from L. intermedia venom (LiRecDT1). These data support the hypothesis that hyaluronidase is a “spreading factor”. Recombinant hyaluronidase provides a useful tool for biotechnological ends. We propose the name Dietrich's Hyaluronidase for this enzyme, in honor of Professor Carl Peter von Dietrich, who dedicated his life to studying proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans. PMID:23658852

  19. Effects of lidocaine on lipopolysaccharide-induced synovitis in horses

    OpenAIRE

    Campebell,R.C.; Peiró,J.R.; Valadão,C.A.A.; Santana,A.E.; Cunha,F.Q.

    2004-01-01

    Lidocaine (100mg 2%) injected into the carpal joint was used to evaluate the inflammatory response induced by injection (1.5ng) of intra-articular E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin. Seventeen male Mangalarga horses aged two to three years were divided into three groups and in all animals was injected 0.9% saline (SAL) in the left carpus (LC), and in the right carpus (RC) one of the following combinations were injected: group A (n=6) LPS plus SAL; group B (n=6) LPS plus lidocaine; gro...

  20. Allicin Protects against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of allicin, an active component of garlic, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- induced acute lung injury. Methods: Wistar rats were subjected to LPS intravenous injection with or without allicin treatment to induce acute lung injury (ALI) model. Also, A549 cells were stimulated with LPS in the ...

  1. Lipopolysaccharide induces amyloid formation of antimicrobial peptide HAL-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiarong; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiaoming; Chen, Wei; Sun, Hongbin; Wang, Junfeng

    2014-11-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the important component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, contributes to the integrity of the outer membrane and protects the cell against bactericidal agents, including antimicrobial peptides. However, the mechanisms of interaction between antimicrobial peptides and LPS are not clearly understood. Halictines-2 (HAL-2), one of the novel antimicrobial peptides, was isolated from the venom of the eusocial bee Halictus sexcinctus. HAL-2 has exhibited potent antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and even against cancer cells. Here, we studied the interactions between HAL-2 and LPS to elucidate the antibacterial mechanism of HAL-2 in vitro. Our results show that HAL-2 adopts a significant degree of β-strand structure in the presence of LPS. LPS is capable of inducing HAL-2 amyloid formation, which may play a vital role in its antimicrobial activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Intermittent fasting attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation and memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Andrea R; Yshii, Lidia M; Viel, Tania A; Buck, Hudson S; Mattson, Mark P; Scavone, Cristoforo; Kawamoto, Elisa M

    2014-05-06

    Systemic bacterial infections often result in enduring cognitive impairment and are a risk factor for dementia. There are currently no effective treatments for infection-induced cognitive impairment. Previous studies have shown that intermittent fasting (IF) can increase the resistance of neurons to injury and disease by stimulating adaptive cellular stress responses. However, the impact of IF on the cognitive sequelae of systemic and brain inflammation is unknown. Rats on IF for 30 days received 1 mg/kg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline intravenously. Half of the rats were subjected to behavioral tests and the other half were euthanized two hours after LPS administration and the hippocampus was dissected and frozen for analyses. Here, we report that IF ameliorates cognitive deficits in a rat model of sepsis by a mechanism involving NF-κB activation, suppression of the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and enhancement of neurotrophic support. Treatment of rats with LPS resulted in deficits in cognitive performance in the Barnes maze and inhibitory avoidance tests, without changing locomotor activity, that were ameliorated in rats that had been maintained on the IF diet. IF also resulted in reduced levels of mRNAs encoding the LPS receptor TLR4 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the hippocampus. Moreover, IF prevented LPS-induced elevation of IL-1α, IL-1β and TNF-α levels, and prevented the LPS-induced reduction of BDNF levels in the hippocampus. IF also significantly attenuated LPS-induced elevations of serum IL-1β, IFN-γ, RANTES, TNF-α and IL-6 levels. Taken together, our results suggest that IF induces adaptive responses in the brain and periphery that can suppress inflammation and preserve cognitive function in an animal model of systemic bacterial infection.

  3. Riboflavin attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harbi, Naif O; Imam, Faisal; Nadeem, Ahmed; Al-Harbi, Mohammed M; Korashy, Hesham M; Sayed-Ahmed, Mohammed M; Hafez, Mohamed M; Al-Shabanah, Othman A; Nagi, Mahmoud N; Bahashwan, Saleh

    2015-01-01

    Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is an easily absorbed micronutrient with a key role in maintaining health in humans and animals. It is the central component of the cofactors flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and is therefore required by all flavoproteins. Riboflavin also works as an antioxidant by scavenging free radicals. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of riboflavin against acute lungs injury induced by the administration of a single intranasal dose (20 μg/rat) of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in experimental rats. Administration of LPS resulted in marked increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) level (p riboflavin in a dose-dependent manner (30 and 100 mg/kg, respectively). Riboflavin (100 mg/kg, p.o.) showed similar protective effects as dexamethasone (1 mg/kg, p.o.). Administration of LPS showed marked cellular changes including interstitial edema, hemorrhage, infiltration of PMNs, etc., which were reversed by riboflavin administration. Histopathological examinations showed normal morphological structures of lungs tissue in the control group. These biochemical and histopathological examination were appended with iNOS and CAT gene expression. The iNOS mRNA expression was increased significantly (p riboflavin significantly (p riboflavin caused a protective effect against LPS-induced ALI. These results suggest that riboflavin may be used to protect against toxic effect of LPS in lungs.

  4. Inhibitory Effects of Ketamine on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Microglial Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Chang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Microglia activated in response to brain injury release neurotoxic factors including nitric oxide (NO and proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-1β (IL-1β. Ketamine, an anesthetic induction agent, is generally reserved for use in patients with severe hypotension or respiratory depression. In this study, we found that ketamine (100 and 250 μM concentration-dependently inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced NO and IL-1β release in primary cultured microglia. However, ketamine (100 and 250 μM did not significantly inhibit the LPS-induced TNF-α production in microglia, except at the higher concentration (500 μM. Further study of the molecular mechanisms revealed that ketamine markedly inhibited extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2 phosphorylation but not c-Jun N-terminal kinase or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase stimulated by LPS in microglia. These results suggest that microglial inactivation by ketamine is at least partially due to inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation.

  5. Agmatine attenuates stress- and lipopolysaccharide-induced fever in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aricioglu, Feyza; Regunathan, Soundar

    2010-01-01

    Physiological stress evokes a number of responses, including a rise in body temperature, which has been suggested to be the result of an elevation in the thermoregulatory set point. This response seems to share similar mechanisms with infectious fever. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of agmatine on different models of stressors [(restraint and lipopolysaccaride (LPS)] on body temperature. Rats were either restrained for 4 h or injected with LPS, both of these stressors caused an increase in body temperature. While agmatine itself had no effect on body temperature, treatment with agmatine (20, 40, 80 mg/kg intraperitoneally) dose dependently inhibited stress- and LPS-induced hyperthermia. When agmatine (80 mg/kg) was administered 30 min later than LPS (500 μg/kg) it also inhibited LPS-induced hyperthermia although the effect became significant only at later time points and lower maximal response compared to simultaneous administration. To determine if the decrease in body temperature is associated with an anti-inflammatory effect of agmatine, the nitrite/nitrate levels in plasma was measured. Agmatine treatment inhibited LPS-induced production of nitrates dose dependently. As an endogenous molecule, agmatine has the capacity to inhibit stress- and LPS-induced increases in body temperature. PMID:15936786

  6. RNA interference prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced preprotachykinin gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Y.-L.; Yu, S.C.; Chen, M.-J.

    2003-01-01

    We showed previously that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces noncholinergic airway hyperreactivity to capsaicin via an upregulation of tachykinin synthesis. This study was designed to test whether double-stranded preprotachykinin (ds PPT) RNA, RNA interference (RNAi), prevents the LPS-induced alterations. First, cultured primary nodose ganglial cells of newborn Brown-Norway rats were divided into four groups: control; LPS; LPS+RNAi; and LPS+RNAi+liposome. Second, young Brown-Norway rats for the in vivo study were divided into three groups (control; LPS; and LPS+RNAi), and ds PPT RNA was microinjected bilaterally into the nodose ganglia in the LPS+RNAi group. Then, ganglial cells were collected from the culture whereas the nodose ganglia and lungs were sampled from the animals, and PPT mRNA and substance P (SP) levels were analyzed. Also, airway reactivity to capsaicin was performed in vivo. LPS induced significant increases in PPT mRNA and SP levels in vitro and in vivo and an increase in airway reactivity to capsaicin in vivo. However, ds PPT RNA, but not scrambled RNA, prevented all LPS-induced alterations. The effect of ds PPT RNA was not enhanced by liposome in vitro. Therefore, we demonstrated that the local application of RNAi prevents effectively the activation of the noncholinergic system modulating the lungs/airways

  7. Minocycline protects against lipopolysaccharide-induced cognitive impairment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yue; Xie, Guanbo; Liu, Xia; Li, Guoxun; Jia, Congcong; Xu, Jinghua; Wang, Bing

    2016-03-01

    The role of glial cells, especially microglia and astrocytes, in neuroinflammation and cognition has been studied intensively. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a commonly used inducer of neuroinflammation, can cause cognitive impairment. Minocycline is known to possess potent neuroprotective activity, but its effect on LPS-induced cognitive impairment is unknown. This study aims to investigate the effects of minocycline on LPS-induced cognitive impairment and glial cell activation in mice. Behavioral tests were conducted for cognitive function, immunohistochemistry for microglial and astrocyte response, and quantitative PCR for mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Minocycline significantly reversed the decreased spontaneous alternation induced by intrahippocampal administration of LPS in the Y-maze task. In the Morris water maze place navigation test, minocycline decreased the escape latency and distance traveled compared to LPS-treated mice. In the probe test, minocycline-treated mice spent more time in the target quadrant and crossed the platform area more frequently than animals in the LPS-treated group. Minocycline produced a significant decrease in the number of Iba-1- and GFAP-positive hippocampal cells compared to the LPS-treated group. Minocycline-treated mice had significantly reduced hippocampal TNF-α and IL-1β mRNA levels compared with LPS-treated animals. Minocycline caused a significant increase in hippocampal BDNF expression compared to the LPS-treated group. Minocycline can attenuate LPS-induced cognitive impairments in mice. This effect may be associated with its action to suppress the activation of microglia and astrocytes and to normalize BDNF expression. Since neuroinflammatory processes and cognitive impairments are implicated in neurodegenerative disorders, minocycline may be a promising candidate for treating such diseases.

  8. Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide induced acute inflammation in lung by chlorination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jinshan; Xue, Jinling; Xu, Bi; Xie, Jiani [Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control State Key Joint Laboratory, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Qiao, Juan, E-mail: qjuan@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Lu, Yun, E-mail: luyun@tsinghua.edu.cn [Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control State Key Joint Laboratory, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-02-13

    Highlights: • Chlorination is effective to reduce the inflammation inducing capacity of LPS in lung. • LAL-detected endotoxin activity is not correlated to the potency of inflammation induction. • Alkyl chain of LPS was chlorinated in chlorination process. • LPS aggregate size decreases after chlorination. - Abstract: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, also called endotoxin) is a pro-inflammatory constituent of gram negative bacteria and cyanobacteria, which causes a potential health risk in the process of routine urban application of reclaimed water, such as car wash, irrigation, scenic water refilling, etc. Previous studies indicated that the common disinfection treatment, chlorination, has little effect on endotoxin activity removal measured by Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay. However, in this study, significant decrease of acute inflammatory effects was observed in mouse lung, while LAL assay still presented a moderate increase of endotoxin activity. To explore the possible mechanisms, the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) results showed the chlorination happened in alkyl chain of LPS molecules, which could affect the interaction between LPS and LPS-binding protein. Also the size of LPS aggregates was found to drop significantly after treatment, which could be another results of chlorination caused polarity change. In conclusion, our observation demonstrated that chlorination is effective to reduce the LPS induced inflammation in lung, and it is recommended to use health effect-based methods to assess risk removal of water treatment technologies.

  9. Dexmedetomidine reduces lipopolysaccharide induced neuroinflammation, sickness behavior, and anhedonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hua Yeh

    Full Text Available Peripheral innate immune response may induce sickness behavior through activating microglia, excessive cytokines production, and neuroinflammation. Dexmedetomidine (Dex has anti-inflammatory effect. We investigated the effects of Dex on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced neuroinflammation and sickness behavior in mice.BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally (i.p. injected with Dex (50 ug/kg or vehicle. One hour later, the mice were injected (i.p. with Escherichia coli LPS (0.33 mg/kg or saline (n = 6 in each group. We analyzed the food and water intake, body weight loss, and sucrose preference of the mice for 24h. We also determined microglia activation and cytokines expression in the brains of the mice. In vitro, we determine cytokines expression in LPS-treated BV-2 microglial cells with or without Dex treatment.In the Dex-pretreated mice, LPS-induced sickness behavior (anorexia, weight loss, and social withdrawal were attenuated and microglial activation was lower than vehicle control. The mRNA expression of TNF-α, MCP-1, indoleamine 2, 3 dioxygenase (IDO, caspase-3, and iNOS were increased in the brain of LPS-challenged mice, which were reduced by Dex but not vehicle.Dexmedetomidine diminished LPS-induced neuroinflammation in the mouse brain and modulated the cytokine-associated changes in sickness behavior.

  10. Calcium hydroxide suppresses Porphyromonas endodontalis lipopolysaccharide-induced bone destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, J; Yang, D; Okamura, H; Teramachi, J; Ochiai, K; Qiu, L; Haneji, T

    2014-05-01

    Porphyromonas endodontalis and its main virulence factor, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), are associated with the development of periapical diseases and alveolar bone loss. Calcium hydroxide is commonly used for endodontic therapy. However, the effects of calcium hydroxide on the virulence of P. endodontalis LPS and the mechanism of P. endodontalis LPS-induced bone destruction are not clear. Calcium hydroxide rescued the P. endodontalis LPS-suppressed viability of MC3T3-E1 cells and activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in these cells, resulting in the reduced expression of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α. In addition, calcium hydroxide inhibited P. endodontalis LPS-induced osteoclastogenesis by decreasing the activities of NF-κB, p38, and ERK1/2 and the expression of nuclear factor of activated T-cell cytoplasmic 1 in RAW264.7 cells. Calcium hydroxide also rescued the P. endodontalis LPS-induced osteoclastogenesis and bone destruction in mouse calvaria. Taken together, our present results indicate that calcium hydroxide suppressed bone destruction by attenuating the virulence of P. endodontalis LPS on bone cells.

  11. Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide induced acute inflammation in lung by chlorination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinshan; Xue, Jinling; Xu, Bi; Xie, Jiani; Qiao, Juan; Lu, Yun

    2016-02-13

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, also called endotoxin) is a pro-inflammatory constituent of gram negative bacteria and cyanobacteria, which causes a potential health risk in the process of routine urban application of reclaimed water, such as car wash, irrigation, scenic water refilling, etc. Previous studies indicated that the common disinfection treatment, chlorination, has little effect on endotoxin activity removal measured by Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay. However, in this study, significant decrease of acute inflammatory effects was observed in mouse lung, while LAL assay still presented a moderate increase of endotoxin activity. To explore the possible mechanisms, the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) results showed the chlorination happened in alkyl chain of LPS molecules, which could affect the interaction between LPS and LPS-binding protein. Also the size of LPS aggregates was found to drop significantly after treatment, which could be another results of chlorination caused polarity change. In conclusion, our observation demonstrated that chlorination is effective to reduce the LPS induced inflammation in lung, and it is recommended to use health effect-based methods to assess risk removal of water treatment technologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide induced acute inflammation in lung by chlorination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jinshan; Xue, Jinling; Xu, Bi; Xie, Jiani; Qiao, Juan; Lu, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Chlorination is effective to reduce the inflammation inducing capacity of LPS in lung. • LAL-detected endotoxin activity is not correlated to the potency of inflammation induction. • Alkyl chain of LPS was chlorinated in chlorination process. • LPS aggregate size decreases after chlorination. - Abstract: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, also called endotoxin) is a pro-inflammatory constituent of gram negative bacteria and cyanobacteria, which causes a potential health risk in the process of routine urban application of reclaimed water, such as car wash, irrigation, scenic water refilling, etc. Previous studies indicated that the common disinfection treatment, chlorination, has little effect on endotoxin activity removal measured by Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay. However, in this study, significant decrease of acute inflammatory effects was observed in mouse lung, while LAL assay still presented a moderate increase of endotoxin activity. To explore the possible mechanisms, the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) results showed the chlorination happened in alkyl chain of LPS molecules, which could affect the interaction between LPS and LPS-binding protein. Also the size of LPS aggregates was found to drop significantly after treatment, which could be another results of chlorination caused polarity change. In conclusion, our observation demonstrated that chlorination is effective to reduce the LPS induced inflammation in lung, and it is recommended to use health effect-based methods to assess risk removal of water treatment technologies.

  13. Evidence for lipopolysaccharide-induced differentiation of RAW264 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2Analytical Services Branch, HELD, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health,. Center of Disease ... cells increased in cell size and acquired distinct dendritic morphology. ..... ferentiation of macrophages into DCs, further work is.

  14. Lipopolysaccharide induces autotaxin expression in human monocytic THP-1 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Song; Zhang Junjie

    2009-01-01

    Autotaxin (ATX) is a secreted enzyme with lysophospholipase D (lysoPLD) activity, which converts lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) into lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a bioactive phospholipid involved in numerous biological activities, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration. In the present study, we found that bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a well-known initiator of the inflammatory response, induced ATX expression in monocytic THP-1 cells. The activation of PKR, JNK, and p38 MAPK was required for the ATX induction. The LPS-induced ATX in THP-1 cells was characterized as the β isoform. In the presence of LPC, ATX could promote the migrations of THP-1 and Jurkat cells, which was inhibited by pertussis toxin (PTX), an inhibitor of Gi-mediated LPA receptor signaling. In summary, LPS induces ATX expression in THP-1 cells via a PKR, JNK and p38 MAPK-mediated mechanism, and the ATX induction is likely to enhance immune cell migration in proinflammatory response by regulating LPA levels in the microenvironment.

  15. Lipopolysaccharide-induced acute renal failure in conscious rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonassen, Thomas E N; Graebe, Martin; Promeneur, Dominique

    2002-01-01

    In conscious, chronically instrumented rats we examined 1) renal tubular functional changes involved in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute renal failure; 2) the effects of LPS on the expression of selected renal tubular water and sodium transporters; and 3) effects of milrinone......-alpha and lactate, inhibited the LPS-induced tachycardia, and exacerbated the acute LPS-induced fall in GFR. Furthermore, Ro-20-1724-treated rats were unable to maintain MAP. We conclude 1) PDE3 or PDE4 inhibition exacerbates LPS-induced renal failure in conscious rats; and 2) LPS treated rats develop an escape......, a phosphodiesterase type 3 (PDE3) inhibitor, and Ro-20-1724, a PDE4 inhibitor, on LPS-induced changes in renal function. Intravenous infusion of LPS (4 mg/kg b.wt. over 1 h) caused an immediate decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and proximal tubular outflow without changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP...

  16. Benzoxazole derivatives suppress lipopolysaccharide-induced mast cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyung-Ah; Park, Minhwa; Kim, Yu-Hee; Choo, Hea-Young Park; Lee, Kyung Ho

    2018-05-01

    Mast cells are central regulators of allergic inflammation that function by releasing various proallergic inflammatory mediators, including histamine, eicosanoids and proinflammatory cytokines. Occasionally, bacterial infections may initiate or worsen allergic inflammation. A number of studies have indicated that activation of lipoxygenase in mast cells positive regulates allergic inflammatory responses by generating leukotrienes and proinflammatory cytokines. In the present study, the effects of benzoxazole derivatives on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑induced expression of proinflammatory cytokines, production of histamine and surface expression of co‑stimulatory molecules on bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) were studied. The benzoxazole derivatives significantly reduced the expression of interleukin (IL)‑1β, IL‑6, IL‑13, tumor necrosis factor‑α, perilipin (PLIN) 2, and PLIN3 in BMMCs treated with LPS. Furthermore, histamine production was suppressed in BMMCs treated with LPS, or treated with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate/ionomycin. Benzoxazole derivatives marginally affected the surface expression of cluster of differentiation (CD)80 and CD86 on BMMCs in the presence of LPS, although LPS alone did not increase the expression of those proteins. Therefore, benzoxazole derivatives inhibited the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in mast cells and may be potential candidate anti‑allergic agents to suppress mast cell activation.

  17. α:Non–α and Gγ:Aγ globin chain ratios in thalassemia intermedia patients treated with hydroxyurea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Najjari

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: Improvement in α:non-α ratio and consequent decrease of free α-globin chain might be the cause of beneficial effects of hydroxyurea therapy. Two patients who felt better didn't show significant increase in their fetal hemoglobin level, and this is in contradiction with the hypothesis claiming that the HbF level increase is the cause of such therapeutic effect. In spite of the unclear mechanism of action of this drug, hydroxyurea therapy had noticeable impacts on thalassemia intermedia and also sickle cell disease and even patients suffering from thalassemia major.

  18. Characteristics of β-lactamases and their genes (blaA and blaB in Yersinia intermedia and Y. frederiksenii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Sachin

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of β-lactamases in Y. enterocolitica has been reported to vary with serovars, biovars and geographical origin of the isolates. An understanding of the β-lactamases in other related species is important for an overall perception of antibiotic resistance in yersiniae. The objective of this work was to study the characteristics of β-lactamases and their genes in strains of Y. intermedia and Y. frederiksenii, isolated from clinical and non-clinical sources in India. Results The enzymes, Bla-A (a constitutive class A penicillinase and Bla-B (an inducible class C cephalosporinase were found to be present in all the clinical and non-clinical strains of Y. intermedia and Y. frederiksenii by double disc diffusion method. The results showed differential expression of Bla-A as indicated by presence/absence of synergy whereas expression of Bla-B was quite consistent. The presence of these enzymes was also reflected in the high minimum inhibitory concentrations, MIC50 (126–1024 mg/L and MIC90 (256–1024 mg/L of β-lactam antibiotics against these species. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP revealed heterogeneity in both blaA and blaB genes of Y. intermedia and Y. frederiksenii. The blaA gene of Y. intermedia shared significant sequence identity (87–96% with blaA of Y. enterocolitica biovars 1A, 1B and 4. The sequence identity of blaA of Y. frederiksenii with these biovars was 77–79%. The sequence identity of blaB gene of Y. intermedia and Y. frederiksenii was more (85% with that of Y. enterocolitica biovars 1A, 1B and 2 compared to other species viz., Y. bercovieri, Y. aldovae and Y. ruckeri. Isoelectric focusing data further revealed that both Y. intermedia and Y. frederiksenii produced Bla-A (pI 8.7 and "Bla-B like" (pI 5.5–7.1 enzymes. Conclusion Both Y. intermedia and Y. frederiksenii showed presence of blaA and blaB genes and unequivocal expression of the two β-lactamases. Limited heterogeneity

  19. Studies on the biosynthesis of lignins and their production in plant cell cultures. [Forsythia intermedia; Podophyllum hexandrum; Podophyllum peltatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdul-Rahman, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    Phytochemical analysis of Forsythia intermedia tissues has demonstrated the presence of lignins of the dibenzylbutyrolactone and dioxabicyclo(3,3,0)octane classes, together with their O-glucosides. Lignin distribution in different parts of the part, and variation with the season has been recorded. Cell suspension cultures from F. intermedia were developed. These also synthesized lignins, though not the full range as found in the fresh tissues. Culture lines synthesizing either matairesinol 4{prime}-O-glucoside and major lignin components were established. These cultures rapidly metabolized exogenous lignins without producing detectable lignin transformation products. The seasonal variation in aryltetralin lactone levels in young plants Podophyllum hexandrum and P. peltatum has been investigated. Cell cultures of the plants were established, but no lignins were detectable in them. However, a protocol for micropropagation via embryoid production was obtained. Feeding experiments in P. hexandrum plants showed that matairesinol was a precursor of both podophyllotoxin and 4{prime}-demethylpodophyllotoxin, thus indicating it to be a common precursor of the trimethoxy and hydroxydimethoxy series of lignins in this plant. Precursor feeding experiments with {sup 3}H/{sup 14}C-labeled coniferyl alcohol showed an unexpected increase in {sup 3}H/{sup 14}C ratio when incorporated into both Forsythia and Podophyllum lignins.

  20. Liver transplantation from a deceased donor with β-thalassemia intermedia is not contraindicated: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumus, Ersin; Abbasoglu, Osman; Tanyel, Cahit; Gumruk, Fatma; Ozen, Hasan; Yuce, Aysel

    2017-05-01

    The use of extended criteria donors who might have previously been deemed unsuitable is an option to increase the organ supply for transplantation. This report presents a pediatric case of a successful liver transplantation from a donor with β-thalassemia intermedia. A patient, 6-year-old female, with a diagnosis of cryptogenic liver cirrhosis underwent deceased donor liver transplantation from a thalassemic donor. Extreme hyperferritinemia was detected shortly after transplantation. The most probable cause of hyperferritinemia was iron overload secondary to transplantation of a hemosiderotic liver. Hepatocellular injury due to acute graft rejection might have contributed to elevated ferritin levels by causing release of stored iron from the hemosiderotic liver graft. Iron chelation and phlebotomy therapies were started simultaneously in the early postoperative period to avoid iron-related organ toxicity and transplant failure. Follow-up with monthly phlebotomies after discharge yielded a favorable outcome with normal transplant functions. Thalassemia intermedia patients can be candidates of liver donors to decrease pretransplant waitlist mortality. After transplantation of a hemosiderotic liver, it is important to monitor the recipient in terms of iron overload and toxicity. Early attempts to lower iron burden including chelation therapy and/or phlebotomy should be considered to avoid organ toxicity and transplant failure. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a class II phospholipase D from Loxosceles intermedia venom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, Anwar; Giuseppe, Priscila Oliveira de; Murakami, Mario Tyago; Trevisan-Silva, Dilza; Wille, Ana Carolina Martins; Chaves-Moreira, Daniele; Gremski, Luiza Helena; Silveira, Rafael Bertoni da; Sennf-Ribeiro, Andrea; Chaim, Olga Meiri; Veiga, Silvio Sanches; Arni, Raghuvir Krishnaswamy

    2011-01-01

    Wild-type and H12A-mutant class II phospholipase D from L. intermedia venom were crystallized; the crystals diffracted to maximum resolutions of 1.95 and 1.60 Å, respectively. Phospholipases D are the major dermonecrotic component of Loxosceles venom and catalyze the hydrolysis of phospholipids, resulting in the formation of lipid mediators such as ceramide-1-phosphate and lysophosphatidic acid which can induce pathological and biological responses. Phospholipases D can be classified into two classes depending on their catalytic efficiency and the presence of an additional disulfide bridge. In this work, both wild-type and H12A-mutant forms of the class II phospholipase D from L. intermedia venom were crystallized. Wild-type and H12A-mutant crystals were grown under very similar conditions using PEG 200 as a precipitant and belonged to space group P12 1 1, with unit-cell parameters a = 50.1, b = 49.5, c = 56.5 Å, β = 105.9°. Wild-type and H12A-mutant crystals diffracted to maximum resolutions of 1.95 and 1.60 Å, respectively

  2. Differential Midgut Attachment of Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis in the Sand Flies Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia whitmani and Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia intermedia

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    Rodrigo P. Soares

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between Leishmania and sand flies has been demonstrated in many Old and New World species. Besides the morphological differentiation from procyclic to infective metacyclic promastigotes, the parasite undergoes biochemical transformations in its major surface lipophosphoglycan (LPG. An upregulation of β-glucose residues was previously shown in the LPG repeat units from procyclic to metacyclic phase in Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis, which has not been reported in any Leishmania species. LPG has been implicated as an adhesion molecule that mediates the interaction with the midgut epithelium of the sand fly in the Subgenus Leishmania. These adaptations were explored for the first time in a species from the Subgenus Viannia, L. (V. braziliensis with its natural vectors Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia intermedia and Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia whitmani. Using two in vitro binding techniques, phosphoglycans (PGs derived from procyclic and metacyclic parasites were able to bind to the insect midgut and inhibit L. braziliensis attachment. Interestingly, L. braziliensis procyclic parasite attachment was ∼11-fold greater in the midgut of L. whitmani than in L. intermedia. The epidemiological relevance of L. whitmani as a vector of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL in Brazil is discussed.

  3. Evolución de estrellas enanas blancas de Helio de masa baja e intermedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althaus, L. G.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Numerosas observaciones realizadas particularmente en los últimos dos años parecen confirmar que las enanas blancas (EB) de helio de masa baja e intermedia son el resultado de la evolución de sistemas binarios cercanos. Con el objeto de realizar una adecuada interpretación de estos objetos son necesarios modelos de EBs de helio lo más detallado posibles. En este estudio presentamos cálculos detallados de la evolución de EBs de helio con masas entre M=0.1Msolar y M=0.5Msolar a intervalos de 0.05Msolar . Para ello, hemos tenido en cuenta los efectos de temperatura finita mediante un código de evolución estelar lo más actualizado posible. En particular, el transporte de energía es descripto en el marco del nuevo modelo para la convección turbulenta desarrollado por Canuto - Mazzitelli. Además hemos considerado la nueva ecuación de estado para plasmas de helio de Saumon et al. y nuevas opacidades radiativas OPAL. Las pérdidas por neutrinos fueron asimismo tenidas en cuenta. Excepto para las EBs más masivas, nuestros modelos iniciales están ubicados en las cercanías de la correspondiente línea de Hayashi para configuraciones de helio. Nuestros resultados muestran que existe una región prohibida en el diagrama observacional HR donde ninguna EB de helio puede encontrarse. Dicha región es para log{(L/Lsolar )}>= -0.25 and log{Teff} >= 4.45. Hemos encontrado también que los tracks evolutivos en el diagrama HR en el dominio de alta luminosidad (pre - EB) son fuertemente afectados por la eficiencia convectiva y que las pérdidas por neutrinos son importantes en los modelos más masivos. Finalmente hemos analizado la estructura de la zona convectiva externa encontrando que la teoría de Canuto - Mazzitelli conduce a un perfil convectivo muy diferente del dado por cualquier versión de la popular teoría de la mixing length. Si bién este comportamiento es decisivo en el contexto de las inestabilides pulsacionales, los radios y gravedades superficiales de

  4. Intermedin A, a New Labdane Diterpene Isolated from Alpinia intermedia, Prolonged the Survival Time of P-388D1 Tumor-Bearing CDF1 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lih-Geeng; Su, Pei-Jung; Tsai, Po-Wei; Yang, Ling-Ling; Wang, Ching-Chiung

    2017-01-01

    Eight ethanolic extracts of indigenous Taiwanese plants of the genus Alpinia were tested for tumor cytotoxicity against AGS, Hep G2, HeLa, KB, and HL-60 cells. Among the 50 % and 95 % EtOH extracts of eight Alpinia species, the cytotoxic effects of Alpinia intermedia leaves were the strongest. When the leaf extract of A. intermedia was partitioned using n -hexane and aqueous solvents, the n -hexane layer showed a greater cytotoxic effect and could prolong the survival time of P-388D 1 tumor-bearing CDF1 mice. Two new labdane diterpene derivatives, intermedin A ( 1 ) and intermedin B ( 2 ), and coronarin E ( 3 ) were isolated from the n -hexane layer of A. intermedia . Intermedin A induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells at 30 µg/mL and significantly prolonged the survival time of P-388D 1 tumor-bearing CDF 1 mice by 48.7 % at 20 mg/kg of body weight. We suggest that intermedin A is a major compound of A. intermedia and has a cytotoxic effect on HL-60 and P-388D 1 cells. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Prebiotic effects of wheat arabinoxylan related to the increase in bifidobacteria, Roseburia and Bacteroides/Prevotella in diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyrinck, Audrey M; Possemiers, Sam; Druart, Céline; Van de Wiele, Tom; De Backer, Fabienne; Cani, Patrice D; Larondelle, Yvan; Delzenne, Nathalie M

    2011-01-01

    Alterations in the composition of gut microbiota--known as dysbiosis--has been proposed to contribute to the development of obesity, thereby supporting the potential interest of nutrients targeting the gut with beneficial effect for host adiposity. We test the ability of a specific concentrate of water-extractable high molecular weight arabinoxylans (AX) from wheat to modulate both the gut microbiota and lipid metabolism in high-fat (HF) diet-induced obese mice. Mice were fed either a control diet (CT) or a HF diet, or a HF diet supplemented with AX (10% w/w) during 4 weeks. AX supplementation restored the number of bacteria that were decreased upon HF feeding, i.e. Bacteroides-Prevotella spp. and Roseburia spp. Importantly, AX treatment markedly increased caecal bifidobacteria content, in particular Bifidobacterium animalis lactis. This effect was accompanied by improvement of gut barrier function and by a lower circulating inflammatory marker. Interestingly, rumenic acid (C18:2 c9,t11) was increased in white adipose tissue due to AX treatment, suggesting the influence of gut bacterial metabolism on host tissue. In parallel, AX treatment decreased adipocyte size and HF diet-induced expression of genes mediating differentiation, fatty acid uptake, fatty acid oxidation and inflammation, and decreased a key lipogenic enzyme activity in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Furthermore, AX treatment significantly decreased HF-induced adiposity, body weight gain, serum and hepatic cholesterol accumulation and insulin resistance. Correlation analysis reveals that Roseburia spp. and Bacteroides/Prevotella levels inversely correlate with these host metabolic parameters. Supplementation of a concentrate of water-extractable high molecular weight AX in the diet counteracted HF-induced gut dysbiosis together with an improvement of obesity and lipid-lowering effects. We postulate that hypocholesterolemic, anti-inflammatory and anti-obesity effects are related to changes in gut

  6. Alternative substrata for xaxim on culture of Cattleya intermedia X Hadrolaelia purpurata (Orchidaceae / Substratos alternativos ao xaxim no cultivo do híbrido Cattleya intermedia X Hadrolaelia purpurata (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida da Fonseca Sorace

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work had the purpose of evaluating the efficiency of different substrata by vegetal origin, to grow species of orchids (Orchidaceae. Seedlings of Cattleya intermedia X Hadrolaelia purpurata, obtained by in vitro culture, and acclimated, with medium height of 5 cm, had the following substrata: 1- Defibered xaxim (control; 2- Carbonized rice husk; 3- Coconut fiber; 4- Husk pínus; 5- Carbonized rice husk + Coconut fiber (1:1; 6- Carbonized rice husk + Husk pínus (1:1; 7- Coconut fiber + Husk pinus (1:1; 8- Husk pínus + Carbonized rice husk + Coconut fiber (1:1:1. A randomized design with eight treatments and ten replications. Results were submited to Variance Analysis and Tukey Test at 5 %. Growing parameters evaluated after 17 months were: root length, roots number, height of above ground, buds number, leaves number, leaf length, leaf width, total fresh mass and root volume. Determinated substrata parameters were: pH, eletric conductivity and density. All studied substratum can be recommended to substitute xaxim but, coconut fiber was least efficient to develop roots and aerial parts of plants. Better results were showed by substratum only with carbonized rice husk + husk pine on culture of Cattleya intermedia X Hadrolaelia purpurata.O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência de diferentes substratos de origem vegetal no cultivo de espécies de orquídeas. Plântulas de Cattleya intermedia X Hadrolaelia purpurata, provenientes de cultivo in vitro, aclimatizadas e com altura média de 5 cm, foram plantadas nos substratos: 1-Xaxim desfibrado (testemunha; 2-Casca de arroz carbonizada; 3-Fibra de coco; 4-Casca de pínus; 5-Casca de pínus + Fibra de coco (1:1; 6-Casca de arroz + Fibra de coco (1:1; 7-Casca de arroz carbonizada + Casca de pínus (1:1; 8-Casca de pínus + Casca de arroz carbonizada + Fibra de coco (1:1:1. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado com oito tratamentos e dez repeti

  7. A persistent cough as atypical clinical presentation of intrathoracic extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) in a female with thalassemia intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulla, Mohammad Aj; Yassin, Mohamed A; Abdelrazek, Mohamed; Mudawi, Deena; Ibrahim, Firyal; Soliman, Dina S; ElOmri, Halima; Nashwan, Abdulqadir J; Fernihough, Liam; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Soliman, Ashraf T

    2018-02-16

    Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) is a rare disorder, defined as the appearance of hematopoietic elements outside the bone marrow or peripheral blood. The most common sites of EMH are liver and spleen, but it has been documented in other organs such as the mediastinum, lymph nodes, breast, and central nervous system. EMH occurs as a compensatory mechanism for bone marrow dysfunction in severe thalassemia. We report a case of EMH presenting as a posterior mediastinal mass in a 34-year-old woman with thalassemia intermedia with chronic cough and shortness of breath on exertion. The diagnosis of EMH was confirmed by a CT-guided fine needle biopsy. All symptoms disappeared after surgical removal of the mass.

  8. Ethanol and Protein from Ethanol Plant By-Products Using Edible Fungi Neurospora intermedia and Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bátori, Veronika; Ferreira, Jorge A; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J; Lennartsson, Patrik R

    2015-01-01

    Feasible biorefineries for production of second-generation ethanol are difficult to establish due to the process complexity. An alternative is to partially include the process in the first-generation plants. Whole stillage, a by-product from dry-mill ethanol processes from grains, is mostly composed of undegraded bran and lignocelluloses can be used as a potential substrate for production of ethanol and feed proteins. Ethanol production and the proteins from the stillage were investigated using the edible fungi Neurospora intermedia and Aspergillus oryzae, respectively. N. intermedia produced 4.7 g/L ethanol from the stillage and increased to 8.7 g/L by adding 1 FPU of cellulase/g suspended solids. Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced 0.4 and 5.1 g/L ethanol, respectively. Under a two-stage cultivation with both fungi, up to 7.6 g/L of ethanol and 5.8 g/L of biomass containing 42% (w/w) crude protein were obtained. Both fungi degraded complex substrates including arabinan, glucan, mannan, and xylan where reductions of 91, 73, 38, and 89% (w/v) were achieved, respectively. The inclusion of the current process can lead to the production of 44,000 m(3) of ethanol (22% improvement), around 12,000 tons of protein-rich biomass for animal feed, and energy savings considering a typical facility producing 200,000 m(3) ethanol/year.

  9. Ethanol and Protein from Ethanol Plant By-Products Using Edible Fungi Neurospora intermedia and Aspergillus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Bátori

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Feasible biorefineries for production of second-generation ethanol are difficult to establish due to the process complexity. An alternative is to partially include the process in the first-generation plants. Whole stillage, a by-product from dry-mill ethanol processes from grains, is mostly composed of undegraded bran and lignocelluloses can be used as a potential substrate for production of ethanol and feed proteins. Ethanol production and the proteins from the stillage were investigated using the edible fungi Neurospora intermedia and Aspergillus oryzae, respectively. N. intermedia produced 4.7 g/L ethanol from the stillage and increased to 8.7 g/L by adding 1 FPU of cellulase/g suspended solids. Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced 0.4 and 5.1 g/L ethanol, respectively. Under a two-stage cultivation with both fungi, up to 7.6 g/L of ethanol and 5.8 g/L of biomass containing 42% (w/w crude protein were obtained. Both fungi degraded complex substrates including arabinan, glucan, mannan, and xylan where reductions of 91, 73, 38, and 89% (w/v were achieved, respectively. The inclusion of the current process can lead to the production of 44,000 m3 of ethanol (22% improvement, around 12,000 tons of protein-rich biomass for animal feed, and energy savings considering a typical facility producing 200,000 m3 ethanol/year.

  10. Isolation and functional characterization of a methyl jasmonate-responsive 3-carene synthase from Lavandula x intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adal, Ayelign M; Sarker, Lukman S; Lemke, Ashley D; Mahmoud, Soheil S

    2017-04-01

    A methyl jasmonate responsive 3-carene synthase (Li3CARS) gene was isolated from Lavandula x intermedia and functionally characterized in vitro. Lavenders produce essential oils consisting mainly of monoterpenes, including the potent antimicrobial and insecticidal monoterpene 3-carene. In this study we isolated and functionally characterized a leaf-specific, methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-responsive monoterpene synthase (Li3CARS) from Lavandula x intermedia. The ORF excluding transit peptides encoded a 64.9 kDa protein that was expressed in E. coli, and purified with Ni-NTA agarose affinity chromatography. The recombinant Li3CARS converted GPP into 3-carene as the major product, with K m and k cat of 3.69 ± 1.17 µM and 2.01 s -1 respectively. Li3CARS also accepted NPP as a substrate to produce multiple products including a small amount of 3-carene. The catalytic efficiency of Li3CARS to produce 3-carene was over ten fold higher for GPP (k cat /K m = 0.56 µM -1 s -1 ) than NPP (k cat /K m = 0.044 µM -1 s -1 ). Production of distinct end product profiles from different substrates (GPP versus NPP) by Li3CARS indicates that monoterpene metabolism may be controlled in part through substrate availability. Li3CARS transcripts were found to be highly abundant in leaves (16-fold) as compared to flower tissues. The transcriptional activity of Li3CARS correlated with 3-carene production, and was up-regulated (1.18- to 3.8-fold) with MeJA 8-72 h post-treatment. The results suggest that Li3CARS may have a defensive role in Lavandula.

  11. Dispersal and survival of Nyssomyia intermedia and Nyssomyia neivai (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in a cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area of the speleological province of the Ribeira Valley, state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galati, Eunice A B; Fonseca, Mauro Breviglieri; Marassá, Ana Maria; Bueno, Edna Fátima M

    2009-12-01

    The dispersal and survival of the phlebotomines Nyssomyia intermedia and Nyssomyia neivai (both implicated as vectors of the cutaneous leishmaniasis agent) in an endemic area was investigated using a capture-mark-release technique in five experiments from August-December 2003 in municipality of Iporanga, state of São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 1,749 males and 1,262 females of Ny. intermedia and 915 males and 411 females of Ny. neivai were marked and released during the five experiments. Recapture attempts were made using automatic light traps, aspiration in natural resting places and domestic animal shelters and Shannon traps. A total of 153 specimens (3.48%) were recaptured: 2.59% (78/3,011) for Ny. intermedia and 5.35% (71/1,326) for Ny. neivai. Both species were recaptured up to 144 h post-release, with the larger part of them recaptured within 48 h. The median dispersion distances for Ny. intermedia and Ny. neivai, respectively, were 109 m and 100 m. The greatest dispersal range of Ny. intermedia was 180 m, while for Ny. neivai one female was recaptured in a pasture at 250 m and another in a pigsty at 520 m, showing a tendency to disperse to more open areas. The daily survival rates calculated based on regressions of the numbers of marked insects recaptured on the six successive days after release were 0.746 for males and 0.575 for females of Ny. intermedia and 0.649 for both sexes of Ny. neivai. The size of the populations in the five months ranged from 8,332-725,085 for Ny. intermedia males, 2,193-104,490 for Ny. intermedia females, 1,687-350,122 for Ny. neivai males and 254-49,705 for Ny. neivai females.

  12. Postembryonic development of Loxosceles intermedia Mello-Leitão, 1934, L. laeta (Nicolet, 1849 and L. gaucho Gertsch, 1967 (Araneae; Sicariidae breeding under conditions of monospecific diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Marques da Silva

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of monospecific feeding on the post-embryonic development of L. intermedia, L. laeta and L. gaucho was evaluated. Two hundred and ten spiderlings were individualized in containers (120 ml, 105 being fed with Tenebrio molitor larvae and 105 with Pycnoscelus surinamensis nymphs. In the three species, the number of molts varied according to the diet. The number of spiders that reached maturity was lower in L. gaucho. In L. intermedia, the duration of the post-embryonic period was greater when larvae are fed. Mortality was higher in the second instar in the three species, the highest frequency being registered for L. gaucho. The data provided evidence that monospecific feeding influenced the post-embryonic development of the studied species. This influence might intensified by specific characteristics such as origin, habits and habitats.

  13. La organización de los actores en el desarrollo territorial. El tren de alta velocidad en la ciudad intermedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Feliu Torrent

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Si queremos evaluar el grado de desarrollo local que aporta el Tren de Alta Velocidad (TAV en una ciudad es primordial observar la capacidad de los actores del territorio de organizarse para aprovechar sus recursos endógenos. Mediante la elaboración de una nueva metodología, se propone el estudio del proceso de desarrollo de tres ciudades intermedias con TAV, Lérida (España, Aviñón (Francia y Novara (Italia. En las conclusiones se ponen de manifiesto ciertos problemas propios de la ciudad intermedia en la ejecución de su proyecto local, básicamente la existencia de una relación multiescalar conflictiva y de una débil red de actores locales. La fragilidad de este contexto urbano es debida a la falta de correctos procesos de gobernanza interna y externa.

  14. Full structure and insight into the gene cluster of the O-specific polysaccharide of Yersinia intermedia H9-36/83 (O:17).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizova, Olga V; Shashkov, Alexander S; Kondakova, Anna N; Knirel, Yuriy A; Shaikhutdinova, Rima Z; Ivanov, Sergei A; Kislichkina, Angelina A; Kadnikova, Lidia A; Bogun, Aleksandr G; Dentovskaya, Svetlana V

    2018-05-02

    Lipopolysaccharide was isolated from bacteria Yersinia intermedia H9-36/83 (O:17) and degraded with mild acid to give an O-specific polysaccharide, which was isolated by GPC on Sephadex G-50 and studied by sugar analysis and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. The polysaccharide was found to contain 3-deoxy-3-[(R)-3-hydroxybutanoylamino]-d-fucose (d-Fuc3NR3Hb) and the following structure of the heptasaccharide repeating unit was established: The structure established is consistent with the gene content of the O-antigen gene cluster. The O-polysaccharide structure and gene cluster of Y. intermedia are related to those of Hafnia alvei 1211 and Escherichia coli O:103. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Detection of Increased Plasma Interleukin-6 Levels and Prevalence of Prevotella copri and Bacteroides vulgatus in the Feces of Type 2 Diabetes Patients

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    Aline Zazeri Leite

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal dysbiosis and metabolic endotoxemia have been associated with metabolic disorders, such as obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes (T2D. The main goal of the present study was to evaluate the intestinal dysbiosis in Brazilian T2D patients and correlate these data with inflammatory cytokines and lipopolysaccharides (LPS plasma concentrations. This study was approved by the Ethics Committees from Barretos Cancer Hospital and all individuals signed the informed consent form. Stool samples were required for DNA extraction, and the V3/V4 regions of bacterial 16S were sequenced using an Illumina platform. Peripheral blood was used to quantify inflammatory cytokines and plasma LPS concentrations, by CBA flex and ELISA, respectively. Statistical analyses were performed using Mann–Whitney and Spearman’s tests. Analysis of variance, diversity indexes, and analysis of alpha- and beta-diversity were conducted using an annotated Operational Taxonomic Unit table. This study included 20 patients and 22 controls. We observed significant differences (P < 0.01 in the microbiota composition (beta-diversity between patients and controls, suggesting intestinal dysbiosis in Brazilian T2D patients. The prevalent species found in patients’ feces were the Gram-negatives Prevotella copri, Bacteroides vulgatus, Bacteroides rodentium, and Bacteroides xylanisolvens. The proinflammatory interleukin-6 (IL-6 was significantly increased (P < 0.05 in patients’ plasma and LPS levels were decreased. We find correlations between the proinflammatory interferon-gamma with Gram-negatives Bacteroides and Prevotella species, and a positive correlation between the LPS levels and P. copri reads. The P. copri and B. vulgatus species were associated with insulin resistance in previous studies. In this study, we suggested that the prevalence of Gram-negative species in the gut and the increased plasma IL-6 in patients could be linked to low

  16. Biodegradation of diuron by an endophytic fungus Neurospora intermedia DP8-1 isolated from sugarcane and its potential for remediating diuron-contaminated soils

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yanhui; Li, Honghong; Feng, Guojun; Du, Liangwei; Zeng, Dongqiang

    2017-01-01

    A diuron-degrading endophyte DP8-1 was isolated from sugarcane root grown in diuron-treated soil in the present study. The endophyte was identified as Neurospora intermedia based on the morphological characteristics and sequence analysis. The fermentation parameters including temperature, pH, inoculation size, carbon source, and initial diuron concentration were also investigated for the optimization of degradation efficiency. The results indicated that strain DP8-1 was capable of degrading u...

  17. Spatial Heterogeneity of Soil Nutrients after the Establishment of Caragana intermedia Plantation on Sand Dunes in Alpine Sandy Land of the Tibet Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingxue; Jia, Zhiqing; Zhu, Yajuan; Wang, Yongsheng; Li, Hong; Yang, Defu; Zhao, Xuebin

    2015-01-01

    The Gonghe Basin region of the Tibet Plateau is severely affected by desertification. Compared with other desertified land, the main features of this region is windy, cold and short growing season, resulting in relatively difficult for vegetation restoration. In this harsh environment, identification the spatial distribution of soil nutrients and analysis its impact factors after vegetation establishment will be helpful for understanding the ecological relationship between soil and environment. Therefore, in this study, the 12-year-old C. intermedia plantation on sand dunes was selected as the experimental site. Soil samples were collected under and between shrubs on the windward slopes, dune tops and leeward slopes with different soil depth. Then analyzed soil organic matter (SOM), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), total potassium (TK), available nitrogen (AN), available phosphorus (AP) and available potassium (AK). The results showed that the spatial heterogeneity of soil nutrients was existed in C. intermedia plantation on sand dunes. (1) Depth was the most important impact factor, soil nutrients were decreased with greater soil depth. One of the possible reasons is that windblown fine materials and litters were accumulated on surface soil, when they were decomposed, more nutrients were aggregated on surface soil. (2) Topography also affected the distribution of soil nutrients, more soil nutrients distributed on windward slopes. The herbaceous coverage were higher and C. intermedia ground diameter were larger on windward slopes, both of them probably related to the high soil nutrients level for windward slopes. (3) Soil "fertile islands" were formed, and the "fertile islands" were more marked on lower soil nutrients level topography positions, while it decreased towards higher soil nutrients level topography positions. The enrichment ratio (E) for TN and AN were higher than other nutrients, most likely because C. intermedia is a leguminous shrub.

  18. Survival and development of reintroduced Cattleya intermedia plants related to abiotic factors and herbivory at the edge and in the interior of a forest fragment in South Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delio Endres Júnior

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Biotic and abiotic factors, such as luminosity, temperature, air humidity, and herbivory, can affect the establishment of reintroduced plants in natural habitats. This study evaluated the effects of these factors on the survival and growth of Cattleya intermedia plants reintroduced into a forest fragment in South Brazil. Plants of C. intermedia were obtained from in vitro seed germination in asymbiotic culture. Eighty-eight plants were reintroduced at both the forest edge and forest interior. Plants with greater shoot heights and number of leaves and pseudobulbs suffered more damage from herbivores at the edge. There were no significant differences in morphometric parameters between damaged and non-damaged plants in the interior. Tenthecoris bicolor, Helionothrips errans, Ithomiola nepos, Molomea magna and Coleoptera larvae damaged C. intermedia. Luminosity was higher at the edge, while air humidity and temperature were the same in both environments. Herbivory associated with abiotic factors increased plant mortality in the interior, while abiotic factors were determinative of plant survival at the edge. Luminosity is important to the survival of reintroduced epiphytic orchids, and herbivory affects the success of reintroduction.

  19. The Effects of Gravitation on the Inter-Media Agenda-Setting Central Process: The Case of the Murder of Hrant Dink

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    Cem YAŞIN

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available While the first level agenda setting researches focus on the transfer of issue salience from the media to public agenda, second level agenda setting researches interest in the attributes emphasized in the news and their affect on the public agenda. Some of these researches tends to analysis the media agenda. Influences of the news media on each other are studied by the inter-media agenda setting researches at at both the first and second levels. The same researches examine also the effects of different types of media on each other. However there is the problem of lack of a systematic theoretical model. This is caused by the differentiation in the aims of researchers and in their research objects. The other problem in the inter-media agenda setting researches is that there is no research on the agenda setting effects of the newspapers which have different ideological and political identities. This research aims to scrutinize the inter-media agenda-setting effects among various newspapers that have got different points of view. The research is designed to test the central gravitation effects of the mainstream news papers. Here the Murder of Hrant Dink is selected as a case study.

  20. Eclectic feeding behavior of Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia intermedia (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae in the transmission area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis, state of Paraná, Brazil

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    Mauricio Baum

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The blood meal source of sandflies provides valuable information about the vector/host interaction and allows for an understanding of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL transmission mechanisms. The aim of this study was to identify the blood meal sources of Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia intermedia in an endemic area of leishmaniasis in Brazil's State of Paraná using a precipitin test. Methods Sandflies were collected in the rural locality of Epitácio Pessoa within the City of Adrianópolis, State of Paraná, in southern Brazil. A total of 864 female sandflies were captured, and 862 (99.8% were identified as L. intermedia species. However, two unidentified specimens were considered to be part of the genus Lutzomyia. Results Among the females examined, 396 specimens presented reactions to a certain type of tested antiserum, and most (67.9% reacted to the simple type. These sandflies fed mainly on the blood of birds, opossums, and rodents, but specimens that fed on the blood of humans, dogs, horses, cattle, and cats were also found. Among the cross-reactions found (32.1%, bird/rodent, bird/opossum, bird/dog, bird/human, and horse/dog cross-reactions were the most common. Conclusions These results demonstrate a tendency in the eclectic feeding behavior of L. intermedia and support its potential role as a vector for ACL in the study area.

  1. Blood feeding patterns of Nyssomyia intermedia and Nyssomyia neivai (Diptera, Psychodidae in a cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area of the Ribeira Valley, State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Ana Maria Marassa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The aim of this study was to identify the blood feeding sources of Nyssomyia intermedia (Ny. intermedia and Nyssomyia neivai (Ny. neivai, which are Leishmania vectors and the predominant sandfly species in the Ribeira Valley, State of São Paulo, Brazil, an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Methods Specimens were captured monthly between February 2001 and December 2003 on a smallholding and a small farm situated in the Serra district in the Iporanga municipality. The blood meals of 988 engorged females were tested using the avidin-biotin immunoenzymatic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Seven blood meal sources were investigated: human, dog, chicken, bovine, pig, horse and rat. Results The results showed that among the females that fed on one or more blood sources, the respective percentages for Ny. intermedia and Ny. neivai, respectively, were as follows: human (23% and 36.8%, pig (47.4% and 26.4%, chicken (25.7% and 36.8% and dog (3.9% and 0%, and the differences in the blood sources between the two species were statistically significant (p = 0.043. Conclusions Both species had predominant reactivity for one or two blood sources, and few showed reactivity indicating three or four sources. Many different combinations were observed among the females that showed reactivity for more than one source, which indicated their opportunistic habits and eclecticism regarding anthropic environmental conditions.

  2. Nanopore Long-Read Guided Complete Genome Assembly of Hydrogenophaga intermedia, and Genomic Insights into 4-Aminobenzenesulfonate, p-Aminobenzoic Acid and Hydrogen Metabolism in the Genus Hydrogenophaga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Han M; Lee, Yin P; Austin, Christopher M

    2017-01-01

    We improved upon the previously reported draft genome of Hydrogenophaga intermedia strain PBC, a 4-aminobenzenesulfonate-degrading bacterium, by supplementing the assembly with Nanopore long reads which enabled the reconstruction of the genome as a single contig. From the complete genome, major genes responsible for the catabolism of 4-aminobenzenesulfonate in strain PBC are clustered in two distinct genomic regions. Although the catabolic genes for 4-sulfocatechol, the deaminated product of 4-aminobenzenesulfonate, are only found in H. intermedia , the sad operon responsible for the first deamination step of 4-aminobenzenesulfonate is conserved in various Hydrogenophaga strains. The absence of pabB gene in the complete genome of H. intermedia PBC is consistent with its p -aminobenzoic acid (pABA) auxotrophy but surprisingly comparative genomics analysis of 14 Hydrogenophaga genomes indicate that pABA auxotrophy is not an uncommon feature among members of this genus. Of even more interest, several Hydrogenophaga strains do not possess the genomic potential for hydrogen oxidation, calling for a revision to the taxonomic description of Hydrogenophaga as "hydrogen eating bacteria."

  3. Spatial distribution of Munida intermedia and M. sarsi (crustacea: Anomura) on the Galician continental shelf (NW Spain): Application of geostatistical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, J.; González-Gurriarán, E.; Olaso, I.

    1992-12-01

    Geostatistical methodology was used to analyse spatial structure and distribution of the epibenthic crustaceans Munida intermedia and M. sarsi within sets of data which had been collected during three survey cruises carried out on the Galician continental shelf (1983 and 1984). This study investigates the feasibility of using geostatistics for data collected according to traditional methods and of enhancing such methodology. The experimental variograms were calculated (pooled variance minus spatial covariance between samples taken one pair at a time vs. distance) and fitted to a 'spherical' model. The spatial structure model was used to estimate the abundance and distribution of the populations studied using the technique of kriging. The species display spatial structures, which are well marked during high density periods and in some areas (especially northern shelf). Geostatistical analysis allows identification of the density gradients in space as well as the patch grain along the continental shelf of 16-25 km diameter for M. intermedia and 12-20 km for M. sarsi. Patches of both species have a consistent location throughout the different cruises. As in other geographical areas, M. intermedia and M. sarsi usually appear at depths ranging from 200 to 500 m, with the highest densities in the continental shelf area located between Fisterra and Estaca de Bares. Althouh sampling was not originally designed specifically for geostatistics, this assay provides a measurement of spatial covariance, and shows variograms with variable structure depending on population density and geographical area. These ideas are useful in improving the design of future sampling cruises.

  4. Eclectic feeding behavior of Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) intermedia (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) in the transmission area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis, state of Paraná, Brazil.

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    Baum, Mauricio; Ribeiro, Magda Clara Vieira da Costa; Lorosa, Elias Seixas; Damasio, Guilherme Augustto Costa; Castro, Edilene Alcântara de

    2013-01-01

    The blood meal source of sandflies provides valuable information about the vector/host interaction and allows for an understanding of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) transmission mechanisms. The aim of this study was to identify the blood meal sources of Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) intermedia in an endemic area of leishmaniasis in Brazil's State of Paraná using a precipitin test. Sandflies were collected in the rural locality of Epitácio Pessoa within the City of Adrianópolis, State of Paraná, in southern Brazil. A total of 864 female sandflies were captured, and 862 (99.8%) were identified as L. intermedia species. However, two unidentified specimens were considered to be part of the genus Lutzomyia. Among the females examined, 396 specimens presented reactions to a certain type of tested antiserum, and most (67.9%) reacted to the simple type. These sandflies fed mainly on the blood of birds, opossums, and rodents, but specimens that fed on the blood of humans, dogs, horses, cattle, and cats were also found. Among the cross-reactions found (32.1%), bird/rodent, bird/opossum, bird/dog, bird/human, and horse/dog cross-reactions were the most common. These results demonstrate a tendency in the eclectic feeding behavior of L. intermedia and support its potential role as a vector for ACL in the study area.

  5. Identification of two CiGADs from Caragana intermedia and their transcriptional responses to abiotic stresses and exogenous abscisic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jing; Zheng, Lingyu; Yue, Jianyun; Yao, Xiamei; Chang, Ermei; Xie, Tiantian; Deng, Nan; Chen, Lanzhen; Huang, Yuwen; Jiang, Zeping; Shi, Shengqing

    2017-01-01

    Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), as a key enzyme in the γ -aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt, catalyzes the decarboxylation of L-glutamate to form GABA. This pathway has attracted much interest because of its roles in carbon and nitrogen metabolism, stress responses, and signaling in higher plants. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize genes encoding GADs from Caragana intermedia , an important nitrogen-fixing leguminous shrub. Two full-length cDNAs encoding GADs (designated as CiGAD1 and CiGAD2 ) were isolated and characterized. Multiple alignment and phylogenetic analyses were conducted to evaluate their structures and identities to each other and to homologs in other plants. Tissue expression analyses were conducted to evaluate their transcriptional responses to stress (NaCl, ZnSO 4 , CdCl 2 , high/low temperature, and dehydration) and exogenous abscisic acid. The CiGAD s contained the conserved PLP domain and calmodulin (CaM)-binding domain in the C-terminal region. The phylogenetic analysis showed that they were more closely related to the GADs of soybean, another legume, than to GADs of other model plants. According to Southern blotting analysis, CiGAD1 had one copy and CiGAD2 -related genes were present as two copies in C. intermedia . In the tissue expression analyses, there were much higher transcript levels of CiGAD2 than CiGAD1 in bark, suggesting that CiGAD2 might play a role in secondary growth of woody plants. Several stress treatments (NaCl, ZnSO 4 , CdCl 2 , high/low temperature, and dehydration) significantly increased the transcript levels of both CiGAD s, except for CiGAD2 under Cd stress. The CiGAD1 transcript levels strongly increased in response to Zn stress (74.3-fold increase in roots) and heat stress (218.1-fold increase in leaves). The transcript levels of both CiGAD s significantly increased as GABA accumulated during a 24-h salt treatment. Abscisic acid was involved in regulating the expression of these two CiGAD s under salt

  6. GAKG-RGEKG an Epitope That Provokes Immune Cross-Reactivity between Prevotella sp. and Human Collagen: Evidence of Molecular Mimicry in Chronic Periodontitis

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    Gustavo Alberto Obando-Pereda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease afflicts 20% of world population. This process usually occurs in the form of being lethargic and chronic, and consequently this disease is known as chronic process. All chronic diseases constantly cause activation of the immune system, and therefore the presentation of microbial peptides which are presented to lymphocytes by professional antigen presenting cells can present microbial peptides very similar to important structures of human economy causing autoimmune diseases, process known as molecular mimicry. Thus, the aim of this study was to verify the presence of molecular mimicry phenomenon between periodontopathogens and human proteins. Blasting microbes of Socransky periodontal complexes against human collagen were performed and then the proteins with similarities were modelled and were screened in the MHI binding virtual methods. The epitopes selected were produced and plasma of chronic periodontal volunteers was obtained and a dot immunobinding assay was performed. Hypothetical protein of Prevotella sp. and human collagen epitopes with high similarities were positive for dot immunobinding assay. With this result it can be suggested that the mimicry phenomena can occur on periodontal disease.

  7. Identification of microRNAs in Caragana intermedia by high-throughput sequencing and expression analysis of 12 microRNAs and their targets under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianfeng; Li, Wanfeng; Yang, Wenhua; Qi, Liwang; Han, Suying

    2013-09-01

    142 miRNAs were identified and 38 miRNA targets were predicted, 4 of which were validated, in C. intermedia . The expression of 12 miRNAs in salt-stressed leaves was assessed by qRT-PCR. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small RNAs that play important roles in various biological and metabolic processes in plants. Caragana intermedia is an important ecological and economic tree species prominent in the desert environment of west and northwest China. To date, no investigation into C. intermedia miRNAs has been reported. In this study, high-throughput sequencing of small RNAs and analysis of transcriptome data were performed to identify both conserved and novel miRNAs, and also their target mRNA genes in C. intermedia. Based on sequence similarity and hairpin structure prediction, 132 putative conserved miRNAs (12 of which were confirmed to form hairpin precursors) belonging to 31 known miRNA families were identified. Ten novel miRNAs (including the miRNA* sequences of three novel miRNAs) were also discovered. Furthermore, 36 potential target genes of 17 known miRNA families and 2 potential target genes of 1 novel miRNA were predicted; 4 of these were validated by 5' RACE. The expression of 12 miRNAs was validated in different tissues, and these and five target mRNAs were assessed by qRT-PCR after salt treatment. The expression levels of seven miRNAs (cin-miR157a, cin-miR159a, cin-miR165a, cin-miR167b, cin-miR172b, cin-miR390a and cin-miR396a) were upregulated, while cin-miR398a expression was downregulated after salt treatment. The targets of cin-miR157a, cin-miR165a, cin-miR172b and cin-miR396a were downregulated and showed an approximately negative correlation with their corresponding miRNAs under salt treatment. These results would help further understanding of miRNA regulation in response to abiotic stress in C. intermedia.

  8. On the re-emergence of motion and innovations in the Gábor Bódy's intermedia experiments

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    Kamil Lipiński

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the main cases of Hungarian neo-avant-garde cinema in terms of re-emergence of visual material and the introduction of electronic innovations resulting in the transformation of reality. Among the research conducted in Béla Balázs Studio based on reframing the perception limits in the 1960s and the 1970s, the most innovative were Gábor Bódy's intermedia experiments. Along with launching K/3 subgroup within BBS, Bódy directed its objectives to reduce the material derived from reality and to visually intervene into media image electronically transforming the landscape of his films. Innovatively adapting the Sándor Weöres's verse, the film Narcissus and Psyche (1983 aimed at using hyper-real aesthetics to reframe the film reality. Starting from 1980, Bódy founded an international magazine Infermental to disseminate the advent of the video and electronics by creating a community drew on sharing news about emerging media image.

  9. A multi-protease, multi-dissociation, bottom-up-to-top-down proteomic view of the Loxosceles intermedia venom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan-Silva, Dilza; Bednaski, Aline V.; Fischer, Juliana S.G.; Veiga, Silvio S.; Bandeira, Nuno; Guthals, Adrian; Marchini, Fabricio K.; Leprevost, Felipe V.; Barbosa, Valmir C.; Senff-Ribeiro, Andrea; Carvalho, Paulo C.

    2017-01-01

    Venoms are a rich source for the discovery of molecules with biotechnological applications, but their analysis is challenging even for state-of-the-art proteomics. Here we report on a large-scale proteomic assessment of the venom of Loxosceles intermedia, the so-called brown spider. Venom was extracted from 200 spiders and fractioned into two aliquots relative to a 10 kDa cutoff mass. Each of these was further fractioned and digested with trypsin (4 h), trypsin (18 h), pepsin (18 h), and chymotrypsin (18 h), then analyzed by MudPIT on an LTQ-Orbitrap XL ETD mass spectrometer fragmenting precursors by CID, HCD, and ETD. Aliquots of undigested samples were also analyzed. Our experimental design allowed us to apply spectral networks, thus enabling us to obtain meta-contig assemblies, and consequently de novo sequencing of practically complete proteins, culminating in a deep proteome assessment of the venom. Data are available via ProteomeXchange, with identifier PXD005523. PMID:28696408

  10. Jóvenes sin vínculos. El papel de las estructuras intermedias en un espacio urbano desfavorecido

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    Cecilia Eseverri Mayer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe el proceso de desafiliación (Castel, 1995 juvenil, tomando como caso de estudio un barrio desfavorecido de Madrid. A través de una metodología etnográfica examina el efecto de las estructuras intermedias (la familia, la comunidad local y las asociaciones civiles en la reinserción educativa y laboral de los jóvenes de origen marroquí, dominicano y ecuatoriano. La investigación señala como elemento más determinante de dicha reinserción el capital humano de los padres, confi rmando los hallazgos de la sociología de la educación (Bourdieu, 1970. Además, advierte del doble efecto (positivo y negativo que provoca la influencia de las comunidades étnicas en los jóvenes más vulnerables y demuestra el rol crucial que cumple el tejido asociativo. Estas organizaciones, herederas de las movilizaciones de los años 70, tienen la capacidad de abrir nuevas vías de inserción a través de la colaboración con las administraciones, los grupos étnicos y las familias.

  11. A presacral mass in a patient with thalassemia intermedia: A case report and review of the literature

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    Mohammad Hossein Anbardar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH is defined as the production of the myeloid and erythroid elements outside the bone marrow. It is usually a compensatory mechanism of the myeloid and erythroid production due to increased breakdown or diminished production of erythrocytes. Presacral EMH is an extremely rare condition, and there is a limited number of case reports published in the literature. A 39-year-old female patient as a known case of thalassemia intermedia presented with lower abdominal pain. A computerized tomography scan showed a large presacral mass, associated with bone destruction. The patient was admitted for exploratory laparotomy with suspicion to malignant lesions, but the final pathological diagnosis was EMH. It should be considered in differential diagnosis of mass-like lesions in the presacral area in patients with predisposing factors such as thalassemia, although there were malignant features such as bone destruction in imaging studies. Preoperative diagnostic tools such as fine needle aspiration and biopsy could help us to render the definite diagnosis and prevent unnecessary operation.

  12. Agenda Trending: Reciprocity and the Predictive Capacity of Social Networking Sites in Intermedia Agenda Setting across Topics over Time

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    Jacob Groshek

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary converged media environment, agenda setting is being transformed by the dramatic growth of audiences that are simultaneously media users and producers. The study reported here addresses related gaps in the literature by first comparing the topical agendas of two leading traditional media outlets (New York Times and CNN with the most frequently shared stories and trending topics on two widely popular Social Networking Sites (Facebook and Twitter. Time-series analyses of the most prominent topics identify the extent to which traditional media sets the agenda for social media as well as reciprocal agenda-setting effects of social media topics entering traditional media agendas. In addition, this study examines social intermedia agenda setting topically and across time within social networking sites, and in so doing, adds a vital understanding of where traditional media, online uses, and social media content intersect around instances of focusing events, particularly elections. Findings identify core differences between certain traditional and social media agendas, but also within social media agendas that extend from uses examined here. Additional results further suggest important topical and event-oriented limitations upon the predictive capacit of social networking sites to shape traditional media agendas over time.

  13. Relationship of the Interaction Between Two Quantitative Trait Loci with γ-Globin Expression in β-Thalassemia Intermedia Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NickAria, Shiva; Haghpanah, Sezaneh; Ramzi, Mani; Karimi, Mehran

    2018-05-10

    Globin switching is a significant factor on blood hemoglobin (Hb) level but its molecular mechanisms have not yet been identified, however, several quantitative trait loci (QTL) and polymorphisms involved regions on chromosomes 2p, 6q, 8q and X account for variation in the γ-globin expression level. We studied the effect of interaction between a region on intron six of the TOX gene, chromosome 8q (chr8q) and XmnI locus on the γ-globin promoter, chr11p on γ-globin expression in 150 β-thalassemia intermedia (β-TI) patients, evaluated by statistical interaction analysis. Our results showed a significant interaction between one QTL on intron six of the TOX gene (rs9693712) and XmnI locus that effect γ-globin expression. Interchromosomal interaction mediates through transcriptional machanisms to preserve true genome architectural features, chromosomes localization and DNA bending. This interaction can be a part of the unknown molecular mechanism of globin switching and regulation of gene expression.

  14. An Extraordinary Accumulation of (-)-Pinoresinol in Cell-Free Extracts of Forsythia intermedia: Evidence for Enantiospecific Reduction of (+)-Pinoresinol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Takeshi; Davin, Laurence B.; Lewis, Norman G.

    1992-01-01

    Stereoselective and enantiospecific transformation mechanisms in lignan biogenesis are only now yielding to scientific inquiry: it has been shown that soluble cell-free preparations from Forsythia intermedia catalysis the formation of the enantiomerically pure lignan, (-)-secoisolariciresinol, when incubated with coniferyl alcohol in the presence of NAD(P)H and H2O2. Surprisingly, (-)-pinoresinol also accumulates in this soluble cell-free assay mixture in greater than 96% enantiomeric excess, even though it is not the naturally occurring antipode present in Forsythia sp. But these soluble cell-free preparations do not engender stereoselective coupling; instead, racemic pinoresinols are first formed, catalysed by an H2O2-dependent peroxidase reaction. An enantiospecific NAD(P)H reductase then converts (+)- pinoresinol, and not the (-)-antipode, into (-)-secoisolariciresinol. Stereoselective syntheis of(+)-pinoresinol from E-coniferyl alcohol is, however, catalysed by an insoluble enzyme preparation in F. suspensa, obtained following removal of readily soluble and ionically bound enzymes; no exogenously supplied cofactors were required other than oxygen, although the reaction was stimulated by NAD-malate addition. Thus, the overall biochemical pathway to enantiomerically pure (-)-secoisolariciresinol has been delineated.

  15. Circumpolar diversity and geographic differentiation of mtDNA in the critically endangered Antarctic blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus intermedia.

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    Angela L Sremba

    Full Text Available The Antarctic blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus intermedia was hunted to near extinction between 1904 and 1972, declining from an estimated initial abundance of more than 250,000 to fewer than 400. Here, we describe mtDNA control region diversity and geographic differentiation in the surviving population of the Antarctic blue whale, using 218 biopsy samples collected under the auspices of the International Whaling Commission (IWC during research cruises from 1990-2009. Microsatellite genotypes and mtDNA sequences identified 166 individuals among the 218 samples and documented movement of a small number of individuals, including a female that traveled at least 6,650 km or 131° longitude over four years. mtDNA sequences from the 166 individuals were aligned with published sequences from 17 additional individuals, resolving 52 unique haplotypes from a consensus length of 410 bp. From this minimum census, a rarefaction analysis predicted that only 72 haplotypes (95% CL, 64, 86 have survived in the contemporary population of Antarctic blue whales. However, haplotype diversity was relatively high (0.968±0.004, perhaps as a result of the longevity of blue whales and the relatively recent timing of the bottleneck. Despite the potential for circumpolar dispersal, we found significant differentiation in mtDNA diversity (F(ST = 0.032, p<0.005 and microsatellite alleles (F(ST = 0.005, p<0.05 among the six Antarctic Areas historically used by the IWC for management of blue whales.

  16. The responses of an anaerobic microorganism, Yersinia intermedia MASE-LG-1 to individual and combined simulated Martian stresses.

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    Kristina Beblo-Vranesevic

    Full Text Available The limits of life of aerobic microorganisms are well understood, but the responses of anaerobic microorganisms to individual and combined extreme stressors are less well known. Motivated by an interest in understanding the survivability of anaerobic microorganisms under Martian conditions, we investigated the responses of a new isolate, Yersinia intermedia MASE-LG-1 to individual and combined stresses associated with the Martian surface. This organism belongs to an adaptable and persistent genus of anaerobic microorganisms found in many environments worldwide. The effects of desiccation, low pressure, ionizing radiation, varying temperature, osmotic pressure, and oxidizing chemical compounds were investigated. The strain showed a high tolerance to desiccation, with a decline of survivability by four orders of magnitude during a storage time of 85 days. Exposure to X-rays resulted in dose-dependent inactivation for exposure up to 600 Gy while applied doses above 750 Gy led to complete inactivation. The effects of the combination of desiccation and irradiation were additive and the survivability was influenced by the order in which they were imposed. Ionizing irradiation and subsequent desiccation was more deleterious than vice versa. By contrast, the presence of perchlorates was not found to significantly affect the survival of the Yersinia strain after ionizing radiation. These data show that the organism has the capacity to survive and grow in physical and chemical stresses, imposed individually or in combination that are associated with Martian environment. Eventually it lost its viability showing that many of the most adaptable anaerobic organisms on Earth would be killed on Mars today.

  17. Therapeutic superiority and safety of combined hydroxyurea with recombinant human erythropoietin over hydroxyurea in young β-thalassemia intermedia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elalfy, Mohsen S; Adly, Amira A M; Ismail, Eman A; Elhenawy, Yasmine I; Elghamry, Islam R

    2013-12-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of combined hydroxyurea (HU) and recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) in β-thalassemia intermedia (TI) patients compared with single HU therapy. An interventional prospective randomized study registered in the ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01624038) was performed on 80 TI patients (≤ 18 yr) divided into group A (40 patients received combined HU and rHuEPO) and group B (40 patients received single HU therapy). Baseline serum EPO levels were measured, and both groups were followed up for a mean period of 1 yr with regular assessment of transfusion requirements, blood pressure, ferritin, liver and renal functions, hemoglobin, and HbF. Quality of life (QoL) was assessed at the start and end of the study. Transfusion frequency and index were significantly decreased, while QoL was increased in group A compared with group B where 85% of patients showed improvement on combined therapy compared with 50% of patients on HU. Hemoglobin and HbF were significantly increased in both TI groups; however, this was more evident in group A than in group B. Also, 37.5% of patients in group A became transfusion-independent compared with 15% in group B. EPO levels were negatively related to increments of hemoglobin and HbF. Splenectomized patients and those with initial HbF% >40% had the best response to combined therapy. No serious adverse events necessitating discontinuation of therapy in both groups. HU was effective in management of TI; however, combination with rHuEPO gave a superior therapeutic effect resulting in the best clinical and hematological responses without adverse events. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Reproduction of the salamander Siren intermedia le conte with especial reference to oviducal anatomy and mode of fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, David M; Rania, Lisa C; Krenz, John D

    1996-03-01

    Reproduction was studied in a South Carolina population of the paedomorphic salamander Siren intermedia with emphasis on anatomy of the female oviduct. The oviduct forms 67-79% of the snout-vent length in this elongate species and can be divided into three portions. The atrium, 7-13% of oviducal length, is the narrow anteriormost portion, with the ostial opening immediately caudad of the transverse septum. The ampulla, 63-75% of oviducal length, is the highly convoluted, middle portion in which gelatinous coverings are added to the eggs during their passage. Hypertrophy of the oviducal glands in the ampulla causes the ampulla to increase in diameter during the ovipository season. The secretion of the eosinophilic oviducal glands is intensely positive following staining with the periodic acid-Schiff procedure and does not react with alcian blue at pH 2.5. This staining reaction, coupled with the presence of abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complexes, indicates that the secretion contains a glycoprotein. The ovisac, 16-25% of oviducal length, is the most posterior portion of the oviduct and holds up to 10-11 eggs prior to oviposition. Oviducal glands similar to those in the ampulla are absent in the ovisac. Oviposition in female sirens occurs during February-April in this population, and male spermiation is concurrent. Entire oviducts were sectioned from three females collected during the ovipository season and from two collected prior to the breeding season, and sperm were not found in the oviducts of these specimens. Thus no evidence was found for internal fertilization or sperm storage in the oviducts of sirens. © 1996 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Copyright © 1996 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. The responses of an anaerobic microorganism, Yersinia intermedia MASE-LG-1 to individual and combined simulated Martian stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohmeier, Maria; Perras, Alexandra K.; Schwendner, Petra; Rabbow, Elke; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Cockell, Charles S.; Pukall, Rüdiger; Vannier, Pauline; Marteinsson, Viggo T.; Monaghan, Euan P.; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Garcia-Descalzo, Laura; Gómez, Felipe; Malki, Moustafa; Amils, Ricardo; Gaboyer, Frédéric; Westall, Frances; Cabezas, Patricia; Walter, Nicolas; Rettberg, Petra

    2017-01-01

    The limits of life of aerobic microorganisms are well understood, but the responses of anaerobic microorganisms to individual and combined extreme stressors are less well known. Motivated by an interest in understanding the survivability of anaerobic microorganisms under Martian conditions, we investigated the responses of a new isolate, Yersinia intermedia MASE-LG-1 to individual and combined stresses associated with the Martian surface. This organism belongs to an adaptable and persistent genus of anaerobic microorganisms found in many environments worldwide. The effects of desiccation, low pressure, ionizing radiation, varying temperature, osmotic pressure, and oxidizing chemical compounds were investigated. The strain showed a high tolerance to desiccation, with a decline of survivability by four orders of magnitude during a storage time of 85 days. Exposure to X-rays resulted in dose-dependent inactivation for exposure up to 600 Gy while applied doses above 750 Gy led to complete inactivation. The effects of the combination of desiccation and irradiation were additive and the survivability was influenced by the order in which they were imposed. Ionizing irradiation and subsequent desiccation was more deleterious than vice versa. By contrast, the presence of perchlorates was not found to significantly affect the survival of the Yersinia strain after ionizing radiation. These data show that the organism has the capacity to survive and grow in physical and chemical stresses, imposed individually or in combination that are associated with Martian environment. Eventually it lost its viability showing that many of the most adaptable anaerobic organisms on Earth would be killed on Mars today. PMID:29069099

  20. Epidemiology of pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction: A systematic literature review of clinical presentation, disease prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, J L; McGowan, C M

    2018-05-01

    Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) is caused by an age-related degenerative disease of dopaminergic neurones. Despite its importance in equine practice, available information regarding its epidemiology is limited. This systematic review aimed to assess published literature to evaluate available evidence regarding the clinical presentation, prevalence and risk factors for PPID in horses and ponies. Electronic database searches were undertaken using a range of terms, and English language publications published prior to August 2016 were included. Both authors independently reviewed screened papers for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed the quality of reporting using predefined criteria. Data were extracted using modified critically appraised topic data collection forms. Meta-analysis was not undertaken due to marked between-study variations. Following removal of duplicate records, of 358 published papers yielded by the search, 97 abstracts were screened for eligibility and 29 publications meeting inclusion criteria were included in the review. Most studies reviewed were case series or cross-sectional studies, with considerable variation in study populations and PPID case definition. Hypertrichosis and/or other hair coat abnormalities, laminitis and epaxial muscle wastage or muscle atrophy are the most frequently reported clinical signs, with prevalence of these signs increasing with increasing horse age. The most robust prevalence estimates for PPID were 21.2% in horses and ponies aged ≥15 years and 2.9% amongst the general equine population. Findings regarding breed and sex predispositions were equivocal and only increasing age has been identified as a significant risk factor for PPID. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Ramalina farinacea (L. Ach. ve Usnea intermedia (A.Massal. Jatta Likenlerinin Antimikrobiyal Aktiviteleri Üzerine Araştırmalar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan ŞİRİN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada Bursa-Uludağ Milli Park civarından toplanan Ramalina farinacea (L. Ach. ve Usnea intermedia (A. Massal. Jatta likenlerinin Bacillus cereus ATCC 7064, Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 14580, Citrobacter freundii ATCC 8090, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Escherichia coli ATCC 25992, Klebsiella oxytoca ATCC 8724, Listeria innocua ATCC 33090, Proteus vulgaris ATCC 8427, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Salmonella enteridis ATCC 13076, Salmonella typhimurium CCM 5445, Shigella flexneri ATCC 12022, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538P, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 3699, Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 19615, Yersinia pestis ATCC 19428, Candida albicans ATCC 90028, Candida glabrata ATCC 90030, Candida lipolytica ATCC 8660, Candida parapsilosis ATCC 22019, Candida tropicalis ATCC 4563, Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 32045, Debaryomyces hansenii DSM 70238,  Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 9796 türlerine karşı antimikrobiyal aktiviteleri araştırılmıştır.Bulgulara göre; Ramalina farinacea (L. Ach. likeninin en yüksek antimikrobiyal aktivitesi Salmonella enteritidis ATCC 13076 ve Candida albicans ATCC 90028 türlerine karşı bulunurken, Usnea intermedia (A. Massal Jatta likeninin en yüksek antimikrobiyal aktivitesi Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 19615 ve Candida albicans ATCC 90028 türlerinde ölçülmüştür. Liken türlerinin diğer tüm mikroorganizmalara karşı farklı seviyelerde antimikrobiyal aktivite gösterdikleri saptanmıştır.Anahtar Kelimeler: Antimikrobiyal Aktivite, Ramalina farinacea, Usnea intermedia

  2. Expression and immunological cross-reactivity of LALP3, a novel astacin-like metalloprotease from brown spider (Loxosceles intermedia) venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgon, Adriano M; Belisario-Ferrari, Matheus R; Trevisan-Silva, Dilza; Meissner, Gabriel O; Vuitika, Larissa; Marin, Brenda; Tashima, Alexandre K; Gremski, Luiza H; Gremski, Waldemiro; Senff-Ribeiro, Andrea; Veiga, Silvio S; Chaim, Olga M

    2016-01-01

    Loxosceles spiders' venom comprises a complex mixture of biologically active toxins, mostly consisting of low molecular mass components (2-40 kDa). Amongst, isoforms of astacin-like metalloproteases were identified through transcriptome and proteome analyses. Only LALP1 (Loxosceles Astacin-Like protease 1) has been characterized. Herein, we characterized LALP3 as a novel recombinant astacin-like metalloprotease isoform from Loxosceles intermedia venom. LALP3 cDNA was cloned in pET-SUMO vector, and its soluble heterologous expression was performed using a SUMO tag added to LALP3 to achieve solubility in Escherichia coli SHuffle T7 Express LysY cells, which express the disulfide bond isomerase DsbC. Protein purification was conducted by Ni-NTA Agarose resin and assayed for purity by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions. Immunoblotting analyses were performed with specific antibodies recognizing LALP1 and whole venom. Western blotting showed linear epitopes from recombinant LALP3 that cross-reacted with LALP1, and dot blotting revealed conformational epitopes with native venom astacins. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the recombinant expressed protein is an astacin-like metalloprotease from L. intermedia venom. Furthermore, molecular modeling of LALP3 revealed that this isoform contains the zinc binding and Met-turn motifs, forming the active site, as has been observed in astacins. These data confirmed that LALP3, which was successfully obtained by heterologous expression using a prokaryote system, is a new astacin-like metalloprotease isoform present in L. intermedia venom. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  3. Determination of Five Chemical Markers in DF Formula, the Herbal Composition of Ephedra intermedia, Rheum palmatum, and Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Using High-performance Liquid Chromatography-ultraviolet Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Birang; Roh, Jong Seong; Yoon, Michung; Yoon, Yoosik; Shin, Soon Shik; Cho, Hyun Joo; Kwon, Yong Soo; Yang, Heejung

    2018-01-01

    DF formula is a herbal preparation comprised three medicinal herbs, namely, Ephedra intermedia , Rheum palmatum , and Lithospermum erythrorhizon , which is being used for the treatment of obesity and liver fibrosis in Korean local clinics. Since the abovementioned three herbs exist with different proportions in DF formula and their chemical markers have different physiochemical properties; it is quite challenging to develop an analytical methodology for the determination of these chemical markers. For the analysis of the three herbs, five chemicals, (+)-pseudoephedrine (1) and (-)-ephedrine (2) for E. intermedia , aloe-emodin (3), and chrysophanol (4) for R. palmatum , and shikonin (5) for L. erythrorhizon , were selected for method validation of DF formula, and the analytical conditions were optimized and validated using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with an ultraviolet detector (HPLC-UV). The specificities for the five compounds 1-5 were determined by their UV absorption spectra (1-4: 215 nm and 5: 520 nm). Their calibration curves showed good linear regressions with high correlation coefficient values ( R 2 > 0.9997). The limits of detection of these five markers were in the range 0.4-2.1 ng/mL, with the exception of 5 (12.7 ng/mL). The intraday variability for all the chemical markers was less than a Relative standard deviation (RSD) of 3%, except for 5 (RSD = 12.6%). In the case of interday analysis, 1 (1.0%), 2 (3.1%), and 4 (3.7%) showed much lower variabilities (RSD chemical markers showed good recoveries with good accuracies in the range of 90%-110%. The developed HPLC-UV method for the determination of the five chemical markers of the components of DF formula was validated. DF formula, the herbal composition of Ephedra intermedia , Rheum palmatum and Lithospermum erythrorhizon Five chemical markers in DF formula were (+)-pseudoephedrine (1) and (-)-ephedrine (2) for E. intermedia , aloe-emodin (3) and chrysopanol (4) for R. palmatum , and

  4. Caracterización de dos sistemas de abanicos aluviales húmedos en el Terciario de la Depresión Intermedia (Cuenca-Guadalajara)

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Pérez-Hidalgo, Trinidad José

    1986-01-01

    En este trabajo se comparan las características de dos abanicos aluviales del Primer Ciclo Neógeno (Ageniense superior-Aragoniense inferior) de la Depresion Intermedia. Estos abanicos tienen una serie de características comunes como: área fuente en la Cordillera Ibérica, períodos alternantes de funcinamiento de canales de baja y alta sinuosidad e interdigitación dista1 con depósitos lacustres de yesos bioturbados. Se diferencian en la orientación de paleocorrientes y presenc...

  5. Caracterización de dos sistemas de abanicos aluviales húmedos en el Terciario de la Depresión Intermedia (Cuenca-Guadalajara)

    OpenAIRE

    de TORRES, T.; ZAPATA, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    En este trabajo se comparan las características de dos abanicos aluviales del Primer Ciclo Neógeno (Ageniense superior-Aragoniense inferior) de la Depresion Intermedia. Estos abanicos tienen una serie de características comunes como: área fuente en la Cordillera Ibérica, períodos alternantes de funcinamiento de canales de baja y alta sinuosidad e interdigitación distal con depósitos lacustres de yesos bioturbados. Se diferencian en la orientación de paleocorrientes y presencia en uno de ellos...

  6. Species-specific ecological niche modelling predicts different range contractions for Lutzomyia intermedia and a related vector of Leishmania braziliensis following climate change in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Shannon; Rangel, Elizabeth F; Ready, Paul D; Carvalho, Bruno M

    2017-03-24

    Before 1996 the phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia neivai was usually treated as a synonym of the morphologically similar Lutzomyia intermedia, which has long been considered a vector of Leishmania braziliensis, the causative agent of much cutaneous leishmaniasis in South America. This report investigates the likely range changes of both sand fly species in response to a stabilisation climate change scenario (RCP4.5) and a high greenhouse gas emissions one (RCP8.5). Ecological niche modelling was used to identify areas of South America with climates currently suitable for each species, and then the future distributions of these climates were predicted based on climate change scenarios. Compared with the previous ecological niche model of L. intermedia (sensu lato) produced using the GARP algorithm in 2003, the current investigation modelled the two species separately, making use of verified presence records and additional records after 2001. Also, the new ensemble approach employed ecological niche modelling algorithms (including Maximum Entropy, Random Forests and Support Vector Machines) that have been widely adopted since 2003 and perform better than GARP, as well as using a more recent climate change model (HadGEM2) considered to have better performance at higher resolution than the earlier one (HadCM2). Lutzomyia intermedia was shown to be the more tropical of the two species, with its climatic niche defined by higher annual mean temperatures and lower temperature seasonality, in contrast to the more subtropical L. neivai. These different latitudinal ranges explain the two species' predicted responses to climate change by 2050, with L. intermedia mostly contracting its range (except perhaps in northeast Brazil) and L. neivai mostly shifting its range southwards in Brazil and Argentina. This contradicts the findings of the 2003 report, which predicted more range expansion. The different findings can be explained by the improved data sets and modelling methods. Our

  7. Biochemical Characterization and Relative Expression Levels of Multiple Carbohydrate Esterases of the Xylanolytic Rumen Bacterium Prevotella ruminicola 23 Grown on an Ester-Enriched Substrate ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabel, Mirjam A.; Yeoman, Carl J.; Han, Yejun; Dodd, Dylan; Abbas, Charles A.; de Bont, Jan A. M.; Morrison, Mark; Cann, Isaac K. O.; Mackie, Roderick I.

    2011-01-01

    We measured expression and used biochemical characterization of multiple carbohydrate esterases by the xylanolytic rumen bacterium Prevotella ruminicola 23 grown on an ester-enriched substrate to gain insight into the carbohydrate esterase activities of this hemicellulolytic rumen bacterium. The P. ruminicola 23 genome contains 16 genes predicted to encode carbohydrate esterase activity, and based on microarray data, four of these were upregulated >2-fold at the transcriptional level during growth on an ester-enriched oligosaccharide (XOSFA,Ac) from corn relative to a nonesterified fraction of corn oligosaccharides (AXOS). Four of the 16 esterases (Xyn10D-Fae1A, Axe1-6A, AxeA1, and Axe7A), including the two most highly induced esterases (Xyn10D-Fae1A and Axe1-6A), were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and biochemically characterized. All four enzymes showed the highest activity at physiologically relevant pH (6 to 7) and temperature (30 to 40°C) ranges. The P. ruminicola 23 Xyn10D-Fae1A (a carbohydrate esterase [CE] family 1 enzyme) released ferulic acid from methylferulate, wheat bran, corn fiber, and XOSFA,Ac, a corn fiber-derived substrate enriched in O-acetyl and ferulic acid esters, but exhibited negligible activity on sugar acetates. As expected, the P. ruminicola Axe1-6A enzyme, which was predicted to possess two distinct esterase family domains (CE1 and CE6), released ferulic acid from the same substrates as Xyn10D-Fae1 and was also able to cleave O-acetyl ester bonds from various acetylated oligosaccharides (AcXOS). The P. ruminicola 23 AxeA1, which is not assigned to a CE family, and Axe7A (CE7) were found to be acetyl esterases that had activity toward a broad range of mostly nonpolymeric acetylated substrates along with AcXOS. All enzymes were inhibited by the proximal location of other side groups like 4-O-methylglucuronic acid, ferulic acid, or acetyl groups. The unique diversity of carbohydrate esterases in P. ruminicola 23

  8. CÓMO SE NEGOCIA UNA POSICIÓN DE SUJETO INTERMEDIA: MUCHACHOS ENTRE ONCE Y CATORCE AÑOS, MASCULINIDADES Y EDUCACIÓN ESCOLAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Phoenix

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo pone a discusión la ciencia (generalizada en las escuelas de Londres según la cual existe una oposición entre la masculinidad y la realización de tareas escolares, que tiene fuertes efectos en la subjetividad de lo masculino del joven. Así considera las formas en que éstos asisten a las escuelas de Londres y negocian lo que ellos consideran las contradicciones que involucra el tratar de reconciliar el hacer las tareas escolares con ser aceptado por los otros en su condición masculina. El documento se centra particularmente en la forma como los muchachos negocian una posición de sujeto intermedia, en un intento de asegurarse que trabajaron lo suficiente para no reprobar, pero no tanto como para llamar la atención de los otros, por no ser "propiamente masculinos". El texto también afirma que estas contradicciones tienen una carga emocional, de modo que los jóvenes se esfuerzan en negociar lo que ellos consideran una posición intermedia, pues esta es la posición de sujeto que les resulta menos problemática ocupar.

  9. Protective effects of fermented honeybush (Cyclopia intermedia) extract (HU-018) against skin aging: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sun Young; Hong, Ji Yeon; Ko, Eun Jung; Kim, Beom Joon; Hong, Sung-Woon; Lim, Mi Hyoung; Yeon, Sung Hum; Son, Rak Ho

    2018-02-01

    Oxidative stress and photodamage resulting from ultraviolet radiation exposure play key roles in skin aging. Fermented Cyclopia intermedia, which is used to brew honeybush tea, exerts antioxidant and anti-wrinkle effects by inhibiting reactive oxygen species production and downregulating matrix metalloproteinase activity. This randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of fermented honeybush (Cyclopia intermedia) extract (HU-018) for skin rejuvenation. 120 Korean subjects with crow's feet wrinkles were randomized to receive either low-dose extract (400 mg/day), high-dose extract (800 mg/day), or placebo (negative control, only dextran) for 12 weeks. Wrinkles were evaluated using JANUS ® and PRIMO pico ® . Skin elasticity, hydration and transepidermal water loss were measured. Global skin wrinkle grade was significantly improved in both low-dose and high-dose groups compared to placebo group, as well as for skin hydration and elasticity. Both the low- and high-dose groups showed significantly decreased TEWL compared to the placebo group. There were no adverse effects during the entire study period. Our data indicate that HU-018 is effective for improving skin wrinkles, elasticity, and hydration. Therefore, daily supplementation with fermented honeybush could be helpful for protecting against skin aging.

  10. Interleukin 10–Dominant Immune Response and Increased Risk of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis After Natural Exposure to Lutzomyia intermedia Sand Flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Augusto M.; Cristal, Juqueline R.; Muniz, Aline C.; Carvalho, Lucas P.; Gomes, Regis; Miranda, José C.; Barral, Aldina; Carvalho, Edgar M.; de Oliveira, Camila I.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Leishmaniasis is caused by parasites transmitted to the vertebrate host by infected sand flies. During transmission, the vertebrate host is also inoculated with sand fly saliva, which exerts powerful immunomodulatory effects on the host's immune response. Methods. We conducted a prospective cohort analysis to characterize the human immune response to Lutzomyia intermedia saliva in 264 individuals, from an area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by Leishmania braziliensis. Results. Antibodies were found in 150 individuals (56.8%); immunoglobulin G1 and G4 were the predominant subclasses. Recall responses to salivary gland sonicate showed elevated production of interleukin 10 (IL-10), interleukin 13, interferon γ, CXCL9, and CCL2 compared with controls. CD4+CD25+ T cells, including Foxp3+ cells, were the main source of IL-10. L. braziliensis replication was increased (P intermedia sand flies skews the human immune response, facilitating L. braziliensis survival in vitro, and increases the risk of developing CL. PMID:25596303

  11. [125I]Bolton-Hunter neuropeptide-Y-binding sites on folliculo-stellate cells of the pars intermedia of Xenopus laevis: A combined autoradiographic and immunocytochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Rijk, E.P.; Cruijsen, P.M.; Jenks, B.G.; Roubos, E.W.

    1991-01-01

    It has previously been established that neuropeptide-Y (NPY) is a potent inhibitor of alpha MSH release from the pars intermedia of the amphibian Xenopus laevis. The location of binding sites for NPY in the pars intermedia of the pituitary has now been studied with light microscopic autoradiography, using a dispersed cell labeling method with the specific NPY receptor ligand [ 125 I]Bolton-Hunter NPY. The majority of radioactive labeling was associated with folliculo-stellate cells; the percentage of labeling as well as the mean number of grains were approximately 5 times higher for folliculo-stellate cells than for melanotropes. An excess of nonlabeled NPY drastically reduced radiolabeling of folliculo-stellate cells, but had no effect on the degree of labeling of melanotropes. These results show that folliculo-stellate cells of X. laevis possess specific binding sites for NPY and indicate that NPY exerts its inhibitory action on the release of alpha MSH in an indirect fashion, by acting on the folliculo-stellate cells

  12. Calibración in situ del sensor cosmos para determinar humedad del suelo en escalas intermedias (~1 km

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidencio Cruz Bautista

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La heterogeneidad del suelo influye ampliamente en el contenido de humedad, dificultando la precisa determinación de este parámetro en estudios con fines hidrológicos y ecológicos que requieren de mediciones continuas y representativas para escalas intermedias (~1 km. En este contexto un sensor de neutrón de rayo cósmico The COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System (COSMOS permite cuantificar humedad del suelo de manera continua y a escalas espaciales de cientos de metros. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar un esquema de calibración para un sensor COSMOS CRS-1000. El estudio se realizó en una sabana de zacate buffel (Pennisetum ciliare en Rayón Sonora, México. En este sitio se instaló el COSMOS CRS-1000 y para su calibración se realizaron muestreos de suelo en dos etapas. A estas muestras se les determinó el contenido de humedad y su densidad aparente por técnicas gravimétricas. Con el contenido de humedad de estas muestras, expresado en términos volumétricos, se obtuvo por aproximación el parámetro de calibración para el COSMOS CRS-1000. El valor obtenido para este parámetro fue de 4121 conteos por hora (tasa de conteo del neutrón sobre suelo. Con este valor se realizó la corrección a los valores estimados originalmente por el sensor COSMOS CRS-1000. Al realizar esta corrección, se observó un incremento en el contenido de humedad del suelo de 1 a 2 % con respecto a los valores estimados con el COSMOS CRS-1000 en todo el periodo de análisis. A pesar de la variabilidad espacial en el contenido de humedad del suelo bajo estudio, se observó que el sensor COSMOS CRS-1000 tiene la capacidad de proveer estimaciones razonables del contenido de la humedad del suelo de manera continua a una profundidad de 0 a 40 cm, en una superficie de alrededor de 30 ha.

  13. CARDIAC FUNCTION AND IRON CHELATION IN THALASSEMIA MAJOR AND INTERMEDIA: A REVIEW OF THE UNDERLYING PATHOPHYSIOLOGY AND APPROACH TO CHELATION MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Aessopos

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Heart disease is the leading cause of mortality and one of the main causes of morbidity in beta-thalassemia. Patients with homozygous thalassemia may have either a severe phenotype which is usually transfusion dependent or a milder form that is thalassemia intermedia.  The two main factors that determine cardiac disease in homozygous β thalassemia are the high output state that results from chronic tissue hypoxia, hypoxia-induced compensatory reactions and iron overload.  The high output state playing a major role in thalassaemia intermedia and the iron load being more significant in the major form. Arrhythmias, vascular involvement that leads to an increased pulmonary vascular resistance and an increased systemic vascular stiffness and valvular abnormalities also contribute to the cardiac dysfunction in varying degrees according to the severity of the phenotype.  Endocrine abnormalities, infections, renal function and medications can also play a role in the overall cardiac function.  For thalassaemia major, regular and adequate blood transfusions and iron chelation therapy are the mainstays of management. The approach to thalassaemia intermedia, today, is aimed at monitoring for complications and initiating, timely, regular transfusions and/or iron chelation therapy.  Once the patients are on transfusions, then they should be managed in the same way as the thalassaemia major patients.  If cardiac manifestations of dysfunction are present in either form of thalassaemia, high pre transfusion Hb levels need to be maintained in order to reduce cardiac output and appropriate intensive chelation therapy needs to be instituted.  In general recommendations on chelation, today, are usually made according to the Cardiac Magnetic Resonance findings, if available.  With the advances in the latter technology and the ability to tailor chelation therapy according to the MRI findings as well as the availability of three iron chelators, together with

  14. Intermedia and Intermittency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veres Bálint

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is commonly known that medial reflections have been initiated by attempts to secure the borders of discrete medial forms and to define the modus operandi of each essentialized medial area. Later on, the focus of study has shifted to plurimedial formations and the interactions between predefined medial genres. In the last few decades, taxonomic approaches to various multi-, inter-, and transmedial phenomena dominated the discussions, which offered invaluable support in mapping the terrain, but at the same time hindered the analysis of the ephemeral, time-dependent aspects of plurimedial operations. While we explore the properties of each medial configuration, we lose sight of the actual historical drivers that produce ever-new configurations. My thesis is that any discourse on intermediality should be paralleled by a discourse on cultural intermittency, and consequently, media studies should involve an approach that focuses on the “ecosystem” of the constantly renewing media configurations from the point of view of their vitalizing potential and capability to trigger heightened experiences. This approach draws much inspiration from K. Ludwig Pfeiffer’s media anthropology that gives orientation in my paper.

  15. Thalassemia intermedia: An overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabah M. Shawky

    2012-04-25

    Apr 25, 2012 ... abnormalities occur due to massive expansion of erythroid bone marrow activity ..... [3] Savage D, Wood NAP, Bidwell JL, Fitches A, Old JM, Hui KM. Detection of b-thalassemia mutations using DNA heteroduplex generator ...

  16. Oral health and Brain Injury: Causal or Casual Relation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Rajath; Iyer, Kiran; Spin-Neto, Rubens

    2018-01-01

    subtypes. Stroke prediction was associated with various factors such as number of teeth, periodontal conditions (even after controlling for confounding factors), clinical attachment loss, antibody levels to Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Prevotella intermedia. The literature showed no consensus...

  17. La ordenación territorial en el País Vasco. Debilidades, amenazas,fortalezas y oportunidades de la escala intermedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J. Lozano Valencia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La ordenación del territorio encuentra su razón de ser, en el País Vasco, a través de las Directrices de Ordenación y dos tipos diferentes de documentos: los Planes Territoriales Parciales y los Planes Territoriales Sectoriales. Una vez delimitadas las comarcas y los sectores estratégicos, se aplican dichos documentos. Con todo, se logra la coordinación de las Directivas europeas a escala superior, y los Planes y Normas Subsidiarias de Ordenación Urbana a una escala inferior o local. En medio quedan todas esas herramientas de ordenación mencionadas anteriormente, que conforman lo que se ha venido a definir como la escala intermedia. Ésta aparece como un marco muy apropiado para abordar las debilidades, amenazas, fortalezas y oportunidades que, en un horizonte de 16 a 20 años, presenta el territorio vasco

  18. El patrimonio modesto de las ciudades intermedias bonaerenses: prácticas usuarias y reflexiones hacia la preservación de las casas "chorizo" de Tandil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Marina Sánchez

    2014-12-01

    Por ello, la indagación se enfoca en el conocimiento del estado de concientización de los usuarios de estas viviendas en la ciudad intermedia de Tandil, cuyo pasado ha forjado un destacado corpus patrimonial modesto que subsiste dentro de la actual dinámica urbana. Se trabaja desde una concepción de la investigación principalmente cualitativa, con ayuda de datos cuantitativos, centrada en la variable histórica urbana-arquitectónica, la social y sus relaciones. Los resultados generales alcanzados, que hacen hincapié en las modificaciones de las viviendas, han posibilitado reflexiones orientadas hacia su salvaguarda.

  19. Fábricas diagenéticas asociadas al paleokarst del techo de la Unidad Intermedia del Mioceno de la cuenca de Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvo, J. P.

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbonates and evaporites from the top of the Miocene Intermediate Unit of the Madrid Basin have set as host-rock for early karstification phenomena. The development of these karstic processes imply an important change in the depositional evolution of the basin. In these materials, complex diagenetic fabrics formed as a result of shallow meteoric diagenetic processes have been recognized, being dedolomitization and calcitization of gypsums the main diagenetic processes that affected the top of the Miocene Intermediate Unit. The high variability of diagenetic fabrics is thought to be mainly influenced by the original composition of sediments, the activity of microorganisms and the chemistry of diagenetic waters.Los materiales carbonáticos y evaporíticos del techo de la Unidad Intermedia del Mioceno de la Cuenca de Madrid han actuado como soporte de fenómenos de karstificación temprana, cuyo desarrollo ha supuesto un cambio significativo en la evolución del relleno de la cuenca. Dentro de estos materiales se han reconocido carbonatos con fábricas diagenéticas complejas resultado de procesos de diagénesis meteórica superficial. Los procesos predominantes en la evolución diagenética del encajante de la paleokarstificación del techo de la Unidad Intermedia son la dedolomitización y la calcitización/pseudomorfización de yesos. Factores como la composición original del sedimento, la influencia de microorganismos y la hidroquímica de los fluidos diagenéticos han determinado la gran variabilidad de las fábricas diagenéticas reconocidas.

  20. Determination of Five Chemical Markers in DF Formula, the Herbal Composition of Ephedra intermedia, Rheum palmatum, and Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Using High-performance Liquid Chromatography-ultraviolet Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Birang; Roh, Jong Seong; Yoon, Michung; Yoon, Yoosik; Shin, Soon Shik; Cho, Hyun Joo; Kwon, Yong Soo; Yang, Heejung

    2018-01-01

    Background: DF formula is a herbal preparation comprised three medicinal herbs, namely, Ephedra intermedia, Rheum palmatum, and Lithospermum erythrorhizon, which is being used for the treatment of obesity and liver fibrosis in Korean local clinics. Objective: Since the abovementioned three herbs exist with different proportions in DF formula and their chemical markers have different physiochemical properties; it is quite challenging to develop an analytical methodology for the determination of these chemical markers. Materials and Methods: For the analysis of the three herbs, five chemicals, (+)-pseudoephedrine (1) and (−)-ephedrine (2) for E. intermedia, aloe-emodin (3), and chrysophanol (4) for R. palmatum, and shikonin (5) for L. erythrorhizon, were selected for method validation of DF formula, and the analytical conditions were optimized and validated using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with an ultraviolet detector (HPLC-UV). Results: The specificities for the five compounds 1–5 were determined by their UV absorption spectra (1–4: 215 nm and 5: 520 nm). Their calibration curves showed good linear regressions with high correlation coefficient values (R2 > 0.9997). The limits of detection of these five markers were in the range 0.4–2.1 ng/mL, with the exception of 5 (12.7 ng/mL). The intraday variability for all the chemical markers was less than a Relative standard deviation (RSD) of 3%, except for 5 (RSD = 12.6%). In the case of interday analysis, 1 (1.0%), 2 (3.1%), and 4 (3.7%) showed much lower variabilities (RSD High-performance liquid chromatography; UV: Ultraviolet; LOD: Limit of detection; LOQ: Limit of quantification; RSD: Relative standard deviation. PMID:29720825

  1. The effect of HBB:c.*+96T>C (3’UTR +1570 T>C on the mild b-thalassemia intermedia phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Türker Bilgen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobin beta (HBB:c.*+96T>C substitution is very rare among β-globin gene mutations and its clinical significance remains to be clarified. The present study aimed to investigate the role of HBB:c.*+96T>C in the β-thalassemia intermedia phenotype in a Turkish family. The proband and parents were screened for β-globin gene mutations via direct sequencing. Hematological and physical examination results were recorded, and correlated according to genotype. The proband was compound heterozygous for Cod 8 (-AA and HBB:c.*+96T>C, whereas his mother and father were heterozygous for Cod 8 (-AA and HBB:c.*+96T>C, respectively. The father had almost normal hematological findings, whereas the mother had the typical β-thalassemia trait phenotype. The proband was diagnosed as mild β-thalassemia intermedia based on hepatosplenomegaly and hematological findings. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of HBB:c.*+96T>C mutation in a Turkish family. HBB:c.* 96T>C substitution is a very rare, but clinically relevant β-globin gene mutation. Additionally, we think that if 1 spouse is a carrier for β-globin gene mutation the other should be screened for silent mutations, such as HBB:c.*+96T>C mutation of the β-globin gene, even if she/he does not have any clinical or hematological signs of the β-thalassemia trait phenotype.

  2. Single-cell Protein and Xylitol Production by a Novel Yeast Strain Candida intermedia FL023 from Lignocellulosic Hydrolysates and Xylose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiaqiang; Hu, Jinlong; Zhao, Shumiao; He, Mingxiong; Hu, Guoquan; Ge, Xiangyang; Peng, Nan

    2018-05-01

    Yeasts are good candidates to utilize the hydrolysates of lignocellulose, the most abundant bioresource, for bioproducts. This study aimed to evaluate the efficiencies of single-cell protein (SCP) and xylitol production by a novel yeast strain, Candida intermedia FL023, from lignocellulosic hydrolysates and xylose. This strain efficiently assimilated hexose, pentose, and cellubiose for cell mass production with the crude protein content of 484.2 g kg -1 dry cell mass. SCP was produced by strain FL023 using corncob hydrolysate and urea as the carbon and nitrogen sources with the dry cell mass productivity 0.86 g L -1  h -1 and the yield of 0.40 g g -1 sugar. SCP was also produced using NaOH-pretreated Miscanthus sinensis straw and corn steep liquor as the carbon and nitrogen sources through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation with the dry cell productivity of 0.23 g L -1  h -1 and yield of 0.17 g g -1 straw. C. intermedia FL023 was tolerant to 0.5 g L -1 furfural, acetic acid, and syringaldehyde in xylitol fermentation and produced 45.7 g L -1 xylitol from xylose with the productivity of 0.38 g L -1  h -1 and the yield of 0.57 g g -1 xylose. This study provides feasible methods for feed and food additive production from the abundant lignocellulosic bioresources.

  3. Comparing the Efficacy of Tadalafil Versus Placebo on Pulmonary Artery Systolic Pressure and Right Ventricular Function in Patients with Beta-Thalassaemia Intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalalian, Rozita; Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar; Tamaddoni, Ahmad; Khafri, Soraya; Iranian, Mohammadreza

    2017-07-01

    Conventional oral therapies in the management of pulmonary hypertension in people without haemoglobinopathies are of limited value in thalassaemia patients because of toxicity and poor effectiveness. This study was conducted to assess the effect of tadalafil on pulmonary artery pressure and right ventricular systolic function in patients with beta-thalassaemia intermedia. Forty-four patients with beta-thalassaemia intermedia with pulmonary hypertension based on transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) were entered in the study. Patients with hepatic or renal insufficiency and also patients who were treated with organic nitrates or alpha-blockers were excluded. The patients were randomly divided into two groups (n=22) and they were treated for six weeks with tadalafil (40mg daily) or placebo. The pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP), tricuspid regurgitation velocity (TRV) and parameters related to systolic function of the right ventricle were measured by the TTE before and after treatment. Significant improvement in TRV (3.02±0.02 m/s-2.52±0.06 m/s), PASP (45.31±0.66 mmHg-34.26±1.15mmHg) and parameters related to systolic function of the right ventricle were observed in the group who received tadalafil compared to placebo (pintermedia. Likewise, tadalafil improved right ventricular systolic function in the patients. Copyright © 2016 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. La Ciénaga de Córcoles: un área de sedimentación lacustre-palustre en el Mioceno (Aragoniense inferior-medio) de la Depresión Intermedia (Guadalajara)

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Pérez-Hidalgo, Trinidad José

    1986-01-01

    Las ciénagas de Córcoles son depósitos lacustres-palustres del terce Ciclo Neógeno de la Depresión Intermedia (Aragoniense inferior medio). Estuvieron distalmente relacionadas con el abanico aluvial, aunque rodeadas de un paisaje árido. las concentraciones singenéticas de metales sugiere que también tuvieron aportes de aguas termales.

  5. Are light traps baited with kairomones effective in the capture of Lutzomyia longipalpis and Lutzomyia intermedia? An evaluation of synthetic human odor as an attractant for phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Andrey J; Andrade, Mateus R; Dias, Edelberto S; Pinto, Mara C; Eiras, Alvaro E

    2008-06-01

    Phlebotomine sand flies are often captured with human bait and/or light traps, either with or without an animal bait. More recently, synthetic attractants have been used as bait in traps to improve the capture of phlebotomine sand flies as well as other insects of medical and veterinary importance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the kairomone 1-octen-3-ol (octenol) and the synthetic human odor BG-Mesh Lure (BGML--lactic acid, caproic acid and ammonia) baited in modified CDC light traps on the capture of phlebotomine sand flies. The experiments followed the 5x5 Latin square design. Among the species caught, Lutzomyia intermedia apparently presented a dose-dependent response to octenol. The response obtained with the BGML, alone or in combination with octenol (5 mg/h), indicated some degree of attractiveness of these baits to different phlebotomine sand fly species. Octenol seems to be more attractive to L. intermedia than to Lutzomyia longipalpis, while the BGML presented a higher success in capturing L. longipalpis. When the components of the BGML were used separately, there was no increase in catching the female of L. intermedia. Apparently, there was no synergistic effect between the octenol and the BGML. In conclusion, the octenol and the BGML were demonstrated to be possible baits to attract some phlebotomine sand fly species.

  6. Biologia de Lutzomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 e Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Diptera, Psychodidae em condições experimentais: II. Influência de fatores ambientais no comportamento das formas imaturas e adultas Biology of Lutzomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 and Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Diptera, Psychodidae in experimental conditions: II. Influence of environmental factors in the behavior of immature stages and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth F. Rangel

    1987-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de ampliar os conheciemntos sobre a biologia de Lutzomyia intermedia e Lutzomya longipalpis, mantidos em colônias autônomas no laboratório, apresentamos dados referentes a alterações em seu comportamento determinadas por influência de fatores ambientais. L. longipalpis foi mais fácil de criar, mais produtiva e mais resitente ás variações das condições ambientais; suga a qualquer hora do dia, enquanto que L. intermedia prefere fazê-lo ao crepúsculo e à noite, quando também ocorrem masi freqüentemente as desovas e as ecdises dos adultos das duas espécies. As fases imaturas de ambas as espécies resistem à imersão na água por até 1 hora e a baixa temperatura de 5ºC por até 6 horas.Proceeding on our studies on the biology of Lutzomyia intermedia and Lutzomyia longipalpis in closed colonies in the laboratory, we here present our observations on changes in their behavior caused by environmental conditions. L. longipaldis was easier to breed, more productive and more resistant to environmental changes; it feeds at any time of the day or night, while L. intermedia prefers to do it at sunset and at night, the preferencial time for oviposition and ecdysis of adults of both species. The immature stages of both species resisted to immersion in water for up to 1 hour and low temperature (5ºC for 1 to 6 hours.

  7. Anuncios y estrategias de campaña en televisión: un balance de la elección intermedia de 2015 en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oniel Francisco Díaz Jiménez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available En las campañas electorales profesionalizadas, los partidos políticos y los candidatos presentan sus propuestas ante el electorado y buscan maximizar votos, principalmente, a través de los medios de comunicación. En elecciones presidenciales, las estrategias y las tácticas de campaña se enfocan en las imágenes y las propuestas políticas de los candidatos que compiten por la Presidencia. Sin embargo, ¿qué ocurre en elecciones congresionales intermedias, donde los actores principales de la campaña son los partidos políticos y sus candidatos que compiten por cargos legislativos? Este trabajo realiza un análisis de contenido de los anuncios televisivos (spots de 30 segundos transmitidos por los partidos mexicanos durante las elecciones congresionales intermedias de 2015, con el fin de identificar sus estrategias de campaña. Los resultados muestran diferencias relevantes entre las campañas realizadas por las organizaciones nacionales de los partidos y las campañas de los candidatos individuales a nivel distrital. Sin embargo, también ponen a la vista que los anuncios de ataque fueron un componente central en las estrategias mediáticas de los partidos y los candidatos durante la campaña. / In professionalized election campaigns, political parties and candidates present their policy proposals to the electorate and seek to maximize votes, primarily through media appeals. In presidential elections, campaign tactics and strategies focus on the images and policy proposals of presidential candidates. However, what happens in congressional midterm elections, where the main campaigners are the political parties and their congressional candidates? This article analyzes the content of all television announcements (30-second spots broadcast by Mexican political parties during the 2015 mid-term congressional elections, in order to identify their campaign strategies. The results show relevant differences between the campaigns run by national

  8. Seasonal and Diel Vocalization Patterns of Antarctic Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus intermedia in the Southern Indian Ocean: A Multi-Year and Multi-Site Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle C Leroy

    Full Text Available Passive acoustic monitoring is an efficient way to provide insights on the ecology of large whales. This approach allows for long-term and species-specific monitoring over large areas. In this study, we examined six years (2010 to 2015 of continuous acoustic recordings at up to seven different locations in the Central and Southern Indian Basin to assess the peak periods of presence, seasonality and migration movements of Antarctic blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus intermedia. An automated method is used to detect the Antarctic blue whale stereotyped call, known as Z-call. Detection results are analyzed in terms of distribution, seasonal presence and diel pattern of emission at each site. Z-calls are detected year-round at each site, except for one located in the equatorial Indian Ocean, and display highly seasonal distribution. This seasonality is stable across years for every site, but varies between sites. Z-calls are mainly detected during autumn and spring at the subantarctic locations, suggesting that these sites are on the Antarctic blue whale migration routes, and mostly during winter at the subtropical sites. In addition to these seasonal trends, there is a significant diel pattern in Z-call emission, with more Z-calls in daytime than in nighttime. This diel pattern may be related to the blue whale feeding ecology.

  9. Biodegradation of diuron by an endophytic fungus Neurospora intermedia DP8-1 isolated from sugarcane and its potential for remediating diuron-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhui; Li, Honghong; Feng, Guojun; Du, Liangwei; Zeng, Dongqiang

    2017-01-01

    A diuron-degrading endophyte DP8-1 was isolated from sugarcane root grown in diuron-treated soil in the present study. The endophyte was identified as Neurospora intermedia based on the morphological characteristics and sequence analysis. The fermentation parameters including temperature, pH, inoculation size, carbon source, and initial diuron concentration were also investigated for the optimization of degradation efficiency. The results indicated that strain DP8-1 was capable of degrading up to 99% diuron within 3 days under the optimal degrading condition. The study of degradation spectrum indicated that strain DP8-1 could also degrade and utilize fenuron, monuron, metobromuron, isoproturon, chlorbromuron, linuron, and chlortoluron as substrate for strain growth. On basis of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis for the products of the degradation of diuron, strain DP8-1 metabolized diuron to produce N-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-urea and N-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-N-methylurea through sequential N-dealkylations. In a soil bioaugmentation experiment, the inoculation of strain DP8-1 into diuron-treated soil effectively enhanced the disappearance rate of diuron.

  10. Biodegradation of diuron by an endophytic fungus Neurospora intermedia DP8-1 isolated from sugarcane and its potential for remediating diuron-contaminated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Guojun; Du, Liangwei; Zeng, Dongqiang

    2017-01-01

    A diuron-degrading endophyte DP8-1 was isolated from sugarcane root grown in diuron-treated soil in the present study. The endophyte was identified as Neurospora intermedia based on the morphological characteristics and sequence analysis. The fermentation parameters including temperature, pH, inoculation size, carbon source, and initial diuron concentration were also investigated for the optimization of degradation efficiency. The results indicated that strain DP8-1 was capable of degrading up to 99% diuron within 3 days under the optimal degrading condition. The study of degradation spectrum indicated that strain DP8-1 could also degrade and utilize fenuron, monuron, metobromuron, isoproturon, chlorbromuron, linuron, and chlortoluron as substrate for strain growth. On basis of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis for the products of the degradation of diuron, strain DP8-1 metabolized diuron to produce N-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-urea and N-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-N-methylurea through sequential N-dealkylations. In a soil bioaugmentation experiment, the inoculation of strain DP8-1 into diuron-treated soil effectively enhanced the disappearance rate of diuron. PMID:28809955

  11. Thalassemia intermedia as a result of heterozygosis for ß0-thalassemia and aaaanti-3.7/aa genotype in a Brazilian patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimura E.M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case in which the interaction of heterozygosis for both the ß0-IVS-II-1 (G->A mutation and the aaaanti-3.7 allele was the probable cause for the clinical occurrence of thalassemia intermedia. The propositus, a 6-year-old Caucasian Brazilian boy of Portuguese descent, showed a moderately severe chronic anemia in spite of having the ß-thalassemia trait. Investigation of the alpha-globin gene status revealed heterozygosis for alpha-gene triplication (aaa/aa. The patient's father, also presenting mild microcytic and hypochromic anemia, had the same alpha and ß genotypes as his son, while the mother, not related to the father and hematologically normal, was also a carrier of the aaaanti-3.7 allele. The present case emphasizes the need for considering the possibility of alpha-gene triplication in ß-thalassemia heterozygotes who display an unexpected severe phenotype. The ß-thalassemia mutation found here is being described for the first time in Brazil.

  12. Differential accumulation of volatile terpene and terpene synthase mRNAs during lavender (Lavandula angustifolia and L. x intermedia) inflorescence development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitton, Yann; Nicolè, Florence; Moja, Sandrine; Valot, Nadine; Legrand, Sylvain; Jullien, Frédéric; Legendre, Laurent

    2010-02-01

    Despite the commercial importance of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. and L. x intermedia Emeric ex Loisel floral essential oils (EOs), no information is currently available on potential changes in individual volatile organic compound (VOC) content during inflorescence development. Calyces were found to be the main sites of VOC accumulation. The 20 most abundant VOCs could be separated into three sub-groups according to their patterns of change in concentration The three groups of VOCs sequentially dominated the global scent bouquet of inflorescences, the transition between the first and second groups occurring around the opening of the first flower of the inflorescence and the one between the second and third groups at the start of seed set. Changes in calyx VOC accumulation were linked to the developmental stage of individual flowers. Leaves accumulated a smaller number of VOCs which were a subset of those seen in preflowering inflorescences. Their nature and content remained constant during the growing season. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction assessments of the expression of two terpene synthase (TPS) genes, LaLIMS and LaLINS, revealed similar trends between their patterns of expression and those of their VOC products. Molecular and chemical analyses suggest that changes in TPS expression occur during lavender inflorescence development and lead to changes in EO composition. Both molecular data and terpene analysis support the findings that changes in biosynthesis of terpene occurred during inflorescence development.

  13. Rat beta-LPH, gamma-LPH and beta-endorphin biosynthesized by isolated cells of pars intermedia and pars distalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianoulakis, C.; Seidah, N.G.; Routhier, R.; Chretien, M.

    1980-01-01

    Rats pars intermedia cells were incubated for 3 h with the following amino-acids: a) 35 S-methionine and 3 H-phenylalamine; b) 3 H-valine; and c) 3 H-valine and 3 H-lysine. Radioactive gamma-lipotropin, beta-lipotropin and beta-endorphin were purified on carboxy- methyl-cellulose and characterized by polyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis af pH 4.5, molecular weight estimation and microsequencing. Rat gamma-lipotropin was shown to differ slightly from ovine gamma-lipotropin in its NH 2 -terminal amino acid sequence, in containing no methionine and having phenylalanine at position 6, valine at positions 13 and 27, and lysine at position 20. The same variations were observed in the sequence of rat beta-lipotropin, while rat beta-endorphin was shown to be identical to the ovine beta-endorphin. Following a 3-h pulse of rat pars distalis, the cells were extracted with care to avoid beta-lipotropin degradation by proteolytic enzymes. A peptide was purified and identified to be rat beta-endorphin, thus demonstrating that beta-endorphin is biosynthesized in pars distalis and is not an extraction artifact. (author)

  14. Primer aislamiento en Argentina de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina adquirido en la comunidad con sensibilidad intermedia a la vancomicina y no sensibilidad a la daptomicina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Errecalde

    Full Text Available Describimos el primer caso en Argentina de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina adquirido en la comunidad con sensibilidad intermedia a la vancomicina y no sensibilidad a la daptomicina. Caso clínico: Paciente masculino, con antecedente de insuficiencia renal crónica en hemodiálisis y osteosíntesis de cadera debido a una fractura. Se internó por síndrome febril persistente luego del desplazamiento de la prótesis por un traumatismo. Se aisló de hemocultivos S. aureus resistente a la meticilina adquirido en la comunidad. Durante el tratamiento con vancomicina y daptomicina, se observó un aumento gradual de la CIM de vancomicina de 1 µg/ml (VSSA a 2 µg/ml (h-VISA y a 4 µg/ml (VISA, y la emergencia de no sensibilidad a daptomicina (CIM = 4 µg/ml. Al suspender la vancomicina y la daptomicina, la cepa revirtió al fenotipo de sensibilidad a ambas drogas. Es mandatorio evaluar por CIM la sensibilidad a vancomicina y a daptomicina intratratamiento cuando estas drogas se usan como terapia.

  15. Cordycepin alleviates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury via Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Rui; Huang, Zezhi; Tang, Yufei; Xiang, Qingke; Yang, Fan

    2018-04-24

    The present study is to investigate the protective effect of cordycepin on inflammatory reactions in rats with acute lung injury (ALI) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), as well as the underlying mechanism. Wistar rat model of ALI was induced by intravenous injection of LPS (30 mg/kg body weight). One hour later, intravenous injection of cordycepin (1, 10 or 30 mg/kg body weight) was administered. The wet-to-dry weight ratio of lung tissues and myeloperoxidase activity in the lung tissues were measured. The contents of nitrite and nitrate were measured by reduction method, while chemiluminescence was used to determine the content of superoxide. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were used to determine the expression of mRNA and protein, respectively. Colorimetry was performed to determine the enzymatic activity of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Nuclear translocation of Nrf2 was identified by Western blotting. The plasma contents of cytokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cordycepin enhanced the expression and enzymatic activity of HO-1 in ALI rats, and activated Nrf2 by inducing the translocation of Nrf2 from cytoplasm to nucleus. In addition, cordycepin regulated the secretion of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 via HO-1, and suppressed inflammation in lung tissues of ALI rats by inducing the expression of HO-1. HO-1 played important roles in the down-regulation of superoxide levels in lung tissues by cordycepin, and HO-1 expression induced by cordycepin affected nitrite and nitrate concentrations in plasma and iNOS protein expression in lung tissues. Cordycepin showed protective effect on injuries in lung tissues. The present study demonstrates that cordycepin alleviates inflammation induced by LPS via the activation of Nrf2 and up-regulation of HO-1 expression. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Spred-2 deficiency exacerbates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung inflammation in mice.

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    Yang Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is a severe and life-threatening acute lung injury (ALI that is caused by noxious stimuli and pathogens. ALI is characterized by marked acute inflammation with elevated alveolar cytokine levels. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways are involved in cytokine production, but the mechanisms that regulate these pathways remain poorly characterized. Here, we focused on the role of Sprouty-related EVH1-domain-containing protein (Spred-2, a negative regulator of the Ras-Raf-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK-MAPK pathway, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced acute lung inflammation. METHODS: Wild-type (WT mice and Spred-2(-/- mice were exposed to intratracheal LPS (50 µg in 50 µL PBS to induce pulmonary inflammation. After LPS-injection, the lungs were harvested to assess leukocyte infiltration, cytokine and chemokine production, ERK-MAPK activation and immunopathology. For ex vivo experiments, alveolar macrophages were harvested from untreated WT and Spred-2(-/- mice and stimulated with LPS. In in vitro experiments, specific knock down of Spred-2 by siRNA or overexpression of Spred-2 by transfection with a plasmid encoding the Spred-2 sense sequence was introduced into murine RAW264.7 macrophage cells or MLE-12 lung epithelial cells. RESULTS: LPS-induced acute lung inflammation was significantly exacerbated in Spred-2(-/- mice compared with WT mice, as indicated by the numbers of infiltrating leukocytes, levels of alveolar TNF-α, CXCL2 and CCL2 in a later phase, and lung pathology. U0126, a selective MEK/ERK inhibitor, reduced the augmented LPS-induced inflammation in Spred-2(-/- mice. Specific knock down of Spred-2 augmented LPS-induced cytokine and chemokine responses in RAW264.7 cells and MLE-12 cells, whereas Spred-2 overexpression decreased this response in RAW264.7 cells. CONCLUSIONS: The ERK-MAPK pathway is involved in LPS-induced acute lung inflammation. Spred-2 controls the development of LPS-induced lung inflammation by negatively regulating the ERK-MAPK pathway. Thus, Spred-2 may represent a therapeutic target for the treatment of ALI.

  17. Role for macrophage inflammatory protein-2 in lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmal, H; Shanley, T P; Jones, M L

    1996-01-01

    Macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) is a C-X-C chemokine that possesses chemotactic activity for neutrophils. Rat MIP-2 was cloned and expressed as a 7.9-kDa peptide that exhibited dose-dependent neutrophil chemotactic activity at concentrations from 10 to 250 nM. Rabbit polyclonal Ab to th...... instillation of LPS was found to be MIP-2-dependent. These data indicate that MIP-2 plays a significant role in LPS-induced inflammatory response in rat lungs and is required for the full recruitment of neutrophils....

  18. The effects of a novel botanical agent on lipopolysaccharide-induced alveolar bone loss in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bo-Ah; Lee, Hwa-Sun; Jung, Young-Suk; Kim, Se-Won; Lee, Yong-Wook; Chang, Sun-Hwa; Chung, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Ok-Su; Kim, Young-Joon

    2013-08-01

    The development of host-modulatory agents with low risk of adverse effects has been needed to treat periodontitis, a chronic inflammatory disease. A botanical mixture of extracts from two natural substances, Panax notoginseng and Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch, was developed as a novel botanical agent synthesized with anti-inflammatory effect. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of the botanical mixture on the release of inflammatory cytokines and its inhibitory effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced alveolar bone loss (ABL) in a rat model. Cytotoxicity was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-5(3-carboxymethoxyphenol)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium assay using human gingival fibroblast (hGF) and human periodontal ligament (hPDL) cells. Human acute monocytic leukemia cell line and hGF cells were cultured to assay tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6, respectively. Microcomputed tomography analysis and immunofluoresence analysis were performed to evaluate the efficacy of the botanical mixture to inhibit the destruction of alveolar bone and connective tissue in a rat model. The botanical mixture is cytotoxic at concentrations exceeding 2.5 mg/mL (P botanical mixture to be used in all subsequent in vitro and in vivo experiments. The botanical mixture reduced the release of TNF-α and IL-6 from human monocytic cells and hGF cells in a dose-dependent manner (P botanical mixture significantly reduced the alveolar bone loss in a rat model (P botanical mixture, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 was detected along the alveolar bone crest (ABC), but not around the gingival connective tissue, while in the group with LPS-induced ABL, pronounced expression of MMP-9 around the ABC, periodontal ligament, and gingival connective tissue was found. The botanical mixture showed a potential adjunctive effect in the treatment of periodontitis. However, the present findings are obtained in vitro and in a rat model, so further clinical study is needed for its clinical application.

  19. Antioxidant properties of lutein contribute to the protection against lipopolysaccharide-induced uveitis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Xin-Sheng

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lutein is an important eye-protective nutrient. This study investigates the protective effects and mechanisms of lutein on lipopolysaccharides (LPS-induced uveitis in mice. Methods Lutein, suspended in drinking water at a final concentration of 12.5 and 25 mg/mL, was administered to mice at 0.1 mL/10 g body weight for five consecutive days. Control and model group received drinking water only. Uveitis was induced by injecting LPS (100 mg per mouse into the footpad in the model and lutein groups on day 5 after the last drug administration. Eyes of the mice were collected 24 hours after the LPS injection for the detection of indicators using commercial kits and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results LPS-induced uveitis was confirmed by significant pathological damage and increased the nitric oxide level in eye tissue of BALB/C mice 24 hours after the footpad injection. The elevated nitric oxide level was significantly reduced by oral administration of lutein (125 and 500 mg/kg/d for five days before LPS injection. Moreover, lutein decreased the malondialdehyde content, increased the oxygen radical absorbance capacity level, glutathione, the vitamin C contents and total superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities. Lutein further increased expressions of copper-zinc SOD, manganese SOD and GPx mRNA. Conclusion The antioxidant properties of lutein contribute to the protection against LPS-induced uveitis, partially through the intervention of inflammation process.

  20. Static Magnetic Field Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation in Pulp Cells by Affecting Cell Membrane Stability

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    Sung-Chih Hsieh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the causes of dental pulpitis is lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced inflammatory response. Following pulp tissue inflammation, odontoblasts, dental pulp cells (DPCs, and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs will activate and repair damaged tissue to maintain homeostasis. However, when LPS infection is too serious, dental repair is impossible and disease may progress to irreversible pulpitis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine whether static magnetic field (SMF can attenuate inflammatory response of dental pulp cells challenged with LPS. In methodology, dental pulp cells were isolated from extracted teeth. The population of DPSCs in the cultured DPCs was identified by phenotypes and multilineage differentiation. The effects of 0.4 T SMF on DPCs were observed through MTT assay and fluorescent anisotropy assay. Our results showed that the SMF exposure had no effect on surface markers or multilineage differentiation capability. However, SMF exposure increases cell viability by 15%. In addition, SMF increased cell membrane rigidity which is directly related to higher fluorescent anisotropy. In the LPS-challenged condition, DPCs treated with SMF demonstrated a higher tolerance to LPS-induced inflammatory response when compared to untreated controls. According to these results, we suggest that 0.4 T SMF attenuates LPS-induced inflammatory response to DPCs by changing cell membrane stability.

  1. Ficolins do not alter host immune responses to lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genster, Ninette; Østrup, Olga; Schjalm, Camilla

    2017-01-01

    . Yet, the contribution of ficolins to inflammatory disease processes remains elusive. To address this, we investigated ficolin deficient mice during a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced model of systemic inflammation. Although murine serum ficolin was shown to bind LPS in vitro, there was no difference...... an unaltered spleen transcriptome profile in ficolin deficient mice compared to wildtype mice. Collectively, results from this study demonstrate that ficolins are not involved in host response to LPS-induced systemic inflammation.......Ficolins are a family of pattern recognition molecules that are capable of activating the lectin pathway of complement. A limited number of reports have demonstrated a protective role of ficolins in animal models of infection. In addition, an immune modulatory role of ficolins has been suggested...

  2. Resveratrol protects from lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in the uterus and prevents experimental preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bariani, María Victoria; Correa, Fernando; Leishman, Emma; Domínguez Rubio, Ana Paula; Arias, Andreína; Stern, Aníbal; Bradshaw, Heather B; Franchi, Ana María

    2017-08-01

    Is resveratrol able to prevent the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced preterm labor in 15-day pregnant BALB/c mice? Resveratrol prevented the LPS-induced onset of preterm labor in 64% of the cases and showed anti-inflammatory and tocolytic effects by downregulating COX-2 and iNOS expression and NOS activity, and by changing the uterine prostaglandin and endocannabinoid profiling. Genital tract infections by Gram-negative bacteria are a common complication in human pregnancy and have been shown to increase risk of preterm delivery. Bacterial LPS elicits a strong maternal inflammatory response that results in preterm delivery and fetal death in a murine model endotoxin-induced preterm labor. An in vivo animal study was conducted. On Day 15 of pregnancy, mice received at 8:00 h a dose of vehicle (40% ethanol in saline solution) or resveratrol (3 mg/kg in vehicle) via oral gavage followed by two doses of LPS or vehicle administered intraperitoneally (i.p.), the first one at 10:00 h (0.17 mg/kg in 0.1 ml of sterile saline solution) and the second at 13:00 h (0.5 mg/kg in 0.1 ml of sterile saline solution). The mice were closely observed for any signs of morbidity (piloerection, decreased movement, and diarrhea), vaginal bleeding or preterm delivery. The beginning of preterm delivery was defined by early delivery of the first pup. Normal term labor occurs on Day 19 of gestation. Time of labor, pregnancy outcome and morphological features were evaluated after LPS and/or resveratrol administration. Uterine stripes were collected 5 h after the last LPS injection and prostaglandin and endocannabinoid profiling was analyzed by mass spectrometry. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity was measured by radioconversion assay. Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) and 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-Pgdh) mRNA levels were analyzed by RT-PCR whilst the protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), COX-1 and COX-2 were studied by western blot. In vivo treatment of 15-day pregnant BALB/c mice with resveratrol prevented the LPS-induced preterm birth in 64% of the cases, whereas only 15% of mice with LPS alone escaped preterm birth. Treatment with resveratrol resulted in a reduced NOS activity (P resveratrol reduced the expression of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory agents such as iNOS (P resveratrol administration resulted in changes in the uterine endocannabinoid profiling altered by LPS. N/A. Since our experimental design involves the use of mice, the extrapolation of the results presented here to humans is limited. Our findings provide evidence for the tocolytic effects of resveratrol. Dr Ana María Franchi was funded by Agencia Nacional para la Promoción Científica y Tecnológica (PICT 2013/0097) and by Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (PIP 2012/0061). Dr Heather B. Bradshaw was funded by NIH (DA006668). The authors have no competing interests. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  3. OPTICAL IMAGING OF LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE-INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS IN ACUTE LUNG INJURY FROM HYPEROXIA AND SEPSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REYHANEH SEPEHR

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many acute and chronic pulmonary disorders such as acute lung injury (ALI in adults and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD in premature infants. Bacterial infection and oxygen toxicity, which result in pulmonary vascular endothelial injury, contribute to impaired vascular growth and alveolar simplification seen in the lungs of premature infants with BPD. Hyperoxia induces ALI, reduces cell proliferation, causes DNA damage and promotes cell death by causing mitochondrial dysfunction. The objective of this study was to use an optical imaging technique to evaluate the variations in fluorescence intensities of the auto-fluorescent mitochondrial metabolic coenzymes, NADH and FAD in four different groups of rats. The ratio of these fluorescence signals (NADH/FAD, referred to as NADH redox ratio (NADH RR has been used as an indicator of tissue metabolism in injuries. Here, we investigated whether the changes in metabolic state can be used as a marker of oxidative stress caused by hyperoxia and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS exposure in neonatal rat lungs. We examined the tissue redox states of lungs from four groups of rat pups: normoxic (21% O2 pups, hyperoxic (90% O2 pups, pups treated with LPS (normoxic + LPS, and pups treated with LPS and hyperoxia (hyperoxic + LPS. Our results show that hyperoxia oxidized the respiratory chain as reflected by a ~ 31% decrease in lung tissue NADH RR as compared to that for normoxic lungs. LPS treatment alone or with hyperoxia had no significant effect on lung tissue NADH RR as compared to that for normoxic or hyperoxic lungs, respectively. Thus, NADH RR serves as a quantitative marker of oxidative stress level in lung injury caused by two clinically important conditions: hyperoxia and LPS exposure.

  4. Early Effects of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation on Foetal Brain Development in Rat

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    Cristina A Ghiani

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies in humans and animal models link maternal infection and imbalanced levels of inflammatory mediators in the foetal brain to the aetiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. In a number of animal models, it was shown that exposure to viral or bacterial agents during a period that corresponds to the second trimester in human gestation triggers brain and behavioural abnormalities in the offspring. However, little is known about the early cellular and molecular events elicited by inflammation in the foetal brain shortly after maternal infection has occurred. In this study, maternal infection was mimicked by two consecutive intraperitoneal injections of 200 μg of LPS (lipopolysaccharide/kg to timed-pregnant rats at GD15 (gestational day 15 and GD16. Increased thickness of the CP (cortical plate and hippocampus together with abnormal distribution of immature neuronal markers and decreased expression of markers for neural progenitors were observed in the LPS-exposed foetal forebrains at GD18. Such effects were accompanied by decreased levels of reelin and the radial glial marker GLAST (glial glutamate transporter, and elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in maternal serum and foetal forebrains. Foetal inflammation elicited by maternal injections of LPS has discrete detrimental effects on brain development. The early biochemical and morphological changes described in this work begin to explain the sequelae of early events that underlie the neurobehavioural deficits reported in humans and animals exposed to prenatal insults.

  5. Acrolein inhalation suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cytokine production but does not affect acute airways neutrophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, David Itiro; Poynter, Matthew E; Othman, Ziryan; Hemenway, David; van der Vliet, Albert

    2008-07-01

    Acrolein is a reactive unsaturated aldehyde that is produced during endogenous oxidative processes and is a major bioactive component of environmental pollutants such as cigarette smoke. Because in vitro studies demonstrate that acrolein can inhibit neutrophil apoptosis, we evaluated the effects of in vivo acrolein exposure on acute lung inflammation induced by LPS. Male C57BL/6J mice received 300 microg/kg intratracheal LPS and were exposed to acrolein (5 parts per million, 6 h/day), either before or after LPS challenge. Exposure to acrolein either before or after LPS challenge did not significantly affect the overall extent of LPS-induced lung inflammation, or the duration of the inflammatory response, as observed from recovered lung lavage leukocytes and histology. However, exposure to acrolein after LPS instillation markedly diminished the LPS-induced production of several inflammatory cytokines, specifically TNF-alpha, IL-12, and the Th1 cytokine IFN-gamma, which was associated with reduction in NF-kappaB activation. Our data demonstrate that acrolein exposure suppresses LPS-induced Th1 cytokine responses without affecting acute neutrophilia. Disruption of cytokine signaling by acrolein may represent a mechanism by which smoking contributes to chronic disease in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma.

  6. Docosahexaenoic acid ester of phloridzin inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in THP-1 differentiated macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhon-Loodu, Satvir; Ziaullah; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2015-03-01

    Phloridzin or phlorizin (PZ) is a predominant phenolic compound found in apple and also used in various natural health products. Phloridzin shows poor absorption and cellular uptake due to its hydrophilic nature. The aim was to investigate and compare the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) ester of PZ (PZ-DHA) and its parent compounds (phloridzin and DHA), phloretin (the aglycone of PZ) and cyclooxygenase inhibitory drugs (diclofenac and nimesulide) on production of pro-inflammatory biomarkers in inflammation-induced macrophages by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulation. Human THP-1 monocytes were seeded in 24-well plates (5×10(5)/well) and treated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, 0.1μg/mL) for 48h to induce macrophage differentiation. After 48h, the differentiated macrophages were washed with Hank's buffer and treated with various concentrations of test compounds for 4h, followed by the LPS-stimulation (18h). Pre-exposure of PZ-DHA ester was more effective in reducing tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein levels compared to DHA and nimesulide. However, diclofenac was the most effective in reducing prostaglandin (PGE2) level by depicting a dose-dependent response. However, PZ-DHA ester and DHA were the most effective in inhibiting the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) among other test compounds. Our results suggest that PZ-DHA ester might possess potential therapeutic activity to treat inflammation related disorders such as type 2 diabetes, asthma, atherosclerosis and inflammatory bowel disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Atorvastatin reduces lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in human pulmonary epithelial cells

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    Chen Ping

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To explore the effects of atorvastatin on expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 in human pulmonary epithelial cells (A549. Methods A549 cells were incubated in DMEM medium containing lipopolysaccharide (LPS in the presence or absence of atorvastatin. After incubation, the medium was collected and the amount of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The cells were harvested, and COX-2 mRNA and protein were analyzed by RT-PCR and western-blot respectively. Results LPS increased the expression of COX-2 mRNA and production of PGE2 in a dose- and time-dependent manner in A549. Induction of COX-2 mRNA and protein by LPS were inhibited by atorvastatin in a dose-dependent manner. Atorvastatin also significantly decreased LPS-induced production of PGE2. There was a positive correlation between reduced of COX-2 mRNA and decreased of PGE2 (r = 0.947, P Conclusion Atorvastatin down-regulates LPS-induced expression of the COX-2 and consequently inhibits production of PGE2 in cultured A549 cells.

  8. Modulation of lipopolysaccharide-induced chorioamnionitis in fetal sheep by maternal betamethasone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Katherine B; Snyder, Candice C; Gisslen, Tate; Kemp, Matthew W; Newnham, John P; Kramer, Boris W; Jobe, Alan H; Kallapur, Suhas

    2013-12-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the order of exposure to maternal betamethasone and intra-amniotic (IA) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) will differentially modulate inflammation in the chorioamnion. Time-mated Merino ewes with singleton fetuses received saline alone, IA LPS alone, maternal betamethasone before LPS, or betamethasone after LPS. We assessed inflammatory markers in the chorioamnion and the amniotic fluid. Inflammatory cell infiltration, expression of myeloperoxidase, serum amyloid A3 (acute phase reactant) in the chorioamnion, and levels of interleukin (IL)-8 in the amniotic fluid increased 7 days after LPS exposure. Betamethasone prior to LPS decreased infiltration of the inflammatory cells, CD3+ T cells, and decreased the levels of IL-1β and IL-8 in the amniotic fluid. Betamethasone 7 days prior to LPS exposure suppressed LPS-induced inflammation. The markers of inflammation largely had returned to the baseline 14 days after LPS exposure.

  9. Modulation of lipopolysaccharide-induced chorioamnionitis by Ureaplasma parvum in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Candice C; Wolfe, Katherine B; Gisslen, Tate; Knox, Christine L; Kemp, Matthew W; Kramer, Boris W; Newnham, John P; Jobe, Alan H; Kallapur, Suhas G

    2013-05-01

    Ureaplasma colonization in the setting of polymicrobial flora is common in women with chorioamnionitis, and is a risk factor for preterm delivery and neonatal morbidity. We hypothesized that Ureaplasma colonization of amniotic fluid would modulate chorioamnionitis induced by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Sheep received intraamniotic (IA) injections of media (control) or live Ureaplasma either 7 or 70 days before delivery. Another group received IA LPS 2 days before delivery. To test for interactions, U parvum-exposed animals were challenged with IA LPS, and delivered 2 days later. All animals were delivered preterm at 125 ± 1 day of gestation. Both IA Ureaplasma and LPS induced leukocyte infiltration of chorioamnion. LPS greatly increased the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and myeloperoxidase in leukocytes, while Ureaplasma alone caused modest responses. Interestingly, 7-day but not 70-day Ureaplasma exposure significantly down-regulated LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines and myeloperoxidase expression in the chorioamnion. Acute (7-day) U parvum exposure can suppress LPS-induced chorioamnionitis. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Activation of PPARα by Wy-14643 ameliorates systemic lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Seong Ho; Abdelmegeed, Mohamed A.; Song, Byoung-Joon

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Activation of PPARα attenuated LPS-mediated acute lung injury. •Pretreatment with Wy-14643 decreased the levels of IFN-γ and IL-6 in ALI. •Nitrosative stress and lipid peroxidation were downregulated by PPARα activation. •PPARα agonists may be potential therapeutic targets for acute lung injury. -- Abstract: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) by its ligands, which include Wy-14643, has been implicated as a potential anti-inflammatory therapy. To address the beneficial efficacy of Wy-14643 for ALI along with systemic inflammation, the in vivo role of PPARα activation was investigated in a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI. Using age-matched Ppara-null and wild-type mice, we demonstrate that the activation of PPARα by Wy-14643 attenuated LPS-mediated ALI. This was evidenced histologically by the significant alleviation of inflammatory manifestations and apoptosis observed in the lung tissues of wild-type mice, but not in the corresponding Ppara-null mice. This protective effect probably resulted from the inhibition of LPS-induced increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines and nitroxidative stress levels. These results suggest that the pharmacological activation of PPARα might have a therapeutic effect on LPS-induced ALI

  11. Equine colostral carbohydrates reduce lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendrig, J C; Coffeng, L E; Fink-Gremmels, J

    2012-12-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that reactions to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), particularly in the gut, can be partly or completely mitigated by colostrum- and milk-derived oligosaccharides. Confirmation of this hypothesis could lead to the development of new therapeutic concepts. To demonstrate the influence of equine colostral carbohydrates on the inflammatory response in an in vitro model with equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Carbohydrates were extracted from mare colostrum, and then evaluated for their influence on LPS-induced inflammatory responses in PBMCs isolated from the same mares, mRNA expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 was measured as well as the protein levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-10 (IL-10). Equine colostral carbohydrates significantly reduced LPS-induced TNF-alpha protein at both times measured and significantly reduced LPS-induced TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10 mRNA expression by PBMCs. Moreover, cell viability significantly increased in the presence of high concentrations of colostral carbohydrates. Carbohydrates derived from equine colostrum reduce LPS-induced inflammatory responses of equine PBMCs. Colostrum and milk-derived carbohydrates are promising candidates for new concepts in preventive and regenerative medicine.

  12. Interleukin-10 Protection against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuro-Inflammation and Neurotoxicity in Ventral Mesencephalic Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Zhu; Xiao Chen; Zhan Liu; Yu-Ping Peng; Yi-Hua Qiu

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, is expressed in the brain and can inhibit microglial activation. Herein, we utilized lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory Parkinson?s disease (PD) cell model to determine whether microglia and astrocytes are necessary targets for IL-10 neuroprotection. Primary ventral mesencephalic (VM) cultures with different composition of neurons, microglia and astrocytes were prepared. The cells were exposed to IL-10 (15, 50 or 150 ng/mL) 1 h pr...

  13. Interleukin-10 Protection against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuro-Inflammation and Neurotoxicity in Ventral Mesencephalic Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin (IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, is expressed in the brain and can inhibit microglial activation. Herein, we utilized lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced inflammatory Parkinson’s disease (PD cell model to determine whether microglia and astrocytes are necessary targets for IL-10 neuroprotection. Primary ventral mesencephalic (VM cultures with different composition of neurons, microglia and astrocytes were prepared. The cells were exposed to IL-10 (15, 50 or 150 ng/mL 1 h prior to LPS (50 ng/mL treatment. LPS induced dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic neuronal loss in VM cultures, VM neuron-enriched cultures, and neuron-microglia co-cultures, but not in neuron-astrocyte co-cultures. IL-10 reduced LPS-induced neuronal loss particularly in single VM neuron cultures. Pro-inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 were upregulated in both neuron-microglia and neuron-astrocyte co-cultures by LPS. In contrast, neurotrophic factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, insulin-like growth factor-1 or glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor were downregulated in neuron-microglia co-cultures, but upregulated in neuron-astrocyte co-cultures by LPS. IL-10 reduced both the increase in production of the pro-inflammatory mediators and the decrease in production of the neurotrophic factors induced by LPS. These results suggest that astrocytes can balance LPS neurotoxicity by releasing more neurotrophic factors and that IL-10 exerts neuroprotective property by an extensive action including direct on neurons and indirect via inhibiting microglial activation.

  14. Resveratrol Protects Dopamine Neurons Against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neurotoxicity through Its Anti-Inflammatory Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Shi, Jing-Shan; Zhou, Hui; Wilson, Belinda; Hong, Jau-Shyong

    2010-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease characterized by a progressive loss of dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra. Accumulating evidence indicates that inhibition of microglia-mediated neuroinflammation may become a reliable protective strategy for PD. Resveratrol, a nonflavonoid polyphenol naturally found in red wine and grapes, has been known to possess antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory properties. Although recent studies have shown that resveratrol provided neuroprotective effects against ischemia, seizure, and neurodegenerative disorders, the mechanisms underlying its beneficial effects on dopaminergic neurodegeneration are poorly defined. In this study, rat primary midbrain neuron-glia cultures were used to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying resveratrol-mediated neuroprotection. The results clearly demonstrated that resveratrol protected DA neurons against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neurotoxicity in concentration- and time-dependent manners through the inhibition of microglial activation and the subsequent reduction of proinflammatory factor release. Mechanistically, resveratrol-mediated neuroprotection was attributed to the inhibition of NADPH oxidase. This conclusion is supported by the following observations. First, resveratrol reduced NADPH oxidase-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species. Second, LPS-induced translocation of NADPH oxidase cytosolic subunit p47 to the cell membrane was significantly attenuated by resveratrol. Third and most importantly, resveratrol failed to exhibit neuroprotection in cultures from NADPH oxidase-deficient mice. Furthermore, this neuroprotection was also related to an attenuation of the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor-κB signaling pathways in microglia. These findings suggest that resveratrol exerts neuroprotection against LPS-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration, and NADPH oxidase may be a major player in resveratrol-mediated neuroprotection. PMID:20554604

  15. Aspirin reduces lipopolysaccharide-induced pulmonary inflammation in human models of ARDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, U; Krasnodembskaya, A; Fitzgerald, M; Shyamsundar, M; Kissenpfennig, A; Scott, C; Lefrancais, E; Looney, M R; Verghis, R; Scott, J; Simpson, A J; McNamee, J; McAuley, D F; O'Kane, C M

    2017-11-01

    Platelets play an active role in the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Animal and observational studies have shown aspirin's antiplatelet and immunomodulatory effects may be beneficial in ARDS. To test the hypothesis that aspirin reduces inflammation in clinically relevant human models that recapitulate pathophysiological mechanisms implicated in the development of ARDS. Healthy volunteers were randomised to receive placebo or aspirin 75  or 1200 mg (1:1:1) for seven days prior to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhalation, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, allocation-concealed study. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed 6 hours after inhaling 50 µg of LPS. The primary outcome measure was BAL IL-8. Secondary outcome measures included markers of alveolar inflammation (BAL neutrophils, cytokines, neutrophil proteases), alveolar epithelial cell injury, systemic inflammation (neutrophils and plasma C-reactive protein (CRP)) and platelet activation (thromboxane B2, TXB2). Human lungs, perfused and ventilated ex vivo (EVLP) were randomised to placebo or 24 mg aspirin and injured with LPS. BAL was carried out 4 hours later. Inflammation was assessed by BAL differential cell counts and histological changes. In the healthy volunteer (n=33) model, data for the aspirin groups were combined. Aspirin did not reduce BAL IL-8. However, aspirin reduced pulmonary neutrophilia and tissue damaging neutrophil proteases (Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP)-8/-9), reduced BAL concentrations of tumour necrosis factor α and reduced systemic and pulmonary TXB2. There was no difference between high-dose and low-dose aspirin. In the EVLP model, aspirin reduced BAL neutrophilia and alveolar injury as measured by histological damage. These are the first prospective human data indicating that aspirin inhibits pulmonary neutrophilic inflammation, at both low and high doses. Further clinical studies are indicated to assess the role of aspirin in the prevention and treatment of ARDS. NCT01659307 Results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide induces CF-like alteration of protein secretion by human tracheal gland cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammouni, W; Figarella, C; Baeza, N; Marchand, S; Merten, M D

    1997-12-18

    Human tracheal gland (HTG) serous cells are now believed to play a major role in the physiopathology of cystic fibrosis. Because of the persistent inflammation and the specific infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the lung, we looked for the action of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of this bacteria on human tracheal gland cells in culture by studying the secretion of the secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor (SLPI) which is a specific serous secretory marker of these cells. Treatment with Pseudomonas aeruginosa LPS resulted in a significant dose-dependent increase in the basal production of SLPI (+ 250 +/- 25%) whilst the SLPI transcript mRNA levels remained unchanged. This LPS-induced increase in secretion was inhibited by glucocorticoides. Furthermore, LPS treatment of HTG cells induces a loss of responsiveness to carbachol and isoproterenol but not to adenosine triphosphate. These findings indicate that HTG cells treated by Pseudomonas aeruginosa LPS have the same behavior as those previously observed with CF-HTG cells. Exploration by using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction amplification showed that LPS downregulated cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mRNA expression in HTG cells indicative of a link between CFTR function and consequent CF-like alteration in protein secretory process.

  17. LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE INDUCES THE PRODUCTION OF DIAGNOSTIC MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY BY HYBRIDOMA CELLS AGAINST CONGENITAL ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEK KEE CHUA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to screen and identify the potential inducers in maximizing the production of monoclonal antibody by hybridoma 192 cell line for Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia diagnostic. There are nine inducers used in this research, namely lysozyme, aldolase, sodium butyrate, sodium phosphate, potassium phosphate, dimethyl sulfoxide, lipopolysaccharide, essential amino acids, and nonessential amino acids. Hybridoma 192 cell was cultured in 5% CO2 incubator at 37°C and ˃80% humidity in the medium with different concentrations of inducer agents. The inducers were added at the beginning of the culture and the samples were taken after 72 h of culture. The performance of these inducer agents was assessed based on the maximum monoclonal antibody titer achieved using Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay. Lipopolysaccharide was found to increase the maximum monoclonal antibody titer when supplemented at 8 to 12 µg/mL. After optimization using one-factor central composite design at this range, the optimum point was determined to be 8 µg/mL. Verification experiments shows that lipopolysaccharide enhanced the average specific monoclonal antibody production rate by 56% relative to control. In conclusion, lipopolysaccharide at 8 µg/mL is able to increase the monoclonal antibody specific production of hybridoma 192 cell line.

  18. Activation of PPARα by Wy-14643 ameliorates systemic lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Seong Ho, E-mail: yoosh@snu.ac.kr [Seoul National University Hospital, Biomedical Research Institute and Institute of Forensic Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Abdelmegeed, Mohamed A. [Laboratory of Membrane Biochemistry and Biophysics, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Bethesda, MD (United States); Song, Byoung-Joon, E-mail: bj.song@nih.gov [Laboratory of Membrane Biochemistry and Biophysics, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2013-07-05

    Highlights: •Activation of PPARα attenuated LPS-mediated acute lung injury. •Pretreatment with Wy-14643 decreased the levels of IFN-γ and IL-6 in ALI. •Nitrosative stress and lipid peroxidation were downregulated by PPARα activation. •PPARα agonists may be potential therapeutic targets for acute lung injury. -- Abstract: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) by its ligands, which include Wy-14643, has been implicated as a potential anti-inflammatory therapy. To address the beneficial efficacy of Wy-14643 for ALI along with systemic inflammation, the in vivo role of PPARα activation was investigated in a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI. Using age-matched Ppara-null and wild-type mice, we demonstrate that the activation of PPARα by Wy-14643 attenuated LPS-mediated ALI. This was evidenced histologically by the significant alleviation of inflammatory manifestations and apoptosis observed in the lung tissues of wild-type mice, but not in the corresponding Ppara-null mice. This protective effect probably resulted from the inhibition of LPS-induced increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines and nitroxidative stress levels. These results suggest that the pharmacological activation of PPARα might have a therapeutic effect on LPS-induced ALI.

  19. Impact of lipopolysaccharide-induced acute inflammation on baroreflex-controlled sympathetic arterial pressure regulation.

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    Takeshi Tohyama

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharide (LPS induces acute inflammation, activates sympathetic nerve activity (SNA and alters hemodynamics. Since the arterial baroreflex is a negative feedback system to stabilize arterial pressure (AP, examining the arterial baroreflex function is a prerequisite to understanding complex hemodynamics under LPS challenge. We investigated the impact of LPS-induced acute inflammation on SNA and AP regulation by performing baroreflex open-loop analysis.Ten anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Acute inflammation was induced by an intravenous injection of LPS (60 μg/kg. We isolated the carotid sinuses from the systemic circulation and controlled carotid sinus pressure (CSP by a servo-controlled piston pump. We matched CSP to AP to establish the baroreflex closed-loop condition, whereas we decoupled CSP from AP to establish the baroreflex open-loop condition and changed CSP stepwise to evaluate the baroreflex open-loop function. We recorded splanchnic SNA and hemodynamic parameters under baroreflex open- and closed-loop conditions at baseline and at 60 and 120 min after LPS injection.In the baroreflex closed-loop condition, SNA continued to increase after LPS injection, reaching three-fold the baseline value at 120 min (baseline: 94.7 ± 3.6 vs. 120 min: 283.9 ± 31.9 a.u.. In contrast, AP increased initially (until 75 min, then declined to the baseline level. In the baroreflex open-loop condition, LPS reset the neural arc (CSP-SNA relationship upward to higher SNA, while shifted the peripheral arc (SNA-AP relationship downward at 120 min after the injection. As a result, the operating point determined by the intersection between function curves of neural arc and peripheral arc showed marked sympatho-excitation without substantial changes in AP.LPS-induced acute inflammation markedly increased SNA via resetting of the baroreflex neural arc, and suppressed the peripheral arc. The balance between the augmented neural arc and suppressed peripheral arc determines SNA and hemodynamics in LPS-induced acute inflammation.

  20. Impact of lipopolysaccharide-induced acute inflammation on baroreflex-controlled sympathetic arterial pressure regulation.

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    Tohyama, Takeshi; Saku, Keita; Kawada, Toru; Kishi, Takuya; Yoshida, Keimei; Nishikawa, Takuya; Mannoji, Hiroshi; Kamada, Kazuhiro; Sunagawa, Kenji; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2018-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces acute inflammation, activates sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and alters hemodynamics. Since the arterial baroreflex is a negative feedback system to stabilize arterial pressure (AP), examining the arterial baroreflex function is a prerequisite to understanding complex hemodynamics under LPS challenge. We investigated the impact of LPS-induced acute inflammation on SNA and AP regulation by performing baroreflex open-loop analysis. Ten anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Acute inflammation was induced by an intravenous injection of LPS (60 μg/kg). We isolated the carotid sinuses from the systemic circulation and controlled carotid sinus pressure (CSP) by a servo-controlled piston pump. We matched CSP to AP to establish the baroreflex closed-loop condition, whereas we decoupled CSP from AP to establish the baroreflex open-loop condition and changed CSP stepwise to evaluate the baroreflex open-loop function. We recorded splanchnic SNA and hemodynamic parameters under baroreflex open- and closed-loop conditions at baseline and at 60 and 120 min after LPS injection. In the baroreflex closed-loop condition, SNA continued to increase after LPS injection, reaching three-fold the baseline value at 120 min (baseline: 94.7 ± 3.6 vs. 120 min: 283.9 ± 31.9 a.u.). In contrast, AP increased initially (until 75 min), then declined to the baseline level. In the baroreflex open-loop condition, LPS reset the neural arc (CSP-SNA relationship) upward to higher SNA, while shifted the peripheral arc (SNA-AP relationship) downward at 120 min after the injection. As a result, the operating point determined by the intersection between function curves of neural arc and peripheral arc showed marked sympatho-excitation without substantial changes in AP. LPS-induced acute inflammation markedly increased SNA via resetting of the baroreflex neural arc, and suppressed the peripheral arc. The balance between the augmented neural arc and suppressed peripheral arc determines SNA and hemodynamics in LPS-induced acute inflammation.

  1. Glucocorticoid inhibition of leptin- and lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-6 production in obesity.

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    Huang, Chun-Jung; Acevedo, Edmund O; Mari, David C; Randazzo, Christopher; Shibata, Yoshimi

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is considered a chronic inflammatory condition that enhances the risk of numerous inflammatory diseases, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Glucocorticoids (GCs) and synthetic therapeutic GCs are anti-inflammatory agents, but the exact functions of GCs in obesity-related inflammation are unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the inhibitory effect of an exogenous GC (dexamethasone, DEX) on leptin- and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced IL-6 production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) ex vivo in obese subjects compared to normal-weight subjects. Blood samples were drawn from 14 obese (BMI>30 kg/m(2)) and 14 normal-weight (BMIobese subjects showed greater leptin- and LPS-induced IL-6 production compared to normal-weight subjects. The suppressive effect of DEX on leptin- and LPS-induced IL-6 production (IC50) was not different between the two groups. However, the IC50 of DEX for LPS-induced was correlated with BMI, waist circumference, and hip circumference. These findings suggest that reduced GC sensitivity may be an important mechanism in the up-regulation of selected obese inflammation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. A Fermented Whole Grain Prevents Lipopolysaccharides-Induced Dysfunction in Human Endothelial Progenitor Cells

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    Laura Giusti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous and exogenous signals derived by the gut microbiota such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS orchestrate inflammatory responses contributing to development of the endothelial dysfunction associated with atherosclerosis in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs, bone marrow derived stem cells, promote recovery of damaged endothelium playing a pivotal role in cardiovascular repair. Since healthy nutrition improves EPCs functions, we evaluated the effect of a fermented grain, Lisosan G (LG, on early EPCs exposed to LPS. The potential protective effect of LG against LPS-induced alterations was evaluated as cell viability, adhesiveness, ROS production, gene expression, and NF-kB signaling pathway activation. Our results showed that LPS treatment did not affect EPCs viability and adhesiveness but induced endothelial alterations via activation of NF-kB signaling. LG protects EPCs from inflammation as well as from LPS-induced oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress reducing ROS levels, downregulating proinflammatory and proapoptotic factors, and strengthening antioxidant defense. Moreover, LG pretreatment prevented NF-kB translocation from the cytoplasm into the nucleus caused by LPS exposure. In human EPCs, LPS increases ROS and upregulates proinflammatory tone, proapoptotic factors, and antioxidants. LG protects EPCs exposed to LPS reducing ROS, downregulating proinflammatory and proapoptotic factors, and strengthening antioxidant defenses possibly by inhibiting NF-κB nuclear translocation.

  3. Lipopolysaccharide-induced Pulpitis Up-regulates TRPV1 in Trigeminal Ganglia

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    Chung, M.-K.; Lee, J.; Duraes, G.; Ro, J.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Tooth pain often accompanies pulpitis. Accumulation of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), a product of Gram-negative bacteria, is associated with painful clinical symptoms. However, the mechanisms underlying LPS-induced tooth pain are not clearly understood. TRPV1 is a capsaicin- and heat-gated nociceptive ion channel implicated in thermosensation and hyperalgesia under inflammation or injury. Although TRPV1 is expressed in pulpal afferents, it is not known whether the application of LPS to teeth modulates TRPV1 in trigeminal nociceptors. By assessing the levels of protein and transcript of TRPV1 in mouse trigeminal ganglia, we demonstrate that dentinal application of LPS increases the expression of TRPV1. Our results suggest that the up-regulation of TRPV1 in trigeminal nociceptors following bacterial infection could contribute to hyperalgesia under pulpitis conditions. PMID:21712529

  4. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide induces osteoclast formation in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, Shamima; Hassan, Ferdaus; Tumurkhuu, Gantsetseg; Dagvadorj, Jargalsaikhan; Koide, Naoki; Naiki, Yoshikazu; Mori, Isamu; Yoshida, Tomoaki; Yokochi, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a potent bone resorbing factor. The effect of LPS on osteoclast formation was examined by using murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. LPS-induced the formation of multinucleated giant cells (MGC) in RAW 264.7 cells 3 days after the exposure. MGCs were positive for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity. Further, MGC formed resorption pits on calcium-phosphate thin film that is a substrate for osteoclasts. Therefore, LPS was suggested to induce osteoclast formation in RAW 264.7 cells. LPS-induced osteoclast formation was abolished by anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α antibody, but not antibodies to macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-κB ligand (RANKL). TNF-α might play a critical role in LPS-induced osteoclast formation in RAW 264.7 cells. Inhibitors of NF-κB and stress activated protein kinase (SAPK/JNK) prevented the LPS-induced osteoclast formation. The detailed mechanism of LPS-induced osteoclast formation is discussed

  5. Effect of methanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus Willd. on lipopolysaccharide induced-oxidative stress in rats.

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    Ahmad, Mohammad Parwez; Hussain, Arshad; Siddiqui, Hefazat Hussain; Wahab, Shadma; Adak, Manoranjan

    2015-03-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced oxidative stress and impairment of normal physiological function generally categorized by increased anxiety and reduced mobility. Therefore, the present study was to find out the effect Methanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus (MEAR ) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced oxidative stress in rats . LPS-induced oxidative stress in rats was measured by locomotor activity by photoactometer test, anxiety with elevated plus maze test and also studied the oxidative stress markers, nitric oxide and cytokines. The obtained data shows that LPS markedly exhausted (pAsparagus racemosus Willd. is a functionally newer type of cerebroprotective agent.

  6. Chondroitin Sulfate-Rich Extract of Skate Cartilage Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Liver Damage in Mice.

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    Song, Yeong Ok; Kim, Mijeong; Woo, Minji; Baek, Jang-Mi; Kang, Keon-Hee; Kim, Sang-Ho; Roh, Seong-Soo; Park, Chan Hum; Jeong, Kap-Seop; Noh, Jeong-Sook

    2017-06-15

    The protective effects of a chondroitin sulfate-rich extract (CSE) from skate cartilage against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hepatic damage were investigated, and its mechanism of action was compared with that of chondroitin sulfate (CS) from shark cartilage. ICR mice were orally administrated 200 mg/kg body weight (BW) of CS or 400 mg/kg BW of CSE for 3 consecutive days, followed by a one-time intraperitoneal injection of LPS (20 mg/kg BW). The experimental groups were vehicle treatment without LPS injection (NC group), vehicle treatment with LPS injection (LPS group), CS pretreatment with LPS injection (CS group), and CSE pretreatment with LPS injection (CSE group). Hepatic antioxidant enzyme expression levels in the CS and CSE groups were increased relative to those in the LPS group. In LPS-insulted hepatic tissue, inflammatory factors were augmented relative to those in the NC group, but were significantly suppressed by pretreatment with CS or CSE. Moreover, CS and CSE alleviated the LPS-induced apoptotic factors and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). In addition, CS and CSE effectively decreased the serum lipid concentrations and downregulated hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding proteins expression. In conclusion, the skate CSE could protect against LPS-induced hepatic dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis, probably through the regulation of MAPK signaling.

  7. Effect of anti-podoplanin antibody administration during lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury in mice.

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    Lax, Sian; Rayes, Julie; Thickett, David R; Watson, Steve P

    2017-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a devastating pulmonary condition in the critically ill patient. A therapeutic intervention is yet to be found that can prevent progression to ARDS. We recently demonstrated that the interaction between podoplanin expressed on inflammatory alveolar macrophages (iAMs) and its endogenous ligand, platelet C-type lectin-like 2 (CLEC-2), protects against exaggerated lung inflammation during a mouse model of ARDS. In this study, we aim to investigate the therapeutic use of a crosslinking/activating anti-podoplanin antibody (α-PDPN, clone 8.1.1) during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung inflammation in mice. Intravenous administration of α-PDPN was performed 6 hours after intratracheal LPS in wildtype, C57Bl/6 mice. Lung function decline was measured by pulse oximetry as well as markers of local inflammation including bronchoalveolar lavage neutrophilia and cytokine/chemokine expression. In parallel, alveolar macrophages were isolated and cultured in vitro from haematopoietic-specific podoplanin-deficient mice (Pdpn fl/fl VAV1cre + ) and floxed-only controls treated with or without LPS in the presence or absence of α-PDPN. Lung function decline as well as alveolar neutrophil recruitment was significantly decreased in mice treated with the crosslinking/activating α-PDPN in vivo. Furthermore, we demonstrate that, in vitro, activation of podoplanin on iAMs regulates their secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. These data confirm the importance of the CLEC-2-podoplanin pathway during intratracheal (IT)-LPS and demonstrate the beneficial effect of targeting podoplanin during IT-LPS in mice possibly via modulation of local cytokine/chemokine expression. Moreover, these data suggest that podoplanin-targeted therapies may have a beneficial effect in patients at risk of developing ARDS.

  8. Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx Flavonoids Fraction Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice

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    Chun-jun Chu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx (Maxim. Hara, belonging to the Labiatae family, is widely used as an anti-inflammatory and antitumor drug for the treatment of different inflammations and cancers. Aim of the Study. To investigate therapeutic effects and possible mechanism of the flavonoids fraction of Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx (Maxim. Hara (RJFs in acute lung injury (ALI mice induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Materials and Methods. Mice were orally administrated with RJFs (6.4, 12.8, and 25.6 mg/kg per day for 7 days, consecutively, before LPS challenge. Lung specimens and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF were isolated for histopathological examinations and biochemical analysis. The level of complement 3 (C3 in serum was quantified by a sandwich ELISA kit. Results. RJFs significantly attenuated LPS-induced ALI via reducing productions of the level of inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β, and significantly reduced complement deposition with decreasing the level of C3 in serum, which was exhibited together with the lowered myeloperoxidase (MPO activity and nitric oxide (NO and protein concentration in BALF. Conclusions. RJFs significantly attenuate LPS-induced ALI via reducing productions of proinflammatory mediators, decreasing the level of complement, and reducing radicals.

  9. Interleukin-10 Protection against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuro-Inflammation and Neurotoxicity in Ventral Mesencephalic Cultures.

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    Zhu, Yan; Chen, Xiao; Liu, Zhan; Peng, Yu-Ping; Qiu, Yi-Hua

    2015-12-28

    Interleukin (IL)-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, is expressed in the brain and can inhibit microglial activation. Herein, we utilized lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory Parkinson's disease (PD) cell model to determine whether microglia and astrocytes are necessary targets for IL-10 neuroprotection. Primary ventral mesencephalic (VM) cultures with different composition of neurons, microglia and astrocytes were prepared. The cells were exposed to IL-10 (15, 50 or 150 ng/mL) 1 h prior to LPS (50 ng/mL) treatment. LPS induced dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic neuronal loss in VM cultures, VM neuron-enriched cultures, and neuron-microglia co-cultures, but not in neuron-astrocyte co-cultures. IL-10 reduced LPS-induced neuronal loss particularly in single VM neuron cultures. Pro-inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2) were upregulated in both neuron-microglia and neuron-astrocyte co-cultures by LPS. In contrast, neurotrophic factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, insulin-like growth factor-1 or glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor) were downregulated in neuron-microglia co-cultures, but upregulated in neuron-astrocyte co-cultures by LPS. IL-10 reduced both the increase in production of the pro-inflammatory mediators and the decrease in production of the neurotrophic factors induced by LPS. These results suggest that astrocytes can balance LPS neurotoxicity by releasing more neurotrophic factors and that IL-10 exerts neuroprotective property by an extensive action including direct on neurons and indirect via inhibiting microglial activation.

  10. Pharmacologic studies on ET-26 hydrochloride in a rat model of lipopolysaccharide-induced sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Jiang, Junli; Yang, Jun; Chen, Jun; Zhu, Zhaoqiong; Liu, Jin; Zhang, Wensheng

    2017-11-15

    ET-26 hydrochloride (ET-26 HCl) is a promising sedation-hypnotic compound with stable hemodynamic features that elicits virtually no adrenocortical suppression. However, whether it preserves better pharmacologic characteristics in a rat model of sepsis is not known. This study compared the survival rate, levels of corticosterone and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and histologic injury in the lungs and kidneys of rats suffering from sepsis treated with ET-26 HCl, etomidate, or normal saline (NS). Rats were given lipopolysaccharide (1mg/kg body weight, i.v.) to establish a sepsis model. Thirty minutes after lipopolysaccharide administration, ET-26 HCl, etomidate or NS were given as a bolus injection at equivalent doses. Plasma levels of corticosterone, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, interleukin-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α were measured 1, 2, 4, 6 and 24h after administration. Histologic injury was observed at the time of death or 24h after drug administration. The survival rate for rats in the etomidate, ET-26 HCl and NS groups was 40%, 90% and 90%, respectively. Corticosterone concentrations in the etomidate group were lower than those in the other groups 1h after administration of hypnotic compounds. Concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the ET-26 HCl group and NS group were not significantly different, but were significantly lower than those in the etomidate group. The injury scores of kidneys and lungs in the etomidate group were higher than those in ET-26 HCl and NS groups. ET-26 HCl showed virtually no suppression of corticosterone synthesis, lower concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines, higher survival rate, and less organ injury in rats suffering from sepsis compared with the etomidate group. It may be safer to induce anesthesia using ET-26 HCl, rather than etomidate, in patients suffering from sepsis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The effects of fisetin on lipopolysaccharide-induced depressive-like behavior in mice.

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    Yu, Xuefeng; Jiang, Xi; Zhang, Xiangming; Chen, Ziwei; Xu, Lexing; Chen, Lei; Wang, Guokang; Pan, Jianchun

    2016-10-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) involves a series of pathological changes including the inflammation and increased cytokine levels. Fisetin, a natural flavonoid, has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant, and also has been shown in our previous studies to exert anti-depressant-like properties. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of fisetin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced depressive-like behavior and inflammation in mice. The results suggested that the immobility time in the forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) were increased at 6 h, 12 h and 24 h after LPS injection (0.83 mg/kg). However, only the group of 24 h treatment did not show any effect on locomotion counts. Pretreatment with fisetin at doses of 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg (p.o.) for 7 days reversed LPS-induced alterations of the immobility time in both of these two tests. Further neurochemical assays suggested that pretreatment with fisetin reversed LPS-induced overexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) in the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Moreover, higher dose of fisetin effectively antagonized iNOS mRNA expression and nitrite levels via the modulation of NF-κB in the hippocampus and PFC. Taken together, fisetin may be an effective therapeutic agent for LPS-induced depressive-like behaviors, which is due to its anti-inflammatory property.

  12. Obeticholic acid protects mice against lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xi; Ren, Yuqian; Cui, Yun; Li, Rui; Wang, Chunxia; Zhang, Yucai

    2017-12-01

    Cholestasis, as a main manifestation, induces liver injury during sepsis. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) plays an important role in regulating bile acid homeostasis. Whether FXR activation by its agonist obeticholic acid (OCA) is contributed to improve sepsis-induced liver injury remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of OCA on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute liver injury in mice. 8-week old male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into control group, LPS group, oral OCA group and LPS plus oral OCA (LPS + OCA) group. The serum and livers were collected for further analysis. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bile acid (TBA) and total bilirubin (TBIL) were measured at indicated time after LPS administration. Liver sections were stained with hematoxylin & eosin (H&E). Orally OCA pretreatment stimulated the expression of FXR and BSEP in livers and protected mice from LPS-induced hepatocyte apoptosis and inflammatory infiltration. Consistently, LPS-induced higher serum levels of ALT, AST, TBA and TBIL were significantly reversed by OCA administration. Meanwhile, the mRNA levels of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and IL-6 were decreased in livers of mice in LPS + OCA group compared with LPS group. Further investigation indicated that the higher expression of ATF4 and LC3II/I were associated with the protective effect of OCA on LPS-induced liver injury. Orally OCA pretreatment protects mice from LPS-induced liver injury possibly contributed by improved bile acid homeostasis, decreased inflammatory factors and ATF4-mediated autophagy activity in hepatocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Fatty Acid Oxidation Compensates for Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Warburg Effect in Glucose-Deprived Monocytes

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    Nora Raulien

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Monocytes enter sites of microbial or sterile inflammation as the first line of defense of the immune system and initiate pro-inflammatory effector mechanisms. We show that activation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS induces them to undergo a metabolic shift toward aerobic glycolysis, similar to the Warburg effect observed in cancer cells. At sites of inflammation, however, glucose concentrations are often drastically decreased, which prompted us to study monocyte function under conditions of glucose deprivation and abrogated Warburg effect. Experiments using the Seahorse Extracellular Flux Analyzer revealed that limited glucose supply shifts monocyte metabolism toward oxidative phosphorylation, fueled largely by fatty acid oxidation at the expense of lipid droplets. While this metabolic state appears to provide sufficient energy to sustain functional properties like cytokine secretion, migration, and phagocytosis, it cannot prevent a rise in the AMP/ATP ratio and a decreased respiratory burst. The molecular trigger mediating the metabolic shift and the functional consequences is activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK. Taken together, our results indicate that monocytes are sufficiently metabolically flexible to perform pro-inflammatory functions at sites of inflammation despite glucose deprivation and inhibition of the LPS-induced Warburg effect. AMPK seems to play a pivotal role in orchestrating these processes during glucose deprivation in monocytes.

  14. Dietary Supplementation with Lactobacillus casei Alleviates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Liver Injury in a Porcine Model

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    Di Zhao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine whether Lactobacillus casei (L. casei could relieve liver injury in piglets challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Piglets were randomly allocated into one of the three groups: control, LPS, and L. casei. The control and LPS groups were fed a corn- and soybean meal-based diet, whereas the L. casei group was fed the basal diet supplemented with 6 × 106 cfu/g L. casei. On Day 31 of the trial, piglets in the LPS and L. casei groups received intraperitoneal administration of LPS (100 µg/kg body weight, while the control group received the same volume of saline. Blood and liver samples were collected for analysis. Results showed that L. casei supplementation decreased the feed/gain ratio (p = 0.027 and diarrhea incidence (p < 0.001, and attenuated LPS-induced liver histomorphological abnormalities. Compared with the control group, LPS challenge dramatically increased glutamyl transpeptidase activity (p = 0.001 in plasma as well as the concentrations of Interleukin 6 (IL-6 (p = 0.048, Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α (p = 0.041, and Malondialdehyde (MDA (p = 0.001 in the liver, while decreasing the hepatic SOD activity. LPS also increased (p < 0.05 the mRNA levels for IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, Toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4, Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB and Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70 in the liver. The adverse effects of LPS challenge were ameliorated by L. casei supplementation. In conclusion, dietary L. casei alleviates LPS-induced liver injury via reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines and increasing anti-oxidative capacity.

  15. Cardiac-specific overexpression of catalase attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced myocardial contractile dysfunction: role of autophagy.

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    Turdi, Subat; Han, Xuefeng; Huff, Anna F; Roe, Nathan D; Hu, Nan; Gao, Feng; Ren, Jun

    2012-09-15

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from gram-negative bacteria is a major initiator of sepsis, leading to cardiovascular collapse. Accumulating evidence has indicated a role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cardiovascular complications in sepsis. This study was designed to examine the effect of cardiac-specific overexpression of catalase in LPS-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction and the underlying mechanism(s) with a focus on autophagy. Catalase transgenic and wild-type FVB mice were challenged with LPS (6 mg/kg) and cardiac function was evaluated. Levels of oxidative stress, autophagy, apoptosis, and protein damage were examined using fluorescence microscopy, Western blot, TUNEL assay, caspase-3 activity, and carbonyl formation. A Kaplan-Meier curve was constructed for survival after LPS treatment. Our results revealed a lower mortality in catalase mice compared with FVB mice after LPS challenge. LPS injection led to depressed cardiac contractile capacity as evidenced by echocardiography and cardiomyocyte contractile function, the effect of which was ablated by catalase overexpression. LPS treatment induced elevated TNF-α level, autophagy, apoptosis (TUNEL, caspase-3 activation, cleaved caspase-3), production of ROS and O(2)(-), and protein carbonyl formation, the effects of which were significantly attenuated by catalase overexpression. Electron microscopy revealed focal myocardial damage characterized by mitochondrial injury after LPS treatment, which was less severe in catalase mice. Interestingly, LPS-induced cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction was prevented by the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine and the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine. Taken together, our data revealed that catalase protects against LPS-induced cardiac dysfunction and mortality, which may be associated with inhibition of oxidative stress and autophagy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cardiac-Specific Overexpression of Catalase Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Myocardial Contractile Dysfunction: Role of Autophagy

    OpenAIRE

    Turdi, Subat; Han, Xuefeng; Huff, Anna F.; Roe, Nathan D.; Hu, Nan; Gao, Feng; Ren, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria is a major initiator of sepsis, leading to cardiovascular collapse. Accumulating evidence has indicated a role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cardiovascular complication in sepsis. This study was designed to examine the effect of cardiac-specific overexpression of catalase in LPS-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction and the underlying mechanism(s) with a focus on autophagy. Catalase transgenic and wild-type FVB mice were challenged ...

  17. Improved Hepatoprotective Effect of Liposome-Encapsulated Astaxanthin in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Hepatotoxicity

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    Chun-Hung Chiu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced acute hepatotoxicity is significantly associated with oxidative stress. Astaxanthin (AST, a xanthophyll carotenoid, is well known for its potent antioxidant capacity. However, its drawbacks of poor aqueous solubility and low bioavailability have limited its utility. Liposome encapsulation is considered as an effective alternative use for the improvement of bioavailability of the hydrophobic compound. We hypothesized that AST encapsulated within liposomes (LA apparently shows improved stability and transportability compared to that of free AST. To investigate whether LA administration can efficiently prevent the LPS-induced acute hepatotoxicity, male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = six per group were orally administered liposome-encapsulated AST at 2, 5 or 10 mg/kg-day (LA-2, LA-5, and LA-10 for seven days and then were LPS-challenged (i.p., 5 mg/kg. The LA-10 administered group, but not the other groups, exhibited a significant amelioration of serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, creatinine (CRE, hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, IL-6, and hepatic nuclear NF-κB and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, suggesting that LA at a 10 mg/kg-day dosage renders hepatoprotective effects. Moreover, the protective effects were even superior to that of positive control N-acetylcysteine (NAC, 200 mg/kg-day. Histopathologically, NAC, free AST, LA-2 and LA-5 partially, but LA-10 completely, alleviated the acute inflammatory status. These results indicate that hydrophobic AST after being properly encapsulated by liposomes improves bioavailability and can also function as potential drug delivery system in treating hepatotoxicity.

  18. Protective effects of kaempferol on lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Rongfeng; Fu, Kaiqiang; Lv, Xiaopei; Li, Weishi; Zhang, Naisheng

    2014-10-01

    Kaempferol isolated from the root of Zingiberaceae plants galangal and other Chinese herbal medicines have been reported to have anti-inflammatory properties. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of kaempferol on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis are unknown and their underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be explored. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of kaempferol on LPS-induced mouse mastitis. The mouse model of mastitis was induced by injection of LPS through the duct of mammary gland. Kaempferol was injected 1 h before and 12 h after induction of LPS intraperitoneally. The present results showed that kaempferol markedly reduced infiltration of neutrophilic granulocyte, activation of myeloperoxidase (MPO), expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in a dose-dependent manner, which were increased in LPS-induced mouse mastitis. Furthermore, kaempferol suppressed the phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 subunit and the degradation of its inhibitor IκBα. All results suggest that anti-inflammatory effects of kaempferol against the LPS-induced mastitis possibly through inhibition of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Kaempferol may be a potential therapeutic agent for mastitis.

  19. Magnesium Isoglycyrrhizinate attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced depressive-like behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenjiao; Chen, Qianying; Li, Peijin; Lu, Qianfeng; Pei, Xue; Sun, Yilin; Wang, Guangji; Hao, Kun

    2017-02-01

    Magnesium Isoglycyrrhizinate (MI) is a magnesium salt of 18α-GA stereoisomer which has been reported to exert hepatoprotective activity. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the underlying mechanisms behind the action of Magnesium Isoglycyrrhizinate on neuroinflammatation and oxidative stress in LPS-stimulated mice. Mice were pretreated with Magnesium Isoglycyrrhizinate (MI, 25, 50mg/kg) as well as fluoxetine (Flu, positive control, 20mg/kg) once daily for one week before intraperitoneal injection of LPS (0.83mg/kg). Pretreatments with MI and Flu significantly improved immobility time in tail suspension test (TST) and forced swim test (FST) as well as locomotor activity in open-field test (OFT). In addition, the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress in serum and hippocampus were also suppressed effectively by MI and Flu administrations. Western blot analysis showed the up-regulated levels of p-Jak3, p-STAT3, p-NF-κBp65, and p-IκBα in mice exposed to LPS, while different degrees of down-regulation in these expression were observed in MI (25, 50mg/kg) and Flu (20mg/kg) groups respectively. Taken together, our obtained results demonstrated that Magnesium Isoglycyrrhizinate (MI) exhibited an antidepressant-like effect in LPS-induced mice, which might be mediated by JAK/STAT/NF-κB signaling pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Beneficial effect of honokiol on lipopolysaccharide induced anxiety-like behavior and liver damage in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulakhiya, Kunjbihari; Kumar, Parveen; Gurjar, Satendra S; Barua, Chandana C; Hazarika, Naba K

    2015-02-26

    Anxiety disorders are commonly occurring co-morbid neuropsychiatric disorders with chronic inflammatory conditions such as live damage. Numerous studies revealed that peripheral inflammation, oxidative stress and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) play important roles in the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders. Honokiol (HNK) is a polyphenol, possessing multiple biological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytic, antidepressant and hepatoprotection. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of HNK, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced anxiety-like behavior and liver damage in mice. Mice (n=6-10/group) were pre-treated with different doses of HNK (2.5 and 5mg/kg; i.p.) for two days, and challenged with saline or LPS (0.83mg/kg; i.p.) on third day. Anxiety-like behavior was monitored using elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field test (OFT). Animals were sacrificed to evaluate various biochemical parameters in plasma and liver. HNK pre-treatment provided significant (P<0.01) protection against LPS-induced reduction in body weight, food and water intake in mice. HNK at higher dose significantly (P<0.05) attenuated LPS-induced anxiety-like behavior by increasing the number of entries and time spent in open arm in EPM test, and by increasing the frequency in central zone in OFT. HNK pre-treatment ameliorated LPS-induced peripheral inflammation by reducing plasma IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α level, and also improved the plasma BDNF level, prevented liver damage via attenuating transaminases (AST, ALT), liver oxidative stress and TNF-α activity in LPS challenged mice. In conclusion, the current investigation suggests that HNK provided beneficial effect against LPS-induced anxiety-like behavior and liver damage which may be governed by inhibition of cytokines production, oxidative stress and depletion of plasma BDNF level. Our result suggests that HNK could be a therapeutic approach for the treatment of anxiety and other neuropsychiatric disorders associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Lipopolysaccharide-induced metabolome signature in Arabidopsis thaliana reveals dynamic reprogramming of Phytoalexin and Phytoanticipin pathways

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Finnegan, T

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available tentatively identified. These include the phytohormones salicylic acid and jasmonic acid, and also the associated methyl esters and sugar conjugates. The induced defensive state resulted in increases in indoleÐand other glucosinolates, indole derivatives...

  2. Valproic acid potentiates curcumin-mediated neuroprotection in Lipopolysaccharide induced rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira eZaky

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of neuroinflammation is complex and comprises multifactorial, involving both genetic and environmental factors during which diverse genetic and epigenetic modulations are implicated. Curcumin (Cur, and valproic acid (VPA, histone deacetylase 1 inhibitor, have neuroprotective effects. The present study was designed with an aim to investigate the ability of co-treatment of both compounds (Cur or VPA (200mg/kg for four weeks to augment neuroprotection and enhance brain recovery from intra-peritoneal (IP injection of (250 µg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated neuroinflammatory condition on rat brain cortex. Cortex activation and the effects of combined treatment and production of proinflammatory mediators, COX-2, APE1 and nitric oxide/iNOS were investigated. Neuroinflammation development was assessed by histological analyses and by investigating associated indices (BACE1, APP, PSEN-1 and PSEN-2. Furthermore we measured the expression profile of let-7 miRNAs members a, b, c, e and f in all groups, a highly abundant regulator of gene expression in the CNS. Protein and mRNA levels of neuroinflammation markers COX-2, BACE1, APP and iNOS were also attenuated by combined therapy. On the other hand, assessment of the indicated five let-7 members, showed distinct expression profile pattern in the different groups. Let-7 a, b and c disappeared in the induced group, an effect that was partially suppressed by co-addition of either Cur or VPA. These data suggest that the combined treatment induced significantly the expression of the five members when compared to rats treated with Cur or VPA only as well as to self-recovery group, which indicates a possible benefit from the synergistic effect of Cur-VPA combination as therapeutic agents for neuroinflammation and its associated disorders. The mechanism elucidated here highlights the particular drug-induced expression profile of let-7 family as new targets for future pharmacological development.

  3. Enriched dairy fat matrix diet prevents early life lipopolysaccharide-induced spatial memory impairment at adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinel, A L; Rey, C; Baudry, C; Fressange-Mazda, C; Le Ruyet, P; Nadjar, A; Pallet, P; Joffre, C; Layé, S

    2016-10-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential fatty acids, which are critical for brain development and later life cognitive functions. The main brain PUFAs are docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for the n-3 family and arachidonic acid (ARA) for the n-6 family, which are provided to the post-natal brain by breast milk or infant formula. Recently, the use of dairy lipids (DL) in replacement of vegetable lipids (VL) was revealed to potently promote the accretion of DHA in the developing brain. Brain DHA, in addition to be a key component of brain development, display potent anti-inflammatory activities, which protect the brain from adverse inflammatory events. In this work, we evaluated the protective effect of partial replacement of VL by DL, supplemented or not with DHA and ARA, on post-natal inflammation and its consequence on memory. Mice were fed with diets poor in vegetal n-3 PUFA (Def VL), balanced in vegetal n-3/n-6 PUFA (Bal VL), balanced in dairy lipids (Bal DL) or enriched in DHA and ARA (Supp VL; Supp DL) from the first day of gestation until adulthood. At post-natal day 14 (PND14), pups received a single administration of the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and brain cytokine expression, microglia phenotype and neurogenesis were measured. In a second set of experiments, memory and neurogenesis were measured at adulthood. Overall, our data showed that lipid quality of the diet modulates early life LPS effect on microglia phenotype, brain cytokine expression and neurogenesis at PND14 and memory at adulthood. In particular, Bal DL diet protects from the adverse effect of early life LPS exposure on PND14 neurogenesis and adult spatial memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cardiac-Specific Overexpression of Catalase Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Myocardial Contractile Dysfunction: Role of Autophagy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turdi, Subat; Han, Xuefeng; Huff, Anna F.; Roe, Nathan D.; Hu, Nan; Gao, Feng; Ren, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria is a major initiator of sepsis, leading to cardiovascular collapse. Accumulating evidence has indicated a role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cardiovascular complication in sepsis. This study was designed to examine the effect of cardiac-specific overexpression of catalase in LPS-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction and the underlying mechanism(s) with a focus on autophagy. Catalase transgenic and wild-type FVB mice were challenged with LPS (6 mg/kg) and cardiac function was evaluated. Levels of oxidative stress, autophagy, apoptosis and protein damage were examined using fluorescence microscopy, Western blot, TUNEL assay, caspase-3 activity and carbonyl formation. Kaplan-Meier curve was constructed for survival following LPS treatment. Our results revealed a lower mortality in catalase mice compared with FVB mice following LPS challenge. LPS injection led to depressed cardiac contractile capacity as evidenced by echocardiography and cardiomyocyte contractile function, the effect of which was ablated by catalase overexpression. LPS treatment induced elevated TNF-α level, autophagy, apoptosis (TUNEL, caspase-3 activation, cleaved caspase-3), production of ROS and O2−, and protein carbonyl formation, the effects of which were significantly attenuated by catalase overexpression. Electron microscopy revealed focal myocardial damage characterized by mitochondrial injury following LPS treatment, which was less severe in catalase mice. Interestingly, LPS-induced cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction was prevented by antioxidant NAC and the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine. Taken together, our data revealed that catalase protects against LPS-induced cardiac dysfunction and mortality, which may be associated with inhibition of oxidative stress and autophagy. PMID:22902401

  5. Saccharomyces boulardii inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of human dendritic cells and T cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S; Przesdzing, I; Metzke, D; Schmitz, J; Radbruch, A; Baumgart, D C

    2009-01-01

    Saccharomyces boulardii (Sb) is a probiotic yeast preparation that has demonstrated efficacy in inflammatory and infectious disorders of the gastrointestinal tract in controlled clinical trials. Although patients clearly benefit from treatment with Sb, little is known on how Sb unfolds its anti-inflammatory properties in humans. Dendritic cells (DC) balance tolerance and immunity and are involved critically in the control of T cell activation. Thus, they are believed to have a pivotal role in the initiation and perpetuation of chronic inflammatory disorders, not only in the gut. We therefore decided to investigate if Sb modulates DC function. Culture of primary (native, non-monocyte-derived) human myeloid CD1c+CD11c+CD123– DC (mDC) in the presence of Sb culture supernatant (active component molecular weight < 3 kDa, as evaluated by membrane partition chromatography) reduced significantly expression of the co-stimulatory molecules CD40 and CD80 (P < 0·01) and the DC mobilization marker CC-chemokine receptor CCR7 (CD197) (P < 0·001) induced by the prototypical microbial antigen lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Moreover, secretion of key proinflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin (IL)-6 were notably reduced, while the secretion of anti-inflammatory IL-10 increased. Finally, Sb supernatant inhibited the proliferation of naive T cells in a mixed lymphocyte reaction with mDC. In summary, our data suggest that Sb may exhibit part of its anti-inflammatory potential through modulation of DC phenotype, function and migration by inhibition of their immune response to bacterial microbial surrogate antigens such as LPS. PMID:19161443

  6. Atomic force microscopy observation of lipopolysaccharide-induced cardiomyocyte cytoskeleton reorganization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liqun; Chen, Tangting; Zhou, Xiang; Huang, Qiaobing; Jin, Chunhua

    2013-08-01

    We applied atomic force microscopy (AFM) to observe lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intracellular cytoskeleton reorganization in primary cardiomyocytes from neonatal mouse. The nonionic detergent Triton X-100 was used to remove the membrane, soluble proteins, and organelles from the cell. The remaining cytoskeleton can then be directly visualized by AFM. Using three-dimensional technique of AFM, we were able to quantify the changes of cytoskeleton by the "density" and total "volume" of the cytoskeleton fibers. Compared to the control group, the density of cytoskeleton was remarkably decreased and the volume of cytoskeleton was significantly increased after LPS treatment, which suggests that LPS may induce the cytoskeleton reorganization and change the cardiomyocyte morphology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Alpha-lipoic acid protects mitochondrial enzymes and attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced hypothermia in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: Hypothermia is a key symptom of sepsis and the mechanism(s) leading to hypothermia during sepsis is largely unknown. To investigate a potential mechanism and find an effective treatment for hypothermia in sepsis, we induced hypothermia in mice by lipopolysaccharide (LP...

  8. Effects of propofol on lipopolysaccharide-induced expression and release of HMGB1 in macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, T.; Wei, X.Y.; Liu, B.; Wang, L.J.; Jiang, L.H. [Department of Anesthesiology, the Third Affiliated Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China)

    2015-02-24

    This study aimed to determine the effects of different concentrations of propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression and release of high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) in mouse macrophages. Mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 cells were randomly divided into 5 treatment groups. Expression levels of HMGB1 mRNA were detected using RT-PCR, and cell culture supernatant HMGB1 protein levels were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Translocation of HMGB1 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in macrophages was observed by Western blotting and activity of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) in the nucleus was detected using ELISA. HMGB1 mRNA expression levels increased significantly in the cell culture supernatant and in cells after 24 h of stimulating RAW264.7 cells with LPS (500 ng/mL). However, HMGB1 mRNA expression levels in the P2 and P3 groups, which received 500 ng/mL LPS with 25 or 50 μmol/mL propofol, respectively, were significantly lower than those in the group receiving LPS stimulation (P<0.05). After stimulation by LPS, HMGB1 protein levels were reduced significantly in the nucleus but were increased in the cytoplasm (P<0.05). Simultaneously, the activity of NF-κB was enhanced significantly (P<0.05). After propofol intervention, HMGB1 translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and NF-κB activity were inhibited significantly (each P<0.05). Thus, propofol can inhibit the LPS-induced expression and release of HMGB1 by inhibiting HMGB1 translocation and NF-κB activity in RAW264.7 cells, suggesting propofol may be protective in patients with sepsis.

  9. RGD-tagged helical rosette nanotubes aggravate acute lipopolysaccharide-induced lung inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suri SS

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sarabjeet Singh Suri1, Steven Mills1, Gurpreet Kaur Aulakh1, Felaniaina Rakotondradany2, Hicham Fenniri2, Baljit Singh11Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon; 2National Institute for Nanotechnology and Department of Chemistry, Edmonton, CanadaAbstract: Rosette nanotubes (RNT are a novel class of self-assembled biocompatible nanotubes that offer a built-in strategy for engineering structure and function through covalent tagging of synthetic self-assembling modules (G∧C motif. In this report, the G∧C motif was tagged with peptide Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser-Lys (RGDSK-G∧C and amino acid Lys (K-G∧C which, upon co-assembly, generate RNTs featuring RGDSK and K on their surface in predefined molar ratios. These hybrid RNTs, referred to as Kx/RGDSKy-RNT, where x and y refer to the molar ratios of K-G∧C and RGDSK–G∧C, were designed to target neutrophil integrins. A mouse model was used to investigate the effects of intravenous Kx/RGDSKy-RNT on acute lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced lung inflammation. Healthy male C57BL/6 mice were treated intranasally with Escherichia coli LPS 80 µg and/or intravenously with K90/RGDSK10-RNT. Here we provide the first evidence that intravenous administration of K90/RGDSK10-RNT aggravates the proinflammatory effect of LPS in the mouse. LPS and K90/RGDSK10-RNT treatment groups showed significantly increased infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid at all time points compared with the saline control. The combined effect of LPS and K90/RGDSK10-RNT was more pronounced than LPS alone, as shown by a significant increase in the expression of interleukin-1ß, MCP-1, MIP-1, and KC-1 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and myeloperoxidase activity in the lung tissues. We conclude that K90/RGDSK10-RNT promotes acute lung inflammation, and when used along with LPS, leads to exaggerated immune response in the lung.Keywords: RGD peptide, helical rosette nanotubes, neutrophils, macrophages, chemokines, inflammation

  10. Possible Mechanisms Involved in Attenuation of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Memory Deficits by Methyl Jasmonate in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eduviere, Anthony Taghogho; Umukoro, Solomon; Adeoluwa, Olusegun A; Omogbiya, Itivere Adrian; Aluko, Oritoke Modupe

    2016-12-01

    This present study was carried out to investigate the likely mechanisms by which methyl jasmonate (MJ), 'an agent widely used in aromatherapy for neurological disorders, attenuates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced memory deficits in mice. Mice were given intraperitoneal administration of LPS (250 µg/kg) alone or in combination with MJ (10-40 mg/kg), donepezil, DP (1 mg/kg), or vehicle for 7 successive days. Thereafter, memory was assessed using object recognition test (ORT). Acetylcholinesterase and myeloperoxidase activities were estimated in brain tissue homogenates. Brain levels of nitric oxide and markers of oxidative stress as well as histopathologic changes of the prefrontal cortex and cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) of the hippocampal region were also assessed. MJ (10-40 mg/kg) attenuated LPS-induced memory impairment in ORT. Moreover, the increased brain activities of acetylcholinesterase and myeloperoxidase enzymes were suppressed by MJ when compared with control (p memory deficits via mechanisms related to inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, myeloperoxidase, oxidative stress and neuronal degeneration.

  11. Methyl jasmonate attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced depressive-like behaviour in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebesin, Adaeze; Adeoluwa, Olusegun A; Eduviere, Anthony T; Umukoro, Solomon

    2017-11-01

    Depression is a recurrent neuropsychiatric disorder that affects millions of individuals worldwide and impact negatively on the patients' social functions and quality of life. Studies have shown that i.p injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces depressive-like behavior in rodents via induction of oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Methyl jasmonate (MJ), an isolated compound from jasmine plant has gained reputation in aromatherapy for treatment of depression, nervousness and memory deficits. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of MJ on LPS-induced depressive-like behavior in mice. Mice were given MJ (5-20 mg/kg), imipramine (10 mg/kg) or vehicle (10 mL/kg) intraperitoneally for 7 consecutive days. On day 7, treatment was carried out 30 min prior to i.p injection of LPS (830 μg/kg). Twenty four hours after LPS administration, tail suspension, forced swim and sucrose preference tests were carried out. Thereafter, serum corticosterone levels were determined using ELISA. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were determined in brain tissue homogenates. LPS significantly increased immobility time in the tail suspension and forced swim tests when compared with vehicle (p < 0.05), which indicates depressive-like syndromes. However, the increased immobility time was significantly reduced by MJ (5-20 mg/kg) when compared with LPS-treated group. LPS administration also altered the levels of MDA, GSH, corticosterone and TNF alpha in mice, which was significantly reversed by MJ. These findings suggest that attenuation of LPS-induced depressive-like behavior by MJ may be related to suppression of oxidative stress and release of TNF alpha. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Lipopolysaccharide-induced neuronal activation in the paraventricular and dorsomedial hypothalamus depends on ambient temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel P Wanner

    Full Text Available Systemic inflammatory response syndrome is associated with either fever or hypothermia, but the mechanisms responsible for switching from one to the other are unknown. In experimental animals, systemic inflammation is often induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS. To identify the diencephalic and brainstem structures involved in the fever-hypothermia switch, we studied the expression of c-Fos protein, a marker of neuronal activation, in rats treated with the same high dose of LPS (0.5 mg/kg, intravenously either in a thermoneutral (30 °C or cool (24 °C environment. At 30 °C, LPS caused fever; at 24 °C, the same dose caused profound hypothermia. Both fever and hypothermia were associated with the induction of c-Fos in many brain areas, including several structures of the anterior preoptic, paraventricular, lateral, and dorsal hypothalamus, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the posterior pretectal nucleus, ventrolateral periaqueductal gray, lateral parabrachial nucleus, area postrema, and nucleus of the solitary tract. Every brain area studied showed a comparable response to LPS at the two different ambient temperatures used, with the exception of two areas: the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH, which we studied together with the adjacent dorsal hypothalamic area (DA, and the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVH. Both structures had much stronger c-Fos expression during LPS hypothermia than during fever. We propose that PVH and DMH/DA neurons are involved in a circuit, which - depending on the ambient temperature - determines whether the thermoregulatory response to bacterial LPS will be fever or hypothermia.

  13. Potential role of an antimicrobial peptide, KLK in inhibiting lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophage inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornpimon Jantaruk

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are attractive alternatives to antibiotics. Due to their immune modulatory properties, AMPs are at present emerging as promising agents for controlling inflammatory-mediated diseases. In this study, anti-inflammatory potential of an antimicrobial peptide, KLK (KLKLLLLLKLK and its analogs was evaluated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. The results herein demonstrated that KLK peptide as well as its analogs significantly inhibited the pro-inflammatory mediator nitric oxide (NO, interleukin-1β (IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages in dose-dependent manners, and such inhibitory effects were not due to direct cytotoxicity. When considering inhibition potency, KLK among the test peptides exhibited the most effective activity. The inhibitory activity of KLK peptide also extended to include suppression of LPS-induced production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2. KLK significantly decreased mRNA and protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 as well as mRNA expression of IL-1β and TNF-α. Moreover, KLK inhibited nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB p65 and blocked degradation and phosphorylation of inhibitor of κB (IκB. Taken together, these results suggested that the KLK peptide inhibited inflammatory response through the down-regulation of NF-κB mediated activation in macrophages. Since peptide analogs with different amino acid sequences and arrangement were investigated for their anti-inflammatory activities, the residues/structures required for activity were also discussed. Our findings therefore proved anti-inflammatory potential of the KLK peptide and provide direct evidence for therapeutic application of KLK as a novel anti-inflammatory agent.

  14. Peripheral and central mediators of lipopolysaccharide induced suppression of defensive rage behavior in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, S; Bhatt, R S; Zalcman, S S; Siegel, A

    2009-11-10

    Based upon recent findings in our laboratory that cytokines microinjected into the medial hypothalamus or periaqueductal gray (PAG) powerfully modulate defensive rage behavior in cat, the present study determined the effects of peripherally released cytokines following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge upon defensive rage. The study involved initial identification of the effects of peripheral administration of LPS upon defensive rage by electrical stimulation from PAG and subsequent determination of the peripheral and central mechanisms governing this process. The results revealed significant elevation in response latencies for defensive rage from 60 to 300 min, post LPS injection, with no detectable signs of sickness behavior present at 60 min. In contrast, head turning behavior elicited by stimulation of adjoining midbrain sites was not affected by LPS administration, suggesting a specificity of the effects of LPS upon defensive rage. Direct administration of LPS into the medial hypothalamus had no effect on defensive rage, suggesting that the effects of LPS were mediated by peripheral cytokines rather than by any direct actions upon hypothalamic neurons. Complete blockade of the suppressive effects of LPS by peripheral pretreatment with an Anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) antibody but not with an anti- interleukin-1 (IL-1) antibody demonstrated that the effects of LPS were mediated through TNF-alpha rather than through an IL-1 mechanism. A determination of the central mechanisms governing LPS suppression revealed that pretreatment of the medial hypothalamus with PGE(2) or 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonists each completely blocked the suppressive effects of LPS, while microinjections of a TNF-alpha antibody into the medial hypothalamus were ineffective. Microinjections of -Iodo-N-[2-[4-(methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-N-(2-pyridinyl) benzamide monohydrochloride (p-MPPI) into lateral hypothalamus (to test for anatomical specificity) had no effect upon LPS induced suppression of defensive rage. The results demonstrate that LPS suppresses defensive rage by acting through peripheral TNF-alpha in periphery and that central effects of LPS suppression of defensive rage are mediated through PGE(2) and 5-HT(1A) receptors in the medial hypothalamus.

  15. Deer Bone Oil Extract Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Responses in RAW264.7 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyeon-Son; Im, Suji; Park, Yooheon; Hong, Ki-Bae; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of deer bone oil extract (DBOE) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in RAW264.7 cells. DBOE was fractionated by liquid-liquid extraction to obtain two fractions: methanol fraction (DBO-M) and hexane fraction (DBO-H). TLC showed that DBO-M had relatively more hydrophilic lipid complexes, including unsaturated fatty acids, than DBOE and DBO-H. The relative compositions of tetradecenoyl carnitine, α-linoleic acid, and palmitoleic acid increased in the DBO-M fraction by 61, 38, and 32%, respectively, compared with DBOE. The concentration of sugar moieties was 3-fold higher in the DBO-M fraction than DBOE and DBO-H. DBO-M significantly decreased LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. This DBO-M-mediated decrease in NO production was due to downregulation of mRNA and protein levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In addition, mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as cyclooxygenase (COX-2), interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-12β, was suppressed by DBO-M. Our data showed that DBO-M, which has relatively higher sugar content than DBOE and DBO-H, could play an important role in suppressing inflammatory responses by controlling pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators.

  16. Lipopolysaccharide induces a downregulation of adiponectin receptors in-vitro and in-vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Hall

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adipose tissue contributes to the inflammatory response through production of cytokines, recruitment of macrophages and modulation of the adiponectin system. Previous studies have identified a down-regulation of adiponectin in pathologies characterised by acute (sepsis and endotoxaemia and chronic inflammation (obesity and type-II diabetes mellitus. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that LPS would reduce adiponectin receptor expression in a murine model of endotoxaemia and in adipoocyte and myocyte cell cultures.Methods. 25 mg/kg LPS was injected intra-peritoneally into C57BL/6J mice, equivalent volumes of normal saline were used in control animals. Mice were killed at 4 or 24 h post injection and tissues harvested. Murine adipocytes (3T3-L1 and myocytes (C2C12 were grown in standard culture, treated with LPS (0.1 µg/ml–10 µg/ml and harvested at 4 and 24 h. RNA was extracted and qPCR was conducted according to standard protocols and relative expression was calculated.Results. After LPS treatment there was a significant reduction after 4 h in gene expression of adipo R1 in muscle and peri-renal fat and of adipo R2 in liver, peri-renal fat and abdominal wall subcutaneous fat. After 24 h, significant reductions were limited to muscle. Cell culture extracts showed varied changes with reduction in adiponectin and adipo R2 gene expression only in adipocytes.Conclusions. LPS reduced adiponectin receptor gene expression in several tissues including adipocytes. This reflects a down-regulation of this anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitising pathway in response to LPS. The trend towards base line after 24 h in tissue depots may reflect counter-regulatory mechanisms. Adiponectin receptor regulation differs in the tissues investigated.

  17. Computational Topology Based Quantification Of Hepatocytes Nuclei In Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Liver Injury In Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Rojas Moraleda

    2016-06-01

    The computational topology approach proposed successfully detected hepatocyte cells under several natural variations. We evaluated on a per-pixel basis how the segmentation performs on: i all nuclei in the images, ii big round nuclei considered belonging to hepatocytes cells (accuracy 87.2%, recall 80.3%, and iii nuclei regarded to non-parenchymal cells.  

  18. Differential Involvement of the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Plasma Glucose and Corticosterone Responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalsbeek, Andries; Liu, Ji; Lei, Jun; Timmermans, Loes; Foppen, Ewout; Cailotto, Cathy; Fliers, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is an essential component of the circadian timing system, and an important determinant of neuroendocrine and metabolic regulation. Recent data indicate a modulatory role for the immune system on the circadian timing system. The authors investigated how

  19. Effects of lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation on expression of growth-associated genes by corticospinal neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieberman AR

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation around cell bodies of primary sensory neurons and retinal ganglion cells enhances expression of neuronal growth-associated genes and stimulates axonal regeneration. We have asked if inflammation would have similar effects on corticospinal neurons, which normally show little response to spinal cord injury. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS was applied onto the pial surface of the motor cortex of adult rats with or without concomitant injury of the corticospinal tract at C4. Inflammation around corticospinal tract cell bodies in the motor cortex was assessed by immunohistochemistry for OX42 (a microglia and macrophage marker. Expression of growth-associated genes c-jun, ATF3, SCG10 and GAP-43 was investigated by immunohistochemistry or in situ hybridisation. Results Application of LPS induced a gradient of inflammation through the full depth of the motor cortex and promoted c-Jun and SCG10 expression for up to 2 weeks, and GAP-43 upregulation for 3 days by many corticospinal neurons, but had very limited effects on neuronal ATF3 expression. However, many glial cells in the subcortical white matter upregulated ATF3. LPS did not promote sprouting of anterogradely labelled corticospinal axons, which did not grow into or beyond a cervical lesion site. Conclusion Inflammation produced by topical application of LPS promoted increased expression of some growth-associated genes in the cell bodies of corticospinal neurons, but was insufficient to promote regeneration of the corticospinal tract.

  20. Bursopentin (BP5 protects dendritic cells from lipopolysaccharide-induced oxidative stress for immunosuppression.

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    Tao Qin

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs play a vital role in the regulation of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. Thus, DCs have been regarded as a major target for the development of immunomodulators. However, oxidative stress could disturb inflammatory regulation in DCs. Here, we examined the effect of bursopentine (BP5, a novel pentapeptide isolated from chicken bursa of fabricius, on the protection of DCs against oxidative stress for immunosuppression. BP5 showed potent protective effects against the lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced oxidative stress in DCs, including nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, BP5 elevated the level of cellular reductive status through increasing the reduced glutathione (GSH and the GSH/GSSG ratio. Concomitant with these, the activities of several antioxidative redox enzymes, including glutathione peroxidase (GPx, catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD, were obviously enhanced. BP5 also suppressed submucosal DC maturation in the LPS-stimulated intestinal epithelial cells (ECs/DCs coculture system. Finally, we found that heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1 was remarkably upregulated by BP5 in the LPS-induced DCs, and played an important role in the suppression of oxidative stress and DC maturation. These results suggested that BP5 could protect the LPS-activated DCs against oxidative stress and have potential applications in DC-related inflammatory responses.

  1. Lignans From Forsythia x Intermedia Leaves and Flowers Attenuate the Pro-inflammatory Function of Leukocytes and Their Interaction With Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Barbara; Filipek, Agnieszka; Chomicki, Piotr; Pyza, Małgorzata; Woźniak, Marta; Żyżyńska-Granica, Barbara; Piwowarski, Jakub P.; Kicel, Agnieszka; Olszewska, Monika A.; Kiss, Anna K.

    2018-01-01

    Aim of the study: Taking into account that overactivated leukocytes are an important factor in the development of many chronic diseases, we investigated the activity of phytochemically characterized (HPLC-DAD-MSn) extracts from forsythia leaves and flowers on the pro- and anti-inflammatory functions of leukocytes (effects on IL-1β, IL-8, TNF-α, and TGFβ release) and their adherence to endothelial cells. Using bio-guided fractionation, we isolated the active compounds and determined their biological activity, and we included the positive control quercetin. Methods: The effect on IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-8, and TGF-α production by leukocytes was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The surface expression of adhesion molecules was analyzed with flow cytometry, and the neutrophil attachment to the endothelial cells was assessed fluorimetrically. The effects on p38MAPK, ERK1/2 and JNK phosphorylation were determined using western blots. Results: Leaf extracts had the effect of decreasing TNF-α production in neutrophils and monocyte/macrophage cells. The bio-guided fractionation led to the isolation of the following lignan aglycones: (+)-pinoresinol, (+)-epipinoresinol, (−)-matairesinol, (+)-phillygenin, and (−)-arctigenin. Only phillygenin was able to stimulate the anti-inflammatory function of macrophages by inducing TGF-β release and IL-10 receptor surface expression. Arctigenin, phillygenin, and a metabolite produced by the gut microbiota, enterolactone, decreased TNF-α and IL-1β production and neutrophil adhesion to endothelial cells, probably by attenuating the p38 and ERK kinase pathways. Conclusion: Forsythia x intermedia is a valuable source of active lignans, which may be potential candidates for treating inflammatory diseases that are associated with the excessive production of cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1β. PMID:29740324

  2. Moraea intermedia and M. vuvuzela (Iridaceae-Iridoideae, two new species from western South Africa, and some nomenclatural changes and range extensions in the genus

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    P. Goldblatt

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe two new species in the largely sub-Saharan genus Moraea Mill. (± 205 spp. from its centre of diversity in the winter rainfall region of southern Africa. Moraea intermedia, from north-central Namaqualand near Springbok, is a member of the small section Tubiflorae (now eight species, remarkable in its growth habit with a long basal intemode. leaves clustered at the first aerial node, and Moraea-type stamens and style branches but subequal tepals with very short claws that clasp only the base of the filament column. Moraea vuvuzela. a member of series Galaxia of the Galaxia group of the genus (now 17 species, has deeply fringed stigma lobes, filaments free in the upper 1 mm, ± prostrate, lanceolate leaves and. remarkable for the series, dark brown to purple markings near the base of the tepal limbs. In the unusually variable M.fugax, currently with two subspecies, new collections of subsp. fugax co-occurring but on different soils with subsp.  filicaulis, cast doubt on their current treatment as members of the same species. We now favour recognition of the diminutive subsp.filicaulis as a separate species, M. filicaulis. In the M iripetala group we recommend recognition of the early blooming M. punctata, described in 1892 and later subsumed in M. iripetala but readily distinguished by the long inner  tepals broader in the midline and short, relatively broad, plane rather than channelled leaves. We also report small but significant range extensions for M. barkerae, M. macrocarpa and M. tricolor.

  3. Assessment of tissue-specific cortisol activity with regard to degeneration of the suspensory ligaments in horses with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofberger, Sina C; Gauff, Felicia; Thaller, Denise; Morgan, Ruth; Keen, John A; Licka, Theresia F

    2018-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To identify signs of tissue-specific cortisol activity in samples of suspensory ligament (SL) and neck skin tissue from horses with and without pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID). SAMPLE Suspensory ligament and neck skin tissue samples obtained from 26 euthanized horses with and without PPID. PROCEDURES Tissue samples were collected from 12 horses with and 14 horses without PPID (controls). Two control horses had received treatment with dexamethasone; data from those horses were not used in statistical analyses. The other 12 control horses were classified as old horses (≥ 14 years old) and young horses (≤ 9 years old). Standard histologic staining, staining for proteoglycan accumulation, and immunostaining of SL and neck skin tissue sections for glucocorticoid receptors, insulin, 11β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, and 11β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 were performed. Findings for horses with PPID were compared with findings for young and old horses without PPID. RESULTS Compared with findings for old and young control horses, there were significantly more cells stained for glucocorticoid receptors in SL samples and for 11 β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in SL and skin tissue samples from horses with PPID. Insulin could not be detected in any of the SL or skin tissue samples. Horses with PPID had evidence of SL degeneration with significantly increased proteoglycan accumulation. Neck skin tissue was found to be significantly thinner in PPID-affected horses than in young control horses. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that tissue-specific dysregulation of cortisol metabolism may contribute to the SL degeneration associated with PPID in horses.

  4. Lignans From Forsythia x Intermedia Leaves and Flowers Attenuate the Pro-inflammatory Function of Leukocytes and Their Interaction With Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Barbara; Filipek, Agnieszka; Chomicki, Piotr; Pyza, Małgorzata; Woźniak, Marta; Żyżyńska-Granica, Barbara; Piwowarski, Jakub P; Kicel, Agnieszka; Olszewska, Monika A; Kiss, Anna K

    2018-01-01

    Aim of the study: Taking into account that overactivated leukocytes are an important factor in the development of many chronic diseases, we investigated the activity of phytochemically characterized (HPLC-DAD-MS n ) extracts from forsythia leaves and flowers on the pro- and anti-inflammatory functions of leukocytes (effects on IL-1β, IL-8, TNF-α, and TGFβ release) and their adherence to endothelial cells. Using bio-guided fractionation, we isolated the active compounds and determined their biological activity, and we included the positive control quercetin. Methods: The effect on IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-8, and TGF-α production by leukocytes was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The surface expression of adhesion molecules was analyzed with flow cytometry, and the neutrophil attachment to the endothelial cells was assessed fluorimetrically. The effects on p38MAPK, ERK1/2 and JNK phosphorylation were determined using western blots. Results: Leaf extracts had the effect of decreasing TNF-α production in neutrophils and monocyte/macrophage cells. The bio-guided fractionation led to the isolation of the following lignan aglycones: (+)-pinoresinol, (+)-epipinoresinol, (-)-matairesinol, (+)-phillygenin, and (-)-arctigenin. Only phillygenin was able to stimulate the anti-inflammatory function of macrophages by inducing TGF-β release and IL-10 receptor surface expression. Arctigenin, phillygenin, and a metabolite produced by the gut microbiota, enterolactone, decreased TNF-α and IL-1β production and neutrophil adhesion to endothelial cells, probably by attenuating the p38 and ERK kinase pathways. Conclusion: Forsythia x intermedia is a valuable source of active lignans, which may be potential candidates for treating inflammatory diseases that are associated with the excessive production of cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1β.

  5. Lignans From Forsythia x Intermedia Leaves and Flowers Attenuate the Pro-inflammatory Function of Leukocytes and Their Interaction With Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Michalak

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: Taking into account that overactivated leukocytes are an important factor in the development of many chronic diseases, we investigated the activity of phytochemically characterized (HPLC-DAD-MSn extracts from forsythia leaves and flowers on the pro- and anti-inflammatory functions of leukocytes (effects on IL-1β, IL-8, TNF-α, and TGFβ release and their adherence to endothelial cells. Using bio-guided fractionation, we isolated the active compounds and determined their biological activity, and we included the positive control quercetin.Methods: The effect on IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-8, and TGF-α production by leukocytes was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The surface expression of adhesion molecules was analyzed with flow cytometry, and the neutrophil attachment to the endothelial cells was assessed fluorimetrically. The effects on p38MAPK, ERK1/2 and JNK phosphorylation were determined using western blots.Results: Leaf extracts had the effect of decreasing TNF-α production in neutrophils and monocyte/macrophage cells. The bio-guided fractionation led to the isolation of the following lignan aglycones: (+-pinoresinol, (+-epipinoresinol, (−-matairesinol, (+-phillygenin, and (−-arctigenin. Only phillygenin was able to stimulate the anti-inflammatory function of macrophages by inducing TGF-β release and IL-10 receptor surface expression. Arctigenin, phillygenin, and a metabolite produced by the gut microbiota, enterolactone, decreased TNF-α and IL-1β production and neutrophil adhesion to endothelial cells, probably by attenuating the p38 and ERK kinase pathways.Conclusion:Forsythia x intermedia is a valuable source of active lignans, which may be potential candidates for treating inflammatory diseases that are associated with the excessive production of cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1β.

  6. DESEMPEÑO DE UNA PELÍCULA DE MAÍZ AZUL EN EL ENVASADO DE UN QUESO DE HUMEDAD INTERMEDIA

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    CECILIA ROJAS DE G.

    Full Text Available La PCT/MX2009/000092, describe un método para obtener películas a partir de harina de cereales mediante método de "casting" y empleocomo almohadillas antimicrobianas yenvases termosellables para alimentos secos. Debido a su sensibilidad al agua y baja resistencia mecánica para contener alimentos de humedad intermedia; se reformuló la matriz biopolimérica para mejorar ambos parámetros.La película derivada de la reformulación fue caracterizada mecánicamente (ASTM D1708, se midió el "swelling" y se observó mediante microscopía electrónica de barrido.El desempeño de la película fue evaluado envasando unalimento perecedero: un quesosemimadurado,sometiéndolo a almacenamiento refrigerado durante 2 meses. Control: se emplearon queso del mismo lote envasado al vacío en película alta barrera. Durante los estudios de estabilidad en anaquel se evaluaron parámetros críticos microbiológicos como fisicoquímicos para el alimento envasado.Se observó que si bien las películas activas controlaron la carga microbiana, la integridad del envase se vio alterada debido a absorción de agua por contacto con el alimento, observándose ruptura de la estructura e integridad del biopolímeroy en consecuencia, exposición del producto y término de su vida útil.

  7. Evaluation of cytotoxic effects and acute and chronic toxicity of aqueous extract of the seeds of Calycotome villosa (Poiret) Link (subsp. intermedia) in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyoussi, Badiaa; Cherkaoui Tangi, Khadija; Morel, Nicole; Haddad, Mohamed; Quetin-Leclercq, Joelle

    2018-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the safety of an aqueous extract of the seeds of Calycotome villosa (Poiret) Link (subsp. intermedia) by determining its cytotoxicity and potential toxicity after acute and sub-chronic administration in rodents. Cytotoxic activity was tested in cancer and non-cancer cell lines HeLa, Mel-5, HL-60 and 3T3. Acute toxicity tests were carried out in mice by a single oral administration of Calycotome seed-extract (0 - 12 g/kg) as well as intraperitoneal doses of 0 - 5 g/kg. Sub-chronic studies were conducted in Wistar rats by administration of oral daily doses for up to 90 days. Changes in body and vital organ weights, mortality, haematology, clinical biochemistry and histologic morphology were evaluated. The lyophilized aqueous extract of C. villosa exhibited a low cytotoxicity in all cell lines tested with an IC 50 > 100 µg/ml. In the acute study in mice, intra-peritoneal administration caused dose-dependent adverse effects and mortality with an LD 50 of 4.06 ± 0.01 g/kg. In the chronic tests, neither mortality nor visible signs of lethality was seen in rats. Even AST and ALT were not affected while a significant decrease in serum glucose levels, at 300 and 600 mg/kg was detected. Histopathological examination of the kidney and liver did not show any alteration or inflammation at the end of treatment. In conclusion, the aqueous extract of C. villosa seed appeared to be non-toxic and did not produce mortality or clinically significant changes in the haematological and biochemical parameters in rats.

  8. Genetic Variants at BCL11A and HBS1L-MYB loci Influence Hb F Levels in Chinese Zhuang β-Thalassemia Intermedia Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yunli; Chen, Yun; Chen, Biyan; Zheng, Haiyang; Yi, Sheng; Li, Guojian; Wei, Hongwei; He, Sheng; Zheng, Chenguang

    2016-11-01

    Increased Hb F levels can ameliorate the symptoms of β-thalassemia (β-thal). Due to the genetic heterogenicity of β-thal, the relationship between genetic variants in modifier genes and Hb F level has been studied in different populations. The Chinese Zhuang has the second largest population in China and has 6.78% prevalence of β-thal. However, the effects of these single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variants on the Hb F levels of β-thal intermedia (β-TI) patients in this population have not been reported. To explore the association between modifier loci (β-globin gene cluster, HBS1L-MYB intergenic region and BCL11A) and Hb F levels in Chinese Zhuang β-TI patients, 96 unrelated β-TI patients (50 males and 46 females) with different Hb F levels were recruited and genotyped by mass spectrometry. A total of 13 SNPs were confirmed to be in a significant relationship with Hb F levels in this population. Of these, high-risk genotypes of six Hb F-associated SNPs, rs9376090, rs7776054, rs9399137, rs9389268, rs9402685 in the HBS1L-MYB intergenic region and rs189984760 in the BCL11A locus, showed association with high Hb F levels, especially for SNPs in linkage disequilibrium. One novel Hb F-associated SNP, rs189984760, was identified in our study. Our findings will be of valuable reference for correlation between modifier genes and Hb F in Chinese Zhuang populations and may lead to better understand the modifying mechanisms for β-thal.

  9. El anticlinal y las discordancias de Pareja (Guadalajara): definición de las unidades cenozoicas de la Depresión Intermedia (provs. Cuenca y Guadalajara, España)

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Pérez-Hidalgo, Trinidad José

    2006-01-01

    Este trabajo contempla las unidades representadas en la sección estratigráfica del Anticlinal la Pareja (Guadalajara, España) en la cuenca cenozoica denominada Depresión Intermedia. La columna estratigráfica de la zona permite identificar tres unidades principales separadas por discordancias angulares relacionables con fases tectónicas de la orogenia alpina. También se han diferenciado subunidades que, en su mayor parte, vienen definidas por rupturas sedimentarias ligadas a proces...

  10. Los elementos traza (Mg, Sr, Ha, Fe, Mn) en carbonatos: ambiente genético del Karst del techo de la unidad intermedia de la Cuenca neógena de Madrid.

    OpenAIRE

    Cañaveras Jiménez, Juan Carlos; Ordóñez Delgado, Salvador; Hoyos Gómez, Manuel; Calvo Sorando, José Pedro

    1992-01-01

    Este trabajo trata de caracterizar geoquímicamente el karst del techo de la U. Intermedia del Mioceno en las partes centrales de la Cuenca de Madrid. Para ello se han estudiado una serie de elementos traza (Mg, Sr, Na, Fe y Mn) mediante fluorescencia de rayos X. En base a este estudio se han distinguido dos tipos de procesos: De reemplazamiento y/o recristalización, que implican la litificación y homogeneización química de un sedimento calcítico-dolomítico; y procesos de precipitación química...

  11. Induction and identification of polyploids in Cattleya intermedia Lindl. (orchidaceae by in vitro techniques Indução e identificação de poliploides em Cattleya intermedia Lindl. (orchidaceae através de técnicas in vitro

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    Paulo Artur Konzen Xavier de Mello e Silva

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of colchicine on the protocorm-like bodies of Cattleya intermedia L. (Orchidaceae cultured in vitro was studied. Different concentrations of the drug (0.00, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.20% as well as two times of culture (4 or 8 days were tested to determine the best treatment for the induction of tetraploid plants. Of the 3 colchicine levels applied, 0.05 and 0.10% of drug treatments appeared to be effective on the production of mixoploids and tetraploids and could be further used in breeding programs. The suitability of stomatal area and stomata density as criteria for the distinction between diploids and tetraploids was also tested. The results suggested that tetraploid plants could be identified with a fair amount of certainty when the screening was based on the density of stomata.No presente trabalho, foi estudado o efeito da colchicina em corpos semelhantes a protocormos de Cattleya intermedia L. (Orchidaceae. Diferentes concentrações da droga (0,00; 0,05; 0,10 e 0,20%, bem como diferentes tempos de cultura (4 ou 8 dias foram testados para determinar o melhor tratamento para a indução de plantas tetraplóides. Dos três níveis de colchicina aplicados, os tratamentos com 0,05 e 0,10% da droga parecem ser mais efetivos na produção de mixoplóides e tetraplóides, sendo que tais tratamentos podem ser utilizados em programas de melhoramento. Como critério para distinção entre diplóides e tetraplóides, foram realizadas medidas de área de estômatos e densidade de estômatos das folhas. Os resultados sugerem que as plantas tetraplóides podem ser identificadas com elevado grau de certeza quando a seleção é realizada com base na densidade de estômatos.

  12. Prevotella-to-Bacteroides ratio predicts body weight and fat loss success on 24-week diets varying in macronutrient composition and dietary fiber: results from a post-hoc analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, Mads F; Blædel, Trine; Bendtsen, Line Q; Lorenzen, Janne K; Holm, Jacob B; Kiilerich, Pia; Roager, Henrik M; Kristiansen, Karsten; Larsen, Lesli H; Astrup, Arne

    2018-05-17

    Individuals with high pre-treatment bacterial Prevotella-to-Bacteroides (P/B) ratio have been reported to lose more body weight on diets high in fiber than subjects with a low P/B ratio. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine potential differences in dietary weight loss responses between participants with low and high P/B. Eighty overweight participants were randomized (52 completed) to a 500 kcal/d energy deficit diet with a macronutrient composition of 30 energy percentage (E%) fat, 52 E% carbohydrate and 18 E% protein either high (≈1500 mg calcium/day) or low ( ≤ 600 mg calcium/day) in dairy products for 24 weeks. Body weight, body fat, and dietary intake (by 7-day dietary records) were determined. Individuals were dichotomized according to their pre-treatment P/B ratio derived from 16S rRNA gene sequencing of collected fecal samples to test the potential modification of dietary effects using linear mixed models. Independent of the randomized diets, individuals with high P/B lost 3.8 kg (95%CI, 1.8,5.8; P ratio lost 8.3 kg (95% CI, 5.8;10.9, P ratio [Mean difference: 5.1 kg (95% CI, 1.7;8.6, P = 0.003)]. Partial correlation coefficients between fiber intake and weight change was 0.90 (P ratio and 0.25 (P = 0.29) among individuals with low P/B ratio. Individuals with high P/B lost more body weight and body fat compared to individuals with low P/B, confirming that individuals with a high P/B are more susceptible to weight loss on a diet rich in fiber.

  13. Una breve descripción de la vegetación, con especial énfasis en las pioneras intermedias de los bosques secos de la Jagua, en la cuenca alta del Rio Magdalena en el Huila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Gerardo Vargas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se revisó la información existente sobre la flora de los bosques secos del sur del departamento del Huila, con especial interés en la de La Jagua y sus alrededores con el fin de identificar especies pioneras intermedias que puedan apoyar procesos de restauración ecológica y conservación de la biodiversidad. Para los bosques secos del departamento se identificaron 203 especies pioneras intermedias distribuidas en 123 géneros y 45 familias botánicas, mientras que para La Jagua 153 especies agrupadas en 109 géneros y 42 familias, entre las que sobresalen Fabaceae,  Rubiaceae, Malvaceae, Moraceae y Anacardiaceae. Se proponen 85 especies consideradas claves para procesos de conservación, la restauración de los ecosistemas secos de la región dirigida a la generación de hábitat y de conectividad, la producción de recursos para la fauna, así como la producción de leña y madera para las comunidades dentro de un modelo de herramientas de manejo del paisaje.

  14. Localization of amylin-like immunoreactivity in melanocyte-stimulating hormone-containing cells of the pars intermedia but not those of the pars distalis in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) pituitary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hirohumi; Yamamoto, Toshiharu

    2016-04-01

    Immunohistochemical techniques were employed to investigate the distribution of amylin-like immunoreactivity in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) pituitary. Amylin-immunoreactive cells were observed in the pars intermedia, and these cells were found to be immunoreactive for α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (αMSH) as well. In contrast, αMSH-immunoreactive cells in the pars distalis were immuno-negaitive for amylin. These light microscopic findings were confirmed by immunoelectron microscopy. Amylin-immunoreactive signals were located on the haloes of presumable secretory granules in association with αMSH-immunoreactive signals in the amylin-positive cells. However, in the pars distalis, the αMSH-positive cells did not contain amylin-immunoreactive secretory granules. Western blot analysis of axolotl pituitary extracts revealed the labeling of a protein band at approximately 10.5-kDa by the anti-rat amylin serum, which was not labeled by the anti-αMSH antibody. These findings indicate that amylin secreted from MSH-producing cells in the pars intermedia may modulate MSH secretion in an autocrine fashion and may participate in MSH functions such as fatty homeostasis together with MSH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. A randomized Phase I/II Trial of HQK-1001, an oral fetal globin gene inducer, in β–thalassaemia intermedia and HbE/β–thalassaemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucharoen, Suthat; Inati, Adlette; Siritanaratku, Noppadol; Thein, Swee Lay; Wargin, William C.; Koussa, Suzanne; Taher, Ali; Chaneim, Nattawara; Boosalis, Michael; Berenson, Ronald; Perrine, Susan P.

    2014-01-01

    β–thalassemia intermedia syndromes (BTI) cause hemolytic anemia, ineffective erythropoiesis, and widespread complications. Higher fetal globin expression within genotypes reduces globin imbalance and ameliorates anemia. Sodium 2,2 dimethylbutyrate (HQK-1001), an orally bioavailable short-chain fatty acid derivative, induces γ-globin expression experimentally and is well-tolerated in normal subjects. Accordingly, a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled, Phase I/II trial was performed in 21 adult BTI patients (14 with HbE/β0 thalassemia and 7 with β+/β0 thalassemia intermedia, to determine effective doses for fetal globin induction, safety, and tolerability. HQK-1001 or placebo were administered once daily for 8 weeks at four dose levels (10, 20, 30, or 40 mg/kg/day), and subjects were monitored for laboratory and clinical events. Pharmacokinetic profiles demonstrated a t1/2 of 10–12 hours. Adverse events with HQK-1001 treatment were not significantly different from placebo treatment. Median HbF increased with the 20 mg/kg treatment doses above baseline levels by 6.6% and 0.44 g/dL (p <0.01) in 8/9 subjects; total hemoglobin (Hgb) increased by a mean of 1.1 gm/dL in 4/9 subjects. These findings identify a safe oral therapeutic which induces fetal globin in BTI. Further investigation of HQK-1001 with longer dosing to definitively evaluate its hematologic potential appears warranted. PMID:23530969

  16. Beyond Chloride Brines: Variable Metabolomic Responses in the Anaerobic Organism Yersinia intermedia MASE-LG-1 to NaCl and MgSO4 at Identical Water Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendner, Petra; Bohmeier, Maria; Rettberg, Petra; Beblo-Vranesevic, Kristina; Gaboyer, Frédéric; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Perras, Alexandra K.; Vannier, Pauline; Marteinsson, Viggó T.; Garcia-Descalzo, Laura; Gómez, Felipe; Malki, Moustafa; Amils, Ricardo; Westall, Frances; Riedo, Andreas; Monaghan, Euan P.; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Cabezas, Patricia; Walter, Nicolas; Cockell, Charles

    2018-01-01

    Growth in sodium chloride (NaCl) is known to induce stress in non-halophilic microorganisms leading to effects on the microbial metabolism and cell structure. Microorganisms have evolved a number of adaptations, both structural and metabolic, to counteract osmotic stress. These strategies are well-understood for organisms in NaCl-rich brines such as the accumulation of certain organic solutes (known as either compatible solutes or osmolytes). Less well studied are responses to ionic environments such as sulfate-rich brines which are prevalent on Earth but can also be found on Mars. In this paper, we investigated the global metabolic response of the anaerobic bacterium Yersinia intermedia MASE-LG-1 to osmotic salt stress induced by either magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) or NaCl at the same water activity (0.975). Using a non-targeted mass spectrometry approach, the intensity of hundreds of metabolites was measured. The compatible solutes L-asparagine and sucrose were found to be increased in both MgSO4 and NaCl compared to the control sample, suggesting a similar osmotic response to different ionic environments. We were able to demonstrate that Yersinia intermedia MASE-LG-1 accumulated a range of other compatible solutes. However, we also found the global metabolic responses, especially with regard to amino acid metabolism and carbohydrate metabolism, to be salt-specific, thus, suggesting ion-specific regulation of specific metabolic pathways. PMID:29535699

  17. Lavandin (Lavandula × intermedia Emeric ex Loiseleur) essential oil from Spain: determination of aromatic profile by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, antioxidant and lipoxygenase inhibitory bioactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Alejandro; Martinez-Gutierrez, Ramiro; Tomas, Virginia; Tudela, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Lavandin (Lavandula × intermedia Emeric ex Loiseleur) essential oils (EOs), from Abrial, Super and Grosso cultivars, cultivated and extracted in the South East of Spain, were analysed by using GC/MS to determine their composition, in both relative (peak area) and absolute (using standard curves) concentrations. Linalool (34-47%), linalyl acetate (17-34%), camphor (4-9%) and eucalyptol (3-7%) were determined as the main molecules. This characterisation was completed with the enantioselective gas chromatography, where ( - )-linalool, (+)-camphor and ( - )-linalyl acetate were determined as the main components. Antioxidant activity was evaluated positively by several methods: activity against free radicals, chelating and reducing power, probably due to linalool and linalyl acetate. Mild inhibitory activity on lipoxygenase was observed supporting potential anti-inflammatory activity, mainly due to linalool and camphor. These properties support the potential use of L. × intermedia essential oils as natural cosmetic and natural pharmaceutical ingredient to fight several skin diseases.

  18. Beyond Chloride Brines: Variable Metabolomic Responses in the Anaerobic Organism Yersinia intermedia MASE-LG-1 to NaCl and MgSO4 at Identical Water Activity

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    Petra Schwendner

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Growth in sodium chloride (NaCl is known to induce stress in non-halophilic microorganisms leading to effects on the microbial metabolism and cell structure. Microorganisms have evolved a number of adaptations, both structural and metabolic, to counteract osmotic stress. These strategies are well-understood for organisms in NaCl-rich brines such as the accumulation of certain organic solutes (known as either compatible solutes or osmolytes. Less well studied are responses to ionic environments such as sulfate-rich brines which are prevalent on Earth but can also be found on Mars. In this paper, we investigated the global metabolic response of the anaerobic bacterium Yersinia intermedia MASE-LG-1 to osmotic salt stress induced by either magnesium sulfate (MgSO4 or NaCl at the same water activity (0.975. Using a non-targeted mass spectrometry approach, the intensity of hundreds of metabolites was measured. The compatible solutes L-asparagine and sucrose were found to be increased in both MgSO4 and NaCl compared to the control sample, suggesting a similar osmotic response to different ionic environments. We were able to demonstrate that Yersinia intermedia MASE-LG-1 accumulated a range of other compatible solutes. However, we also found the global metabolic responses, especially with regard to amino acid metabolism and carbohydrate metabolism, to be salt-specific, thus, suggesting ion-specific regulation of specific metabolic pathways.

  19. De la urbanización a la intervención urbana estratégica: Instrumentos de planificación intermedia en Costa Rica

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    Roy Allan Jiménez Céspedes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo analiza el contexto y las posibilidades normativas del país para implementar estrategias de planificación de grandes conjuntos urbanos. Este tipo de planificación se ubica entre los planes reguladores locales y la ejecución del proyecto individual. Su aplicación tiene el alcance del conocido pero nunca aplicado “plan maestro”. Los actuales formatos de transformación del suelo en Costa Rica impiden un abordaje integral de grandes conjuntos urbanos. La separación práctica de la figura de la urbanización y del condominio ha generado una mejor salida en el mercado inmobiliario del segundo. Grandes áreas de la ciudad han sido intervenidas bajo el formato de condominio horizontal. Esta práctica aceptada e institucionalizada, provoca que la trama urbana existente experimente un proceso de sobrecarga. Al mismo tiempo, el condominio horizontal se considera exento de las cesiones que el desarrollo inmobiliario debe brindar a la ciudad. La renovación urbana, inexplorada pero existente en nuestra normativa, abraza muchas de las posibilidades para la implementación de diferentes procesos de escala intermedia. This paper analyzes the opportunities of Costa Rica to implement planning strategies for large urban sectors. This kind of planning takes place between municipal planning (local government and specific (urban projects, in which case, replaces the quite known but difficult to apply “master plan”. The current patterns of urban development and real estate in Costa Rica, prevent an integrated approach on large urban sectors. The lack of commercial advantages of the traditional urban development versus the gated community has provoked that large sectors of the city have been intervened as closed environments. The consequences of this very profitable and institutionalized practice are the overload on existing urban areas and the deficit of public facilities, which are necessary for an adequate urban growth. The urban

  20. Black-pigmented anaerobic bacteria associated with ovine periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsanelli, Ana C; Gaetti-Jardim, Elerson; Schweitzer, Christiane M; Viora, Lorenzo; Busin, Valentina; Riggio, Marcello P; Dutra, Iveraldo S

    2017-05-01

    Periodontitis is a polymicrobial infectious disease that causes occlusion change, tooth loss, difficulty in rumination, and premature culling of animals. This study aimed to detect species of the genera Porphyromonas and Prevotella present in the periodontal pocket of sheep with lesions deeper than 5mm (n=14) and in the gingival sulcus of animals considered periodontally healthy (n=20). The presence of microorganisms was evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers for Porphyromonas asaccharolytica, Porphyromonas endodontalis, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Porphyromonas gulae, Prevotella buccae, Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella loescheii, Prevotella melaninogenica, Prevotella nigrescens, Prevotella oralis, and Prevotella tannerae. Prevalence and risk analysis were performed using Student's t-test and Spearman's correlation. Among the Prevotella and Porphyromonas species detected in the periodontal lesions of sheep, P. melaninogenica (85.7%), P. buccae (64.3%), P. gingivalis (50%), and P. endodontalis (50%) were most prevalent. P. gingivalis (15%) and P. oralis (10%) prevailed in the gingival sulcus. P. gulae and P. tannerae were not detected in the 34 samples studied. Data evaluation by t-test verified that occurrence of P. asaccharolytica, P. endodontalis, P. gingivalis, P. buccae, P. intermedia, P. melalinogenica, and P. nigrescens correlated with sheep periodontitis. The findings of this study will be an important contribution to research on pathogenesis of sheep periodontitis and development of its control measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Intermedia: Tomorrow's AV Experience Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVey, G. F.

    1970-01-01

    The coordinator of the Multimedia Instructional Laboratory at Wisconsin describes an experimental course whose primary objective was to expose through direct student participation the relationships and processes involved when messages are presented through several media simultaneously." (Author/LS)

  2. Regression of extramedullary hematopoiesis with hydroxyurea therapy in ß-thalassemia intermedia Regressão da hematopoese extramedular na talassemia intermédia após terapia com hidroxiuréia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perla Vicari

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Excessive ineffective erythropoiesis in thalassemia intermedia may cause extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH, resulting in spleen and liver enlargement or masses in several tissues, mainly paravertebrally. Other less frequent locations of diffuse compensatory EMH are kidneys, adrenal glands, breasts, spinal cord, pleura, pericardium, duramater, adipose tissue and skin, although intrathoracic extramedullary hematopoiesis is a rare condition. Management strategies have included radiation and transfusion therapy. Hydroxyurea with transfusion therapy has been associated with clinical regression of EMH in thalassemia. We report an uncommon case of intrathoracic EMH in a patient with beta-thalassemia intermedia, that showed significant recovery with HU therapy.A excessiva eritropoese ineficaz na talassemia pode causar hemato-poese extramedular (HEM, resultando em hepatomegalia, esplenomegalia e massas de tecido hematopoético em diversos tecidos. Localizações de HEM compensatória menos freqüentes são rins, glândulas adrenais, canal medular, pleura, pericárdio, duramáter, tecido adiposo e pele. Entretanto, HEM intratorácica é condição rara. Estratégias terapêuticas incluem radiação e transfusões sanguíneas. O uso de hidroxiuréia concomitante a terapêutica transfusional foi associado à regressão clínica da HEM na talassemia. Nós descrevemos um caso de HEM intratorácica em paciente portadora de talassemia intermédia, com significante regressão do quadro após terapêutica isolada com hidroxiuréia.

  3. La periferia espontánea en las ciudades intermedias latinoamericanas: perspectivas de solución desde la dimensión territorial-ambiental de la sostenibilidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Jorge Peralta Arias

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available La investigación aborda el problema de la insostenibilidad de la periferia espontánea en las ciudades intermedias latinoamericanas, cuya informalidad ha determinado un crecimiento discontinuo, una baja densidad y el déficit de infraestructuras y dotaciones; a esto, se suman los riesgos futuros por desastres de origen natural asociados al cambio climático. En dicho contexto, el trabajo se plantea como objetivo central contribuir a solucionar este problema, a partir de una propuesta metodológica para el estudio de las periferias espontáneas de las ciudades latinoamericanas de escala intermedia, desde la perspectiva del desarrollo sostenible, poniendo énfasis en la dimensión física, ambiental y climática. Para ello, la investigación se organiza en tres partes: revisión y análisis de la información existente sobre la temática y consulta a expertos, para la determinación de criterios; la determinación de acciones prioritarias; y una propuesta de estructura que sustenta un sistema de indicadores. Los resultados del trabajo proponen una batería de treinta y nueve (39 indicadores referenciales, articulados en cuatro subsistemas relacionados con: la vulnerabilidad física-ambiental y climática, el eje ambiental, el desarrollo urbano y la cohesión social. Estos constituyen la principal conclusión del trabajo, el que, se espera, será útil para comenzar a tomar las primeras decisiones frente al problema de este tipo de periferias.

  4. Raíz secundaria embrional asociada a la germinación de Garcinia intermedia (Clusiaceae y su posible papel en la supervivencia de las plántulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fco Di Stefano

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available En pruebas preliminares de germinación con semillas de Garcinia intermedia (Clusiaceae se observó que ésta producía dos tipos de raíces: la primaria y una secundaria embrional que atraviesa longitudinalmente la semilla. Para determinar su posible papel en la supervivencia y crecimiento de esta especie, se analizaron 90 plántulas con al menos seis meses de germinadas en bolsas plásticas con suelo orgánico ubicadas en un invernadero, a las que se les aplicó uno de los siguientes tratamientos: corte de la raíz primaria o la secundaria embrional, además de un grupo control con ambas raíces (30 repeticiones de cada uno. Luego de tres meses se empezaron a extraer 10 plántulas/mes/tratamiento a los que se les midió la altura total, diámetro basal, longitud de la raíz primaria y secundaria, y la biomasa del vástago, raíz y semilla sin la cubierta seminal. Las plántulas que obtuvieron el mayor crecimiento fueron las del control, seguidas por aquéllas sin la raíz secundaria. Sin embargo, más del 90% de las plántulas a las que se les cortó la raíz primaria, sobrevivieron después de cinco meses de haberse aplicado el tratamiento, en parte debido a una muy alta capacidad de recuperación de su sistema radical, ya sea produciendo rebrotes de la principal (20%, aumentando el crecimiento de la raíz secundaria (13.3%, o ambos (26.7%, y a las reservas de la semilla. La longitud de los rebrotes de la raíz principal fue estadísticamente significativa en las primeras dos extracciones mensuales de plantas, comparado con las del control (F6= 18.6, F7= 16.0, pSecondary embryonary root associated with seed germination in Garcinia intermedia (Clusiaceae and its possible role in seedling survival. Germination tests on Garcinia intermedia (Clusiaceae seeds showed the growth of two types of roots: additionally to the primary root, a secondary root crosses the seed lengthwise. To determine its possible role on the survival and growth of this

  5. Cómo se negocia una posición de sujeto intermedia: muchachos entre once y catorce años, masculinidades y educación escolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Phoenix

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo pone a discusión la ciencia (generalizada en las escuelas de Londres según la cual existe una oposición entre la masculinidad y la realización de tareas escolares, que tiene fuertes efectos en la subjetividad de lo masculino del joven. Así considera las formas en que éstos asisten a las escuelas de Londres y negocian lo que ellos consideran las contradicciones que involucra el tratar de reconciliar el hacer las tareas escolares con ser aceptado por los otros en su condición masculina. El documento se centra particularmente en la forma como los muchachos negocian una posición de sujeto intermedia, en un intento de asegurarse que trabajaron lo suficiente para no reprobar, pero no tanto como para llamar la atención de los otros, por no ser “propiamente masculinos”. El texto también afirma que estas contradicciones tienen una carga emocional, de modo que los jóvenes se esfuerzan en negociar lo que ellos consideran una posición intermedia, pues esta es la posición de sujeto que les resulta menos problemática ocupar.This paper discusses how the construction (pervasive in London schools that masculinities and doing schoolwork are antithetical to each other has an impact on boys’ subject positions. It considers the ways in which boys attending schools in London negotiate what they see as the contradictions involved in attempting to reconcile doing schoolwork with being accepted by other boys as masculine.In particular, it focuses on how they negotiate a middle subject position, attempting to ensure that they did sufficient work not to fail at school, but not so much that they came to other boys’ attention as not ‘properly masculine’. The paper argues that these contradictions are emotionally charged, so that boys put effort into negotiating what they see as a middle position because this is the least problematic subject position for them to take up.

  6. Excellent and durable response to radiotherapy in a rare case of spinal cord compression due to extra-medullary hematopoiesis in β-thalassemia intermedia: case report and clinicoradiological correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yathiraj, Prahlad H; Singh, Anshul; Vidyasagar, Sudha; Varma, Muralidhar; Mamidipudi, Vidyasagar

    2017-04-01

    Spinal cord compression (SCC) is an unusual sequale of extra-medullary hematopoiesis (EMH). We report a patient diagnosed with β-thalassemia intermedia at the age of 7 years presenting as a 24-year-old with symptoms suggestive of paraparesis. MR imaging revealed long masses of EMH opposite T5-T11 and L5-S2 vertebrae with cord compression at T6 vertebrae. Patient was treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) to a low dose of 20 Gy in 10 fractions over 2 weeks. The patient had symptomatic relief of paraparesis by the 5th fraction and nearly regained full power in bilateral lower limbs by EBRT conclusion. Patient was begun on hydroxyurea post EBRT and was symptom free at 2-month follow up. With a follow-up of 18 months so far, he remains asymptomatic and free of recurrence. MRI correlation of pre-EBRT, post-EBRT and at first follow-up showed a significant reduction in the size of EMH, increase in diameter of spinal canal post EBRT but a persistent edema which had no clinical manifestation. Though there was a 58% drop in leukocyte count by the end of EBRT, there was no leukocytopenia. We suggest that EBRT should be treatment of choice for SCC due to EMH as it produces as rapid and durable response with minimal acute hematological side-effects.

  7. Sistema constructivo de tecnología intermedia como solución al problema de vivienda en las áreas marginales y socioeconómicamente deprimidas de una ciudad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alva Mejía, Alberto

    1984-07-01

    Full Text Available The constructive system of intermediate technology offers to the population the possibility to construct his dwelling by the way of autoconstruction in stages. Its aim is to project and construct at least 10 % of the demands for housing in Lima, within a three years limit, and to support the creation of Communal Crafts Workshops. The system is to join several prefabricated elements as girders, sheets and concrete arches with vegetal fibres, wooden roof frames, etc.El sistema constructivo de tecnología intermedia ofrece a la población la posibilidad de construir su vivienda bajo la modalidad de autoconstrucción por etapas. Su meta es proyectar y construir, al menos, el 10 % de las viviendas demandadas en la actualidad en Lima con un plazo de 3 años, y apoyar la formación de talleres artesanales comunales. El sistema consiste en la unión de varios elementos prefabricados como son viguetas, láminas y arcos de hormigón con fibras vegetales, tijerales de madera, etcétera.

  8. Garlic (Allium sativum) stimulates lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha production from J774A.1 murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jessica; Harfouche, Youssef; De La Cruz, Melissa; Zamora, Martha P; Liu, Yan; Rego, James A; Buckley, Nancy E

    2015-02-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is known to have many beneficial attributes such as antimicrobial, antiatherosclerotic, antitumorigenetic, and immunomodulatory properties. In the present study, we investigated the effects of an aqueous garlic extract on macrophage cytokine production by challenging the macrophage J774A.1 cell line with the garlic extract in the absence or presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) under different conditions. The effect of allicin, the major component of crushed garlic, was also investigated. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, it was found that garlic and synthetic allicin greatly stimulated tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) production in macrophages treated with LPS. The TNF-α secretion levels peaked earlier and were sustained for a longer time in cells treated with garlic and LPS compared with cells treated with LPS alone. Garlic acted in a time-dependent manner. We suggest that garlic, at least partially via its allicin component, acts downstream from LPS to stimulate macrophage TNF-α secretion. © 2014 The Authors. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species mediate the lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory response in human gingival fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xue; Wang, Xiaoxuan [Department of Periodontology, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, National Engineering Laboratory for Digital and Material Technology of Stomatology, Beijing Key Laboratory of Digital Stomatology, 22 Zhongguancun Avenue South, Haidian District, Beijing 100081 (China); Zheng, Ming, E-mail: zhengm@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Peking University Health Science Center, 38 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China); Luan, Qing Xian, E-mail: kqluanqx@126.com [Department of Periodontology, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, National Engineering Laboratory for Digital and Material Technology of Stomatology, Beijing Key Laboratory of Digital Stomatology, 22 Zhongguancun Avenue South, Haidian District, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2016-09-10

    Although periodontal diseases are initiated by bacteria that colonize the tooth surface and gingival sulcus, the host response is believed to play an essential role in the breakdown of connective tissue and bone. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) have been proposed to regulate the activation of the inflammatory response by the innate immune system. However, the role of mtROS in modulating the response of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) to immune stimulation by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) has yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we showed that LPS from Porphyromonas gingivalis stimulated HGFs to increase mtROS production, which could be inhibited by treatment with a mitochondrial-targeted exogenous antioxidant (mito-TEMPO) or transfection with manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). A time-course study revealed that an increase in the concentration of mtROS preceded the expression of inflammatory cytokines in HGFs. Mito-TEMPO treatment or MnSOD transfection also significantly prevented the LPS-induced increase of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Furthermore, suppressing LPS-induced mtROS generation inhibited the activation of p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and inhibitor of nuclear factor-κB kinase, as well as the nuclear localization of nuclear factor-κB. These results demonstrate that mtROS generation is a key signaling event in the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory response of HGFs. - Highlights: • Inflammation is thought to promote pathogenic changes in periodontitis. • We investigated mtROS as a regulator of inflammation in gingival fibroblasts. • Targeted antioxidants were used to inhibit mtROS production after LPS challenge. • Inhibiting mtROS generation suppressed the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. • JNK, p38, IKK, and NF-κB were shown to act as transducers of mtROS signaling.

  10. The Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Metabolome Signature in Arabidopsis thaliana Reveals Dynamic Reprogramming of Phytoalexin and Phytoanticipin Pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarryn Finnegan

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs, as MAMP molecules, trigger the activation of signal transduction pathways involved in defence. Currently, plant metabolomics is providing new dimensions into understanding the intracellular adaptive responses to external stimuli. The effect of LPS on the metabolomes of Arabidopsis thaliana cells and leaf tissue was investigated over a 24 h period. Cellular metabolites and those secreted into the medium were extracted with methanol and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry was used for quantitative and qualitative analyses. Multivariate statistical data analyses were used to extract interpretable information from the generated multidimensional LC-MS data. The results show that LPS perception triggered differential changes in the metabolomes of cells and leaves, leading to variation in the biosynthesis of specialised secondary metabolites. Time-dependent changes in metabolite profiles were observed and biomarkers associated with the LPS-induced response were tentatively identified. These include the phytohormones salicylic acid and jasmonic acid, and also the associated methyl esters and sugar conjugates. The induced defensive state resulted in increases in indole-and other glucosinolates, indole derivatives, camalexin as well as cinnamic acid derivatives and other phenylpropanoids. These annotated metabolites indicate dynamic reprogramming of metabolic pathways that are functionally related towards creating an enhanced defensive capacity. The results reveal new insights into the mode of action of LPS as an activator of plant innate immunity, broadens knowledge about the defence metabolite pathways involved in Arabidopsis responses to LPS, and identifies specialised metabolites of functional importance that can be employed to enhance immunity against pathogen infection.

  11. 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, a plant-derived oxylipin, attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in microglia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taki-Nakano, Nozomi [Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259-B-65 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8501 (Japan); Advanced Drug Research Laboratories, Sohyaku. Innovative Research Division, Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation, 2-2-50, Kawagishi, Toda, Saitama 335-8505 (Japan); Kotera, Jun [Advanced Drug Research Laboratories, Sohyaku. Innovative Research Division, Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation, 2-2-50, Kawagishi, Toda, Saitama 335-8505 (Japan); Ohta, Hiroyuki, E-mail: ohta.h.ab@m.titech.ac.jp [Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259-B-65 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8501 (Japan); School of Life Science and Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259-B-65 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8501 (Japan)

    2016-05-13

    Jasmonates are plant lipid–derived oxylipins that act as key signaling compounds in plant immunity, germination, and development. Although some physiological activities of natural jasmonates in mammalian cells have been investigated, their anti-inflammatory actions in mammalian cells remain unclear. Here, we investigated whether jasmonates protect mouse microglial MG5 cells against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)–induced inflammation. Among the jasmonates tested, only 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) suppressed LPS-induced expression of the typical inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor α. In addition, only OPDA reduced LPS-induced nitric oxide production through a decrease in the level of inducible nitric oxide synthase. Further mechanistic studies showed that OPDA suppressed neuroinflammation by inhibiting nuclear factor κB and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in LPS-activated MG5 cells. In addition, OPDA induced expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS-1), a negative regulator of inflammation, in MG5 cells. Finally, we found that the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 signaling cascade induced by OPDA is not involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of OPDA. These results demonstrate that OPDA inhibited LPS-induced cell inflammation in mouse microglial cells via multiple pathways, including suppression of nuclear factor κB, inhibition of p38, and activation of SOCS-1 signaling. -- Highlights: •OPDA attenuates LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α. •OPDA reduces LPS-induced iNOS expression and NO production. •OPDA suppresses NF-κB and p38 pathways and activates SOCS-1 signaling.

  12. 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, a plant-derived oxylipin, attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in microglia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taki-Nakano, Nozomi; Kotera, Jun; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Jasmonates are plant lipid–derived oxylipins that act as key signaling compounds in plant immunity, germination, and development. Although some physiological activities of natural jasmonates in mammalian cells have been investigated, their anti-inflammatory actions in mammalian cells remain unclear. Here, we investigated whether jasmonates protect mouse microglial MG5 cells against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)–induced inflammation. Among the jasmonates tested, only 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) suppressed LPS-induced expression of the typical inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor α. In addition, only OPDA reduced LPS-induced nitric oxide production through a decrease in the level of inducible nitric oxide synthase. Further mechanistic studies showed that OPDA suppressed neuroinflammation by inhibiting nuclear factor κB and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in LPS-activated MG5 cells. In addition, OPDA induced expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS-1), a negative regulator of inflammation, in MG5 cells. Finally, we found that the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 signaling cascade induced by OPDA is not involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of OPDA. These results demonstrate that OPDA inhibited LPS-induced cell inflammation in mouse microglial cells via multiple pathways, including suppression of nuclear factor κB, inhibition of p38, and activation of SOCS-1 signaling. -- Highlights: •OPDA attenuates LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α. •OPDA reduces LPS-induced iNOS expression and NO production. •OPDA suppresses NF-κB and p38 pathways and activates SOCS-1 signaling.

  13. Butyrate attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in intestinal cells and Crohn's mucosa through modulation of antioxidant defense machinery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Russo

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, including Crohn's disease (CrD. High levels of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS induce the activation of the redox-sensitive nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB, which in turn triggers the inflammatory mediators. Butyrate decreases pro-inflammatory cytokine expression by the lamina propria mononuclear cells in CrD patients via inhibition of NF-κB activation, but how it reduces inflammation is still unclear. We suggest that butyrate controls ROS mediated NF-κB activation and thus mucosal inflammation in intestinal epithelial cells and in CrD colonic mucosa by triggering intracellular antioxidant defense systems. Intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells and colonic mucosa from 14 patients with CrD and 12 controls were challenged with or without lipopolysaccaride from Escherichia coli (EC-LPS in presence or absence of butyrate for 4 and 24 h. The effects of butyrate on oxidative stress, p42/44 MAP kinase phosphorylation, p65-NF-κB activation and mucosal inflammation were investigated by real time PCR, western blot and confocal microscopy. Our results suggest that EC-LPS challenge induces a decrease in Gluthation-S-Transferase-alpha (GSTA1/A2 mRNA levels, protein expression and catalytic activity; enhanced levels of ROS induced by EC-LPS challenge mediates p65-NF-κB activation and inflammatory response in Caco-2 cells and in CrD colonic mucosa. Furthermore butyrate treatment was seen to restore GSTA1/A2 mRNA levels, protein expression and catalytic activity and to control NF-κB activation, COX-2, ICAM-1 and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokine. In conclusion, butyrate rescues the redox machinery and controls the intracellular ROS balance thus switching off EC-LPS induced inflammatory response in intestinal epithelial cells and in CrD colonic mucosa.

  14. Effect of penehyclidine hydrochloride on β-arrestin-1 expression in lipopolysaccharide-induced human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhan, J. [Department of Anesthesiology, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Xiao, F. [Department of Osteology, Pu Ai Hospital, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Zhang, Z.Z.; Wang, Y.P.; Chen, K.; Wang, Y.L. [Department of Anesthesiology, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei (China)

    2013-12-02

    β-arrestins are expressed proteins that were first described, and are well-known, as negative regulators of G protein-coupled receptor signaling. Penehyclidine hydrochloride (PHC) is a new anti-cholinergic drug that can inhibit biomembrane lipid peroxidation, and decrease cytokines and oxyradicals. However, to date, no reports on the effects of PHC on β-arrestin-1 in cells have been published. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of PHC on β-arrestin-1 expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMEC). Cultured HPMEC were pretreated with PHC, followed by LPS treatment. Muscarinic receptor mRNAs were assayed by real-time quantitative PCR. Cell viability was assayed by the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) conversion test. The dose and time effects of PHC on β-arrestin-1 expression in LPS-induced HPMEC were determined by Western blot analysis. Cell malondialdehyde (MDA) level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured. It was found that the M{sub 3} receptor was the one most highly expressed, and was activated 5 min after LPS challenge. Furthermore, 2 μg/mL PHC significantly upregulated expression of β-arrestin-1 within 10 to 15 min. Compared with the control group, MDA levels in cells were remarkably increased and SOD activities were significantly decreased in LPS pretreated cells, while PHC markedly decreased MDA levels and increased SOD activities. We conclude that PHC attenuated ROS injury by upregulating β-arrestin-1 expression, thereby implicating a mechanism by which PHC may exert its protective effects against LPS-induced pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell injury.

  15. Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Behavioral Alterations Are Alleviated by Sodium Phenylbutyrate via Attenuation of Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammatory Cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jangra, Ashok; Sriram, Chandra Shaker; Lahkar, Mangala

    2016-08-01

    Oxido-nitrosative stress, neuroinflammation, and reduced level of neurotrophins are implicated in the pathophysiology of anxiety and depressive illness. A few recent studies have revealed the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the pathophysiology of stress and depression. The aim of the present study is to investigate the neuroprotective potential of sodium phenylbutyrate (SPB), an ER stress inhibitor against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced anxiety and depressive-like behavior in Swiss albino mice. Anxiety and depressive-like behavior was induced by LPS (0.83 mg/kg; i.p.) administration. Various behavioral tests were conducted to evaluate the anxiety and depressive-like behavior in mice. Real-time PCR was employed for the detection and expression of ER stress markers (78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein (CHOP)). Pretreatment with SPB significantly ameliorated the LPS-induced anxiety and depressive-like behavior as revealed by behavioral paradigm results. LPS-induced oxidative stress was ameliorated by SPB pretreatment in hippocampus (HC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) region. Neuroinflammation was significantly reduced by SPB pretreatment in LPS-treated mice as evident from reduction in proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α). Importantly, LPS administration significantly up-regulated the GRP78 mRNA expression level in the HC which suggests the involvement of unfolded protein response (UPR) in LPS-evoked behavioral anomalies. These results highlight the neuroprotective potential of SPB in LPS-induced anxiety and depressive illness model which may be partially due to inhibition of oxidative stress-neuroinflammatory cascade.

  16. Vitamin K3 attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury through inhibition of nuclear factor-κB activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, S; Nishiumi, S; Nishida, M; Mizushina, Y; Kobayashi, K; Masuda, A; Fujita, T; Morita, Y; Mizuno, S; Kutsumi, H; Azuma, T; Yoshida, M

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin K is a family of fat-soluble compounds including phylloquinone (vitamin K1), menaquinone (vitamin K2) and menadione (vitamin K3). Recently, it was reported that vitamin K, especially vitamins K1 and K2, exerts a variety of biological effects, and these compounds are expected to be candidates for therapeutic agents against various diseases. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of vitamin K3 in in vitro cultured cell experiments and in vivo animal experiments. In human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 cells, vitamin K3 inhibited the tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α-evoked translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB into the nucleus, although vitamins K1 and K2 did not. Vitamin K3 also suppressed the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB and production of TNF-α in mouse macrophage RAW264·7 cells. Moreover, the addition of vitamin K3 before and after LPS administration attenuated the severity of lung injury in an animal model of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which occurs in the setting of acute severe illness complicated by systemic inflammation. In the ARDS model, vitamin K3 also suppressed the LPS-induced increase in the serum TNF-α level and inhibited the LPS-evoked nuclear translocation of NF-κB in lung tissue. Despite marked efforts, little therapeutic progress has been made, and the mortality rate of ARDS remains high. Vitamin K3 may be an effective therapeutic strategy against acute lung injury including ARDS. PMID:20030669

  17. Vitamin K3 attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury through inhibition of nuclear factor-kappaB activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, S; Nishiumi, S; Nishida, M; Mizushina, Y; Kobayashi, K; Masuda, A; Fujita, T; Morita, Y; Mizuno, S; Kutsumi, H; Azuma, T; Yoshida, M

    2010-05-01

    Vitamin K is a family of fat-soluble compounds including phylloquinone (vitamin K1), menaquinone (vitamin K2) and menadione (vitamin K3). Recently, it was reported that vitamin K, especially vitamins K1 and K2, exerts a variety of biological effects, and these compounds are expected to be candidates for therapeutic agents against various diseases. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of vitamin K3 in in vitro cultured cell experiments and in vivo animal experiments. In human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 cells, vitamin K3 inhibited the tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-evoked translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB into the nucleus, although vitamins K1 and K2 did not. Vitamin K3 also suppressed the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB and production of TNF-alpha in mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, the addition of vitamin K3 before and after LPS administration attenuated the severity of lung injury in an animal model of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which occurs in the setting of acute severe illness complicated by systemic inflammation. In the ARDS model, vitamin K3 also suppressed the LPS-induced increase in the serum TNF-alpha level and inhibited the LPS-evoked nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB in lung tissue. Despite marked efforts, little therapeutic progress has been made, and the mortality rate of ARDS remains high. Vitamin K3 may be an effective therapeutic strategy against acute lung injury including ARDS.

  18. 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose PET informs neutrophil accumulation and activation in lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Rosana S; Bozza, Fernando A; Hanrahan, Christopher J; Wang, Li-Ming; Wu, Qi; Hoffman, John M; Zimmerman, Guy A; Morton, Kathryn A

    2017-05-01

    Molecular imaging of the earliest events related to the development of acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) could facilitate therapeutic development and patient management. We previously reported that 18 F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) PET identifies ALI/ARDS prior to radiographic abnormalities. The purpose of this study was to establish the time courses of 18 F-FDG uptake, edema and neutrophil recruitment in an endotoxin-induced acute lung injury model and to examine molecular events required for 14 C-2DG uptake in activated neutrophils. Lung uptake of 18 F-FDG was measured by PET in control male Sprague Dawley rats and at 2, 6 and 24h following the intraperitoneal injection of 10mg/kg LPS. Lung edema (attenuation) was measured by microCT. Neutrophil influx into the lungs was measured by myeloperoxidase assay. Control and activated human donor neutrophils were compared for uptake of 14 C-2DG, transcription and content of hexokinase and GLUT isoforms and for hexokinase (HK) activity. Significant uptake of 18 F-FDG occurred by 2h following LPS, and progressively increased to 24h. Lung uptake of 18 F-FDG preceded increased CT attenuation (lung edema). Myeloperoxidase activity in the lungs, supporting neutrophil influx, paralleled 18 F-FDG uptake. Activation of isolated human neutrophils resulted in increased uptake of 14 C-2DG, expression of GLUT 3 and GLUT 4 and expression and increased HK1 activity. Systemic endotoxin-induced ALI results in very early and progressive uptake of 18 F-FDG, parallels neutrophil accumulation and occurs earlier than lung injury edema. Activated neutrophils show increased uptake of 14 C-2DG, expression of specific GLUT3, GLUT4 and HK1 protein and HK activity. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PATIENT CARE: 18 F-FDG pulmonary uptake is an early biomarker of neutrophil recruitment in ALI and is associated with specific molecular events that mediate 14 C-2DG uptake in activated neutrophils. 18 F-FDG PET may provide a potential mechanism for early diagnosis and therapeutic assessment of ALI/ARDS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sargachromenol from Sargassum micracanthum Inhibits the Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Production of Inflammatory Mediators in RAW 264.7 Macrophages

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    Eun-Jin Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During our ongoing screening program designed to determine the anti-inflammatory potential of natural compounds, we isolated sargachromenol from Sargassum micracanthum. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of sargachromenol on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced inflammation in murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cells and the underlying mechanisms. Sargachromenol significantly inhibited the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 in a dose-dependent manner. It also significantly inhibited the protein expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 in a dose-dependent manner in LPS-stimulated macrophage cells. Further analyses showed that sargachromenol decreased the cytoplasmic loss of inhibitor κBα (IκBα protein. These results suggest that sargachromenol may exert its anti-inflammatory effects on LPS-stimulated macrophage cells by inhibiting the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. In conclusion, to our knowledge, this is the first study to show that sargachromenol isolated from S. micracanthum has an effective anti-inflammatory activity. Therefore, sargachromenol might be useful for cosmetic, food, or medical applications requiring anti-inflammatory properties.

  20. Lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of cell surface receptors and cell activation of neutrophils and monocytes in whole human blood

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    N.E. Gomes

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharide (LPS activates neutrophils and monocytes, inducing a wide array of biological activities. LPS rough (R and smooth (S forms signal through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4, but differ in their requirement for CD14. Since the R-form LPS can interact with TLR4 independent of CD14 and the differential expression of CD14 on neutrophils and monocytes, we used the S-form LPS from Salmonella abortus equi and the R-form LPS from Salmonella minnesota mutants to evaluate LPS-induced activation of human neutrophils and monocytes in whole blood from healthy volunteers. Expression of cell surface receptors and reactive oxygen species (ROS and nitric oxide (NO generation were measured by flow cytometry in whole blood monocytes and neutrophils. The oxidative burst was quantified by measuring the oxidation of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate and the NO production was quantified by measuring the oxidation of 4-amino-5-methylamino-2',7'-difluorofluorescein diacetate. A small increase of TLR4 expression by monocytes was observed after 6 h of LPS stimulation. Monocyte CD14 modulation by LPS was biphasic, with an initial 30% increase followed by a 40% decrease in expression after 6 h of incubation. Expression of CD11b was rapidly up-regulated, doubling after 5 min on monocytes, while down-regulation of CXCR2 was observed on neutrophils, reaching a 50% reduction after 6 h. LPS induced low production of ROS and NO. This study shows a complex LPS-induced cell surface receptor modulation on human monocytes and neutrophils, with up- and down-regulation depending on the receptor. R- and S-form LPS activate human neutrophils similarly, despite the low CD14 expression, if the stimulation occurs in whole blood.

  1. Protective Effect of Casperome®, an Orally Bioavailable Frankincense Extract, on Lipopolysaccharide- Induced Systemic Inflammation in Mice

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    Konstantin Loeser

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite recent advances in critical care, sepsis remains a crucial cause of morbidity and mortality in intensive care units. Therefore, the identification of new therapeutic strategies is of great importance. Since ancient times, frankincense is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of chronic inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis. Thus, the present study intends to evaluate if Casperome® (Casp, an orally bioavailable soy lecithin-based formulation of standardized frankincense extract, is able to ameliorate systemic effects and organ damages induced by severe systemic inflammation using a murine model of sepsis, i.e., intraperitoneal administration of lipopolysaccharides (LPS.Methods: Male 60-day-old mice were assigned to six treatment groups: (1 control, (2 LPS, (3 soy lecithin (blank lecithin without frankincense extract, (4 Casp, (5 soy lecithin plus LPS, or (6 Casp plus LPS. Soy lecithin and Casp were given 3 h prior to LPS treatment; 24 h after LPS administration, animals were sacrificed and health status and serum cytokine levels were evaluated. Additionally, parameters representing liver damage or liver function and indicating oxidative stress in different organs were determined. Furthermore, markers for apoptosis and immune cell redistribution were assessed by immunohistochemistry in liver and spleen.Results: LPS treatment caused a decrease in body temperature, blood glucose levels, liver glycogen content, and biotransformation capacity along with an increase in serum cytokine levels and oxidative stress in various organs. Additionally, apoptotic processes were increased in spleen besides a pronounced immune cell infiltration in both liver and spleen. Pretreatment with Casp significantly improved health status, blood glucose values, and body temperature of the animals, while serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress in all organs tested were significantly diminished. Finally, apoptotic processes in spleen, liver glycogen loss, and immune cell infiltration in liver and spleen were distinctly reduced. Casp also appears to induce various cytochromeP450 isoforms, thus causing re-establishment of liver biotransformation capacity in LPS-treated mice.Conclusion: Casp displayed anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and hepatoprotective effects. Thus, orally bioavailable frankincense extracts may serve as a new supportive treatment option in acute systemic inflammation and accompanied liver dysfunction.

  2. Acrolein Inhalation Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Cytokine Production but Does Not Affect Acute Airways Neutrophilia1

    OpenAIRE

    Kasahara, David Itiro; Poynter, Matthew E.; Othman, Ziryan; Hemenway, David; van der Vliet, Albert

    2008-01-01

    Acrolein is a reactive unsaturated aldehyde that is produced during endogenous oxidative processes and is a major bioactive component of environmental pollutants such as cigarette smoke. Because in vitro studies demonstrate that acrolein can inhibit neutrophil apoptosis, we evaluated the effects of in vivo acrolein exposure on acute lung inflammation induced by LPS. Male C57BL/6J mice received 300 μg/kg intratracheal LPS and were exposed to acrolein (5 parts per million, 6 h/day), either befo...

  3. Vildagliptin ameliorates pulmonary fibrosis in lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury by inhibiting endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Toshio; Tada, Yuji; Gladson, Santhi; Nishimura, Rintaro; Shimomura, Iwao; Karasawa, Satoshi; Tatsumi, Koichiro; West, James

    2017-10-16

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a late manifestation of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Sepsis is a major cause of ARDS, and its pathogenesis includes endotoxin-induced vascular injury. Recently, endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) was shown to play an important role in pulmonary fibrosis. On the other hand, dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 was reported to improve vascular dysfunction in an experimental sepsis model, although whether DPP-4 affects EndMT and fibrosis initiation during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung injury is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-EndMT effects of the DPP-4 inhibitor vildagliptin in pulmonary fibrosis after systemic endotoxemic injury. A septic lung injury model was established by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in eight-week-old male mice (5 mg/kg for five consecutive days). The mice were then treated with vehicle or vildagliptin (intraperitoneally, 10 mg/kg, once daily for 14 consecutive days from 1 day before the first administration of LPS.). Flow cytometry, immunohistochemical staining, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis was used to assess cell dynamics and EndMT function in lung samples from the mice. Lung tissue samples from treated mice revealed obvious inflammatory reactions and typical interstitial fibrosis 2 days and 28 days after LPS challenge. Quantitative flow cytometric analysis showed that the number of pulmonary vascular endothelial cells (PVECs) expressing alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) or S100 calcium-binding protein A4 (S100A4) increased 28 days after LPS challenge. Similar increases in expression were also confirmed by qPCR of mRNA from isolated PVECs. EndMT cells had higher proliferative activity and migration activity than mesenchymal cells. All of these changes were alleviated by intraperitoneal injection of vildagliptin. Interestingly, vildagliptin and linagliptin significantly attenuated EndMT in the absence of immune cells or GLP-1. Inhibiting DPP-4 signaling by vildagliptin could ameliorate pulmonary fibrosis by downregulating EndMT in systemic LPS-induced lung injury.

  4. Calcitonin protects chondrocytes from lipopolysaccharide-induced apoptosis and inflammatory response through MAPK/Wnt/NF-κB pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lai-Bo; Man, Zhen-Tao; Li, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xian-Quan; Sun, Shui

    2017-07-01

    Calcitonin (CT) is an anti-absorbent, which has long been used for treatment of osteoporosis. However, little information is available about the effects of CT on osteoarthritis (OA). This study was mainly aimed to explore the effects of CT on the treatment of OA, as well as the underlying mechanisms. Chondrocytes were isolated from immature mice and then were incubated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), CT, small interfering (si) RNA against bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2, and/or the inhibitors of MAPK/Wnt/NF-κB pathway. Thereafter, cell viability, apoptosis, nitric oxide (NO) and inflammatory factors productions, and expression levels of cartilage synthesis protein key factors, cartilage-derived morphogenetic protein (CDMP) 1, SRY (sex-determining region Y)-box 9 protein (SOX9), and MAPK/Wnt/NF-κB pathways key factors were determined. CT significantly reversed LPS-induced cell viability decrease, apoptosis increase, the inflammatory factors and NO secretion, the abnormally expression of cartilage synthesis proteins and the activation of MAPK/Wnt/NF-κB pathways (Ppathways statistically further increased the levels of CDMP1 and SOX9 (Ppathways, and could partially abolish CT-modulated the expression changes in CDMP1 and SOX9, and MAPK/Wnt/NF-κB pathways key factors (Ppathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Selol, an organic selenium donor, prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominiak, Agnieszka; Wilkaniec, Anna; Jęśko, Henryk; Czapski, Grzegorz A; Lenkiewicz, Anna M; Kurek, Eliza; Wroczyński, Piotr; Adamczyk, Agata

    2017-09-01

    Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress are key intertwined pathological factors in many neurological, particularly neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disorders as well as autism. The present study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of Selol, an organic selenium donor, against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated inflammation in rat brain. The results demonstrated that the peripheral administration of LPS in a dose of 100 μg/kg b.w. evoked typical pathological reaction known as systemic inflammatory response. Moreover, we observed elevated blood levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), a marker of oxidative stress, as well as increased concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in LPS-treated animals. Selol significantly prevented these LPS-evoked changes. Subsequently, Selol protected against LPS-induced up-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines (Tnfa, Ifng, Il6) in rat brain cortex. The molecular mechanisms through which Selol prevented the neuroinflammation were associated with the inhibition of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) accumulation and with an increase of glutathione-associated enzymes: glutathione peroxidase (Se-GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) as well as thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activity and expression. Finally, we observed that Selol administration effectively protected against LPS-induced changes in the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf). In conclusion, our studies indicated that Selol effectively protects against LPS-induced neuroinflammation by inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokine release, by boosting antioxidant systems, and by augmenting BDNF level. Therefore, Selol could be a multi-potent and effective drug useful in the treatment and prevention of brain disorders associated with neuroinflammation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Prenatal lipopolysaccharide induces hypothalamic dopaminergic hypoactivity and autistic-like behaviors: Repetitive self-grooming and stereotypies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsten, Thiago B; Bernardi, Maria M

    2017-07-28

    Previous investigations by our group have shown that prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which mimics infection by gram-negative bacteria, induces social, cognitive, and communication deficits. For a complete screening of autistic-like behaviors, the objective of this study was to evaluate if our rat model also induces restricted and repetitive stereotyped behaviors. Thus, we studied the self-grooming microstructure. We also studied the neurochemistry of hypothalamus and frontal cortex, which are brain areas related to autism to better understand central mechanisms involved in our model. Prenatal LPS exposure on gestational day 9.5 increased the head washing episodes (frequency and time), as well as the total self-grooming. However, body grooming, paw/leg licking, tail/genital grooming, and circling behavior/tail chasing did not vary significantly among the groups. Moreover, prenatal LPS induced dopaminergic hypoactivity (HVA metabolite and turnover) in the hypothalamus. Therefore, our rat model induced restricted and repetitive stereotyped behaviors and the other main symptoms of autism experimentally studied in rodent models and also found in patients. The hypothalamic dopaminergic impairments seem to be associated with the autistic-like behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of an Aqueous Extract from Horseradish Root (Armoracia rusticana Radix) against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Cellular Inflammation Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Herz, Corinna; Tran, Hoai Thi Thu; M?rton, Melinda-Rita; Maul, Ronald; Baldermann, Susanne; Schreiner, Monika; Lamy, Evelyn

    2017-01-01

    Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) is a perennial crop and its root is used in condiments. Traditionally, horseradish root is used to treat bacterial infections of the respiratory tract and urinary bladder. The antiphlogistic activity, determined in activated primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), was evaluated for an aqueous extract and its subfractions, separated by HPLC. Compound analysis was done by UHPLC-QToF/MS and GC-MS. The aqueous extract concentration-dependently in...

  8. Evaluation of an Aqueous Extract from Horseradish Root (Armoracia rusticana Radix against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Cellular Inflammation Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Herz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana is a perennial crop and its root is used in condiments. Traditionally, horseradish root is used to treat bacterial infections of the respiratory tract and urinary bladder. The antiphlogistic activity, determined in activated primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, was evaluated for an aqueous extract and its subfractions, separated by HPLC. Compound analysis was done by UHPLC-QToF/MS and GC-MS. The aqueous extract concentration-dependently inhibited the anti-inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS in terms of TNF-α release at ≥37 μg/mL. Further, the cyclooxygenase as well as lipoxygenase pathway was blocked by the extract as demonstrated by inhibition of COX-2 protein expression and PGE2 synthesis at ≥4 μg/mL and leukotriene LTB4 release. Mechanistic studies revealed that inhibition of ERK1/2 and c-Jun activation preceded COX-2 suppression upon plant extract treatment in the presence of LPS. Chemical analysis identified target compounds with a medium polarity as relevant for the observed bioactivity. Importantly, allyl isothiocyanate, which is quite well known for its anti-inflammatory capacity and as the principal pungent constituent in horseradish roots, was not relevant for the observations. The results suggest that horseradish root exerts an antiphlogistic activity in human immune cells by regulation of the COX and LOX pathway via MAPK signalling.

  9. Evaluation of an Aqueous Extract from Horseradish Root (Armoracia rusticana Radix) against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Cellular Inflammation Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, Corinna; Tran, Hoai Thi Thu; Márton, Melinda-Rita; Maul, Ronald; Baldermann, Susanne; Schreiner, Monika; Lamy, Evelyn

    2017-01-01

    Horseradish ( Armoracia rusticana ) is a perennial crop and its root is used in condiments. Traditionally, horseradish root is used to treat bacterial infections of the respiratory tract and urinary bladder. The antiphlogistic activity, determined in activated primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), was evaluated for an aqueous extract and its subfractions, separated by HPLC. Compound analysis was done by UHPLC-QToF/MS and GC-MS. The aqueous extract concentration-dependently inhibited the anti-inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in terms of TNF- α release at ≥37  μ g/mL. Further, the cyclooxygenase as well as lipoxygenase pathway was blocked by the extract as demonstrated by inhibition of COX-2 protein expression and PGE 2 synthesis at ≥4  μ g/mL and leukotriene LTB4 release. Mechanistic studies revealed that inhibition of ERK1/2 and c-Jun activation preceded COX-2 suppression upon plant extract treatment in the presence of LPS. Chemical analysis identified target compounds with a medium polarity as relevant for the observed bioactivity. Importantly, allyl isothiocyanate, which is quite well known for its anti-inflammatory capacity and as the principal pungent constituent in horseradish roots, was not relevant for the observations. The results suggest that horseradish root exerts an antiphlogistic activity in human immune cells by regulation of the COX and LOX pathway via MAPK signalling.

  10. Paricalcitol attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation and apoptosis in proximal tubular cells through the prostaglandin E₂ receptor EP4

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    Yu Ah Hong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin D is considered to exert a protective effect on various renal diseases but its underlying molecular mechanism remains poorly understood. This study aimed to determine whether paricalcitol attenuates inflammation and apoptosis during lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced renal proximal tubular cell injury through the prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂ receptor EP4. Methods: Human renal tubular epithelial (HK-2 cells were pretreated with paricalcitol (2 ng/mL for 1 hour and exposed to LPS (1 μg/mL. The effects of paricalcitol pretreatment in relation to an EP4 blockade using AH-23848 or EP4 small interfering RNA (siRNA were investigated. Results: The expression of cyclooxygenase-2, PGE₂, and EP4 were significantly increased in LPS-exposed HK-2 cells treated with paricalcitol compared with cells exposed to LPS only. Paricalcitol prevented cell death induced by LPS exposure, and the cotreatment of AH-23848 or EP4 siRNA offset these cell-protective effects. The phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of p65 nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB were decreased and the phosphorylation of Akt was increased in LPS-exposed cells with paricalcitol treatment. AH-23848 or EP4 siRNA inhibited the suppressive effects of paricalcitol on p65 NF-κB nuclear translocation and the activation of Akt. The production of proinflammatory cytokines and the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling-positive cells were attenuated by paricalcitol in LPS exposed HK-2 cells. The cotreatment with an EP4 antagonist abolished these anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects. Conclusion: EP4 plays a pivotal role in anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects through Akt and NF-κB signaling after paricalcitol pretreatment in LPS-induced renal proximal tubule cell injury.

  11. Tanreqing Injection Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Airway Inflammation through MAPK/NF-κB Signaling Pathways in Rats Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Jiang, Hong-li; Cai, Lin-li; Yan, Min; Dong, Shou-jin; Mao, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Background. Tanreqing injection (TRQ) is a commonly used herbal patent medicine for treating inflammatory airway diseases in view of its outstanding anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we explored the signaling pathways involved in contributions of TRQ to LPS-induced airway inflammation in rats. Methods/Design. Adult male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats randomly divided into different groups received intratracheal instillation of LPS and/or intraperitoneal injection of TRQ. Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid (BALF) and lung samples were collected at 24 h, 48 h, and 96 h after TRQ administration. Protein and mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α, Interleukin- (IL-) 1β, IL-6, and IL-8 in BALF and lung homogenate were observed by ELISA and real-time PCR, respectively. Lung sections were stained for p38 MAPK and NF-κB detection by immunohistochemistry. Phospho-p38 MAPK, phosphor-extracellular signal-regulated kinases ERK1/2, phospho-SAPK/JNK, phospho-NF-κB p65, phospho-IKKα/β, and phospho-IκB-α were measured by western blot analysis. Results. The results showed that TRQ significantly counteracted LPS-stimulated release of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8, attenuated cells influx in BALF, mitigated mucus hypersecretion, suppressed phosphorylation of NF-κB p65, IκB-α, ΙKKα/β, ERK1/2, JNK, and p38 MAPK, and inhibited p38 MAPK and NF-κB p65 expression in rat lungs. Conclusions. Results of the current research indicate that TRQ possesses potent exhibitory effects in LPS-induced airway inflammation by, at least partially, suppressing the MAPKs and NF-κB signaling pathways, in a general dose-dependent manner. PMID:27366191

  12. Baicalin Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation Through Signaling NF-κB Pathway in HBE16 Airway Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shou-jin; Zhong, Yun-qing; Lu, Wen-ting; Li, Guan-hong; Jiang, Hong-li; Mao, Bing

    2015-08-01

    Baicalin, a flavonoid monomer derived from Scutellaria baicalensis called Huangqin in mandarin, is the main active ingredient contributing to S. baicalensis' efficacy. It is known in China that baicalin has potential therapeutic effects on inflammatory diseases. However, its anti-inflammatory mechanism has still not been fully interpreted. We aim to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of baicalin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in HBE16 airway epithelial cells and also to explore the underlying signaling mechanisms. The anti-inflammatory action of baicalin was evaluated in human airway epithelial cells HBE16 treated with LPS. Airway epithelial cells HBE16 were pretreated with a range of concentrations of baicalin for 30 min and then stimulated with 10 μg/ml LPS. The secretions of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in cell culture supernatants were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α were tested by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR). Furthermore, Western blotting was used to determine whether the signaling pathway NF-κB was involved in the anti-inflammatory action of baicalin. The inflammatory cell model was successfully built with 10 μg/ml LPS for 24 h in our in vitro experiments. Both the secretions and the mRNA expressions of IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α were significantly inhibited by baicalin. Moreover, the expression levels of phospho-IKKα/β and phospho-NF-κB p65 were downregulated, and the phospho-IκB-α level was upregulated by baicalin. These findings suggest that the anti-inflammatory properties of baicalin may be resulted from the inhibition of IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α expression via preventing signaling NF-κB pathway in HBE16 airway epithelial cells. In addition, this study provides evidence to understand the therapeutic effects of baicalin on inflammatory diseases in clinical practice.

  13. Intervention effect and dose-dependent response of tanreqing injection on airway inflammation in lipopolysaccharide-induced rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shoujin; Zhong, Yunqing; Yang, Kun; Xiong, Xiaoling; Mao, Bing

    2013-08-01

    To assess the effect of Tanreqing injection on airway inflammation in rats. A rat model of airway inflammation was generated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Tanreqing injection was given by intratracheal instillation, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from the right lung was collected. BALF total cell and neutrophil counts were then determined. In addition, BALF levels of inflammatory cytokines interleukin-13, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoat-tractant-1, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The middle lobe of the right lung was stained with hematoxylin-eosin and histological changes examined. LPS increased airway inflammation, decreased BALF inflammatory cell count, inflammatory cytokine levels, and suppressed leukocyte influx of the lung. The LPS-induced airway inflammation peaked at 24 h, decreased beginning at 48 h, and had decreased markedly by 96 h. Tanreqing injection contains anti-inflammatory properties, and inhibits airway inflammation in a dose-dependent manner.

  14. Protective effect of porphyran isolated from discolored nori (Porphyra yezoensis) on lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxin shock in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiguchi, Tomoki; Cho, Kichul; Isaka, Shogo; Ueno, Mikinori; Jin, Jun-O; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Kim, Daekyung; Oda, Tatsuya

    2016-12-01

    Porphyran, a sulfated polysaccharide, isolated from discolored nori (Porphyra yezoensis) (dc-porphyran) and one fraction (F1) purified from dc-porphyran by DEAE-chromatography showed the protective effects on LPS-induced endotoxin shock in mice. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) treatment with dc-porphyran or F1 (100mg/kg) 60min prior to i.p. injection of LPS (30mg/kg) completely protected mice from LPS lethality. At 10mg/kg concentration, F1 demonstrated more protection than dc-porphyran. Intravenous (i.v.) challenge of LPS, even at 20mg/kg, was more lethal than i.p. administration; i.v. injection of F1 (100mg/kg) with LPS significantly improved the survival rate. However, i.v. dc-porphyran (100mg/kg) produced an even lower survival rate than that of LPS alone. We examined pro-inflammatory mediators such as NO and TNF-α in serum. F1 significantly reduced the levels of these markers. Additionally, F1 significantly decreased the malondialdehyde level in the liver, a marker of oxidative stress, while dc-porphyran had almost no effect. Furthermore, F1 significantly decreased the production of TNF-α and NO in peritoneal exudate cells harvested from LPS-challenged mice, while dc-porphyran treatment showed a lesser decrease. Our results suggest that porphyran isolated from discolored nori, especially F1, is capable of suppressing LPS-induced endotoxin shock in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression by xanthanolides isolated from Xanthium strumarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jeong Hoon; Lim, Hyo Jin; Lee, Hwa Jin; Kim, Hee-Doo; Jeon, Raok; Ryu, Jae-Ha

    2008-03-15

    Three sesquiterpenoids, xanthatin (1), xanthinosin (2), and 4-oxo-bedfordia acid (3) were isolated from Xanthium strumarium as inhibitors of nitric oxide synthesis in activated microglia (IC(50) values: 0.47, 11.2, 136.5 microM, respectively). Compounds 1 and 2 suppressed the expression of iNOS and COX-2 and the activity of NF-kappaB through the inhibition of LPS-induced I-kappaB-alpha degradation in microglia.

  16. The Role of Interleukin-6 in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Weight Loss, Hypoglycemia and Fibrinogen Production, in Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-07-01

    result in chronic wasting or cachexia. In neoplastic severe weight loss in syngeneic hosts.6 In this model, diseases, the presence of wasting of muscle...48 h post-endotoxin). Anti-TNF MAb tribution of TNF and IL-6 in several metabolic changes reduced by c. 50% the LPS-induced weight loss, but...similar results. Also, the addi- hypertriglyceridemia , hypoglycemia as well as stimu- tion of fresh 20F3 MAb to diluted serum sample from late the

  17. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species mediate the lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory response in human gingival fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xue; Wang, Xiaoxuan; Zheng, Ming; Luan, Qing Xian

    2016-01-01

    Although periodontal diseases are initiated by bacteria that colonize the tooth surface and gingival sulcus, the host response is believed to play an essential role in the breakdown of connective tissue and bone. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) have been proposed to regulate the activation of the inflammatory response by the innate immune system. However, the role of mtROS in modulating the response of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) to immune stimulation by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) has yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we showed that LPS from Porphyromonas gingivalis stimulated HGFs to increase mtROS production